Dennis, Jackson; Dawson, Brian; Heasman, Jarryd; Rogalski, Brent; Robey, Elisa
To examine the potential relationship between sleep duration and efficiency and injury incidence in elite Australian footballers. Prospective cohort study. Australian footballers (n=22) from one AFL club were studied across the 2013 competitive season. In each week sleep duration and efficiency were recorded via actigraphy for 5 nights (the 3 nights preceding a game, the night of the game and the night after the game). Injury incidence was monitored and matched with sleep data: n=9 players suffered an injury that caused them to miss a game. Sleep in the week of the injury (T2) was compared to the average of the previous 2 weeks (T1). A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine any effect of sleep duration and efficiency on injury. Significance was accepted at psleep duration, sleep efficiency or a combination of these factors. Analysis of individual nights for T2 versus T1 also showed no differences in sleep quality or efficiency. However, a main effect for time was found for sleep duration and efficiency, with these being slightly, but significantly greater (psleep duration and efficiency on injury occurrence was found in elite Australian footballers. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taylor, T K; Coolican, M R
A review of 107 footballers who suffered a spinal-cord injury between 1960 and 1985 has been undertaken. Since 1977, the number of such injuries in Rugby Union, Rugby League and Australian Rules has increased, from an average of about two injuries a year before 1977 to over eight injuries a year since then. Rugby Union is clearly the most dangerous game, particularly for schoolboys; all of the injuries in schoolboy games for this code have occurred since 1977. This study has shown that collision at scrum engagement, and not at scrum collapse, is the way in which the majority of scrum injuries are sustained. These injuries are largely preventable, and suggestions for rule changes are made. Half the injured players recovered to Frankel grades D or E. The financial entitlements of those injured were grossly inadequate; this warrants action. A national register for spinal-cord injuries from football should be established to monitor the effects of desirable rule changes in Rugby Union and Rugby League.
Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Donaldson, Alex; Cook, Jill; Lloyd, David; Finch, Caroline F
Far fewer injury surveillance systems exist within community sport than elite sport. As a result, most epidemiological data on sports injuries have limited relevance to community-level sporting populations. There is potential for data from community club-based injury surveillance systems to provide a better understanding of community sports injuries. This study aimed to describe the incidence and profile of community-level Australian football injuries reported using a club-based injury surveillance system. Prospective, epidemiological study. Sports trainers from five community-level Australian football leagues recorded injury data during two football seasons using the club-based system. An online surveillance tool developed by Sports Medicine Australia ('Sports Injury Tracker') was used for data collection. The injury incidence, profile and match injury rate were reported. Injury data for 1205 players were recorded in season one and for 823 players in season two. There was significant variability in injury incidence across clubs. However, aggregated data were consistent across football seasons, with an average of 0.7 injuries per player per season and 38-39 match injuries per 1000 h match exposure. A large proportion of injuries occurred during matches, involved the lower limb and resulted from contact. Data from the club-based system provided a profile of injuries consistent with previous studies in community-level Australian football. Moreover, injury incidence was consistent with other studies using similar personnel to record data. However, injury incidence was lower than that reported in studies using player self-report or healthcare professionals and may be an underestimate of true values. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Twomey, Dara M; Finch, Caroline F; Lloyd, David G; Elliott, Bruce C; Doyle, Tim L A
To describe the risk and details of injuries associated with ground hardness in community level Australian football (AF). Prospective injury surveillance with periodic objective ground hardness measurement. 112 ground hardness assessments were undertaken using a Clegg hammer at nine locations across 20 grounds, over the 2007 and 2008 AF seasons. Details of 352 injuries sustained by community level players on those grounds were prospectively collected as part of a large randomised controlled trial. The ground location of the injury was matched to the nearest corresponding ground hardness Clegg hammer readings, in gravities (g), which were classified from unacceptably low (hardness (>120 g). Clegg hammer readings ranged from 25 to 301 g. Clegg hammer hardness categories from low/normal to high/normal were associated with the majority of injuries, with only 3.7% (13 injuries) on unacceptably high hardness and 0.3% (1 injury) on the unacceptably low hardness locations. Relative to the preferred range of hardness, the risk of sustaining an injury on low/normal hardness locations was 1.31 (95%CI: 1.06-1.62) times higher and 1.82 (95%CI: 1.17-2.85) times higher on locations with unacceptably high hardness. The more severe injuries occurred with low/normal ground hardness. Despite the low number of injuries, the risk of sustaining an injury on low/normal and unacceptably hard grounds was significantly greater than on the preferred range of hardness. Notably, the severity of the injuries sustained on unacceptably hard grounds was lower than for other categories of hardness. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saw, Richard; Finch, Caroline F; Samra, David; Baquie, Peter; Cardoso, Tanusha; Hope, Danielle; Orchard, John W
The nature of Australian rules football (Australian football) predisposes both unique and common injuries compared with those sustained in other football codes. The game involves a combination of tackling, kicking, high-speed running (more than other football codes), and jumping. Two decades of injury surveillance has identified common injuries at the professional level (Australian Football League [AFL]). To provide an overview of injuries in Australian rules football, including injury rates, patterns, and mechanisms across all levels of play. A narrative review of AFL injuries, football injury epidemiology, and biomechanical and physiological attributes of relevant injuries. The overall injury incidence in the 2015 season was 41.7 injuries per club per season, with a prevalence of 156.2 missed games per club per season. Lower limb injuries are most prevalent, with hamstring strains accounting for 19.1 missed games per club per season. Hamstring strains relate to the volume of high-speed running required in addition to at times having to collect the ball while running in a position of hip flexion and knee extension. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are also prevalent and can result from contact and noncontact incidents. In the upper limb, shoulder sprains and dislocations account for 11.5 missed games per club per season and largely resulted from tackling and contact. Concussion is less common in AFL than other tackling sports but remains an important injury, which has notably become more prevalent in recent years, theorized to be due to a more conservative approach to management. Although there are less injury surveillance data for non-AFL players (women, community-level, children), many of these injuries appear to also be common across all levels of play. An understanding of injury profiles and mechanisms in Australian football is crucial in identifying methods to reduce injury risk and prepare players for the demands of the game.
Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.
Gabbe, Belinda J; Finch, Caroline F; Cameron, Peter A
The promotion of safe sports participation has become a public health issue due to rising obesity rates and the potential for parental concerns about safety to inhibit sports participation. The safety of Australian football and its elite game, the Australian Football League (AFL), is often the focus of media commentary. Participation in the modified version of the game (Auskick) has been shown to be safer but by the time children reach the under-15 age group, adult rules are in place and the umbrella of safety provided by modified rules is gone. Figures released recently by the AFL suggest that injury rates at the elite-level are at an historical low, but equivalent information for the more than 400,000 non-elite participants is not available. Published literature related to preventing injuries in Australian football highlights a significant knowledge gap with respect to the aetiology of injuries in non-elite participants and only a very small evidence base for prevention of injuries in this sport. Gains in reducing the public health impact of football injuries, and injury-related barriers to Australian football participation, will only come from substantial investment in large-scale trials at the non-elite level, and a co-ordinated and multidisciplinary approach to dealing with safety and injury issues across all levels of play. Active and committed collaboration of key stakeholders such as government health agencies, peak sports bodies, sports administrators, clinicians, researchers, clubs, coaches and the participants themselves will be necessary.
Bennell, K.; Wajswelner, H.; Lew, P.; Schall-Riaucour, A.; Leslie, S.; Plant, D.; Cirone, J.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation of hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength and imbalance to hamstring injury using a prospective observational cohort study METHOD: A total of 102 senior male Australian Rules footballers aged 22.2 (3.6) years were tested at the start of a football season. Maximum voluntary concentric and eccentric torque of the hamstring and quadriceps muscles of both legs was assessed using a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer at angular velocities of 60 and 180 degre...
Orchard, J; Marsden, J; Lord, S; Garlick, D
Hamstring muscle strain is the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules Football, accounting for 16% of playing time missed as a result of injury. Thirty-seven professional footballers from an Australian Football League team had preseason measurements of hamstring and quadriceps muscle concentric peak torque at 60, 180, and 300 deg/sec measured on a Cybex 340 dynamometer. Players were studied prospectively throughout the 1995 season. During that time, six players sustained clinically diagnosed hamstring muscle injuries that caused them to miss match-playing time. The injured hamstring muscles were all weaker than in the opposite leg in absolute values and hamstring-to-quadriceps muscle ratios. According to our t-test results, hamstring muscle injury was significantly associated with a low hamstring-to-quadriceps muscle peak torque ratio at 60 deg/sec on the injured side and a low hamstring muscle side-to-side peak torque ratio at 60 deg/sec. Flexibility (as measured by the sit-and-reach test) did not correlate with injury. Discriminant-function analysis using the two significant ratio variables resulted in a canonical correlation with injury of 0.4594 and correctly classified legs into injury groups with 77.4% success. These results indicate that preseason isokinetic testing of professional Australian Rules footballers can identify players at risk of developing hamstring muscle strains.
Hoskins Wayne T
Full Text Available Abstract Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules football. There is a lack of evidence based literature on the treatment, prevention and management of hamstring injuries, although it is agreed that the etiology is complicated and multi-factorial. We present two cases of hamstring injury that had full resolution after spinal manipulation and correction of lumbar-pelvic biomechanics. There was no recurrence through preventative treatment over a twelve and sixteen week period. The use of spinal manipulation for treatment or prevention of hamstring injury has not been documented in sports medicine literature and should be further investigated in prospective randomized controlled trials.
Andrew, Nadine; Gabbe, Belinda J; Cook, Jill; Lloyd, David G; Donnelly, Cyril J; Nash, Clare; Finch, Caroline F
Australian football is a popular sport in Australia, at both the community and elite levels. It is a high-speed contact sport with a higher incidence of medically treated injuries when compared with most other organized sports. Hamstring injuries, ligament injuries to the knee or ankle, hip/groin injuries and tendinopathies are particularly common and often result in considerable time lost from sport. Consequently, the prevention of lower limb injuries is a priority for both community and elite Australian football organizations. There is considerable literature available on exercise programmes aimed at reducing lower limb injuries in Australian football and other running-related sports. The quality and outcomes of these studies have varied considerably, but indicate that exercise protocols may be an effective means of preventing lower limb injuries. Despite this, there has been limited high-quality and systematic evaluation of these data. The aim of this literature review is to systematically evaluate the evidence about the benefits of lower limb injury prevention exercise protocols aimed at reducing the most common severe lower limb injuries in Australian football. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Bone Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE and other electronic databases were searched, from January 1990 to December 2010. Papers reporting the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, cohort and case-control studies were extracted. Primary outcomes were injury reduction or risk factor identification and/or modification. Secondary outcomes were adherence to any trialled interventions, injury severity and adverse effects such as secondary injuries and muscle soreness. The methodological quality of extracted manuscripts was assessed and results were collated. Forty-seven papers were identified and reviewed of which 18 related to hamstring injury, eight related to knee or ankle ligament injury, five
Colby, Marcus J; Dawson, Brian; Heasman, Jarryd; Rogalski, Brent; Gabbett, Tim J
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between overall physical workload (global positioning systems [GPS]/accelerometer) measures and injury risk in elite Australian football players (n = 46) during a season. Workload data and (intrinsic) injury incidence were monitored across preseason and in-season (18 matches) phases. Multiple regression was used to compare cumulative (1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-weekly loads) and absolute change (from previous-to-current week) in workloads between injured and uninjured players for all GPS/accelerometer-derived variables: total distance, V1 distance (total distance above individual's aerobic threshold speed), sprint distance, force load, velocity load, and relative velocity change. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to determine the relative injury risk. Cumulative loads showed the strongest relationship with greater intrinsic injury risk. During preseason, 3-weekly distance (OR = 5.489, p = 0.008) and 3-weekly sprint distance (OR = 3.667, p = 0.074) were most indicative of greater injury risk. During in-season, 3-weekly force load (OR = 2.530, p = 0.031) and 4-weekly relative velocity change (OR = 2.244, p = 0.035) were associated with greater injury risk. No differences in injury risk between years of Australian Football League system experience and GPS/accelerometer data were seen. From an injury risk (prevention) perspective, these findings support consideration of several GPS/accelerometer running load variables in Australian football players. In particular, cumulative weekly loads should be closely monitored, with 3-weekly loads most indicative of a greater injury risk across both seasonal phases.
Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Finch, Caroline F
In recent reports, Australian football has outranked other team sports in the frequency of hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) presentations. Understanding the profile of these and other "medical-attention" injuries is vital for developing preventive strategies that can reduce health costs. The objective of this review was to describe the frequency and profile of Australian football injuries presenting for medical attention. A systematic search was carried out to identify peer-reviewed articles and reports presenting original data about Australian football injuries from treatment sources (hospitals, EDs, and health-care clinics). Data extracted included injury frequency and rate, body region, and nature and mechanism of injury. Following literature search and review, 12 publications were included. In most studies, Australian football contributed the greatest number of injuries out of any sport or recreation activity. Hospitals and EDs reported a higher proportion of upper limb than lower limb injuries, whereas the opposite was true for sports medicine clinics. In hospitals, fractures and dislocations were most prevalent out of all injuries. In EDs and clinics, sprains/strains were most common in adults and superficial injuries were predominant in children. Most injuries resulted from contact with other players or falling. The upper limb was the most commonly injured body region for Australian football presentations to hospitals and EDs. Strategies to prevent upper limb injuries could reduce associated public health costs. However, to understand the full extent of the injury problem in football, treatment source surveillance systems should be supplemented with other datasets, including community club-based collections.
Carey, David L; Blanch, Peter; Ong, Kok-Leong; Crossley, Kay M; Crow, Justin; Morris, Meg E
(1) To investigate whether a daily acute:chronic workload ratio informs injury risk in Australian football players; (2) to identify which combination of workload variable, acute and chronic time window best explains injury likelihood. Workload and injury data were collected from 53 athletes over 2 seasons in a professional Australian football club. Acute:chronic workload ratios were calculated daily for each athlete, and modelled against non-contact injury likelihood using a quadratic relationship. 6 workload variables, 8 acute time windows (2-9 days) and 7 chronic time windows (14-35 days) were considered (336 combinations). Each parameter combination was compared for injury likelihood fit (using R 2 ). The ratio of moderate speed running workload (18-24 km/h) in the previous 3 days (acute time window) compared with the previous 21 days (chronic time window) best explained the injury likelihood in matches (R 2 =0.79) and in the immediate 2 or 5 days following matches (R 2 =0.76-0.82). The 3:21 acute:chronic workload ratio discriminated between high-risk and low-risk athletes (relative risk=1.98-2.43). Using the previous 6 days to calculate the acute workload time window yielded similar results. The choice of acute time window significantly influenced model performance and appeared to reflect the competition and training schedule. Daily workload ratios can inform injury risk in Australian football. Clinicians and conditioning coaches should consider the sport-specific schedule of competition and training when choosing acute and chronic time windows. For Australian football, the ratio of moderate speed running in a 3-day or 6-day acute time window and a 21-day chronic time window best explained injury risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Hickey, Jack; Shield, Anthony J; Williams, Morgan D; Opar, David A
Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) have remained the most prevalent injury in the Australian Football League (AFL) over the past 21 regular seasons. The effect of HSIs in sports is often expressed as regular season games missed due to injury. However, the financial cost of athletes missing games due to injury has not been investigated. The aim of this report is to estimate the financial cost of games missed due to HSIs in the AFL. Data were collected using publicly available information from the AFL's injury report and the official AFL annual report for the past 10 competitive AFL seasons. Average athlete salary and injury epidemiology data were used to determine the average yearly financial cost of HSIs for AFL clubs and the average financial cost of a single HSI over this time period. Across the observed period, average yearly financial cost of HSIs per club increased by 71% compared with a 43% increase in average yearly athlete salary. Over the same time period the average financial cost of a single HSI increased by 56% from $A25,603 in 2003 to $A40,021 in 2012, despite little change in the HSI rates during the period. The observed increased financial cost of HSIs was ultimately explained by the failure of teams to decrease HSI rates, but coupled with increases in athlete salaries over the past 10 season. The information presented in this report highlights the financial cost of HSIs and other sporting injuries, raising greater awareness and the need for further funding for research into injury prevention strategies to maximise economical return for investment in athletes.
Finch, Caroline F; Cook, Jill; Kunstler, Breanne E; Akram, Muhammad; Orchard, John
It is known that some people can, and do, sustain >1 injury over a playing season. However, there is currently little high-quality epidemiological evidence about the risk of, and relationships between, multiple and subsequent injuries. To describe the subsequent injuries sustained by Australian Football League (AFL) players over 1 season, including their most common injury diagnoses. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Within-player linked injury data on all date-ordered match-loss injuries sustained by AFL players during 1 full season were obtained. The total number of injuries per player was determined, and in those with >1 injury, the Subsequent Injury Classification (SIC) model was used to code all subsequent injuries based on their Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) codes and the dates of injury. There were 860 newly recorded injuries in 543 players; 247 players (45.5%) sustained ≥1 subsequent injuries after an earlier injury, with 317 subsequent injuries (36.9% of all injuries) recorded overall. A subsequent injury generally occurred to a different body region and was therefore superficially unrelated to an index injury. However, 32.2% of all subsequent injuries were related to a previous injury in the same season. Hamstring injuries were the most common subsequent injury. The mean time between injuries decreased with an increasing number of subsequent injuries. When relationships between injuries are taken into account, there is a high level of subsequent (and multiple) injuries leading to missed games in an elite athlete group.
Timmins, Ryan G; Bourne, Matthew N; Hickey, Jack T; Maniar, Nirav; Tofari, Paul J; Williams, Morgan D; Opar, David A
To assess in-season alterations of biceps femoris long head (BFlh) fascicle length in elite Australian footballers with and without a history of unilateral hamstring strain injury (HSI) in the past 12 months. Thirty elite Australian football players were recruited. Twelve had a history of unilateral HSI. Eighteen had no HSI history. All had their BFlh architecture assessed at approximately monthly intervals, six times across a competitive season. The previously injured limb's BFlh fascicles increased from the start of the season and peaked at week 5. Fascicle length gradually decreased until the end of the season, where they were shortest. The contralateral uninjured limb's fascicles were the longest when assessed at week 5 and showed a reduction in-season where weeks 17 and 23 were shorter than week 1. Control group fascicles were longest at week 5 and reduced in-season. The previously injured limb's BFlh fascicles were shorter than the control group at all weeks and the contralateral uninjured limb at week 5. Compared with the control group, the contralateral uninjured limb had shorter fascicles from weeks 9 to 23. Athletes with a history of HSI end the season with shorter fascicles than they start. Limbs without a history of HSI display similar BFlh fascicle lengths at the end of the season as they begin with. All athletes increase fascicle length at the beginning of the season; however, the extent of the increase differed based on history of HSI. These findings show that a HSI history may influence structural adaptation of the BFlh in-season.
Orchard, John W; Seward, Hugh; Orchard, Jessica J
Injuries are common in all professional football codes (including soccer, rugby league and union, American football, Gaelic football, and Australian football). To report the epidemiology of injuries in the Australian Football League (AFL) from 1992-2012 and to identify changes in injury patterns during that period. Descriptive epidemiology study. The AFL commenced surveying injuries in 1992, with all teams and players included since 1996. An injury was defined as "any physical or medical condition that causes a player to miss a match in the regular season or finals (playoffs)." Administrative records of injury payments (which are compulsory as part of salary cap compliance) to players who do not play matches determined the occurrence of an injury. The seasonal incidence was measured in units of new injuries per club (of 40 players) per season (of 22 matches). There were 4492 players listed over the 21-year period who suffered 13,606 new injuries/illnesses and 1965 recurrent injuries/illnesses, which caused 51,919 matches to be missed. The lowest seasonal incidence was 30.3 new injuries per club per season recorded in 1993, and the highest was 40.3 recorded in 1998. The injury prevalence (missed matches through injury per club per season) varied from a low of 116.3 in 1994 to a high of 157.1 in 2011. The recurrence rate of injuries was highest at 25% in 1992 and lowest at 9% in 2012 and has steadily fallen across the 21 years (P injury was hamstring strain (average of 6 injuries per club per season, resulting in 20 missed matches per club per season; recurrence rate, 26%), although the rate of hamstring injuries has fallen in the past 2 seasons after a change to the structure of the interchange bench (P injuries fell in the years after a rule change to prevent knee-to-knee collisions in ruckmen (P injury rates, using units easily understood by laypeople, has been well received. It has also paved the way for rule changes with the primary goal of improving player
Brughelli, Matt; Nosaka, Ken; Cronin, John
Case report. To assess an eccentric based intervention on an Australian Football player with recurrent hamstring injuries. The athlete attempted several conventional rehabilitation programs in the past (e.g. physical therapy, manual therapy, acupuncture, active release, medial gluteal strengthening) with no sustained progress in regards to pain, soreness, or return to sport. After the first three phases of the intervention (i.e. nine weeks), the optimum angle of peak torque during knee flexion decreased from 37.3 to 23.9 degrees in the injured leg, and from 24.3 to 20.3 degrees in the non-injured leg. After the first nine weeks, the optimum angles then remained constant for another 23 weeks. The optimum angle of peak torque was also shifted in the knee extensors by 3.9 degrees (injured leg) and 3.4 degrees (non-injured leg) after nine weeks and then remained constant for the remaining 23 weeks. Quadriceps to hamstring peak torque ratio's (Q/H ratios) and peak torque during knee flexion and extension remained constant throughout the intervention. An eccentric based intervention was shown to be safe and effective for altering the optimum angle of peak torque (i.e. shifting to longer muscle lengths) for this athlete with recurrent hamstring injuries.
Chalmers, Samuel; Fuller, Joel T; Debenedictis, Thomas A; Townsley, Samuel; Lynagh, Matthew; Gleeson, Cara; Zacharia, Andrew; Thomson, Stuart; Magarey, Mary
The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a popular screening tool, however, the postulated relationship between prospective injury and FMS scoring remains sparsely explored in adolescent athletes. The aim of the study was to examine the association between pre-season FMS scores and injuries sustained during one regular season competition in elite adolescent Australian football players. Prospective cohort study. 237 elite junior Australian football players completed FMS testing during the late pre-season phase and had their weekly playing status monitored during the regular season. The definition of an injury was 'a trauma which caused a player to miss a competitive match'. The median composite FMS score was 14 (mean=13.5±2.3). An apriori analysis revealed that the presence of ≥1 asymmetrical sub-test was associated with a moderate increase in the risk of injury (hazard ratio=2.2 [1.0-4.8]; relative risk=1.9; p=0.047; sensitivity=78.4%; specificity=41.0%). Notably, post-hoc analysis identified that the presence of ≥2 asymmetrical sub-tests was associated with an even greater increase in risk of prospective injury (hazard ratio=3.7 [1.6-8.6]; relative risk=2.8; p=0.003; sensitivity=66.7%; specificity=78.0%). Achieving a composite score of ≤14 did not substantially increase the risk of prospective injury (hazard ratio=1.1 [0.5-2.1]; p=0.834). Junior Australian football players demonstrating asymmetrical movement during pre-season FMS testing were more likely to sustain an injury during the regular season than players without asymmetry. Findings suggest that the commonly reported composite FMS threshold score of ≤14 was not associated with injury in elite junior AF players. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Docking, S I; Rio, E; Cook, J; Orchard, J W; Fortington, L V
Little is known about the prevalence and associated of morbidity of tendon problems. With only severe cases of tendon problems missing games, players that have their training and performance impacted are not captured by traditional injury surveillance. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of Achilles and patellar tendon problems in elite male Australian football players using the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre (OSTRC) overuse questionnaire, compared to a time-loss definition. Male athletes from 12 professional Australian football teams were invited to complete a monthly questionnaire over a 9-month period in the 2016 pre- and competitive season. The OSTRC overuse injury questionnaire was used to measure the prevalence and severity of Achilles and patellar tendon symptoms and was compared to traditional match-loss statistics. A total of 441 participants were included. Of all participants, 21.5% (95% CI: 17.9-25.6) and 25.2% (95% CI 21.3-29.4) reported Achilles or patellar tendon problems during the season, respectively. Based on the traditional match-loss definition, a combined 4.1% of participants missed games due to either Achilles or patellar tendon injury. A greater average monthly prevalence was observed during the pre-season compared to the competitive season. Achilles and patellar tendon problems are prevalent in elite male Australian football players. These injuries are not adequately captured using a traditional match-loss definition. Prevention of these injuries may be best targeted during the off- and pre-season due to higher prevalence of symptoms during the pre-season compared to during the competitive season. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Freckleton, Grant; Cook, Jill; Pizzari, Tania
Hamstring muscle strain injuries (HMSI) are the greatest injury problem in kicking sports such as Australian Rules Football. Reduced hamstring muscle strength is commonly perceived to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, evidence is inconclusive. Testing hamstring strength with the hip and knee at functional angles and assessing endurance parameters may be more relevant for examining the risk of hamstring injury. The primary aim of this prospective study was to examine if reduced hamstring muscle strength assessed with the single leg hamstring bridge (SLHB) was a risk factor for hamstring injury. Hamstring muscle strength of 482 amateur and semielite players from 16 football clubs, mean age 20.7 (range 16-34 years), was tested during the 2011 preseason. Players were then monitored throughout the 2011 playing season for HMSI. A total of 28 hamstring injuries, 16 right and 12 left, were recorded. Players who sustained a right HMSI during the season had a significantly lower mean right SLHB score (p=0.029), were older (p=0.002) and were more likely to have sustained a past right hamstring injury (p=0.02) or right knee injury (p=0.035). For left-sided hamstring injury, the injured group was more likely to be left leg dominant (p=0.001), older athletes (p=0.002) and there was a trend towards a history of left hamstring injury (p=0.07). This study demonstrated a significant deficit in preseason SLHB scores on the right leg of players that subsequently sustained a right-sided hamstring injury. Age, previous knee injury and a history of hamstring injury were other risk factors supported in this study. Low hamstring strength appears to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, due to the confounding variables and low injury rate in this study, further studies are required.
Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Rotstein, Andrew H. [Victoria House Medical Imaging, Prahran, Victoria (Australia); Gorelik, Alexandra [Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne Epicentre, Parkville (Australia)
Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions. (orig.)
Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Rotstein, Andrew H.; Gorelik, Alexandra
Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions. (orig.)
Pearce, Alan J; Hoy, Kate; Rogers, Mark A; Corp, Daniel T; Davies, Charlotte B; Maller, Jerome J; Fitzgerald, Paul B
This multimodal study investigated the motor, neurocognitive and neurophysiological responses following a sports related concussion injury in the acute-phase (up to 10 days) in sub-elite Australian football players. Between-group, repeated measures. Over the course of one season (six months), 43 male players from one football club (25.1 ± 4.5 years) were assessed for fine motor dexterity, visuomotor reaction time, implicit learning and attention. Motor cortex excitability and inhibition were assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Of the 43 players, eight suffered concussion injuries, and were compared to 15 non-concussed players (active control) who returned for follow up testing. Post-concussion assessments using the aforementioned tests were carried out at 48 and 96 h, and 10 days. Compared to the non-concussed players, those who suffered concussion showed slowed fine dexterity (P = 0.02), response (P = 0.02) and movement times (P = 0.01) 48 h post-concussion. Similarly, attentional performance was reduced in the concussed group at all time points (48 h: P football players show abnormalities in motor, cognitive and neurophysiological measures with variable rates of recovery. These findings suggest that measuring the recovery of concussed athletes should incorporate a range of testing modalities rather than relying on one area of measurement in determining return to play. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nankervis, Brodie; Ferguson, Laura; Gosling, Cameron; Storr, Michael; Ilic, Dragan; Young, Mark; Maloney, Stephen
The objective of this study was to explore how social media is used by a population of injured professional athletes, by comparing the content and frequency of posts on social media, pre and post-injury. A retrospective mixed methods design was utilised. Professional Australian Football League (AFL) players, injured during the 2015 season, were included in the study. Publicly accessible social media profiles for these players were identified on Twitter and Instagram. All posts published on verified profiles, from four weeks prior to injury until return to play, were extracted. Thematic analysis was used to investigate the content of these posts, while univariate and multivariate linear regression was used to investigate the frequency of posts during this time period. Two reoccurring themes were identified exclusively post-injury; 'supporting team from the sideline' and 'sharing information about injury and rehabilitation'. The frequency of total posts did not differ significantly pre and post-injury, but the frequency of injury related posts increased in the immediate post-injury phase, then decreased between 4-8 weeks and 8-12 weeks post-injury. The frequency of injury related posts was higher with more severe injuries. The findings of this study suggest that injured players use social media to seek social support from their followers, especially in the immediate post-injury period and after sustaining a severe injury. The role of social media in injury rehabilitation may warrant further investigation, to determine if it could be used to facilitate return to play. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
and cool downs before and after training and matches, respectively. As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and rehabilitation are essential; especially in the prevention of re-injury. Unfortunately, youth football is often disadvantaged with inadequate or unavailable sports medicine personnel and treatment ...
Brughelli, Matt; Cronin, John; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Kinsella, Dave; Nosaka, Ken
Contralateral leg deficits between lower limbs during athletic movements are thought to increase the risk of injury and compromise performance. The purpose of this study was to quantify the magnitude of leg deficits during running in noninjured and previously injured Australian Rules football (ARF) players. The players included a group of noninjured ARF players (n = 11) and a group of previously injured ARF players (n = 11; hamstring injuries only). The players in the injured group (IG) had at least 1 acute hamstring injury in the previous 2 years. The legs of the noninjured players (NIG) were classified as right and left, whereas the legs of the injured players were classified as injured or noninjured. The players ran on a nonmotorized force treadmill at approximately 80% of their maximum velocity (Vmax). For the NIG, there were no significant differences between right and left legs for any of the variables. For the IG, the only variable that was significantly (p force (175 +/- 30 vs. 326 +/- 44 N). Furthermore, horizontal force was significantly greater in the noninjured leg (IG) in comparison with either legs in the NIG (19.2% and 20.5%) and significantly less in the injured leg (IG) in comparison with either legs of the NIG (31.5% and 32.7%). In the present study, athletes with previous hamstring injuries had contralateral leg deficits in horizontal but not vertical force during running at submaximal velocities.
Preventing Australian football injuries with a targeted neuromuscular control exercise programme: comparative injury rates from a training intervention delivered in a clustered randomised controlled trial.
Finch, Caroline F; Twomey, Dara M; Fortington, Lauren V; Doyle, Tim L A; Elliott, Bruce C; Akram, Muhammad; Lloyd, David G
Exercise-based training programmes are commonly used to prevent sports injuries but programme effectiveness within community men's team sport is largely unknown. To present the intention-to-treat analysis of injury outcomes from a clustered randomised controlled trial in community Australian football. Players from 18 male, non-elite, community Australian football clubs across two states were randomly allocated to either a neuromuscular control (NMC) (intervention n=679 players) or standard-practice (control n=885 players) exercise training programme delivered as part of regular team training sessions (2× weekly for 8-week preseason and 18-week regular-season). All game-related injuries and hours of game participation were recorded. Generalised estimating equations, adjusted for clustering (club unit), were used to compute injury incidence rates (IIRs) for all injuries, lower limb injuries (LLIs) and knee injuries sustained during games. The IIRs were compared across groups with cluster-adjusted Injury Rate Ratios (IRRs). Overall, 773 game injuries were recorded. The lower limb was the most frequent body region injured, accounting for 50% of injuries overall, 96 (12%) of which were knee injuries. The NMC players had a reduced LLI rate compared with control players (IRR: 0.78 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.08), p=0.14.) The knee IIR was also reduced for NMC compared with control players (IRR: 0.50 (95% CI 0.24 to 1.05), p=0.07). These intention-to-treat results indicate that positive outcomes can be achieved from targeted training programmes for reducing knee and LLI injury rates in men's community sport. While not statistically significant, reducing the knee injury rate by 50% and the LLI rate by 22% is still a clinically important outcome. Further injury reductions could be achieved with improved training attendance and participation in the programme. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
Hides, Julie A; Brown, Cassandra T; Penfold, Lachlan; Stanton, Warren R
Longitudinal observational study. To examine the relationship between severity of preseason hip, groin, and thigh (HGT) muscle injuries, and lumbopelvic muscle size, asymmetry, and function at the start and end of the preseason. In Australian Rules Football, HGT muscle injuries have the highest prevalence and incidence. Deficits within the lumbopelvic region, such as impaired muscle function and muscle asymmetry, could contribute to injuries in the preseason, and injury could, in turn, affect muscle size and function. MRI examinations were performed on 47 male elite Australian Rules Football players at the start and at the end of the football preseason. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of multifidus, psoas major, and quadratus lumborum muscles was measured, as well as change in trunk CSA due to the function of voluntarily contracting the transversus abdominis muscle. Injuries occurring during each preseason training session were routinely recorded by the club's performance staff. Analysis of variance indicated that players with more severe preseason HGT injuries (more training sessions missed) had significantly smaller multifidus muscle CSA compared to players with no HGT injury (P = .006). No relationship was found for size or asymmetry of the quadratus lumborum or psoas major muscles, or ability to contract the transversus abdominis muscle through drawing in of the abdominal wall (P>.05). Small multifidus muscle size at L5 predicted 5 of 6 players who incurred a more severe HGT injury. An association between multifidus muscle size (relative to age, height, and weight) and preseason injury suggests a way to identify players at risk of severe HGT injuries. This result needs to be replicated in a larger sample before resources are committed to intervention efforts.
Kos, John J.
A great deal of concern is recently being expressed relative to the playing of tackle football by adolescent Canadians. The purpose of this literature review is to try to summarize the important data from the available world literature. Very few Canadian statistics are available. Most of the data comes from United States experience. Tackle football injury is examined from various perspectives: 1. Equipment 2. Mechanisms of injury 3. Types of injury, with some emphasis on epiphyseal injury 4. Prevention 5. Comparison with other sports Although no “hard and fast” conclusion is drawn, the paper tends to show that: 1. Football is dangerous 2. Football is damaging to many body systems 3. Prevention of injury is difficult under present conditions 4. Alternate games, such as soccer and rugby seem to provide the same benefits with less catastrophic injuries
Lamplot, Joseph D; Matava, Matthew J
Quadriceps and hamstring injuries occur frequently in football and are generally treated conservatively. While return to competition following hamstring strains is relatively quick, a high rate of injury recurrence highlights the importance of targeted rehabilitation and conditioning. This review describes the clinical manifestations of thigh-related soft-tissue injuries seen in football players. Two of these-muscle strains and contusions-are relatively common, while a third condition-the Morel-Lavallée lesion-is a rare, yet relevant injury.
Makdissi, Michael; Davis, Gavin
The objectives of the study were to assess the relationship between various player and game factors and risk of concussion; and to assess the reliability of video analysis for mechanistic assessment of concussion in Australian football. Prospective cohort study. All impacts and collisions resulting in concussion were identified during the 2011 Australian Football League season. An extensive list of factors for assessment was created based upon previous analysis of concussion in Australian Football League and expert opinions. The authors independently reviewed the video clips and correlation for each factor was examined. A total of 82 concussions were reported in 194 games (rate: 8.7 concussions per 1000 match hours; 95% confidence interval: 6.9-10.5). Player demographics and game variables such as venue, timing of the game (day, night or twilight), quarter, travel status (home or interstate) or score margin did not demonstrate a significant relationship with risk of concussion; although a higher percentage of concussions occurred in the first 5min of game time of the quarter (36.6%), when compared to the last 5min (20.7%). Variables with good inter-rater agreement included position on the ground, circumstances of the injury and cause of the impact. The remainder of the variables assessed had fair-poor inter-rater agreement. Common problems included insufficient or poor quality video and interpretation issues related to the definitions used. Clear definitions and good quality video from multiple camera angles are required to improve the utility of video analysis for concussion surveillance in Australian football. Copyright Â© 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Disseminating lower-limb injury-prevention exercise programs (LL-IPEPs) with strategies that effectively reach coaches across sporting environments is a way of preventing lower-limb injuries (LLIs) and ensuring safe and sustainable sport participation. The aim of this study was to explore community-Australian Football (community-AF) coaches’ perspectives on the strategies they believed would enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs. Using a qualitative multiple case study design, semi-structured interviews with community-AF coaches in Victoria, Australia, were conducted. Overall, coaches believed a range of strategies were important including: coach education, policy drivers, overcoming potential problem areas, a ‘try before you buy approach’, presenting empirical evidence and guidelines for injury-prevention exercise programs (IPEPs), forming strategic collaboration and working in partnership, communication and social marketing, public meetings, development of a coach hotline, and targeted multi-focused approaches. A shift to a culture whereby evidence-based IPEP practices in community-AF will take time, and persistent commitment by all involved in the sport is important. This will support the creation of strategies that will enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs across community sport environments. The focus of research needs to continue to identify effective, holistic and multi-level interventions to support coaches in preventing LLIs. This could lead to the determination of successful strategies such as behavioural regulation strategies and emotional coping resources to implement LL-IPEPs into didactic curricula and practice. Producing changes in practice will require attention to which strategies are a priority and the most effective. PMID:29462913
McGlashan, Angela; Verrinder, Glenda; Verhagen, Evert
Disseminating lower-limb injury-prevention exercise programs (LL-IPEPs) with strategies that effectively reach coaches across sporting environments is a way of preventing lower-limb injuries (LLIs) and ensuring safe and sustainable sport participation. The aim of this study was to explore community-Australian Football (community-AF) coaches' perspectives on the strategies they believed would enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs. Using a qualitative multiple case study design, semi-structured interviews with community-AF coaches in Victoria, Australia, were conducted. Overall, coaches believed a range of strategies were important including: coach education, policy drivers, overcoming potential problem areas, a 'try before you buy approach', presenting empirical evidence and guidelines for injury-prevention exercise programs (IPEPs), forming strategic collaboration and working in partnership, communication and social marketing, public meetings, development of a coach hotline, and targeted multi-focused approaches. A shift to a culture whereby evidence-based IPEP practices in community-AF will take time, and persistent commitment by all involved in the sport is important. This will support the creation of strategies that will enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs across community sport environments. The focus of research needs to continue to identify effective, holistic and multi-level interventions to support coaches in preventing LLIs. This could lead to the determination of successful strategies such as behavioural regulation strategies and emotional coping resources to implement LL-IPEPs into didactic curricula and practice. Producing changes in practice will require attention to which strategies are a priority and the most effective.
Full Text Available Disseminating lower-limb injury-prevention exercise programs (LL-IPEPs with strategies that effectively reach coaches across sporting environments is a way of preventing lower-limb injuries (LLIs and ensuring safe and sustainable sport participation. The aim of this study was to explore community-Australian Football (community-AF coaches’ perspectives on the strategies they believed would enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs. Using a qualitative multiple case study design, semi-structured interviews with community-AF coaches in Victoria, Australia, were conducted. Overall, coaches believed a range of strategies were important including: coach education, policy drivers, overcoming potential problem areas, a ‘try before you buy approach’, presenting empirical evidence and guidelines for injury-prevention exercise programs (IPEPs, forming strategic collaboration and working in partnership, communication and social marketing, public meetings, development of a coach hotline, and targeted multi-focused approaches. A shift to a culture whereby evidence-based IPEP practices in community-AF will take time, and persistent commitment by all involved in the sport is important. This will support the creation of strategies that will enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs across community sport environments. The focus of research needs to continue to identify effective, holistic and multi-level interventions to support coaches in preventing LLIs. This could lead to the determination of successful strategies such as behavioural regulation strategies and emotional coping resources to implement LL-IPEPs into didactic curricula and practice. Producing changes in practice will require attention to which strategies are a priority and the most effective.
Donnelly, C J; Elliott, B C; Doyle, T L A; Finch, C F; Dempsey, A R; Lloyd, D G
Determine if balance and technique training implemented adjunct to 1001 male Australian football players' training influenced the activation/strength of the muscles crossing the knee during pre-planned and unplanned sidestepping. Randomized Control Trial. Each Australian football player participated in either 28 weeks of balance and technique training or 'sham' training. Twenty-eight Australian football players (balance and technique training, n=12; 'sham' training, n=16) completed biomechanical testing pre-to-post training. Peak knee moments and directed co-contraction ratios in three degrees of freedom, as well as total muscle activation were calculated during pre-planned and unplanned sidestepping. No significant differences in muscle activation/strength were observed between the 'sham' training and balance and technique training groups. Following a season of Australian football, knee extensor (p=0.023) and semimembranosus (p=0.006) muscle activation increased during both pre-planned sidestepping and unplanned sidestepping. Following a season of Australian football, total muscle activation was 30% lower and peak valgus knee moments 80% greater (p=0.022) during unplanned sidestepping when compared with pre-planned sidestepping. When implemented in a community level training environment, balance and technique training was not effective in changing the activation of the muscles crossing the knee during sidestepping. Following a season of Australian football, players are better able to support both frontal and sagittal plane knee moments. When compared to pre-planned sidestepping, Australian football players may be at increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury during unplanned sidestepping in the latter half of an Australian football season. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J
All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit.
Full Text Available Background. Concussion incidence rates in professional Australian football may be underreported due to the injury classification definition. A myriad of factors contribute to concussion risk; however, there is limited long-term surveillance in Australian football. This study analysed concussion in one Australian football team over an extended period. Method. Match-play concussion injuries in one team (n=116 participants were diagnosed and treated by the team physician over 14 years. Analysis of factors related to concussion including matches played, time of day and season, and return to play provided an insight into occurrence and recurrence rates. Results. 140 concussions were recorded (17.6 per 1000 player match hours. A strong relationship was evident between matches played and concussion incidence (r=0.70 and match conditions did not negatively affect the concussion rate. Whether an athlete returned to play in the same match or suffered a loss-of-consciousness concussion (p=0.84, their ensuing rate of concussion was not affected. Conclusion. Concussion in professional Australian football was related to the number of matches played. Further, neither previous incidence nor loss of consciousness affected future concussion risk. This study provides ecologically valid evidence of the concussion incidence rate in professional Australian football and has implications for the management of athletes sustaining concussion injuries.
Collateral ligament. Fortunately the majority of knee injuries are strains involving the ligaments. The medial collateral ligament (MCL), which resists valgus and internal rotation, is susceptible to contact and non-contact loads. The MCL is the most commonly injured ligament in the knee.13 In an audit of soccer injuries in ...
Podberesky, Daniel J; Unsell, Bryan J; Anton, Christopher G
It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population.
Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G.; Unsell, Bryan J.
It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)
Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Unsell, Bryan J. [Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States)
It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)
Peterson, Andrew R.; Kruse, Adam J.; Meester, Scott M.; Olson, Tyler S.; Riedle, Benjamin N.; Slayman, Tyler G.; Domeyer, Todd J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Smoot, M. Kyle
Background: There are approximately 2.8 million youth football players between the ages of 7 and 14 years in the United States. Rates of injury in this population are poorly described. Recent studies have reported injury rates between 2.3% and 30.4% per season and between 8.5 and 43 per 1000 exposures. Hypothesis: Youth flag football has a lower injury rate than youth tackle football. The concussion rates in flag football are lower than in tackle football. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Three large youth (grades 2-7) football leagues with a total of 3794 players were enrolled. Research personnel partnered with the leagues to provide electronic attendance and injury reporting systems. Researchers had access to deidentified player data and injury information. Injury rates for both the tackle and flag leagues were calculated and compared using Poisson regression with a log link. The probability an injury was severe and an injury resulted in a concussion were modeled using logistic regression. For these 2 responses, best subset model selection was performed, and the model with the minimum Akaike information criterion value was chosen as best. Kaplan-Meier curves were examined to compare time loss due to injury for various subgroups of the population. Finally, time loss was modeled using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: A total of 46,416 exposures and 128 injuries were reported. The mean age at injury was 10.64 years. The hazard ratio for tackle football (compared with flag football) was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.25-0.80; P = .0065). The rate of severe injuries per exposure for tackle football was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.33-3.4; P = .93) times that of the flag league. The rate for concussions in tackle football per exposure was 0.51 (95% CI, 0.16-1.7; P = .27) times that of the flag league. Conclusion: Injury is more likely to occur in youth flag football than in youth tackle football. Severe injuries and concussions were not significantly
The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hamstring injuries are the most common injury in Australian Rules football. It was the aims to investigate whether a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention protocol provided in addition to the current best practice management could prevent the occurrence of and weeks missed due to hamstring and other lower-limb injuries at the semi-elite level of Australian football. Methods Sixty male subjects were assessed for eligibility with 59 meeting entry requirements and randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 29 or control group (n = 30, being matched for age and hamstring injury history. Twenty-eight intervention and 29 control group participants completed the trial. Both groups received the current best practice medical and sports science management, which acted as the control. Additionally, the intervention group received a sports chiropractic intervention. Treatment for the intervention group was individually determined and could involve manipulation/mobilization and/or soft tissue therapies to the spine and extremity. Minimum scheduling was: 1 treatment per week for 6 weeks, 1 treatment per fortnight for 3 months, 1 treatment per month for the remainder of the season (3 months. The main outcome measure was an injury surveillance with a missed match injury definition. Results After 24 matches there was no statistical significant difference between the groups for the incidence of hamstring injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051 and primary non-contact knee injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051. The difference for primary lower-limb muscle strains was significant (OR:0.097, 95%CI:0.011-0.839, p = 0.025. There was no significant difference for weeks missed due to hamstring injury (4 v14, χ2:1.12, p = 0.29 and lower-limb muscle strains (4 v 21, χ2:2.66, p = 0.10. A significant difference in weeks missed due to non-contact knee injury was noted (1 v 24, χ2:6.70, p = 0.01. Conclusions This study
(cardiovascular conditioning, plyometric work, sport-specific drills, strength training and flexibility exercises to improve speed and agility) on the occurrence of football injuries in 42 out of 300 female high school players were investigated during 1 year of competitive football.28 Significantly fewer players in the intervention ...
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of injuries in amateur football players during a University Sport South Africa Football tournament and the factors associated with these injuries. A prospective study design to describe football injuries during the University Sport South Africa Football Championships was ...
The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial.
Hoskins, Wayne; Pollard, Henry
Hamstring injuries are the most common injury in Australian Rules football. It was the aims to investigate whether a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention protocol provided in addition to the current best practice management could prevent the occurrence of and weeks missed due to hamstring and other lower-limb injuries at the semi-elite level of Australian football. Sixty male subjects were assessed for eligibility with 59 meeting entry requirements and randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 29) or control group (n = 30), being matched for age and hamstring injury history. Twenty-eight intervention and 29 control group participants completed the trial. Both groups received the current best practice medical and sports science management, which acted as the control. Additionally, the intervention group received a sports chiropractic intervention. Treatment for the intervention group was individually determined and could involve manipulation/mobilization and/or soft tissue therapies to the spine and extremity. Minimum scheduling was: 1 treatment per week for 6 weeks, 1 treatment per fortnight for 3 months, 1 treatment per month for the remainder of the season (3 months). The main outcome measure was an injury surveillance with a missed match injury definition. After 24 matches there was no statistical significant difference between the groups for the incidence of hamstring injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051) and primary non-contact knee injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051). The difference for primary lower-limb muscle strains was significant (OR:0.097, 95%CI:0.011-0.839, p = 0.025). There was no significant difference for weeks missed due to hamstring injury (4 v 14, chi2:1.12, p = 0.29) and lower-limb muscle strains (4 v 21, chi2:2.66, p = 0.10). A significant difference in weeks missed due to non-contact knee injury was noted (1 v 24, chi2:6.70, p = 0.01). This study demonstrated a trend towards lower limb injury prevention
This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…
National Athletic Trainers' Association, Inc., Greenville, NC.
This series of newsletters and fact sheets provides information on the incidence of sport-related injuries in scholastic sports. The following topics are addressed: (1) how the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) measures the number and severity of injuries; (2) facts about NATA; (3) injuries to high school football players; (4)…
Martin, Stephen L.
This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…
Koch, Matthias; Zellner, Johannes; Berner, Arne; Grechenig, Stephan; Krutsch, Volker; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter; Krutsch, Werner
Scientific studies on injury characteristics are rather common in professional football but not in amateur football despite the thousands of amateur football tournaments taking place worldwide each year. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preparation and injury patterns of players of two different football skill levels who participated in an international amateur football tournament. In a prospective cohort study, an international amateur football tournament of medical doctors in 2011 was analysed with regard to training and warm-up preparation, the level of football played before the tournament and injury data during the tournament by means of standardised injury definitions and data samples for football. Amateur players of registered football clubs had higher training exposure before the tournament (p football players showed a significantly higher overall injury incidence (p injuries (p injuries and complaints was the lower extremities. Orthopaedic and trauma surgeons had the lowest overall injury incidence and anaesthetists the highest (p = 0.049) during the tournament. For the first time, this study presents detailed information on the injury incidence and injury patterns of an amateur football tournament. Less-trained recreational players sustained significantly more injuries than better-trained amateur players, probably due to the lack of sufficient preparation before the tournament. Preventive strategies against overuse and traumatic injuries of recreational football players should start with regular training and warm-up programmes in preparation for a tournament.
Olson, David; Sikka, Robby S; Labounty, Abby; Christensen, Trent
Professional football is one of the most popular sports in the United States. There is a common constellation of injuries that are seen frequently. Much attention has been focused on concussions and their long-term outcomes in this population. Other common causes of morbidity include cervical spine injuries, knee injuries including anterior cruciate ligament and other ligamentous injuries, ankle sprains, and medical issues including cardiac and sickle trait. Several recent studies have focused on hip impingement and hamstring injuries, among others, as sources of missed playing time as well. This review describes some of the frequently seen injuries and medical issues in professional football players. Proper management of both medical disease and on-field injuries can reduce morbidity and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury.
Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986
Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)
Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W
American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes.
We aimed to identify any pattern of injuries that impacted on the long-term physical wellbeing o f players, sustained by Senior County Gaelic-football players during their playing career and the impact of those injuries on their quality of life. A questionnaire was sent to different Donegal-Panels looking for injuries and surgical procedures undergone in playing and post-playing career including chronic joint and musculoskeletal problems.
Serpell, Benjamin G; Scarvell, Jennie M; Ball, Nick B; Smith, Paul N
Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish if vertical stiffness was greater in professional Australian rules footballers who sustained a lower limb skeletal muscle strain compared to those who did not, and to establish if a relationship between age, or training history, and vertical stiffness existed. Thirty-one participants underwent weekly rebound jump testing on a force platform over two seasons. Vertical stiffness was calculated for injured players and the uninjured cohort 1 and 3 weeks prior to sustaining an injury and at the end of preseason. Eighteen athletes were in the "uninjured" cohort and 13 in the "injured" cohort. No significant difference in vertical stiffness was observed between groups (P = 0.18 for absolute stiffness; P = 0.08 for stiffness relative to body mass), within groups (P = 0.83 and P = 0.88, respectively) or for a time*cohort interaction (P = 0.77 and P = 0.80, respectively). No relationship between age and vertical stiffness existed (r = -0.06 for absolute and relative stiffness), or training history and vertical stiffness (r = -0.01 and 0.00 for absolute and relative stiffness, respectively) existed. These results and others lend to suggest that vertical stiffness is not related to lower limb muscle strain injury.
Daly, Charles A; Payne, S Houston; Seiler, John G
This article reports a series of severe permanent brachial plexus injuries in American football players. The authors describe the mechanisms of injury and outcomes from a more contemporary treatment approach in the form of nerve transfer tailored to the specific injuries sustained. Three cases of nerve transfer for brachial plexus injury in American football players are discussed in detail. Two of these patients regained functional use of the extremity, but 1 patient with a particularly severe injury did not regain significant function. Brachial plexus injuries are found along a spectrum of brachial plexus stretch or contusion that includes the injuries known as "stingers." Early identification of these severe brachial plexus injuries allows for optimal outcomes with timely treatment. Diagnosis of the place of a given injury along this spectrum is difficult and requires a combination of imaging studies, nerve conduction studies, and close monitoring of physical examination findings over time. Although certain patients may be at higher risk for stingers, there is no evidence to suggest that this correlates with a higher risk of severe brachial plexus injury. Unfortunately, no equipment or strengthening program has been shown to provide a protective effect against these severe injuries. Patients with more severe injuries likely have less likelihood of functional recovery. In these patients, nerve transfer for brachial plexus injury offers the best possibility of meaningful recovery without significant morbidity. [ Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1188-e1192.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Rothenberg, Paul; Grau, Luis; Kaplan, Lee; Baraga, Michael G
Football has the highest injury rate amongst popular American sports. Of those injuries that end seasons or careers, the knee is the most common culprit. This is of particular concern because knee injuries are most common in football. This article reviews 4 of the most common knee injuries in American football, with emphasis on epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment outcomes. The injuries reviewed are tears of the anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, medial patellofemoral ligament, and posterior cruciate ligament.
Background. Exposure to competitive football is increasing among male youth football players in Nigeria. However, medical support to abate the impact of injuries appears inadequate and there is limited literature to show whether youth football players are knowledgeable about, and practise effective measures for injury ...
Marker, L B; Klareskov, B
Posterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint is uncommon, accounting for less than 0.1% of all dislocations. Since 1824 a little more than 100 cases have been reported, and the majority in the past 20 years. A review of published reports suggests that this injury is seen particularly in co...... in connection with American football. A typical case is described. The importance of this injury is that there is often a delay in diagnosis with potentially serious complications....
Sport and physical activity for children is widely recommended to support a healthy lifestyle. Football is the most popular sport worldwide. Given its popularity, football is an excellent setting to fulfil sufficient physical activity levels. Football can induce considerable beneficial health effects. However, injuries may be an unfortunate consequence of participating in sport. In light of the large number of players football injuries relate to a public health issue. Therefore, the applicati...
Fitzharris, N; Jones, G; Jones, A; Francis, P
Objectives Football has the highest sports participation (10.6%) in Ireland ahead of its Gaelic counterpart (3.9%). Research into injury incidence and patterns in Irish football is non-existent. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective injury audit of league of Ireland (semi-professional) footballers during the 2014 season (8 months; 28 games). Methods A total of 140 semi-professional league of Ireland footballers were prospectively followed between March and November 2014. Data was...
Fitzharris, Nigel; Jones, Gareth; Jones, Ashley; Francis, Peter
Objectives Football has the highest sports participation (10.6%) in Ireland ahead of its Gaelic counterpart (3.9%). Research into injury incidence and patterns in Irish football is non-existent. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective injury audit of League of Ireland (semiprofessional) footballers during the 2014 season (8 months, 28 games). Methods A total of 140 semiprofessional League of Ireland footballers were prospectively followed between March and November 2014. Data were ...
Hsu, Andrew R; Anderson, Robert B
Physicians need to be aware of a variety of foot and ankle injuries that commonly occur in American football, including turf toe, Jones fractures, Lisfranc injuries, syndesmotic and deltoid disruption, and Achilles ruptures. These injuries are often complex and require early individual tailoring of treatment and rehabilitation protocols. Successful management and return to play requires early diagnosis, a thorough work-up, and prompt surgical intervention when warranted with meticulous attention to restoration of normal foot and ankle anatomy. Physicians should have a high suspicion for subtle injuries and variants that can occur via both contact and noncontact mechanisms.
Mueller, Frederick O.; Blyth, Carl S.
Football injuries which resulted in permanent spinal cord injury are reported in this survey, part of a concerted effort by individuals and research organizations to reduce the steady increase of football head and neck injuries since the late 1950s. In addition to the reporting of injuries, this document describes steps taken to eliminate the…
The articles revealed that the risk of injury in professional football is substantial; its prevalence astronomical and extremely severe. Injuries also affect performance in a negative way and teams that can avoid injuries have greater success as evaluated by their position in the league system. Prevention of injury in football is of ...
Prendergast, Ned; Hopper, Diana; Finucane, Mark; Grisbrook, Tiffany L
It has been reported that obtaining an adduction-to-abduction strength ratio of 90-100%, and an adduction strength equal to that of the uninjured side, are suitable clinical milestones for return to sport following groin injury. Little is known about hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in Australian footballers. This study aimed to compare isometric hip adduction and abduction strength profiles between preferred and non-preferred kicking legs in elite, sub-elite and amateur Australian footballers. Cross sectional study 36 elite, 19 sub-elite and 18 amateur Australian footballers, with a mean age of 24, 19 and 23 years respectively, were included. Maximal hip isometric adduction and abduction strength were measured using a hand held dynamometer with external belt fixation. There were no significant differences in isometric hip adduction (p=0.262) or abduction (p=0.934) strength, or the adduction-to-abduction ratio (p=0.163), between preferred and non-preferred kicking legs, regardless of playing level. Elite players had significantly greater isometric hip adduction and abduction strength than both sub-elite (mean difference; adduction=46.01N, pamateur players (mean difference; adduction=78.72N, p<0.001, abduction=59.11N, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the adduction-to-abduction ratio between the playing levels (p=0.165). No significant differences were found between preferred and non-preferred kicking legs across the playing levels for isometric hip adduction, abduction or the adduction-to-abduction ratio. This may have implications for developing groin injury prediction and return to sport criteria in Australian footballers. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Davies, J E; Gibson, T
In a prospective study of 185 players attached to 10 British rugby clubs, 151 injuries were recorded among 98 of them (53%) during a single season. Forwards sustained significantly more injuries than backs. The standard of rugby, players' body weights, degree of fitness, and presence of joint hypermobility did not affect the risk of injury. The leg was the most common site of injury. Head and neck injuries were significantly more common when play was static and on wet pitches. Scrummaging accounted for no neck injuries. Almost half the injuries occurred during the last quarter of games. Foul play might have caused as many as 47 (31%) of all reported injuries. Complete eradication of deliberately dangerous play would considerably reduce the high incidence of injuries in this sport.
Parrington, Lucy; Ball, Kevin; MacMahon, Clare
The handball pass is influential in Australian football, and achieving higher ball speeds in flight is an advantage in increasing distance and reducing the chance of interceptions. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptive kinematic data and identify key technical aspects of maximal handball performance. Three-dimensional full body kinematic data from 19 professional Australian football players performing handball pass for maximal speed were collected, and the hand speed at ball contact was used to determine performance. Sixty-four kinematic parameters initially obtained were reduced to 15, and then grouped into like components through a two-stage supervised principal components analysis procedure. These components were then entered into a multiple regression analysis, which indicated that greater hand speed was associated with greater shoulder angular velocity and separation angle between the shoulders and pelvis at ball contact, as well as an earlier time of maximum upper-trunk rotation velocity. These data suggested that in order to increase the speed of the handball pass in Australian football, strategies like increased shoulder angular velocity, increased separation angle at ball contact, and earlier achievement of upper-trunk rotation speed might be beneficial.
Caswell, Shane V.; Ausborn, Ashley; Diao, Guoqing; Johnson, David C.; Johnson, Timothy S.; Atkins, Rickie; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Cortes, Nelson
Background: Prior research has described the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional, collegiate, and high school American football players. Yet, little research has described these factors in American youth football and their potential relationship with injury. Purpose: To characterize anthropometric and physical performance measures, describe the epidemiology of injury, and examine the association of physical performance measures with injury among children pa...
Fitzharris, Nigel; Jones, Gareth; Jones, Ashley; Francis, Peter
Football has the highest sports participation (10.6%) in Ireland ahead of its Gaelic counterpart (3.9%). Research into injury incidence and patterns in Irish football is non-existent. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective injury audit of League of Ireland (semiprofessional) footballers during the 2014 season (8 months, 28 games). A total of 140 semiprofessional League of Ireland footballers were prospectively followed between March and November 2014. Data were collected in accordance with the international consensus on football injury epidemiology. The injury rate was 9.2/1000 hour exposure to football (95% CI 6.2 to 12.9, pinjury during a match compared with training (23.1 (95% CI 15.2 to 31.3) vs 4.8 (95% CI 2.2 to 7.7)/1000 hours, pInjuries were most common during non-contact activity (54.6%), mainly running (30.9%), and occurred almost three times more often in the second half (56% vs 21%, pinjury types, and the thigh region was injured most often (28.3%). The prevalence of injury in League of Ireland football is similar to that of European professional football, although the incidence of injury is higher. The incidence of injury is in line with that of Dutch amateur football.
Andersen, T E; Arnason, A; Engebretsen, L; Bahr, R
The aim of this study was to describe, using video analysis, the mechanisms of head injuries and of incidents with a high risk of head injury in elite football. Videotapes and injury information were collected prospectively for 313 of the 409 matches played in the Norwegian (2000 season) and Icelandic (1999 and 2000 season) professional leagues. Video recordings of incidents where a player appeared to be hit in the head and the match was consequently interrupted by the referee were analysed and cross referenced with reports of acute time loss injuries from the team medical staff. The video analysis revealed 192 incidents (18.8 per 1000 player hours). Of the 297 acute injuries reported, 17 (6%) were head injuries, which corresponds to an incidence of 1.7 per 1000 player hours (concussion incidence 0.5 per 1000 player hours). The most common playing action was a heading duel with 112 cases (58%). The body part that hit the injured player's head was the elbow/arm/hand in 79 cases (41%), the head in 62 cases (32%), and the foot in 25 cases (13%). In 67 of the elbow/arm/hand impacts, the upper arm of the player causing the incident was at or above shoulder level, and the arm use was considered to be active in 61 incidents (77%) and intentional in 16 incidents (20%). This study suggests that video analysis provides detailed information about the mechanisms for head injuries in football. The most frequent injury mechanism was elbow to head contact, followed by head to head contact in heading duels. In the majority of the elbow to head incidents, the elbow was used actively at or above shoulder level, and stricter rule enforcement or even changes in the laws of the game concerning elbow use should perhaps be considered, in order to reduce the risk of head injury.
Ueblacker, Peter; Haensel, Lutz; Mueller-Wohlfahrt, Hans-Wilhelm
Muscle injuries are frequent and represent one of the most substantial medical problems in professional football. They can have both traumatic and overuse causes with direct practical consequence due to differences in terms of the post-primary care regimen and prognosis. An accurate diagnosis is the first step towards a specific treatment and usually allows to predict return to play (RTP). Current treatment principles have no firm scientific basis; they are practiced largely as empirical medicine due to a lack of prospective randomised studies. Immediate treatment usually follows the PRICE-principle (protection, rest, ice, compression, elevation). Depending on the type of the muscle injury, specific physical and physiotherapeutical procedures as well as rehabilitative exercises and gradual training therapy are used to recondition the injured structure, to restore coordination and proprioception, and to normalise movement patterns. Injection therapy with various substances is frequently used, with positive results empirically, but evidence in form of prospective randomised studies is lacking. A precise rehabilitation plan should be developed for every muscle injury, including recommendations for sport-specific training with increasing intensity. Since there are no guidelines regarding safe RTP, regular follow-up examinations on the current muscle status are crucial to evaluate the progress made in terms of healing and to determine when the injured muscle can be exposed to the next step of load. This narrative review describes the various factors that a medical team should consider during assessment, treatment and rehabilitation of a muscle injury with particular focus on professional football.
Mueller, Frederick O.; Blyth, Carl S.
The latest figures (1985) indicate a continued decline in football deaths and catastrophic injuries, which is credited to a ban on spearing and to a helmet standard. Guidelines for prevention of fatalities and injuries are listed. (Author/MT)
Haxhiu, Bekim; Murtezani, Ardiana; Zahiti, Bedri; Shalaj, Ismet; Sllamniku, Sabit
The aim of this study was to identify risk factors related to the occurrence of injuries in football players. The study included 216 football players from 12 teams in the elite football league. Football-related injury data were collected prospectively during the 2012/2013 competitive season. At baseline the following information was collected for the players: anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI, subcutaneous skinfolds), playing experience, injury history, physical fitness performance test (agility run), peak oxygen uptake. The incidence, type and severity of injuries and training and game exposure times were prospectively documented for each player. Most of the players (n = 155, 71.7%) sustained the injures during the study period. The overall injury incidence during the regular season was 6.3 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% confidence interval, 4.31-9.67). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that playing experience (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.32-0.61, p injuries. Body mass index was not associated with risk of injury. Strains (34.19%) and sprains (25.81%) were the major injury types. Twenty-seven percent of injured players were absent from football for more than 1 month, with knee injuries (25.42%) being the most severe type. The risk factors that increase injury rates in football players were previous injury, higher age and years of playing. Future research should include adequate rehabilitation program to reduce the risk of injuries.
Elzinga, Kate E; Chung, Kevin C
Football and rugby athletes are at increased risk of finger injuries given the full-contact nature of these sports. Some players may return to play early with protective taping, splinting, and casting. Others require a longer rehabilitation period and prolonged time away from the field. The treating hand surgeon must weigh the benefits of early return to play for the current season and future playing career against the risks of reinjury and long-term morbidity, including post-traumatic arthritis and decreased range of motion and strength. Each player must be comprehensively assessed and managed with an individualized treatment plan. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johnston, R J; Watsford, M L; Austin, D; Pine, M J; Spurrs, R W
This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of global positioning system (GPS) units for measuring a standardized set of acceleration and deceleration zones and whether these standardized zones were capable of identifying differences between playing positions in professional Australian football. Eight well trained male participants were recruited to wear two 5 Hz or 10 Hz GPS units whilst completing a team sport simulation circuit to measure acceleration and deceleration movements. For the second part of this article 30 professional players were monitored between 1-29 times using 5 Hz and 10 Hz GPS units for the collection of acceleration and deceleration movements during the 2011 and 2012 Australian Football League seasons. Players were separated into four distinct positional groups - nomadic players, fixed defenders, fixed forwards and ruckman. The GPS units analysed had good to poor levels of error for measuring the distance covered (<19.7%), time spent (<17.2%) and number of efforts performed (<48.0%) at low, moderate and high acceleration and deceleration zones. The results demonstrated that nomadic players and fixed defenders perform more acceleration and deceleration efforts during a match than fixed forwards and ruckman. These studies established that these GPS units can be used for analysing the distance covered and time spent at the acceleration and deceleration zones used. Further, these standardized zones were proven to be capable of distinguishing between player positions, with nomadic players and fixed defenders required to complete more high acceleration and deceleration efforts during a match.
Sargent, Jonathan; Bedford, Anthony
This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL) players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line ". Key pointsA simulated interaction matrix for Australian Rules football players is proposedThe simulations were carried out by fitting unique negative binomial distributions to each player pairing in a sideEigenvector centrality was calculated for each player in a simulated matrix, then for the teamThe team centrality measure adequately predicted the team's winning marginA player's net effect on margin could hence be estimated by replacing him in
Sinku Kumar Singh
Full Text Available The present study deals with comparison of causes of injuries among three groups of competitive footballers. Accordingly three groups of footballers were targeted. International, National and State groups footballers aged between 14 to 30 years. The data was collected with the help of questionnaires prepared by Cromwell, F.J. Walsh Gromley for Elite Gaelic footballers (2000 and it was modified by the investigator and utilized. In this study total 300 hundred players were targeted ; of which 100 footballers of each group. Total 318 injuries out of 300 hundred footballers were found out over the one year period; 125 injuries out of 84 footballers were found in international group footballers. 108 injuries out of 82 footballers were found in national group and 85 injuries out of 78 footballers were found in State group. The mean (SDs age of International group to State group footballers were 21.25 (7.08, 23.33 (7.78 and 19.91 (6.29 in years respectively. Their weight were 58.35 (18.45, 58.23 (19.01, and 53.99 (17.33 kg. respectively, their height were 167.33 (55.33, 166.09 (55.10 and 164.87 (54.66 cm. respectively, their training were 4.61 (1.47, 4.31 (1.43, and 4.10 (1.33 days in a week respectively, their training durations were 2.74 (.58, 2.34 (.78, and 1.99 (.66 hours respectively, their warm-up were 28.53 (9.33, 36.05 (11.05 and 22.8 (7.8 minutes respectively, and competition was 8.67 (2.81, 8.68 (2.78, and 6.58 (2.11 in one year respectively. The results revealed that only significant difference of occurrence of injuries was found (F=3.65, P <.05 in foul play. International group footballers were found to have got more occurrences of injuries as compared to the state group footballers. The study suggest that their was no fair play at high level competition. However, no significant difference of occurrence of injuries were observed among three groups of competitive footballers with respect to causes like collision, running, contact with ball
Taylor, Carolyn J; Pizzari, Tania; Ames, Nick; Orchard, John W; Gabbe, Belinda J; Cook, Jill L
Hip and groin pain are common problems in Australian football. Although indigenous (I) players are at greater risk of soft tissue injury than their non-indigenous (non-I) counterparts, Aboriginal descent has not previously been identified as a risk factor for hip and groin injury. The aim of this study was to investigate if hip and groin screening tests would demonstrate differences between indigenous and non-indigenous junior elite AF players. Cross-sectional study. Two hundred and seventy elite junior Australian football players were screened using five hip and groin musculoskeletal tests. Thirty-three players (12%) were indigenous. Differences were demonstrated between the two groups for right prone hip internal rotation (I X = 27.60 ± 9.16, non-I X = 33.39 ± 8.88, p 0.001). The indigenous players displayed less range of passive hip internal rotation with the hip in neutral, reduced adductor squeeze force and higher levels of groin pain with the squeeze test at 90°. The differences observed between indigenous and non-indigenous players suggest indigenous players are at greater risk of hip and groin injuries in Australian football. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ekstrand, Jan; Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus
OBJECTIVE: To study the injury characteristics in professional football and to follow the variation of injury incidence during a match, during a season and over consecutive seasons. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study where teams were followed for seven consecutive seasons. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries from 2001 to 2008. SETTING: European professional men's football. PARTICIPANTS: The first team squads of 23 teams selected by UEFA as belonging to ...
Thorborg, Kristian; Krommes, Kasper Kühn; Esteve, Ernest
Objective To investigate the effect of FIFA injury prevention programmes in football (FIFA 11 and FIFA 11+). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials comparing the FIFA injury prevention programmes with a control (no or sham...... intervention) among football players. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL via Ebsco, Web of Science, SportDiscus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 2004 to 14 March 2016. Results 6 cluster-randomised controlled trials had assessed the effect of FIFA injury prevention...... programmes compared with controls on the overall football injury incidence in recreational/subelite football. These studies included 2 specific exercise-based injury prevention programmes: FIFA 11 (2 studies) and FIFA 11+ (4 studies). The primary analysis showed a reduction in the overall injury risk ratio...
Eirale, Cristiano; Tol, Johannes L.; Smiley, Faten; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Chalabi, Hakim
To investigate whether fasting during Ramadan influences injury incidence in professional Muslim and non-Muslim footballers. Prospective cohort study. Professional First Division League of Qatar. About 527 male football players (462 Muslim and 65 non-Muslim) from 7 league clubs (first year of data
Henry, Greg; Dawson, Brian; Lay, Brendan; Young, Warren
To study the validity of a video-based reactive agility test in Australian footballers. 15 higher performance, 15 lower performance, and 12 nonfootballers completed a light-based reactive agility test (LRAT), a video-based reactive agility test (VRAT), and a planned test (PLAN). With skill groups pooled, agility time in PLAN (1346 ± 66 ms) was significantly faster (P = .001) than both reactive tests (VRAT = 1550 ± 102 ms; LRAT = 1572 ± 97 ms). In addition, decision time was significantly faster (P = .001; d = 0.8) in LRAT (278 ± 36 ms) than VRAT (311 ± 47 ms). The correlation in agility time between the two reactive tests (r = .75) was higher than between the planned and reactive tests (r = .41-.68). Higher performance players had faster agility and movement times on VRAT (agility, 130 ± 24 ms, d = 1.27, P = .004; movement, 69 ± 73 ms, d = 0.88, P = .1) and LRAT (agility, 95 ± 86 ms, d = 0.99, P = .08; movement, 79 ± 74 ms; d = 0.9; P = .08) than the nonfootballers. In addition, higher (55 ± 39 ms, d = 0.87, P = .05) and lower (40 ± 57 ms, d = 0.74, P = .18) performance groups exhibited somewhat faster agility time than nonfootballers on PLAN. Furthermore, higher performance players were somewhat faster than lower performance for agility time on the VRAT (63 ± 85 ms, d = 0.82, P = .16) and decision time on the LRAT (20 ± 39 ms, d = 0.66, P = .21), but there was little difference in PLAN agility time between these groups (15 ± 150 ms, d = 0.24, P = .8). Differences in decision-making speed indicate that the sport-specific nature of the VRAT is not duplicated by a light-based stimulus. In addition, the VRAT is somewhat better able to discriminate different groups of Australian footballers than the LRAT. Collectively, this indicates that a video-based test is a more valid assessment tool for examining agility in Australian footballers.
Ekstrand, J; Hägglund, M; Waldén, M
To study the injury characteristics in professional football and to follow the variation of injury incidence during a match, during a season and over consecutive seasons. Prospective cohort study where teams were followed for seven consecutive seasons. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries from 2001 to 2008. European professional men's football. The first team squads of 23 teams selected by the Union of European Football Associations as belonging to the 50 best European teams. Injury incidence. 4483 injuries occurred during 566 000 h of exposure, giving an injury incidence of 8.0 injuries/1000 h. The injury incidence during matches was higher than in training (27.5 vs 4.1, pinjuries per season, and a team with typically 25 players can thus expect about 50 injuries each season. The single most common injury subtype was thigh strain, representing 17% of all injuries. Re-injuries constituted 12% of all injuries, and they caused longer absences than non re-injuries (24 vs 18 days, pincidence of match injuries showed an increasing injury tendency over time in both the first and second halves (pinjuries and hamstring strains were more frequent during the competitive season, while overuse injuries were common during the preseason. Training and match injury incidences were stable over the period with no significant differences between seasons. The training and match injury incidences were stable over seven seasons. The risk of injury increased with time in each half of matches.
Kicking for distance in Australian Rules football is an important skill. Here, I examine technical aspects that contribute to achieving maximal kick distance. Twenty-eight elite players kicked for distance while being videoed at 500 Hz. Two-dimensional digitized data of nine body landmarks and the football were used to calculate kinematic parameters from kicking foot toe-off to the instant before ball contact. Longer kick distances were associated with greater foot speeds and shank angular velocities at ball contact, larger last step lengths, and greater distances from the ground when ball contact occurred. Foot speed, shank angular velocity, and ball position relative to the support foot at ball contact were included in the best regression predicting distance. A continuum of technique was evident among the kickers. At one end, kickers displayed relatively larger knee angular velocities and smaller thigh angular velocities at ball contact. At the other end, kickers produced relatively larger thigh angular velocities and smaller knee angular velocities at ball contact. To increase kicking distance, increasing foot speed and shank angular velocity at ball contact, increasing the last step length, and optimizing ball position relative to the ground and support foot are recommended.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line".
Kiley, Dilan Patrick; Reagan, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Lewis; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan
Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of "game stories," we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories rather than distinct clusters. We show how coarse graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last-minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with biased random walks, we show that real AFL games deliver a broader array of motifs than null models, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games.
Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Ekstrand, Jan
The risk of injury in football is high, but few studies have compared men's and women's football injuries. The purpose of this prospective study was to analyse the exposure and injury characteristics of European Championships in football and to compare data for men, women and male youth players. The national teams of all 32 countries (672 players) that qualified to the men's European Championship 2004, the women's European Championship 2005 and the men's Under-19 European Championship 2005 were studied. Individual training and match exposure was documented during the tournaments as well as time loss injuries. The overall injury incidence was 14 times higher during match play than during training (34.6 vs. 2.4 injuries per 1000 h, P injuries per 1000 h, P = 0.02). Non-contact mechanisms were ascribed for 41% of the match injuries. One-fifth of all injuries were severe with absence from play longer than 4 weeks. In conclusion, injury incidences during the European Championships studied were very similar and it seems thus that the risk of injury in international football is at least not higher in women than in men. The teams eliminated in the women's championship had a significantly higher match injury incidence than the teams going to the final stage. Finally, the high frequency of non-contact injury is worrying from a prevention perspective and should be addressed in future studies.
Andersen, T E; Tenga, A; Engebretsen, L; Bahr, R
This study describes the characteristics of injuries and high risk situations in the Norwegian professional football league during one competitive season using Football Incident Analysis (FIA), a video based method. Videotapes and injury information were collected prospectively for 174 of 182 (96%) regular league matches during the 2000 season. Incidents where the match was interrupted due to an assumed injury were analysed using FIA to examine the characteristics of the playing situation causing the incident. Club medical staff prospectively recorded all acute injuries on a specific injury questionnaire. Each incident identified on the videotapes was cross referenced with the injury report. During the 174 matches, 425 incidents were recorded and 121 acute injuries were reported. Of these 121 injuries, 52 (43%) were identified on video including all head injuries, 58% of knee injuries, 56% of ankle injuries, and 29% of thigh injuries. Strikers were more susceptible to injury than other players and although most of the incidents and injuries resulted from duels, no single classic injury situation typical for football injuries or incidents could be recognised. However, in most cases the exposed player seemed to be unaware of the opponent challenging him for ball possession. This study shows that in spite of a thorough video analysis less than half of the injuries are identified on video. It is difficult to identify typical patterns in the playing events leading to incidents and injuries, but players seemed to be unaware of the opponent challenging them for ball possession.
Full Text Available John W Orchard,1 Markus Waldén,2 Martin Hägglund,3 Jessica J Orchard,1 Ian Chivers,4 Hugh Seward,5 Jan Ekstrand21School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 3Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4Native Seeds, Cheltenham, VIC, Australia; 5Australian Football League Medical Officers Association, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Australian Football League (AFL teams in northern (warmer areas generally have higher rates of injury than those in southern (cooler areas. Conversely, in soccer (football in Europe, teams in northern (cooler areas have higher rates of injury than those in southern (warmer areas, with an exception being knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries, which are more common in the southern (warmer parts of Europe. This study examined relative injury incidence in the AFL comparing 9,477 injuries over 229,827 player-weeks from 1999–2012. There was a slightly higher injury incidence for teams from warmer parts of Australia (relative risk [RR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.10 with quadriceps strains (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.58, knee cartilage injuries (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16–1.74, and ankle sprains (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00–1.37 all being more likely in warmer region teams. Achilles injuries followed a reverse pattern, tending to be more common in cooler region teams (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.47–1.03. In conclusion, common findings from the AFL and European soccer are that ankle sprains and ACL injuries are generally more likely in teams playing in warmer climate zones, whereas Achilles tendinopathy may be more likely in teams playing in cooler zones. These injuries may have climate or surface risk factors (possibly related to types and structure of grass and shoe-surface traction that are
Kelly, Stephen J; Watsford, Mark L; Austin, Damien J; Spurrs, Rob W; Pine, Matthew J; Rennie, Michael J
Kelly, SJ, Watsford, ML, Austin, DJ, Spurrs, RW, Pine, MJ, and Rennie, MJ. Differences in physical capacity between junior and senior Australian footballers. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3059-3066, 2017-The purpose of this study was to profile and compare anthropometric and physical capacities within elite junior and senior Australian football (AF) players of various chronological ages and stages of athletic development. Seventy-nine players, including junior and senior AF players from one professional club, were profiled using 11 assessments. Junior players were divided into 2 groups based on chronological age (under 16 and 18 years) and senior players according to years since drafted to a professional AF team (1-2 years, 3-7 years, and 8+ years). Parametric data were assessed using a 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), whereas nonparametric data were assessed using a Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA. The magnitude difference between players was measured using the Hopkins' effect size (ES). Significant differences were evident between under-16 players and all senior player groups for anthropometric (p = 0.001-0.019/ES = 1.25-2.13), absolute strength (p = 0.001-0.01/ES = 1.82-4.46), and relative strength (p = 0.001-0.027/ES = 0.84-3.55). The under-18 players displayed significantly lower absolute strength (p = 0.001-0.012/ES = 1.82-3.79) and relative strength (p = 0.001-0.027/ES = 0.85-4.00) compared with the 3-7 and 8+ players. Significant differences were evident between the under-16 players and senior player groups for explosive jumping and throwing tests (p = 0.001-0.017/ES = 1.03-2.99). Minimal differences were evident between all player groups for running assessments; however, the under-16 players were significantly slower compared with the 8+ players for the 3-km time trial (p senior AF players.
White, Peta E; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John; Newton, Joshua
Background Preventing concussion in sport is a global challenge. To assess community-level adult male Australian Football players’ views on following the Australian Football League's (AFL) concussion guidelines. Methods 3 focus groups, each comprising 6 players from 1 regional league, were conducted until saturation of issues raised. Discussions followed a semistructured script and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 coders independently. Results Identified advantages of the guidelines included highlighting the seriousness of concussion; changing the culture around playing with concussion and shifting return-to-play decision responsibility from players to others. Disadvantages included players being removed from play unnecessarily; removal of players’ rights to decide if they are fit to play and players changing their behaviours to avoid being removed from play. Identified facilitators to guideline use included local league enforcement; broad information dissemination and impartial medically trained staff to assess concussion. Identified barriers to guideline use included players’ desire to play at all costs; external pressure that encouraged players to return to play prematurely; and inconvenience and cost. Conclusions Players generally understand that the AFL concussion guidelines protect their long-term welfare. However, their desire to play at all costs and help their team win is a common barrier to reporting concussion and adhering to guidelines. Leagues should take a lead role by mandating and enforcing the use of the guidelines and educating coaches, game day medical providers and players. The return-to-play component of the guidelines is complex and needs further consideration in the context of community sport. PMID:28890801
Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U.
Differential loading patterns during game-based participation may produce or exacerbate strength imbalances between the lower limbs. It is currently unknown whether such imbalances are functionally beneficial or detrimental to performance. This study assessed the influence of lower limb strength and lean mass symmetry on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian footballers were required to perform a kicking assessment, producing ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to ...
Steiner, Mark E; Berkstresser, Brant D; Richardson, Lars; Elia, Greg; Wang, Frank
Despite recent restrictions being placed on practice in college football, there are little data to correlate such changes with injuries. Football injuries will correlate with a team's exposure to full-contact practice, total practice, and total games. Descriptive epidemiological study. All injuries and athlete injury exposures (AE × Min = athletes exposed × activity duration in minutes) were recorded for an intercollegiate football team over 4 consecutive fall seasons. Weekly injuries and injury rates (injuries per athletic injury exposure) were correlated with the weekly exposures to full-contact practices, total practices, formal scrimmages, and games. The preseason practice injury rate was over twice the in-season practice injury rate ( P injuries correlated with exposure to full-contact practice combined with scrimmages for preseason ( P injuries, and the incidence of concussions correlated with the incidence of all injuries ( P = 0.0001). Strength training did not correlate with injuries. Decreased exposure to full-contact practice may decrease the incidence of practice injuries and practice concussions. However, the game injury rate was over 6 times greater than the practice injury rate and had an inverse correlation with full-contact practice.
Hammes, Daniel; Aus Der Fünten, Karen; Kaiser, Stephanie; Frisen, Eugen; Dvorák, Jirí; Meyer, Tim
There is a lack of injury data for the population of veteran football players. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted to investigate injury incidences and characteristics. Over one season, injuries and exposure of 18 teams (n = 265 players, age: 44.2±7.3 years, BMI: 26.6±3.2 kg/m(2)) were documented. Sixty-three players sustained a total of 88 injuries during the season. The incidence of training injuries (4.5 per 1000 hours) was significantly lower than of match injuries (24.7 per 1000 hours). The majority of injuries (n = 73; 83%) were located at the lower extremities, 52 (47%) were muscle injuries. The injury incidence of veteran football players is similar to other male football players of different skill levels and age groups, indicating a need for the implementation of preventive measures. Prevention programmes should consider the specific injury characteristics, with more muscle injuries in this population compared with younger football players.
Arnason, Arni; Tenga, Albin; Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald
The mechanisms for football injuries are largely unknown. To describe the characteristics of injury situations in elite male football using a video-based method called football incident analysis. Prospective cohort study. During the 1999 season, videotapes from 52 matches in the Icelandic elite football league were reviewed. Incidents (N = 95) were recorded when the match was interrupted by the referee because of a suspected injury. Team physical therapists recorded injuries prospectively (N = 28 time-loss injuries). Duels caused 84 of the incidents, mostly tackling duels (n = 54). The exposed player's attention appeared to be focused away from the opponent in 93% of the cases. The 3 main mechanisms observed were (1) breakdown attacks, tackling from the side or the front, attention focused on the ball (24%); (2) defensive tackling duels, attention focused on the ball or low ball control (20%); and (3) heading duels, attention focused on the ball in the air (13%). Most incidents and injuries occurred during breakdown attacks and when a player was involved in tackling duels. Player attention appeared to be focused mainly on the ball, not on the opponent challenging him to gain ball possession.
Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Bonacci, Jason; Mendis, M Dilani; Christie, Craig; Rotstein, Andrew; Hides, Julie A
To investigate if size and activation of the gluteal muscles is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in elite AFL players. Prospective cohort study. Twenty-six elite male footballers from a professional Australian Football League (AFL) club participated in the study. At the beginning of the season bilateral gluteus medius (GMED) and gluteus maximus (GMAX) muscle volume was measured from magnetic resonance images and electromyographic recordings of the same muscles were obtained during running. History of hamstring injury in the pre-season and incidence of hamstring injury during the season were determined from club medical data. Nine players (35%) incurred a hamstring injury during the season. History of hamstring injury was comparable between those players who incurred a season hamstring injury (2/9 players; 22%) and those who did not (3/17 players; 18%). Higher GMED muscle activity during running was a risk factor for hamstring injury (p=0.03, effect sizes 1.1-1.5). There were no statistically significant differences observed for GMED volume, GMAX volume and GMAX activation (P>0.05). This study identified higher activation of the GMED muscle during running in players who sustained a season hamstring injury. Whilst further research is required to understand the mechanism of altered muscle control, the results of this study contribute to the developing body of evidence that the lumbo-pelvic muscles may be important to consider in hamstring injury prevention and management. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background. Data on the incidence of football injuries and exposure time of players during matches and training in the South African (SA) Premier Soccer League (PSL) are lacking. Objective. To calculate the incidence of injuries and the exposure time (practice and match) of the players of a PSL team over a full season.
Fuller, Joel T; Chalmers, Samuel; Debenedictis, Thomas A; Townsley, Samuel; Lynagh, Matthew; Gleeson, Cara; Zacharia, Andrew; Thomson, Stuart; Magarey, Mary
The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of dysfunctional, asymmetrical, and painful movement in junior Australian Football players using the Functional Movement Screen (FMS). Cross-sectional study. Elite junior male Australian Football players (n=301) aged 15-18 years completed pre-season FMS testing. The FMS consists of 7 sub-tests: deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability push-up (TSPU) and rotary stability. The shoulder mobility, TSPU, and rotary stability tests were combined with an accompanying clearing test to assess pain. Each sub-test was scored on an ordinal scale from 0 to 3 and summed to give a composite score out of 21. Composite scores ≤14 were operationally defined as indicating dysfunctional movement. Players scoring differently on left and right sides were considered asymmetrical. Players reported whether they missed any games due to injury in the preceding 22 game season. Sixty percent of players (n=182) had composite scores ≤14, 65% of players (n=196) had at least one asymmetrical sub-test, and 38% of players (n=113) had at least one painful sub-test. Forty-two percent of players (n=126) missed at least one game in the previous season due to injury. Previous injury did not influence composite score (p=0.951) or asymmetry (p=0.629). Players reporting an injury during the previous season were more likely to experience pain during FMS testing (odds ratio 1.97, 95% confidence interval 1.23-3.18; p=0.005). Junior Australian Football players demonstrate a high prevalence of dysfunctional, asymmetrical, and painful movement during FMS testing. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mall, Nathan A; Buchowski, Jacob; Zebala, Lukas; Brophy, Robert H; Wright, Rick W; Matava, Matthew J
The majority of previous literature focusing on spinal injuries in American football players is centered around catastrophic injuries; however, this may underestimate the true number of these injuries in this athletic cohort. The goals of this study were to (1) report the incidence of spinal and axial skeleton injuries, both minor and severe, in the National Football League (NFL) over an 11-year period; (2) determine the incidence of spinal injury by injury type, anatomic location, player position, mechanism of injury, and type of exposure (practice vs game); and (3) determine the average number of practices and days missed because of injury for each injury type. Descriptive epidemiological study. All documented injuries to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine; pelvis; ribs; and spinal cord were retrospectively analyzed using the NFL's injury surveillance database over a period of 11 seasons from 2000 through 2010. The data were analyzed by the number of injuries per athlete-exposure, the anatomic location and type of injury, player position, mechanism of injury, and number of days missed per injury. A total of 2208 injuries occurred to the spine or axial skeleton over an 11-season interval in the NFL, with a mean loss of 25.7 days per injury. This represented 7% of the total injuries during this time period. Of these 2208 injuries, 987 (44.7%) occurred in the cervical spine. Time missed from play was greatest for thoracic disc herniations (189 days/injury). Other injuries that had a mean time missed greater than 30 days included (in descending order) cervical fracture (120 days/injury), cervical disc degeneration/herniation (85 days/injury), spinal cord injury (77 days/injury), lumbar disc degeneration/herniation (52 days/injury), thoracic fracture (34 days/injury), and thoracic nerve injury (30 days/injury). Offensive linemen were the most likely to suffer a spinal injury, followed by defensive backs, defensive linemen, and linebackers. Blocking and tackling
Eirale, Cristiano; Tol, Johannes L; Smiley, Faten; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Chalabi, Hakim
To investigate whether fasting during Ramadan influences injury incidence in professional Muslim and non-Muslim footballers. Prospective cohort study. Professional First Division League of Qatar. About 527 male football players (462 Muslim and 65 non-Muslim) from 7 league clubs (first year of data collection) and 8 clubs (second and third years). Daily collection of training and match exposure from August 2008 until April 2011 by club medical staff. Injuries during training and match play were recorded on standardized injury cards. Injury incidence was calculated as number of injuries per hour exposed to risk, and expressed as rate per 1000 hours. The probability of injury for different Arabic months between Muslims and non-Muslims was calculated using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs). There was no significant difference in total, match, and training injury incidence between the Ramadan and non-Ramadan periods. Non-Muslim footballers had a significantly higher injury incidence rate than Muslim footballers both during Ramadan (8.5 vs 4.0 injuries/1000 hours, P = 0.009) and non Ramadan (6.6 vs 4.9 injuries/1000 hours, P = 0.004) periods. The GEE analysis revealed that after adjusting for age and random factors (month and club), the probability of match injury among non-Muslims was the highest in Ramadan and the 2 consecutive following months (adjusted odds ratio of injury among non-Muslims compared with Muslims was 3.7 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-7.9], P = 0.001 during Ramadan (ninth) month; 2.4 (95% CI, 1.1-4.9), P = 0.021 during 10th month; and 2.7 (95% CI, 1.2-5.8), P = 0.013 during 11th month). Finally, there was no change in injury patterns over the months of the Islamic calendar. Ramadan does not impact injury incidence for Muslim footballers in Qatar, suggesting the current adjustments and scheduling of football activities during Ramadan are sufficient. The increased match injury among non-Muslims during and 2 months post-Ramadan may suggest less
Maehlum, S.; Daljord, O. A.
All football injuries treated at the Emergency Department, Oslo City Hospital, 1329 patients, 1167 males and 162 females, were recorded for one year, accounting for 28.4% of all sports injuries. Most injuries seen were in the 15-19 years age group in females and 20-24 years age group in males; 68% of the females and 42% of the males (p less than 0.001) were below 20 years of age, and 87% of the injuries occurred in competitive football. During matches, 695 players were injured giving an incidence of 34.5 injuries/10,000 player matches. The injuries occurred all year with a peak in June. Sprains accounted for 41% of the injuries, 23% were contusions and 19% fractures. Most injuries (59%) affected the legs. Hospital admission was required for three females and 57 males. The football injuries required 1966 consultations and necessitated that 349 patients had to stay away from work for a total of 6137 days. PMID:6487944
Stein, Josh G; Gabbett, Tim J; Townshend, Andrew D; Dawson, Brian T
To investigate the relationship between physical qualities and match activity profiles of recreational Australian football players. Prospective cohort study. Forty players from three recreational Australian football teams (Division One, Two and Three) underwent a battery of fitness tests (vertical jump, 10 and 40 m sprint, 6 m × 30 m repeated sprint test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level Two and 2-km time trial). The activity profiles of competitive match-play were quantified using 10-Hz Global Positioning System units. Division One players possessed greater maximum velocity, Yo-Yo level Two and 2-km time trial performances than Division Two and Three players. In addition, Division One players covered greater relative distance, and relative distances at moderate- and high-intensities during match-play than Division Two and Three players. Division Two players had better 2-km time trial performances than Division Three players. Positive associations (P football players competing at a higher level exhibit greater physical qualities and match-play activity profiles than lesser-skilled recreational players. Acceleration and maximum velocity, 2-km time trial and Yo-Yo level Two performances discriminate between players of different playing levels, and are related to physical match performance in recreational Australian football. The development of these qualities is likely to contribute to improved match performance in recreational Australian football players. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kaplan, Yonatan; Myklebust, Grethe; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Victor, Jan; Witvrouw, Erik
American flag football is a non-tackle, contact sport with many moderate to severe contact-type injuries reported. A previous prospective injury surveillance study by the authors revealed a high incidence of injuries to the fingers, face, knee, shoulder and ankle. The objectives of the study were to conduct a pilot-prospective injury prevention study in an attempt to significantly reduce the incidence and the severity of injuries as compared to a historical cohort, as well as to provide recommendations for a future prospective injury prevention study. A prospective injury prevention study was conducted involving 724 amateur male (mean age: 20.0 ± 3.1 years) and 114 female (mean age: 21.2 ± 7.2 years) players. Four prevention measures were implemented: the no-pocket rule, self-fitting mouth guards, ankle braces (for those players with recurrent ankle sprains) and an injury treatment information brochure. An injury surveillance questionnaire was administered to record all time-loss injuries sustained in game sessions. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of injured players, the number of finger/hand injuries, the incidence rate and the incidence proportion between the two cohorts (p injuries can be significantly reduced in flag football. Prevention strategies for a longer, prospective, randomised-controlled injury prevention study should include the strict enforcement of the no-pocket rule, appropriate head gear, the use of comfortable-fitting ankle braces and mouth guards, and changing the blocking rules of the game.
Elias, George P; Varley, Matthew C; Wyckelsma, Victoria L; McKenna, Michael J; Minahan, Clare L; Aughey, Robert J
The authors investigated the efficacy of a single exposure to 14 min of cold-water immersion (COLD) and contrast water therapy (CWT) on posttraining recovery in Australian football (AF). Fourteen AF players participated in 3 wk of standardized training. After week 1 training, all players completed a passive recovery (PAS). During week 2, COLD or CWT was randomly assigned. Players undertook the opposing intervention in week 3. Repeat-sprint ability (6 × 20 m), countermovement and squat jumps, perceived muscle soreness, and fatigue were measured pretraining and over 48 h posttraining. Immediately posttraining, groups exhibited similar performance and psychometric declines. At 24 h, repeat-sprint time had deteriorated by 4.1% for PAS and 1.0% for CWT but was fully restored by COLD (0.0%). At 24 and 48 h, both COLD and CWT attenuated changes in mean muscle soreness, with COLD (0.6 ± 0.6 and 0.0 ± 0.4) more effective than CWT (1.9 ± 0.7 and 1.0 ± 0.7) and PAS having minimal effect (5.5 ± 0.6 and 4.0 ± 0.5). Similarly, after 24 and 48 h, COLD and CWT both effectively reduced changes in perceived fatigue, with COLD (0.6 ± 0.6 and 0.0 ± 0.6) being more successful than CWT (0.8 ± 0.6 and 0.7 ± 0.6) and PAS having the smallest effect (2.2 ± 0.8 and 2.4 ± 0.6). AF training can result in prolonged physical and psychometric deficits persisting for up to 48 h. For restoring physical-performance and psychometric measures, COLD was more effective than CWT, with PAS being the least effective. Based on these results the authors recommend that 14 min of COLD be used after AF training.
Monica Kelly, Paul B. Gastin, Daniel B Dwyer, Simon Sostaric, Rodney J. Snow
Full Text Available This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min, high intensity, interval training (HIIT in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1 and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc (n = 7 or Control (Con group (n = 7. The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH, whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH. Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% VO2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac-], heart rate (HR, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac-] (all p < 0.05 during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007 after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited.
Slavotinek, J.; Fon, G.T.
Full text: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between MR parameters of hamstring injury and the amount of time lost from competition in Australian Rules footballers. Thirty seven footballers with suspected hamstring injury underwent T1 and inversion recovery T2 turbo spin-echo sequences in axial and sagittal planes. Presence and dimension of abnormal focal intramuscular and / or extramuscular T2 hyperintensity was independently recorded by two radiologists and the percentage abnormal cross sectional muscle area and abnormal muscle volume were measured from T2-weighted images depicting extent of muscle injury. MR detected hamstring muscle and linear extramuscle T2 hyperintensity in 30 (81%) and 25 (68%) of 37 athletes respectively, the long head of biceps being the dominant site of injury in 21 cases.There was a relationship between days lost from competition and percentage abnormal muscle area (r = 0.63, p 0.001) and volume of muscle affected (r = 0.46, p 0.01) with only a trend for linear extramuscular T2 hyperintensity (r = 0.33, p = 0.12) being demonstrated. Hamstring injury most frequently involved the long head of biceps femoris and recovery time was related to MR measurements such as the percentage of abnormal muscle area and volume of muscle injury. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd
This study was conducted to investigate the incidence, profile and treatment of injuries in the Nigerian national female footballers (the Super Falcons) during camping and competitions at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games in China. A prospective descriptive case study was carried out. The team physiotherapist closely ...
Badgeley, Marcus A; McIlvain, Natalie M; Yard, Ellen E; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn
With more than 1.1 million high school athletes playing annually during the 2005-06 to 2009-10 academic years, football is the most popular boys' sport in the United States. Using an internet-based data collection tool, RIO, certified athletic trainers (ATs) from 100 nationally representative US high schools reported athletic exposure and football injury data during the 2005-06 to 2009-10 academic years. Participating ATs reported 10,100 football injuries corresponding to an estimated 2,739,187 football-related injuries nationally. The injury rate was 4.08 per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) overall. Offensive lineman collectively (center, offensive guard, offensive tackle) sustained 18.3% of all injuries. Running backs (16.3%) sustained more injuries than any other position followed by linebackers (14.9%) and wide receivers (11.9%). The leading mechanism of injury was player-player contact (64.0%) followed by player-surface contact (13.4%). More specifically, injury occurred most commonly when players were being tackled (24.4%) and tackling (21.8%). Patterns of football injuries vary by position. Identifying such differences is important to drive development of evidence-based, targeted injury prevention efforts.
Walls, Raymond J; Ross, Keir A; Fraser, Ethan J; Hodgkins, Christopher W; Smyth, Niall A; Egan, Christopher J; Calder, James; Kennedy, John G
Football is the most popular sport worldwide and is associated with a high injury rate, most of which are the result of trauma from player contact. Ankle injuries are among the most commonly diagnosed injuries in the game. The result is reduced physical activity and endurance levels, lost game time, and considerable medical cost. Sports medicine professionals must employ the correct diagnostic tools and effective treatments and rehabilitation protocols to minimize the impact of these injuries on the player. This review examines the diagnosis, treatment, and postoperative rehabilitation for common football injuries of the ankle based on the clinical evidence provided in the current literature. PMID:26807351
Walls, Raymond J; Ross, Keir A; Fraser, Ethan J; Hodgkins, Christopher W; Smyth, Niall A; Egan, Christopher J; Calder, James; Kennedy, John G
Football is the most popular sport worldwide and is associated with a high injury rate, most of which are the result of trauma from player contact. Ankle injuries are among the most commonly diagnosed injuries in the game. The result is reduced physical activity and endurance levels, lost game time, and considerable medical cost. Sports medicine professionals must employ the correct diagnostic tools and effective treatments and rehabilitation protocols to minimize the impact of these injuries on the player. This review examines the diagnosis, treatment, and postoperative rehabilitation for common football injuries of the ankle based on the clinical evidence provided in the current literature.
Chougle, Aslam; Batty, Phil D.; Hodgkinson, John P.
Football is currently the most popular sport in the world. The competitive nature of the sport makes it prone to injuries with the estimated frequency being 10 to 35 per 1000 playing hours (Dvorak and Junge, 2000). The aim of this study was to identify the injury patterns and rehabilitation periods with specific injuries in a premiership football club. Player injuries were retrospectively analysed from a local database (Microsoft Access 2000) at the Blackburn Rovers Football Club, UK from ...
Kelly, Bryan T; Barnes, Ronnie P; Powell, John W; Warren, Russell F
Quarterbacks are at risk for shoulder injury secondary to both the throwing motion as well as from contact injury. To delineate the incidence and etiology of shoulder injuries to quarterbacks in the National Football League (NFL). Using the NFL Injury Surveillance System (NFLISS), all reported injuries to quarterbacks between 1980 and 2001 were identified. A total of 1534 quarterback injuries were identified with a mean of 18.8 and a median of 6.0 days of playing time lost. The majority of these injuries occurred during a game (83.8%). Passing plays were responsible for 77.4% of all quarterback-related injuries. Shoulder injuries were the second most common injury reported (233 or 15.2%), following closely behind head injuries (15.4%). Direct trauma was responsible for 82.3% of the injuries, with acromioclavicular joint sprains being the most common injury overall (40%). Overuse injuries were responsible for 14% of the injuries, the most common being rotator cuff tendinitis (6.1%) followed by biceps tendinitis (3.5%). In this review, the vast majority of shoulder injuries in quarterbacks occurred as a result of direct trauma (82.3%), and less than 15% were overuse injuries resulting from the actual throwing motion.
Mallett, Clifford J.; Rossi, Tony; Rynne, Steven B.; Tinning, Richard
Background and Purpose: Given the turbulent and highly contested environment in which professional coaches work, a prime concern to coach developers is how coaches learn their craft. Understanding the learning and development of senior coaches (SCs) and assistant coaches (ACs) in the Australian Football League (AFL--the peak organisation for…
Brendan Henderson, Jill Cook, Dawson J. Kidgell, Paul B. Gastin
Full Text Available Game demands and training practices within team sports such as Australian football (AF have changed considerably over recent decades, including the requirement of coaching staff to effectively control, manipulate and monitor training and competition loads. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the differences in external and internal physical load measures between game and training in elite junior AF. Twenty five male, adolescent players (mean ±SD: age 17.6 ± 0.5 y recruited from three elite under 18 AF clubs participated. Global positioning system (GPS, heart rate (HR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE data were obtained from 32 game files during four games, and 84 training files during 19 training sessions. Matched-pairs statistics along with Cohen’s d effect size and percent difference were used to compare game and training events. Players were exposed to a higher physical load in the game environment, for both external (GPS and internal (HR, Session-RPE load parameters, compared to in-season training. Session time (d = 1.23; percent difference = 31.4% (95% confidence intervals = 17.4 – 45.4, total distance (3.5; 63.5% (17.4 – 45.4, distance per minute (1.93; 33.0% (25.8 – 40.1, high speed distance (2.24; 77.3% (60.3 – 94.2, number of sprints (0.94; 43.6% (18.9 – 68.6, mean HR (1.83; 14.3% (10.5 – 18.1, minutes spent above 80% of predicted HRmax (2.65; 103.7% (89.9 – 117.6 and Session-RPE (1.22; 48.1% (22.1 – 74.1 were all higher in competition compared to training. While training should not be expected to fully replicate competition, the observed differences suggest that monitoring of physical load in both environments is warranted to allow comparisons and evaluate whether training objectives are being met.
Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B.; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J.
This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac-]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac-] (all p heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007) after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key points Some minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat. The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season. Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat training session or some pre-heating prior to exercise
Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J
This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac(-)]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac(-)] (all p heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007) after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key pointsSome minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat.The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season.Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat training session or some pre-heating prior to
Kaplan, Yonatan; Myklebust, Grethe; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Victor, Jan; Witvrouw, Erik
To characterize the epidemiology of injuries in post-high school male and female athletes in the rapidly growing international sport of contact flag football. Prospective injury-observational study. Kraft Stadium, Jerusalem, Israel. A total of 1492 players, consisting of men (n = 1252, mean age, 20.49 ± 5.11) and women (n = 240, mean age, 21.32 ± 8.95 years), participated in 1028 games over a 2-season period (2007-2009). All time-loss injuries sustained in game sessions were recorded by the off-the-field medical personnel and followed up by a more detailed phone injury surveillance questionnaire. One hundred sixty-three injuries were reported, comprising 1 533 776 athletic exposures (AEs). The incidence rate was 0.11 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.09-0.12] per 1000 AEs, and incidence proportion was 10.66% (95% CI, 9.10-12.22). Seventy-six percent of the injuries were extrinsic in nature. Thirty percent of the injuries were to the fingers, thumb, and wrist, 17% to the knee, 17% to the head/face, 13% to the ankle, and 11% to the shoulder. Contact flag football results in a significant amount of moderate to severe injuries. These data may be used in the development of a formal American flag football injury database and in the development and implementation of a high-quality, randomized, prospective injury prevention study. This study should include the enforcement of the no-pocket rule, appropriate headgear, self-fitting mouth guards, the use of ankle braces, and changing the blocking rules of the game.
Makdissi, Michael; Davis, Gavin
The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of identifying clinical signs of concussion using video analysis in Australian football. Prospective cohort study. All impacts and collisions potentially resulting in a concussion were identified during 2012 and 2013 Australian Football League seasons. Consensus definitions were developed for clinical signs associated with concussion. For intra- and inter-rater reliability analysis, two experienced clinicians independently assessed 102 randomly selected videos on two occasions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated based on the diagnosis provided by team medical staff. 212 incidents resulting in possible concussion were identified in 414 Australian Football League games. The intra-rater reliability of the video-based identification of signs associated with concussion was good to excellent. Inter-rater reliability was good to excellent for impact seizure, slow to get up, motor incoordination, ragdoll appearance (2 of 4 analyses), clutching at head and facial injury. Inter-rater reliability for loss of responsiveness and blank and vacant look was only fair and did not reach statistical significance. The feature with the highest sensitivity was slow to get up (87%), but this sign had a low specificity (19%). Other video signs had a high specificity but low sensitivity. Blank and vacant look (100%) and motor incoordination (81%) had the highest positive predictive value. Video analysis may be a useful adjunct to the side-line assessment of a possible concussion. Video analysis however should not replace the need for a thorough multimodal clinical assessment. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Sanghani, Ravi R; Woolen, Travis; Davis, Stephen W
This study attempted to determine the frequency of apparent injury incidents in women's international football and estimate what proportion was authentic. Broadcast recordings of 47 games from 2 tournaments were reviewed to identify incidents in which a player behaved as if injured. Apparent injuries were considered definite if a player withdrew from participation within 5 minutes or if bleeding was visible. Remaining incidents were considered questionable. A total of 270 apparent injuries were observed at a rate of 5.74/game compared with 11.26/game previously reported in men's football. The definite injury rate was only 0.78/game vs. 4.96/game for questionable injuries. Definite injuries were associated with on-field treatment (P < 0.010), stretcher (P < 0.010), and second half (P = 0.022), while questionable injuries were associated with fouls (P = 0.036), contact (P < 0.010), and being tackled (P = 0.025). Questionable injuries were not associated with the final third of a half or with team success.
Webborn, Nick; Cushman, Daniel; Blauwet, Cheri A; Emery, Carolyn; Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin; Stomphorst, Jaap; Van de Vliet, Peter; Willick, Stuart E
The epidemiology of injury in Paralympic football has received little attention. A study of all sports at the London 2012 Paralympic Games identified football 5-a-side as the sport with the highest injury rate, meriting further detailed analysis, which may facilitate the development of strategies to prevent injuries. To examine the injury rates and risk factors associated with injury in Paralympic football. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of injuries to football 5-a-side and football 7-a-side athletes. London 2012 Paralympic Games. Participants included 70 football 5-a-side athletes and 96 football 7-a-side athletes. Athletes from all but one country chose to participate in this study. The Paralympic Injury and Illness Surveillance System was used to track injuries during the Games, with data entered by medical staff. Injury incidence rate (IR) and injury incidence proportion (IP). The overall IR for football 5-a-side was 22.4 injuries/1000 athlete-days (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.1-33.8) with an IP of 31.4 injuries per 100 athletes (95% CI, 20.9-43.6). In 5-a-side competition, 62.5% of injuries were associated with foul play. The overall IR for football 7-a-side was 10.4 injuries/1000 athlete-days (95% CI, 5.4-15.5), with an IP of 14.6 injuries per 100 athletes (95% CI, 7.5-21.6). The most commonly injured body region in both sports was the lower extremity. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine IR and risk factors associated with injury in Paralympic football. Future studies are needed to determine mechanisms of injury and independent risk factors for injury, thus informing prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McCrory, P R; Bladin, P F; Berkovic, S F
To study the ictal phenomenology, aetiology, and outcome of convulsions occurring within seconds of impact in violent collision sport. Retrospective identification of convulsions associated with concussive brain injury from case records from medical officers of football clubs over a 15 year period. Elite Australian rules and rugby league footballers. Neuroimaging studies, electroencephalography, neuropsychological test data, and statistics on performance in matches to determine presence of structural or functional brain injury. Clinical follow up and electroencephalography for evidence of epilepsy. Twenty two cases of concussive convulsions were identified with four events documented on television videotape. Convulsions began within 2 seconds of impact and comprised an initial period of tonic stiffening followed by myoclonic jerks of all limbs lasting up to 150 seconds. Some asymmetry in the convulsive manifestations was common, and recovery of consciousness was rapid. No structural or permanent brain injury was present on clinical assessment, neuropsychological testing, or neuroimaging studies. All players returned to elite competition within two weeks of the incident. Epilepsy did not develop in any player over a mean (range) follow up of 3.5 (1-13) years. These concussive or impact convulsions are probably a non-epileptic phenomenon, somewhat akin to convulsive syncope. The mechanism may be a transient traumatic functional decerebration. In concussive convulsions the outcome is universally good, antiepileptic treatment is not indicated, and prolonged absence from sport is unwarranted.
Eirale, Cristiano; Tol, J. L.; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Smiley, Faten; Chalabi, Hakim
Although the incidence of football injuries should relate to team success there is little empirical evidence. We investigated the relationship between injury incidence and team success in Qatar first-division football clubs. Using a prospective cohort study design, we captured exposure and injuries
Robertson, Sam; Woods, Carl; Gastin, Paul
To develop a physiological performance and anthropometric attribute model to predict Australian Football League draft selection. Cross-sectional observational. Data was obtained (n=4902) from three Under-18 Australian football competitions between 2010 and 2013. Players were allocated into one of the three groups, based on their highest level of selection in their final year of junior football (Australian Football League Drafted, n=292; National Championship, n=293; State-level club, n=4317). Physiological performance (vertical jumps, agility, speed and running endurance) and anthropometric (body mass and height) data were obtained. Hedge's effect sizes were calculated to assess the influence of selection-level and competition on these physical attributes, with logistic regression models constructed to discriminate Australian Football League Drafted and National Championship players. Rule induction analysis was undertaken to determine a set of rules for discriminating selection-level. Effect size comparisons revealed a range of small to moderate differences between State-level club players and both other groups for all attributes, with trivial to small differences between Australian Football League Drafted and National Championship players noted. Logistic regression models showed multistage fitness test, height and 20 m sprint time as the most important attributes in predicting Draft success. Rule induction analysis showed that players displaying multistage fitness test scores of >14.01 and/or 20 m sprint times of football players being recruited to the highest level of the sport. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G.
Soccer is the most common sport activity worldwide. Over the last two decades the increase in soccer players has mainly been due to increased interest by females. In general, soccer is a relatively safe sport activity, especially if minor injuries resulting in short periods of absence from playing or training are neglected. However, due to the high number of soccer players severe injuries are also frequent. These are a problem not only for the injured player and the team but may also become problematic for the socio-economic system. In up to 80-90% structures of the lower extremities are injured. For sufficient radiological diagnosis knowledge of the biomechanics of the soccer game and some details about the history of the injury may be of help. To prevent soccer injuries or keep the degree of injury low, special programs had been developed. (orig.) [de
Kaplan, Yonatan; Myklebust, Grethe; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Victor, J; Witvrouw, E
This original prospective cohort study was conducted in an attempt to significantly reduce the incidence and the severity of injuries in an intervention cohort as compared to a two-season historical cohort, and to provide recommendations to the International Federation of Football (IFAF) pertaining to prevention measures to make the game safer. A total of 1,260 amateur male (mean age: 20.4 ± 3.9 years) and 244 female (mean age: 18.5 ± 1.7 years) players participated in the study. Four prevention measures were implemented: the no-pocket rule, self-fitting mouth guards, ankle braces (for those players with recurrent ankle sprains) and an injury treatment information brochure. All time-loss injuries sustained in game sessions were recorded by the off-the-field medical personnel and followed up by a more detailed phone injury surveillance questionnaire. There was a 54 % reduction in the total number of injuries and a significant reduction in the incidence rate and incidence proportion between the intervention cohorts as compared to the historical cohort (p injuries in any of the body parts, except for in hand/wrist injuries related to the use of pockets (p injuries (p injuries can be significantly reduced in flag football. Recommendations to the IFAF include strict enforcement of the no-pocket rule, the use of soft headgear, comfortable-fitting ankle braces and mouth guards and additionally, to change game rules concerning blocking. II.
Siebert, D J; Lindschau, P B; Burrell, C J
To determine the prevalence of markers of past hepatitis B infection among participants in Australian Rules football, to estimate the potential exposure of Australians to hepatitis B virus (HBV) in contact sport. A point prevalence survey for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and core antigen (anti-HBc), supported by a questionnaire used to determine the history of risk and exposure, in South Australian National Football League (SANFL) players supervised at club level by general practitioners and sports medicine specialists. Of 245 players from seven clubs, 49 were excluded from the study because they had been previously vaccinated. Of 196 eligible participants, 117 submitted blood samples and, of these, 85 returned questionnaires. One player was positive for anti-HBc (a prevalence rate of 0.85%). This individual and three anti-HBc-negative players were positive for anti-HBs in the absence of a history of vaccination. We could not ascertain whether these additional three players had been previously infected, or vaccinated without this fact having been recorded on the questionnaires. No single behavioural factor correlated with positive anti-HBs results. The prevalence of markers of past hepatitis B infection in SANFL football players was no different to that in blood donors of the same age group from the same city. There was no evidence for any additional HBV transmission due to participation in football over that in the blood donor population. Vaccination of footballers and people engaged in similar sports is of benefit in conferring protection on the individual, but would be unlikely to make a significant public health impact on community rates of HBV infection.
Gastin, Paul B; McLean, Owen; Spittle, Michael; Breed, Ray V P
To describe and quantify the frequency, velocity and acceleration at impact during tackling in Australian football using a combination of video and athlete tracking technology. Quasi-experimental. Data was collected from twenty professional Australian Football League players during four in-season matches. All tackles made by the player and those against the player were video-coded and time stamped at the point of contact and then subjectively categorised into low, medium and high intensity impact groups. Peak GPS and acceleration data were identified at the point of contact. Two-way analysis of variance was used to assess differences (pforces in contact invasion sports. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Caswell, Shane V; Ausborn, Ashley; Diao, Guoqing; Johnson, David C; Johnson, Timothy S; Atkins, Rickie; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Cortes, Nelson
Prior research has described the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional, collegiate, and high school American football players. Yet, little research has described these factors in American youth football and their potential relationship with injury. To characterize anthropometric and physical performance measures, describe the epidemiology of injury, and examine the association of physical performance measures with injury among children participating within age-based divisions of a large metropolitan American youth football league. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance characteristics and injuries of 819 male children were collected over a 2-year period (2011-2012). Injury data were collected by the league athletic trainer (AT) and coaches. Descriptive analysis of demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance measures (40-yard sprint, pro-agility, push-ups, and vertical jump) were conducted. Incidence rates were computed for all reported injuries; rates were calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify whether the categories of no injury, no-time-loss (NTL) injury, and time-loss (TL) injury were associated with physical performance measures. Of the 819 original participants, 760 (92.8%) completed preseason anthropometric measures (mean ± SD: age, 11.8 ± 1.2 years; height, 157.4 ± 10.7 cm; weight, 48.7 ± 13.3 kg; experience, 2.0 ± 1.8 years); 640 (78.1%) players completed physical performance measures. The mean (±SD) 40-yard sprint and pro-agility measures of the players were 6.5 ± 0.6 and 5.7 ± 0.5 seconds, respectively; the number of push-ups and maximal vertical jump height were 16.5 ± 9.3 repetitions and 42.3 ± 8.4 cm, respectively. Players assigned to different teams within age divisions demonstrated no differences in anthropometric measures; 40-yard dash and pro-agility times
The Ladies Gaelic Football Association has a playing population of 150,000 of which 33% are adults. A number of studies have been published on rates of injury among male athletes but none on female athletes in Gaelic football. A retrospective review of insurance claims, submitted under the Gaelic Athletic Association Player Insurance Injury Scheme. 405 injuries were recorded, 248 [107 (70%) male, 141 (58%) female] to the lower limb, 91 [33 (21%) male, 58 (23%) female] to the upper limb. The majority of lower limb injuries [56 (52%) male, 56 (40%) female] were to muscle. Almost a third of upper limb injuries were fractures [10 (30.3%) male, 33 (57%) female]. injuries\\/1000 hours playing was 8.25 for men and 2.4 for women. The injury rate in ladies Gaelic football was found to be significantly lower than in men\\'s Gaelic football. Lower limb injuries accounted for the majority of injuries in both sports.
Kempton, Thomas; Sullivan, Courtney; Bilsborough, Johann C; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J
To determine the match-to-match variability in physical activity and technical performance measures in Australian Football, and examine the influence of playing position, time of season, and different seasons on these measures of variability. Longitudinal observational study. Global positioning system, accelerometer and technical performance measures (total kicks, handballs, possessions and Champion Data rank) were collected from 33 players competing in the Australian Football League over 31 matches during 2011-2012 (N=511 observations). The global positioning system data were categorised into total distance, mean speed (mmin(-1)), high-speed running (>14.4 kmh(-1)), very high-speed running (>19.9 kmh(-1)), and sprint (>23.0 kmh(-1)) distance while player load was collected from the accelerometer. The data were log transformed to provide coefficient of variation and the between subject standard deviation (expressed as percentages). Match-to-match variability was increased for higher speed activities (high-speed running, very high-speed running, sprint distance, coefficient of variation %: 13.3-28.6%) compared to global measures (speed, total distance, player load, coefficient of variation %: 5.3-9.2%). The between-match variability was relativity stable for all measures between and within AFL seasons, with only few differences between positions. Higher speed activities (high-speed running, very high-speed running, sprint distance), but excluding mean speed, total distance and player load, were all higher in the final third phase of the season compared to the start of the season. While global measures of physical performance are relatively stable, higher-speed activities and technical measures exhibit a large degree of between-match variability in Australian Football. However, these measures remain relatively stable between positions, and within and between Australian Football League seasons. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd
Carling, C.; McCall, A.; Le Gall, F.,; Dupont, G.
This case study investigated injury risk and patterns in players newly transferred to a professional football club. Time-loss injuries were recorded prospectively over 8-seasons (2008-2015). Injury incidence overall, in match and training, and patterns (contact, non-contact, sprain, strain, overuse and re-injury) were compared in transferred players (n=25) across their first versus second seasons and with those in players currently at the club at the moment of the transfer (n=55 individual pl...
Pezzotta, G.; Querques, G.; Pecorelli, A.; Nani, R.; Sironi, S. [Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, University Milano-Bicocca, Department of Radiology, Bergamo (Italy)
To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of soleus muscle injuries in symptomatic professional football players stratified according to both the Munich consensus statement and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification (BAMIC), and to investigate the association between specific MRI features and the ''return to play'' (RTP). Professional football players with an episode of acute posterior calf pain and impaired function, subsequent to sports activity, underwent ultrasound followed by MRI examination reviewed by two different radiologists with more than 10 years of experience in the musculoskeletal system. MRI features and RTP outcome were evaluated for all types of injuries. During a 36-month period, a total of 20 professional football players were evaluated. According to the Munich consensus, 11 were type 3A, 8 were type 3B, and 1 was type 4, whereas according to the BAMIC, 11 lesions were considered grade 1, 4 grade 2, 4 grade 3, and 1 grade 4. RTP data were available for all patients (mean 3.3 ± 1.6 weeks). Both the Munich consensus and the BAMIC correlated with RTP (Spearman correlation = 0.982 and p < 0.0001 and 0.886 and p < 0.0001 respectively). Extension of edema was an independent prognostic factor for RTP in two different models of multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.044 model A; p = 0.031 model B). The Munich consensus and BAMIC grading systems are useful tools for defining the patient's prognosis and proper rehabilitation time after injury. The MRI feature that we should carefully look for is the extension of edema, as it seems to significantly affect the RTP. (orig.)
Pezzotta, G.; Querques, G.; Pecorelli, A.; Nani, R.; Sironi, S.
To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of soleus muscle injuries in symptomatic professional football players stratified according to both the Munich consensus statement and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification (BAMIC), and to investigate the association between specific MRI features and the ''return to play'' (RTP). Professional football players with an episode of acute posterior calf pain and impaired function, subsequent to sports activity, underwent ultrasound followed by MRI examination reviewed by two different radiologists with more than 10 years of experience in the musculoskeletal system. MRI features and RTP outcome were evaluated for all types of injuries. During a 36-month period, a total of 20 professional football players were evaluated. According to the Munich consensus, 11 were type 3A, 8 were type 3B, and 1 was type 4, whereas according to the BAMIC, 11 lesions were considered grade 1, 4 grade 2, 4 grade 3, and 1 grade 4. RTP data were available for all patients (mean 3.3 ± 1.6 weeks). Both the Munich consensus and the BAMIC correlated with RTP (Spearman correlation = 0.982 and p < 0.0001 and 0.886 and p < 0.0001 respectively). Extension of edema was an independent prognostic factor for RTP in two different models of multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.044 model A; p = 0.031 model B). The Munich consensus and BAMIC grading systems are useful tools for defining the patient's prognosis and proper rehabilitation time after injury. The MRI feature that we should carefully look for is the extension of edema, as it seems to significantly affect the RTP. (orig.)
Gucciardi, Daniel F
The aims of this study were to identify the mental toughness profiles of adolescent Australian footballers and to explore the relations between the mental toughness clusters and achievement goals and sport motivation. A total of 214 non-elite, male Australian footballers aged 16-18 years (mean = 16.8, s = 0.7) provided self-reports of mental toughness, achievement goals, and sport motivation. Cluster analysis supported the presence of two-groups in which players evidenced moderate and high levels of all four mental toughness subscales. Significant multivariate effects were observed for achievement goals and sport motivation with the high mental toughness group favouring both mastery- and performance-approach goals and self-determined as well as extrinsic motivational tendencies. The results suggest that adolescent Australian footballers' self-perceptions of mental toughness fall within two clusters involving high and moderate forms of all four components, and that these profiles show varying relations with achievement goals (particularly mastery-approach) and sport motivation.
Gucciardi, Daniel F; Gordon, Sandy; Dimmock, James A; Mallett, Clifford J
The purpose of this study was to explore elite coaches' perceptions of how they can both facilitate and impede the development of key mental toughness characteristics in the context of Australian football. Eleven coaches from a previous study (Gucciardi, Gordon, & Dimmock, 2008) were re-interviewed and the transcribed verbatim data were analysed using grounded theory data analytical procedures (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Five categories that appear to be central to the coach's role in the development of mental toughness in Australian football emerged. Four of these categories (coach-athlete relationship, coaching philosophy, training environments, and specific strategies) were said to facilitate the developmental process, whereas the final category (negative experiences and influences) was said to impede this process. A grounded theory in which the aforementioned categories enable coaches to nurture a "generalized form" of mental toughness acquired during one's formative years into a "sport-specific form" pertinent to Australian football is presented. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Woods, Carl T; Raynor, Annette J; Bruce, Lyndell; McDonald, Zane
This study examined if a video decision-making task could discriminate talent-identified junior Australian football players from their non-talent-identified counterparts. Participants were recruited from the 2013 under 18 (U18) West Australian Football League competition and classified into two groups: talent-identified (State U18 Academy representatives; n = 25; 17.8 ± 0.5 years) and non-talent-identified (non-State U18 Academy selection; n = 25; 17.3 ± 0.6 years). Participants completed a video decision-making task consisting of 26 clips sourced from the Australian Football League game-day footage, recording responses on a sheet provided. A score of "1" was given for correct and "0" for incorrect responses, with the participants total score used as the criterion value. One-way analysis of variance tested the main effect of "status" on the task criterion, whilst a bootstrapped receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve assessed the discriminant ability of the task. An area under the curve (AUC) of 1 (100%) represented perfect discrimination. Between-group differences were evident (P talent-identified and non-talent-identified participants, respectively. Future research should investigate the mechanisms leading to the superior decision-making observed in the talent-identified group.
Silva, P; Vaidyanathan, S; Kumar, B N; Soni, B M; Sett, P
Two case reports of male football players who sustained injury to cervical spinal cord as a direct result of the sport. To raise the awareness that playing football (soccer), a very popular sport, may cause injury to the cervical spinal cord with dire consequences, albeit rarely. North West Regional Spinal Injuries Centre, Southport, UK. We report two male football players, who sustained injury to the cervical spine and developed tetraplegia as a direct result of the sport. Case 1: A 21-year-old football player was tackled from behind while running with the football, he lost his balance and landed on his head resulting in burst fracture dislocation of C5/C6 associated with immediate onset of complete tetraplegia (ASIA-A). Case 2: A 24-year-old football player collided, head first, with his own team goalkeeper, causing a hyperextension of neck. He developed motor complete tetraplegia at C5 level, with some sensation sparing below the level of injury (ASIA-B). Injury to the cervical spinal cord is known to occur in some team contact sports such as rugby and American football. Over time the laws and the preparation of the athletes for these games have been changed in order to minimize the neck injuries. What might not be appreciated is that playing football (soccer), a very popular sport worldwide, may cause injury to cervical spinal cord with dire consequences.
Iacovelli, Jaclyn Nicole; Yang, Jingzhen; Thomas, Geb; Wu, Hongqian; Schiltz, Trisha; Foster, Danny T
Considerable improvement has been made in football field surfaces and types of shoe, yet relatively few epidemiological studies have investigated their roles in the risk of football injuries. This study examined the effects of field surface, surface condition and shoe type on the likelihood of lower extremity football injuries. Deidentified data from 188 players from one division I university football team during the 2007-2010 seasons were analysed. Lower extremity injury rate and rate ratio, along with 95% confidence limits, were calculated by football activity, playing surface condition and shoe type. A total of 130 lower extremity injuries were sustained, with an overall lower extremity injury rate of 33.5/10 000 athlete-sessions. The lower extremity injury rate was 2.61 times higher when the surface condition was abnormal compared with when the surface condition was normal. During games, the risk for lower extremity injury was 3.34 times higher (95% CI 1.70 to 6.56) on artificial turf compared with natural grass. However, this trend was not statistically significant in practice sessions. Furthermore, neither the number of shoe cleats nor the height of the shoe top was statistically associated with risk of lower extremity injuries. Football players who played on artificial turf or when the surface condition was abnormal were susceptible to lower extremity injuries. Evidence from this study suggests that further research into playing surfaces and shoe types may provide fruitful opportunities to reduce injuries to collegiate football players.
MacQueen, Amy E; Dexter, William W
Rugby union football has long been one of the most popular sports in the world. Its popularity and number of participants continue to increase in the United States. Until 1995, rugby union primarily was an amateur sport. Worldwide there are now flourishing professional leagues in many countries, and after a long absence, rugby union will be returning to the Olympic games in 2016. In the United States, rugby participation continues to increase, particularly at the collegiate and high school levels. With the increase in rugby professional athletes and the reported increase in aggressive play, there have been changes to the injury patterns in the sport. There is still significant need for further epidemiologic data as there is evidence that injury prevention programs and rule changes have been successful in decreasing the number of catastrophic injuries in rugby union.
Nicolas H. Hart, Jodie L. Cochrane, Tania Spiteri, Sophia Nimphius, Robert U. Newton
Full Text Available Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2 each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15 and inaccurate (n = 16 kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701. Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631, while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083. Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy.
Sarac, Nikolas; Haynes, William; Pedroza, Angela; Kaeding, Christopher; Borchers, James
The purpose of this study is to determine the lifetime prevalence of past injuries in incoming first year football players in a Division 1 college football team. Pre-participation questionnaires from 605 first-year football players over 20 years (1996-2015) were examined to determine the prevalence of concussions, stingers, fractures, and musculoskeletal surgeries sustained before playing at the collegiate level. Players were grouped by position: wide receiver and defensive back (WR/DB), offensive and defensive linemen (OL/DL), all other positions (OP), and unknown (UKN). Prevalence of injuries by year and position was compared using Pearson's χ 2 Test (p football injuries are on the rise. Under reporting is a significant concern as players may fear disqualification or that they are evaluated by the coaching staff based on their medical history. More research is needed to confirm lifetime injury prevalence and evaluate differences over time among football players.
David M. Corbett
Full Text Available Australian Rules football comprises physical and skilled performance for more than 90 min of play. The cognitive and physiological fatigue experienced by participants during a match may reduce performance. Consequently, the length of time an athlete is on the field before being interchanged (known as a stint, is a key tactic which could maximize the skill and physical output of the Australian Rules athlete. This study developed two methods to quantify the relationship between athlete time on field, skilled and physical output. Professional male athletes (n = 39 from a single elite Australian Rules football club participated, with physical output quantified via player tracking systems across 22 competitive matches. Skilled output was calculated as the sum of involvements performed by each athlete, collected from a commercial statistics company. A random intercept and slope model was built to identify how a team and individuals respond to physical outputs and stint lengths. Stint duration (mins, high intensity running (speeds >14.4 km · hr−1 per minute, meterage per minute and very high intensity running (speeds >25 km·hr−1 per minute had some relationship with skilled involvements. However, none of these relationships were strong, and the direction of influence for each player was varied. Three conditional inference trees were computed to identify the extent to which combinations of physical parameters altered the anticipated skilled output of players. Meterage per minute, player, round number and duration were all related to player involvement. All methods had an average error of 10 to 11 involvements, per player per match. Therefore, other factors aside from physical parameters extracted from wearable technologies may be needed to explain skilled output within Australian Rules football matches.
Veale, James P; Pearce, Alan J; Carlson, John S
The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery (IR) Test is currently used to assess endurance performance in team sport athletes. However, to date, no data has been presented on its application to an elite junior Australian football (AF) playing group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (IR1) ability to discriminate between junior AF players at two different playing standards and a group of non-athletic healthy males. Sixty age matched participants (16.6+/-0.5 years) spread over three groups (20 per group): elite junior footballers; sub-elite junior footballers; and non-athletic healthy males participated in this study. Participants undertook a single Yo-Yo test performance on an indoor basketball court for each group. A one-way ANOVA with Scheffe's post hoc analysis revealed the elite junior footballers covered a significantly greater total distance (p<0.001) and completed a significantly greater number of high-intensity efforts (p<0.001) in comparison to their sub-elite counterparts, whilst both AF groups performed significantly better (p<0.001) than the non-athletic healthy males. This study demonstrates the ability of the Yo-Yo IR1 to discriminate endurance performance between elite and sub-elite AF players, whilst further distinguishing AF players from a non-athletic healthy control group. 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Black, Georgia M; Gabbett, Tim J; Naughton, Geraldine; Cole, Michael H; Johnston, Rich D; Dawson, Brian
Given the recent growth of the professional status among multiple female football codes, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of contextual factors on activity profiles and pacing strategies in female Australian football players. Thirty-five female Australian football players participated in this study. Global positioning system analysis was completed over one competitive season. Matches were separated into eight 10-minute periods. Greater distances were covered during the first half irrespective of playing position (ES = 0.39-0.50, Likelihood ≥90%). Throughout a number of periods half-backs (defensive players) covered greater distances during losses (ES ≥0.74, Likelihood ≥92%) and against Top 3 opponents (ES ≥1.0, Likelihood ≥ 97%). Midfielders and half-backs covered greater distances (ES ≥ 0.49, Likelihood ≥89%) in the final match period in winning compared with losing matches. A reduction in player work-rate is evident during the second half of matches. The influence of contextual factors varied across positional groups. However, it is clear coaches could use player rotation both early in the match in an attempt to delay the effect of fatigue and more frequently during the second half to increase running intensity.
Boublik, Martin; Schlegel, Theodore F; Koonce, Ryan C; Genuario, James W; Kinkartz, Jason D
Distal quadriceps tendon tears are uncommon injuries that typically occur in patients older than 40 years of age, and they have a guarded prognosis. Predisposing factors, prodromal findings, mechanisms of injury, treatment guidelines, and recovery expectations are not well described in high-level athletes. Professional American football players with an isolated tear of the quadriceps tendon treated with timely surgical repair will return to their sport. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fourteen unilateral distal quadriceps tendon tears were identified in National Football League (NFL) players from 1994 to 2004. Team physicians retrospectively reviewed training room and clinic records, operative notes, and imaging studies for each of these players. Data on each player were analyzed to identify variables predicting return to play. A successful outcome was defined as returning to play in regular-season NFL games. Eccentric contraction of the quadriceps was the most common mechanism of injury, occurring in 10 players. Only 1 player had antecedent ipsilateral extensor mechanism symptoms. Eleven players had a complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon, and 3 had partial tears. There were no associated knee injuries. All ruptures were treated with surgical repair, 1 of which was delayed after failure of nonoperative treatment. Fifty percent of players returned to play in regular-season NFL games. There was a trend toward earlier draft status for those who returned to play compared with those who did not (draft round, 3.1 ± 2.5 vs. 6.0 ± 2.9, respectively; P = .073). For those who returned to play, the average number of games after injury was 40.9 (range, 12-92). Quadriceps tendon tears are rare in professional American football players, and they usually occur from eccentric load on the extensor mechanism. Prodromal symptoms and predisposing factors are usually absent. Even with timely surgical repair, there is a low rate of return to play in regular-season games. There
Willigenburg, Nienke W; Borchers, James R; Quincy, Richard; Kaeding, Christopher C; Hewett, Timothy E
American football and rugby players are at substantial risk of injury because of the full-contact nature of these sports. Methodological differences between previous epidemiological studies hamper an accurate comparison of injury rates between American football and rugby. To directly compare injury rates in American collegiate football and rugby, specified by location, type, mechanism, and severity of injury, as reported by licensed medical professionals. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Licensed medical professionals (athletic trainer or physician) associated with the football and rugby teams of a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university reported attendance and injury details over 3 autumn seasons. Injuries were categorized by the location, type, mechanism, and severity of injury, and the injury rate was calculated per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Injury rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare overall, game, and practice injury rates within and between sports. The overall injury rate was 4.9/1000 AEs in football versus 15.2/1000 AEs in rugby: IRR = 3.1 (95% CI, 2.3-4.2). Game injury rates were higher than practice injury rates: IRR = 6.5 (95% CI, 4.5-9.3) in football and IRR = 5.1 (95% CI, 3.0-8.6) in rugby. Injury rates for the shoulder, wrist/hand, and lower leg and for sprains, fractures, and contusions in rugby were >4 times as high as those in football (all P ≤ 0.006). Concussion rates were 1.0/1000 AEs in football versus 2.5/1000 AEs in rugby. Most injuries occurred via direct player contact, especially during games. The rate of season-ending injuries (>3 months of time loss) was 0.8/1000 AEs in football versus 1.0/1000 AEs in rugby: IRR = 1.3 (95% CI, 0.4-3.4). Overall injury rates were substantially higher in collegiate rugby compared with football. Similarities between sports were observed in the most common injury types (sprains and concussions), locations (lower extremity and head), and mechanisms (direct player contact
Shalaj, I.; Tishukaj, F.; Bachl, N.; Tschan, H.; Wessner, B.; Csapo, R.
Background The incidence and severity of football-related injuries has been found to differ strongly between professional leagues from different countries. The aims of this study were to record the incidence, type and severity of injuries in Kosovarian football players and investigate the relationship between injury incidence rates (IRs), players? age and playing positions. Methods Players? age, anthropometric characteristics and playing positions, training and match exposure as well as injur...
Parsons, Sarah; Lynch, Matthew
Australian Rules football is a sport which evolved from Gaelic football and which is played by a large number of predominantly male participants in a number of countries. The highest participation rates are in the southern states of Australia. A retrospective review over a period of 14 years identified 14 cases of sudden cardiac death that occurred in individuals while playing the sport. All were male and ranged in age from 13 to 36 years with a mean and median age of 23 years. A spectrum of cardiac causes was identified including coronary artery atherosclerosis, myocarditis, anomalous coronary artery anatomy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and healed Kawasaki disease. In 5 cases the heart was morphologically normal raising the possibility of a channelopathy. No traumatic deaths were identified. Some of the individuals had experienced symptoms prior to the fatal episode and the role of pre participation screening in reducing mortality is discussed.
McHale, Kevin J; Rozell, Joshua C; Milby, Andrew H; Carey, James L; Sennett, Brian J
Tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc) joint injuries commonly occur in National Football League (NFL) competition; however, the career effect of these injuries is unknown. To define the time to return to competition for NFL players who sustained Lisfranc injuries and to quantify the effect on athletic performance. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Data on NFL players who sustained a Lisfranc injury between 2000 and 2010 were collected for analysis. Outcomes data included time to return to competition, total games played after season of injury, yearly total yards and touchdowns for offensive players, and yearly total tackles, sacks, and interceptions for defensive players. Offensive power ratings (OPR = [total yards/10] + [total touchdowns × 6]) and defensive power ratings (DPR = total tackles + [total sacks × 2] + [total interceptions × 2]) were calculated for the injury season and for 3 seasons before and after the injury season. Offensive and defensive control groups consisted of all players without an identified Lisfranc injury who competed in the 2005 season. The study group was composed of 28 NFL athletes who sustained Lisfranc injuries during the study period, including 11 offensive and 17 defensive players. While 2 of 28 (7.1%) players never returned to the NFL, 26 (92.9%) athletes returned to competition at a median of 11.1 (interquartile range [IQR], 10.3-12.5) months from time of injury and missed a median of 8.5 (IQR, 6.3-13.0) regular-season games. Analysis of pre- and postinjury athletic performance revealed no statistically significant changes after return to sport after Lisfranc injury. The magnitude of change in median OPR and DPR observed in offensive and defensive Lisfranc-injured study groups, -34.8 (IQR, -64.4 to 1.4) and -13.5 (-30.9 to 4.3), respectively, was greater than that observed in offensive and defensive control groups, -18.8 (-52.9 to 31.5) and -5.0 (-22.0 to 14.0), respectively; however, these differences did not reach statistical
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Ekstrand, Jan; Verhagen, Evert A L M; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J
To explore the associations of severe musculoskeletal injuries (joint and muscles) and surgeries with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour , smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour) among male European professional footballers. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on electronic questionnaires completed by professional footballers recruited from the national players' unions of Finland, France, Norway, Spain or Sweden. The number of severe (time loss of more than 28 days) musculoskeletal injuries (total, joint, muscle) and surgeries during a professional football career was examined through four questions, while symptoms of common mental disorders were evaluated through validated scales. A total of 540 professional footballers (mean age of 27 years; 54 % playing in the highest leagues) participated in the study. Sixty-eight per cent of the participants had already incurred one or more severe joint injuries and 60 % one or more severe muscle injuries. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders ranged from 3 % for smoking to 37 % for anxiety/depression and 58 % for adverse nutrition behaviour. The number of severe musculoskeletal injuries during a football career was positively correlated with distress, anxiety and sleeping disturbance, while the number of surgeries was correlated with adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking. Professional footballers who had sustained one or more severe musculoskeletal injuries during their career were two to nearly four times more likely to report symptoms of common mental disorders than professional footballers who had not suffered from severe musculoskeletal injuries. It can be concluded that the number of severe musculoskeletal injuries and surgeries during a career is positively correlated and associated with symptoms of common mental disorders among male European professional footballers. This study emphasises the importance of applying a
James P. Veale
Full Text Available Australian Football (AF is Australia's major football code. Despite research in other football codes, to date, no data has been published on the physiological responses of AF players during match play. Fifteen athletes (17.28 ± 0.76 yrs participated in four pre-season matches, sanctioned by Australian Football League (AFL Victoria, investigating Heart Rate (HR, Blood Lactate (BLa, Core Temperature (Tcore, and Hydration status. Match HR was measured continuously using HR monitors. BLa was measured via finger prick lancet at the end of each quarter of play. Tcore was measured by use of ingestible temperature sensor and measured wirelessly at the end of each quarter of play. Hydration status was measured using refractometry, measuring urine specific gravity, and body weight pre and post-match. Environmental conditions were measured continuously during matches. Results of HR responses showed a high exertion of players in the 85-95% maximum HR range. Elevated mean BLa levels, compared to rest, were observed in all players over the duration of the matches (p = 0.007. Mean Tcore rose 0.68 °C between start and end of matches. Mean USG increased between 0.008 g/ml (p = 0.001 with mean body weight decreasing 1.88 kg (p = 0.001. This study illustrates physiological responses in junior AF players playing in the heat as well as providing physiological data for consideration by AF coaching staff when developing specific training programs. Continued research should consider physiological measurements under varying environments, and at all playing levels of AF, to ascertain full physiological responses during AF matches.
Zeitz, Kathryn; Haghighi, Pari Delir; Burstein, Frada; Williams, Jeffrey
The present study was designed to further understand the psychosocial drivers of crowds impacting on the demand for healthcare. This involved analysing different spectator crowds for medical usage at mass gatherings; more specifically, did different football team spectators (of the Australian Football League) generate different medical usage rates. In total, 317 games were analysed from 10 venues over 2 years. Data were analysed by the ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests. RESULTS; Spectators who supported different football teams generated statistically significant differences in patient presentation rates (PPR) (F15, 618=1.998, P=0.014). The present study confirmed previous findings that there is a positive correlation between the crowd size and PPR at mass gatherings but found a negative correlation between density and PPR (r = -0.206, n=317, Pfootball teams generated statistically significant differences in PPR. What is known about this topic? Understanding the drivers of emergency medical care is most important in the mass gathering setting. There has been minimal analysis of psychological 'crowd' variables. What does this paper add? This study explores the psychosocial impact of supporting a different team on the PPR of spectators at Australian Football League matches. The value of collecting and analysing these types of data sets is to support more balanced planning, better decision support and knowledge management, and more effective emergency medical demand management. What are the implications for practitioners? This information further expands the body of evidence being created to understand the drivers of emergency medical demand and usage. In addition, it supports the planning and management of emergency medical and health-related requirements by increasing our understanding of the effect of elements of 'crowd' that impact on medical usage and emergency healthcare.
Heck, J F; Weis, M P; Gartland, J M; Weis, C R
Although catastrophic head and neck injuries in football occur infrequently, their occurrence is almost always followed by litigation. The athletic trainer has to be sure he/she has adequate liability insurance to cover the costs of a defense and a possible judgment. General claims filed against athletic staffs usually deal with instruction, equipment, matching of participants, supervision, and/or postinjury care. The defenses to these claims include: statutory immunity, assumption of risk, releases or waivers, and the reckless disregard standard. The athletic trainer plays a key role in head and neck injury prevention and care, and must be aware of litigation possibilities, along with methods of risk management. We present recommendations aimed at minimizing the risk of head and neck injuries and the risk of liability. The areas covered are: preparing for head and neck lawsuits, preventing head and neck injuries, and postcatastrophic injury care. We base these recommendations on principles that the athletic trainer can easily apply to other areas, broadening the risk management concept presented.
Richmond, L; Dawson, B; Hillman, D R; Eastwood, P R
The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of interstate air travel on the quality and quantity of sleep in elite Australian Rules football players. Ten elite male athletes, who were members of a Western Australian-based Australian Football League (AFL) team, participated in the study. Sleep pattern was assessed by measuring sleep duration (SLD), sleep efficiency (SE), number of wakings (NW) and total wake time after sleep onset (WT) using a wrist-worn actigraph. Subjective sleep quality (SQ) was assessed using a scale of sleep rating. Throughout the 2002 AFL season, measurements were obtained on the night before (N1), the night of (N2) and the night after (N3) home and away games. Baseline measurements were obtained from five consecutive non-game nights. Compared to baseline, SLD on N1 was increased when home and away (by 51 and 105 mins respectively, psleep pattern were unchanged. On N2, SLD was decreased to a similar degree whether home or away (by 68 and 64 mins respectively, psleep pattern were unchanged. By N3 all measures of sleep pattern had returned to baseline values. Relative to baseline, perception of SQ was worst on N2 of a home game. This study has shown that interstate travel by elite AFL players has no adverse effects on sleep pattern on the night before a game.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Ekstrand, Jan; Verhagen, Evert A. L. M.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.
PURPOSE: To explore the associations of severe musculoskeletal injuries (joint and muscles) and surgeries with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour , smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour) among male European professional footballers. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on electronic questionnaires completed by professional footballers recruited from the national players' unions of Finland, France, Norwa...
McCarty, Eric C; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Langner, Paula; Cook, Shane; Ellis, Byron; Godfrey, Jenna M
We conducted a study to identify and contrast patterns in the treatment of common injuries that occur in National Football League (NFL) players and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players. Orthopedic team physicians for all 32 NFL and 119 NCAA Division I football teams were asked to complete a survey regarding demographics and preferred treatment of a variety of injuries encountered in football players. Responses were received from 31 (97%) of the 32 NFL and 111 (93%) of the 119 NCAA team physicians. Although patellar tendon autograft was the preferred graft choice for both groups of team physicians, the percentage of NCAA physicians who allowed return to football 6 months or less after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was significantly (P = .03) higher than that of NFL physicians. Prophylactic knee bracing, which may prevent medial collateral ligament injuries, was used at a significantly (P football players.
Iguchi, Junta; Yamada, Yosuke; Kimura, Misaka; Fujisawa, Yoshihiko; Hojo, Tatsuya; Kuzuhara, Kenji; Ichihashi, Noriaki
Previous research on American football injuries in Japan has focused on incidence proportion in terms of the number of injuries divided by the number of players. This is the first study to examine injury rates over several seasons. To conduct a prospective study of injuries in a Japanese Division I collegiate American football team over the 2007 through 2009 seasons. Cohort study. Collegiate football team at Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan. All 289 athletes who played on the collegiate Division I football team during the 2007 through 2009 seasons. A certified athletic trainer kept a daily record of all practice and game injuries. Injury rates were calculated according to season, injury type, body part, severity, and mechanism. Injuries were also analyzed according to position of player, school year, and playing experience. The game injury rate (GIR; 32.7 injuries/1000 athlete-exposures) was higher than the practice injury rate (PIR; 10.9 injuries/1000 athlete-exposures) over the 3 seasons (P football injury rates (5.8-7.0 injuries/1000 athlete-exposures). Ankle and foot injuries occurred more frequently during games, whereas thigh and gluteal injuries occurred more frequently during practices. Our data show differences between games and practices in terms of injury rates, body parts injured, and positions of players injured. The high PIR in Japan may be due to the increased contact during practices and length of practices compared with the United States. Further research involving multiple teams is recommended to validate the trends noted in this study. The expanded data set could assist in the development of safety regulations and preventive interventions for Japanese football.
Iguchi, Junta; Yamada, Yosuke; Kimura, Misaka; Fujisawa, Yoshihiko; Hojo, Tatsuya; Kuzuhara, Kenji; Ichihashi, Noriaki
Context: Previous research on American football injuries in Japan has focused on incidence proportion in terms of the number of injuries divided by the number of players. This is the first study to examine injury rates over several seasons. Objective: To conduct a prospective study of injuries in a Japanese Division I collegiate American football team over the 2007 through 2009 seasons. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Collegiate football team at Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan. Patients or Other Participants: All 289 athletes who played on the collegiate Division I football team during the 2007 through 2009 seasons. Main Outcome Measure(s): A certified athletic trainer kept a daily record of all practice and game injuries. Injury rates were calculated according to season, injury type, body part, severity, and mechanism. Injuries were also analyzed according to position of player, school year, and playing experience. Results: The game injury rate (GIR; 32.7 injuries/1000 athlete-exposures) was higher than the practice injury rate (PIR; 10.9 injuries/1000 athlete-exposures) over the 3 seasons (P football injury rates (5.8–7.0 injuries/1000 athlete-exposures). Ankle and foot injuries occurred more frequently during games, whereas thigh and gluteal injuries occurred more frequently during practices. Conclusions: Our data show differences between games and practices in terms of injury rates, body parts injured, and positions of players injured. The high PIR in Japan may be due to the increased contact during practices and length of practices compared with the United States. Further research involving multiple teams is recommended to validate the trends noted in this study. The expanded data set could assist in the development of safety regulations and preventive interventions for Japanese football. PMID:23944380
Boden, Barry P; Tacchetti, Robin L; Cantu, Robert C; Knowles, Sarah B; Mueller, Frederick O
Catastrophic cervical spine injuries in football are rare but tragic events. To update the incidence of catastrophic cervical injuries in scholastic football players and identify new injury patterns. Descriptive epidemiology study. The authors retrospectively reviewed 196 incidents of catastrophic high school and collegiate football injuries reported to the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research during 13 academic years (September 1989 through June 2002). There were 15.08 direct catastrophic cervical spine injuries in scholastic football participants per year, an incidence of 1.10 and 4.72 injuries per 100 000 high school and 100 000 college participants, respectively. Seventy-six athletes had quadriplegia (5.85 per year), 0.50 per 100 000 high school players and 0.82 per 100 000 college players. Spear tackling by players on defense continued to be the predominant mechanism of injury causing quadriplegia. Five athletes had a Brown-Séquard-like syndrome; only 1 made a full recovery. One athlete with Brown-Séquard-like syndrome and permanent neurologic symptoms reported a cervical cord neurapraxia event before the study period. Forty-three athletes (3.31 per year) had diagnosed cervical cord neurapraxia. In addition to hyperflexion and hyperextension injuries, axial forces were found to cause cervical cord neurapraxia. Sixteen of the 43 athletes returned to football after a cervical cord neurapraxia episode, and none of the 16 suffered a permanent quadriplegic event. Nine athletes sustained an isolated injury at the C1 or C2 level, and 7 sustained a combined injury at the C1, or C2 level and at a subaxial level. The total number of quadriplegic events for high school and college football players is approximately 6 per year, with a higher incidence at the college level. Cervical cord neurapraxia can be caused by hyperflexion, hyperextension, and axial compression forces. Upper level cervical injuries involving the atlas and axis can occur in
Hoskin, Annette K; Yardley, Anne-Marie E; Hanman, Kate; Lam, Geoffrey; Mackey, David A
To identify the causes of sports-related eye and adnexal injuries in children in Perth, Western Australia, to determine which sporting activities pose the highest risk of eye and adnexal injury to children. We performed a 12-year retrospective review of children admitted to hospital from 2002 to 2013 with sports-related ocular and adnexal eye injuries. The main outcome measures were the cause and type of ocular and adnexal injuries, age and gender risk factors. A total of 93 cases of sports-related ocular and adnexal injury were identified in the 12-year time period. A peak in injuries occurred for 12- to 14-year-olds with a second peak in 6- to 8-year-olds; the median age was 8.82 years (range = 1.59-16.47). Cycling, football (including soccer and Australian Rules Football), tennis, trampolining, fishing and swimming were the sports responsible for the greatest number of injuries, a total of 63%. More than one-third (35%) of injuries resulted from being struck by a blunt object, and more than a quarter (26%) were as a result of contact with a blunt projectile. Serious ocular and adnexal injuries have occurred in children as a result of participating in sports, with cycling and football being the largest contributors in the 12-year period we assessed. As we continue to encourage children to spend more time participating in sports and recreational activities, identifying associated risk factors will help us develop injury prevention strategies to promote eye safety for children. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Keays, Glenn; Friedman, Debbie; Gagnon, Isabelle
Introduction Little is known about Canadian youth football injuries. The objectives of this study were (a) to contrast the injuries in Canadian and American football players aged 6 to 17 years and (b) compare the injuries sustained during organized football with those in nonorganized football. Methods Using a retrospective cohort design based on data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System a comparison of injuries was made. Results Trends in injuries were comparable. Proportions and odds of injuries were similar, except for a few exceptions. In Canada, more girls were injured and fractures were more prevalent. Compared with nonorganized football, organized football players were older, involved more males, and suffered more traumatic brain injuries and injuries to their lower extremities. Conclusion Canadian and American youth football injuries were similar. The type of football, be it organized or nonorganized, has an impact on injuries. © The Author(s) 2015.
Bjørneboe, J; Flørenes, T W; Bahr, R; Andersen, T E
Since the 2000 season, an injury surveillance system has been established to monitor injury risk and injury patterns in the Norwegian professional football league. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of routine injury registration performed by medical staff in professional football. The team medical staff completed injury registration forms on a monthly basis throughout the 2007 season (January-October). Players were interviewed at the end of the season (October/November) about all injuries that occurred from July through September. Thirteen of fourteen teams, 296 of 310 A-squad players were interviewed. An injury was recorded when a player was unable to take fully part in football training or match the day after injury. A total of 174 injuries were registered, 123 acute injuries and 51 overuse injuries. Of these, 141 were reported by medical staff and 122 by players. Eighty-nine injuries (51%) were registered using both methods, 52 (30%) by medical staff only and 33 (19%) by player interviews only. Prospective injury surveillance by team medical staff in Norwegian male professional football underestimates the incidence of time-loss injuries by at least one-fifth. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
del Ama Espinosa Gurutze
Full Text Available Study aim: to test the hypothesis that an eccentric training programme applied on women football players would reduce the hamstring injury rate by improving thigh muscle balance and, particularly, hamstring strength.
Varley, Matthew C; Gabbett, Tim; Aughey, Robert J
Abstract We compared the match activity profiles of elite footballers from Australian football (AF), rugby league (RL) and soccer (SOC), using identical movement definitions. Ninety-four elite footballers from AF, RL or SOC clubs in Australia participated in this study. Movement data were collected using a 5-Hz global positioning system from matches during the 2008-2011 competitive seasons, including measures of velocity, distance, acceleration and bouts of repeat sprints (RS). Australian footballers covered the greatest relative running distances (129 ± 17 m.min -1 ) compared to RL (97 ± 16 m.min -1 ) and SOC (104 ± 10 m.min -1 ) (effect size [ES]; 1.0-2.8). The relative distance covered (4.92 ± 2.10 m.min -1 vs. 5.42 ± 2.49 m.min -1 ; 0.74 ± 0.78 m.min -1 vs. 0.97 ± 0.80 m.min -1 ) and the number of high-velocity running (0.4 ± 0.2 no.min -1 vs. 0.4 ± 0.2 no.min -1 ) and sprint (0.06 ± 0.06 no.min -1 vs. 0.08 ± 0.07 no.min -1 ) efforts between RL and SOC players were similar (ES; 0.1-0.3). Rugby league players undertook the highest relative number of accelerations (1.10 ± 0.56 no.min -1 ). RS bouts were uncommon for all codes. RL and SOC players perform less running than AF players, possibly due to limited open space as a consequence of field size and code specific rules. While training in football should be code specific, there may be some transference of conditioning drills across codes.
Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U
Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities
Davies, Michael J; Young, Warren; Farrow, Damian; Bahnert, Andrew
To compare the agility demands of 4 small-sided games (SSGs) and evaluate the variability in demands for elite Australian Football (AF). Fourteen male elite Australian Football League (AFL) players (mean ± SD; 21.7 ± 3.1 y, 189.6 ± 9.0 cm, 88.7 ± 10.0 kg, 39.4 ± 57.1 games) completed 4 SSGs of 3 × 45-s bouts each with modified designs. Video notational analysis, GPS at 5 Hz, and triaxial accelerometer data expressed the external player loads within games. Three comparisons were made using a paired t test (P agility maneuvers (SSG1, 7.2 ± 1.3; SSG2, 8.8 ± 4.1), while a large 2D player load was accumulated (P agility maneuvers (SSG 3, 11.3 ± 6.1; SSG 2, 8.3 ± 3.6); however, a greater variability was found. The implementation of a 2-handed-tag rule resulted in a somewhat trivial decline (P > .05, ES = 0.16) in agility events compared with normal AFL tackling rules (SSG 2, 8.3 ± 3.6; SSG 4, 7.8 ± 2.6). SSG characteristics can influence agility-training demand, which can vary considerably for individuals. Coaches should carefully consider SSG design to maximize the potential to develop agility for all players.
Full Text Available Australian Rules Football, governed by the Australian Football League (AFL is the most popular winter sport played in Australia. Like North American team based leagues such as the NFL, NBA and NHL, the AFL uses a draft system for rookie players to join a team's list. The existing method of allocating draft selections in the AFL is simply based on the reverse order of each team's finishing position for that season, with teams winning less than or equal to 5 regular season matches obtaining an additional early round priority draft pick. Much criticism has been levelled at the existing system since it rewards losing teams and does not encourage poorly performing teams to win matches once their season is effectively over. We propose a probability-based system that allocates a score based on teams that win 'unimportant' matches (akin to Carl Morris' definition of importance. We base the calculation of 'unimportance' on the likelihood of a team making the final eight following each round of the season. We then investigate a variety of approaches based on the 'unimportance' measure to derive a score for 'unimportant' and unlikely wins. We explore derivatives of this system, compare past draft picks with those obtained under our system, and discuss the attractiveness of teams knowing the draft reward for winning each match in a season
Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U
Athletic profiling provides valuable information to sport scientists, assisting in the optimal design of strength and conditioning programmes. Understanding the influence these physical characteristics may have on the generation of kicking accuracy is advantageous. The aim of this study was to profile and compare the lower limb mass characteristics of accurate and inaccurate Australian footballers. Thirty-one players were recruited from the Western Australian Football League to perform ten drop punt kicks over 20 metres to a player target. Players were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) groups, with leg mass characteristics assessed using whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Accurate kickers demonstrated significantly greater relative lean mass (P ≤ 0.004) and significantly lower relative fat mass (P ≤ 0.024) across all segments of the kicking and support limbs, while also exhibiting significantly higher intra-limb lean-to-fat mass ratios for all segments across both limbs (P ≤ 0.009). Inaccurate kickers also produced significantly larger asymmetries between limbs than accurate kickers (P ≤ 0.028), showing considerably lower lean mass in their support leg. These results illustrate a difference in leg mass characteristics between accurate and inaccurate kickers, highlighting the potential influence these may have on technical proficiency of the drop punt.
Petersen, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann
The purpose of the present study was to examine the incidence rates of acute hamstring injuries in Danish elite football sustained during training or match play. Furthermore, it was our intention to document details about the recurrence, severity and the injury seasonal distribution. Hamstring...... injuries among 374 elite football players were registered prospectively during a 12-month period. A total of 46 first-time and eight recurrent hamstring injuries were registered. The incidence rates for incurring a first-time hamstring injury showed a significantly (P28 days from injury to injury free......). Each team sustained a mean of 3.4 hamstring injuries per season, with a mean of 21.5 days missed per injury (range 3-136; median 16 days per injury). The seasonal distribution showed an accumulation of injuries in the first 2 months after a 3.5-month mid-season winter break....
Murphy, Myles; Stockden, Marshall; Withers, Ken; Breidahl, William; Charlesworth, Jonathon
Anterior shoulder dislocations are a common injury in many sports resulting in extended time lost from play with an extremely high recurrence rate in young athletes playing high risk sport. Latarjet shoulder reconstruction is a common surgical procedure used to prevent subsequent dislocation with an expected rehabilitation timeframe of between four to six months before return to play. A 21-year-old male Australian football player experienced two left sided shoulder dislocations before undergoing a left Latarjet shoulder reconstruction. He was assessed clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging which revealed significant tearing of the anterior labrum. We theorized maximal glenohumeral stability occurs after bony healing of the coracoid onto the glenoid at six weeks. The patient then underwent an eight-week structured and graduated rehabilitation program aimed at preventing loss of shoulder range of motion, muscle and functional capacity and returned to play at eight weeks post injury with no complications or recurrence at twelve month follow-up. This is the first time an eight-week rehabilitation following Latarjet shoulder reconstruction has been reported. In athletes with anterior glenohumeral dislocation who require accelerated return to play, a Latarjet reconstruction with an eight-week rehabilitation protocol can be considered.
Shankar, Prasad R; Fields, Sarah K; Collins, Christy L; Dick, Randall W; Comstock, R Dawn
Football, one of the most popular sports among male high school students in the United States, is a leading cause of sports-related injuries, with an injury rate almost twice that of basketball, the second most popular sport. Injury patterns will vary between competition and practice exposures and between levels of play (ie, high school vs. National Collegiate Athletic Association [NCAA]). Descriptive epidemiology study. Football-related injury data were collected over the 2005-2006 school year from 100 nationally representative high schools via High School RIO (Reporting Information Online) and from 55 Division I, II, and III colleges via the NCAA Injury Surveillance System. Nationally, an estimated 517,726 high school football-related injuries (1881 unweighted injuries) occurred during the 2005-2006 season. The rate of injury per 1000 athlete-exposures was greater during high school competitions (12.04) than during practices (2.56). The rate of injury per 1000 athlete-exposures was also greater during collegiate competitions (40.23) than during practices (5.77). While the overall rate of injury per 1000 athlete-exposures was greater in the NCAA (8.61) than in high school (4.36), high school football players sustained a greater proportion of fractures and concussions. Running plays were the leading cause of injury, with running backs and linebackers being the positions most commonly injured. Patterns of football injuries vary, especially by type of exposure and level of play. Future studies should continue to compare differences in injury patterns in high school and collegiate football, with particular emphasis placed on high-risk plays (running plays) and positions (running backs and linebackers).
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Football (soccer is endorsed as a health-promoting physical activity worldwide. When football programs are introduced as part of general health promotion programs, equal access and limitation of pre-participation disparities with regard to injury risk are important. The aim of this study was to explore if disparity with regard to parents' educational level, player body mass index (BMI, and self-reported health are determinants of football injury in community-based football programs, separately or in interaction with age or gender. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four community football clubs with 1230 youth players agreed to participate in the cross-sectional study during the 2006 season. The study constructs (parents' educational level, player BMI, and self-reported health were operationalized into questionnaire items. The 1-year prevalence of football injury was defined as the primary outcome measure. Data were collected via a postal survey and analyzed using a series of hierarchical statistical computations investigating associations with the primary outcome measure and interactions between the study variables. The survey was returned by 827 (67.2% youth players. The 1-year injury prevalence increased with age. For youths with parents with higher formal education, boys reported more injuries and girls reported fewer injuries than expected; for youths with lower educated parents there was a tendency towards the opposite pattern. Youths reporting injuries had higher standardized BMI compared with youths not reporting injuries. Children not reporting full health were slightly overrepresented among those reporting injuries and underrepresented for those reporting no injury. CONCLUSION: Pre-participation disparities in terms of parents' educational level, through interaction with gender, BMI, and self-reported general health are associated with increased injury risk in community-based youth football. When introduced as a general health
Ergün, Metin; Denerel, H Nevzad; Binnet, Mehmet S; Ertat, K Ahmet
The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and nature of injuries and the influence of age on injury patterns in elite youth football. Fifty-two players of the Under-17 (U-17) male national youth football team were followed during their progression to U-18 and U-19. Individual player exposure and injuries were recorded during the three year study period. Injury incidence was five times higher during matches than training. When medical attention and time loss injuries were considered, injury incidence increased during matches and decreased during training with increasing age. Traumatic injuries were more frequent in matches and were linked with increased age. Overuse injuries were two times higher during training than matches in the U-17 team. The majority of traumatic match injuries (78.3%) led to time loss and the majority of time loss injuries occurred due to traumatic mechanism (62.1%). The majority of muscle and entire ligament injuries occurred during training and contusions during competition. Re-injury rate was 25% and were all overuse injuries. Injury incidences increased during matches and decreased during training. More match injuries were caused by traumatic mechanisms as players aged. Player age might contribute to injury incidence and characteristics in youth football.
Frisch, A; Urhausen, A; Seil, R; Croisier, J L; Windal, T; Theisen, D
This prospective cohort study aimed at identifying player-related risk factors for injuries in youth football as determined by extensive preseasonal screening. All male U15-U19 players from a regional football school (season 2007-2008; n = 67) underwent preseason evaluations assessing physical fatigue, emotional stress and injury history (questionnaire), anthropometric variables, general joint laxity (Beighton score), lower limb coordination (functional hop tests), aerobic fitness (shuttle run test), strength of knee extensor and flexor muscles (isokinetic tests), static and dynamic balance (force plate tests), and explosive strength (jump tests on force plate). Football exposure and all football-related injuries (n = 163) were recorded during the entire subsequent season (44 weeks). Total injury incidence was 10.4 injuries/1000 h and was higher in competition than in training [relative risk = 3.3; CI(95%) (2.39; 4.54); P < 0.001]. Lower limb injuries were most frequent (87%). Acute contact injuries represented 37%, while intrinsic (noncontact and chronic) injuries amounted to 63%. Of all the variables tested, only physical fatigue was significantly associated with injury, as revealed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The same result was observed when considering only intrinsic injuries as outcome. A single preseason test session may be of limited interest in the framework of an injury prevention strategy. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Shalaj, I; Tishukaj, F; Bachl, N; Tschan, H; Wessner, B; Csapo, R
The incidence and severity of football-related injuries has been found to differ strongly between professional leagues from different countries. The aims of this study were to record the incidence, type and severity of injuries in Kosovarian football players and investigate the relationship between injury incidence rates (IRs), players' age and playing positions. Players' age, anthropometric characteristics and playing positions, training and match exposure as well as injury occurrences were monitored in 11 teams (143 players) of Kosovo's top division during the 2013/14 season. The exact type, severity and duration of football-related injuries were documented following International Federation of Football Associations (FIFA) recommendations. A total of 272 injuries were observed, with traumatic injuries accounting for 71 %. The overall injury IR was 7.38 (CI: 7.14, 7.63) injuries per 1,000 exposure hours and ~11x lower during training as opposed to matches. Strains and ruptures of thigh muscles, ligamentous injuries of the knee as well as meniscus or other cartilage tears represented the most frequent differential diagnoses. While no statistical differences were found between players engaged in different playing positions, injury IR was found to be higher by 10-13 % in younger (IR = 7.63; CI: 7.39, 7.87) as compared to middle-aged (IR = 6.95; CI: 6.41, 7.54) and older players (IR = 6.76; CI: 5.71, 8.00). The total injury IR in elite football in Kosovo is slightly lower than the international average, which may be related to lesser match exposure. Typical injury patterns agree well with previously reported data. Our finding that injury IR was greater in younger players is related to a higher rate of traumatic injuries and may indicate a more aggressive and risky style of play in this age group.
Kaplan, Lee D; Flanigan, David C; Norwig, John; Jost, Patrick; Bradley, James
Shoulder injuries are the fourth most common musculoskeletal injury encountered in American football players. There is little information in the literature on the role of playing position in the type of shoulder injuries seen. There is a high prevalence of shoulder injuries in elite collegiate American football players, with type of injury varying by playing position. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 3. A total of 336 elite collegiate American football players were invited to the National Football League Combine for physical testing and medical evaluation. Current and historical data were evaluated for the purpose of this study, and all players underwent radiographic examinations, including plain radiographs and/or magnetic resonance imaging when necessary. All shoulder pathological conditions and shoulder surgical procedures were recorded. Players were categorized by position for the analysis of position-specific trends. Of the players, 50% had a history of shoulder injuries, with a total of 226 shoulder injuries (1.3 injuries per player injured); 56 players (34%) had a total of 73 surgeries. The most common injuries were acromioclavicular separation (41%), anterior instability (20%), rotator cuff injury (12%), clavicle fracture (4%), and posterior instability (4%). The most common surgeries performed were anterior instability reconstruction (48%), Mumford/Weaver-Dunn surgery (15%), posterior instability surgery (10%), and rotator cuff surgery (10%). Shoulder injuries were more common in quarterbacks and defensive backs. Surgery was more common in linebackers or linemen. A history of anterior instability was more common in defensive players, with surgery required 76% of the time. Linemen had more rotator cuff injuries and posterior instability than players in other positions. Shoulder injuries are common injuries in elite collegiate football players, with one-third undergoing surgical procedures. There are definitive trends in the types of injuries
Collinge, Richard; Simmonds, Jane V
To determine if joint hypermobility is a risk factor for injury in a professional football squad. Primary objectives were to estimate the prevalence of hypermobility amongst a professional football squad and to undertake an audit of injuries sustained over a season. Secondary objectives were to relate the injury audit findings and hypermobility levels to time missed through injury, assessed by training days and competitive first team games missed after musculo-skeletal injury. Increasing levels of joint hypermobility may result in an increased risk of injury in a contact sport such as professional football. A prospective observational study consisting of the Beighton joint hypermobility screen and an injury audit (season 2007/8). A second tier, English professional football club. Thirty-three male professional footballers aged 18-35 years. The Beighton joint hypermobility screen and a seasonal injury audit. The prevalence of joint hypermobility was found to be between 21 and 42% depending on the cut-off score used for the Beighton scale. Similar injury rates were found in both the hypermobile and non-hypermobile participants (6.2 as compared to 6.3 injuries/1000 h exposure respectively). Once injured, the hypermobile group showed a tendency towards missing more competitive first team games (12 as compared to 5/season in non-hypermobiles) and training days (71 as compared to 31 days/season in non-hypermobiles). These findings were not statistically significant. The prevalence of joint hypermobility in a cohort of professional footballers is comparable to previous studies in athletic populations and is dependent upon which Beighton cut-off score is selected. It may be inferred from this preliminary study that the return to play timescales in hypermobile individuals may be extended so as to minimise the potential risk of re-injury and limit the socioeconomic costs associated with time out of competition.
Full Text Available This study investigated the injuries sustained by an Australian specialist police division. Injury records spanning four-years were analyzed. The role being performed when the injury occurred, injury cause, body part injured, and injury-related costs were quantified. The percentage of personnel injured multiple times was documented. One hundred and thirty eight personnel reported injuries, 58 of these on multiple occasions. This resulted in 229 injuries and 76 claims being raised. Half of the injuries occurred during operational policing tasks, however training activities accounted for >30% of injuries. The most common injury was strain/sprain, and upper body injuries were 2.5-times more common than lower-body or torso injuries. 1107 shifts were lost, and injuries cost the organization $487,159 (Australian Dollars over the four-year period. The injury costs (both financial and in manpower may prompt policy makers to review the current training and post-injury rehabilitation protocols.
Mosler, Andrea B.; Weir, Adam; Eirale, Cristiano
Background/Aim Groin injury epidemiology has not previously been examined in an entire professional football league. We recorded and characterised time loss groin injuries sustained in the Qatar Stars League. Methods Male players were observed prospectively from July 2013 to June 2015. Time loss...... classification system was used to categorise all groin injuries. Results 606 footballers from 17 clubs were included, with 206/1145 (18%) time loss groin injuries sustained by 150 players, at an incidence of 1.0/1000 hours (95% CI 0.9 to 1.1). At a club level, 21% (IQR 10%- 28%) of players experienced groin....../3 of all groin injuries. Improving treatment outcomes and preventing adductor-related groin pain has the potential to improve player availability in professional football....
Young, Warren; Farrow, Damian; Pyne, David; McGregor, William; Handke, Tara
Young, W, Farrow, D, Pyne, D, McGregor, W, and Handke, T. Validity and reliability of agility tests in junior Australian football players. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3399-3403, 2011-The importance of sport-specific stimuli in reactive agility tests (RATs) compared to other agility tests is not known. The purpose of this research was to determine the validity and reliability of agility tests. Fifty junior Australian football players aged 15-17 years, members of either an elite junior squad (n = 35) or a secondary school team (n = 15), were assessed on a new RAT that involved a change of direction sprint in response to the movements of an attacking player projected in life size on a screen. These players also underwent the planned Australian Football League agility test, and a subgroup (n = 13) underwent a test requiring a change of direction in response to a left or right arrow stimulus. The elite players were significantly better than the school group players on the RAT (2.81 ± 0.08 seconds, 3.07 ± 0.12 seconds; difference 8.5%) but not in the arrow stimulus test or planned agility test. The data were log transformed and the reliability of the new RAT estimated using typical error (TE) expressed as a coefficient of variation. The TE for the RAT was 2.7% (2.0-4.3, 90% confidence interval) or 0.07 seconds (0.5-1.0), with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.33. For the test using the arrow stimulus, the TE was 3.4% (2.4-6.2), 0.09 (0.06-0.15) seconds, and ICC was 0.10. The sport-specific stimulus provided by the new RAT is a crucial component of an agility test; however, adoption of the new RAT for routine testing is likely to require more accessible equipment and several familiarization trials to improve its reliability.
Nation, Adam D; Nelson, Nicolas G; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn; McKenzie, Lara B
Football is one of the most popular youth sports in the United States despite the high rate of injuries. Previously published studies have investigated football-related injuries that occurred in organized play but have excluded those that occurred during unorganized play. Through use of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database, cases of football-related injuries were identified for analysis. Sample weights were used to calculate national estimates. An estimated 5 252 721 children and adolescents 6 to 17 years old were treated in US emergency departments for football-related injuries. The annual number of cases increased by 26.5% over the 18-year study period. The 12- to 17-year-old age group accounted for 77.8% of all injuries and had nearly twice the odds of sustaining a concussion. The findings suggest the need for increased prevention efforts to lower the risk of football-related injury in children and adolescents.
Nair, Rohit; Rajasekar, Sannasi; Abraham, Allan; Samuel, Asir John
To determine the awareness and application of the injury prevention strategies by professional Indian football players through Standard Questionnaire Based Survey. Descriptive Epidemiological Study. Professional football clubs in India. Among 150 professional footballers playing in India, 109 football players participated.. The online questionnaire was made in the Google drive application. An online URL (www.tinyurl.com/futbolscptrc) was made in Google accounts by Google drive. 150 professional footballers playing in India were identified and invited to participate in this descriptive epidemiological online survey. All duly filled questionnaire responses were automatically reached in the Google drive inbox. Descriptive analysis was used for the data analysis. Questionnaires were distributed to 150 professional players at nine Indian League clubs. 109 players responded, which represents a response rate of 73%. The player age and number of years as a professional footballers were 25 (4) years (range 18-38 years) and 6 (4) years (range 1-16 years) respectively. The players were from one Premier (9), two Division One (6 and 16), and two Division Two (9 and 15) teams. Most of the professional Indian football players are aware about the injury prevention strategies. However, the application of these strategies is consistently followed by Premier division players.
King, Harold; Campbell, Stephen; Herzog, Makenzie; Popoli, David; Reisner, Andrew; Polikandriotis, John
More than 1 million US high school students play football. Our objective was to compare the high school football injury profiles by school enrollment size during the 2013-2014 season. Injury data were prospectively gathered on 1806 student athletes while participating in football practice or games by certified athletic trainers as standard of care for 20 high schools in the Atlanta Metropolitan area divided into small (football season. Smaller schools had a higher overall injury rate (79.9 injuries per 10,000 athletic exposures vs. 46.4 injuries per 10,000 athletic exposures; P injuries (14.3% vs. 10.3%; P = .009 and 3.5% vs. 1.5%; P = .006, respectively) while larger schools have more hip/upper leg injuries (13.3% vs. 9.9%; P = .021). Lastly, smaller schools had a higher concussion distribution for offensive lineman (30.6% vs. 13.4%; P = .006) and a lower rate for defensive backs/safeties (9.2% vs. 25.4%; P = .008). This study is the first to compare and show unique injury profiles for different high school sizes. An understanding of school specific injury patterns can help drive targeted preventative measures.
Full Text Available American football is one of the leading causes of athletic-related injuries. Injury rates in female elite players are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the injury rates of female was comparable to those in men’s football during practice, as well as games. From 2009 to 2011, injury data were collected from the German female national team during training camps, World Championship 2010 and International friendly matches. The injury was categorized by location on the body and recorded as fracture/dislocation, strain, concussion, contusion or other injury. Injury rates were determined based on the exposure of an athlete to a game or practice event. The injury rate was calculated as the ratio of injuries per 1000 athlete exposures (AE. The rate of injury was significantly higher during games (58.8/1000 AE than practices [16.3/1000 AE, (P<0.01]. Furthermore, the injury rate in the tryouts was significantly higher (24.05/1000 AE compared to other training sessions with the national team (11.24/1000 AE. Our findings show that the injury rates in female elite American football players can be compared to those described for male players. Higher injury rates during matches than in training should also be underlined.
Gastin, Paul B; Bennett, Gary
Children and adolescents mature at different rates such that individuals competing in the same competition may differ in physical and biological maturity despite being of similar chronological age. Whether or not differences translate into on-field performance in competition is relatively unknown. This study investigated the influence of biological maturity on fitness and match running performance in junior Australian football. Eighty-seven under-15 years players were categorised into early (n = 20), average (n = 45) and late (n = 22) maturity groups based on self-reported and anthropometric assessment of biological maturity. Running movements during competition were collected using GPS (5 Hz) technology. Early maturers were heavier and taller than all other boys (P 14.4 km · h(-1)) running distance and number of high-intensity efforts were significantly greater (20.8%, 53.6%, 31.7%, respectively; P disadvantage to their earlier maturing peers.
Gill, Sanjitpal S; Boden, Barry P
Athletic events have long been identified as a source of catastrophic spinal injuries. One of the most notorious sports has been American football. At both the amateur and professional level, this collision sport is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries including cervical spine trauma and quadriplegia. Although modifications in the rules of play and education of players and coaches have significantly diminished the rate of quadriplegia, there remains a need to decrease the number of catastrophic spine injuries in football. Further research related to the prevention and management of athletic cervical spine trauma is necessary.
Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U.
Differential loading patterns during game-based participation may produce or exacerbate strength imbalances between the lower limbs. It is currently unknown whether such imbalances are functionally beneficial or detrimental to performance. This study assessed the influence of lower limb strength and lean mass symmetry on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian footballers were required to perform a kicking assessment, producing ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were subsequently separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) groups, with lower-body lean mass assessed using whole body DXA scans, and lower-body strength assessed using an isometric protocol. Accurate kickers demonstrated significantly higher relative lean mass (~8% to 16%; p = 0. 001 to 0.004) and significantly lower relative fat mass (~21% to 40%; p = 0.001 to 0.024) than inaccurate kickers. Accurate kickers did not contain any significant difference in lean mass or unilateral strength between lower limbs. Inaccurate kickers displayed significant asymmetry in lean mass (~3%; p ≤ 0.003), producing significant imbalances in strength (~8%; p ≤ 0.002) highlighting a deficiency in their support leg. Greater relative strength and improved lower limb symmetry in strength and muscularity could increase the capacity of an athlete to be technically proficient in favour of greater accuracy. Key Points Strength deficits in the support leg may lead to inaccurate kicking outcomes. An asymmetry of 3% in lean mass generated an 8% imbalance in leg strength. Greater levels of relative lower-body strength and muscle mass are associated with improved kicking accuracy performance. PMID:24570620
Anthony, Bedford; Schembri, Adrian J
Australian Rules Football, governed by the Australian Football League (AFL) is the most popular winter sport played in Australia. Like North American team based leagues such as the NFL, NBA and NHL, the AFL uses a draft system for rookie players to join a team's list. The existing method of allocating draft selections in the AFL is simply based on the reverse order of each team's finishing position for that season, with teams winning less than or equal to 5 regular season matches obtaining an additional early round priority draft pick. Much criticism has been levelled at the existing system since it rewards losing teams and does not encourage poorly performing teams to win matches once their season is effectively over. We propose a probability-based system that allocates a score based on teams that win 'unimportant' matches (akin to Carl Morris' definition of importance). We base the calculation of 'unimportance' on the likelihood of a team making the final eight following each round of the season. We then investigate a variety of approaches based on the 'unimportance' measure to derive a score for 'unimportant' and unlikely wins. We explore derivatives of this system, compare past draft picks with those obtained under our system, and discuss the attractiveness of teams knowing the draft reward for winning each match in a season. Key PointsDraft choices are allocated using a probabilistic approach that rewards teams for winning unimportant matches.The method is based upon Carl Morris' Importance and probabilistic calculations of making the finals.The importance of a match is calculated probabilistically to arrive at a DScore.Higher DScores are weighted towards teams winning unimportant matches which in turn lead to higher draft selections.Provides an alternative to current draft systems that are based on 'losing to win'.
Montgomery, Paul G; Hopkins, Will G
Australian Football is an intense team sport played over ~120 min on a weekly basis. To determine the effects of game and training load on muscle soreness and the time frame of soreness dissipation, 64 elite Australian Football players (age 23.8 ± 1.8 y, height 183.9 ± 3.8 cm, weight 83.2 ± 5.0 kg; mean ± SD) recorded perceptions of muscle soreness, game intensity, and training intensity on scales of 1-10 on most mornings for up to 3 competition seasons. Playing and training times were also recorded in minutes. Data were analyzed with a mixed linear model, and magnitudes of effects on soreness were evaluated by standardization. All effects had acceptably low uncertainty. Game and training-session loads were 790 ± 182 and 229 ± 98 intensity-minutes (mean ± SD), respectively. General muscle soreness was 4.6 ± 1.1 units on d 1 postgame and fell to 1.9 ± 1.0 by d 6. There was a small increase in general muscle soreness (0.22 ± 0.07-0.50 ± 0.13 units) in the 3 d after high-load games relative to low-load games. Other soreness responses showed similar timelines and magnitudes of change. Training sessions made only small contributions to soreness over the 3 d after each session. Practitioners should be aware of these responses when planning weekly training and recovery programs, as it appears that game-related soreness dissipates after 3 d regardless of game load and increased training loads in the following week produce only small increases in soreness.
Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U
Differential loading patterns during game-based participation may produce or exacerbate strength imbalances between the lower limbs. It is currently unknown whether such imbalances are functionally beneficial or detrimental to performance. This study assessed the influence of lower limb strength and lean mass symmetry on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian footballers were required to perform a kicking assessment, producing ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were subsequently separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) groups, with lower-body lean mass assessed using whole body DXA scans, and lower-body strength assessed using an isometric protocol. Accurate kickers demonstrated significantly higher relative lean mass (~8% to 16%; p = 0. 001 to 0.004) and significantly lower relative fat mass (~21% to 40%; p = 0.001 to 0.024) than inaccurate kickers. Accurate kickers did not contain any significant difference in lean mass or unilateral strength between lower limbs. Inaccurate kickers displayed significant asymmetry in lean mass (~3%; p ≤ 0.003), producing significant imbalances in strength (~8%; p ≤ 0.002) highlighting a deficiency in their support leg. Greater relative strength and improved lower limb symmetry in strength and muscularity could increase the capacity of an athlete to be technically proficient in favour of greater accuracy. Key PointsStrength deficits in the support leg may lead to inaccurate kicking outcomes.An asymmetry of 3% in lean mass generated an 8% imbalance in leg strength.Greater levels of relative lower-body strength and muscle mass are associated with improved kicking accuracy performance.
Rogatzki, Matthew J; Soja, Scott E; McCabe, Colleen A; Breckenridge, Ryanne E; White, Jeffrey L; Baker, Julien S
The goals of this study were to determine if the biomarkers of head injury, NSE and S100B, increased in serum following an American football game. Serum creatine kinase (CK) and cortisol levels were also measured to determine muscle damage and stress caused by the football game. NSE, S100B, CK, and cortisol were measured in the serum of 17 football players before and after a collegiate junior varsity football game. No head injuries were reported by the players, athletic training staff, or coaches yet both NSE (Pre-game: 7.0 μg•L-1 ± 2.2 versus Post-game: 13.1 μg•L-1 ± 7.0, P football game. There was little correlation found between S100B and body mass (R2 = 0.029) or CK (R2 = 0.352) levels. Although serum NSE and S100B increase as a result of playing in an American football game, the values are similar to or lower than levels found following competition in other contact and non-contact sports. Furthermore, the lack of correlation between S100B and body mass or CK indicates that S100B increases independent of body mass or muscle injury. © The Author(s) 2016.
Smart, Blair J; Haring, R Sterling; Asemota, Anthony O; Scott, John W; Canner, Joseph K; Nejim, Besma J; George, Benjamin P; Alsulaim, Hatim; Kirsch, Thomas D; Schneider, Eric B
American tackle football is the most popular high-energy impact sport in the United States, with approximately 9 million participants competing annually. Previous epidemiologic studies of football-related injuries have generally focused on specific geographic areas or pediatric age groups. Our study sought to examine patient characteristics and outcomes, including hospital charges, among athletes presenting for emergency department (ED) treatment of football-related injury across all age groups in a large nationally representative data set. Patients presenting for ED treatment of injuries sustained playing American tackle football (identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code E007.0) from 2010 to 2011 were studied in the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. Patient-specific injuries were identified using the primary International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code and categorized by type and anatomical region. Standard descriptive methods examined patient demographics, diagnosis categories, and ED and inpatient outcomes and charges. During the study period 397363 football players presented for ED treatment, 95.8% of whom were male. Sprains/strains (25.6%), limb fractures (20.7%), and head injuries (including traumatic brain injury; 17.5%) represented the most presenting injuries. Overall, 97.9% of patients underwent routine ED discharge with 1.1% admitted directly and fewer than 11 patients in the 2-year study period dying prior to discharge. The proportion of admitted patients who required surgical interventions was 15.7%, of which 89.9% were orthopedic, 4.7% neurologic, and 2.6% abdominal. Among individuals admitted to inpatient care, mean hospital length of stay was 2.4days (95% confidence interval, 2.2-2.6) and 95.6% underwent routine discharge home. The mean total charge for all patients was $1941 (95% confidence interval, $1890-$1992) with substantial
Full Text Available Football is currently the most popular sport in the world. The competitive nature of the sport makes it prone to injuries with the estimated frequency being 10 to 35 per 1000 playing hours (Dvorak and Junge, 2000. The aim of this study was to identify the injury patterns and rehabilitation periods with specific injuries in a premiership football club. Player injuries were retrospectively analysed from a local database (Microsoft Access 2000 at the Blackburn Rovers Football Club, UK from December 1998 to March 2004. The club physiotherapist and physician recorded details of all injuries sustained during both training and matches during that period. Clear distinctions were made between acute and overuse injuries and rehabilitation times for each injury were noted (Arnason et al., 2004. Data was analysed using SPSS (Chicago, Illinois, USA. Differences between the groups were assessed using the independent samples t-test. P values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. There were 483 injuries in 91 players. Of these 133 injuries occurred as a result of overuse and 350 as a result of direct trauma. 440 injuries were treated conservatively while 43 were treated operatively. Table 1 shows the range and number of injuries, which occurred during this period along with the average rehabilitation time for each injury. Injuries grouped as "Other" in table 1 accounted for less than 1% of all injuries and could not always be directly attributed to football even though this appeared to be the precipitating factor in all cases. There was no statistical difference between rehabilitation times for acute injuries (18 days, standard deviation 30 as compared to overuse injuries (20 days, standard deviation 39 (p = 0.640. The mean rehabilitation time however for injuries treated conservatively (15 days , standard deviation 24 as compared to injuries treated surgically (61 days, standard deviation 67 was found to be statistically significant (p = 0
Williams, Jacob Z; Singichetti, Bhavna; Li, Hongmei; Xiang, Henry; Klingele, Kevin E; Yang, Jingzhen
A body of epidemiological studies has examined football injuries and associated risk factors among collegiate athletes. However, few existing studies specifically analyzed injury risk in terms of initial or subsequent injuries. To determine athlete-exposures (AEs) and rates of initial and subsequent injury among collegiate football athletes. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injury and exposure data collected from collegiate football players from two Division I universities (2007-2011) were analyzed. Rate of initial injury was calculated as the number of initial injuries divided by the total number of AEs for initial injuries, while the rate for subsequent injury was calculated as the number of subsequent injuries divided by the total number of AEs for subsequent injury. Poisson regression was used to determine injury rate ratio (subsequent vs initial injury), with adjustment for other covariates. The total AEs during the study period were 67,564, resulting in an overall injury rate of 35.2 per 10,000 AEs. Rates for initial and subsequent injuries were 31.7 and 45.3 per 10,000 AEs, respectively, with a rate ratio (RR) of 1.4 for rate of subsequent injury vs rate of initial injury (95% CI, 1.1-1.9). Rate of injury appeared to increase with each successive injury. RR during games was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1-3.0). The rate of subsequent injuries to the head, neck, and face was 10.9 per 10,000 AEs, nearly double the rate of initial injuries to the same sites (RR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5). For wide receivers, the rate of subsequent injuries was 2.2 times the rate of initial injuries (95% CI, 1.3-3.8), and for defensive linemen, the rate of subsequent injuries was 2.1 times the rate of initial injuries (95% CI, 1.1-3.9). The method used in this study allows for a more accurate determination of injury risk among football players who have already been injured at least once. Further research is warranted to better identify which specific factors contribute to this increased risk
Full Text Available Background: Playing football, both at the amateur and professional level, associates an increased risk of injury. A documented report on injury location, type and incidence, in correlation with sports intensity, professionalism level and age, would be of support for implementing preventing measures and appropriate training programs, to reduce the incidence of football related injury. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the incidence, type and location of injuries during one season, in an amateur football club and design strategies and preventive measures. Patients and Methods: A population of 308 players were studied, aged between 5 and 29 years old (20 subjects over-19, 38 under-19, 38 under-16, 57 under-14, 57 under-12, 44 under-10 and 54 under-8 years old, respectively distributed over 20 teams. In total, 339 cases of injury occurred. Results: The population injured the most was the under-19 group and the most prevalent type of injuries was muscular (40.7% and ligament (16.5%. The most common location was the lower limbs (78.6% and, specifically, the thigh (39.8%. Physical load periods (September and February were highlighted as the months of highest incidence and the average number of visits per injury was 1.34. A statistically significant relationship between hours of training and injuries was noted. Conclusions: In the literature, there are similar publications, who studied these variables, separately. This work provides us with a certain amount of descriptive results, which may serve as a model for future research projects, performing interventions by coaches and medical services of football clubs, to reduce the injuries incidence, especially in the months of greatest physical load and, therefore, improve the performance. Football is a safe sport to practice, at any age, because injuries, regularly, are not serious and it is highly recommended, given the amount of health benefits obtained.
Ekstrand, Jan; Askling, Carl; Magnusson, Henrik; Mithoefer, Kai
Background Owing to the complexity and heterogeneity of muscle injuries, a generally accepted classification system is still lacking. Aims To prospectively implement and validate a novel muscle injury classification and to evaluate its predictive value for return to professional football. Methods The recently described Munich muscle injury classification was prospectively evaluated in 31 European professional male football teams during the 2011/2012 season. Thigh muscle injury types were recorded by team medical staff and correlated to individual player exposure and resultant time-loss. Results In total, 393 thigh muscle injuries occurred. The muscle classification system was well received with a 100% response rate. Two-thirds of thigh muscle injuries were classified as structural and were associated with longer lay-off times compared to functional muscle disorders (pinjuries) with increasing lay-off time associated with more severe structural injury. Median lay-off time of functional disorders was 5–8 days without significant differences between subgroups. There was no significant difference in the absence time between anterior and posterior thigh injuries. Conclusions The Munich muscle classification demonstrates a positive prognostic validity for return to play after thigh muscle injury in professional male football players. Structural injuries are associated with longer average lay-off times than functional muscle disorders. Subclassification of structural injuries correlates with return to play, while subgrouping of functional disorders shows less prognostic relevance. Functional disorders are often underestimated clinically and require further systematic study. PMID:23645834
Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s) were measured. [Results] A significant difference was found in peak torque and total work of the flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s, as well as in the average power of extension at 180°/s. [Conclusion] Though it is not the main therapy for muscle function in football athletes with injury, kinesio taping was an effective adjunct therapy.
Carling, C.; McCall, A.; Le Gall, F.,; Dupont, G.
Background: The effect of fixture congestion on injury rates and patterns has received scarce attention in elite football and existing investigations have not accounted for player rotation or examined the temporal distribution and potential cause of injuries.\\ud Aim: To prospectively investigate the epidemiology of injury during short periods of fixture congestion in a professional football club.\\ud Methods: Over a 6-season period, exposure time and injury data were compared in the same playe...
Harrison, Emily A
In the early 21st century, sports concussion has become a prominent public health problem, popularly labeled "The Concussion Crisis." Football-related concussion contributes much of the epidemiological burden and inspires much of the public awareness. Though often cast as a recent phenomenon, the crisis in fact began more than a century ago, as concussions were identified among footballers in the game's first decades. This early concussion crisis subsided-allowing the problem to proliferate-because work was done by football's supporters to reshape public acceptance of risk. They appealed to an American culture that permitted violence, shifted attention to reforms addressing more visible injuries, and legitimized football within morally reputable institutions. Meanwhile, changing demands on the medical profession made practitioners reluctant to take a definitive stance. Drawing on scientific journals, public newspapers, and personal letters of players and coaches, this history of the early crisis raises critical questions about solutions being negotiated at present.
Meurer, Maurício Couto; Silva, Marcelo Faria; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini
To describe the physiotherapists perceptions and the current practices for injury prevention in elite football (soccer) clubs in Brazil. Cross-sectional study. Group of Science in Sports & Exercise, Federal University of Healthy Sciences of Porto Alegre (Brazil). 16 of the 20 football clubs involved in the Brazilian premier league 2015. Physiotherapists answered a structured questionnaire. Most physiotherapists (∼88%) were active in design, testing and application of prevention programs. Previous injury, muscle imbalance, fatigue, hydration, fitness, diet, sleep/rest and age were considered "very important" or "important" injury risk factors by all respondents. The methods most commonly used to detect athletes' injury risk were: monitoring of biochemical markers (100% of teams), isokinetic dynamometry (81%), questionnaires (75%), functional movement screen (56%), fleximetry (56%) and horizontal jump tests (50%). All clubs used strength training, functional training, core exercises and balance/proprioception exercises in their injury prevention program; and Nordic hamstring exercise and other eccentric exercises were used by 94% of clubs. "FIFA 11+" prevention program was adapted by 88% of clubs. Physiotherapists perceptions and current practices of injury prevention within Brazilian elite football clubs were similar to those employed in developed countries. There remains a gap between clinical practice and scientific evidence in high performance football. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nogueira, Miguel; Laiginhas, Rita; Ramos, José; Costa, Ovídio
This study analyzed the incidence and characteristics of injuries sustained by amateur youth football players in Portugal during season 2015 - 2016. This is an observational descriptive study. We analyzed Portuguese youth football players' injuries over six months of a season. A total of 529 players were divided according to their age in two groups (Under-17 and Under-19). Data on injuries were collected. Throughout all 62 062.0 hours of exposure recorded, 248 injuries were reported in 173 different players. The average incidence of injury was 3.87 (95% CI = 2.81; 4.94) per 1000 hours of football exposure. There was a significantly higher average incidence of injury during matches - 14.22 (95% CI = 10.35; 18.09) per 1000 hours of exposure - when compared to the average incidence of injury during training - 2.06 (95% CI = 1.22; 2.90) per 1000 hours of exposure. This significance was also observed when the comparison was made within each age group. A traumatic mechanism was involved in 76.6% of all the injuries, while overuse was reported in 12.9%. The most common type was the injury that affected muscles and tendons (52.8%). The body location most commonly affected by injuries was the thigh (24.6%). Even though is essential a better characterization of Portuguese athletes of younger age groups such as those discussed in this study, the results of the studied population are in agreement with the existing literature. However, this study provides more information that may be important to better target the Portuguese athletes' training for injury prevention. This study provides descriptive data on injuries developed in a subpopulation of Portuguese amateur youth football players that could represent a focus for future prevention.
Grygorowicz, Monika; Michałowska, Martyna; Jurga, Paulina; Piontek, Tomasz; Jakubowska, Honorata; Kotwicki, Tomasz
Female football is becoming an increasingly popular women's team sports discipline around the world. The Women's Football Committee in Polish Football Association (WFC_PFA) has developed a long-term strategic plan to popularize the discipline across the country and enhance girls' participation. On one hand, it is postulated to increase the number of female footballers, and on the other hand it is crucial to decrease the number of girls quitting football prematurely. To find the reasons for sports career termination among female football players. cross-sectional with retrospective information about reasons of career termination. On-line questionnaire was filled out by on-line access. Ninety-three former female footballers. factors leading to career termination. Participants completed the on-line questionnaire. The analysis was performed referring to two groups: "injury group" - in which the injury was the main reason for quitting football, and "other group" - in which the female player stopped playing football due to all other factors. Thirty percent of former Polish female football players terminated their career due to a long-term treatment for an injury. Over 27 percent (27.7%) females had ended their careers because they were not able to reconcile sports with work/studying. Over 10 percent (10.8%) of former football players reported that becoming a wife and/or mother was the reason for career termination. Losing motivation and interest in sport was reported by 9.2%(n=6) of present study participants who decided to terminate the career due to non-injury reasons. The results clearly show that more effort is needed to support female football players, especially after an injury, so that they do not quit the sport voluntarily.
Iguchi, Junta; Watanabe, Yuya; Kimura, Misaka; Fujisawa, Yoshihiko; Hojo, Tatsuya; Yuasa, Yasuhiro; Higashi, Shinsuke; Kuzuhara, Kenji
Iguchi, J, Watanabe, Y, Kimura, M, Fujisawa, Y, Hojo, T, Yuasa, Y, Higashi, S, and Kuzuhara, K. Risk factors for injury among Japanese collegiate players of American football based on performance test results. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3405-3411, 2016-The purpose of this study was to identify how risk factors for injury during American football are related to players' physical strength as determined using typical performance tests. One hundred 53 Japanese collegiate players of American football were recruited for this study. Eight potential risk factors were evaluated: position (skill vs. lineman), body mass index, back squat one-repetition maximum, vertical jump height, power, height, body weight, and previous injury. Using multivariate Cox regression, we examined how these factors were associated with knee sprain, ankle sprain, and hamstring strain. We recorded 63 injuries (17 knee sprains, 23 ankle sprains, and 23 hamstring strains). Players with higher power were at significantly greater risk for knee sprains (p = 0.04), those with low power had a significantly higher incidence of ankle sprain (p = 0.01), and vertical jump height was a significant predictor of hamstring strain (p = 0.02). We identified several independent predictors of injuries associated with American football. Our findings may contribute to the development of effective screening tests and prevention exercises.
Hawkins, R D; Fuller, C W
To define the causes of injuries to players in English professional football during competition and training. Lost time injuries to professional and youth players were prospectively recorded by physiotherapists at four English League clubs over the period 1994 to 1997. Data recorded included information related to the injury, date and place of occurrence, type of activity, and extrinsic Playing factors. In all, 67% of all injuries occurred during competition. The overall injury frequency rate (IFR) was 8.5 injuries/1000 hours, with the IFR during competitions (27.7) being significantly (p IFRs for youth players were found to increase over the second half of the season, whereas they decreased for professional players. There were no significant differences in IFRs for professional and youth players during training. There were significantly (p < 0.01) injuries in competition in the 15 minute periods at the end of each half. Strains (41%), sprains (20%), and contusions (20%) represented the major types of injury. The thigh (23%), the ankle (17%), knee (14%), and lower leg (13%) represented the major locations of injury, with significantly (p < 0.01) more injuries to the dominant body side. Reinjury counted for 22% of all injuries. Only 12% of all injuries were caused by a breach of the rules of football, although player to player contact was involved in 41% of all injuries. The overall level of injury to professional footballers has been showed to be around 1000 times higher times higher than for industrial occupations generally regarded as high risk. The high level of muscle strains, in particular, indicates possible weakness in fitness training programmes and use of warming up and cooling down procedures by clubs and the need for benchmarking players' levels of fitness and performance. Increasing levels of injury to youth players as a season progresses emphasizes the importance of controlling the exposure of young players to high levels of competition.
Kiesel, Kyle B; Butler, Robert J; Plisky, Philip J
Previous injury is the strongest risk factor for future injury in sports. It has been proposed that motor-control changes such as movement limitation and asymmetry associated with injury and pain may be perpetuated as part of an individual's movement strategy. Motor control of fundamental 1-×-body-weight tasks can reliably and efficiently be measured in the field. To determine whether the motor control of fundamental movement patterns and pattern asymmetry have a relationship with time-loss injury over the course of the preseason in professional football. Injury-risk study. American professional football facilities. 238 American professional football players. To measure the motor control of 1-×-body-weight fundamental movement patterns, Functional Movement Screen scores were obtained before the start of training camp. The previously established cutoff score of ≤14 and the presence of any asymmetries on the FMS were examined using relative risk to determine if a relationship exists with time-loss injury. Time-loss musculoskeletal injury defined as any time loss from practice or competition due to musculoskeletal injury. Players who scored ≤14 exhibited a relative risk of 1.87 (CI95 1.202.96). Similarly, players with at least 1 asymmetry displayed a relative risk of 1.80 (CI95 1.112.74). The combination of scoring below the threshold and exhibiting a movement asymmetry was highly specific for injury, with a specificity of .87 (CI95 .84.90). The results of this study suggest that fundamental movement patterns and pattern asymmetry are identifiable risk factors for time-loss injury during the preseason in professional football players.
Woods, Carl T.; Banyard, Harry G.; McKeown, Ian; Fransen, Job; Robertson, Sam
Talent identification (TID) is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF). This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18) AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives) and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives). Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA), consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs), single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs), and a push up (six movement criterions). Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement). A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 – 0.87; p = 0.01 – 0.02). Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE) = -0.89(0.44); p talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent identification approaches in junior AF, as it may provide coaches
Lucas, M; Day, L; Fritschi, L
To describe the factors associated with serious injuries sustained during cattle-associated activities by veterinarians responding to the Health Risks of Australian Veterinarians (HRAV) survey. Responses from the HRAV survey were reviewed and the factors associated with serious injuries reported by veterinarians while working with cattle were analysed. All veterinarians who had graduated from Australian veterinary schools between 1960 and 2000 were eligible for inclusion in the survey. The survey identified 474 serious injuries sustained while undertaking cattle-associated activities. Most cattle-associated injuries (82%) were sustained in stock or handling yards and 57% of reported injuries were sustained while undertaking pregnancy testing or undertaking examinations. Nearly 80% of all cattle-associated injuries were sustained as a result of the veterinarian being kicked or struck (49%) or pushed against or stepped on (30%). The part of the body most commonly injured was the upper limbs. Fractures were the most common type of serious injury sustained. The use of safety precautions at the time of the injury was reported by 62% of those veterinarians reporting injury. This study describes factors associated with serious injuries while working with cattle, as reported by veterinarians responding to the HRAV survey. Findings from this study will facilitate discussions aimed at addressing injury prevention for cattle veterinarians, including improving the awareness of safe handling practices and safety precautions. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.
Krutsch, Werner; Zeman, Florian; Zellner, Johannes; Pfeifer, Christian; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter
In the season 2008-2009, a third professional football league was established in Germany. This study analysed the influence of increased training and playing intensity on severe knee injuries in football players. In a prospective controlled one-season trial, injury incidence and injury patterns of players of the newly established professional football league were analysed, particularly with regard to ruptures of the anterior (ACL) and posterior (PCL) cruciate ligaments. Players of the highest amateur level served as a control group. Four hundred and eight players of 24 teams were allocated to two groups. The overall training exposure was significantly (p professional league (335.3 h per player) than at the amateur level (286.6 h per player). Players at both levels showed similar overall injury rates and injury patterns. However, players in the professional league had a significantly higher (p = 0.04) incidence of ACL and PCL injuries, than players at the amateur level. More than 90 % of all ACL and PCL ruptures in both groups were sustained by players, who had played at least one level lower in the previous season. In addition, injuries of players who had sustained repeat injuries over the season were more severe. The introduction of a new professional football league increased the training and playing intensity of players as well as the number of ACL and PCL ruptures. A specific injury prevention concept, particularly for players facing rapidly increasing training and playing intensity, seems to be mandatory. Prospective controlled cohort study, Level II.
Blyth, Carl S.; Mueller, Frederick O.
This report describes a study to demonstrate the effectiveness of applying epidemiologic methods in determining the extent of the problem of high school football injuries in North Carolina and to interrelate certain variables associated with the problem of risk in athletics. It provides a descriptive baseline of data on high school football…
Knapik, Derrick M; Trem, Anthony; Sheehan, Joseph; Salata, Michael J; Voos, James E
High ankle "syndesmosis" injuries are common in American football players relative to the general population. At the professional level, syndesmotic sprains represent a challenging and unique injury lacking a standardized rehabilitation protocol during conservative management. PubMed, Biosis Preview, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, and EMBASE databases were searched using the terms syndesmotic injuries, American football, conservative management, and rehabilitation. Clinical review. Level 3. When compared with lateral ankle sprains, syndesmosis injuries result in significantly prolonged recovery times and games lost. For stable syndesmotic injuries, conservative management features a brief period of immobilization and protected weightbearing followed by progressive strengthening exercises and running, and athletes can expect to return to competition in 2 to 6 weeks. Further research investigating the efficacy of dry needling and blood flow restriction therapy is necessary to evaluate the benefit of these techniques in the rehabilitation process. Successful conservative management of stable syndesmotic injuries in professional American football athletes requires a thorough understanding of the anatomy, injury mechanisms, diagnosis, and rehabilitation strategies utilized in elite athletes.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Veenstra, Ersot; Goedegebuure, Simon; Frings-Dresen, Monique; Kuijer, Paul
OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence, diagnostics, treatment, anatomical region and return to play of non-acute groin injuries among professional footballers in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Medical staff members of all Dutch professional football clubs, recording
Buchheit, Martin; Morgan, Will; Wallace, Jarryd; Bode, Matthew; Poulos, Nick
The aim of the current study was to quantify the physiological, psychometric, and performance effects of a 2-wk Christmas break in a professional Australian Football League club. A series of physiological (eg, heart-rate [HR] response to a 5-min submaximal run and skinfold thicknesses), psychometric (rating-of-perceived-exertion [RPE] responses and wellness variables), and performance (running activity during standardized handball games, isometric midthigh pull [IMTP] peak force, and countermovement jump [CMJ]) measures were conducted in the weeks before and after the break. There was a possible and small increase in the sum of 7 skinfolds, while body mass and fat-free mass remained possible and likely unchanged, respectively. Sleep and stress scores remained likely to almost certainly unchanged, but there were some small, possible to likely decreases in fatigue and soreness scores. HR and RPE responses to the 5-min submaximal run were likely slightly lower (ie, improved) after the break. High-intensity running and acceleration distance during a standard handball game were very likely slightly greater, while HR and RPE responses to the game were possibly to very likely unchanged. HR responses to a high-intensity training session remained very likely unchanged. There was also a likely small increase in IMTP peak force but likely to very likely no change in CMJ variables. The results show that players returned from a 2-wk break during preseason well recovered, with preserved to improved levels of strength and cardiorespiratory fitness, despite small increases in skinfold thickness.
Gastin, Paul B; Meyer, Denny; Robinson, Dean
Perceptions of wellness are often used by athletes and coaches to assess adaptive responses to training. The purpose of this research was to describe how players were coping with the demands of elite level Australian football over a competitive season using subjective ratings of physical and psychological wellness and to assess the ecological validity of such a monitoring approach. Twenty-seven players completed ratings for 9 items (fatigue, general muscle, hamstring, quadriceps, pain/stiffness, power, sleep quality, stress, well-being). Players subjectively rated each item as they arrived at the training or competition venue on a 1-5 visual analog scale, with 1 representing the positive end of the continuum. A total of 2,583 questionnaires were analyzed from completions on 183 days throughout the season (92 ± 24 per player, 103 ± 20 per week; mean ± SD). Descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling were used to understand how player ratings of wellness varied over the season and during the week leading into game day and whether selected player characteristics moderated these relationships. Results indicated that subjective ratings of physical and psychological wellness were sensitive to weekly training manipulations (i.e., improve steadily throughout the week to a game day low, p wellness provide a useful tool for coaches and practitioners to monitor player responses to the rigorous demands of training, competition, and life as a professional athlete.
Woods, Carl T; Raynor, Annette J; Bruce, Lyndell; McDonald, Zane; Robertson, Sam
This study investigated whether a multi-dimensional assessment could assist with talent identification in junior Australian football (AF). Participants were recruited from an elite under 18 (U18) AF competition and classified into two groups; talent identified (State U18 Academy representatives; n = 42; 17.6 ± 0.4 y) and non-talent identified (non-State U18 Academy representatives; n = 42; 17.4 ± 0.5 y). Both groups completed a multi-dimensional assessment, which consisted of physical (standing height, dynamic vertical jump height and 20 m multistage fitness test), technical (kicking and handballing tests) and perceptual-cognitive (video decision-making task) performance outcome tests. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of status on the test criterions, whilst a receiver operating characteristic curve assessed the discrimination provided from the full assessment. The talent identified players outperformed their non-talent identified peers in each test (P talent identified and non-talent identified participants, respectively. When compared to single assessment approaches, this multi-dimensional assessment reflects a more comprehensive means of talent identification in AF. This study further highlights the importance of assessing multi-dimensional performance qualities when identifying talented team sports.
Woods, Carl T; Veale, James; Fransen, Job; Robertson, Sam; Collier, Neil French
In team sport, classifying playing position based on a players' expressed skill sets can provide a guide to talent identification by enabling the recognition of performance attributes relative to playing position. Here, elite junior Australian football players were a priori classified into 1 of 4 common playing positions; forward, midfield, defence, and ruck. Three analysis approaches were used to assess the extent to which 12 in-game skill performance indicators could classify playing position. These were a linear discriminant analysis (LDA), random forest, and a PART decision list. The LDA produced classification accuracy of 56.8%, with class errors ranging from 19.6% (midfielders) to 75.0% (ruck). The random forest model performed at a slightly worse level (51.62%), with class errors ranging from 27.8% (midfielders) to 100% (ruck). The decision list revealed 6 rules capable of classifying playing position at accuracy of 70.1%, with class errors ranging from 14.4% (midfielders) to 100% (ruck). Although the PART decision list produced the greatest relative classification accuracy, the technical skill indicators reported were generally unable to accurately classify players according to their position using the 3 analysis approaches. This player homogeneity may complicate recruitment by constraining talent recruiter's ability to objectively recognise distinctive positional attributes.
Elsworthy, Nathan; Burke, Darren; Dascombe, Ben J
The onset of exercise facilitates an improvement in psychomotor performance until the second ventilatory threshold, after which performance is reduced. This inverted-U relationship appears valid for incremental and steady-state exercise, however, not for intermittent exercise. This study examined changes in psychomotor performance of team sport officials during a laboratory-based match simulation. Twelve elite Australian football (n = 5) and rugby league (n = 7) officials (32.5 ± 5.5 years; 180.0 ± 6.8 cm; 78.8 ± 7.6 kg) completed the match simulation on a non-motorised treadmill. Physiological measures were routinely taken, while psychomotor performance was assessed using the Eriksen flanker task (multiple-choice response time). Significant reductions (P 0.05) in psychomotor performance at different time points were observed. Response time was significantly improved when running above 65% of maximal sprinting speed (P < 0.01). This data questions the application of the inverted-U hypothesis for intermittent exercise and suggests that the short high-intensity efforts may not result in the same physiological events that limit psychomotor performance during sustained high-intensity exercise. More so, the high-intensity efforts during the match protocol appeared to promote psychomotor performance during the intermittent exercise.
Kordi, Ramin; Chitsaz, Alireza; Rostami, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Reza; Ghadimi, Mahmoodreza
Background: Despite the crucial role of referees in a soccer match, few researchers have targeted the injury profile of referees in their studies. Understanding the incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries could provide important information for educational and preventative efforts at the international level. Hypothesis: The incidence rate and patterns of acute injuries to official referees of the Iranian Premier Football League during the 2009-2010 season are similar to those reported among referees in short-term international competitions such as FIFA World Cup. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: Demographic data for 74 referees, including 30 main referees and 44 assistant referees, were collected at the beginning of the season. To record injuries and refereeing time, weekly contact was made by a physician. Results: In total, 102 injuries were reported by referees during the football season. The incidence rates of injuries among referees during training and matches were 4.6 and 19.6 injuries per 1000 hours, respectively. Muscular and tendon injuries were found to be the most common type of injury, and the most common site of injury was the lower leg followed by the hip and groin. Conclusion: The results of this study are consistent with similar prospective studies evaluating injuries to referees over the course of a short-term tournament. Clinical Relevance: These findings provide a base for suggesting possible preventive recommendations in future studies. PMID:24427414
Khatija Bahdur; Ricard Pruna
Youth football players are a special population of players. These developmental years play a key role in talent development and can build a good foundation for future success. Correct and age-appropriate training methods are essential for youth players, not just for development with regard to performance but also with regard to preventing injuries. Injuries sustained during the teenage years can create chronic problems for the player. This population is special because it is during these year...
Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Ying; Covassin, Tracey; Heiden, Erin O; Peek-Asa, Corinne
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of depression and anxiety symptoms on the prospective injury hazard among collegiate American football athletes. An open cohort of intercollegiate football players (n = 330) from two Division I universities were enrolled and followed during the 2008-2010 seasons. Of 330 enrolled players, 121 (36.7%) sustained at least one injury during the participation period. A total of 66 players (20.0%) reported experiencing symptoms of depression and 109 (33.0%) reported anxiety at the time of enrollment. Depression was associated with increased likelihood of injury (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65, 1.98). Anxiety had an opposite effect and was protective from injury hazard (HR= 0.79, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.93). Football players who experienced depression at enrollment were 10% less likely to remain injury-free than those who did not have depressive symptoms. Evidence from this study suggests injury prevention efforts need to include strategies targeting psychological risk factors.
Dompier, Thomas P; Powell, John W; Barron, Mary J; Moore, Marguerite T
Context: Estimates suggest that more than 5.5 million youths play football annually, and 28% of youth football players (age range = 5 to 14 years) are injured each year, resulting in more than 187 000 emergency room visits. Objective: To analyze time-loss (TL) and non–time-loss (NTL) injury patterns across age groups in youth football players. Design: Two-year observational cohort. Setting: Two midwestern communities, including players from the fourth through eighth grades and between the ages of 9 and 14 years. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 779 players participated, including 296 in grades 4 and 5; 203 in grade 6; 188 in grade 7; and 92 in grade 8. (Players in the fourth and fifth grades participated on the same teams, so we considered them as a single group.) Main Outcome Measure(s): Injury frequencies and exposures were collected by certified athletic trainers present at each practice and game and used to calculate injury rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for both TL and NTL injuries across age groups. Results: A total of 474 injuries and 26 565 exposures were identified. Injuries were reported by 36.5% of the players, with 14.4% reporting more than 1 injury in a season. The overall injury rate per 1000 athlete-exposures (A-Es) was 17.8 (95% CI = 16.3, 19.5). The injury rate increased with each succeeding grade from 14.3 per 1000 A-Es (95% CI = 12.1, 16.9) in grades 4 and 5 to 21.7 per 1000 A-Es (95% CI = 17.2, 27.3) in grade 8. A total of 58.6% of all injuries were NTL. Non–time-loss injuries accounted for 70.1% of the injuries reported by fourth and fifth graders, 55.1% by sixth graders, 64.0% by seventh graders, and 33.8% by eighth graders. The cumulative NTL injury rate was 10.5 per 1000 A-Es (95% CI = 9.3, 11.8), and the TL injury rate was 7.4 per 1000 A-Es (95% CI = 6.4, 8.5). Conclusions: Youth football players sustained more NTL injuries than TL injuries. We recommend that a first-aid–certified coach or league official be
Hoskins, Wayne; Pollard, Henry; Daff, Chris; Odell, Andrew; Garbutt, Peter; McHardy, Andrew; Hardy, Kate; Dragasevic, George
Our understanding of the effects of football code participation on low back pain (LBP) is limited. It is unclear whether LBP is more prevalent in athletic populations or differs between levels of competition. Thus it was the aim of this study to document and compare the prevalence, intensity, quality and frequency of LBP between elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group. A cross-sectional survey of elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group was performed. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire incorporating the Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale (QVAS) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (short form) (MPQ-SF), along with additional questions adapted from an Australian epidemiological study. Respondents were 271 elite players (mean age 23.3, range 17-39), 360 semi-elite players (mean age 23.8, range 16-46) and 148 non-athletic controls (mean age 23.9, range 18-39). Groups were matched for age (p = 0.42) and experienced the same age of first onset LBP (p = 0.40). A significant linear increase in LBP from the non-athletic group, to the semi-elite and elite groups for the QVAS and the MPQ-SF was evident (p < 0.001). Elite subjects were more likely to experience more frequent (daily or weekly OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.29-2.42) and severe LBP (discomforting and greater OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.29-2.38). Foolers in Australia have significantly more severe and frequent LBP than a non-athletic group and this escalates with level of competition.
Justin Wai-Yuk Lee; Kam-Ming Mok; Hardaway Chun-Kwan Chan; Patrick Shu-Hang Yung; Kai-Ming Chan
The aim of this study was to investigate the match and training injury incidence, injury patterns and severity, and their monthly variation in a Hong Kong male professional football league. The study design was a prospective cohort study. Seven teams in the Hong Kong Football Association first division league and 152 players from 10 professional teams participated in this study. On a weekly basis throughout the 9-month season, time-loss injuries and individual exposure were collected from inj...
Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Lara, Paulo Henrique Schmidt; Astur, Diego Costa; Pedrinelli, André; Pagura, Jorge Roberto; Cohen, Moisés
Football is a high-speed contact sport and the risk of injury is high. The objective of this study was to compare the two main divisions (A1 and A2) of the São Paulo Football Championship and to perform a correlation analysis of the variables studied. A prospective study was conducted using an electronic questionnaire previously developed by the Medical Committee of the São Paulo Football Federation. The questionnaire was sent to the doctors of the teams playing in the A1 and A2 divisions of the São Paulo Football Championship after each round. Setting: 2016 São Paulo Football Championship. The comparison of divisions A1 and A2 showed few significant differences among the various variables analysed in this study. The only significant differences were for right-side involvement in division A1 (p=0.044) and morning matches in division A2 (p<0.001). The correlation analysis of the variables studied showed expected associations, including sprains with a higher rate of need for surgery, ultrasound with muscle strains and moderate severity (8-28 days lost) with muscle strains. Despite the differences between the two divisions regarding budgets and team characteristics, there was a little difference in the variables analysed and there were associations such as sprains with a higher rate of need for surgery, ultrasound with muscle strains and moderate severity (8-28 days lost) with muscle strains. II b, individual cohort study.
Bianco, Antonino; Spedicato, Mirco; Petrucci, Marco; Messina, Giuseppe; Thomas, Ewan; Nese Sahin, Fatma; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio
Background: The effects of synthetic surfaces on the risk of injuries is still debated in literature and the majority of published data seems to be contradictory. For such reasons the understanding of injury incidence on such surfaces, especially in youth sport, is fundamental for injury prevention. Objectives: The aim of this study was to prospectively report the epidemiology of injuries in young football players, playing on artificial turfs, during a one sports season. Patients and Methods: 80 young male football players (age 16.1 ± 3.7 years; height 174 ± 6.6 cm; weight 64.2 ± 6.3 kg) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. The participants were then divided in two groups; the first included players age ranging from 17 to 19 (OP) whereas the second included players age ranging from 13 to 16 (YP). Injury incidence was recorded prospectively, according to the consensus statement for soccer. Results: A total of 107 injuries (35 from the OP and 72 from the YP) were recorded during an exposure time of 83.760 hours (incidence 1.28/1000 per player hours); 22 during matches (incidence 2.84/1000 per player hours, 20.5%) and 85 during training (incidence 1.15/1000 per player hours, 79.5%). Thigh and groin were the most common injury locations (33.6% and 21.5%, respectively) while muscle injuries such as contractures and strains were the most common injury typologies (68.23%). No statistical differences between groups were displayed, except for the rate of severe injuries during matches, with the OP displaying slightly higher rates compared to the YP. Severe injuries accounted for 10.28% of the total injuries reported. The average time lost due to injuries was 14 days. Re-injuries accounted for 4.67% of all injuries sustained during the season. Conclusions: In professional youth soccer injury rates are reasonably low. Muscle injuries are the most common type of injuries while groin and thigh the most common locations. Artificial turf pitches don’t seem to
Pierce, David; Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Dobell, Jennifer; Anderson, Rosemary
Mental ill health, especially depression, is recognised as an important health concern, potentially with greater impact in rural communities. This paper reports on a project, Coach the Coach, in which Australian rural football clubs were the setting and football coaches the leaders in providing greater mental health awareness and capacity to support early help seeking behaviour among young males experiencing mental health difficulties, especially depression. Coaches and other football club leaders were provided with Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training. Pre-post measures of the ability of those club leaders undertaking mental health training to recognise depression and schizophrenia and of their knowledge of evidence supported treatment options, and confidence in responding to mental health difficulties were obtained using a questionnaire. This was supplemented by focus group interviews. Pre-post questionnaire data from players in participating football clubs was used to investigate attitudes to depression, treatment options and ability to recognise depression from a clinical scenario. Key project stakeholders were also interviewed. Club leaders (n = 36) who were trained in MHFA and club players (n = 275) who were not trained, participated in this evaluation. More than 50% of club leaders who undertook the training showed increased capacity to recognise mental illness and 66% reported increased confidence to respond to mental health difficulties in others. They reported that this training built upon their existing skills, fulfilled their perceived social responsibilities and empowered them. Indirect benefit to club players from this approach seemed limited as minimal changes in attitudes were reported by players. Key stakeholders regarded the project as valuable. Rural football clubs appear to be appropriate social structures to promote rural mental health awareness. Club leaders, including many coaches, benefit from MHFA training, reporting increased skills and
Lynch, T Sean; Saltzman, Matthew D; Ghodasra, Jason H; Bilimoria, Karl Y; Bowen, Mark K; Nuber, Gordon W
Previous studies investigating acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries in professional American football players have only been reported on quarterbacks during the 1980s and 1990s. These injuries have not been evaluated across all position players in the National Football League (NFL). The purpose of this study was 4-fold: (1) to determine the incidence of AC joint injuries among all NFL position players; (2) to investigate whether player position, competition setting, type of play, and playing surface put an athlete at an increased risk for this type of injury; (3) to determine the incidence of operative and nonoperative management of these injuries; and (4) to compare the time missed for injuries treated nonoperatively to the time missed for injuries requiring surgical intervention. Descriptive epidemiological study. All documented injuries of the AC joint were retrospectively analyzed using the NFL Injury Surveillance System (NFLISS) over a 12-season period from 2000 through 2011. The data were analyzed by the anatomic location, player position, field conditions, type of play, requirement of surgical management, days missed per injury, and injury incidence. Over 12 NFL seasons, there were a total of 2486 shoulder injuries, with 727 (29.2%) of these injuries involving the AC joint. The overall rate of AC joint injuries in these athletes was 26.1 injuries per 10,000 athlete exposures, with the majority of these injuries occurring during game activity on natural grass surfaces (incidence density ratio, 0.79) and most often during passing plays. These injuries occurred most frequently in defensive backs, wide receivers, and special teams players; however, the incidence of these injuries was greatest in quarterbacks (20.9 injuries per 100 players), followed by special teams players (20.7/100) and wide receivers (16.5/100). Overall, these athletes lost a mean of 9.8 days per injury, with quarterbacks losing the most time to injury (mean, 17.3 days). The majority of
Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus; Ekstrand, Jan
Background Previous injury is a well-documented risk factor for football injury. The time trends and patterns of recurrent injuries at different playing levels are not clear. Aim To compare recurrent injury proportions, incidences and patterns between different football playing levels, and to study time trends in recurrent injury incidence. Methods Time-loss injuries were collected from injury surveillance of 43 top-level European professional teams (240 team-seasons), 19 Swedish premier divi...
Leung, Felix T; Mendis, M Dilani; Stanton, Warren R; Hides, Julie A
Australian Football League (AFL) players have a high incidence of back injuries. Motor control training to increase lumbopelvic neuromuscular control has been effective in reducing low back pain (LBP) and lower limb injuries in elite athletes. Control of pelvic and femoral alignment during functional activity involves the piriformis muscle. This study investigated (a) the effect of motor control training on piriformis muscle size in AFL players, with and without LBP, during the playing season, and (b) whether there is a relationship between lower limb injury and piriformis muscle size. Stepped-wedge intervention. 46 AFL players participated in a motor control training programme consisting of two 30min sessions per week over 7-8 weeks, delivered across the season as a randomised 3 group single-blinded stepped-wedge design. Assessment of piriformis muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) involved magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 time points during the season. Assessment of LBP consisted of player interview and physical examination. Injury data were obtained from club records. An interaction effect for Time, Intervention Group and LBP group (F=3.7, p=0.03) was found. Piriformis muscle CSA showed significant increases between Times 1 and 2 (F=4.24, p=0.046), and Times 2 and 3 (F=8.59, p=0.006). Players with a smaller increase in piriformis muscle CSA across the season had higher odds of sustaining an injury (OR=1.08). Piriformis muscle size increases across the season in elite AFL players and is affected by the presence of LBP and lower limb injury. Motor control training positively affects piriformis muscle size in players with LBP. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available activities which more often cause injuries of muscles. On account of “generousness” of the muscle tissue and according to the knowledge of complete regeneration of the muscle tissue without any complications, process of curing demands the knowledge and great pratical experience. The aim of this work is to show the most common localisations and sorts of injuries and also the methods of curing and rehabilitation of football players inferiority of fast returning to the sport fields and achieving high results.Materials and methods: this work included 1537 football players with injuries of muscle tissues, who have been treated in outpatient clinics of Football Club “Red Star” from Belgrade and Football Club “Berane” from Berane for two years. All of the patients were male, divided into two groups – under 18 and over 18 years – the seniors. The patients were chosen from their clubs by the same criteria. Results: among 1184 patients in the outpatient clinic of the Football Club “Red Star”, 614 (51.81% had light injuries, 488 (41.29% had medium injuries and 82 patients (6.9% had heavy injuries. In the same time, in the outpatients clinic of FC “Berane” 353 were overseen, 177 (50.1% had light injuries 140 (39.6% had medium injuries and 36 (10.3% were heavily injured. Comparing the sorts of injuries in both clubs, we found the contusion injuries without hematoma in 582 (37.8%, the contusion injuries with hematoma in 279 (19.5% patients, the distensional injuries in (29.2% patients, partial ruptures in 125 (8.1%, the total ruptures (2.3% and painful cramps in 133 (60.2% patients. The injuries were during trainings 612 (39.8%, during the game (on the field 962 (60.2% of injuries. Mainly, the injuries were localised in the area of the upper knee 997 (63.5%, lower knee 332 (22.6%, pelric and abdominal area 96 (8.2%, chest injuries 80 (5.2% and in the area of the head and 56 (3.6%. After intensive treatment, immediately after injuries
Young, Warren B; Miller, Ian R; Talpey, Scott W
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between selected physical qualities, change-of-direction (COD) speed, and defensive agility performance in Australian Rules football players. Twenty-four male community-level players were assessed on sprint acceleration (10-m time), maximum strength (3 repetition-maximum half squat), leg power (countermovement jump), reactive strength (drop jump), and a single COD speed test and a defensive agility test. Change-of-direction speed was correlated with reactive strength (r = -0.645, p = 0.001) and sprint acceleration (r = 0.510, p = 0.011). Multiple regression indicated that the combined physical qualities explained 56.7% of the variance associated with COD speed (adjusted R = 0.567, p ≤ 0.05). Participants were median split into faster and slower COD speed groups, and these were compared by independent t-tests. The faster group was significantly better (p ≤ 0.05) on the sprint acceleration and reactive strength tests (large effect size). The correlations between physical qualities and agility were trivial to small (r = -0.101 to 0.123, p > 0.05) and collectively explained only 14.2% of the variance associated with agility performance (adjusted R = -0.142, p > 0.05). When faster and slower agility groups were compared, there were trivial to moderate differences (p > 0.05) in all physical qualities. It was concluded that reactive strength and sprint acceleration are important for COD speed, but the physical qualities assessed are not associated with defensive agility performance. For agility tasks similar to those in this study, sprint and resistance training should not be emphasized, and training other factors, such as the development of sport-specific technique and cognitive skill, is recommended.
Cameron, Matthew L; Adams, Roger D; Maher, Chris G
Our purpose was to assess the effect of wearing close-fitting neoprene shorts on swinging leg movement discrimination (MD) scores in elite level Australian Football players. Twenty players had their swinging leg MD assessed using the active movement extent discrimination apparatus (AMEDA), once wearing close-fitting neoprene and once wearing loose-fitting running shorts. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of the shorts conditions prior to repeating the test in the other condition. The AMEDA was used to assess the accuracy at which subjects judge the extent of a standing backward swinging leg movement corresponding to the late swing early stance phase of running. Each subject performed 40 movements made to one of five randomly set physical limits, and without the aid of vision made a judgment as to the perceived limit position. From the accuracy of these judgments, a movement discrimination (MD) score was calculated for each subject under each condition. Subjects were grouped as having low or high neuromuscular control, or ability to use proprioception when controlling active movements without vision, based on their loose-shorts MD score. Analysis was performed on the MD scores obtained for each limb from subjects in the two groups, under the two shorts-wearing conditions. There was no main effect of wearing close-fitting shorts when the cohort was treated as a whole. A significant interaction effect was obtained (F=17.027, p=0.0006) whereby the mean MD score of the low neuromuscular control ability group was improved when wearing neoprene shorts but was reduced for the high ability group. Wearing close-fitting neoprene shorts has a beneficial effect on leg swing judgment accuracy in subjects with low neuromuscular control ability. Conversely, leg swing judgment accuracy for subjects with high ability was reduced by wearing neoprene shorts.
McGuigan, Michael R; Cormack, Stuart; Newton, Robert U
Measuring and tracking performance variables such as peak power output is essential for assessing the effects of training and for informing adjustments to optimize program design. The purpose of this study was to track the long-term changes in muscular power, velocity, and jump height of elite Australian Rules Football (ARF) players during a 3-year period. Twelve members of an ARF team were tracked during the study. The physical characteristics of the subjects were age, 25.3 6 2.8 years; body mass, 93.0 6 6.8 kg; and height, 192 6 6 cm. The subjects performed unweighted and weighted (40 kg) countermovement jumps (CMJ) and static jumps (SJ). Peak power, jump height, and bar velocity were determined using a force plate and position transducer.Measures of peak power output during both the CMJ and SJ indicated significant (p# 0.001) increases of 13% (effect size [ES] = 0.70) and 17% (ES = 1.77), respectively, during the course of the tracking period. There was also a significant 9% (ES = 0.71) increase in CMJ40 peak power. The subjects' CMJ peak velocity improved by 10.7% (ES = 0.34), and SJ peak velocity improved by 12.6% (ES = 0.37). The data from this study show that elite-level ARF players can continue to increase muscular power and velocity. This information is of interest to strength and conditioning coaches who are interested in improving power performance of their athletes for a long-term period.
Gallo, Tania F; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Lorenzen, Christian H
The impact of perceived wellness on a range of external load parameters, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and external load:RPE ratios, was explored during skill-based training in Australian footballers. Fifteen training sessions involving 36 participants were analysed. Each morning before any physical training, players completed a customised perceived wellness questionnaire (sleep quality, fatigue, stress, mood and muscle soreness). Microtechnology devices provided external load (average speed, high-speed running distance, player load and player load slow). Players provided RPE using the modified Borg category-ratio 10 RPE scale. Mixed-effect linear models revealed significant effects of wellness Z-score on player load and player load slow. Effects are reported with 95% confidence limits. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a -4.9 ± 3.1 and -8.6 ± 3.9% reduction in player load and player load slow, respectively, compared to those without reduced wellness. Small significant effects were also seen in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE models. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a 0.43 ± 0.38 m·min(-1) and -0.02 ± 0.01 au·min(-1) change in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE ratios, respectively. Magnitude-based analysis revealed that the practical size of the effect of a pre-training perceived wellness Z-score of -1 would have on player load slow was likely negative. The results of this study suggests that monitoring pre-training perceived wellness may provide coaches with information about the intensity of output that can be expected from individual players during a training session.
Woods, Carl T; Banyard, Harry G; McKeown, Ian; Fransen, Job; Robertson, Sam
Talent identification (TID) is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF). This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18) AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives) and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives). Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA), consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs), single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs), and a push up (six movement criterions). Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement). A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 - 0.87; p = 0.01 - 0.02). Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE) = -0.89(0.44); p talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent identification approaches in junior AF, as it may provide coaches with
Carl T. Woods, Harry G. Banyard, Ian McKeown, Job Fransen, Sam Robertson
Full Text Available Talent identification (TID is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF. This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18 AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives. Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA, consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs, single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs, and a push up (six movement criterions. Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 – 0.87; p = 0.01 – 0.02. Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE = -0.89(0.44; p < 0.05, with a score of 4.5 classifying 64% and 88% of the talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent
Thomas, Samantha; Lewis, Sophie; Duong, Jenny; McLeod, Colin
Using Australian Football League (AFL) matches as a case study, we investigated the frequency, length and content of marketing strategies for sports betting during two specific settings: 1) at stadiums during four live matches; and 2) during eight televised broadcasts of matches. Census of sports betting marketing during Round 12 of the 2011 AFL premiership season. Per match, there was an average of 58.5 episodes (median 49.5, s.d 27.8) and 341.1 minutes (median 324.1 minutes and s.d 44.5) of sports betting marketing at stadiums, and 50.5 episodes (median 53.5, s.d 45.2) and 4.8 minutes (median 5.0 minutes, s.d 4.0) during televised broadcasts. A diverse range of marketing techniques were used to: a) embed sports betting within the game; b) align sports betting with fans' overall experience of the game; and c) encourage individuals to bet live during the game. There were very few visible or audible messages (such as responsible gambling or Gambler's Help messages) to counter-frame the overwhelmingly positive messages that individuals received about sports betting during the match. This study raises important questions about the impacts of saturation, integrated and impulse gambling marketing strategies in sporting matches. Future research should explore: 1) how wagering industry marketing strategies may affect the attitudes and behaviours of community sub-groups (e.g. young male sports fans, and children); and 2) which public health and policy strategies, including regulation and harm minimisation messaging, will be effective in responding to wagering industry marketing strategies during sporting matches. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.
Cormack, Stuart J; Newton, Robert U; McGuigan, Michael R; Cormie, Prue
To examine variations in neuromuscular and hormonal status and their relationship to performance throughout a season of elite Australian Rules Football (ARF). Fifteen elite ARF players performed a single jump (CMJ1) and 5 repeated countermovement jumps (CMJ5), and provided saliva samples for the analysis of cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) before the season commenced (Pre) and during the 22-match season. Magnitudes of effects were reported with the effect size (ES) statistic. Correlations were performed to analyze relationships between assessment variables and match time, training load, and performance. CMJ1Flight time:Contraction time was substantially reduced on 60% of measurement occasions. Magnitudes of change compared with Pre ranged from 1.0+/-7.4% (ES 0.04+/-0.29) to -17.1+/-21.8% (ES -0.77+/-0.81). Cortisol was substantially lower (up to -40+/-14.1%, ES of -2.17+/-0.56) than Pre in all but one comparison. Testosterone response was varied, whereas T:C increased substantially on 70% of occasions, with increases to 92.7+/-27.8% (ES 2.03+/-0.76). CMJ1Flight time:Contraction time (r=.24+/-0.13) and C displayed (r=-0.16+/-0.1) small correlations with performance. The response of CMJ1Flight time:Contraction time suggests periods of neuromuscular fatigue. Change in T:C indicates subjects were unlikely to have been in a catabolic state during the season. Increase in C compared with Pre had a small negative correlation with performance. Both CMJ1Flight time:Contraction time and C may be useful variables for monitoring responses to training and competition in elite ARF athletes.
Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.
Football players are more to violent impacts and injuries more than any athlete in any other sport. Concussion or mild traumatic brain injuries were one of the lesser known sports injuries until the last decade. With the advent of modern technologies in medical and engineering disciplines, people are now more aware of concussion detection and prevention. These concussions are often overlooked by football players themselves. The cumulative effect of these mild traumatic brain injuries can cause long-term residual brain dysfunctions. The principle of concussion is based the movement of the brain in the neurocranium and viscerocranium. The brain is encapsulated by the cerebrospinal fluid which acts as a protective layer for the brain. This fluid can protect the brain against minor movements, however, any rapid movements of the brain may mitigate the protective capability of the cerebrospinal fluid. In this paper, we propose a wireless health monitoring helmet that addresses the concerns of the current monitoring methods - it is non-invasive for a football player as helmet is not an additional gear, it is efficient in performance as it is equipped with EEG nanosensors and 3D accelerometer, it does not restrict the movement of the user as it wirelessly communicates to the remote monitoring station, requirement of individual monitoring stations are not required for each player as the ZigBee protocol can couple multiple transmitters with one receiver. A helmet was developed and validated according to the above mentioned parameters.
Leung, Felix T; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Hides, Julie A
There is a high incidence of injuries in rugby union due to the physical nature of the game. In youth rugby union, there are large variations in injury rates reported. Our study investigated the rates of injuries in school-level rugby union players in Australia using the consensus statement for rugby union injuries. Injury surveillance was conducted on 480 rugby players from 1 school in Queensland, Australia. Injury data were collected using paper-based injury recording forms during the 8-week rugby season using a "medical-attention" injury definition. In total, 76 players sustained one or more injuries, with a total of 80 injuries recorded. The overall injury rate was 31.8 injuries/1000 match player hours (95% CI, 25.4-39.4). Concussion had an incidence rate of 6.0/1000 match player hours (95% CI, 3.5-9.6). The incidence of upper limb and lower limb injuries were 9.1 and 9.9/1000 match player hours, respectively (95% CI, 5.9-13.5 and 6.6-14.5). The older age divisions had higher injury rates and most injuries occurred while tackling or being tackled. The injury rates observed in this sample of Australian school rugby union players provides direction for future studies to enable informed decisions relating to development of injury prevention programmes at this level of rugby.
Gustavo Goncalves Arliani
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.
Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Runco, Jose Luiz; Cohen, Moisés
This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.
Kerr, Zachary Y.; Simon, Janet E.; Grooms, Dustin R.; Roos, Karen G.; Cohen, Randy P.; Dompier, Thomas P.
Background: Research has found that injury rates in football are higher in competition than during practice. However, there is little research on the association between injury rates and type of football practices and how these specific rates compare with those in competitions. Purpose: This study utilized data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) to describe men’s collegiate football practice injuries (academic years 2004-2005 to 2008-2009) in 4 event types: competitions, scrimmages, regular practices, and walkthroughs. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Football data during the 2004-2005 to 2008-2009 academic years were analyzed. Annually, an average of 60 men’s football programs provided data (9.7% of all universities sponsoring football). Injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), injury rate ratios (RRs), 95% CIs, and injury proportions were reported. Results: The NCAA ISS captured 18,075 football injuries. Most injuries were reported in regular practices (55.9%), followed by competitions (38.8%), scrimmages (4.4%), and walkthroughs (0.8%). Most AEs were reported in regular practices (77.6%), followed by walkthroughs (11.5%), competitions (8.6%), and scrimmages (2.3%). The highest injury rate was found in competitions (36.94/1000 AEs), followed by scrimmages (15.7/1000 AEs), regular practices (5.9/1000 AEs), and walkthroughs (0.6/1000 AEs). These rates were all significantly different from one another. Distributions of injury location and diagnoses were similar across all 4 event types, with most injuries occurring at the lower extremity (56.0%) and consisting of sprains and strains (50.6%). However, injury mechanisms varied. The proportion of injuries due to player contact was greatest in scrimmages (66.8%), followed by regular practices (48.5%) and walkthroughs (34.9%); in contrast, the proportion of injuries due to noncontact/overuse was greatest in walkthroughs (41
Werner, Brian C.; Belkin, Nicole S.; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P.; Potter, Hollis G.; Warren, Russell F.; Rodeo, Scott A.
Background: Lower extremity muscle injuries are common in professional football. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps injuries in National Football League (NFL) athletes, calf injuries occur with relative frequency and have not previously been studied. Purpose: To evaluate gastrocnemius-soleus complex muscle injuries over the past 13 years from a single NFL team to determine the incidence of such injuries, their imaging characteristics, and return to play after such injuries and any correlation between imaging findings and prolonged return to play. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A retrospective review of all acute calf muscle injuries on a single NFL team from 2003 to 2015 was performed. Player demographics and return-to-play data were obtained from the medical records. All available magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were reviewed by a musculoskeletal radiologist for specific imaging findings that correlated with return to play. Results: A total of 27 calf injuries in 24 NFL players were reviewed, yielding an incidence of 2.3 acute calf injuries per year on a single NFL team. Of these 27 injuries, 20 (74%) were isolated injuries to the gastrocnemius muscle, 4 (15%) were isolated injuries to the soleus muscle, and the remaining 3 injuries (11%) involved both. Defensive players were more likely to sustain injuries (P = .043). The mean time to return to play for all 27 players was 17.4 ± 14.6 days (range, 3-62 days). MRIs were available in 14 of the 27 injuries. The average size of the fascial defect (P = .032) and the presence of a fluid collection (P = .031) both correlated with return to play of longer than 2 weeks. Conclusion: Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps muscle injuries, calf muscle injuries occur with relative frequency in the NFL, and more so in defensive players. The majority of these injuries occur in the gastrocnemius and result in significant disability, with at least 2 weeks of missed playing
Junge, Astrid; Dvořák, Jiri
Background FIFA has surveyed match injuries in its tournaments since 1998. Aim To analyse the incidence and characteristics of match injuries incurred during the 2014 FIFA World Cup in comparison to previous FIFA World Cups. Methods The chief physicians of the participating teams reported all newly incurred injuries of their players after the match on a standardised report form. 124 (97%) forms were returned. Results A total of 104 injuries were reported, equivalent to an incidence of 1.68 injuries per match (95% CI 1.36 to 2.00). 64 (63.4%) injuries were caused by contact with another player. Thigh (26; 25%) and head (19; 18%) were the most frequently injured body parts. The most frequent diagnosis was thigh strain (n=18). Five concussions and three fractures to the head were reported. While most thigh strains (15/17; 88.2%) occurred without contact, almost all head injuries (18/19; 94.7%) were caused by contact. 0.97 injuries per match (95% CI 0.72 to 1.22) were expected to result in absence from training or match. Eight injuries were classified as severe. The incidence of match injuries in the 2014 FIFA World Cup was significantly lower than the average of the four preceding FIFA World Cups, both for all injuries (2.34; 95% CI 2.15 to 2.53) and time-loss injuries (1.51; 95% CI 1.37 to 1.65). Conclusions The overall incidence of injury during the FIFA World Cups decreased from 2002 to 2014 by 37%. A detailed analysis of the injury mechanism is recommended to further improve prevention strategies. PMID:25878077
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hamstring injury is one of the most common injuries affecting gaelic footballers, similar to other field sports. Research in other sports on whether residual hamstring weakness is present after hamstring injury is inconsistent, and no study has examined this factor in irish gaelic footballers. The aim of this study was to examine whether significant knee muscle weakness is present in male Irish gaelic footballers who have returned to full activity after hamstring injury. Methods The concentric isokinetic knee flexion and extension strength of 44 members of a university gaelic football team was assessed at 60, 180 and 300 degrees per second using a Contrex dynamometer. Results Fifteen players (34% reported a history of hamstring strain, with 68% of injuries affecting the dominant (kicking limb. The hamstrings were significantly stronger (p 0.05 using this comparison. The previously unilaterally injured hamstrings were significantly weaker (p Conclusion Hamstring muscle weakness was observed in male Irish gaelic footballers with a history of hamstring injury. This weakness is most evident when comparisons are made to multiple control populations, both within and between subjects. The increased strength of the dominant limb should be considered as a potential confounding variable in future trials. The study design does not allow interpretation of whether these changes in strength were present before or after injury.
Hunt, Kenneth J; George, Elizabeth; Harris, Alex H S; Dragoo, Jason L
To describe the incidence and risk factors for high ankle sprains (ie, syndesmosis injuries) among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football players. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Data were examined from the NCAA's Injury Surveillance System (ISS) for 5 football seasons (from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009). All NCAA men's football programs participating in the ISS. No additional risk factors were introduced as a result of this analysis. For partial and complete syndesmosis injuries, outcome measures included incidence, time lost from participation, and requirement for surgical repair. The overall incidence of high ankle sprains in NCAA football players was 0.24 per 1000 athlete exposures, accounting for 24.6% of all ankle sprains. Athletes were nearly 14 times more likely to sustain the injury during games compared with practice; complete syndesmosis injuries resulted in significantly greater time lost compared with partial injuries (31.3 vs 15.8 days). Less than 3% of syndesmosis injuries required surgical intervention. There was a significantly higher injury incidence on artificial surfaces compared with natural grass. The majority of injuries (75.2%) occurred during contact with another player. Our data suggest a significantly higher incidence of syndesmosis injuries during games, during running plays, and to running backs and interior defensive linemen. The wide range in time lost from participation for complete syndesmosis injuries underscores the need for improved understanding of injury mechanism and classification of injury severity such that prevention, safe return to play protocols, and outcomes can be further improved.
Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin
Background The incidence and characteristics of football injuries during matches in top-level international tournaments are well documented, but training injuries and illnesses during this period have rarely been studied. Aim To analyse the incidence and characteristics of injuries and illnesses incurred during the 2010 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup. Methods The chief physicians of the 32 finalist teams reported daily all newly incurred injuries and illnesses of their players on a standardised medical report form. Results Out of 229 injuries reported, 82 match and 58 training injuries were expected to result in time loss, equivalent to an incidence of 40.1 match and 4.4 training injuries per 1000 h. Contact with another player was the most frequent cause of match (65%) and of training (40%) injuries. The most frequent diagnoses were thigh strain and ankle sprain. 99 illnesses of 89 (12%) players were reported. Illnesses were mainly infections of the respiratory or the digestive system. Most illnesses did not result in absence from training or match. The incidence of time-loss illnesses was 3.0 per 1000 player days. Conclusion The incidence of match injuries during the 2010 FIFA World Cup was significantly lower than in the three proceeding World Cups. This might be a result of more regard to injury prevention, less foul play and stricter refereeing. Tackling skills and fair play need to be improved to prevent contact injuries in training and matches. Prevention of illness should focus on reducing the risk of infections by considering the common modes of transmission and environmental conditions. PMID:21257668
McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; Wilson, John; Brooks, Alison
Background Although a nkle injuries occur frequently in high school football players no prospective studies have been performed to determine if wearing lace-up ankle braces will reduce the incidence and severity of ankle and other lower extremity injuries in these athletes. Purpose Determine if lace-up ankle braces reduce the incidence and severity of lower extremity injuries sustained by high school football players. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods 2081 players from 50 high schools were randomly-assigned to braced or control group. Braced group subjects wore lace-up ankle braces during the 2010 football season. Athletic trainers recorded brace compliance, athletic exposures and injuries. Cox Proportional Hazards models were utilized to compare injury rates between groups. Injury severity (days lost) was tested with Wilcoxon Rank Sum. Results The rate of acute ankle injury (per 1,000 exposures) was 0.48 in the braced group compared to 1.12 in the control group (Cox Hazard Ratio (HR)=0.39, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.24, 0.65, pinjuries was the same (5 days) in both groups (p=0.985). The rate of acute knee injury was 0.70 in the braced group compared to 0.69 in the control group, (HR=0.92 [0.57, 1.47], p=0.721). There was no difference (p=0.242) in the severity of knee injuries between the groups (controls 11.5 days, braced =17 days. The rate of other lower extremity injuries was 0.95 in the braced group and 1.32 in the control group, (HR=0.72 [0.48, 1.09], p=0.117) while the severity was similar in both groups (6 days versus 7 days, p=0.295). Conclusions Players who used lace-up ankle braces had a lower incidence of acute ankle injuries but no difference in the incidence of acute knee or other lower extremity injuries. Braces did not reduce the severity of ankle, knee or other lower extremity injuries. PMID:21926383
Owoeye, Oluwatoyosi Babatunde Alex; Aiyegbusi, Ayoola Ibifubara; Fapojuwo, Oluwaseun Akinleye; Badru, Oluwaseun Abdulganiyu; Babalola, Anike Rasheedat
Research on the epidemiology of football injuries in Africa is very sparse despite its importance for injury prevention planning in a continent with limited sports medicine resources. The vast majority of studies available in literature were conducted in Europe and only a very few studies have prospectively reported the pattern of football injury in Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and pattern of injuries in a cohort of male and female semi-professional football players in Nigeria. A prospective cohort design was conducted, in which a total of 756 players with an age range of 18-32 years (356 males and 300 females) from 22 different teams (12 male and 10 female teams), were prospectively followed in a National Football Tournament. Physiotherapists recorded team exposure and injuries. Injuries were documented using the consensus protocol for data collection in studies relating to football injury surveillance. An overall incidence of 113.4 injuries/1000 h (95% CI 93.7-136.0) equivalent to 3.7 injuries/match and time-loss incidence of 15.6 injuries/1000 h were recorded for male players and 65.9 injuries/1000 h (95% CI 48.9-86.8) equivalent to 2.2 injuries/match and time-loss incidence of 7.9 injuries/1000 h were recorded for female players. Male players had a significantly higher risk of injuries [IRR = 1.72 (95% CI 1.23-2.45)]. Injuries mostly affected the lower extremity for both genders (n = 81, 70% and n = 31, 62% for males and females respectively). Lower leg contusion (n = 22, 19%) and knee sprain (n = 9, 18%) were the most common specific injury types for male and female players respectively. Most of the injuries were as a result of contact with another player (n = 102, 88%-males; n = 48, 96%-females). Time-loss injuries were mostly estimated as minimal (n = 11, 69%) for male players and severe (n = 4, 66%) for female players. The overall incidence of injuries among Nigerian semi-professional football
Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Ekstrand, Jan
Ankle injury is common in football, but the circumstances surrounding them are not well characterised. To investigate the rates, especially time-trends, and circumstances of ankle injuries in male professional football. 27 European clubs with 1743 players were followed prospectively between 2001/2002 and 2011/2012. Time loss injuries and individual-player exposure during training sessions and matches were recorded. Injury rate was defined as the number of injuries/1000 h. A total of 1080 ankle injuries were recorded (13% of all injuries) with lateral ligament ankle sprain being the most common injury subtype (51% of all ankle injuries). The rates of ankle injury and ankle sprain were 1/1000 h and 0.7/1000 h, respectively. The ankle sprain rate declined slightly over time during the 11-year study period (on average 3.1%/season) with a statistically significant seasonal trend (p=0.041). Foul play according to the referee was involved in 40% of the match-related ankle sprains. Syndesmotic sprains and ankle impingement were uncommon causes of time loss (3% each of all ankle injuries). Lateral ligament ankle sprain constituted half of all ankle injuries in male professional football, whereas ankle impingement syndromes were uncommon. The ankle sprain rate decreased slightly over time, but many ankle sprains were associated with foul play. Our data extend the body of literature that provides football policy makers with a foundation to review existing rules and their enforcement.
Mahdavi Mohtasham, Hamid; Shahrbanian, Shahnaz; Khoshroo, Fatemeh
Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology and history of knee injury and its impact on activity limitation among football premier league professional referees in Iran. Methods: This was a descriptive study. 59 Football Premier League professional referees participated in the study. The knee injury related information such as injury history and mechanism was recorded. Injury related symptoms and their impacts on the activity limitation, ability to perform activities of daily living as well participation in sports and recreational activities was obtained through the Knee Outcome Survey (KOS). Results: The results indicated that 31 out of 59 participants reported the history of knee injury. In addition, 18.6%, 22.4% and 81% of the referees reported that they had been injured during the last 6 months of the last year, and at some point in their refereeing careers, respectively. Results further indicated that 48.8% of the injuries occurred in the non-dominant leg and they occurred more frequently during training sessions (52%). Furthermore, the value of KOS was 85 ± 13 for Activities of Daily Living subscale and 90 ± 9 for Sports and Recreational Activities subscale of the KOS. Conclusions: Knee injury was quite common among the Football Premier League professional referees. It was also indicated that the injuries occurred mainly due to insufficient physical fitness. Therefore, it is suggested that football referees undergo the proper warm-up program to avoid knee injury. PMID:29362295
Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Gardner, Ryan M; Kuhn, Andrew W; Solomon, Gary S; Bonfield, Christopher M; Zuckerman, Scott L
The risk of sport-related concussion (SRC) has emerged as a major public health concern. In rare instances, sport-related head injuries can be even more severe, such as subdural hemorrhage, epidural hemorrhage, or malignant cerebral edema. Unlike SRCs, sport-related structural brain injury (SRSBI) is rare, may require neurosurgical intervention, and can lead to permanent neurologic deficit or death. Data characterizing SRSBI are limited, and many have recognized the need to better understand these catastrophic brain injuries. The goal of the current series is to describe, in detail, the presentation, management, and outcomes of examples of these rare injuries. During the fall of 2015, three high school football players presented with acute subdural hemorrhages following in-game collisions and were treated at our institution within a span of 2 months. For the 2 athletes who required surgical intervention, a previous SRC was sustained within 4 weeks before the catastrophic event. One year after injury, 2 players have returned to school, though with persistent deficits. One patient remains nonverbal and wheelchair bound. None of the athletes has returned to sports. Acute subdural hemorrhage resultant from an in-game football collision is rare. The temporal proximity of the reported SRSBIs to recent SRCs emphasizes the importance of return-to-play protocols and raises questions regarding the possibility of second impact syndrome. Although epidemiologic conclusions cannot be drawn from this small sample, these cases provide a unique opportunity to demonstrate the presentation, management, and long-term outcomes of SRSBI in American high school football. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kroshus, Emily; Parsons, John; Hainline, Brian
Sports officials can play an important role in concussion safety by calling injury timeouts so that athletic trainers can evaluate athletes with possible concussions. Understanding the determinants of whether officials call an injury timeout when they suspect a concussion has important implications for the design of interventions that better support officials in this role. To assess the knowledge of US collegiate football officials about concussion symptoms and to determine the associations between knowledge, perceived injunctive norms, and self-efficacy and calling injury timeouts for suspected concussions in athletes. Cross-sectional study. Electronic survey. Of the 3074 US collegiate football officials contacted, 1324 (43% response rate) participated. Concussion knowledge, injunctive norms (belief about what others would want them to do), and behavioral self-efficacy (confidence in their ability to call injury timeouts for suspected concussions in athletes during challenging game-day conditions). Officials reported calling approximately 1 injury timeout for a suspected concussion every 4 games during the 2015 season. Structural equation modeling indicated that officials with more concussion-symptom knowledge had greater behavioral self-efficacy. Independent of an official's symptom knowledge, injunctive norms that were more supportive of calling an injury timeout were associated with greater self-efficacy. Concussion education for officials is important because when officials are aware of concussion symptoms, they are more confident in calling injury timeouts. Beyond increasing symptom knowledge, fostering sports environments that encourage concussion safety in all stakeholder groups can support officials in calling injury timeouts. Athletic trainers can help create sports environments that support proactive concussion identification by educating stakeholders, including officials, about the importance of concussion safety. When
Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew Stuart
There have been few in-depth studies of upper limb injury epidemiology in rugby union football, despite reports that they accounted for between 14% and 28% of all rugby injuries. To report on upper limb injury incidence, injury severity and to identify the risk factors associated with upper limb injuries, for example, level of play, season (years) and playing position. Prospective cohort study across five rugby seasons from 2004 to 2008. Formal rugby competitions-suburban, provincial and international. 1475 adult male rugby players in Colts, Grade and Elite competitions. An upper limb injury resulting in a missed game and its characteristics. A total of 61 598 athletic exposures (AE) and 606 upper limb injuries were recorded. About 66% of the injuries were to the shoulder. The overall upper limb injury incidence rate (IIR) was 9.84 injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 9.06 to 10.62). Statistically significant associations were found between upper limb injuries and level of play; and between shoulder injuries and playing position (p<0.05). No association was found between upper limb and shoulder injuries and study year. The overall upper limb IIR decreased as the level of play increased; 10.74 upper limb injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 9.93 to 11.56) in Colts to 6.07 upper limb injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 5.46 to 6.69) in Elite. The upper limb IIR decreased as the level of play increased indicating that age, level of skill and playing experience may be risk factors for upper limb injury.
Keene, J. S.; And Others
A longitudinal study of university football players who played on Tartan Turf and/or natural grass was conducted to determine the types and severity of injuries occuring on the different field surfaces. Overall injury rates on Tartan Turf were found to be significantly lower than those sustained on natural grass. (JD)
Dragoo, Jason L; Braun, Hillary J; Harris, Alex H S
Artificial playing surfaces are widely used for American football practice and competition and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common. This study analyzed the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance System (ISS) men's football ACL injury database from 2004-2005 through 2008-2009 to determine the effect of playing surface on ACL injury in NCAA football athletes. This database was reviewed from the 2004-2005 through 2008-2009 seasons using the specific injury code, "Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) complete tear." The injury rate was computed for competition and practice exposures. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated using assumptions of a Poisson distribution. Pair-wise, two-sample tests of equality of proportions with a continuity correction were used to estimate the associations of risk factors. There was an incidence rate of 1.73 ACL injuries per 10,000 athlete-exposures (A-Es) (95% CI 1.47-2.0) on artificial playing surfaces compared with a rate of 1.24 per 10,000 A-Es (1.05-1.45, pinjuries occurred more frequently on artificial turf surfaces (44.29%) than on natural grass (36.12%). NCAA football players experience a greater number of ACL injuries when playing on artificial surfaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Button, Keith D; Braman, Jerrod E; Davison, Mark A; Wei, Feng; Schaeffer, Maureen C; Haut, Roger C
While previous studies have investigated the effect of shoe-surface interaction on injury risk, few studies have examined the effect of rotational stiffness of the shoe. The hypothesis of the current study was that ankles externally rotated to failure in shoes with low rotational stiffness would allow more talus eversion than those in shoes with a higher rotational stiffness, resulting in less severe injury. Twelve (six pairs) cadaver lower extremities were externally rotated to gross failure while positioned in 20 deg of pre-eversion and 20 deg of predorsiflexion by fixing the distal end of the foot, axially loading the proximal tibia, and internally rotating the tibia. One ankle in each pair was constrained by an American football shoe with a stiff upper, while the other was constrained by an American football shoe with a flexible upper. Experimental bone motions were input into specimen-specific computational models to examine levels of ligament elongation to help understand mechanisms of ankle joint failure. Ankles in flexible shoes allowed 6.7±2.4 deg of talus eversion during rotation, significantly greater than the 1.7±1.0 deg for ankles in stiff shoes (p = 0.01). The significantly greater eversion in flexible shoes was potentially due to a more natural response of the ankle during rotation, possibly affecting the injuries that were produced. All ankles failed by either medial ankle injury or syndesmotic injury, or a combination of both. Complex (more than one ligament or bone) injuries were noted in 4 of 6 ankles in stiff shoes and 1 of 6 ankles in flexible shoes. Ligament elongations from the computational model validated the experimental injury data. The current study suggested flexibility (or rotational stiffness) of the shoe may play an important role in both the severity of ankle injuries for athletes.
Leung, Felix T; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Brown, Mark; Rahmann, Ann; Mendis, M Dilani; Hides, Julie A
There is a high incidence of injuries in rugby union due to the physical nature of the game. There is a lack of large-scale injury surveillance data reported for school level rugby players of different ages. Our study aimed to investigate the frequency and nature of injuries being sustained during an Australian school level rugby union season. Prospective observational study. Injury surveillance was conducted on 3585 rugby players from all 8 schools participating in an interschool rugby competition in Queensland, Australia. Match injury data were collected using paper-based injury recording forms during the season using a 'medical-attention' injury definition for each age group from opens (17 and 18year olds) through to year 5 teams (9-10year olds). There were 332 injuries recorded over 14,029 player hours during the season. The overall rate of injury was 23.7/1000 player hours (95% CI, 21.2-26.3). The incidence of upper and lower limb injuries were 6.3 and 5.6 injuries/1000 player hours respectively (95% CI, 5.1-7.8 and 4.5-7.0). The incidence of suspected concussion injuries was 4.3/1000 player hours (95% CI, 3.6-5.5). Injuries differed across age groups and tackling was the most common mechanism of injury. The injury patterns observed in this large sample of players could be used to guide injury prevention programs in school level rugby union. Injury prevention programs should include age appropriate interventions and focus on improving the techniques used during the contact phase of rugby. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kerr, Zachary Y.; Dalton, Sara L.; Roos, Karen G.; Djoko, Aristarque; Phelps, Jennifer; Dompier, Thomas P.
Background: In Indiana, high school football coaches are required to complete a coaching education course with material related to concussion awareness, equipment fitting, heat emergency preparedness, and proper technique. Some high schools have also opted to implement a player safety coach (PSC). The PSC, an integral component of USA Football’s Heads Up Football (HUF) program, is a coach whose primary responsibility is to ensure that other coaches are implementing proper tackling and blocking techniques alongside other components of the HUF program. Purpose: To compare injury rates in Indiana high school football teams by their usage of a PSC or online coaching education only. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Athletic trainers (ATs) evaluated and tracked injuries at each practice and game during the 2015 high school football season. Players were drawn from 6 teams in Indiana. The PSC group, which used the PSC component, was comprised of 204 players from 3 teams. The “education only” group (EDU), which utilized coaching education only, was composed of 186 players from 3 teams. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: During 25,938 athlete-exposures (AEs), a total of 149 injuries were reported, of which 54 (36.2%) and 95 (63.8%) originated from the PSC and EDU groups, respectively. The practice injury rate was lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (2.99 vs 4.83/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.95). The game injury rate was also lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (11.37 vs 26.37/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.74). When restricted to concussions only, the rate was lower in the PSC group (0.09 vs 0.73/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.01-0.94), although only 1 concussion was reported in the PSC group. No differences were found in game concussion rates (0.60 vs 4.39/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-1.11). Conclusion: Findings support the PSC as an effective
Secrist, Eric S; Bhat, Suneel B; Dodson, Christopher C
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries can have negative consequences on the careers of National Football League (NFL) players, however no study has ever analyzed the financial impact of these injuries in this population. To quantify the impact of ACL injuries on salary and career length in NFL athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Any player in the NFL suffering an ACL injury from 2010 to 2013 was identified using a comprehensive online search. A database of NFL player salaries was used to conduct a matched cohort analysis comparing ACL-injured players with the rest of the NFL. The main outcomes were the percentage of players remaining in the NFL and mean salary at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after injury. Cohorts were subdivided based on initial salary: group A, $2,000,000. Mean cumulative earnings were calculated by multiplying the percentage of players remaining in the league by their mean salaries and compounding this each season. NFL athletes suffered 219 ACL injuries from 2010 to 2013. The 7504 other player seasons in the NFL during this time were used as controls. Significantly fewer ACL-injured players than controls remained in the NFL at each time point (P negatively affected. This demonstrates the degree of negative impact these injuries have on the careers of NFL players. It also indicates that a player's standing within the league before injury strongly influences how much an ACL injury will affect his career.
1. Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria. National Sports Medicine Centre, National Sports Commission, National Stadium, Surulere, Lagos ... the training and competition matches and documented all injuries reported by the players. Information about .... Physical complaints such as illnesses, diseases, and mental complaints that were ...
Torg, Joseph S.; And Others
Use of the spring-loaded blocking and tackling devices should be discontinued due to severe neck injuries resulting from their use; employment of the head and helmet as the primary assault weapon in blocking, tackling, and head butting should be condemned for the same reason. (MJB)
Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew S; Quarrie, Kenneth; Targett, Stephen
Shoulder injuries in rugby union football have been the focus of few in-depth studies, despite their frequency and severity. The study's objective was to describe the incidence, patterns and mechanisms of shoulder injuries in rugby. Prospective cohort study of shoulder injury incidence and retrospective case-series study of shoulder injury mechanisms. Data were collected from Super Rugby matches from 2005 to 2010 involving elite level adult male rugby players. 7920 player participation hours and 100 shoulder injuries were recorded during 397 Super Rugby matches. The shoulder injury incidence rate was 13 per 1000 player hours (95% confidence interval 10-16). The mean number of days unavailable for selection due to these injuries was 37 (95% confidence interval 25-54). Tacklers sustained shoulder injuries at a higher rate than ball carriers (Rate Ratio=1.7 (95% confidence interval 0.5-5.3)). The most frequently reported injuries were those to the acromio-clavicular joint; dislocations resulted in the greatest amount of missed play. Using video analysis, 47 of the 100 shoulder injury events were successfully identified and analyzed. The main mechanisms of shoulder injury were contact with the ground with the shoulder/arm in horizontal adduction, flexion, and internal rotation; and impact to the lateral aspect of the shoulder with the elbow flexed and arm at the side. Direct impact to the shoulder, either through player-to-player contact or contact with the ground, is the main cause of shoulder injury. Methods to reduce injury risk, such as shoulder pads and tackle skills, require consideration. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lion, Alexis; Theisen, Daniel; Windal, Thierry; Malisoux, Laurent; Nührenbörger, Christian; Huberty, Robert; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain
This study aimed to realize a prospective follow-up of the injuries occurring in female and male football players involved in the highest league in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Data concerning anthropometric characteristics and football activities were gathered in 125 female and 243 male football players via questionnaires at the beginning of the study. Then, a follow-up of moderate to severe injuries (> 15 days of interruption in football practice) was performed throughout the season 2013-2014. Sixteen injuries (injury incidence = 0.7 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 13 female football players (10.4%). These injuries concerned mainly the knee (n = 7; 43.7%), with capsules and ligaments being the most often concerned tissues (n = 7; 43.7%). In male football players, 41 severe injuries (injury incidence = 0.6 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 36 players (14.8%). These injuries concerned mainly the thighs (n = 12; 29.3%) and the muscles and tendons were the most often concerned tissues (n = 18; 43.9%). Injuries in football are predominantly located at the lower limbs, particularly the knees in female football players. The predominant muscle and tendon lesions of the thighs occurring in males could reveal that physical preparation is insufficient or inadequate for a number of players. Regarding these results, it is necessary to implement an injury prevention strategy. The "FIFA 11+" programme could be used as the basic method, but should be personalized according to sex. The injury collection methodology could be optimized with the use of an electronic database, such as the Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports (TIPPS). Beside the systematic recording of injury data (as well as the training load) by the players or the medical staff, this system allows to share of important information between stakeholders, follow-up the players, provide risk factor warnings and increase the awareness of the injury problem.
Burnham, Bruce R; Copley, G Bruce; Shim, Matthew J; Kemp, Philip A; Jones, Bruce H
Flag (touch or intramural) football is a popular sport among the U.S. Air Force (USAF) active duty population and causes a substantial number of lost-workday injuries. The purpose of this study is to describe the mechanisms of flag-football injuries to better identify effective countermeasures. The data were derived from safety reports obtained from the USAF Ground Safety Automated System. Flag-football injuries for the years 1993-2002 that resulted in at least one lost workday were included in the study conducted in 2003. Narrative data were systematically reviewed for 32,812 USAF mishap reports; these were then coded in order to categorize and summarize mechanisms associated with flag football and other sports and occupational injuries. Nine hundred and forty-four mishap reports involving active duty USAF members playing flag football met the criteria for inclusion into this study. Eight mechanisms of injury were identified. The eight mechanisms accounted for 90% of all flag-football injuries. One scenario (contact with another player) accounted for 42% of all flag-football injuries. The most common mechanisms of injury caused by playing flag football can be identified using the detailed information found in safety reports. These scenarios are essential to developing evidence-based countermeasures. Results for flag football suggest that interventions that prevent player contact injuries deserve further research and evaluation. The broader implications of this study are that military safety data can be used to identify potentially modifiable mechanisms of injury for specific activities such as flag football. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old were divided into one experiment (n = 13 and one control group (n = 14. Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale, history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28 in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney U-tests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14 = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study, to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given
Zech, Astrid; Wellmann, Kai
Current approaches regarding injury prevention focus on the transfer of evidence into daily practice. One promising approach is to influence attitudes and beliefs of players. The objective of this study was to record player’s perceptions on injury prevention. A survey was performed among players of one German high-level football (soccer) club. 139 professional and youth players between age 13 and 35 years completed a standardized questionnaire (response rate = 98%). It included categories with (1) history of lower extremity injuries, (2) perceptions regarding risk factors and (3) regularly used prevention strategies. The majority of players (84.2%) had a previous injury. 47.5% of respondents believe that contact with other players is a risk factor, followed by fatigue (38.1%) and environmental factors (25.9%). The relevance of previous injuries as a risk factor is differently perceived between injured (25%) and uninjured players (0.0%). Nearly all players (91.5%) perform stretching to prevent injuries, followed by neuromuscular warm up exercises (54.0%). Taping is used by 40.2% of previously injured players and 13.6% of players without a history of injuries. In conclusion, the perception of risk factors and performed preventive strategies are inconsistent with scientific evidence. Future transfer strategies should incorporate the players beliefs and attitudes. PMID:28459845
Martyna, Michałowska; Tomasz, Walczak; Krzysztof, Grabski Jakub; Monika, Grygorowicz
Lower limb injury risk assessment was proposed, based on isokinetic examination that is a part of standard athlete's biomechanical evaluation performed mainly twice a year. Information about non-contact knee injury (or lack of the injury) sustained within twelve months after isokinetic test, confirmed in USG were verified. Three the most common types of football injuries were taken into consideration: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, hamstring and quadriceps muscles injuries. 22 parameters, obtained from isokinetic tests were divided into 4 groups and used as input parameters of five feedforward artificial neural networks (ANNs). The 5th group consisted of all considered parameters. The networks were trained with the use of Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm to return value close to 1 for the sets of parameters corresponding injury event and close to 0 for parameters with no injury recorded within 6 - 12 months after isokinetic test. Results of this study shows that ANN might be useful tools, which simplify process of simultaneous interpretation of many numerical parameters, but the most important factor that significantly influence the results is database used for ANN training.
Full Text Available Current approaches regarding injury prevention focus on the transfer of evidence into daily practice. One promising approach is to influence attitudes and beliefs of players. The objective of this study was to record player's perceptions on injury prevention. A survey was performed among players of one German high-level football (soccer club. 139 professional and youth players between age 13 and 35 years completed a standardized questionnaire (response rate = 98%. It included categories with (1 history of lower extremity injuries, (2 perceptions regarding risk factors and (3 regularly used prevention strategies. The majority of players (84.2% had a previous injury. 47.5% of respondents believe that contact with other players is a risk factor, followed by fatigue (38.1% and environmental factors (25.9%. The relevance of previous injuries as a risk factor is differently perceived between injured (25% and uninjured players (0.0%. Nearly all players (91.5% perform stretching to prevent injuries, followed by neuromuscular warm up exercises (54.0%. Taping is used by 40.2% of previously injured players and 13.6% of players without a history of injuries. In conclusion, the perception of risk factors and performed preventive strategies are inconsistent with scientific evidence. Future transfer strategies should incorporate the players beliefs and attitudes.
Watson, A W
School football injuries were studied over the seven months of one season on 150 males aged 16.94 +/- 0.82 years. Training averaged 4.13 +/- 1.47 hours per week and matches 1.84 +/- 0.60 hours per week. Mean time injured was: 0.51 +/- 1.7 days in hospital, 34.27 +/- 37.08 days off sport and 13.98 +/- 5.22 days of restricted activity. There were 136 match and 63 training injuries giving 175.98 injuries per 10000 hours of matches and 31.06 injuries per 10000 hours of training. Injuries were treated as follows: hospital 83, general practitioners 51, physiotherapists 28, no treatment 38. The most common injuries were: ankle sprain (11.6% of the total), hamstring strain (6.5%), contusion (6.5%) back strain (6%) knee sprain (5.0%), finger sprain (5.0%), other muscle strains (5.0%), fracture of the wrist (5.0%), dislocation of the finger (4.5%), overuse injury of the back (4.0%), tenosynovitis (3.5%), fracture of the ankle (3.0%). Thirteen injuries were to goal-keepers, 85 to backs, 31 to mid-field players and 70 to forwards. In 34.83% of the injuries foul play was given as the major cause. This was followed by "Lack of fitness", "Poor kit or boots" and "Previous injury" (all 11.24%). The most common minor cause was "Poor state of the pitch" (17.42% of injuries).
Lord, C; Ma'ayah, F; Blazevich, A J
Muscular fatigue and interlimb strength asymmetry are factors known to influence hamstring injury risk; however, limb-specific exacerbation of knee flexor (hamstrings) torque production after fatiguing exercise has previously been ignored. To investigate changes in muscular force production before and after sport-specific (repeated-sprint) and non-specific (knee extension-flexion) fatiguing exercise, and explore the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic endurance (ie, muscle-specific) and single-leg vertical jump (ie, whole limb) tests to identify previous hamstring injury. Twenty Western Australia State League footballers with previous unilateral hamstring injury and 20 players without participated. Peak concentric knee extensor and flexor (180°∙s -1 ) torques were assessed throughout an isokinetic endurance test, which was then repeated alongside a single-leg vertical jump test before and after maximal repeated-sprint exercise. Greater reductions in isokinetic knee flexor torque (-16%) and the concentric hamstring:quadriceps peak torque ratio (-15%) were observed after repeated-sprint running only in the injured (kicking) leg and only in the previously injured subjects. Changes in (1) peak knee flexor torque after repeated-sprint exercise, and (2) the decline in knee flexor torque during the isokinetic endurance test measured after repeated-sprint exercise, correctly identified the injured legs (N = 20) within the cohort (N = 80) with 100% specificity and sensitivity. Decreases in peak knee flexor torque and the knee flexor torque during an isokinetic endurance test after repeated-sprint exercise identified previous hamstring injury with 100% accuracy. Changes in knee flexor torque, but not SLVJ, should be tested to determine its prospective ability to predict hamstring injury in competitive football players. © 2017 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rotem, T R; Lawson, J S; Wilson, S F; Engel, S; Rutkowski, S B; Aisbett, C W
To determine the frequency and circumstances of serious cervical cord injuries associated with rugby union and league football in New South Wales. Retrospective review of patients with rugby football-related cervical spinal cord injuries. The two central spinal units in NSW, from January 1984 to July 1996. Admission to spinal units; injury resulting in permanent tetraplegia. During the review period, 115 rugby football players (56 union and 59 league) were admitted to the spinal units because of cervical spinal cord injuries. 49 patients had resultant permanent neurological deficits (complete tetraplegia [quadriplegia])--26 associated with rugby union and 23 with rugby league. Two patients died of injury sequelae within two weeks of admission. There was no significant change in the rate of football-related admissions to spinal units for either code. There was a small decline in the number (from 15 in 1984 to 1987 to 7 in 1992 to 1996) and incidence (from 1.2 to 0.5 per 10,000 participants) of patients with tetraplegia associated with rugby union. When this decline was tested as a trend over the years, it was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.06). No significant trend was found in the tetraplegia data associated with rugby league. Cervical spinal cord injuries leading to complete tetraplegia were most commonly associated with scrum-like plays in union and with tackles in league. Serious cervical spinal injuries associated with both codes of rugby continue to occur in NSW. Rugby football in its various forms is still an inherently dangerous game.
Connell, David A.; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E.; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Malara, Frank; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Koulouris, George; Burke, Frank; Bass, Cheryl
OBJECTIVE: We compared sonography and MRI for assessing hamstring injuries in professional football players (Australian football) 3 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks after an injury and identified imaging characteristics at baseline that may be useful in predicting the time needed for return to
Pelletier, Jacques C
Returning an athlete to play following a spinal or concussive injury remains a challenge for the health practitioner making the decision. Among the possible mechanisms responsible for such injuries in amateur football, the concept of "spearing" has attracted a great deal of attention in sport medicine. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the diagnosis and treatment of the potentially catastrophic neck and head injuries caused by spearing in Canadian amateur football and to suggest the role the chiropractic profession can have in their prevention. It proposes to follow the recommendations advocated by the National Capital Amateur Football Association (NCAFA) athletic trainers group, led by a chiropractor. Information regarding the concepts and prevention of "spearing", concussion and spinal injuries at the amateur football level in both the United States and Canada was obtained using the following computerized search methods: PubMed - MeSH (via the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI); The Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL); Google Scholar Beta. Recent (2005) information on sports related spinal injuries and concussion were obtained by attendance at the 2005 Sports Related Concussion and Spine Injury Conference. Foxborough, Massachusetts. From a total of 698 references, 63 were retained. Literature search yields very little information regarding Canadian statistics for amateur football neck and head injuries. The author encourages such injury data collecting and proposes that original Canadian studies and statistical analyses be carried out, such as those from diverse sports groups in the United States and abroad.1, 2, 3 The NCAFA group of trainers recommends a changing of the rules for "spearing" within the league and advocates gathering of Canadian based sports injury statistics. It also recognizes the need for public presentations (of concussion/spinal injuries).5 This paper describes the different interpretations of spearing
Dragoo, Jason L; Braun, Hillary J; Bartlinski, Stephen E; Harris, Alex H S
Injuries to the shoulder are common in collegiate football, and injuries to the acromioclavicular (AC) joint have previously accounted for up to 41% of all shoulder injuries. To determine the incidence and epidemiology of injury to the AC joint in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. The NCAA Injury Surveillance System (ISS) men's football database was reviewed from the 2004-2009 playing seasons. The exposure data set from the same years was reviewed for the purposes of computing rates of injury per athlete exposure (AE). The injury rate (number of injuries divided by number of AEs) was computed per 10,000 AEs for competition and practice exposures. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the incidence rates were calculated using assumptions of a Poisson distribution. According to the estimates made by the NCAA ISS, a total of 748 injuries to the AC joint occurred in NCAA football players during 2,222,155 AEs, accounting for 4.49% of all injuries sustained during this 5-year surveillance period. The overall rate of injury was 3.34 per 10,000 AEs (95% CI, 3.10-3.59). Players were 11.68 (95% CI, 10.11-13.49) times more likely to sustain an injury in games than practices. Partial sprains (types I or II) accounted for 96.4% of injuries, while complete sprains (≥type III) accounted for the remaining 3.6%. The average amount of time lost per injury was 11.61 days. Complete sprains resulted in a mean time loss of 31.9 days (95% CI, 24.4-39.6) while partial injuries resulted in 11.0 days lost (95% CI, 9.6-12.3). Overall, 2.41% of injuries underwent surgical intervention, with 22.2% of complete sprains and 1.7% of partial injuries resulting in surgery. Complete sprains of the AC joint were 13.5 (95% CI, 4.63-35.26) times more likely to result in surgical intervention than partial sprains. The majority of injuries (71.93%) resulted from contact with another player and 47.09% occurred while
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the injury incidence and injury characteristics of a Spanish sub-elite professional football team during four consecutive seasons. A team was followed prospectively from the season 2003-2004 to 2006-2007 and individual player exposure and time loss injuries were recorded during all club training sessions and matches. A total of 313 time-loss injuries were recorded. The mean injury incidence was 10.9 injuries/1000 hours (5.2 injuries/1000 training hours and 44.1 injuries/1000 match hours. The injury incidence during competitive matches was higher (p 28 days absence was 0.4 injuries/1000 hours. The thigh was the most commonly (35% injured region and caused 29% of all competitive match absence. Muscle injuries in the four main groups of the lower limbs (hamstrings, adductors, quadriceps and calf muscles caused 43% of competitive match unavailability. The results of this study show that the risk to sustain a major injury in the course of the season was low for sub- elite footballers in comparison to elite players. Thigh strains were the first cause of absence in competition due to injury.
Saal, J A; Johnson, E W
In brief: Rehabilitation of football players with low back pain caused by injury is a comprehensive process. Accurate diagnosis followed by early intervention is necessary. The rehabilitation plan can be divided into two phases: the pain-control phase, discussed in this article, and the training phase, to be discussed in part 2 in a coming issue. The pain-control phase may include a variety of passive modalities, flexion or extension exercises, lumbar mobilization, traction, and selective (precise localization with precise center) injections. The author stresses the importance of understanding the anatomy and biomechanics of the lumbar spine, referred pain and potential pain generators, the stages of the degenerative process, and lumbar spine injuries when planning a rehabilitation program.
Fanning, Deirdre Mary
This case highlights the need for cautious management and serial regular examination of trauma patients. A 22-year-old Caucasian male presented to the emergency department 4 h following an injury sustained during football training. He complained of the immediate onset of severe left upper quadrant and left flank pain. He subsequently developed frank haematuria. On initial review, he was haemodynamically stable. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed a grade 4 renal trauma. Over the following 36 h, he remained haemodynamically stable. On serial abdominal examinations however, he developed a rigid abdomen and was noted to have a haemoglobin drop. Interval CT scan showed a progression of his injury and the presence of a haemoperitoneum. An emergency laparotomy was performed resulting in a left nephrectomy. He made an uneventful recovery.
Singh, Sameer K; George, Andrew; Kadakia, Anish R; Hsu, Wellington K
Professional National Football League (NFL) and rugby athletes have high rates of Lisfranc injuries. Although favorable return-to-play rates have been previously reported, a thorough assessment of postinjury performance is lacking. Professional NFL and rugby athletes who sustained a Lisfranc injury were identified using a well-established protocol confirmed by multiple sources of the public record. Return-to-play rate and time to return were determined for each athlete. League participation and game performance were collected 1 season prior to injury and up to 3 seasons after injury. Statistical analysis was performed, with P≤.05 being significant. A total of 47 athletes (NFL=35, rugby=12) with Lisfranc injuries were identified, having 23 ligamentous injuries and 24 fractures. Thirty-five (75%) were treated operatively. Among NFL players, 29 (83%) returned to play, taking 10.0±2.9 months to do so. Overall, NFL players started fewer games 2 and 3 seasons following surgery (P=.002 and .035, respectively) and showed a significant decline in performance 1 season after return compared with preinjury levels (21%; P=.05). Offensive players had a significantly greater decline in statistical performance compared with defensive counterparts (P=.02). Although professional NFL athletes return to play at a high rate (83%) following Lisfranc injury, their league participation and performance is significantly decreased on return. Ligamentous and bony injuries have similar prognoses; however, offensive players show greater declines in performance compared with defensive players. To best guide therapy, players, coaches, and team physicians should be aware of the impact of Lisfranc injuries on career performance and longevity. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Krill, Michael K; Borchers, James R; Hoffman, Joshua T; Tatarski, Rachel L; Hewett, Timothy E
Football players compete with a high risk of injury due to the sport. With the recent efforts to improve safety, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) established new terminology to clearly define exposure types and reduce the number of high contact exposures. To compare football injury rates (IR) with a focus on game versus practice, time in season of injury, mechanism of injury and utilizing recent exposure types defined by the NCAA (live contact, full-pads and non-contact). Licensed medical professionals monitored a college football program regular season from 2012-2015. Each injury was classified by timing of the injury, mechanism of injury, and whether it occurred in game or practice. Player attendance and type of exposure (non-contact, full-pad or live contact, which involves live tackling to the ground and/or full-speed blocking and can occur in full-pad or half-pad ('shell') equipment) was documented. IR were calculated per 1000 athlete-exposures (AE). Mid-exact P tests compared rates between variables. The game IR was over three times as high as the practice IR (p injuries observed occurred from a contact mechanism (IR: 2.508/1000 AE). The highest IR during the fall football season occurred in the pre-season at 5.769/1000 AE. Overall IR observed in this cohort were lower than prior studies published before recent NCAA rule changes and guideline implementation to improve athlete safety. Athletes in this cohort were at significantly increased risk of injury from live contact exposures.
Tol, Johannes L.; Hamilton, Bruce; Eirale, Cristiano; Muxart, Patrice; Jacobsen, Philipp; Whiteley, Rod
There is an ongoing debate regarding the optimal criteria for return to sport after an acute hamstring injury. Less than 10% isokinetic strength deficit is generally recommended but this has never been documented in professional football players after rehabilitation. Our aim was to evaluate
Justin Wai-Yuk Lee
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the match and training injury incidence, injury patterns and severity, and their monthly variation in a Hong Kong male professional football league. The study design was a prospective cohort study. Seven teams in the Hong Kong Football Association first division league and 152 players from 10 professional teams participated in this study. On a weekly basis throughout the 9-month season, time-loss injuries and individual exposure were collected from injury recorders team visits. Operational injury definitions and procedures followed the recommendations of a football consensus. The overall injury incidence was 7.4 injuries/1000 player hours and 296 injuries were recorded. The relative risk of match injury was 17 times greater than the risk of training injury [relative ratio (RR, 17.3; 95% confidence injury (CI, 11.6–25.7; p < 0.001]. Ankle sprain was the most common injury type (16.2% of all injuries and 52% of these injuries were recurrent. Thigh strain was the second most common injury type with 82% of the injuries involving the hamstring muscle and 80% of hamstring strains were noncontact injuries. During the competitive season, the relative risk of injury was highest in October (RR, 6.8; 95% CI, 6.7–6.9; p < 0.001 and February (RR, 4.7; 95% CI, 4.3–5.2; p < 0.001. This highlighted that Hong Kong professional football has a high match injury incidence. The relative risk of injury was highest at the beginning of the competitive season. A prospective multicentre epidemiological study is warranted to examine regional differences in injury risks. Coaches, players, health professionals, and researchers should join their efforts to investigate the effect on injury incidence and injury pattern associated with the duration and content of the preseason period, and the number of friendly matches held during preseason.
Riedl, Dennis; Strauss, Bernd; Heuer, Andreas; Rubner, Oliver
The role of referees has become a central issue in the investigation of home advantage. The main aim of this study was a thorough examination of the referee bias concerning injury time in football, which is currently seen as an important example for the assertion that referees contribute to home advantage. First, we use archival data from the German Bundesliga (seasons 2000/2001-2010/2011) to confirm the existence of an asymmetry in the allocation of injury time. We show this asymmetry to be a bias by ruling out hitherto remaining alternative explanations (effect = 18 s, P referee bias, stating that referees systematically accord more injury time when one team leads in the game compared to a draw (effect = 21 s, P = 0.004, R2(adj) = 0.06). Third, the quantitative benefit of home or away teams in goals and points due to these biases is assessed. Overall, referee decisions on injury time indeed reveal biases, but they do not contribute to the home advantage, that is, there is no significant effect on goals scored by the teams. The qualitative findings (a new bias on injury time) as well as the quantitative findings (no overall effect) shed new light on the role of referees for home advantage.
Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew
Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme-biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence.
Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew
Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme—biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence. PMID:23322894
Kordi, Ramin; Chitsaz, Alireza; Rostami, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Reza; Ghadimi, Mahmoodreza
Despite the crucial role of referees in a soccer match, few researchers have targeted the injury profile of referees in their studies. Understanding the incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries could provide important information for educational and preventative efforts at the international level. The incidence rate and patterns of acute injuries to official referees of the Iranian Premier Football League during the 2009-2010 season are similar to those reported among referees in short-term international competitions such as FIFA World Cup. Prospective cohort study. Demographic data for 74 referees, including 30 main referees and 44 assistant referees, were collected at the beginning of the season. To record injuries and refereeing time, weekly contact was made by a physician. In total, 102 injuries were reported by referees during the football season. The incidence rates of injuries among referees during training and matches were 4.6 and 19.6 injuries per 1000 hours, respectively. Muscular and tendon injuries were found to be the most common type of injury, and the most common site of injury was the lower leg followed by the hip and groin. The results of this study are consistent with similar prospective studies evaluating injuries to referees over the course of a short-term tournament. These findings provide a base for suggesting possible preventive recommendations in future studies.
Masoud Nikbakht; Rouhollah Ranjbar; Alireza Amani
Epidemiology research, particularly in sport is one of the essential tools to identify injuries and strategies for the prevention of sports injuries can be designed and formulated by specifying them. The present study is practical in terms of objective and it is descriptive-field and retrospective in terms of data collection. The statistical population of this research consists of all male athletes in handball, basketball and football in Khuzestan province. The statistical sample consists of ...
Bizzini, Mario; Junge, Astrid; Bahr, Roald; Dvorak, Jiri
To analyze the extent and characteristics of injuries and musculoskeletal complaints in elite football referees and to analyze differences between match and assistant referees. Retrospective cohort study. Training camp organized by the Swiss Referees Association. All 71 referees of the 2 top divisions of the Swiss Football League (2005-2006 season). The referees (66 males and 5 females) completed a questionnaire on their personal characteristics, referee qualifications, time spent in training and matches, career history of injuries, and musculoskeletal complaints caused by training or refereeing and were subsequently interviewed about the location, type, circumstances, and consequences of reported injuries. Incidence of injuries, frequency of musculoskeletal complaints, type of injuries, and complaints. A total of 41 injuries during the career were reported by 31 of 71 referees (44%). Injuries were incurred more frequently in training than during matches, and all injuries reported resulted in at least 2 weeks of absence from sport. About a quarter of the referees reported an injury, and almost 90% of the referees reported musculoskeletal complaints caused by refereeing during the preceding 12 months. In male referees, hamstring strains and ankle sprains were the most common injuries, and the hamstrings, knee, Achilles tendon, and calf were the most prevalent locations of musculoskeletal complaints. No significant difference in the incidence of injury or in the frequency of complaints was observed between match and assistant referees. Future studies should be designed prospectively and should include a larger group of female referees. Regarding the incidence of injuries and frequency of musculoskeletal complaints related to refereeing, prevention programs for football referees should be developed, evaluated, and implemented.
Kerr, Zachary Y.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Simon, Janet E.; Hayden, Ross; Snook, Erin M.; Dodge, Thomas; Gallo, Joseph A.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Mensch, James; Murphy, Joseph M.; Nittoli, Vincent C.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Ragan, Brian; Yeargin, Susan W.; Parsons, John T.
Background: American youth football leagues are typically structured using either age-only (AO) or age-and-weight (AW) playing standard conditions. These playing standard conditions group players by age in the former condition and by a combination of age and weight in the latter condition. However, no study has systematically compared injury risk between these 2 playing standards. Purpose: To compare injury rates between youth tackle football players in the AO and AW playing standard conditions. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Athletic trainers evaluated and recorded injuries at each practice and game during the 2012 and 2013 football seasons. Players (age, 5-14 years) were drawn from 13 recreational leagues across 6 states. The sample included 4092 athlete-seasons (AW, 2065; AO, 2027) from 210 teams (AW, 106; O, 104). Injury rate ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs were used to compare the playing standard conditions. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to estimate RRs adjusted for residual effects of age and clustering by team and league. There were 4 endpoints of interest: (1) any injury, (2) non–time loss (NTL) injuries only, (3) time loss (TL) injuries only, and (4) concussions only. Results: Over 2 seasons, the cohort accumulated 1475 injuries and 142,536 athlete-exposures (AEs). The most common injuries were contusions (34.4%), ligament sprains (16.3%), concussions (9.6%), and muscle strains (7.8%). The overall injury rate for both playing standard conditions combined was 10.3 per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 9.8-10.9). The TL injury, NTL injury, and concussion rates in both playing standard conditions combined were 3.1, 7.2, and 1.0 per 1000 AEs, respectively. In multivariate Poisson regression models controlling for age, team, and league, no differences were found between playing standard conditions in the overall injury rate (RRoverall, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.4-2.6). Rates for the other 3 endpoints were also similar (RRNTL, 1.1 [95% CI, 0
Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus; Atroshi, Isam
Knee injuries in football are common regardless of age, gender or playing level, but adolescent females seem to have the highest risk. The consequences after severe knee injury, for example anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, are well-known, but less is known about knee injury prevention. We have designed a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effect of a warm-up program aimed at preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football. In this cluster randomized trial 516 teams (309 clusters) in eight regional football districts in Sweden with female players aged 13-17 years were randomized into an intervention group (260 teams) or a control group (256 teams). The teams in the intervention group were instructed to do a structured warm-up program at two training sessions per week throughout the 2009 competitive season (April to October) and those in the control group were informed to train and play as usual. Sixty-eight sports physical therapists are assigned to the clubs to assist both groups in data collection and to examine the players' acute knee injuries during the study period. Three different forms are used in the trial: (1) baseline player data form collected at the start of the trial, (2) computer-based registration form collected every month, on which one of the coaches/team leaders documents individual player exposure, and (3) injury report form on which the study therapists report acute knee injuries resulting in time loss from training or match play. The primary outcome is the incidence of ACL injury and the secondary outcomes are the incidence of any acute knee injury (except contusion) and incidence of severe knee injury (defined as injury resulting in absence of more than 4 weeks). Outcome measures are assessed after the end of the 2009 season. Prevention of knee injury is beneficial for players, clubs, insurance companies, and society. If the warm-up program is proven to be effective in reducing the incidence of knee
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee injuries in football are common regardless of age, gender or playing level, but adolescent females seem to have the highest risk. The consequences after severe knee injury, for example anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury, are well-known, but less is known about knee injury prevention. We have designed a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate the effect of a warm-up program aimed at preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football. Methods In this cluster randomized trial 516 teams (309 clusters in eight regional football districts in Sweden with female players aged 13–17 years were randomized into an intervention group (260 teams or a control group (256 teams. The teams in the intervention group were instructed to do a structured warm-up program at two training sessions per week throughout the 2009 competitive season (April to October and those in the control group were informed to train and play as usual. Sixty-eight sports physical therapists are assigned to the clubs to assist both groups in data collection and to examine the players' acute knee injuries during the study period. Three different forms are used in the trial: (1 baseline player data form collected at the start of the trial, (2 computer-based registration form collected every month, on which one of the coaches/team leaders documents individual player exposure, and (3 injury report form on which the study therapists report acute knee injuries resulting in time loss from training or match play. The primary outcome is the incidence of ACL injury and the secondary outcomes are the incidence of any acute knee injury (except contusion and incidence of severe knee injury (defined as injury resulting in absence of more than 4 weeks. Outcome measures are assessed after the end of the 2009 season. Discussion Prevention of knee injury is beneficial for players, clubs, insurance companies, and society. If the warm-up program is proven to
O'Connor, Donna; Larkin, Paul; Mark Williams, A
We identified the perceptual-cognitive skills and player history variables that differentiate players selected or not selected into an elite youth football (i.e. soccer) programme in Australia. A sample of elite youth male football players (n = 127) completed an adapted participation history questionnaire and video-based assessments of perceptual-cognitive skills. Following data collection, 22 of these players were offered a full-time scholarship for enrolment at an elite player residential programme. Participants selected for the scholarship programme recorded superior performance on the combined perceptual-cognitive skills tests compared to the non-selected group. There were no significant between group differences on the player history variables. Stepwise discriminant function analysis identified four predictor variables that resulted in the best categorization of selected and non-selected players (i.e. recent match-play performance, region, number of other sports participated, combined perceptual-cognitive performance). The effectiveness of the discriminant function is reflected by 93.7% of players being correctly classified, with the four variables accounting for 57.6% of the variance. Our discriminating model for selection may provide a greater understanding of the factors that influence elite youth talent selection and identification.
Albright, J P; Powell, J W; Smith, W; Martindale, A; Crowley, E; Monroe, J; Miller, R; Connolly, J; Hill, B A; Miller, D
In this prospective, multiinstitutional analysis of medial collateral ligament sprains in college football players, we categorized 987 previously uninjured study subjects according to frequency of wearing preventive knee braces, studied the patterns by which 47 of 100 injuries occurred to unbraced knees, and identified several extrinsic, sport-specific risk factors shared for both braced and unbraced knees. The attendance, brace wear choice, position, string, and session of each participant were recorded daily; medial collateral ligament sprains were reported whenever tissue damage was confirmed. Both the likelihood of wearing braces and risk of injury without them was highly dependent on session (games/practices), position group (line, linebacker/tight end, skill), and string group (players/nonplayers). Subjects wearing braces often faced a high injury risk to their unbraced knees, a finding compatible with the opinion that braces were a necessary evil, best worn when concern over danger of injury outweighed desire for speed and agility. It is concluded that to avoid misinterpretations due to the confounding influence of brace wear selection bias, accurate investigation of daily brace wear patterns is required. Then, before considing the impact of preventive knee braces, a repartitioning of the data base is essential to assure that only similar groups will be compared.
Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri
In 2009, FIFA promoted and disseminated the FIFA 11+ injury prevention programme worldwide. Developed and studied by the FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC), the programme was based on a randomised controlled study and one countrywide campaign in amateur football that significantly reduced injuries and healthcare costs. Since the FIFA 11+ launch, key publications have confirmed the preventive effects of the programme and have evaluated its performance effects in female as well as male amateur football players. Furthermore, implementation strategies of this prevention programme have also been studied. The goal of this narrative review was to summarise the available scientific evidence about the FIFA 11+ programme. While FIFA continues to disseminate and implement FIFA 11+ among its Member Associations, adaptations of the injury prevention programme for children and referees have been developed and are currently being evaluated. PMID:25878073
Beaudouin, Florian; Aus der Fünten, Karen; Tröß, Tobias; Reinsberger, Claus; Meyer, Tim
Absolute numbers of head injuries in football (soccer) are considerable because of its high popularity and the large number of players. In 2006 a rule was changed to reduce head injuries. Players were given a red card (sent off) for intentional elbow-head contact. To describe the head injury mechanism and examine the effect of the rule change. Based on continuously recorded data from the German football magazine "kicker", a database of all head injuries in the 1 st German Male Bundesliga was generated comprising seasons 2000/01-2012/13. Injury mechanisms were analysed from video recordings. Injury incidence rates (IR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) as well as incidence rate ratios (IRR) to assess differences before and after the rule change were calculated. 356 head injuries were recorded (IR 2.22, 95% CI 2.00 to 2.46 per 1000 match hours). Contact with another player caused most head injuries, more specifically because of head-head (34%) or elbow-head (17%) contacts. After the rule change, head injuries were reduced by 29% (IRR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.86, p=0.002). Lacerations/abrasions declined by 42% (95% CI 0.39 to 0.85), concussions by 29% (95% CI 0.46 to 1.09), contusions by 18% (95% CI 0.43 to 1.55) and facial fractures by 16% (95% CI 0.55 to 1.28). This rule change appeared to reduce the risk of head injuries in men's professional football. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Brock, Fleay; Christopher, Joyce; Harry, Banyard; Carl, Woods T
This study investigated the effect of manipulating field dimensions on the technical and physical profiles of Australian football (AF) players during small-sided games (SSGs). A total of 40 male players (23.9 ± 3.5 y) participated in three, five-a-side SSGs; defined as 'small' (20m x 30m; 600m), 'medium' (30m x 40m; 1200m), and 'large' (40m x 50m; 2000m). Notational analyses enabled the quantification of technical skill indicators, while physical activity profiles were measured using microtechnology, resulting in 18 criterion variables. A multivariate analysis of variance modelled the main effect of field dimension on the criterion variables. A significant main effect was observed (V = 1.032; F38, 102 = 2.863; P 4.16 m.s compared to the 'small' and 'medium' SSGs. These results provide AF coaches with insights into how task constraint manipulation impacts the technical and physical profiles of players during small-sided game-play. Thus, coaches and physical performance specialists could use this information to assist with the tactical periodisation of technical complexity and physical load at different phases of the AF season.
Neville, Timothy J; Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M
Intra-team communication plays an important role in team effectiveness in various domains including sport. As such, it is a key consideration when introducing new tools within systems that utilise teams. The difference in intra-team communication of Australian Rules Football (AFL) umpiring teams was studied when umpiring with or without radio communications technology. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to analyse the verbal communication of seven umpiring teams (20 participants) grouped according to their experience with radio communication. The results identified that radio communication technology increased the frequency and altered the structure of intra-team communication. Examination of the content of the intra-team communication identified impacts on the 'Big Five' teamwork behaviours and associated coordinating mechanisms. Analysis revealed that the communications utilised did not align with the closed-loop form of communication described in the Big Five model. Implications for teamwork models, coaching and training of AFL umpires are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Assessing the impact of technology on performance is of interest to ergonomics practitioners. The impact of radio communications on teamwork is explored in the highly dynamic domain of AFL umpiring. When given radio technology, intra-team communication increased which supported teamwork behaviours, such as backup behaviour and mutual performance monitoring.
Frobell, Richard; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M; Roos, Ewa
The aim of this study is to investigate if self-reported activity level or knee functions are influenced by subject characteristics, level of competition and history of knee injury. Cross-Sectional study using questionnaires distributed at a personal visit. One hundred and eighty-eight (65 women) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Sc...
O'Rourke, K P
OBJECTIVES: Children presenting with sport related injuries (SRIs) as a result of soccer, rugby and gaelic football are frequently seen in an emergency medicine (EM) setting in Ireland. A comparison of the demographics of injuries in these three sports has however not previously been performed. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date data on the nature of these SRIs. METHOD: Data was collected retrospectively on all children (<17 years of age), injured in these three sports, presenting to an emergency medicine department over 6 months, and was entered into a database for analysis. RESULTS: Retrospective analysis was performed on 23,000 charts, and 409 SRIs were identified over a 6-month period. None of the children reported using any form of protective gear, and 27% reported a previous presentation to the emergency department with a SRI. Most injuries were as a result of soccer (56%), with 24% occurring in gaelic football, and 20% occurring in rugby. The predominant mechanism of injury was different in each sport, in soccer-falls (38%), in gaelic football-collisions with objects (balls) (37%), and in rugby-collision with persons (55%). Although the predominant type of injury in soccer and gaelic football was a fracture, accounting for 50% and 42% of injuries, respectively, in rugby however, skin\\/soft tissue injuries presented more commonly, accounting for 44% of injuries. When the general site of injury was investigated, the upper limb accounted for the majority of SRIs in each sport. In the management of SRIs, oral analgesics were prescribed in 50%, however, it was observed that no use was made of topical, intramuscular or rectal analgesic routes of administration. In addition it was observed that RICE\\/general injury advice was given in only 27%, physiotherapy was requested in 2%, and no injury prevention advice was given to any child. Overall, 8% required admission. CONCLUSIONS: The data provided from this study may raise awareness of the nature
O'Rourke, K P; Quinn, F; Mun, S; Browne, M; Sheehan, J; Cusack, S; Molloy, M
Children presenting with sport related injuries (SRIs) as a result of soccer, rugby and gaelic football are frequently seen in an emergency medicine (EM) setting in Ireland. A comparison of the demographics of injuries in these three sports has however not previously been performed. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date data on the nature of these SRIs. Data was collected retrospectively on all children (sports, presenting to an emergency medicine department over 6 months, and was entered into a database for analysis. Retrospective analysis was performed on 23,000 charts, and 409 SRIs were identified over a 6-month period. None of the children reported using any form of protective gear, and 27% reported a previous presentation to the emergency department with a SRI. Most injuries were as a result of soccer (56%), with 24% occurring in gaelic football, and 20% occurring in rugby. The predominant mechanism of injury was different in each sport, in soccer-falls (38%), in gaelic football-collisions with objects (balls) (37%), and in rugby-collision with persons (55%). Although the predominant type of injury in soccer and gaelic football was a fracture, accounting for 50% and 42% of injuries, respectively, in rugby however, skin/soft tissue injuries presented more commonly, accounting for 44% of injuries. When the general site of injury was investigated, the upper limb accounted for the majority of SRIs in each sport. In the management of SRIs, oral analgesics were prescribed in 50%, however, it was observed that no use was made of topical, intramuscular or rectal analgesic routes of administration. In addition it was observed that RICE/general injury advice was given in only 27%, physiotherapy was requested in 2%, and no injury prevention advice was given to any child. Overall, 8% required admission. The data provided from this study may raise awareness of the nature of SRIs affecting children in each of these three sports, and may be useful in
McGregor, J C; Rae, A; Melvin, W D
A prospective study over a three year period (1995-8) of footballers' injuries in first team players was undertaken in a similar fashion to a previous study (1990-3). During the present study the Club had a major cup success and appeared to have a younger squad with less major injury and subsequent time out of action. As a result of the earlier paper it would appear that some lessons and observations may have been put into action and helped produce a more consistent standard for the club. Increasing recognition of the need to reduce and monitor the levels and types of injuries seems now to be established.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match football injuries sustained on dirt field are scarce. The objectives of this study was to compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur male football players. Methods A prospective two-cohort design was employed. Participants were 252 male football players (mean age 27 years, range 18-43 in 14 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a dirt field and 216 male football players (mean age 28 years, range 17-40 in 12 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a artificial turf field in the same zone of the city. Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. Results The overall incidence of match injuries for men was 36.9 injuries/1000 player hours on dirt field and 19.5 on artificial turf (incidence rate ratio 1.88; 95% CI 1.19-3.05. Most common injured part on dirt field was ankle (26.7% and on artificial turf was knee (24.3%. The most common injury type in the dirt field was skin injuries (abrasion and laceration and in the artificial turf was sprain and ligament injury followed by haematoma/contusion/bruise. Most injuries were acute (artificial turf 89%, dirt field 91% and resulted from player-to-player contact (artificial turf 59.2%, dirt field 51.4%. Most injuries were slight and minimal in dirt field cohort but in artificial turf cohort the most injuries were mild. Conclusions There were differences in the incidence and type of football match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf.
McCunn, Robert; Fullagar, Hugh H K; Williams, Sean; Halseth, Travis J; Sampson, John A; Murray, Andrew
American football is widely played by college student-athletes throughout the United States; however, the associated injury risk is greater than in other team sports. Numerous factors likely contribute to this risk, yet research identifying these risk factors is limited. The present study sought to explore the relationship between playing experience and position on injury risk in NCAA Division I college football players. Seventy-six male college student-athletes in the football program of an American NCAA Division I university participated. Injuries were recorded over 2 consecutive seasons. Players were characterized based on college year (freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior) and playing position. The effect of playing experience and position on injury incidence rates was analyzed using a generalized linear mixed-effects model, with a Poisson distribution, log-linear link function, and offset for hours of training exposure or number of in-game plays (for training and game injuries, respectively). The overall rates of non-time-loss and time-loss game-related injuries were 2.1 (90% CI: 1.8-2.5) and 0.6 (90% CI: 0.4-0.8) per 1000 plays, respectively. The overall rates of non-time-loss and time-loss training-related injuries were 26.0 (90% CI: 22.6-29.9) and 7.1 (90% CI: 5.9-8.5) per 1000 h, respectively. During training, seniors and running backs displayed the greatest risk. During games, sophomores, juniors, and wide receivers were at greatest risk. Being aware of the elevated injury risk experienced by certain player groups may help coaches make considered decisions related to training design and player selection.
Lubberts, Bart; D'Hooghe, Pieter; Bengtsson, Håkan; DiGiovanni, Christopher W; Calder, James; Ekstrand, Jan
To determine the epidemiology of isolated syndesmotic injuries in professional football players. Data from 15 consecutive seasons of European professional football between 2001 and 2016 contributed to the dataset of this study. Match play and training data from a total of 3677 players from 61 teams across 17 countries have been included. Team medical staff recorded player exposure and time loss injuries. Injury incidence was defined as the number of injuries per 1000 player-hours. Injury burden was defined as number of days absence per 1000 player-hours. Seasonal trends for isolated syndesmotic injury incidence, isolated syndesmotic injury proportion of ankle ligament injuries and isolated syndesmotic injury burden were analysed via linear regression. The isolated syndesmotic injury incidence was 0.05 injuries per 1000 hours of exposure (95% CI 0.04 to 0.06) or one injury per team every three seasons. The injury incidence during match play was 13 times higher compared with during training, 0.21 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.26) and 0.02 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.02), respectively. Out of the 1320 ankle ligament injuries registered during the 15 seasons, 94 (7%) were diagnosed as isolated syndesmotic injuries. An annual increase in injury incidence was observed (R 2 =0.495, b=0.003, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.004, P=0.003). However, no significant annual change of injury burden was observed (R 2 =0.033, b=0.032, 95% CI -0.073 to 0.138, P=0.520). Seventy-four per cent of the injuries were contact related, and the mean (±SD) absence following an isolated syndesmotic injury was 39 (±28) days. The incidence of isolated syndesmotic injuries in elite professional European football annually increased between 2001 and 2016. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Injuries to the Collateral Ligaments of the Metacarpophalangeal Joint of the Thumb, Including Simultaneous Combined Thumb Ulnar and Radial Collateral Ligament Injuries, in National Football League Athletes.
Werner, Brian C; Belkin, Nicole S; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F; Hotchkiss, Robert N
Thumb collateral ligament injuries occur frequently in the National Football League (NFL). In the general population or in recreational athletes, pure metacarpophalangeal (MCP) abduction or adduction mechanisms yield isolated ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and radial collateral ligament (RCL) tears, respectively, while NFL athletes may sustain combined mechanism injury patterns. To evaluate the incidence of simultaneous combined thumb UCL and RCL tears among all thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries in NFL athletes on a single team. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review of all thumb injuries on a single NFL team from 1991 to 2014 was performed. All players with a thumb MCP collateral ligament injury were included. Collateral ligament injuries were confirmed by review of both physical examination findings and magnetic resonance imaging. Player demographics, surgical details, and return-to-play data were obtained from the team electronic medical record and surgeons' records. A total of 36 thumbs in 32 NFL players were included in the study, yielding an incidence of 1.6 thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries per year on a single NFL team. Of these, 9 thumbs (25%) had a simultaneous combined UCL and RCL tear injury pattern confirmed on both physical examination and MRI. The remaining 27 thumbs (75%) were isolated UCL injuries. All combined UCL/RCL injuries required surgery due to dysfunction from instability; 63.0% of isolated UCL injuries required surgical repair ( P = .032) due to continued pain and dysfunction from instability. Repair, when required, was delayed until the end of the season. All players with combined UCL/RCL injuries and isolated UCL injuries returned to play professional football the following season. Simultaneous combined thumb UCL and RCL tear is a previously undescribed injury pattern that occurred in 25% of thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries on a single NFL team over a 23-year period. All players with combined thumb UCL
Background Injury among soccer referees is rarely studied, especially with regard to differences in the quality level of the refereeing. Additionally, we have found no study that has reported injury occurrence during official physical fitness testing for soccer referees. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, type and consequences of match-related and fitness-testing related injuries among soccer referees of different competitive levels. Methods We studied 342 soccer referees (all males; mean age 32.9 ± 5.02 years). The study was retrospective, and a self-administered questionnaire was used. In the first phase of the study, the questionnaire was tested for its reliability and applicability. The questionnaire included morphological/anthropometric data, refereeing variables, and musculoskeletal disorders together with the consequences. Results The sample comprised 157 main referees (MR; mean age 31.4 ± 4.9 years) and 185 assistant referees (AR; mean age 34.1 ± 5.1 years) divided into: international level (Union of European Football Associations-UEFA) referees (N = 18; 6 MRs; 12 ARs) ; 1st (N = 78; 31 MRs; 47 ARs), 2nd (N = 91; 45 MRs; 46 ARs); or 3rd national level referees (N = 155; 75 MRs; 80 ARs). In total, 29% (95%CI: 0.23–0.37) of the MRs and 30% (95%CI: 0.22–0.36) of the ARs had experienced an injury during the previous year, while 13% (95%CI: 0.05–0.14) of the MRs, and 19% (95%CI: 0.14–0.25) of the ARs suffered from an injury that occurred during fitness testing. There was an obvious increase in injury severity as the refereeing advanced at the national level, but the UEFA referees were the least injured of all referees. The results showed a relatively high prevalence of injuries to the upper leg (i.e., quadriceps and hamstrings) during physical fitness testing for all but the UEFA referees. During game refereeing, the ankles and lower legs were the most commonly injured regions. The MRs primarily
Andersen, Thor Einar; Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald
Foul play is an important cause of injury in football. Reduction of foul play and adherence to the laws of the game may be possible interventions to reduce the rate of injuries. To evaluate how violations of the laws of the game contribute to injury and to investigate whether the decisions made by the referees are correct in high-risk situations. Prospective cohort study. Videotapes and injury information were collected for 174 of 182 matches from the male Norwegian professional league during the 2000 season. Three Norwegian FIFA referees performed retrospective blinded evaluation of the 406 incidents. Less than one-third of the injuries identified on video and about 40% of the incidents with a high risk of injury resulted in a free kick being awarded. About 1 in 10 of these situations led to either a yellow or red card. The agreement between decisions made by the match referee and the expert referee panel was good, that is, their decisions agreed in 85% of the situations in which injury occurred. There may be a need for an improvement of the laws of the game of football to protect players from dangerous play.
American football remains one of the most popular sports for young athletes. The injuries sustained during football, especially those to the head and neck, have been a topic of intense interest recently in both the public media and medical literature. The recognition of these injuries and the potential for long-term sequelae have led some physicians to call for a reduction in the number of contact practices, a postponement of tackling until a certain age, and even a ban on high school football. This statement reviews the literature regarding injuries in football, particularly those of the head and neck, the relationship between tackling and football-related injuries, and the potential effects of limiting or delaying tackling on injury risk. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
The muscles of the back of the thigh with its particular role in movement of athletes and people in general and, therefore, the position of the musculoskeletal system require specific attention in the athlete's training planned procession. As a group of muscles, which has an impact on two joint systems performs multiple missions, it is susceptible to various injuries. They act on the hip joints and knees, which are very important in basic movements of football players. Stabilizing role during...
Delahunt, Eamonn; Fitzpatrick, Helen; Blake, Catherine
To determine if pre-season adductor squeeze test and HAGOS function, sport and recreation subscale scores can identify Gaelic football players at risk of developing groin injury. Prospective study. Senior inter-county Gaelic football team. Fifty-five male elite Gaelic football players (age = 24.0 ± 2.8 years, body mass = 84.48 ± 7.67 kg, height = 1.85 ± 0.06 m, BMI = 24.70 ± 1.77 kg/m 2 ) from a single senior inter-county Gaelic football team. Occurrence of groin injury during the season. Ten time-loss groin injuries were registered representing 13% of all injuries. The odds ratio for sustaining a groin injury if pre-season adductor squeeze test score was below 225 mmHg, was 7.78. The odds ratio for sustaining a groin injury if pre-season HAGOS function, sport and recreation subscale score was football players at risk of developing groin injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Woods, Carl T; Cripps, Ashley; Hopper, Luke; Joyce, Christopher
To compare the physical and anthropometric qualities explanatory of talent at two developmental levels in junior Australian football (AF). Cross-sectional observational. From a total of 134 juniors, two developmental levels were categorised; U16 (n=50; 15.6±0.3 y), U18 (n=84; 17.4±0.5 y). Within these levels, two groups were a priori defined; talent identified (U16; n=25; 15.7±0.2 y; U18 n=42; 17.5±0.4 y), non-talent identified (U16; n=25; 15.6±0.4 y; U18; n=42; 17.3±0.6 y). Players completed seven physical and anthropometric assessments commonly utilised for talent identification in AF. Binary logistic regression models were built to identify the qualities most explanatory of talent at each level. A combination of standing height, dominant leg dynamic vertical jump height and 20m sprint time provided the most parsimonious explanation of talent at the U16 level (AICc=60.05). At the U18 level, it was a combination of body mass and 20m sprint time that provided the most parsimonious explanation of talent (AICc=111.27). Despite similarities, there appears to be distinctive differences in physical and anthropometric qualities explanatory of talent at the U16 and U18 level. Coaches may view physical and anthropometric qualities more (or less) favourably at different levels of the AF developmental pathway. Given these results, future work should implement a longitudinal design, as physical and/or anthropometric qualities may deteriorate (or emerge) as junior AF players develop. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.
Pitchford, Nathan W; Robertson, Sam J; Sargent, Charli; Cordy, Justin; Bishop, David J; Bartlett, Jonathan D
To assess the effects of a change in training environment on the sleep characteristics of elite Australian Rules football (AF) players. In an observational crossover trial, 19 elite AF players had time in bed (TIB), total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), and wake after sleep onset (WASO) assessed using wristwatch activity devices and subjective sleep diaries across 8-d home and camp periods. Repeated-measures ANOVA determined mean differences in sleep, training load (session rating of perceived exertion [RPE]), and environment. Pearson product-moment correlations, controlling for repeated observations on individuals, were used to assess the relationship between changes in sleep characteristics at home and camp. Cohen effect sizes (d) were calculated using individual means. On camp TIB (+34 min) and WASO (+26 min) increased compared with home. However, TST was similar between home and camp, significantly reducing camp SE (-5.82%). Individually, there were strong negative correlations for TIB and WASO (r = -.75 and r = -.72, respectively) and a moderate negative correlation for SE (r = -.46) between home and relative changes on camp. Camp increased the relationship between individual s-RPE variation and TST variation compared with home (increased load r = -.367 vs .051, reduced load r = .319 vs -.033, camp vs home respectively). Camp compromised sleep quality due to significantly increased TIB without increased TST. Individually, AF players with higher home SE experienced greater reductions in SE on camp. Together, this emphasizes the importance of individualized interventions for elite team-sport athletes when traveling and/or changing environments.
Lambson, R B; Barnhill, B S; Higgins, R W
A 3-year prospective study was initiated to evaluate torsional resistance of modern football cleat designs and the incidence of surgically documented anterior cruciate ligament tears in high school football players wearing different cleat types. We compared four styles of football shoes and evaluated the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tears among 3119 high school football players during the 1989 to 1991 competitive seasons. The four cleat designs were 1) Edge, longer irregular cleats placed at the peripheral margin of the sole with a number of smaller pointed cleats positioned interiorly (number of players wearing this shoe, 2231); 2) Flat, cleats on the forefoot are the same height, shape, and diameter, such as found on the soccer-style shoe (N = 832); 3) Screw-in, seven screw-in cleats of 0.5 inch height and 0.5 inch diameter (N = 46); and 4) Pivot disk, a 10-cm circular edge is on the sole of the forefoot, with one 0.5-inch cleat in the center (N = 10). The results showed that the Edge design produced significantly higher torsional resistance than the other designs (P < 0.05) and was associated with a significantly higher anterior cruciate ligament injury rate (0.017%) than the other three designs combined (0.005%).
Noël C. Barengo
Full Text Available The FIFA 11+ is a simple, and easy to implement, sports injury prevention program comprising a warm up of 10 conditioning exercises. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of the FIFA 11+ on injury incidence, compliance and cost effectiveness when implemented among football players. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched using the search terms “FIFA 11+”, “football”, “soccer”, “injury prevention”, and “The 11”. The titles and abstracts were screened by two independent reviewers and the data were filtered by one reviewer using a standardized extraction form and thereafter checked by another one. The risk of bias and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated through the PEDro score and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP. A total of 911 studies were identified, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria of the review. The FIFA 11+ has demonstrated how a simple exercise program completed as part of warm-up can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. In general, considerable reductions in the number of injured players, ranging between 30% and 70%, have been observed among the teams that implemented the FIFA 11+. In addition, players with high compliance to the FIFA 11+ program had an estimated risk reduction of all injuries by 35% and show significant improvements in components of neuromuscular and motor performance when participating in structured warm-up sessions at least 1.5 times/week. Most studies had high methodological quality and a low risk of bias. Given the large number of people who play football at amateur level and the detrimental impact of sports injuries on a personal and societal level, the FIFA 11+ can be considered as a fundamental tool to minimize the risks of participation in a sport with substantial health benefits.
Lynall, Robert C; Pietrosimone, Brian; Kerr, Zachary Y; Mauntel, Timothy C; Mihalik, Jason P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M
Dynamic balance deficits have been described postconcussion, even after athletes return to play. Lower extremity (LE) musculoskeletal injury rates increase for up to 1 year after concussion, but the long-term musculoskeletal implications of concussion are unclear. To (1) examine the association of concussion and LE injury histories with osteoarthritis (OA) prevalence in retired National Football League players and (2) examine the association of concussion and LE injury histories with OA prevalence in those ≤55 years of age. Case-control study. Survey. We administered the Health Survey of Retired National Football League Players, which collects information about demographics, OA, LE injury, and concussion history. Twelve discrete categories were created based on concussion and LE injury history, ranging from 0 concussions and 0 LE injuries (referent group) to 3+ concussions and 2+ LE injuries. Binomial regression analysis modeled lifetime OA prevalence. Covariates were body mass index, age at the time of the survey, and total years playing professional football. Complete data were available for 2696 participants. Lifetime OA prevalence was smallest in the referent group (21.1%) and largest in the 3+ concussion and 2+ LE group (50.6%; 2.5 times the referent; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1, 3.1). Participants in all concussion groups (1, 2, 3+) who reported a history of 0 LE injuries had a greater OA prevalence than the referent group. When participants were stratified by age, the ≤55 years of age, 3+ concussions, and 2+ LE injuries group prevalence ratio (3.6; 95% CI = 2.7, 5.2) was larger than that of the >55 years of age, 3+ concussions, and 2+ LE injuries group (1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.4) compared with the respective referent groups. Concussion with or without a history of LE injury may be an important moderator of OA. Future researchers should seek to better understand the mechanisms that influence the association among
George, Elizabeth; Harris, Alex H S; Dragoo, Jason L; Hunt, Kenneth J
Turf toe is the general term for a sprain of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint complex. Previously attributed to shoe design and artificial turf, the incidence of turf toe injury has been thought to decline with the advent of newer turf designs. However, the current incidence and epidemiology remain unknown as the majority of the literature consists of small series and addresses diagnosis and treatment rather than epidemiology and prevention. We examined data from the NCAA's Injury Surveillance System (ISS) for 5 football seasons (2004-2005 through 2008-2009), including all preseason, regular season, and postseason practice and competition data. The incidence, epidemiology, and risk factors for turf toe injury, defined as injury to the connective tissue of the first MTP joint, plantar plate complex, and/or sesamoid fracture, were determined. The overall incidence of turf toe injuries in NCAA football players was 0.062 per 1000 athlete-exposures (A-Es; 95% CI 0.052, 0.072). Athletes were nearly 14 times more likely to sustain the injury during games compared to practice, with a mean days lost due to injury of 10.1 (7.9, 12.4). Fewer than 2% of turf toe injuries required operative intervention. There was a significantly higher injury rate on third-generation artificial surfaces compared to natural grass (0.087 per 1000 A-E [0.067, 0.11] vs 0.047 per 1000 A-E [0.036, 0.059]). The majority of injuries occurred as a result of contact with the playing surface (35.4%) or contact with another player (32.7%), and running backs and quarterbacks were the most common positions to suffer turf toe injury. Our data suggest a significantly higher incidence of turf toe injuries during games, a greater susceptibility among running backs and quarterbacks, and a significant contribution of playing surface to risk of injury. Though turf toe injuries may be less common that previously reported in elite football players, these injuries warrant appropriate acute and long
Fuller, Colin W; Dick, Randall W; Corlette, Jill; Schmalz, Rosemary
To compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of training injuries sustained on new generation artificial turf and grass by male and female footballers. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System was used for a two-season (August to December) prospective study involving American college and university football teams (2005 season: men 52 teams, women 64 teams; 2006 season: men 54 teams, women 72 teams). Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. Athletic trainers recorded details of the playing surface and the location, diagnosis, severity and cause of all training injuries. The number of days lost from training and match play was used to define the severity of an injury. Training exposures (player hours) were recorded on a team basis. The overall incidence of training injuries for men was 3.34 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 3.01 on grass (incidence ratio 1.11; p = 0.21) and for women it was 2.60 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 2.79 on grass (incidence ratio 0.93; p = 0.46). For men, the mean severity of injuries that were not season ending injuries was 9.4 days (median 5) on artificial turf and 7.8 days (median 4) on grass and, for women, 10.5 days (median 4) on artificial turf and 10.0 days (median 5) on grass. Joint (non-bone)/ligament/cartilage and muscle/tendon injuries to the lower limbs were the most common general categories of injury on artificial turf and grass for both male and female players. Most training injuries were acute (men: artificial turf 2.92, grass 2.63, p = 0.24; women: artificial turf 1.94, grass 2.23, p = 0.21) and resulted from player-to-player contact (men: artificial turf 1.08, grass 0.85, p = 0.10; women: artificial turf 0.47, grass 0.56; p = 0.45). There were no major differences between the incidence, severity, nature or cause of training injuries
Larruskain, J; Lekue, J A; Diaz, N; Odriozola, A; Gil, S M
The aim was to compare the epidemiology of injuries between elite male and female football players from the same club. Injuries and individual exposure time in a male team and a female team, both playing in the Spanish first division, were prospectively recorded by the club's medical staff for five seasons (2010-2015) following the FIFA consensus statement. Total, training, and match exposure hours per player-season were 20% higher for men compared to women (Ppubalgia cases were 1.93 (95% CI 1.16-3.20) and 11.10 (95% CI 1.48-83.44) times more frequent in men, respectively; whereas quadriceps strains, anterior cruciate ligament ruptures, and ankle syndesmosis injuries were 2.25 (95% CI 1.22-4.17), 4.59 (95% CI 0.93-22.76), and 5.36 (95% CI 1.11-25.79) times more common in women, respectively. In conclusion, prevention strategies should be tailored to the needs of male and female football players, with men more predisposed to hamstring strains and hip/groin injuries, and women to quadriceps strains and severe knee and ankle ligament injuries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bacon, Christopher S; Mauger, Alexis R
Bacon, CS and Mauger, AR. Prediction of overuse injuries in professional U18-U21 footballers using metrics of training distance and intensity. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3067-3076, 2017-The most common injury in professional football is an overuse injury to the lower limb. A significant external risk factor of this injury is the mismanagement of training and match loads. The aim of the current study was to examine the predictability of overuse injuries in professional youth soccer players using volume and intensity variables derived from Global Positioning Systems. A total of 41 players (age: 17.8 ± 1.1 years) training and match loads were assessed. These external loads were measured over 2 competitive seasons for every training session and match for each individual. A linear regression was used to test the predictability of the injury based on load, which were grouped using loading groups calculated from squad weekly averages. The load groupings assigned were: low load = 1 SD below the squad mean score; normal load = ±1 SD from the squad mean; high load = 1 SD above squad mean. The analysis demonstrated that total distance significantly predicted overuse injury incidence rates (F 1,39 = 6.482, p = 0.015), whereas high-speed running meters could not (F 1,39 = 1.003, p = 0.323). This study demonstrated that distance covered in training and matches can impact on the incidence of overuse injury in youth soccer players. Coaches should seek to monitor player training loads and incorporate this metric into their decision making for protecting players from overuse injury.
Fuller, Colin W; Dick, Randall W; Corlette, Jill; Schmalz, Rosemary
To compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female footballers. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System was used for a two-season (August to December) prospective study of American college and university football teams (2005 season: men 52 teams, women 64 teams; 2006 season: men 54 teams, women 72 teams). Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. Athletic trainers recorded details of the playing surface and the location, diagnosis, severity and cause of all match injuries. The number of days lost from training and match play was used to define the severity of an injury. Match exposures (player hours) were recorded on a team basis. The overall incidence of match injuries for men was 25.43 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 23.92 on grass (incidence ratio 1.06; p = 0.46) and for women was 19.15 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 21.79 on grass (incidence ratio = 0.88; p = 0.16). For men, the mean severity of non-season ending injuries was 7.1 days (median 5) on artificial turf and 8.4 days (median 5) on grass and, for women, 11.2 days (median 5) on artificial turf and 8.9 days (median 5) on grass. Joint (non-bone)/ligament/cartilage and contusion injuries to the lower limbs were the most common general categories of match injury on artificial turf and grass for both male and female players. Most injuries were acute (men: artificial turf 24.60, grass 22.91; p = 0.40; women: artificial turf 18.29, grass 20.64; p = 0.21) and resulted from player-to-player contact (men: artificial turf 14.73, grass 13.34; p = 0.37; women: artificial turf 10.72; grass 11.68; p = 0.50). There were no major differences in the incidence, severity, nature or cause of match injuries sustained on new generation artificial turf and
Bakken, Arnhild; Targett, Stephen; Bere, Tone; Eirale, Cristiano; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Tol, Johannes L.; Whiteley, Rod; Khan, Karim M.; Bahr, Roald
The 9+ screening battery test consists of 11 tests to assess limitations in functional movement. To examine the association of the 9+ with lower extremity injuries and to identify a cut-off point to predict injury risk. Professional male football players in Qatar from 14 teams completed the 9+ at
Ekstrand, Jan; Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin
There are limited data on hamstring injury rates over time in football. To analyse time trends in hamstring injury rates in male professional footballers over 13 consecutive seasons and to distinguish the relative contribution of training and match injuries. 36 clubs from 12 European countries were followed between 2001 and 2014. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries. Injuries per 1000 h were compared as a rate ratio (RR) with 95% CI. Injury burden was the number of lay off days per 1000 h. Seasonal trend for injury was analysed using linear regression. A total of 1614 hamstring injuries were recorded; 22% of players sustained at least one hamstring injury during a season. The overall hamstring injury rate over the 13-year period was 1.20 injuries per 1000 h; the match injury rate (4.77) being 9 times higher than the training injury rate (0.51; RR 9.4; 95% CI 8.5 to 10.4). The time-trend analysis showed an annual average 2.3% year on year increase in the total hamstring injury rate over the 13-year period (R(2)=0.431, b=0.023, 95% CI 0.006 to 0.041, p=0.015). This increase over time was most pronounced for training injuries-these increased by 4.0% per year (R(2)=0.450, b=0.040, 95% CI 0.011 to 0.070, p=0.012). The average hamstring injury burden was 19.7 days per 1000 h (annual average increase 4.1%) (R(2)=0.437, b=0.041, 95% CI 0.010 to 0.072, p=0.014). Training-related hamstring injury rates have increased substantially since 2001 but match-related injury rates have remained stable. The challenge is for clubs to reduce training-related hamstring injury rates without impairing match performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Myklebust, G; Bahr, R; Nilstad, A; Steffen, K
The aim of the study was to describe objective and self-reported knee function for athletes who have returned to elite handball and football play after an ACL injury, comparing these to non-injured players at the same level. A total of 414 handball and 444 football players completed baseline tests from 2007 through 2014, examining lower extremity strength, dynamic balance, knee laxity, and knee function (KOOS questionnaire). Measures were compared between injured and non-injured legs and between injured legs and legs of controls. Eighty (9.3%) of the 858 players reported a previous ACL injury, 1-6 years post-injury (3.5±2.5 years), 49 handball (61.3%) and 31 football players (38.7%). We found no difference in strength or dynamic balance between previously ACL-injured (N=80) and non-injured players legs (N=1556). However, lower quadriceps (6.3%, 95% CI: 3.2-9.2) and hamstrings muscle strength (6.1%, 95% CI: 3.3-8.1) were observed in previously ACL-injured legs compared to the non-injured contralateral side (N=80). ACL-injured knees displayed greater joint laxity than the contralateral knee (N=80, 17%, 95% CI: 8-26) and healthy knees (N=1556, 23%, 95% CI: 14-33). KOOS scores were significantly lower for injured knees compared to knees of non-injured players. ACL-injured players who have successfully returned to elite sport have comparable strength and balance measures as their non-injured teammates. Subjective perception of knee function is strongly affected by injury history, with clinically relevant lower scores for the KOOS subscores Pain, Function, Sport, and Quality Of Life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jin, Xin; Feng, Zhaoying; Mika, Valerie; Li, Haiyan; Viano, David C; Yang, King H
Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is frequently associated with sports activities. It has generally been accepted that neck strengthening exercises are effective as a preventive strategy for reducing sports-related concussion risks. However, the interpretation of the link between neck strength and concussion risks remains unclear. In this study, a typical helmeted head-to-head impact in American football was simulated using the head and neck complex finite element (FE) model. The impact scenario selected was previously reported in lab-controlled incident reconstructions from high-speed video footages of the National Football League using two head-neck complexes taken from Hybrid III dummies. Four different muscle activation strategies were designed to represent no muscle response, a reactive muscle response, a pre-activation response, and response due to stronger muscle strength. Head kinematics and various head/brain injury risk predictors were selected as response variables to compare the effects of neck muscles on the risk of sustaining the concussion. Simulation results indicated that active responses of neck muscles could effectively reduce the risk of brain injury. Also, anticipatory muscle activation played a dominant role on impact outcomes. Increased neck strength can decrease the time to compress the neck and its effects on reducing brain injury risks need to be further studied.
McHale, Kevin J; Vopat, Bryan G; Beaulieu-Jones, Brendin R; Sanchez, George; Whalen, James M; McDonald, Lucas S; DiGiovanni, Christopher W; Theodore, George H; Provencher, Matthew T
Lisfranc injuries are challenging to treat and may have a detrimental effect on athletic performance. (1) Determine the epidemiological characteristics of Lisfranc injuries at the annual National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine, (2) define player positions at risk for these injuries, and (3) evaluate the impact that these injuries and radiographic findings have on NFL draft position and performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All players who sustained a Lisfranc injury prior to Combine evaluation between 2009 and 2015 were evaluated. The epidemiological characteristics, player positions affected, treatment methods, and number of missed collegiate games were recorded. Radiographic outcomes were analyzed via Combine radiograph findings, while NFL performance outcomes were assessed for all Lisfranc injuries (2009-2013) compared with matched controls in the first 2 years of play. A total of 41 of 2162 (1.8%) Combine participants were identified with Lisfranc injuries, of whom 26 of 41 (63.4%) were managed operatively. Players who underwent surgery were more likely to go undrafted compared with players managed nonoperatively (38.5% vs 13.3%, operative vs nonoperative management, respectively; P = .04) and featured a worse NFL draft pick position (155.6 vs 109; P = .03). Lisfranc-injured players when compared with controls were noted to have worse outcomes in terms of NFL draft position (142 vs 111.3, Lisfranc-injured players vs controls, respectively; P = .04), NFL career length 2 years or longer (62.5% vs 69.6%; P = .23), and number of games played (16.9 vs 23.3; P = .001) and started (6.8 vs 10.5; P = .08) within the first 2 years of their NFL career. Radiographs demonstrated that 17 of 41 (41.5%) athletes had residual Lisfranc joint displacement greater than 2 mm compared with the contralateral foot. Lisfranc-injured athletes with greater than 2 mm residual displacement, when compared with matched controls, had worse draft position (156.9 vs 111.2 for
Devlin, Brooke L; Leveritt, Michael D; Kingsley, Michael; Belski, Regina
Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hr recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and subelite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer. Differences in, and relationships between, nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition between elite AF, subelite AF and elite soccer players were assessed. A total of 66 (23 ± 4 years, 82.0 ± 9.2 kg, 184.7 ± 7.7 cm) players participated. Areas of weaknesses in nutrition knowledge are evident (57% mean score obtained) yet nutrition knowledge was not different between elite and subelite AF and soccer players (58%, 57% and 56%, respectively, p > .05). Dietary intake was not consistent with recommendations in some areas; carbohydrate intake was lower (4.6 ± 1.5 g/kg/day, 4.5 ± 1.2 g/kg/day and 2.9 ± 1.1 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) and protein intake was higher (3.4 ± 1.1 g/kg/day, 2.1 ± 0.7 g/kg/day and 1.9 ± 0.5 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) than recommendations. Nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with fat-free soft tissue mass (n = 66; r 2 = .051, p = .039). This insight into known modifiable factors may assist sports nutrition professionals to be more specific and targeted in their approach to supporting players to achieve enhanced performance.
Lynch, Thomas Sean; Kosanovic, Radomir; Gibbs, Daniel Bradley; Park, Caroline; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M.; Ahmad, Christopher S.
Objectives: Athletic pubalgia is a condition in which there is an injury to the core musculature that precipitates groin and lower abdominal pain, particularly in cutting and pivoting sports. These are common injury patterns in the National Football League (NFL); however, the effect of surgery on performance for these players has not been described. Methods: Athletes in the NFL that underwent a surgical procedure for athletic pubalgia / core muscle injury (CMI) were identified through team injury reports and archives on public record since 2004. Outcome data was collected for athletes who met inclusion criteria which included total games played after season of injury / surgery, number of Pro Bowls voted to, yearly total years and touchdowns for offensive players and yearly total tackles sacks and interceptions for defensive players. Previously validated performance scores were calculated using this data for each player one season before and after their procedure for a CMI. Athletes were then matched to control professional football players without a diagnosis of athletic pubalgia by age, position, year and round drafted. Statistical analysis was used to compare pre-injury and post-injury performance measures for players treated with operative management to their case controls. Results: The study group was composed of 32 NFL athletes who underwent operative management for athletic pubalgia that met inclusion criteria during this study period, including 18 offensive players and 16 defensive players. The average age of athletes undergoing this surgery was 27 years old. Analysis of pre- and post-injury athletic performance revealed no statistically significant changes after return to sport after surgical intervention; however, there was a statistically significant difference in the number of Pro Bowls that affected athletes participated in before surgery (8) compared to the season after surgery (3). Analysis of durability, as measured by total number of games played
Finch, Caroline F; Doyle, Tim LA; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Elliott, Bruce C; Twomey, Dara M; White, Peta E; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Young, Warren; Lloyd, David G
Background Players are the targeted end-users and beneficiaries of exercise-training programmes implemented during coach-led training sessions, and the success of programmes depends upon their active participation. Two variants of an exercise-training programme were incorporated into the regular training schedules of 40 community Australian Football teams, over two seasons. One variant replicated common training practices, while the second was an evidence-based programme to alter biomechanical and neuromuscular factors related to risk of knee injuries. This paper describes the structure of the implemented programmes and compares players’ end-of-season views about the programme variants. Methods This study was nested within a larger group-clustered randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of two exercise-training programmes (control and neuromuscular control (NMC)) for preventing knee injuries. A post-season self-report survey, derived from Health Belief Model constructs, included questions to obtain players’ views about the benefits and physical challenges of the programme in which they participated. Results Compared with control players, those who participated in the NMC programme found it to be less physically challenging but more enjoyable and potentially of more benefit. Suggestions from players about potential improvements to the training programme and its future implementation included reducing duration, increasing range of drills/exercises and promoting its injury prevention and other benefits to players. Conclusions Players provide valuable feedback about the content and focus of implemented exercise-training programmes, that will directly inform the delivery of similar, or more successful, programmes in the future. PMID:24047571
Rössler, Roland; Junge, Astrid; Bizzini, Mario; Verhagen, Evert; Chomiak, Jiri; Aus der Fünten, Karen; Meyer, Tim; Dvorak, Jiri; Lichtenstein, Eric; Beaudouin, Florian; Faude, Oliver
The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a newly developed warm-up programme ('11+ Kids') regarding its potential to reduce injuries in children's football. Children's football teams (under 9 years, under 11 years, and under 13 years age groups) from Switzerland, Germany, the Czech Republic and the Netherlands were invited. Clubs were randomised to an intervention group and a control group, and followed for one season. The intervention group replaced their usual warm-up by '11+ Kids', while the control group warmed up as usual. The primary outcome was the overall risk of football-related injuries. Secondary outcomes were the risks of severe and lower extremity injuries. We calculated hazard ratios using extended Cox models, and performed a compliance analysis. In total, 292,749 h of football exposure of 3895 players were recorded. The mean age of players was 10.8 (standard deviation 1.4) years. During the study period, 374 (intervention group = 139; control group = 235) injuries occurred. The overall injury rate in the intervention group was reduced by 48% compared with the control group (hazard ratio 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.86). Severe (74% reduction, hazard ratio 0.26; 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.64) and lower extremity injuries (55% reduction, hazard ratio 0.45; 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.84) were also reduced. Injury incidence decreased with increasing compliance. '11+ Kids' is efficacious in reducing injuries in children's football. We observed considerable effects for overall, severe and lower extremity injuries. The programme should be performed at least once per week to profit from an injury preventive effect. However, two sessions per week can be recommended to further increase the protective benefit. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02222025.
Cahill, B R; Griffith, E H
Five football teams from major colleges in the nation were surveyed during practices and games in the 1976 season. Data were collected on three packages of information designed as a computer program for tabulation, analysis, and storage of data. Investigators, with a thorough knowledge of football and trained in the use of the program, obtained the data from a given team during every drill, practice, and game of the season. Injury exposure rate was calculated as a ratio of injuries to minutes of exposure in 14 categories (12 specific drills, practice games, and other activities). Agility drills produced the fewest number of injuries for the amount of exposure time (exposure rate, 47,138; risk ractor, 1) and, therefore, it served as a base from which risk factors for all other categories would be calculated. No injuries were recorded in calisthenics. Practice games had the lowest injury exposure rate (1,009) and the highest risk factor (47). Analysis of data is incomplete at this time. The ultimate intent of the study is to help identify and eliminate harmful factors, establish norms, and provide a service to other schools that may desire exposure rate/risk factor data analyzed at a reasonable cost.
Carling, Chris; McCall, Alan; Le Gall, Franck; Dupont, Gregory
The effect of fixture congestion on injury rates and patterns has received scarce attention in elite football and existing investigations have not accounted for player rotation or examined the temporal distribution and potential cause of injuries. To prospectively investigate the epidemiology of injury during short periods of fixture congestion in a professional football club. Over a six-season period, exposure time and injury data were compared in the same players (n=25 (14 individuals)) when participating in two frequently occurring short congested fixture cycles in comparison to match-play outside these cycles. (1) two successive matches separated by an interval totalling ≤3 days calculated immediately from the end of play in match 1 to the beginning of play in match 2; (2) three successive matches separated by ≤4-day intervals starting the day immediately after each match. In two-match congestion cycles, incidence rate ratios (IRR) showed that there was a higher risk of injury in the final 15 min of play in the second match in comparison to match-play outside the cycles (IRR: 3.1 (95% CI 1.1 to 9.3), p=0.0400). A greater risk of injury overall (IRR: 2.0 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.8), p=0.0345) and in the first-half of play (2.6 (1.1 to 6,5), p=0.0386), and risk of ankle sprains (10.4 (95% CI 1.9 to 57.9), p=0.0068) and non-contact injuries due to a 'change in direction' (IRR: 7.8 (1.3 to 46.8), p=0.0243) were observed in the final match of three-match congestion cycles in comparison to match-play outside the cycles. Injury rates and patterns were affected in the same elite football players when competing in short congested fixture cycles in comparison to match-play outside the cycles. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Smeets, Kristof; Jacobs, Pieter; Hertogs, Robbin; Luyckx, Jean-Philippe; Innocenti, Bernardo; Corten, Kristoff; Ekstrand, Jan; Bellemans, Johan
Football turf is increasingly used in European soccer competition. Little is known on the rotational torque that players experience on these fields. High rotational torques between the shoe outsole and the sports surface has been correlated with torsional injuries of the lower limb and knee. To evaluate the effect of six parameters that could influence the rotational torque between the shoe outsole and the latest generation football turf. Controlled laboratory study. A testing apparatus was constructed to measure the peak torque generated during a controlled rotation of the foot. Six parameters that could potentially influence the frictional forces, were considered: (1) the sports surface, (2) the shoe outsole cleat design, (3) the weather conditions, (4) the weight, (5) the presence of an impact and (6) the direction of rotation. The football turf without infill showed significantly lower frictional torques than natural grass whereas a football turf with sand/rubber infill had significantly higher torques. Blades were associated with significantly higher torques than studs on natural grass and on one football turf with sand/rubber infill. Dry weather was associated with higher torques only for the football turf without infill. The torque increased linearly and significantly with an increasing vertical load. The rotational torque increased significantly following an impact. Torques on external rotational movements were significantly higher with blades. Important differences in rotational torques are found and could be seen as potential risk factors for torsional injuries of the lower limb.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Veenstra, Ersot; Goedegebuure, Simon; Frings-Dresen, Monique; Kuijer, Peter Paul
To study the incidence, diagnostics, treatment, anatomical region and return to play of non-acute groin injuries among professional footballers in the Netherlands. Prospective cohort study. Medical staff members of all Dutch professional football clubs, recording prospectively injury occurrence of all professional footballers in their clubs, were asked to fill in an injury form about time-loss (⩾ 8 days) non-acute groin injury over the 2012-2013 season. A cohort of 410 players from 12 professional football clubs were included (response rate = 44%). The season incidence of non-acute groin injuries was nearly 7% (29 non-acute groin injuries). In 82% of all cases, the player suffered from non-acute groin injury in the first half of the season. The average time to return to play was 35 days, ranging from 8 to 84 days. The adductors were the most affected anatomical regions (82%), with the most frequent diagnosis being overuse of the adductors (36%), followed by adductor tendinopathy (18%). In addition to medical history and physical examination, ultrasound (50%) and MRI (32%) were the diagnostic methods most frequently mentioned. As well as physical therapy, treatment consisted mostly of manual therapy (96%) and dry needling (61%). A professional club with a squad of 25 players can expect on average two non-acute groin injuries per season with an average time-loss of 35 days. Players are more at risk in the first half of the season. In Dutch professional football, ultrasound is commonly used to diagnose non-acute groin injury, while manual therapy is the most commonly applied treatment.
Full Text Available The article analyses the results of 120 male football players, aged 16-17 (average age is 16,0±0,4 monitoring. Average sporting experience is 9,4±1,2. Depending on trauma preventive measures 2 groups were singled out. The I group was comprised of 60 football players for 2009–2010 seasons, using standard trauma preventive measures. The II group was comprised of 60 football players for 2010–2011 seasons, using the new trauma preventive program. The offered trauma preventive program proved to be the most efficient in hamstring traumas prevention, which often arise as a result of sprints and jumps, typical for football matches.
Meyers, Michael Clinton
Objectives: Today’s new generations of artificial turf are increasingly being installed to duplicate or exceed playing characteristics of natural grass. Rather than playing on the polyethylene turf fibers, shoe: surface interaction actually occurs between the cleat and the various proprietary sand/rubber infill composites of varying weight. At this time, the influence of surface infill weight on football trauma is unknown. Therefore, this study was conducted to quantify incidence, mechanisms, and severity of game-related high school football trauma across artificial turf systems of various infill weight. Methods: Artificial turf systems were divided into four sand/rubber infill weight groups based on lbs per square foot: (A) > 9.0, (B) 6.0 - 8.9, (C) 3.1 - 5.9 and, (D) 0.0 - 3.0. A total of 52 high schools participating across four states over 5 competitive seasons were evaluated for injury incidence, injury category, time of injury, injury time loss, player position, injury mechanism and situation, primary type of injury, injury grade and anatomical location, field location at time of injury, injury severity, head, shoulder, and lower extremity trauma, elective imaging and surgical procedures, cleat design, turf age, and environmental factors. Results: Of the 1,467 high school games documented, 494 games (33.7%) were played on infill (A), 404 (27.5%) on infill (B), 379 (25.8%) on infill (C), and 190 (13.0%) on infill (D). A total of 3,741 injuries were documented, with significantly lower total injury incidence rates (IIR), [18.4 (95% CI, 18.0-18.7) vs 27.5 (26.8-27.9) vs 33.5 (32.7-34.0) and 23.7 (22.7-24.4)], substantial IIRs [3.4 (95% CI, 3.0-3.8) vs 6.6 (6.2-7.1), 8.5 (8.2-8.9) and 6.5 (5.8-7.1)], trauma from shoe: surface interaction during contact [4.6 (95% CI, 4.1-5.0) vs 7.5 (7.0-7.9), 6.4 (5.9-6.9) and 6.9 (6.2-7.5)], playing surface impact trauma [2.4 (95% CI, 2.1-2.8) vs 4.9 (4.4-5.4), 6.1 (5.6-6.6) and 4.4 (3.7-5.1)], and less total elective imaging
Ekstrand, Jan; Lee, Justin C; Healy, Jeremiah C
The present study evaluated whether the MRI parameters of hamstring injuries in male professional football players correlate with time to return to play (RTP). 46 elite European football teams were followed prospectively for hamstring injuries between 2007 and 2014. Club medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss after hamstring injury. MRI parameters were evaluated by two independent radiologists and correlated with the RTP data. A total of 255 grade 1 and 2 injuries were evaluated in this study. RTP was longer for grade 2 than grade 1 injuries (24±13, 95% CI 21 to 26 days vs 18±15, 95% CI 16 to 20 days; mean difference: 6, 95% CI 2 to 9 days, p=0.004, d=0.39). 84% of injuries affected the biceps femoris (BF) muscle, whereas 12% and 4% affected the semimembranosus (SM) and semitendinosus (ST), respectively. No difference in lay-off time was found for injuries to the three different muscles (BF 20±15 days, SM 18±11 days, ST 23±14 days; p=0.83). The recurrence rate was higher for BF injuries than for SM and ST injuries combined (18% vs 2%, p=0.009). The size of the oedema weakly correlated with time to RTP (r(2)=6-12%). No correlation was found between location of injury and time to RTP. The majority of the intramuscular injuries affected the MT junction (56% in grade 1 and 2 injuries), but no difference in lay-off time was found between the different types of injuries. The radiological grade and size of the oedema correlate with time to RTP for both, grade 1 and 2 injuries. No correlations were found between time to RTP and the location and type of injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Whitehouse, Timothy; Orr, Robin; Fitzgerald, Edward; Harries, Simon; McLellan, Christopher P.
Background: Rugby union is a collision-based ball sport played at the professional level internationally. Rugby union has one of the highest reported incidences of injury of all team sports. Purpose: To identify the characteristics, incidence, and severity of injuries occurring in Australian professional Super Rugby Union. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The present study was a prospective epidemiology study on a cohort of 180 professional players from 5 Australian Super Rugby teams during the 2014 Super Rugby Union Tournament. Team medical staff collected and submitted daily training and match-play injury data through a secure, web-based electronic platform. The injury data included the main anatomic location of the injury, specific anatomic structure of the injury, injury diagnosis, training or match injury occurrence, main player position, mechanism of injury, and the severity of the injury quantified based on the number of days lost from training and/or competition due to injury. Results: The total combined incidence rate for injury during training and match-play across all Australian Super Rugby Union teams was 6.96 per 1000 hours, with a mean injury severity of 37.45 days lost from training and competition. The match-play injury incidence rate was 66.07 per 1000 hours, with a mean severity of 39.80 days lost from training and competition. No significant differences were observed between forward- and back-playing positions for match or training injury incidence rate or severity. Conclusion: The incidence of injury for the present study was lower during match-play than has previously been reported in professional rugby union; however, the overall time loss was higher compared with previous studies in professional rugby union. The high overall time loss was due fundamentally to a high incidence of injuries with greater than 28 days’ severity. PMID:27069947
Dietzen, C J; Topping, B R
Rugby union football continues to gain in popularity in the United States. Both men's and women's clubs have been established at several colleges and universities. There has been substantial growth in the number of high school rugby football clubs in recent years. With the increase in numbers of young participants in this sport, it is important that great efforts be mounted to attempt to control the injury rates and severity of injuries in rugby football. Players and coaches must be knowledgeable of the rules of the game, and referees must strictly enforce these rules. Physicians and dentists should be involved in educating parents, coaches, players, and school officials about the inherent risks of injury and the means for injury prevention. Medical personnel must also be instrumental in educating players about alcohol abuse/addiction. Rugby players should be encouraged to use the limited protective gear that is allowed: wraps, tape, joint sleeves, scrum caps, and facial grease to prevent lacerations. Mouthguards are strongly recommended at any level of play and should be mandated. The use of helmets, face masks, and shoulder pads has been suggested by some authors. Such rule changes could actually increase injury rates and severity, because this equipment could be used as weapons as they are in American football. It is recommended that rugby clubs purchase or build equipment to practice scrummage skills. Coaches should be experienced and attend clinics or complete video courses on medical emergencies and safe techniques of the game. Injury frequency and severity can be decreased by adequate preseason training and conditioning, proper tackling and falling techniques, strengthening of neck muscles, and allowing only experienced, fit athletes to play in the front row. Medical surveillance must be improved at matches and, ideally, at practice sessions. At present, it is common for no emergency medical personnel or physicians to be present at matches in the United
Matava, Matthew J; Görtz, Simon
American football has become one of the most popular sports in the United States. Despite the millions of players at all levels of competition who gain the physical, social, and psychological rewards that football provides, many interested stakeholders continue to ask, "Is football safe?" Although there are only approximately 1,700 players on National Football League (NFL) rosters, the injuries they sustain have garnered the most attention-and criticism-from the national media. Increased public awareness of the injury potential football possesses has led to an open debate and a major shift in public sentiment over the past 5 years. Although no sport is perfectly safe, the question is whether it can be made relatively safe and if the long-term consequences are worth the risk. This article reviews the methods by which one sports league-the NFL-has used advances in medical technology and injury surveillance to improve the health and safety of its players. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Bladin, C; Giddings, P; Robinson, M
Information on the rate and spectrum of snowboarding injuries is limited. This 4-year prospective study at 3 major Australian ski resorts assesses incidence and patterns of snowboarding injuries, particularly in relation to skill level and footwear. Ski injury data were collected for the same period. In a predominantly male study population (men:women, 3:1), 276 snowboarding injuries were reported; 58% occurred in novices. Fifty-seven percent of injuries were in the lower limbs, 30% in the upper limbs. The most common injuries were sprains (53%), fractures (24%), and contusions (12%). Comparing skiers' versus snowboarders' injuries, snowboarders had 2.4 times as many fractures, particularly to the upper limbs (21% versus 35% of upper limb injuries), fewer knee injuries (23% versus 44% of lower limb injuries), but more ankle injuries (23% versus 6% of lower limb injuries). Ankle injuries were more common with soft-shell boots, worn most by intermediate and advanced riders. Knee injuries and distal tibial fractures were more common with hard-shell boots, worn most by novices. Overall, novices had more upper limb fractures and knee injuries; intermediate and advanced riders had more ankle injuries. Falls were the principal mode of injury. To prevent injury, beginners should use "hybrid" or soft-shell boots and take lessons.
Gaudion, Sarah L; Doma, Kenji; Sinclair, Wade; Banyard, Harry G; Woods, Carl T
Gaudion, SL, Doma, K, Sinclair, W, Banyard, HG, and Woods, CT. Identifying the physical fitness, anthropometric and athletic movement qualities discriminant of developmental level in elite junior Australian football: implications for the development of talent. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1830-1839, 2017-This study aimed to identify the physical fitness, anthropometric and athletic movement qualities discriminant of developmental level in elite junior Australian football (AF). From a total of 77 players, 2 groups were defined according to their developmental level; under 16 (U16) (n = 40, 15.6 to 15.9 years), and U18 (n = 37, 17.1 to 17.9 years). Players performed a test battery consisting of 7 physical fitness assessments, 2 anthropometric measurements, and a fundamental athletic movement assessment. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of developmental level (2 levels: U16 and U18) on the assessment criterions, whilst binary logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were built to identify the qualities most discriminant of developmental level. A significant effect of developmental level was evident on 9 of the assessments (d = 0.27-0.88; p ≤ 0.05). However, it was a combination of body mass, dynamic vertical jump height (nondominant leg), repeat sprint time, and the score on the 20-m multistage fitness test that provided the greatest association with developmental level (Akaike's information criterion = 80.84). The ROC curve was maximized with a combined score of 180.7, successfully discriminating 89 and 60% of the U18 and U16 players, respectively (area under the curve = 79.3%). These results indicate that there are distinctive physical fitness and anthropometric qualities discriminant of developmental level within the junior AF talent pathway. Coaches should consider these differences when designing training interventions at the U16 level to assist with the development of prospective U18 AF players.
Moss, William C; King, Michael J; Blackman, Eric G
We use computational simulations to compare the impact response of different football and U.S. Army helmet pad materials. We conduct experiments to characterise the material response of different helmet pads. We simulate experimental helmet impact tests performed by the U.S. Army to validate our methods. We then simulate a cylindrical impactor striking different pads. The acceleration history of the impactor is used to calculate the head injury criterion for each pad. We conduct sensitivity studies exploring the effects of pad composition, geometry and material stiffness. We find that (1) the football pad materials do not outperform the currently used military pad material in militarily relevant impact scenarios; (2) optimal material properties for a pad depend on impact energy and (3) thicker pads perform better at all velocities. Although we considered only the isolated response of pad materials, not entire helmet systems, our analysis suggests that by using larger helmet shells with correspondingly thicker pads, impact-induced traumatic brain injury may be reduced.
Salzmann, Gian M.; Preiss, Stefan; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Harder, Laurent P.; Maier, Dirk; Dvorák, Jirí
Football is currently the most popular sporting activity in the world. Multiple reports have shown that a high incidence of osteoarthritis is found in football players. Evidence clearly shows that traumatic injury significantly predisposes players for such pathophysiology. Injuries are frequent in amateur as well as professional football players, with knee and ankle accounting for the most severe injuries. Many professional athletes lose playing time due to injuries and many are forced into early retirement. Posttraumatic osteoarthritis is a common finding among ex-football players with numbers well above the normal population. Today’s surgical techniques are advanced and capable of restoring the joint to a certain extent. However, a restitution ad integrum is reached only in very rare cases. Professional football players that return to play after serious injuries perform their extremely strenuous activity on morphologically compromised joints. Incomplete rehabilitation and pressure to return to play after an injurious event clearly put the athlete at an even higher risk for joint degeneration. Prevention strategies, improved surgical management, strict rehabilitation, as well as future aspects such as early suppression of inflammation, personalized medicine, and predictive genomics DNA profiling are needed to reduce incidence and improve the health perspectives of football players. PMID:28345409
Bartley, Justin H.; Murray, Monica F.; Kraeutler, Matthew J.; Pierpoint, Lauren A.; Welton, K. Linnea; McCarty, Eric C.; Comstock, R. Dawn
Background: Lacrosse and ice hockey are quickly growing in popularity, while football remains the most popular sport among high school student-athletes. Injuries remain a concern, given the physical nature of these contact sports. Purpose: To describe the rates and patterns of injuries sustained as a result of intentional player contact in United States high school boys’ football, ice hockey, and lacrosse. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of High School RIO (Reporting Information Online) data, including exposure and injury data collected from a large sample of high schools in the United States from 2005-2006 through 2015-2016. Data were analyzed to calculate rates, assess patterns, and evaluate potential risk factors for player-to-player contact injuries. Results: A total of 34,532 injuries in boys’ football, ice hockey, and lacrosse occurred during 9,078,902 athlete-exposures (AEs), for a rate of 3.80 injuries per 1000 AEs in the 3 contact sports of interest. The risk of injuries was found to be greater in competition compared with practice for all 3 sports, with the largest difference in ice hockey (rate ratio, 8.28) and the smallest difference in lacrosse (rate ratio, 3.72). In all 3 contact sports, the most commonly injured body site in competition and practice caused by both tackling/checking and being tackled/checked was the head/face. However, a significantly greater proportion of concussions sustained in football were the result of tackling compared with being tackled (28.2% vs 24.1%, respectively). In addition, a significantly greater proportion of concussions were sustained in competition compared with practice for all 3 sports. Conclusion: This study is the first to collectively compare injury rates and injury patterns sustained from intentional player-to-player contact in boys’ high school football, ice hockey, and lacrosse. Notably, there was a relatively high risk of injuries and
Almutawa, M; Scott, M; George, K P; Drust, B
To compare the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained by Saudi National Team footballers during match-play and training on natural grass and 3rd generation (3G) artificial turf. Injury data was collected on all Saudi National Team players competing at the Gulf Cup (Yemen December 2010: 3G) and the Asian Cup (Qatar January 2011; grass). A total of 49 players were studied (mean ± SD; Age 27 ± 4 yr; body mass 71.4 ± 6.7 kg; height 176.8 ± 6.3 cm; professional playing experience 9 ± 3 yr) of which 31 competed at the Gulf Cup, 32 at the Asian Cup (14 at both). A prospective cohort design was used to investigate the incidence, nature and severity of injuries sustained with data collected using a standardised injury questionnaire. All data were collected by the team physiotherapist with the definition of injury set at any injury that required player and clinician contact. Injury and exposure data were collected and reported for games, training and all football activity. A total of 82 injuries [incidence - 56.1 per 1000 h total game and training exposure] were recorded at the Asian Cup (grass) and 72 injuries [incidence - 37.9 per 1000 h total game and training exposure] were recorded at the Gulf Cup (3G). Incidence data for training, game and all football exposure injury rates were higher when playing on grass. The vast majority of injuries on both surfaces were very minor that, whilst requiring medical attention, did not result in loss of match/training exposure. Injuries that resulted in 1-3 days absence from training or game play had similar incidence rates (Grass: 7.4 vs. 3G: 7.4 injuries per 1000 h exposure). More severe injuries were less frequent but with a higher incidence when playing on grass. Lower limb injuries were the most common in both tournaments with a higher incidence on grass (Grass: 14.2 vs. 3G: 7.9 injuries per 1000 h exposure). Muscle injuries were the most frequent of all injuries with similar incidence rates on
Ekstrand, Jan; Lundqvist, Daniel; Lagerbäck, Lars; Vouillamoz, Marc; Papadimitiou, Niki; Karlsson, Jon
Background Do coaches’ leadership styles affect injury rates and the availability of players in professional football? Certain types of leadership behaviour may cause stress and have a negative impact on players’ health and well-being. Aim To investigate the transformational leadership styles of head coaches in elite men’s football and to evaluate the correlation between leadership styles, injury rates and players’ availability. Methods Medical staff from 36 elite football clubs in 17 European countries produced 77 reports at four postseason meetings with a view to assessing their perception of the type of leadership exhibited by the head coaches of their respective teams using the Global Transformational Leadership scale. At the same time, they also recorded details of individual players’ exposure to football and time-loss injuries. Results There was a negative correlation between the overall level of transformational leadership and the incidence of severe injuries (rho=−0.248; n=77; p=0.030); high levels of transformational leadership were associated with smaller numbers of severe injuries. Global Transformational Leadership only explained 6% of variation in the incidence of severe injuries (r2=0.062). The incidence of severe injuries was lower at clubs where coaches communicated a clear and positive vision, supported staff members and gave players encouragement and recognition. Players’ attendance rates at training were higher in teams where coaches gave encouragement and recognition to staff members, encouraged innovative thinking, fostered trust and cooperation and acted as role models. Conclusions There is an association between injury rates and players’ availability and the leadership style of the head coach. PMID:29056596
Ekstrand, Jan; Lundqvist, Daniel; Lagerbäck, Lars; Vouillamoz, Marc; Papadimitiou, Niki; Karlsson, Jon
Do coaches' leadership styles affect injury rates and the availability of players in professional football? Certain types of leadership behaviour may cause stress and have a negative impact on players' health and well-being. To investigate the transformational leadership styles of head coaches in elite men's football and to evaluate the correlation between leadership styles, injury rates and players' availability. Medical staff from 36 elite football clubs in 17 European countries produced 77 reports at four postseason meetings with a view to assessing their perception of the type of leadership exhibited by the head coaches of their respective teams using the Global Transformational Leadership scale. At the same time, they also recorded details of individual players' exposure to football and time-loss injuries. There was a negative correlation between the overall level of transformational leadership and the incidence of severe injuries (rho=-0.248; n=77; p=0.030); high levels of transformational leadership were associated with smaller numbers of severe injuries. Global Transformational Leadership only explained 6% of variation in the incidence of severe injuries (r 2 =0.062). The incidence of severe injuries was lower at clubs where coaches communicated a clear and positive vision, supported staff members and gave players encouragement and recognition. Players' attendance rates at training were higher in teams where coaches gave encouragement and recognition to staff members, encouraged innovative thinking, fostered trust and cooperation and acted as role models. There is an association between injury rates and players' availability and the leadership style of the head coach. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Crema, Michel D; Guermazi, Ali; Tol, Johannes L; Niu, Jingbo; Hamilton, Bruce; Roemer, Frank W
To describe in detail the anatomic distribution of acute hamstring injuries in football players, and to assess the relationship between location and extent of edema and tears, all based on findings from MRI. Retrospective observational study. We included 275 consecutive male football players who had sustained acute hamstring injuries and had positive findings on MRI. For each subject, lesions were recorded at specific locations of the hamstring muscles, which were divided into proximal or distal: free tendon, myotendinous junction, muscle belly, and myofascial junction locations. For each lesion, we assessed the largest cross-sectional area of edema and/or tears. We calculated the prevalence of injuries by location. The relationships between locations and extent of edema and tears were assessed using a one-sample t-test, with significance set at pinjuries were most common in the myotendinous junction and in proximal locations. The proximal myotendinous junction was associated with a greater extent of edema in the LHBF and semitendinosus (ST) muscles (p<0.05). Proximal locations in the LHBF had larger edema than distal locations (p<0.05). Distal locations in the ST muscle had larger tears than proximal locations (p<0.05). The proximal myotendinous junction (LHBF and ST muscles) and proximal locations (LHBF muscle) are more commonly affected and are associated with a greater extent of edema in acute hamstring muscle injury. Distal locations (ST muscle), however, seem to be more commonly associated with larger tears. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E
Long-term neurological damage as a result of head trauma while playing sports is a major concern for football athletes today. Repetitive concussions have been linked to many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that repetitive subconcussive events can be a significant source of accrued damage. Since football athletes can experience hundreds of subconcussive hits during a single season, it is of utmost importance to understand their effect on brain health in the short and long term. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study changes in the default mode network (DMN) after repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury. Twenty-two high school American football athletes, clinically asymptomatic, were scanned using the rs-fMRI for a single season. Baseline scans were acquired before the start of the season, and follow-up scans were obtained during and after the season to track the potential changes in the DMN as a result of experienced trauma. Ten noncollision-sport athletes were scanned over two sessions as controls. Overall, football athletes had significantly different functional connectivity measures than controls for most of the year. The presence of this deviation of football athletes from their healthy peers even before the start of the season suggests a neurological change that has accumulated over the years of playing the sport. Football athletes also demonstrate short-term changes relative to their own baseline at the start of the season. Football athletes exhibited hyperconnectivity in the DMN compared to controls for most of the sessions, which indicates that, despite the absence of symptoms typically associated with concussion, the repetitive trauma accrued produced long-term brain changes compared to their healthy peers.
Incidence and risk factors for injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament in National Collegiate Athletic Association football: data from the 2004-2005 through 2008-2009 National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System.
Dragoo, Jason L; Braun, Hillary J; Durham, Jennah L; Chen, Michael R; Harris, Alex H S
Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common in athletic populations, particularly in athletes participating in football, soccer, and skiing. The purpose of this study was to analyze the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance System (ISS) men's football ACL injury database from the playing seasons of 2004-2005 through 2008-2009 to determine the incidence and epidemiology of complete injury to the ACL in NCAA football athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. The NCAA ISS men's football database was reviewed from the 2004-2005 through 2008-2009 seasons using the specific injury code, "Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) complete tear." The injury rate was computed for competition and practice exposures. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CIs) for the incident rates were calculated using assumptions of a Poisson distribution. Pairwise, 2-sample tests of equality of proportions with a continuity correction were used to estimate the associations of risk factors such as event type, playing surface, season segment, and football subdivision. Descriptive data were also described. The ACL injury rate during games (8.06 per 10,000 athlete-exposures [AEs] 95% CI, 6.80-9.42) was significantly greater than the rate during practice (0.8 per 10,000 AEs 95% CI, 0.68-0.93). Players were 10.09 (95% CI, 8.08-12.59) times more likely to sustain an ACL injury in competition when compared with practices. When practice exposures were analyzed separately, the injury rate was significantly greater during scrimmages (3.99 per 10,000 AEs 95% CI, 2.29-5.94) compared with regular practices (0.83 per 10,000 AEs 95% CI, 0.69-0.97) and walk-throughs (0 per 10,000 AEs 95% CI, 0-0.14). There was an incidence rate of 1.73 ACL injuries per 10,000 AEs (95% CI, 1.47-2.0) on artificial playing surfaces compared with a rate of 1.24 per 10,000 AEs (95% CI, 1.05-1.45) on natural grass. The rate of ACL injury on artificial surfaces is 1.39 (95% CI, 1
McLean, Blake D; Tofari, Paul J; Gore, Christopher J; Kemp, Justin G
There is a paucity of data examining the impact of high-intensity interval hypoxic training (IHT) on intermittent running performance. This study assessed the effects of IHT on 17 amateur Australian Footballers, who completed 8 interval treadmill running sessions (IHT [FIO2 = 15.1%] or PLACEBO) over 4 weeks, in addition to normoxic football (2 per week) and resistance (2 per week) training sessions. To match relative training intensity, absolute IHT intensity reduced by 6% of normoxic vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak compared with PLACEBO. Before and after the intervention, performance was assessed by Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and a self-paced team sport running protocol. Standardized effect size statistics were calculated using Cohen's d to compare between the interventions. Compared with PLACEBO, IHT subjects experienced (a) smaller improvements in Yo-Yo IR2 performance (Cohen's d = -0.42 [-0.82 to -0.02; 90% confidence interval]); (b) similar increases in high-intensity running distance during the team sport protocol (d = 0.17 [-0.50 to 0.84]); and (c) greater improvements in total distance (d = 0.72 [0.33-1.10]) and distance covered during low-intensity activity (d = 0.59 [-0.07 to 1.11]) during the team sport protocol. The lower absolute training intensity of IHT may explain the smaller improvements in Yo-Yo IR2 performance in the hypoxic group. Conversely, the data from the self-paced protocol suggest that IHT may positively influence pacing strategies in team sport athletes. In conclusion, IHT alters pacing strategies in team sport athletes (i.e., increased distance covered during low-intensity activity). However, IHT leads to smaller improvements in externally paced high-intensity intermittent running performance (i.e., Yo-Yo IR2), which may be related to a reduced absolute training intensity during IHT sessions.
Kemp, Joanne L; Newton, Joshua D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F
While guidelines outlining the appropriate management of sport-related concussion have been developed and adapted for use within community sport, it remains unknown how they are experienced by those responsible for implementing them. Longitudinal study. 111 coaches and sports trainers from community-level Australian Football and Rugby League teams completed pre- and post-season surveys assessing their attitudes towards using concussion guidelines. Participants also provided post-season feedback regarding their experiences in using the guidelines. 71% of participants reported using the guidelines in the preceding season. Post-season attitude was related to pre-season attitude (p=0.002), football code (p=0.015), and team role (p=0.045). An interaction between team role and guideline use (p=0.012) was also found, with coaches who had used the guidelines, and sports trainers who had not, reporting more positive post-season attitudes towards using the concussion guidelines. Implementation challenges included disputing of decisions about return-to-play by players, parents, and coaches, and a perceived lack of time. Recommendations for improved guideline materials included using larger fonts and providing for witnessing of advice given to players. This is the first study to examine the implementation of concussion guidelines in community sport. Training of coaches/sports trainers needs enhancement. In addition, new education should be developed for parents/players about the importance of the return-to-play advice given to them by those who follow these guidelines. Information provided by those who attempted to use the guidelines will assist the refinement of implementation and dissemination processes around concussion guidelines across sports. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parish Mokhammad Reza
Schuermans, Joke; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Danneels, Lieven; Witvrouw, Erik
Background The hamstring injury mechanism was assessed by investigating the exercise-related metabolic activity characteristics of the hamstring muscles using a muscle functional MRI (mfMRI) protocol. Methods 27 healthy male football players and 27 football players with a history of hamstring injuries (recovered and playing fully) underwent standardised mfMR Imaging. The mfMRI protocol consisted of a resting scan, a strenuous bilateral eccentric hamstring exercise and a postexercise scan. The exercise-related T2 increase or the signal intensity shift between both scans was used to detect differences in metabolic activation characteristics (1) between the different hamstring muscle bellies and (2) between the injury group and the control group. Results A more symmetrical muscle recruitment pattern corresponding to a less economic hamstring muscle activation was demonstrated in the formerly injured group (phamstring exercise. Conclusions These findings suggest that the vulnerability of the hamstring muscles to football-related injury is related to the complexity and close coherence in the synergistic muscle recruitment of the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus. Discrete differences in neuromuscular coordination and activity distribution, with the biceps femoris partly having to compensate for the lack of endurance capacity of the semitendinosus, probably increase the hamstring injury risk. PMID:25388959
Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus; Ekstrand, Jan
Previous injury is a well-documented risk factor for football injury. The time trends and patterns of recurrent injuries at different playing levels are not clear. To compare recurrent injury proportions, incidences and patterns between different football playing levels, and to study time trends in recurrent injury incidence. Time-loss injuries were collected from injury surveillance of 43 top-level European professional teams (240 team-seasons), 19 Swedish premier division teams (82 team-seasons) and 10 Swedish amateur teams (10 team-seasons). Recurrent injury was defined as an injury of the same type and at the same site as an index injury within the preceding year, with injury 2 months as a delayed recurrence. Seasonal trend for recurrent injury incidence, expressed as the average annual percentage of change, was analysed using linear regression. 13 050 injuries were included, 2449 (18.8%) being recurrent injuries, with 1944 early (14.9%) and 505 delayed recurrences (3.9%). Recurrence proportions were highest in the second half of the competitive season for all cohorts. Recurrence proportions differed between playing levels, with 35.1% in the amateur cohort, 25.0% in the Swedish elite cohort and 16.6% in the European cohort (χ(2) overall effect, pinjury incidence in the European cohort, a -2.9% average annual change over the 14-year study period (95% CI -5.4% to -0.4%, p=0.026). Similarly, a decreasing tendency was also seen in the Swedish premier division. Recurrence proportions showed an inverse relationship with playing level, and recurrent injury incidence has decreased over the past decade. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available The different player positions in rugby union may place varying demands on a reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL in regards to 'cutting manoeuvres', this in turn may effect performance. In order to investigate sporting performance post reconstruction, a questionnaire was sent to amateur rugby clubs affiliated to the Oxfordshire Rugby Football Union (R.F.U. From the returned questionnaires player positions were placed into categories based on similar 'cutting manoeuvre' demands. Seventy five percent of Individuals playing in the category 1 (low 'cutting manoeuvre' demands at slow running speeds could play a full game with a damaged ACL and post-reconstruction the majority returned to play at a higher level. Fifty percent of ACL injuries occurred on category 2 (high 'cutting manoeuvre' demands at medium running speeds suggesting they may be more prone to ACL injury than other positions. The majority of individuals playing in category 3 (high 'cutting manoeuvre' demands at fast speeds played at a lower level of rugby post reconstruction. Positional demands may influence ACL injury and post reconstruction sporting performance. However, more research is needed
van Dyk, Nicol; Bahr, Roald; Burnett, Angus F; Whiteley, Rod; Bakken, Arnhild; Mosler, Andrea; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Witvrouw, Erik
Hamstring injuries remain prevalent across a number of professional sports. In football, the incidence has even increased by 4% per year at the Champions League level over the last decade. The role of muscle strength or strength ratios and their association with risk of hamstring injury remain restricted by small sample sizes and inconclusive results. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for hamstring injury in professional football players in an adequately powered, prospective cohort study. Using both established (isokinetic) and novel (eccentric hamstring test device) measures of muscle strength, we aimed to investigate the relationship between these strength characteristics over the entire range of motion with risk of hamstring injury. All teams (n=18) eligible to compete in the premier football league in Qatar underwent a comprehensive strength assessment during their annual periodic health evaluation at Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital in Doha, Qatar. Variables included isokinetic strength, Nordic hamstring exercise strength and dynamic hamstring: quadriceps ratios. Of the 413 players included (68.2% of all league players), 66 suffered a hamstring injury over the two seasons. Only isokinetic quadriceps concentric at 300°/s (adjusted for bodyweight) was associated with risk of hamstring injury when considered categorically. Age, body mass and playing position were also associated with risk of hamstring injury. None of the other 23 strength variables examined were found to be associated with hamstring injury. The clinical value of isolated strength testing is limited, and its use in musculoskeletal screening to predict future hamstring injury is unfounded. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
the golf swing (44.8%). Age, warm-up status, conditioning habits, wearing a golf glove/s and injury acquired in other sports / activities were significantly associated with risk of golf injury (p < 0.05). Equipment use such as type of golf club shaft used, type of shoes used and other factors studied were not statistically significant.
Gomes Neto, Mansueto; Conceição, Cristiano Sena; de Lima Brasileiro, Alécio Jorge Alves; de Sousa, Camila Santana; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; de Jesus, Fabio Luciano Arcanjo
To investigate the effects of FIFA 11 training on injury prevention and performance in football players. Systematic review and meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic search using four databases (CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and PubMed) to find controlled trials evaluating the effects of FIFA 11 on injury prevention and performance among football players. Weighted mean differences, standard mean differences, risk ratios, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I 2 test. We analyzed 11 trials, including 4700 participants. FIFA 11 resulted in a significant reduction in injury risk (risk ratio = 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.98; P = 0.02) and improvements in dynamic balance (weighted mean difference = 2.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-4.92; P = 0.02) and agility (standard mean difference = -0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.02; P = 0.04). The meta-analysis indicated a non-significant improvement in jump height (standard mean difference = 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.59; P = 0.14) and running sprint (standard mean difference = -0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.10; P = 0.17) in the FIFA 11 group. FIFA 11 can be considered as a tool to reduce the risk of injury. It may improve dynamic balance and agility and can be considered for inclusion in the training of football players.
Prognostic factors for specific lower extremity and spinal musculoskeletal injuries identified through medical screening and training load monitoring in professional football (soccer): a systematic review
Sergeant, Jamie C; Parkes, Matthew J; Callaghan, Michael J
Background Medical screening and load monitoring procedures are commonly used in professional football to assess factors perceived to be associated with injury. Objectives To identify prognostic factors (PFs) and models for lower extremity and spinal musculoskeletal injuries in professional/elite football players from medical screening and training load monitoring processes. Methods The MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, SPORTDiscus and PubMed electronic bibliographic databases were searched (from inception to January 2017). Prospective and retrospective cohort studies of lower extremity and spinal musculoskeletal injury incidence in professional/elite football players aged between 16 and 40 years were included. The Quality in Prognostic Studies appraisal tool and the modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation synthesis approach was used to assess the quality of the evidence. Results Fourteen studies were included. 16 specific lower extremity injury outcomes were identified. No spinal injury outcomes were identified. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity and study quality. All evidence related to PFs and specific lower extremity injury outcomes was of very low to low quality. On the few occasions where multiple studies could be used to compare PFs and outcomes, only two factors demonstrated consensus. A history of previous hamstring injuries (HSI) and increasing age may be prognostic for future HSI in male players. Conclusions The assumed ability of medical screening tests to predict specific musculoskeletal injuries is not supported by the current evidence. Screening procedures should currently be considered as benchmarks of function or performance only. The prognostic value of load monitoring modalities is unknown. PMID:29177074
Data on football injuries acquired from surveillance sources and in-depth investigations are presented. Results of the study are summarized by descriptions of the accident sequence, diagnosis of the injury, and specific equipment involved in the injury. (JD)
Young, W B; Newton, R U; Doyle, T L A; Chapman, D; Cormack, S; Stewart, G; Dawson, B
A purpose of this study was to determine if pre-season anthropometric and physiological measures were significantly different for the players from one Australian Football League (AFL) club selected to play in the first game of the season compared to the players not selected. Another purpose was to compare fitness test results for defenders, forwards and mid-fielders in the same AFL club. Thirty-four players were tested for isolated quadriceps and hamstrings strength, leg extensor muscle strength and power, upper body strength, sprinting speed, vertical jump (VJ), endurance, skinfolds and hamstring flexibility. The starters who were selected to play the first game were a significantly older and more experienced playing group, and were significantly better (p starters. Although there were trends for the superiority of the starters, the differences in lower and upper body strength, VJ and predicted VO2max were non-significant. The forwards generally produced the worst fitness scores of the playing positions with the midfielders having significantly lower skinfolds and the defenders possessing better hamstring strength and VJ compared to the forwards. It was concluded that some fitness qualities can differentiate between starters and non-starters, at least in one AFL club. Comparisons of playing positions and the development of fitness norms for AFL players require further research.
Faulkner, Alex; McNamee, Michael; Coveney, Catherine; Gabe, Jonathan
Injury is a conspicuous feature of the practice and public spectacle of contemporary elite sports. The paper argues that the 'biomedicalisation' thesis (medico-industrial nexus, techno-scientific drivers, medical optimisation, biologisation, the rise of evidence and health surveillance) goes some way to capturing the use in elite sports injury of some highly specialised mainstream therapies and some highly maverick biological therapies, which are described. Nevertheless, these main strands of biomedicalisation do not capture the full range of these phenomena in the contexts of sports medicine and athletes' practices in accessing innovative, controversial therapies. Drawing on multi-method qualitative research on top-level professional football and cycling in the UK, 2014-2016, we argue that concepts of 'magic' and faith-based healing, mediated by notions of networking behaviour and referral systems, furnish a fuller explanation. We touch on the concept of 'medical pluralism', concluding that this should be revised in order to take account of belief-based access to innovative bio-therapies amongst elite sportspeople and organisations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Gissane, C; White, J; Kerr, K; Jennings, S; Jennings, D
Professional sport is characterized by high injury rates but is also covered by health and safety legislation. To examine the incidence of injury in professional rugby league as defined by the Reporting of Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR 95). All injuries received during playing and training to both first-team and 'academy' (rugby league is much higher than reported in other high-risk occupations such as mining and quarrying. The large differences in injury rates between first and academy teams have implications for young players likely to progress to first-team status.
Lee, Hannah H.; Chu, Constance R.
Joint injuries are very common in the athletic population, especially professional soccer players, with an incidence of 10 to 35.5 injuries per 1000 hours. Most soccer-related joint injuries occur in the lower extremities, with 16% to 46% occurring in the knee and 17% to 40% occurring in the ankle. Because of the limited healing capacity of cartilage and other intra-articular soft tissue structures, such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscus, joint injuries often lead to the develo...
Thomson, Athol; Whiteley, Rod; Bleakley, Chris
Turning or cutting on a planted foot may be an important inciting event for lower limb injury, particularly when shoe-surface traction is high. We systematically reviewed the relationship between shoe-surface interaction and lower-extremity injury in football sports. A systematic literature search of four databases was conducted up to November 2014. Prospective studies investigating the relationship between rotational traction and injury rate were included. Two researchers independently extracted outcome data and assessed the quality of included studies using a modified Downs and Black index. Effect sizes (OR+95% CIs) were calculated using RevMan software. Where possible, data were pooled using the fixed effect model. Three prospective studies were included (4972 male athletes). The methodological quality was generally good with studies meeting 68-89% of the assessment criteria. All studies categorised athletes into low (lowest mean value 15 nm) or high traction groups (highest mean value 74 nm) based on standardised preseason testing. In all cases, injury reporting was undertaken prospectively over approximately three seasons, with verification from a medical practitioner. Injury data focused on: all lower limb injuries, ankle/knee injuries or ACL injury only. There was a clear relationship between rotational traction and injury and the direction and magnitude of effect sizes were consistent across studies. The pooled data from the three studies (OR=2.73, 95% CI 2.13 to 3.15; χ(2)=3.19, df=2, p=0.21; I(2)=36.5%) suggest that the odds of injury are approximately 2.5 times higher when higher levels of rotational traction are present at the shoe-surface interface. Higher levels of rotational traction influence lower limb injury risk in American Football athletes. We conclude that this warrants considerable attention from clinicians and others interested in injury prevention across all football codes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission
Chalmers, David J; Samaranayaka, Ari; Gulliver, Pauline; McNoe, Bronwen
To identify risk factors for injury in amateur club rugby. Prospective cohort design; with follow-up over the 2004 season. Amateur club rugby in New Zealand. Participants Seven hundred and four male rugby players, aged 13 years and over. Assessment of risk factors The study investigated the independent effect on injury incidence of age, ethnicity, rugby experience, height, weight, body mass index, physical activity, cigarette smoking, previous injury, playing while injured, grade, position, training, time of season, warm-up, foul play, weather conditions, ground conditions and protective equipment. Generalised Poisson regression was used to estimate the effect of each factor after adjusting for all other factors. Game injury, defined as 'any event that resulted in an injury requiring medical attention or causing a player to miss at least one scheduled game or team practice'. A total of 704 players, representing 6263 player-games, contributed information on injury and exposure. Evidence was obtained of the effect on injury incidence of increasing age, Pacific Island versus Maori ethnicity (injury rate ratio (IRR)=1.48, 1.03-2.13), ≥40 h strenuous physical activity per week (IRR=1.54, 1.11-2.15), playing while injured (IRR=1.46, 1.20-1.79), very hard ground condition (IRR=1.50, 1.13-2.00), foul-play (IRR=1.87, 1.54-2.27) and use of headgear (IRR=1.23, 1.00-1.50). Opportunities for injury prevention might include promoting injury-prevention measures more vigorously among players of Pacific Island ethnicity, ensuring injured players are fully rehabilitated before returning to play, reducing the effects of ground hardness through ground preparation and stricter enforcement of the laws relating to foul play.
Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K
as independent variables in the risk factor analyses. The study showed that self-reported previous knee injury significantly increased the risk of time-loss knee injury [relative risk (RR): 3.65, 95% confidence (CI) 1.73-7.68; P
McIntosh, Andrew S; Savage, Trevor N; McCrory, Paul; Fréchède, Bertrand O; Wolfe, Rory
The tackle is the game event in rugby union most associated with injury. This study's main aims were to measure tackle characteristics from video using a qualitative protocol, to assess whether the characteristics differed by level of play, and to measure the associations between tackle characteristics and injury. A cohort study was undertaken. The cohort comprised male rugby players in the following levels: younger than 15 yr, 18 yr, and 20 yr, grade, and elite (Super 12 and Wallabies). All tackle events and technique characteristics were coded in 77 game halves using a standardized qualitative protocol. Game injuries and missed-game injuries were identified and correlated with tackle events. A total of 6618 tackle events, including 81 resulting in a game injury, were observed and coded in the 77 game halves fully analyzed (145 tackle events per hour). An increase in the proportion of active shoulder tackles was observed from younger than 15 yr (13%) to elite (31%). Younger players engaged in more passive tackles and tended to stay on their feet more than experienced players. Younger than 15 yr rugby players had a significantly lower risk of tackle game injury compared with elite players. No specific tackle technique was observed to be associated with a significantly increased risk of game injury. There was a greater risk of game injury associated with two or more tacklers involved in the tackle event, and the greatest risk was associated with simultaneous contact by tacklers, after adjusting for level of play. Tackle characteristics differed between levels of play. The number of tacklers and the sequence of tackler contact with the ball carrier require consideration from an injury prevention perspective.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic chondral lesions of the knee are common in football and rugby players. The diagnosis is often confirmed by arthroscopy which can be therapeutic by performing microfracture. Prospective information about the clinical results after microfracture is still limited. Aim To evaluate the short-term outcome of microfractured lesions in professional football ad rugby players in terms of healing and ability to return to play. Methods Twenty-four consecutive professional male players with isolated full-thickness articular cartilage defects on weight-bearing surface of femoral condyles were treated with microfracture. Clinical assessment of healing was done at three, six, 12 and at 18 months by using modified Cincinnati subjective and objective functional scoring. All 24 subjects were periodically scanned by 3-Tesla MRI on the day of the clinical evaluations and scored by the Henderson MRI classification for cartilage healing. A second look arthroscopy was carried out in 10 players five to seven months after surgery to evaluate lesion healing by using ICRS scoring system. This was done due to presence of discrepancy between a "normal" MRI and persistent clinical symptoms. Results This study showed that 83.3% of players' resume full training between five to seven months (mean: 6.2 after microfracture of full-thickness chondral lesions of weight-bearing surface of the knee. Function and MRI knee scores of the 24 subjects gradually improved over 18 months, and showed good correlation in assessing healing after microfracture at six, 12 and 18 months (r2 = 0.993, 0.986 and 0.993, respectively however, the second look arthroscopy score proved to have stronger strength of association with function score than MRI score. Conclusion We confirmed that microfracture is a safe and effective procedure in treating isolated traumatic chondral lesions of the load-bearing areas of the knee. Healing as defined by subjective symptoms and evaluated
Riyami, Masoud; Rolf, Christer
Traumatic chondral lesions of the knee are common in football and rugby players. The diagnosis is often confirmed by arthroscopy which can be therapeutic by performing microfracture. Prospective information about the clinical results after microfracture is still limited. To evaluate the short-term outcome of microfractured lesions in professional football ad rugby players in terms of healing and ability to return to play. Twenty-four consecutive professional male players with isolated full-thickness articular cartilage defects on weight-bearing surface of femoral condyles were treated with microfracture. Clinical assessment of healing was done at three, six, 12 and at 18 months by using modified Cincinnati subjective and objective functional scoring. All 24 subjects were periodically scanned by 3-Tesla MRI on the day of the clinical evaluations and scored by the Henderson MRI classification for cartilage healing. A second look arthroscopy was carried out in 10 players five to seven months after surgery to evaluate lesion healing by using ICRS scoring system. This was done due to presence of discrepancy between a "normal" MRI and persistent clinical symptoms. This study showed that 83.3% of players' resume full training between five to seven months (mean: 6.2) after microfracture of full-thickness chondral lesions of weight-bearing surface of the knee. Function and MRI knee scores of the 24 subjects gradually improved over 18 months, and showed good correlation in assessing healing after microfracture at six, 12 and 18 months (r2 = 0.993, 0.986 and 0.993, respectively) however, the second look arthroscopy score proved to have stronger strength of association with function score than MRI score. We confirmed that microfracture is a safe and effective procedure in treating isolated traumatic chondral lesions of the load-bearing areas of the knee. Healing as defined by subjective symptoms and evaluated by MRI and a modified knee function score occurred between 5 to 7
Kerr, Zachary Y; Hayden, Ross; Dompier, Thomas P; Cohen, Randy
The epidemiology of football-related concussions has been extensively examined. However, although football players experience more at-risk exposure time during practices than competitions, there is a dearth of literature examining the nature of the activities or equipment worn during practice. In particular, varying levels of equipment worn during practices may place players at varying levels of risk for concussion. To describe the epidemiology of NCAA men's football concussions that occurred during practices from the 2004-2005 to 2008-2009 academic years by amount of equipment worn. Descriptive epidemiology study. Men's collegiate football data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) during the 5-year study period were analyzed. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (RRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals. During the study period, 795 concussions were reported during practices, resulting in an injury rate of 0.39 per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) (95% CI, 0.36-0.42). Among NCAA divisions, Division III had the highest concussion rate (0.54/1000 AEs), followed by Division I (0.34/1000 AEs) and Division II (0.24/1000 AEs) (all P values for RRs comparing divisionsconcussions in practice occurred when players were fully padded (69.9%), followed by wearing shells (23.5%) and helmets only (1.9%). The practice concussion rate was higher in fully padded practices (0.66/1000 AEs) compared with practices when shells were worn (0.33/1000 AEs; RR=1.99 [95% CI, 1.69-2.35]; Pconcussion rate of the preseason (0.76/1000 AEs) was higher than that of the regular season (0.18/1000 AEs; RR=4.14 [95% CI, 3.55-4.83]; Pconcussion rate were scrimmages (1.55/1000 AEs). Although only 3 concussions were sustained during scrimmage practices in which players wore shells, the concussion rate (2.84/1000 AEs) was higher than all other reported rates. Practice concussion rates are highest during fully padded practices, preseason practices, and
Zvijac, John E; Toriscelli, Todd A; Merrick, Shannon; Kiebzak, Gary M
There are conflicting reports regarding the association between isokinetic concentric quadriceps and hamstring strength deficits and ratios and risk for hamstring injuries in athletes. To determine if isokinetic concentric Cybex data collected during the annual National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine are predictive of hamstring injury in professional American football players during their first season. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. All 32 NFL teams identified players selected during the first 5 rounds of the NFL annual draft who had hamstring injuries during their first professional season. Of these, 164 players with 172 injuries also had Cybex data from the previous year's Combine. Analyses compared injured legs with contralateral uninjured legs and also injured players with uninjured controls using a database of Cybex data from all players who participated in the NFL Scouting Combine from 2006 to 2011. No Cybex strength variable differentiated the injured legs from the contralateral uninjured legs or injured players from uninjured controls, even after taking into account days lost from activity. Mean ± SD peak torque for the injured and contralateral uninjured sides was as follows: 315.7 ± 70.0 and 313.5 ± 68.3 N · m, respectively (P = .773, paired t test), for quadriceps and 203.0 ± 42.4 and 205.3 ± 42.5 N · m, respectively (P = .608, paired t test), for hamstrings. The sensitivity and specificity for the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio predicting hamstring injury were 0.513 (95% confidence interval, 0.419-0.607) and 0.524 (0.495-0.554), indicating that the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio was not a useful predictor of injury (calculation used the mean ± SD ratio for injured legs, 0.656 ± 0.133). Side-to-side peak torque differences were also not predictive of injury, with more than a 10% difference (plus or minus) occurring commonly in both injured and uninjured players for quadriceps (53% prevalence for both injured and uninjured) and
Oakley, Ed; May, Rachel; Hoeppner, Tobias; Sinn, Kam; Furyk, Jeremy; Craig, Simon; Rosengarten, Pamela; Kochar, Amit; Krieser, David; Dalton, Sarah; Dalziel, Stuart; Neutze, Jocelyn; Cain, Tim; Jachno, Kim; Babl, Franz E
Paediatric head injury is a common presentation to the ED. North American studies demonstrate increasing use of computed tomography (CT) brain scan (CTB) to investigate head injury. No such data exists for Australian EDs. The aim of this study was to describe CTB use in head injury over time in eight Australian EDs. Retrospective ED electronic database and medical imaging database audit was undertaken for the years 2001-2010 by International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 9 or 10 code for head injury in children <16 years. EDs and medical imaging departments of eight hospitals in Australia (five tertiary referral and three mixed departments). Data for ED presentations with head injury, and all CTB performed by medical imaging were merged to obtain a data set of CTB performed within 24 h for head injury-related attendances to the ED. Descriptive and comparative analysis of CTB rates was performed. The rate of CTB over the decade was 10.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.9-10.5). The annual rate varied from 9.5% (95% CI 8.2-10.9) to 12.5% (95% CI 11.2-13.9). CTB use did not increase over time. Median year of age at time of CT scan was 4 years, with an interquartile range of 1.5-9.4 years. Overall there was a 9.2% increase in the CTB scan rate for every additional year of age at presentation (95% CI 6.6-12.1; P < 0.001). CTB use in head injuries did not increase during the study period, and rates of CTB were less than reported for North America. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Finch, Caroline F
The use of text messaging or short message service (SMS) for injury reporting is a recent innovation in sport and has not yet been trialled at the community level. Considering the lack of personnel and resources in community sport, SMS may represent a viable option for ongoing injury surveillance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of injury self-reporting via SMS in community Australian football. A total of 4 clubs were randomly selected from a possible 22 men's community Australian football clubs. Consenting players received an SMS after each football round game asking whether they had been injured in the preceding week. Outcome variables included the number of SMS-reported injuries, players' response rates and response time. Poisson regression was used to evaluate any change in response rate over the season and the association between response rate and the number of reported injuries. The sample of 139 football players reported 167 injuries via SMS over the course of the season. The total response rate ranged from 90% to 98%. Of those participants who replied on the same day, 47% replied within 5 min. The number of reported injuries decreased as the season progressed but this was not significantly associated with a change in the response rate. The number of injuries reported via SMS was consistent with previous studies in community Australian football. Injury reporting via SMS yielded a high response rate and fast response time and should be considered a viable injury reporting method for community sports settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available International university students are a growing section of the workforce and are thought to be at greater risk of injury. Qualitative studies have highlighted vulnerabilities, but there is a shortage of quantitative research exploring the injury experience and associated risk factors of this emerging issue. In this study, a total of 466 university student workers across a range of study programs in a single Australian university completed an online survey, with questions relating to their background, working experience, training and injury experience. Risk factors for injury were explored in a multivariate statistical model. More than half had not received any safety training before they started work, and 10% reported having had a work injury. About half of these injuries occurred after training. Statistically significant risk factors for injury included working more than 20 h per week (adjusted odds ratio 2.20 (95% CI 1.03–4.71 and lack of confidence in discussing safety issues (AOR 2.17; 95% CI 1.13–4.16. The findings suggest the need for a more engaging and effective approach to safety education and a limit on working hours. This situation is a moral challenge for universities, in that they are effectively sponsoring young workers in the community. It is recommended that longitudinal studies of international student workers be conducted.
Krutsch, Werner; Voss, Andreas; Gerling, Stephan; Grechenig, Stephan; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter
Sufficient first aid equipment is essential to treat injuries on football fields. Deficits in first aid on field are still present in youth football. Injury pattern in youth football over one season and first aid equipment in youth football were analyzed, retrospectively. PRICE and ABC procedure served as basic principles in emergency management to assess the need for first aid equipment on field. Considering financial limits and adapted on youth football injuries, sufficient first aid equipment for youth football was configured. 84% of 73 participating youth football teams had their own first aid kit, but the majority of them were insufficiently equipped. Team coaches were in 60% of all youth teams responsible for using first aid equipment. The injury evaluation presented 922 injuries to 1,778 youth players over one season. Frequently presented types of injury were contusions and sprains of the lower extremity. Based on the analyzed injury data in youth football, first aid equipment with 90 € is sufficient for 100% of all occurred youth football injuries. Current first aid equipment in youth football is insufficient. Scientific-based first aid equipment with 90 € is adequate to serve all injuries. Football coaches need education in first aid management.
Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G. [Roentgeninstitut am Schillerpark, Linz (Austria)
Soccer is the most common sport activity worldwide. Over the last two decades the increase in soccer players has mainly been due to increased interest by females. In general, soccer is a relatively safe sport activity, especially if minor injuries resulting in short periods of absence from playing or training are neglected. However, due to the high number of soccer players severe injuries are also frequent. These are a problem not only for the injured player and the team but may also become problematic for the socio-economic system. In up to 80-90% structures of the lower extremities are injured. For sufficient radiological diagnosis knowledge of the biomechanics of the soccer game and some details about the history of the injury may be of help. To prevent soccer injuries or keep the degree of injury low, special programs had been developed. (orig.) [German] Fussball ist die weltweit am meisten verbreitete Sportart. Der Zuwachs an Fussballspieler(innen) in den letzten beiden Jahrzehnten wird jedoch hauptsaechlich auf das verstaerkte Interesse an weiblichen Spielern zurueckgefuehrt. Das Fussballspiel gilt grundsaetzlich, insbesondere wenn man geringfuegige Verletzungen, die keine therapeutischen Massnahmen notwendig machen, sondern lediglich eine kurzfristige Trainings- oder Spielpause bedingen, als eine relativ sichere Sportart. Auf Grund der Vielzahl an SpielerInnen kommt es allerdings doch zu einer betraechtlichen Anzahl durchaus sehr schwerer Verletzungen. Diese Tatsache stellt ein Problem fuer Spieler und Team dar und mag moeglicherweise auch fuer das soziooekonomische System problematisch werden. Von Verletzungen sind v. a. auf Grund der Natur des Spieles die unteren Extremitaeten betroffen. Zur Durchfuehrung einer suffizienten radiologischen Diagnostik sind Kenntnisse der moeglichen Verletzungsmechanismen und eine Anamneseerhebung von nicht zu unterschaetzendem Wert. Um jedoch derartige Laesionen zu vermeiden bzw. gering zu halten, wurde ueber die Jahre
Epidemiological and clinical outcome comparison of indirect ('strain') versus direct ('contusion') anterior and posterior thigh muscle injuries in male elite football players: UEFA Elite League study of 2287 thigh injuries (2001-2013).
Ueblacker, Peter; Müller-Wohlfahrt, Hans-Wilhelm; Ekstrand, Jan
Data regarding direct athletic muscle injuries (caused by a direct blunt or sharp external force) compared to indirect ones (without the influence of a direct external trauma) are missing in the current literature--this distinction has clinical implications. To compare incidence, duration of absence and characteristics of indirect and direct anterior (quadriceps) and posterior thigh (hamstring) muscle injuries. 30 football teams and 1981 players were followed prospectively from 2001 until 2013. The team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries. Muscle injuries were defined as indirect or direct according to their injury mechanism. In total, 2287 thigh muscle injuries were found, representing 25% of all injuries. Two thousand and three were valid for further analysis, of which 88% were indirect and 12% direct. The incidence was eight times higher for indirect injuries (1.48/1000 h) compared to direct muscle injuries (0.19/1000 h) (pfootball are more frequent than have been previously described. Direct injuries causing time loss are less frequent than indirect ones, and players can usually return to full activity in under half the average time for an indirect injury. Foul play is involved in 7.5% of all thigh muscle injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite negative neuroimaging findings many athletes display neurophysiological alterations and post-concussion symptoms that may be attributable to neurometabolic alterations. Methods The present study investigated the effects of sports concussion on brain metabolism using 1H-MR Spectroscopy by comparing a group of 10 non-concussed athletes with a group of 10 concussed athletes of the same age (mean: 22.5 years and education (mean: 16 years within both the acute and chronic post-injury phases. All athletes were scanned 1-6 days post-concussion and again 6-months later in a 3T Siemens MRI. Results Concussed athletes demonstrated neurometabolic impairment in prefrontal and motor (M1 cortices in the acute phase where NAA:Cr levels remained depressed relative to controls. There was some recovery observed in the chronic phase where Glu:Cr levels returned to those of control athletes; however, there was a pathological increase of m-I:Cr levels in M1 that was only present in the chronic phase. Conclusions These results confirm cortical neurometabolic changes in the acute post-concussion phase as well as recovery and continued metabolic abnormalities in the chronic phase. The results indicate that complex pathophysiological processes differ depending on the post-injury phase and the neurometabolite in question.
Full Text Available Background: Lower limbs nerves are exposed to mechanical injuries in the football players and the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of football on the lower leg nerves. Materials and Methods: Nerve conduction studies were done on 35 male college students (20 football players, 15 non active during 2006 to 2007 in the Shiraz rehabilitation faculty. Standard nerve conduction techniques using to evaluate dominant and non dominant lower limb nerves. Results: The motor latency of deep peroneal and tibial nerves of dominant leg of football players and sensory latency of superficial peroneal, tibial and compound nerve action potential of tibial nerve of both leg in football players were significantly prolonged (p<0.05. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity of tibial and common peroneal in football players were significant delayed (p<0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that football is sport with high contact and it causes sub-clinical neuropathies due to nerve entrapment.
Bjørneboe, John; Bahr, Roald; Einar Andersen, Thor
A recent study from Norwegian male professional football found that the risk of acute match injuries increased from 2002 to 2007. To compare the incidence of incidents with a propensity for injury, from the 2000 season to the 2010 season in Norwegian male professional football using video analysis. We conducted a video analysis of incidents in Norwegian professional football. An incident was recorded if the match was interrupted by the referee, and the player lay down for more than 15 s, and appeared to be in pain or received medical treatment. We also conducted a video analysis of all player-to-player contact situations occurring during 30 randomly selected matches. A total of 1287 incidents were identified during the two seasons. The corresponding rate of incidents was 74.4 (95% CI 67.3 to 81.5) in the 2000 season and 109.6 (95% CI 102.3 to 116.9) in the 2010 season, a significant increase from 2000 to 2010 (rate ratio 1.47, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.66). We observed a significantly higher rate of opponent-to-player contact and non-contact incidents in the 2010 season, but no change in the proportion of fouls or sanctions awarded by the referee. The rate of player-to-player contact situations in both heading and tackling duels was lower during the 2010 season. We found an increased rate of non-contact and opponent-to-player contact incidents in both heading and tackling duels in the 2010 season compared with 10 years earlier, even if there was no increase in the frequency of player-to-player contact situations.
each face a regular pentagon or a regular hexagon and with at least one hexagonal face. This article is in two parts. In this first part, we will prove that a football exists and is unique and in the second, we identify its group of symmetries. (We will incidentally do similar things for the platonic solids to some of whkh the football ...
Spaaij, R.; Testa, A.; Hughson, J.; Moore, K.; Spaaij, R.; Maguire, J.
Introduction Hooliganism has been among the most popular topics in football studies for decades. To some observers, the issue is well and truly over-researched (Moorhouse, 2000) and has ‘unreasonably biased research into football, so that issues such as the administration of the game and its
Rebolledo, Brian J; Bernard, Johnathan A; Werner, Brian C; Finlay, Andrea K; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Dare, David M; Warren, Russell F; Rodeo, Scott A
To evaluate the association between serum vitamin D level and the prevalence of lower extremity muscle strains and core muscle injuries in elite level athletes at the National Football League (NFL) combine. During the 2015 NFL combine, all athletes with available serum vitamin D levels were included for study. Baseline data were collected, including age, race, body mass index, position, injury history specific to lower extremity muscle strain or core muscle injury, and Functional Movement Screen scores. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was collected and defined as normal (≥32 ng/mL), insufficient (20-31 ng/mL), and deficient (D level and injury history. Subsequent multivariate regression analysis was used to examine this relation with adjustment for collected baseline data variables. The study population included 214 athletes, including 78% African American athletes and 51% skilled position players. Inadequate vitamin D was present in 59%, including 10% with deficient levels. Lower extremity muscle strain or core muscle injury was present in 50% of athletes, which was associated with lower vitamin D levels (P = .03). Athletes with a positive injury history also showed significantly lower vitamin D levels as compared with uninjured athletes (P = .03). African American/black race (P P D. Vitamin D groups showed no differences in age (P = .9), body mass index (P = .9), or Functional Movement Screen testing (P = .2). Univariate analysis of inadequate vitamin D levels showed a 1.86 higher odds of lower extremity strain or core muscle injury (P = .03), and 3.61 higher odds of hamstring injury (P D with injury history (P = .07). Inadequate vitamin D levels are a widespread finding in athletes at the NFL combine. Players with a history of lower extremity muscle strain and core muscle injury had a higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin D. Level IV, retrospective study-case series. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc
Sortland, O.; Tysvaer, A.T.
Thirty-three former football players from the National Football Team of Norway were examined by cerebral computer tomography (CT). The CT studies, evaluated for brain atrophy, visually and by linear measurements compared two different normal materials. One third of the players were found to have central cerebral atrophy. It is concluded that the atrophy probably was caused by repeated small head injuries during the football play, mainly in connection with heading the ball. (orig.)
Waldén, M; Hägglund, M; Bengtsson, H; Ekstrand, J
The high injury rate among men's professional football players is well-known. Therefore, the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) launched an injury study already in 2001. This study, the UEFA Elite Club Injury Study (ECIS), currently includes data from a total of 51 clubs from 18 European countries with more than 14,000 registered injuries. With the 21 st World Cup (WC) in Russia just around the corner, we have from our study identified a higher match injury rate and a higher proportion of severe injuries in the European Championships compared to the preceding club competitive seasons. Moreover, we have also recently showed that the muscle injury rate is higher when players are given a recovery window of five days or less between two matches. Considering the congested match schedule of the upcoming WC, it is therefore likely that injuries and fatigue once again will be a topic of discussion this summer.
Full Text Available Michael Kinchington1, Kevin Ball1, Geraldine Naughton21School of Human Movement, Recreation and Performance, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia; 2The Centre of Physical Activity Across the Lifespan (COPAAL, Australian Catholic University, Victoria, AustraliaAims and Objectives: This study extends previous work in the field of injury awareness using a novel lower limb comfort index (LLCI, which was developed to assess comfort in professional football. Participants rated comfort for designated anatomical segments of the lower limb utilizing a seven point Likert scale. The aims of the study were (i to assess the reliability of the LLCI in a competitive football environment (Australian Rules and Rugby League, and (ii to assess whether LLCI measurements were responsive to changes in lower limb comfort over time.Methods and Results: The reliability of the LLCI was observed in two professional football environments: Training Week (mean difference 0.1 point, intra-class correlation coefficient, ICC 0.99 for n = 41 participants; and Match Day (mean difference 0.2 points, ICC 0.97 for n = 22 players. Measurements of lower limb comfort were responsive to changes in comfort over time. Within-player differences were not significant for periods 0–8 hrs (P > 0.05 but, generally, significant for time periods 0–24 hrs (P < 0.05, and significant between 24–96 hrs (P < 0.01. The results indicate that the LLCI was reliable when tested for repeated measures and indicated how the index measures lower limb comfort changes over time.Conclusion: This study shows that the use of a lower limb comfort index, when used in a competitive football environment, is both reliable and responsive to change during both a training week and under match day conditions.Keywords: lower limb comfort, musculoskeletal, football, injury
Womble, Melissa N; Collins, Michael W
Major advancements in sport-related concussion (SRC) management have been made across time to improve the safety of contact sports, including football. Nevertheless, these advances are often overlooked due to concerns regarding the potential long-term effects of SRC. Although further research is needed, it is critical that current efforts are focused on better understanding SRC in order to recognize and change ongoing factors leading to prolonged recoveries, increased risk for injury, and potentially long-term effects. To reduce risk for these outcomes, future focus must be placed on increased education efforts, immediate reporting of injury, prevention techniques, targeted treatment, and the development of multidisciplinary treatment teams nationwide. Finally, with the progress in understanding concussion, it is important to remain vigilant of additional advances that will help to further improve the safety of contact sports, including football.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Hughes Schwab, Brendan A; Vivian, Adam; M M J Kerkhoffs, Gino
Epidemiological data on the occurrence of time-loss injuries over several A-League seasons remains lacking, while the effect of the mandatory implementation of 'Minimum Medical Standards' as a part of the collective bargaining agreement (CBA) needs to be explored. To explore the 5 year evolution of hamstring, groin, knee, ankle and total time-loss injuries among professional footballers in the A-League; to evaluate the consequences of these time-loss injuries in terms of total matches missed and costs incurred; and to explore whether the mandatory implementation of 'Minimum Medical Standards' in the A-League had led to a decrease in the occurrence of total time-loss injuries and total matches missed. An observational prospective study has been carried out since 2008. Data were collected weekly during the seasons 2008 - 2009 to 2012 - 2013 through official match previews/reviews, official media releases, official websites and/or self-reports by players. Total and specific (hamstring, groin, knee and ankle) numbers of time-loss injuries and matches missed were obtained for each season and the related financial costs calculated. The total number of time-loss injuries and matches missed rose from 129 and 506 respectively in 2008 - 2009 to 202 and 1110 in 2010 - 2011. Following the introduction of 'Minimum Medical Standards', both categories decreased (significantly for matches missed). These time-loss injuries and matches missed led to high costs of up to AUD$ 37,317,029.29 (2012 - 2013 season). The same trend was found for knee injuries, while hamstring and ankle injuries remained almost the same. However, time-loss due to groin injuries increased despite the introduction of "Minimum Medical Standards". The introduction of "Minimum Medical Standards" in the A-League had a favorable effect on the number of total, hamstring, knee and ankle injuries and on the number of matches missed due to these injuries, but not on the number of groin injuries. The costs related to
Beaulieu-Jones, Brendin R; Rossy, William H; Sanchez, George; Whalen, James M; Lavery, Kyle P; McHale, Kevin J; Vopat, Bryan G; Van Allen, Joseph J; Akamefula, Ramesses A; Provencher, Matthew T
At the annual National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine, the medical staff of each NFL franchise performs a comprehensive medical evaluation of all athletes potentially entering the NFL. Currently, little is known regarding the overall epidemiology of injuries identified at the combine and their impact on NFL performance. To determine the epidemiology of injuries identified at the combine and their impact on initial NFL performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All previous musculoskeletal injuries identified at the NFL Combine from 2009 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Medical records and imaging reports were examined. Game statistics for the first 2 seasons of NFL play were obtained for all players from 2009 to 2013. Analysis of injury prevalence and overall impact on the draft status and position-specific performance metrics of each injury was performed and compared with a position-matched control group with no history of injury or surgery. A total of 2203 athletes over 7 years were evaluated, including 1490 (67.6%) drafted athletes and 1040 (47.2%) who ultimately played at least 2 years in the NFL. The most common sites of injury were the ankle (1160, 52.7%), shoulder (1143, 51.9%), knee (1128, 51.2%), spine (785, 35.6%), and hand (739, 33.5%). Odds ratios (ORs) demonstrated that quarterbacks were most at risk of shoulder injury (OR, 2.78; P = .001), while running backs most commonly sustained ankle (OR, 1.39; P = .040) and shoulder injuries (OR, 1.55; P = .020) when compared with all other players. Ultimately, defensive players demonstrated a greater negative impact due to injury than offensive players, with multiple performance metrics significantly affected for each defensive position analyzed, whereas skilled offensive players (eg, quarterbacks, running backs) demonstrated only 1 metric significantly affected at each position. The most common sites of injury identified at the combine were (1) ankle, (2) shoulder, (3) knee, (4) spine, and
Lee, Justin W Y; Mok, Kam-Ming; Chan, Hardaway C K; Yung, Patrick S H; Chan, Kai-Ming
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preseason isokinetic strength measures were predictive of future HSI among professional football players. Prospective cohort study, Level of evidence 2. A total of 169 professional players participated in a preseason isokinetic strength screening, followed by a 10-month competitive season. Testing protocol included the concentric performance of both knee flexion and extension at 60degs -1 and 240degs -1 and the eccentric performance of the knee flexor at 30degs -1 . Strength deficits, bilateral differences, and hamstring to quadriceps strength ratios were computed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify potential risk factors of HSI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of the strength measures. Forty-one acute HSIs were sustained, and 12% (n=5) reoccurred within the study period. In the multivariate analysis, we have shown an association between the injury risk and eccentric hamstring peak torque below 2.4Nmkg -1 (OR=5.59; 95% CI, 2.20-12.92); concentric H/Q ratio below 50.5% (OR=3.14; 95% CI, 1.37-2.22); players with previous injury of HSI (OR=3.57; 95% CI, 3.13-8.62). ROC analysis displayed an area under curve (AUC) of 0.77, indicating fair combined sensitivity and specificity of the overall predicting model. Professional football players with significant lower isokinetic hamstring strength, lower hamstring-to-quadriceps strength ratio, and a previous injury of HSI were linked to an increased risk of acute HSI. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Roe, Mark; Malone, Shane; Delahunt, Eamonn; Collins, Kieran; Gissane, Conor; Persson, Ulrik McCarthy; Murphy, John C; Blake, Catherine
Report eccentric knee flexor strength values of elite Gaelic football players from underage to adult level whilst examining the influence of body mass and previous hamstring injury. Cross-sectional study. Team's training facility. Elite Gaelic football players (n = 341) from under 14 years to senior age-grades were recruited from twelve teams. Absolute (N) and relative (N·kg -1 ) eccentric hamstring strength as well as corresponding between-limb imbalances (%) were calculated for all players. Mean maximum force was 329.4N (95% CI 319.5-340.2) per limb. No statistically significant differences were observed in relative force values (4.4 N ·kg -1 , 95% CI 4.2-4.5) between age-groups. Body mass had moderate-to-large and weak associations with maximum force in youth (r = 0.597) and adult (r =0 .159) players, respectively. Overall 40% (95 CI 31.4-48.7) presented with a maximum strength between-limb imbalance >10%. Players with a hamstring injury had greater relative maximum force (9.3%, 95% CI 7.0-11.8; p > 0.05) and a 28% (95% CI 10.0-38.0) higher prevalence of between-limb imbalances ≥15% compared to their uninjured counterparts. Overlapping strength profiles across age-groups, combined with greater strength in previously injured players, suggests difficulties for establishing cut-off thresholds associated with hamstring injury risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gagnepain, Philippe; Ascari, Guido
The authors analyze the financial situation of the Spanish football industry. They first argue that a relevant analysis of the industry's financial results relies on a careful description of how historical and cultural factors have influenced its organization. Moreover, they stress the important relationship between the industry and television. The authors suggest that the situation of the Spanish football industry suffers from some structural weaknesses in its accounts. However, the situatio...
Mc Call , Alan
In professional football, injuries have a negative influence on performance, economy and health. Despite an increased focus on prevention of injury in football, it is of concern that injuries have not reduced in this cohort over the past 11 seasons. Due to the significant and negative impact of injuries in professional football it is of interest to prevent such injuries from occurring. It is important to determine new methods and processes to detect and prevent injuries in professional footba...
Full Text Available To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests.Retrospective study.Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con hamstring(H and quadriceps(Q absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658 to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p <0.05 was used for all statistical comparisons.340 isokinetic test reports on both limbs of 66 professional soccer players were analysed. Eleven players suffered hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for
McDonald, Dylan; Orr, Robin M; Pope, Rodney
Part-time personnel are an integral part of the Australian Army. With operational deployments increasing, it is essential that medical teams identify the patterns of injuries sustained by part-time personnel in order to mitigate the risks of injury and optimize deployability. To compare the patterns of reported work health and safety incidents and injuries in part-time and full-time Australian Army personnel. Retrospective cohort study. The Australian Army. Australian Army Reserve and Australian regular Army populations, July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2014. Proportions of reported work health and safety incidents that resulted in injuries among Army Reserve and regular Army personnel and specifically the (a) body locations affected by incidents, (b) nature of resulting injuries, (c) injury mechanisms, and (d) activities being performed when the incidents occurred. Over 2 years, 15 065 work health and safety incidents and 11 263 injuries were reported in Army Reserve and regular Army populations combined. In the Army Reserve population, 85% of reported incidents were classified as involving minor personal injuries; 4% involved a serious personal injury. In the regular Army population, 68% of reported incidents involved a minor personal injury; 5% involved a serious personal injury. Substantially lower proportions of Army reservist incidents involved sports, whereas substantially higher proportions were associated with combat training, manual handling, and patrolling when compared with regular Army incidents. Army reservists had a higher proportion of injuries from Army work-related activities than did regular Army soldiers. Proportions of incidents arising from combat tasks and manual handling were higher in the Army Reserve. Understanding the sources of injuries will allow the medical teams to implement injury-mitigation strategies.
Fullagar, Hugh H K; McCunn, Robert; Murray, Andrew
While there are various avenues for performance improvement in college American football (AF), there is no comprehensive evaluation of the collective array of resources around performance, physical conditioning, and injury and training/game characteristics to guide future research and inform practitioners. Accordingly, the aim of the present review was to provide a current examination of these areas in college AF. Recent studies show that there is a wide range of body compositions and strength characteristics between players, which appear to be influenced by playing position, level of play, training history/programming, and time of season. Collectively, game demands may require a combination of upper- and lower-body strength and power production, rapid acceleration (positive and negative), change of direction, high running speed, high-intensity and repetitive collisions, and muscle-strength endurance. These may be affected by the timing of and between-plays and/or coaching style. AF players appear to possess limited nutrition and hydration practices, which may be disadvantageous to performance. AF injuries appear due to a multitude of factors-strength, movement quality, and previous injury-while there is also potential for extrinsic factors such as playing surface type, travel, time of season, playing position, and training load. Future proof-of-concept studies are required to determine the quantification of game demands with regard to game style, type of opposition, and key performance indicators. Moreover, more research is required to understand the efficacy of recovery and nutrition interventions. Finally, the assessment of the relationship between external/internal-load constructs and injury risk is warranted.
Gissane, Conor; Hodgson, Lisa; Jennings, De
To describe the injury rates in first team rugby league in terms of those injuries that require missed playing time and those that do not. A pooled data analysis from 2 independent databases. Rugby league match and training environment over several seasons from 1990 to 2003. Injuries were reported as rates per 1000 hours of participation and as percentages with their associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 1707 match injuries were recorded. Of these injuries, 257 required players to miss the subsequent match. The remaining 1450 injuries did not require players to miss the next game. They represented 85% (95% CI, 83-87) of all injuries received and recorded. The ratio of non-time-loss (NTL) to time-loss (TL) injuries was 5.64 (95% CI, 4.96-6.42). There were 450 training injuries, of which 81 were TL injuries and 369 NTL injuries. The NTL training injury rate was 4.56 (95% CI, 3.58-5.79) times higher than TL injury rate. Non-time-loss injuries represent the largest proportion of injuries in rugby league. If NTL injuries are not recorded, the workload of practitioners is likely to be severely underestimated.
Salzmann, Gian M.; Preiss, Stefan; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Harder, Laurent P.; Maier, Dirk; Dvorák, Jirí
Football is currently the most popular sporting activity in the world. Multiple reports have shown that a high incidence of osteoarthritis is found in football players. Evidence clearly shows that traumatic injury significantly predisposes players for such pathophysiology. Injuries are frequent in amateur as well as professional football players, with knee and ankle accounting for the most severe injuries. Many professional athletes lose playing time due to injuries and many are forced into e...
Becker, A; Gaulrapp, H; Hess, H
Within the twelve female first division soccer teams 131 players of all 254 were injured during the season 2000/01. A total of 216 injuries was found, among them 74 minor (less than a week absence from sport), 84 moderate (max. 6 weeks) and 58 major injuries (more than 6 weeks). The average time to recover after an injury was 26.5 days. Within 116 joint injuries 16 sprains and 22 ligamental ruptures of the ankle, 16 meniscal lesions and 11 ACL ruptures could be found. Women soccer shows - compared to men - a higher selective risk of severe injuries, especially to the ankle joint and cruciate ligament. The accumulation of major injuries at the beginning of the season might be due to a too great demand during the preparation. There seems to be a need of improvement of the coordinative skills and to establish proprioceptive joint exercises as a relevant part of training.
Macdonald, Ben; O'Neill, John; Pollock, Noel; Van Hooren, Bas
Poor hamstring strength-endurance is a risk factor for hamstring injuries. This study investigated the effectiveness of the single-leg Roman hold and Nordic hamstring curl in improving hamstring strength-endurance. Twelve Gaelic footballers (mean ± standard deviation age, height and mass were 25.17 ± 3.46 years, 179.25 ± 5.88 cm, 85.75 ± 4.75 kilo) with a history of hamstring injury were randomized into 2 groups that performed 6 weeks of either Nordic hamstring curl, or single-leg Roman chair hold training. The single-leg hamstring bridge (SLHB) was measured pre- and post- intervention. The Roman chair group showed a very likely moderate magnitude improvement on SLHB performance for both legs (23.7% for the previously injured leg [90% confidence interval 9.6% to 39.6%] and 16.9% for the non-injured leg [6.2% to 28.8%]). The Nordic curl group showed a likely trivial change in SLHB performance for the non-injured leg (-2.1% [-6.7% to 2.6%]) and an unclear, but possibly trivial change for the previously injured leg (0.3% [-5.6% to 6.6%]). The Roman chair group improved very likely more with a moderate magnitude in both the non-injured (19.5% [8.0% to 32.2%]) and the previously injured leg (23.3% [8.5% to 40.0%]) compared to the Nordic curl group. This study demonstrated that 6-weeks single-leg Roman chair training substantially improved SLHB performance, suggesting that it may be an efficacious strategy to mitigate hamstring (re-) injury risk. Conversely, 6-weeks Nordic curl training did not substantially improve SLHB performance, suggesting this may not be the intervention of choice for modifying this risk factor.
Ekegren, C L; Gabbe, B J; Finch, C F
A lack of available injury data on community sports participants has hampered the development of informed preventive strategies for the broad-base of sports participation. In community sports settings, sports trainers or first-aiders are well-placed to carry out injury surveillance, but few studies have evaluated their ability to do so. The aim of this study was to investigate the reporting rate and completeness of sports trainers' injury records and agreement between sports trainers' and players' reports of injury in community Australian football. Throughout the football season, one sports trainer from each of four clubs recorded players' injuries. To validate these data, we collected self-reported injury data from players via short message service (SMS). In total, 210 discrete injuries were recorded for 139 players, 21% by sports trainers only, 59% by players via SMS only, and 21% by both. Completeness of injury records ranged from 95% to 100%. Agreement between sports trainers and players ranged from K = 0.32 (95% confidence interval: 0.27, 0.37) for date of return to football to K = 1.00 for activity when injured. Injury data collected by sports trainers may be of adequate quality for providing an understanding of the profile of injuries. However, data are likely to underestimate injury rates and should be interpreted with caution. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Callahan, William T.; And Others
Through an examination of data on injuries to the lower extremities of varsity high school players, this study sought to ascertain 1) whether modified cleats brought about a reduction in the number and/or severity of such injuries; and 2) whether there existed an optimum combination of equipment for reduction in the number and/or severity of such…
Clarke, Kenneth S.; And Others
The National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) was established to serve as a system for continuous collection and interpretation of information on injuries and illnesses incurred by participants in sports. A description is given in this report of the genesis of NAIRS, its significance for athletic directors in conducting safe sports…
Ness, Brandon M; Zimney, Kory; Schweinle, William E
Injury risk factors and relevant assessments have been identified in women's soccer athletes. Other tests assess fitness (eg, the Gauntlet Test [GT]). However, little empirical support exists for the utility of the GT to predict time loss injury. To examine the GT as a predictor of injury in intercollegiate Division I female soccer athletes. Retrospective, nonexperimental descriptive cohort study. College athletic facilities. 71 female Division I soccer athletes (age 19.6 ± 1.24 y, BMI 23.0 ± 2.19). GT, demographic, and injury data were collected over 3 consecutive seasons. GT trials were administered by coaching staff each preseason. Participation in team-based activities (practices, matches) was restricted until a successful GT trial. Soccer-related injuries that resulted in time loss from participation were recorded. 71 subjects met the inclusion criteria, with 12 lower body time loss injuries sustained. Logistic regression models indicated that with each unsuccessful GT attempt, the odds of sustaining an injury increased by a factor of 3.5 (P soccer athletes in this cohort. Further investigation into the appropriate application of the GT for injury prediction is warranted given the scope of this study.
Grygorowicz, Monika; Michałowska, Martyna; Walczak, Tomasz; Owen, Adam; Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof; Pyda, Andrzej; Piontek, Tomasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz
To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively) the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests. Retrospective study. Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con) hamstring(H) and quadriceps(Q) absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658) to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for muscle injury detection. The use of 0.47 of Hcon/Qcon as a discriminate value resulted in significantly lower sensitivity when compared to 0.658 threshold (sensitivity of 16.7% vs
Michałowska, Martyna; Walczak, Tomasz; Owen, Adam; Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof; Pyda, Andrzej; Piontek, Tomasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz
Objective To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively) the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests. Design Retrospective study. Methods Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con) hamstring(H) and quadriceps(Q) absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658) to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar’s chi2 test with Yates’s correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p reports on both limbs of 66 professional soccer players were analysed. Eleven players suffered hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for muscle injury detection. The use of 0.47 of Hcon/Qcon as
Gamage, Prasanna J; Fortington, Lauren V; Finch, Caroline F
Cricket is a very popular sport in Sri Lanka. In this setting there has been limited research; specifically, there is little knowledge of cricket injuries. To support future research possibilities, the aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt, translate and test the reliability of an Australian-developed questionnaire for the Sri Lankan context. The Australian 'Juniors Enjoying Cricket Safely' (JECS-Aus) injury risk perception questionnaire was cross-culturally adapted to suit the Sri Lankan context and subsequently translated into the two main languages (Sinhala and Tamil) based on standard forward-back translation. The translated questionnaires were examined for content validity by two language schoolteachers. The questionnaires were completed twice, 2 weeks apart, by two groups of school cricketers (males) aged 11-15 years (Sinhala (n=24), Tamil (n=30)) to assess reliability. Test-retest scores were evaluated for agreement. Where responses were risk perception questions, 72% (Sinhala) and 90% (Tamil) questions showed a substantial (κ=0.61-0.8) and almost perfect (κ=0.81-1.0) test-retest agreement. The adapted and translated JECS-SL questionnaire demonstrated strong reliability. This is the first study to adapt the JECS-Aus questionnaire for use in a different population, providing an outcome measure for assessing injury risk perceptions in Sri Lankan junior cricketers.
Møller, Peter Mindegaard
A brief story of Danish football has been attempted, describing new patterns of time and location. The examples that have been chosen aim to show that football, as body culture, must be understood in connection with societal changes. Yet what do we learn by analysing these tendencies? Football...... of European sports culture. Such writing reduces football to a different concept: "soccer", that is, a hierarchical and competitive sport. This soccer paradigm does not recognise the diversity and pluralism of football as it exists today and as it has always existed. Football is a multiplicity...... of configurations, including not just elite and professional soccer, but also a game of the people, "grassroots football"....
Olmedilla-Zafra, Aurelio; Rubio, Victor J; Ortega, Enrique; García-Mas, Alexandre
Several attempts to reduce the incidence of sport injuries using psychosocial interventions produced fruitful, although inconclusive results. This paper presents the effectiveness and implementation issues of a pilot 3-month stress-management and muscle relaxation program aimed at reducing sport injury incidence. Pre-post treatment-non treatment group comparison. The program was administered by a trained psychologist on a once-a-week, 1-h session basis. Seventy-four male soccer players from four National Youth league teams voluntarily participated. Teams were randomly assigned to either treatment/non-treatment group. Injury protocol, Self-monitoring cards, Athletes' satisfaction and commitment survey, Coaches' interview. Group main effect and Time-Group interaction effect were both statistically significant, F(1,60) = 8.30, p = 0.005, η 2 p = 0.121, with the average number of injuries larger in the post-treatment phase of non-treatment group (p = 0.005, η 2 p = 0.077). There was a significant decrease in the average number of injuries for the intervention group before and after implementing the program (p sport injuries, with a high level of satisfaction and commitment from the athletes, as well as high acceptance from the coaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Westermann, Robert W.; Wehr, Peter; Amendola, Annunziato
Objectives: Both lower extremity and head injuries are common in American Football players. Concussions, or Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries (MTBIs), have gained increased interest in the past decade. Recurrent MTBIs have been associated with late-life cognitive impairment and depression in American Football populations.2, 3 Beginning in 2008, the NCAA introduced rule changes with the intent to halt or reverse the increasing rates of MTBIs in its players. Lower-extremity injuries in American foo...
Clemence, William J., Jr.; Pitts, James Walter
This annotated bibliography was compiled to assist physical education majors, especially those having a major interest in football and football coaching. The bibliography is limited to the areas of coaching techniques and philosophy, fundamentals, offense, defense, injuries, and conditioning at the high school and college level. These broader…
Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M
) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football...... is recommended. We suggest that self-reported Tegner Activity Scale scores should be adjusted for age, gender and level of competition. In amateur football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender....
Shepard, G; Banks, A; Ryan, W
Method: A questionnaire was sent to the 92 football league and premiership managers to assess the prevalence of OA of various joints. The prevalence of OA of the hip in those managers that were ex-professional footballers was assessed. Radiographic controls were obtained and used to assess the prevalence of OA of the hip in the general population. The results of the two groups were compared statistically using χ2 tabulation.
Chu, J; McNally, S; Bruyninckx, F; Neuhauser, D
Autonomous twitch elicitation at myofascial trigger points from spondylotic radiculopathies-induced denervation supersensitivity can provide favourable pain relief using electrical twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (ETOIMS). To provide objective evidence that ETOIMS is safe and efficacious in migraine and persistent pain management due to decades-old injuries to head and spine from paediatric American football. An 83-year-old mildly hypertensive patient with 25-year history of refractory migraine and persistent pain self-selected to regularly receive fee-for-service ETOIMS 2/week over 20 months. He had 180 sessions of ETOIMS. Pain levels, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate/pulse were recorded before and immediately after each treatment alongside highest level of clinically elicitable twitch forces/session, session duration and intervals between treatments. Twitch force grades recorded were from 1 to 5, grade 5 twitch force being strongest. Initially, there was hypersensitivity to electrical stimulation with low stimulus parameters (500 µs pulse-width, 30 mA stimulus intensity, frequency 1.3 Hz). This resolved with gradual stimulus increments as tolerated during successive treatments. By treatment 27, autonomous twitches were noted. Spearman's correlation coefficients showed that pain levels are negatively related to twitch force, number of treatments, treatment session duration and directly related to BP and heart rate/pulse. Treatment numbers and session durations directly influence twitch force. At end of study, headaches and quality of life improved, hypertension resolved and antihypertensive medication had been discontinued. Using statistical process control methodology in an individual patient, we showed long-term safety and effectiveness of ETOIMS in simultaneous diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention of migraine and persistent pain in real time obviating necessity for randomised controlled studies.
Tarity, T David; Garrigues, Grant E; Ciccotti, Michael G; Zooker, Chad C; Cohen, Steven B; Frederick, Robert W; Williams, Gerald R; DeLuca, Peter F; Dodson, Christopher C
Pectoralis major injuries are an infrequent shoulder injury that can result in pain, weakness, and deformity. These injuries may occur during the course of an athletic competition, including football. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of pectoralis major ruptures in professional football players and time lost from the sport following injury. We hypothesized that ruptures most frequently occur during bench-press strength training. The National Football League Injury Surveillance System was reviewed for all pectoralis major injuries in all players from 2000 to 2010. Details regarding injury setting, player demographics, method of treatment, and time lost were recorded. A total of 10 injuries-complete ruptures-were identified during this period. Five of the 10 were sustained in defensive players, generally while tackling. Nine occurred during game situations, and 1 occurred during practice. Specific data pertinent to the practice injury was not available. No rupture occurred during weight lifting. Eight ruptures were treated operatively, and 2 cases did not report the method of definitive treatment. The average days lost was 111 days (range, 42-189). The incidence was 0.004 pectoralis major ruptures during the 11-year study period. Pectoralis major injuries are uncommon while playing football. In the National Football League, these injuries primarily occur not during practice or while bench pressing but rather during games. When pectoralis major ruptures do occur, they are successfully treated operatively. Surgery may allow for return to full sports participation. IV, case series.
Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila Susanne
a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF), with a specific focus on organisational issues. In doing so, we would like to contribute to the discussion of how to organise sports as a means for promoting health within sporting organisations. The theoretical framework...... in a Danish context. Key words: Football Fitness, Health, Sports clubs, Sports Organisations, Path dependency......Studies reveal a shift in the role of sport in society in general; we are experiencing greater political focus on sport due to the health-related outcomes of participation and the linkage between sport and health is clearer than ever. Relatively new findings conclude that recreational football...
Green, Brady; Pizzari, Tania
To systematically review the literature to identify risk factors for calf strain injury, and to direct future research into calf muscle injuries. Systematic review DATA SOURCES: Database searches conducted for Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, AUSPORT, SportDiscus, PEDro and Cochrane Library. Manual reference checks, ahead of press searches, citation tracking. From inception to June 2016. Studies evaluating and presenting data related to intrinsic or extrinsic risk factors for sustaining future calf injury. Ten studies were obtained for review. Subjects across football, Australian football, rugby union, basketball and triathlon were reported on, representing 5397 athletes and 518 calf/ lower leg muscle injuries. Best evidence synthesis highlights chronological age and previous history of calf strain are the strongest risk factors for future calf muscle injury. Previous lower limb injuries (hamstring, quadriceps, adductor, knee) show some limited evidence for an association. Numerous factors lack evidence of an association, including height, weight, gender and side dominance. Increasing age and previous calf strain injury are the most predictive of future calf injury. The overall paucity of evidence and the trend for studies of a high risk of bias show that further research needs to be undertaken. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
... a hamstring injury if you play soccer, basketball, football, tennis or a similar sport that involves sprinting ... may not be able to bear the full force of the action required during certain activities. Muscle ...
Chung, Kevin C; Lark, Meghan E; Cederna, Paul S
Although football is one of the most popular sports in America, its high injury incidence places concern on the injury prevention and safety of its players. This article investigates the perspectives of two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 football coaches on promoting injury management and player safety while maintaining a highly competitive team. Through obtaining their coaching philosophy team management topics, effective strategies that contribute to a team culture prioritizing player well-being were identified. Interactions of football coaches with physicians and medical specialists are explored to highlight strengths that can optimize the care and treatment of football athletes. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
John W. Orchard
Conclusion: Fast bowlers suffer more hamstring injuries than other playing roles in cricket, particularly in First Class (multi-day cricket. Batsmen are more likely to get injured in 50-over (one day cricket. Playing in Australia (compared to overseas venues leads to increased risk of hamstring injury.
Stokes, John V.; Luiselli, James K.; Reed, Derek D.
Between 2001 and 2005, football-related injuries accounted for 1,060,823 emergency room visits to U.S. hospitals (Mello, Myers, Christian, Palmisciano, & Linakis, 2009). Among high school football athletes, statistics reveal that for the period of 1984 to 1999, there were 63 injuries resulting in permanent disability (Mueller, 2001). Additional…
Laudner, Kevin G
Injuries stemming from shoulder instability are very common among athletes participating in contact sports, such as football. Previous research has shown that increased laxity negatively affects the function of the sensorimotor system potentially leading to a pathological cycle of shoulder dysfunction. Currently, there are no data detailing such effects among football players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in upper extremity sensorimotor control among football players compared with that of a control group. Forty-five collegiate football players and 70 male control subjects with no previous experience in contact sports participated. All the subjects had no recent history of upper extremity injury. Each subject performed three 30-second upper extremity balance trials on each arm. The balance trials were conducted in a single-arm push-up position with the test arm in the center of a force platform and the subjects' feet on a labile device. The trials were averaged, and the differences in radial area deviation between groups were analyzed using separate 1-way analyses of variance (p football players showed significantly more radial area deviation of the dominant (0.41 ± 1.23 cm2, p = 0.02) and nondominant arms (0.47 ± 1.63 cm2, p = 0.03) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that football players may have decreased sensorimotor control of the upper extremity compared with individuals with no contact sport experience. The decreased upper extremity sensorimotor control among the football players may be because of the frequent impacts accumulated during football participation. Football players may benefit from exercises that target the sensorimotor system. These findings may also be beneficial in the evaluation and treatment of various upper extremity injuries among football players.
McCarthy, Peter W; Hume, Phillip J; Heusch, Andrew I; Lark, Sally D
While there have been investigations into the reduced neck injury rate of wearing protective helmets, there is little information on its effects on normal kinaesthetic neck function. This study aims to quantify the kinaesthetic and movement effects of the American football helmet. Fifteen British Collegiate American football players (mean age 22.2, SD 1.9; BMI kg.m(2) 26.3, SD 3.7) were age and size matched to 11 non-American football playing university students (mean age 22.5, SD 3.6; BMI 24.3, SD 3.3 kg.m(2)). Both groups had their active cervical range of motion and head repositioning accuracy measured during neck flexion/extension using a modified cervical range of motion device and a similarly modified football helmet. Wearing helmets significantly reduced active cervical range of motion in extension in both groups (P = 0.007 and P = 0.001 Controls and American Footballers respectively). While both groups had similar repositioning when not wearing a helmet (flexion P = 0.99; extension P = 0.52), when wearing helmets, American football players appeared to be more accurate in relation to cervical kinaesthetic repositioning (ANOVA: P = 0.077: flexion effect size =0.84; extension effect size =0.38). Wearing American football helmets significantly reduces the active cervical range of motion in extension, along with a change in the neutral head position. American footballers have a greater accuracy in repositioning their head from flexion (potentially enhanced proprioception) when wearing a helmet. This finding might allow development of a simple objective test to help discern presence of minor concussive or cervical musculoskeletal injury on or off the field.
Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila Susanne
Studies reveal a shift in the role of sport in society in general; we are experiencing greater political focus on sport due to the health-related outcomes of participation and the linkage between sport and health is clearer than ever. Relatively new findings conclude that recreational football...... organised as small-sided games is highly beneficial for enhancing overall fitness. In addition, studies indicate that team sports such as football may have an advantage over individual sports when it comes to personal development and the development of social capital. The aim of this paper is to explore...... a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF), with a specific focus on organisational issues. In doing so, we would like to contribute to the discussion of how to organise sports as a means for promoting health within sporting organisations. The theoretical framework...
Dave, Radhika B; Stevens, Kathryn J; Shivaram, Giri M; McAdams, Timothy R; Dillingham, Michael F; Beaulieu, Christopher F
Myotendinous strains, contusions, and hematomas are common injuries in American football. Along with ligament sprains and inflammatory disorders, musculoskeletal injuries often result in lost participation time. This article summarizes 18 years of experience with 128 ultrasound-guided drainages and injections in 69 football players with 88 injuries. When performed by an operator with sufficient expertise in diagnostic and procedural skills, ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventions are minimally invasive, are safe, and can play an integral role in injury management.
Margolis, Lewis H; Canty, Greg; Halstead, Mark; Lantos, John D
A pediatrician is asked by her local school board to help them decide whether to discontinue their high school football program. She reviews the available evidence on the risks of football and finds it hopelessly contradictory. Some scholars claim that football is clearly more dangerous than other sports. Others suggest that the risks of football are comparable to other sports, such as lacrosse, ice hockey, or soccer. She finds very little data on the long-term sequelae of concussions. She sees claims that good coaching and a school culture that prioritizes the health of athletes over winning can reduce morbidity from sports injuries. In this paper, 3 experts also review the evidence about sports risks and discuss what is known and not known about the science and the ethics of high school football. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Møller, Peter Mindegaard
A brief story of Danish football has been attempted, describing new patterns of time and location. The examples that have been chosen aim to show that football, as body culture, must be understood in connection with societal changes. Yet what do we learn by analysing these tendencies? Football......, even though widely homogenous on aglobal level, is still practiced in particular ways in different countries, following different co-ordinates of time, place and organization. This is important to remember when, in poli