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Sample records for australian football injuries

  1. Injury profile of amateur Australian rules footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawdon, A; Brukner, P

    1994-01-01

    Australian Rules Football is played by numerous young Australians throughout winter each year. There have been a number of studies on professional and semi-professional footballers, establishing the nature and frequency of injuries within this football code. Medical cover of an amateur football club over the 1993 season allowed detailed recording of injuries over this period. The data collected revealed a markedly different injury profile to that seen previously. The injury rate in this study was 96 per 1000 player hours. The most common injury was concussion (15%), with hand fractures next most frequent (13.5%). The lower limb was the most common site of injury, with head and neck second and upper limb third. Injuries with an overuse component were seen less commonly in the amateur group while traumatic injuries were more frequent. The time allocated by amateur footballers to their sport is less than professional players, quite aside from the difference in skill level attained. Overuse injuries may be correspondingly much less frequent on a time basis alone. The increased incidence of traumatic injuries is postulated to be a manifestation of both less well developed skills and possibly less available and effective preventative measures such as ankle strapping and tape supplies. Considering the large number of young people playing amateur football and the significant time and cost of what are often relatively minor injuries, more work is required to establish what injuries are most common, and importantly, what measures can be taken to decrease their incidence. PMID:8665278

  2. Balance and injury in elite Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, C; McLaughlin, P; Goodman, C

    2007-10-01

    This project measured pre-season balance ability and determined its relationship to knee and ankle ligament injuries during the season for professional Australian footballers. The balance test involved the players stepping onto a foam balance mat on top of a force plate and maintaining single limb balance. Throughout the playing season, injuries were monitored. The results from two hundred and ten players participating in this project were analysed. During the 2003 season, 8 % (17 out of 210) sustained a knee ligament injury and 10 % (21 out of 210) sustained an ankle ligament injury. Multivariate analysis revealed that pre-season balance ability was a significant independent predictor of ankle ligament injury. Players with low balance ability had at least twice as many ankle ligaments injuries as those with average or good balance ability. Balance ability was not a significant predictor of knee ligament injuries. The height of the players was the only significant independent predictor of knee ligament injuries. Low pre-season balance ability was associated with an increased risk of ankle ligament injury. A modifiable injury risk factor has been identified. Research is now required to determine the optimal training regime to enhance balance ability and whether this translates to a reduction in the incidence of ankle injuries. PMID:17373597

  3. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL) Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Orchard; John Orchard; Hugh Seward

    2013-01-01

    It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL) injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012), covering 162,683 player-ma...

  4. Spinal-cord injuries in Australian footballers, 1960-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T K; Coolican, M R

    1987-08-01

    A review of 107 footballers who suffered a spinal-cord injury between 1960 and 1985 has been undertaken. Since 1977, the number of such injuries in Rugby Union, Rugby League and Australian Rules has increased, from an average of about two injuries a year before 1977 to over eight injuries a year since then. Rugby Union is clearly the most dangerous game, particularly for schoolboys; all of the injuries in schoolboy games for this code have occurred since 1977. This study has shown that collision at scrum engagement, and not at scrum collapse, is the way in which the majority of scrum injuries are sustained. These injuries are largely preventable, and suggestions for rule changes are made. Half the injured players recovered to Frankel grades D or E. The financial entitlements of those injured were grossly inadequate; this warrants action. A national register for spinal-cord injuries from football should be established to monitor the effects of desirable rule changes in Rugby Union and Rugby League. PMID:3600465

  5. Injury incidence, risk factors and prevention in Australian rules football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2013-05-01

    Along with the enjoyment and the other positive benefits of sport participation, there is also the risk of injury that is elevated in contact sport. This review provides a summary of injury incidence in Australian rules football (ARF), identifies injury risk factors, assesses the efficacy of interventions to reduce injury risk and makes recommendations for future research. The most common injuries were found to be muscle strains, particularly hamstrings; joint ligament sprains, especially ankle; haematomas and concussion. The most severe joint injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Mouthguards are commonly worn and have been shown to reduce orofacial injury. There is evidence that thigh pads can reduce the incidence of thigh haematomas. There is a reluctance to wear padded headgear and an attempt to assess its effectiveness was unsuccessful due to low compliance. The most readily identified risk factor was a history of that injury. There were conflicting findings as to the influence strength imbalances or deficit has on hamstring injury risk in ARF. Static hamstring flexibility was not related to risk but low hip flexor/quadriceps flexibility increased hamstring injury risk. High lower-limb and high hamstring stiffness were associated with an elevated risk of hamstring injury. Since stiffness can be modulated through strength or flexibility training, this provides an area for future intervention studies. Low postural balance ability was related to a greater risk of ankle injury in ARF, players with poor balance should be targeted for balance training. There are preliminary data signifying a link between deficiencies in hip range of motion and hip adductor strength with groin pain or injury. This provides support for future investigation into the effectiveness of an intervention for high-risk players on groin injury rate. Low cross-sectional area of core-region muscle has been associated with more severe injuries and a motor control exercise intervention

  6. Analysis of the Three Most Prevalent Injuries in Australian Football Demonstrates a Season to Season Association Between Groin/Hip/Osteitis Pubis Injuries With ACL Knee Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Verrall, Geoffrey M.; Esterman, Adrian; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Injuries are common in contact sports like Australian football. The Australian Football League (AFL) has developed an extensive injury surveillance database that can be used for epidemiological studies. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify any association between the three most prevalent injuries in the AFL. Patients and Methods: From the AFL injury surveillance data 1997-2012 the injury incidence (new injuries per club per season) and the injury prevalence data (m...

  7. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Orchard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

  8. Successful management of hamstring injuries in Australian Rules footballers: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoskins Wayne T

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules football. There is a lack of evidence based literature on the treatment, prevention and management of hamstring injuries, although it is agreed that the etiology is complicated and multi-factorial. We present two cases of hamstring injury that had full resolution after spinal manipulation and correction of lumbar-pelvic biomechanics. There was no recurrence through preventative treatment over a twelve and sixteen week period. The use of spinal manipulation for treatment or prevention of hamstring injury has not been documented in sports medicine literature and should be further investigated in prospective randomized controlled trials.

  9. Injuries in professional footballers.

    OpenAIRE

    Muckle, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of injuries in footballers is described. Nearly half of footballer's injuries involve the knee, with vertical tearing of the meniscus being common; surgical intervention may be required. Approximately one third of injuries involve the ankle, and will often require immobilisation. Other injuries include muscle damage, spondylosis of L4 or L5, concussion, and dislocations. The importance of prompt and correct treatment of injuries is emphasised.

  10. Prevention of Football Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “cl...

  11. A season of football injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J

    1994-06-01

    All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit. PMID:8050871

  12. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  13. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Unsell, Bryan J. [Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-12-15

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  14. Cold Weather Can Spike Football Injuries, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_158070.html Cold Weather Can Spike Football Injuries, Study Finds NFL concussions and ankle injuries ... most common injuries that occurred during two National Football League seasons between 2012 and 2014. Players had ...

  15. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  16. Rugby football injuries, 1980-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, J P

    1985-06-01

    The injuries sustained by the boys at one English public school have been recorded and analysed by age, experience, position, phase, duration of the game and of the season. Few injuries have been serious. Detailed reference is made to concussion, injuries from collapsed scrums and injuries of the cervical spine. The paper emphasises that the tackle leads to most injuries. This paper presents the Rugby football injuries sustained by the boarders of Rugby School in the four seasons 1980-1983. The injury rate was 194 per 10,000 player hours, compared with the rate of 198 per 10,000 player hours for the thirty seasons 1950-1979 (Sparks, 1981). Tables I-VI list the injuries by different criteria. Table VII lists the sites of injury; Table VIII the time off Rugby football after injury; Table IX lists some of the more important injuries; Table XI summarises the playing results of the various school teams; Table XIII compares some of the Rugby School figures with those recorded in the Accident and Emergency Department of Christchurch Hospital during the 1979 New Zealand Rugby football season (Inglis and Stewart, 1981); Table XIV records information on three aspects of Rugby football that have occasioned much recent concern, viz:--Time off playing after concussion, injuries caused by collapsed scrums and neck injuries. PMID:4027497

  17. Injury surveillance in the World Football Tournaments 1998–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Background International sports bodies should protect the health of their athletes, and injury surveillance is an important pre-requisite for injury prevention. The Fédération International de Football Association (FIFA) has systematically surveyed all football injuries in their tournaments since 1998. Aims Analysis of the incidence, characteristics and changes of football injury during international top-level tournaments 1998–2012. Methods All newly incurred football injuries during the FIFA...

  18. Epidemiology and prevention of football injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hägglund, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to study the incidence, severity and pattern of injury in male and female elite football players; to study time trends in injury risk; to identify risk factors for injury; and to test the effectiveness of an intervention programme aimed at preventing re-injury. All studies followed a prospective design using standardised definitions and data collection forms. Individual training and match exposure was registered for all players participating. Time loss injuries we...

  19. Epidemiology of injuries in elite football

    OpenAIRE

    Waldén, Markus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the injury characteristics in elite football, and risk factors for injury with special emphasis on anterior cruciate ligament injury. All five papers followed a prospective design using a standardised methodology. Individual training and match exposure was recorded for all players participating as well as all injuries resulting in time loss. Severe injury was defined as absence from play longer than 4 weeks. In Paper I, all 14 teams in the Swedish men’s...

  20. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  1. Common Shoulder Injuries in American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-01-01

    American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes. PMID:26359844

  2. Sport injuries in Donegal Gaelic footballers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    El-Gohary, Y

    2012-01-31

    We aimed to identify any pattern of injuries that impacted on the long-term physical wellbeing o f players, sustained by Senior County Gaelic-football players during their playing career and the impact of those injuries on their quality of life. A questionnaire was sent to different Donegal-Panels looking for injuries and surgical procedures undergone in playing and post-playing career including chronic joint and musculoskeletal problems.

  3. Video analysis of injuries and incidents in Norwegian professional football

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, T.; Tenga, A; Engebretsen, L.; Bahr, R

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This study describes the characteristics of injuries and high risk situations in the Norwegian professional football league during one competitive season using Football Incident Analysis (FIA), a video based method.

  4. Posterior sternoclavicular dislocation: an American football injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, L B; Klareskov, B

    1996-01-01

    Posterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint is uncommon, accounting for less than 0.1% of all dislocations. Since 1824 a little more than 100 cases have been reported, and the majority in the past 20 years. A review of published reports suggests that this injury is seen particularly in...... connection with American football. A typical case is described. The importance of this injury is that there is often a delay in diagnosis with potentially serious complications....

  5. Epidemiology of Muscle Injuries in Professional Football (Soccer)

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrand, Jan; Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Background: Muscle injuries constitute a large percentage of all injuries in football. Purpose: To investigate the incidence and nature of muscle injuries in male professional footballers. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Fifty-one football teams, comprising 2299 players, were followed prospectively during the years 2001 to 2009. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries. The first-team squads of 24 clubs selected by the Union of E...

  6. Australian Rules football: an anthropometric study of participants.

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, L M; Read, R S; Gollan, R A

    1985-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements and personal data were collected from 119 Australian Rules footballers from Victoria. A top level professional league team, a second level association team, and an A-grade amateur association team were observed, representing three levels of ability. The profile of physical features of these athletes at the beginning of the season is presented. A gradation of body size was observed between teams. The players in the top level team were slightly taller and heavier tha...

  7. Football injuries during European Championships 2004-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Ekstrand, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The risk of injury in football is high, but few studies have compared men's and women's football injuries. The purpose of this prospective study was to analyse the exposure and injury characteristics of European Championships in football and to compare data for men, women and male youth players. The national teams of all 32 countries (672 players) that qualified to the men's European Championship 2004, the women's European Championship 2005 and the men's Under-19 European Championship 2005 we...

  8. Movement Profiles, Match Events, and Performance in Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Richard J; Watsford, Mark L; Austin, Damien J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W

    2016-08-01

    Johnston, RJ, Watsford, ML, Austin, D, Pine, MJ, and Spurrs, RW. Movement profiles, match events, and performance in Australian football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2129-2137, 2016-This study examined the relationship between movement demands, match events, and match performance in professional Australian football. Data were collected from 19 players using global positioning system units during 2 Australian Football League seasons. A range of movement demands and instantaneous power measures were collected. The players were divided into high-caliber (HC, ≥17/20) and low-caliber (LC, ≤8/20) groups based on the rating score by their coaches. A Mann-Whitney U-test, independent samples t-test, and effect sizes were used to determine whether any differences existed between the 2 groups. The HC group had a significantly higher match duration (7.2%), higher total distance (9.6%), and covered more distance and spent more time high-speed running per minute (12.7 and 11.9%). Although not significant, the effect sizes revealed that the HC group tended to have a higher mean metabolic power output (2.6%) and spent more time at the high power zone (7.9%). For the match event data, the HC group had significantly more involvements with the football. The results demonstrated the higher physical demands placed on the HC group. The findings suggest that analyzing instantaneous power measures can provide valuable information about the physical demands placed on team sport athletes to coaches and conditioning staff. PMID:26808858

  9. Injuries in female youth football : prevention, performance and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, Kathrin

    2008-01-01

    Female football has experienced an enormous increase in popularity and in the number of active players worldwide. Previous research in female football has shown that the overall injury rate for female players is nearly as high as that for male players. As a consequence, effective injury prevention methods are needed for both genders at all age and skill levels. Especially for women, little is known about risk factors and mechanisms for injury which makes it difficult to develop injury p...

  10. Musculoskeletal injuries in young footballers and associated risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Ricardo Jorge Afonso

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Ciências da Fisioterapia Background: Association Football is associated with high incidence of injuries that could affect both players and clubs in terms of cost for health and performance. Aims: Analyse injury characteristics, prevalence, incidence, and identify associated Risk Factors for musculoskeletal injuries in a youth Football Academy during one season, using both Medical Attention (MAI) and Time-loss injury (TLI) definitions. Methods: Descriptive epidemiologica...

  11. Injuries in youth female football: risk factors, prevention and compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Soligard, Torbjørn

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular team sports worldwide. Although the positive health benefits of regular physical activity are well-documented, being active also entails a certain risk of injury. In football, studies on female players have reported overall injury rates nearly as high as for their male counterparts. However, identification of injury risk factors and mechanisms can help us implement tailored injury prevention measures for both sexes at all age and skill levels. A...

  12. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B.; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38....

  13. High risk of new knee injury in elite footballers with previous anterior cruciate ligament injury

    OpenAIRE

    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Ekstrand, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a severeevent for a footballer, but it is unclear if the knee injuryrate is higher on returning to football after ACL injury. Objective: To study the risk of knee injury in elite footballerswith a history of ACL injury compared with those without. Method: The Swedish male professional league (310 players) wasstudied during 2001. Players with a history of ACL injury atthe study start were identified. Exposure to football and alltime loss i...

  14. Football incident analysis: a new video based method to describe injury mechanisms in professional football

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, T.; Larsen, O; Tenga, A; Engebretsen, L.; Bahr, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and test a new video based method for match analysis that combines football specific and medical information to achieve a better understanding of the injury mechanisms and events leading up to high risk situations.

  15. Injury incidence and injury patterns in professional football - the UEFA injury study

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrand, Jan; Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the injury characteristics in professional football and to follow the variation of injury incidence during a match, during a season and over consecutive seasons. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study where teams were followed for seven consecutive seasons. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries from 2001 to 2008. SETTING: European professional men's football. PARTICIPANTS: The first team squads of 23 teams selected by UEFA as belonging to ...

  16. Comparison of injury incidences between football teams playing in different climatic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orchard JW

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available John W Orchard,1 Markus Waldén,2 Martin Hägglund,3 Jessica J Orchard,1 Ian Chivers,4 Hugh Seward,5 Jan Ekstrand21School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 3Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4Native Seeds, Cheltenham, VIC, Australia; 5Australian Football League Medical Officers Association, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Australian Football League (AFL teams in northern (warmer areas generally have higher rates of injury than those in southern (cooler areas. Conversely, in soccer (football in Europe, teams in northern (cooler areas have higher rates of injury than those in southern (warmer areas, with an exception being knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries, which are more common in the southern (warmer parts of Europe. This study examined relative injury incidence in the AFL comparing 9,477 injuries over 229,827 player-weeks from 1999–2012. There was a slightly higher injury incidence for teams from warmer parts of Australia (relative risk [RR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.10 with quadriceps strains (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.58, knee cartilage injuries (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16–1.74, and ankle sprains (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00–1.37 all being more likely in warmer region teams. Achilles injuries followed a reverse pattern, tending to be more common in cooler region teams (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.47–1.03. In conclusion, common findings from the AFL and European soccer are that ankle sprains and ACL injuries are generally more likely in teams playing in warmer climate zones, whereas Achilles tendinopathy may be more likely in teams playing in cooler zones. These injuries may have climate or surface risk factors (possibly related to types and structure of grass and shoe-surface traction that are

  17. Match analysis and the physiological demands of Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Adrian J; Jenkins, David G

    2010-04-01

    Australian Football, the most popular football code in Australia, is a contact sport played by two teams of 18 players who contest play over four 20-minute quarters; the object of the game is to score the most points through goal kicking. Sixteen professional senior sides compete against each other in the Australian Football League (AFL) and, similar to other football codes, game demands at the elite level in the AFL have changed considerably in recent years. Early time-motion analysis studies highlighted the long periods of time players spent in low intensity activities (standing and walking). While recent studies utilizing global positioning systems (GPS) technology are somewhat in agreement with earlier findings, available evidence suggests that the game is getting faster. For example, 'playing on' after a mark (a feature of the game where players who catch the ball on the full from a kick longer than 15 m are awarded a free kick) is now much quicker. Indeed, rule changes in recent years have increased the flow and speed of the game; there has been a reduction in the time taken for umpires to restart play, and for players to kick-in (after the opposition kicks a behind) or take a set shot at goal. Nomadic players (a broad term for midfielders and ruckmen because they follow play over the entire playing field) cover slightly greater distances (12,310 m) than both forwards (11,920 m) and backs (11,880 m) in a game. Compared with players in other positions, midfielders are consistently found to spend the most time at higher intensities (running and sprint efforts with movement velocities > 4.44 m/sec), complete more high intensity efforts (approximately 98 per game), sustain them for longer and have shorter recovery periods between high intensity exercise bouts (approximately 90 seconds on average). 'Ruckmen' have similar but less intense running profiles, while forwards and backs generally have less game involvement but have a more intermittent running profile

  18. Groin pain associated with ultrasound finding of inguinal canal posterior wall deficiency in Australian Rules footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Orchard, J. W.; Read, J. W.; Neophyton, J.; Garlick, D

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of inguinal canal posterior wall deficiency (sports hernia) in professional Australian Rules footballers using an ultrasound technique and correlate the results with the clinical symptom of groin pain. METHODS: Thirty five professional Australian footballers with and without groin pain were investigated blind with a dynamic high resolution ultrasound technique for presence of posterior wall deficiency. RESULTS: Fourteen players had a history of ...

  19. Drug doping in senior Australian rules football: a survey for frequency.

    OpenAIRE

    HARDY, K J; McNeil, J J; Capes, A G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine by survey whether the frequency of use of performance enhancing drugs (drug doping) is significant in elite players of Australian Rules football, and to compare this frequency with that in other competitions. METHODS: Randomised unannounced prospective urine testing during the period 1990-95 of players from the Australian Football League out of competition, in competition matches, and in finals matches; testing was performed according to Olympic International Committe...

  20. EVALUATING AUSTRALIAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE PLAYER CONTRIBUTIONS USING INTERACTIVE NETWORK SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sargent

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line".

  1. The game story space of professional sports: Australian Rules Football

    CERN Document Server

    Kiley, D P; Mitchell, L; Danforth, C M; Dodds, P S

    2015-01-01

    Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of `game stories', we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here, we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1,310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories and show how coarse-graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with a random walk null model, we show that AFL games are superdiffusive and deliver a much broader array of motifs, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games.

  2. Game story space of professional sports: Australian rules football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiley, Dilan Patrick; Reagan, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Lewis; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2016-05-01

    Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of "game stories," we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories rather than distinct clusters. We show how coarse graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last-minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with biased random walks, we show that real AFL games deliver a broader array of motifs than null models, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games.

  3. Self-reported previous knee injury and low knee function increase knee injury risk in adolescent female football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, M. B.; Tang, L.; Zebis, M. K.;

    2016-01-01

    Knee injuries are common in adolescent female football. Self-reported previous knee injury and low Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are proposed to predict future knee injuries, but evidence regarding this in adolescent female football is scarce. The aim of this study was to...... investigate self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale score as risk factors for future knee injuries in adolescent female football. A sample of 326 adolescent female football players, aged 15–18, without knee injury at baseline, were included. Data on self-reported previous knee injury and KOOS...... injury in adolescent female football....

  4. Risk for injury when playing in a national football team.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrand, Jan; Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The Swedish male senior national football team was followed prospectively between 1991 and 1997. During these 6 years, the team played 73 official matches and had three training camps. The senior author (J. E.) attended 57 of these matches and the three training camps and these matches and training camps, are included in the present study. Exposure to football was recorded individually for each player. The team physician examined all injuries. Total exposure was 7245 h (6235 training and 1010...

  5. Football injuries during European Championships 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Ekstrand, Jan

    2007-09-01

    The risk of injury in football is high, but few studies have compared men's and women's football injuries. The purpose of this prospective study was to analyse the exposure and injury characteristics of European Championships in football and to compare data for men, women and male youth players. The national teams of all 32 countries (672 players) that qualified to the men's European Championship 2004, the women's European Championship 2005 and the men's Under-19 European Championship 2005 were studied. Individual training and match exposure was documented during the tournaments as well as time loss injuries. The overall injury incidence was 14 times higher during match play than during training (34.6 vs. 2.4 injuries per 1000 h, P women's championship had a significantly higher match injury incidence compared to teams going to the semi-finals (65.4 vs. 5.0 injuries per 1000 h, P = 0.02). Non-contact mechanisms were ascribed for 41% of the match injuries. One-fifth of all injuries were severe with absence from play longer than 4 weeks. In conclusion, injury incidences during the European Championships studied were very similar and it seems thus that the risk of injury in international football is at least not higher in women than in men. The teams eliminated in the women's championship had a significantly higher match injury incidence than the teams going to the final stage. Finally, the high frequency of non-contact injury is worrying from a prevention perspective and should be addressed in future studies. PMID:17375283

  6. Expanding social inclusion in community sports organizations: evidence from rural Australian Football clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Lionel Frost; Margaret Lightbody; Abdel Halabi

    2013-01-01

    Australian Football clubs have traditionally been seen as contributing social benefits to the rural communities in which they are embedded. Declining numbers of participants, both players and volunteers, suggest that this role may not be as strong today. Critical explorations of the extent to which football has driven social inclusion and exclusion in such environments emphasise a historic ‘masculine’ culture of drinking and violence that segregates and marginalises women and children. Le...

  7. Injuries and musculoskeletal complaints in football referees

    OpenAIRE

    Bizzini, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Football (soccer) is the the most popular sport worldwide, with a constantly increasing number of male and – moreover – female players. There would be no official football match without the referee and the two assistant referees. The three officials are responsible for ensuring that the players follow the Laws of the Game. Over the last ten years, several studies have examined various aspects of the referee’s performance and training. However, contrary to players, there is a la...

  8. Football and injuries : Screening, risk factors and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Background: Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in Norway as well as in the rest of the world, and the injury risk is considerable and high compared to most other team sports. Studies have shown that the majority of football injuries occur in the lower extremities, especially affecting the ankle, knee, hamstrings and groin. Ankle and knee sprains and hamstring and groin strains may leave athletes out of play for several weeks, and in many cases full recovery takes much longer....

  9. Self-reported previous knee injury and low knee function increase knee injury risk in adolescent female football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K; Krustrup, P; Hölmich, P; Wedderkopp, N; Andersen, L L; Christensen, K B; Møller, M; Thorborg, K

    2016-08-01

    Knee injuries are common in adolescent female football. Self-reported previous knee injury and low Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are proposed to predict future knee injuries, but evidence regarding this in adolescent female football is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale score as risk factors for future knee injuries in adolescent female football. A sample of 326 adolescent female football players, aged 15-18, without knee injury at baseline, were included. Data on self-reported previous knee injury and KOOS questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (female football. PMID:26179111

  10. Influence of Extrinsic Risk Factors on National Football League Injury Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, David W.; Comper, Paul; Michael G Hutchison

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of injury associated with American football is significant, with recent reports indicating that football has one of the highest rates of all-cause injury, including concussion, of all major sports. There are limited studies examining risk factors for injuries in the National Football League (NFL). Purpose: To identify risk factors for NFL concussions and musculoskeletal injuries. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Injury report data were coll...

  11. Etiology and Biomechanics of Tarsometatarsal Injuries in Professional Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Richard W.; Lievers, W. Brent; Riley, Patrick O.; Frimenko, Rebecca E.; Crandall, Jeff R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tarsometatarsal (TMT) dislocations are uncommon yet debilitating athletic injuries, particularly in American football. To date, the mechanisms of athletic TMT dislocation have been described only anecdotally. This lack of information confounds the development of preventative countermeasures. Purpose: To use video analysis to provide direct, independent identification of the etiologic and mechanistic variables responsible for TMT dislocations in professional football players. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Sixteen professional National Football League players who sustained publicly reported TMT dislocations were identified. Publicly broadcast game footage of the plays in which injury occurred was reviewed by a panel of 5 biomechanists. Consensus was reached regarding the details surrounding injury, and a weighting was assigned to each detail based on the panel’s confidence. Results: Roughly 90% of injuries occurred while the injured player was engaged with or by another player, a detail that has heretofore been undocumented. Few injuries resulted from direct loading of either the foot or the ipsilateral limb; however, the injured foot was frequently subjected to axial loading from ground engagement with the foot in plantar flexion and the toes dorsiflexed. Injurious loading was often due to external rotation of the midfoot (86%). Fifteen of 16 injuries were season ending. Conclusion: TMT dislocations are frequently associated with engagement by or with a second player but infrequently caused by a direct blow to the foot. Axial loading of the foot, external rotation, and pronation/supination are the most common conditions during injurious loading. PMID:26535306

  12. A Probability Based Approach for the Allocation of Player Draft Selections in Australian Rules Football

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Bedford; Schembri, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    Australian Rules Football, governed by the Australian Football League (AFL) is the most popular winter sport played in Australia. Like North American team based leagues such as the NFL, NBA and NHL, the AFL uses a draft system for rookie players to join a team’s list. The existing method of allocating draft selections in the AFL is simply based on the reverse order of each team’s finishing position for that season, with teams winning less than or equal to 5 regular season matches obtaining an...

  13. Hamstring injury in AFL footballers - the prognostic value and nature of MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between MR parameters of hamstring injury and the amount of time lost from competition in Australian Rules footballers. Thirty seven footballers with suspected hamstring injury underwent T1 and inversion recovery T2 turbo spin-echo sequences in axial and sagittal planes. Presence and dimension of abnormal focal intramuscular and / or extramuscular T2 hyperintensity was independently recorded by two radiologists and the percentage abnormal cross sectional muscle area and abnormal muscle volume were measured from T2-weighted images depicting extent of muscle injury. MR detected hamstring muscle and linear extramuscle T2 hyperintensity in 30 (81%) and 25 (68%) of 37 athletes respectively, the long head of biceps being the dominant site of injury in 21 cases.There was a relationship between days lost from competition and percentage abnormal muscle area (r = 0.63, p 0.001) and volume of muscle affected (r = 0.46, p 0.01) with only a trend for linear extramuscular T2 hyperintensity (r = 0.33, p = 0.12) being demonstrated. Hamstring injury most frequently involved the long head of biceps femoris and recovery time was related to MR measurements such as the percentage of abnormal muscle area and volume of muscle injury. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  14. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Kelly, Paul B. Gastin, Daniel B Dwyer, Simon Sostaric, Rodney J. Snow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min, high intensity, interval training (HIIT in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1 and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc (n = 7 or Control (Con group (n = 7. The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH, whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH. Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% VO2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac-], heart rate (HR, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac-] (all p < 0.05 during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007 after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited.

  15. Football injuries of the ankle: A review of injury mechanisms, diagnosis and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Raymond J; Ross, Keir A; Fraser, Ethan J; Hodgkins, Christopher W; Smyth, Niall A; Egan, Christopher J; Calder, James; Kennedy, John G

    2016-01-01

    Football is the most popular sport worldwide and is associated with a high injury rate, most of which are the result of trauma from player contact. Ankle injuries are among the most commonly diagnosed injuries in the game. The result is reduced physical activity and endurance levels, lost game time, and considerable medical cost. Sports medicine professionals must employ the correct diagnostic tools and effective treatments and rehabilitation protocols to minimize the impact of these injuries on the player. This review examines the diagnosis, treatment, and postoperative rehabilitation for common football injuries of the ankle based on the clinical evidence provided in the current literature. PMID:26807351

  16. In Pursuit of Becoming a Senior Coach: The Learning Culture for Australian Football League Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Clifford J.; Rossi, Tony; Rynne, Steven B.; Tinning, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Given the turbulent and highly contested environment in which professional coaches work, a prime concern to coach developers is how coaches learn their craft. Understanding the learning and development of senior coaches (SCs) and assistant coaches (ACs) in the Australian Football League (AFL--the peak organisation for…

  17. Game and Training Load Differences in Elite Junior Australian Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Henderson, Jill Cook, Dawson J. Kidgell, Paul B. Gastin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Game demands and training practices within team sports such as Australian football (AF have changed considerably over recent decades, including the requirement of coaching staff to effectively control, manipulate and monitor training and competition loads. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the differences in external and internal physical load measures between game and training in elite junior AF. Twenty five male, adolescent players (mean ±SD: age 17.6 ± 0.5 y recruited from three elite under 18 AF clubs participated. Global positioning system (GPS, heart rate (HR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE data were obtained from 32 game files during four games, and 84 training files during 19 training sessions. Matched-pairs statistics along with Cohen’s d effect size and percent difference were used to compare game and training events. Players were exposed to a higher physical load in the game environment, for both external (GPS and internal (HR, Session-RPE load parameters, compared to in-season training. Session time (d = 1.23; percent difference = 31.4% (95% confidence intervals = 17.4 – 45.4, total distance (3.5; 63.5% (17.4 – 45.4, distance per minute (1.93; 33.0% (25.8 – 40.1, high speed distance (2.24; 77.3% (60.3 – 94.2, number of sprints (0.94; 43.6% (18.9 – 68.6, mean HR (1.83; 14.3% (10.5 – 18.1, minutes spent above 80% of predicted HRmax (2.65; 103.7% (89.9 – 117.6 and Session-RPE (1.22; 48.1% (22.1 – 74.1 were all higher in competition compared to training. While training should not be expected to fully replicate competition, the observed differences suggest that monitoring of physical load in both environments is warranted to allow comparisons and evaluate whether training objectives are being met.

  18. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J

    2016-03-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac(-)]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac(-)] (all p HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key pointsSome minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat.The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season.Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat training session or some pre-heating prior to exercise. PMID:26957934

  19. The epidemiology of groin injury in senior football: a systematic review of prospective studies

    OpenAIRE

    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Ekstrand, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background Groin injuries are troublesome in mens and womens football. Aim To review the literature on the epidemiology of groin injury in senior football and compare injury occurrence between sexes. Methods Studies were identified through a search of PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Web of Science, in the reference lists of the selected articles and the authors bibliographies. The number of injuries, percentage of groin injury from all injuries and rate of groin injury per 1000 h were extracted. E...

  20. Dynamic Balance Performance and Noncontact Lower Extremity Injury in College Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Robert J.; Lehr, Michael E.; Fink, Michael L.; Kiesel, Kyle B.; Plisky, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Field expedient screening tools that can identify individuals at an elevated risk for injury are needed to minimize time loss in American football players. Previous research has suggested that poor dynamic balance may be associated with an elevated risk for injury in athletes; however, this has yet to be examined in college football players. Hypothesis: To determine if dynamic balance deficits are associated with an elevated risk of injury in collegiate football players. It was hy...

  1. Minimizing Liability Risks of Head and Neck Injuries in Football

    OpenAIRE

    Heck, Jonathan F.; Weis, Michael P.; Gartland, James M.; Weis, Craig R.

    1994-01-01

    Although catastrophic head and neck injuries in football occur infrequently, their occurrence is almost always followed by litigation. The athletic trainer has to be sure he/she has adequate liability insurance to cover the costs of a defense and a possible judgment. General claims filed against athletic staffs usually deal with instruction, equipment, matching of participants, supervision, and/or postinjury care. The defenses to these claims include: statutory immunity, assumption of risk, r...

  2. The prevention of spinal injuries in rugby football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, J R; Stewart, D

    1994-07-01

    The incidence of injuries to the spinal cord sustained at rugby in South Africa, New Zealand and Australia is reviewed. Ninety-seven injuries seen at Stoke Mandeville Hospital at the National Spinal Injuries Centre (NSIC) between 1956 and 1993 are analysed in detail. There were 93 accidents at rugby union, two at American football and two at rugby league. The injuries were of the cervical spine apart from four hysterics and one thoracic injury. The thoracic injury occurred after the game when the player fell downstairs. The injuries were analysed according to the mechanism of injury, the neurological condition, the causation, the standard of the player and the position in the field. The injuries caused were the result of force being applied to the skull which was transmitted to the cervical spine resulting in injury to the cervical cord. As a result of this research, representations were made to the appropriate authorities and changes in the laws were made. As a result of these law changes there has been a dramatic reduction in the overall number of injuries and the elimination of the injury from the loose scrum. This paper discusses the historical sequence of how these preventative measures came about to reduce the incidence of injuries and the legal implications whereby the authors took part in two law suits. The legal consequences are analysed in detail. PMID:7970845

  3. Injury rates of the German Women’s American Football National Team from 2009 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Ezechieli; Stephan Berger; Christian-Heige Siebert; Oliver Miltner

    2012-01-01

    American football is one of the leading causes of athletic-related injuries. Injury rates in female elite players are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the injury rates of female was comparable to those in men’s football during practice, as well as games. From 2009 to 2011, injury data were collected from the German female national team during training camps, World Championship 2010 and International friendly matches. The injury was categorized by location on the body and recorded as fract...

  4. Knee and ankle injuries from playing football

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soccer is the most common sport activity worldwide. Over the last two decades the increase in soccer players has mainly been due to increased interest by females. In general, soccer is a relatively safe sport activity, especially if minor injuries resulting in short periods of absence from playing or training are neglected. However, due to the high number of soccer players severe injuries are also frequent. These are a problem not only for the injured player and the team but may also become problematic for the socio-economic system. In up to 80-90% structures of the lower extremities are injured. For sufficient radiological diagnosis knowledge of the biomechanics of the soccer game and some details about the history of the injury may be of help. To prevent soccer injuries or keep the degree of injury low, special programs had been developed. (orig.)

  5. A comparison of Gaelic football injuries in males and females in primary care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crowley, J

    2011-10-01

    The Ladies Gaelic Football Association has a playing population of 150,000 of which 33% are adults. A number of studies have been published on rates of injury among male athletes but none on female athletes in Gaelic football. A retrospective review of insurance claims, submitted under the Gaelic Athletic Association Player Insurance Injury Scheme. 405 injuries were recorded, 248 [107 (70%) male, 141 (58%) female] to the lower limb, 91 [33 (21%) male, 58 (23%) female] to the upper limb. The majority of lower limb injuries [56 (52%) male, 56 (40%) female] were to muscle. Almost a third of upper limb injuries were fractures [10 (30.3%) male, 33 (57%) female]. injuries\\/1000 hours playing was 8.25 for men and 2.4 for women. The injury rate in ladies Gaelic football was found to be significantly lower than in men\\'s Gaelic football. Lower limb injuries accounted for the majority of injuries in both sports.

  6. Scheduling slots and sports league objectives: an empirical analysis of the Australian football league

    OpenAIRE

    Jakee, Keith; Kenneally, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We concentrate on the redistributional aspects of sports league decisions by analyzing the allocation of scheduling slots in the Australian Football League. We model and empirically test a number of team variables that we hypothesize are likely to influence the league’s allocation of scheduling slots to teams. We frame each of these variables in terms of its likelihood of contributing to either competitive balance or "infant industry" objectives versus its likelihood of contributing to increa...

  7. A national survey about parent awareness of the risk of severe brain injury from playing football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, G M

    1993-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the level of awareness among parents of high school football players about the risk of severe brain injury. A national sample of 1007 randomly selected households was interviewed by telephone during February, 1992. All interviewees were parents of high school football players who either were currently playing football or had played within the previous 5 years. Survey questions measured the extent to which parents were aware both of the risks associated with playing high school football and the existing helmet warnings about those risks. Overall, the survey results demonstrated that parents of high school football players were uninformed about both the risk of severe brain injury from playing high school football and the football helmet warnings about that risk. Specifically, unprompted, most parents mentioned broken bones, knee injuries, sprains, or shoulder injuries as hazards associated with playing football. Few parents mentioned severe brain damage, even when prompted. Further, the overwhelming majority of parents incorrectly believed that wearing a football helmet generally eliminated the risk of severe brain injury. Very few parents had received information from any source about the risks of head injury or had heard that no football helmet can provide complete protection against this hazard. Few parents were aware of the warning label on the helmet or knew what the label said, even when prompted. In short, parents were unaware of the risk of severe brain damage, misinformed about a football helmet's ability to protect against this risk, and uninformed about the football helmet warning label about this risk. PMID:16558245

  8. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas H. Hart, Jodie L. Cochrane, Tania Spiteri, Sophia Nimphius, Robert U. Newton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2 each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15 and inaccurate (n = 16 kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701. Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631, while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083. Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy.

  9. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Level 1) to discriminate elite junior Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, James P; Pearce, Alan J; Carlson, John S

    2010-05-01

    The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery (IR) Test is currently used to assess endurance performance in team sport athletes. However, to date, no data has been presented on its application to an elite junior Australian football (AF) playing group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (IR1) ability to discriminate between junior AF players at two different playing standards and a group of non-athletic healthy males. Sixty age matched participants (16.6+/-0.5 years) spread over three groups (20 per group): elite junior footballers; sub-elite junior footballers; and non-athletic healthy males participated in this study. Participants undertook a single Yo-Yo test performance on an indoor basketball court for each group. A one-way ANOVA with Scheffe's post hoc analysis revealed the elite junior footballers covered a significantly greater total distance (pability of the Yo-Yo IR1 to discriminate endurance performance between elite and sub-elite AF players, whilst further distinguishing AF players from a non-athletic healthy control group. PMID:19451033

  10. A National Survey About Parent Awareness of the Risk of Severe Brain Injury From Playing Football

    OpenAIRE

    Goldhaber, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the level of awareness among parents of high school football players about the risk of severe brain injury. A national sample of 1007 randomly selected households was interviewed by telephone during February, 1992. All interviewees were parents of high school football players who either were currently playing football or had played within the previous 5 years. Survey questions measured the extent to which parents were aware both of the risks associated with...

  11. Ballet injuries: the Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, R

    1983-11-01

    There is a distinct difference between ballet injuries and sports injuries in general, and the sports medicine physician needs to study the technique of dance and the specific injuries that it may produce in order to treat dancers effectively. In Australia, which is typical of other countries where ballet is performed, ballet injuries include strained lumbar muscles, sprained ankle, Achilles tendinitis, clicking hip, jumper's knee, chondromalacia, stress fractures, patellar subluxation, and other knee and tendon problems. PMID:6652700

  12. Is a Cognitive-Behavioural Biofeedback Intervention Useful to Reduce Injury Risk in Junior Football Players?

    OpenAIRE

    Arne Edvardsson; Andreas Ivarsson; Urban Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old) were divide...

  13. Sudden cardiac death while playing Australian Rules football: a retrospective 14 year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sarah; Lynch, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Australian Rules football is a sport which evolved from Gaelic football and which is played by a large number of predominantly male participants in a number of countries. The highest participation rates are in the southern states of Australia. A retrospective review over a period of 14 years identified 14 cases of sudden cardiac death that occurred in individuals while playing the sport. All were male and ranged in age from 13 to 36 years with a mean and median age of 23 years. A spectrum of cardiac causes was identified including coronary artery atherosclerosis, myocarditis, anomalous coronary artery anatomy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and healed Kawasaki disease. In 5 cases the heart was morphologically normal raising the possibility of a channelopathy. No traumatic deaths were identified. Some of the individuals had experienced symptoms prior to the fatal episode and the role of pre participation screening in reducing mortality is discussed. PMID:26972904

  14. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ELITE JUNIOR AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALLERS DURING MATCH-PLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Veale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Australian Football (AF is Australia's major football code. Despite research in other football codes, to date, no data has been published on the physiological responses of AF players during match play. Fifteen athletes (17.28 ± 0.76 yrs participated in four pre-season matches, sanctioned by Australian Football League (AFL Victoria, investigating Heart Rate (HR, Blood Lactate (BLa, Core Temperature (Tcore, and Hydration status. Match HR was measured continuously using HR monitors. BLa was measured via finger prick lancet at the end of each quarter of play. Tcore was measured by use of ingestible temperature sensor and measured wirelessly at the end of each quarter of play. Hydration status was measured using refractometry, measuring urine specific gravity, and body weight pre and post-match. Environmental conditions were measured continuously during matches. Results of HR responses showed a high exertion of players in the 85-95% maximum HR range. Elevated mean BLa levels, compared to rest, were observed in all players over the duration of the matches (p = 0.007. Mean Tcore rose 0.68 °C between start and end of matches. Mean USG increased between 0.008 g/ml (p = 0.001 with mean body weight decreasing 1.88 kg (p = 0.001. This study illustrates physiological responses in junior AF players playing in the heat as well as providing physiological data for consideration by AF coaching staff when developing specific training programs. Continued research should consider physiological measurements under varying environments, and at all playing levels of AF, to ascertain full physiological responses during AF matches.

  15. Exposure and injury risk in Swedish elite football: a comparison between seasons 1982 and 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus; Ekstrand, Jan

    2003-01-01

    The long-term development of injury risk in Swedish male elite football was studied. Two prospective cohort studies from seasons 1982 and 2001 were compared with respect to exposure to football, injury incidence and injury severity. The mean number of training sessions during the season had increased by 68% between 1982 and 2001 (142 vs. 238, P<0.001), whereas teams played more matches in 1982 (49 vs. 41, P=0.02). The total exposure to football had increased by 27%. Three out of four playe...

  16. Discriminating talent-identified junior Australian football players using a video decision-making task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Raynor, Annette J; Bruce, Lyndell; McDonald, Zane

    2016-01-01

    This study examined if a video decision-making task could discriminate talent-identified junior Australian football players from their non-talent-identified counterparts. Participants were recruited from the 2013 under 18 (U18) West Australian Football League competition and classified into two groups: talent-identified (State U18 Academy representatives; n = 25; 17.8 ± 0.5 years) and non-talent-identified (non-State U18 Academy selection; n = 25; 17.3 ± 0.6 years). Participants completed a video decision-making task consisting of 26 clips sourced from the Australian Football League game-day footage, recording responses on a sheet provided. A score of "1" was given for correct and "0" for incorrect responses, with the participants total score used as the criterion value. One-way analysis of variance tested the main effect of "status" on the task criterion, whilst a bootstrapped receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve assessed the discriminant ability of the task. An area under the curve (AUC) of 1 (100%) represented perfect discrimination. Between-group differences were evident (P < 0.05) and the ROC curve was maximised with a score of 15.5/26 (60%) (AUC = 89.0%), correctly classifying 92% and 76% of the talent-identified and non-talent-identified participants, respectively. Future research should investigate the mechanisms leading to the superior decision-making observed in the talent-identified group. PMID:26019058

  17. A 20-Year Comparison of Football-Related Injuries in American and Canadian Youth Aged 6 to 17 Years: A Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keays, Glenn; Friedman, Debbie; Gagnon, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Little is known about Canadian youth football injuries. The objectives of this study were (a) to contrast the injuries in Canadian and American football players aged 6 to 17 years and (b) compare the injuries sustained during organized football with those in nonorganized football. Methods Using a retrospective cohort design based on data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System a comparison of injuries was made. Results Trends in injuries were comparable. Proportions and odds of injuries were similar, except for a few exceptions. In Canada, more girls were injured and fractures were more prevalent. Compared with nonorganized football, organized football players were older, involved more males, and suffered more traumatic brain injuries and injuries to their lower extremities. Conclusion Canadian and American youth football injuries were similar. The type of football, be it organized or nonorganized, has an impact on injuries. PMID:26316542

  18. Effects of an eccentric training programme on hamstring strain injuries in women football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Ama Espinosa Gurutze

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: to test the hypothesis that an eccentric training programme applied on women football players would reduce the hamstring injury rate by improving thigh muscle balance and, particularly, hamstring strength.

  19. Effect of kinesio taping on the isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, Jemyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three ang...

  20. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L.; Newton, Robert U.

    2016-01-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key points Accurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance. Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower

  1. Comparison of athletic movement between elite junior and senior Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; McKeown, Ian; Haff, Gregory G; Robertson, Sam

    2016-07-01

    This study compared the athletic movement skill between elite Under-18 (U18) Australian football (AF) and senior Australian Football League (AFL) players. The U18 sample (n = 13; 17.7 ± 0.6 years) were representatives of an elite talent development programme. The AFL players were classified accordingly; Group 1 (1-4 AFL seasons; n = 20; 21.2 ± 1.9 years) and Group 2 (>5 AFL seasons; n = 14; 26.3 ± 2.6 years). Participants performed an athletic movement skill assessment, inclusive of five foundational movements. Each movement was scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale. Total score for each movement (maximum of nine) and overall score (maximum of 63) were used as criteria. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test the effect of developmental group (three levels) on the criteria. Receiver operating curves were built to examine the discriminant capability of the overall score. A significant effect of developmental group was noted, with the U18 sample having a lower mean total score for four of the five movements. Overall scores of 49/63 and 50/63 discriminated the elite U18 sample from Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. U18 players may have less developed athletic movement skills when compared to their senior AFL counterparts. PMID:26525174

  2. Acute hamstring injuries in Danish elite football: a 12-month prospective registration study among 374 players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Hølmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the incidence rates of acute hamstring injuries in Danish elite football sustained during training or match play. Furthermore, it was our intention to document details about the recurrence, severity and the injury seasonal distribution. Hamstring...... injuries among 374 elite football players were registered prospectively during a 12-month period. A total of 46 first-time and eight recurrent hamstring injuries were registered. The incidence rates for incurring a first-time hamstring injury showed a significantly (P28 days from injury to injury free......). Each team sustained a mean of 3.4 hamstring injuries per season, with a mean of 21.5 days missed per injury (range 3-136; median 16 days per injury). The seasonal distribution showed an accumulation of injuries in the first 2 months after a 3.5-month mid-season winter break....

  3. The effects of physical exertion on decision-making performance of Australian football umpires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Kasey; Larkin, Paul; O'Connor, Donna

    2016-08-01

    Decision-making is a key component of an umpire's in-game performance, with each decision potentially having a direct impact on the result of the game. Additionally, umpires have to be physically fit to ensure they keep up with the gameplay. While research has identified the decision-making demands and running demands of umpires separately, few have explored the relationship between them. The aim of this investigation was to examine the relationship between physical exertion and decision-making performance of Australian football umpires at the sub-elite and junior levels. A total of 18 Australian football umpires (sub-elite, n = 10; junior n = 8) performed 10 × 300 m runs, with each repetition immediately followed by a video-based decision-making test, then 1 min of recovery. A Mann-Whitney U assessment indicated a significant difference between the sub-elite and junior level umpires for decision-making accuracy (U = 13.00, z = -2.43, P = 0.016, r = -0.5). However, there was no significant difference in response time (U = 28.00, z = -1.07, P = 0.315, r = -0.25). The sub-elite umpires completed the running efforts in significantly less time than the junior umpires (P running times for either skill level (P > 0.05). This suggests decision-making performance may not be affected by physical exertion. Therefore, it may be suggested coaches of football umpires allocate more time to the decision-making development of their umpires instead of focusing largely on the physical fitness side, as is currently the trend. PMID:26654891

  4. Hamstring Muscle Injuries, a Rehabilitation Protocol Purpose

    OpenAIRE

    Valle,, Z Conesa Del; van der Tol, L.; Hamilton,; Rodas; Malliaras; Malliaropoulos; Rizo; Moreno; Jardi

    2015-01-01

    Context Hamstring acute muscle injuries are prevalent in several sports including AFL football (Australian Football League), sprinting and soccer, and are often associated with prolonged time away from sport. Evidence Acquisition In response to this, research into prevention and management of hamstring injury has increased, but epidemiological data shows no decline in injury and re-injury rates, suggesting that rehabilitation prog...

  5. Association between preseason functional tests and injuries in youth football: a prospective follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, A; Urhausen, A; Seil, R; Croisier, J L; Windal, T; Theisen, D

    2011-12-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed at identifying player-related risk factors for injuries in youth football as determined by extensive preseasonal screening. All male U15-U19 players from a regional football school (season 2007-2008; n = 67) underwent preseason evaluations assessing physical fatigue, emotional stress and injury history (questionnaire), anthropometric variables, general joint laxity (Beighton score), lower limb coordination (functional hop tests), aerobic fitness (shuttle run test), strength of knee extensor and flexor muscles (isokinetic tests), static and dynamic balance (force plate tests), and explosive strength (jump tests on force plate). Football exposure and all football-related injuries (n = 163) were recorded during the entire subsequent season (44 weeks). Total injury incidence was 10.4 injuries/1000  h and was higher in competition than in training [relative risk = 3.3; CI(95%) (2.39; 4.54); P < 0.001]. Lower limb injuries were most frequent (87%). Acute contact injuries represented 37%, while intrinsic (noncontact and chronic) injuries amounted to 63%. Of all the variables tested, only physical fatigue was significantly associated with injury, as revealed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The same result was observed when considering only intrinsic injuries as outcome. A single preseason test session may be of limited interest in the framework of an injury prevention strategy. PMID:22017708

  6. Prevention of acute knee injuries in adolescent female football players: cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Walden, Markus; Atroshi, Isam; Magnusson, Henrik; Wagner, Philippe; Hagglund, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of neuromuscular training in reducing the rate of acute knee injury in adolescent female football players. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDesign Stratified cluster randomised controlled trial with clubs as the unit of randomisation. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanSetting 230 Swedish football clubs (121 in the intervention group, 109 in the control group) were followed for one season (2009, seven months). less thanbrgreate...

  7. Effects of an eccentric training programme on hamstring strain injuries in women football players

    OpenAIRE

    del Ama Espinosa Gurutze; Pöyhönen Tapani; Aramendi José Francisco; Samaniego Juan Carlos; Emparanza Knörr José Ignacio; Kyröläinen Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Study aim: to test the hypothesis that an eccentric training programme applied on women football players would reduce the hamstring injury rate by improving thigh muscle balance and, particularly, hamstring strength. Material and methods: three football teams were recruited for this randomised controlled trial. They played in the first and second divisions in Spain. Players were randomised within clubs either to the intervention (eccentric exercises, n = 22) or control (control ex...

  8. Preventing knee injuries in adolescent female football players – design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [NCT00894595

    OpenAIRE

    Waldén Markus; Hägglund Martin; Atroshi Isam

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knee injuries in football are common regardless of age, gender or playing level, but adolescent females seem to have the highest risk. The consequences after severe knee injury, for example anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, are well-known, but less is known about knee injury prevention. We have designed a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effect of a warm-up program aimed at preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football. Methods: In this...

  9. Injury rates of the German Women’s American Football National Team from 2009 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ezechieli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available American football is one of the leading causes of athletic-related injuries. Injury rates in female elite players are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the injury rates of female was comparable to those in men’s football during practice, as well as games. From 2009 to 2011, injury data were collected from the German female national team during training camps, World Championship 2010 and International friendly matches. The injury was categorized by location on the body and recorded as fracture/dislocation, strain, concussion, contusion or other injury. Injury rates were determined based on the exposure of an athlete to a game or practice event. The injury rate was calculated as the ratio of injuries per 1000 athlete exposures (AE. The rate of injury was significantly higher during games (58.8/1000 AE than practices [16.3/1000 AE, (P<0.01]. Furthermore, the injury rate in the tryouts was significantly higher (24.05/1000 AE compared to other training sessions with the national team (11.24/1000 AE. Our findings show that the injury rates in female elite American football players can be compared to those described for male players. Higher injury rates during matches than in training should also be underlined.

  10. Prevention of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Within Women's Football - An Exercise Package

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to create an exercise package containing evidence based, research proven exercises for the prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in women’s football that can be used by both players and coaches. Injury prevention programs have been shown to reduce the risk of injury in women’s football and by combining the exercises into one package it will make them more accessible to the players and coaches. The thesis was carried out in collaboration with the...

  11. A prospective epidemiological study of injuries in four English professional football clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, R D; Fuller, C W

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the causes of injuries to players in English professional football during competition and training. METHOD: Lost time injuries to professional and youth players were prospectively recorded by physiotherapists at four English League clubs over the period 1994 to 1997. Data recorded included information related to the injury, date and place of occurrence, type of activity, and extrinsic Playing factors. RESULTS: In all, 67% of all injuries occurred during competition....

  12. Incidence and Severity of Foot and Ankle Injuries in Men’s Collegiate American Football

    OpenAIRE

    Lievers, W. Brent; Adamic, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: American football is an extremely physical game with a much higher risk of injury than other sports. While many studies have reported the rate of injury for particular body regions or for individual injuries, very little information exists that compares the incidence or severity of particular injuries within a body region. Such information is critical for prioritizing preventative interventions. Purpose: To retrospectively analyze epidemiological data to identify the most common a...

  13. A Prospective Analysis of the Injury Incidence of Young Male Professional Football Players on Artificial Turf

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Antonino; Spedicato, Mirco; Petrucci, Marco; Messina, Giuseppe; Thomas, Ewan; Nese Sahin, Fatma; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of synthetic surfaces on the risk of injuries is still debated in literature and the majority of published data seems to be contradictory. For such reasons the understanding of injury incidence on such surfaces, especially in youth sport, is fundamental for injury prevention. Objectives: The aim of this study was to prospectively report the epidemiology of injuries in young football players, playing on artificial turfs, during a one sports season. Patients and Methods:...

  14. Injury prevention in male veteran football players - a randomised controlled trial using "FIFA 11+".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, Daniel; Aus der Fünten, Karen; Kaiser, Stephanie; Frisen, Eugen; Bizzini, Mario; Meyer, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The warm-up programme "FIFA 11+" has been shown to reduce football injuries in different populations, but so far veteran players have not been investigated. Due to differences in age, skill level and gender, a simple transfer of these results to veteran football is not recommended. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of the "FIFA 11+" in veteran football players. Twenty veteran football teams were recruited for a prospective 9-month (1 season) cluster-randomised trial. The intervention group (INT, n = 146; 45 ± 8 years) performed the "FIFA 11+" at the beginning of each training session, while the control group (CON, n = 119; 43 ± 6 years) followed its regular training routine. Player exposure hours and injuries were recorded according to an international consensus statement. No significant difference was found between INT and CON in overall injury incidence (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.91 [0.64-1.48]; P = 0.89). Only severe injuries reached statistical significance with higher incidence in CON (IRR: 0.46 [0.21-0.97], P = 0.04). Regular conduction (i.e. once a week) of the "FIFA 11+" did not prevent injuries in veteran footballers under real training and competition circumstances. The lack of preventive effects is likely due to the too low overall frequency of training sessions. PMID:25370591

  15. Acute hamstring injuries in Danish elite football: a 12-month prospective registration study among 374 players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann;

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the incidence rates of acute hamstring injuries in Danish elite football sustained during training or match play. Furthermore, it was our intention to document details about the recurrence, severity and the injury seasonal distribution. Hamstring in...

  16. AUDIT OF INJURIES IN A PREMIERSHIP FOOTBALL SQUAD OVER A FIVE-YEAR PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslam Chougle

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Football is currently the most popular sport in the world. The competitive nature of the sport makes it prone to injuries with the estimated frequency being 10 to 35 per 1000 playing hours (Dvorak and Junge, 2000. The aim of this study was to identify the injury patterns and rehabilitation periods with specific injuries in a premiership football club. Player injuries were retrospectively analysed from a local database (Microsoft Access 2000 at the Blackburn Rovers Football Club, UK from December 1998 to March 2004. The club physiotherapist and physician recorded details of all injuries sustained during both training and matches during that period. Clear distinctions were made between acute and overuse injuries and rehabilitation times for each injury were noted (Arnason et al., 2004. Data was analysed using SPSS (Chicago, Illinois, USA. Differences between the groups were assessed using the independent samples t-test. P values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. There were 483 injuries in 91 players. Of these 133 injuries occurred as a result of overuse and 350 as a result of direct trauma. 440 injuries were treated conservatively while 43 were treated operatively. Table 1 shows the range and number of injuries, which occurred during this period along with the average rehabilitation time for each injury. Injuries grouped as "Other" in table 1 accounted for less than 1% of all injuries and could not always be directly attributed to football even though this appeared to be the precipitating factor in all cases. There was no statistical difference between rehabilitation times for acute injuries (18 days, standard deviation 30 as compared to overuse injuries (20 days, standard deviation 39 (p = 0.640. The mean rehabilitation time however for injuries treated conservatively (15 days , standard deviation 24 as compared to injuries treated surgically (61 days, standard deviation 67 was found to be statistically significant (p = 0

  17. Incidence, Epidemiology and Etiology of Injuries, in a Spanish Amateur Football Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Esteban-Zubero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Playing football, both at the amateur and professional level, associates an increased risk of injury. A documented report on injury location, type and incidence, in correlation with sports intensity, professionalism level and age, would be of support for implementing preventing measures and appropriate training programs, to reduce the incidence of football related injury. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the incidence, type and location of injuries during one season, in an amateur football club and design strategies and preventive measures. Patients and Methods: A population of 308 players were studied, aged between 5 and 29 years old (20 subjects over-19, 38 under-19, 38 under-16, 57 under-14, 57 under-12, 44 under-10 and 54 under-8 years old, respectively distributed over 20 teams. In total, 339 cases of injury occurred. Results: The population injured the most was the under-19 group and the most prevalent type of injuries was muscular (40.7% and ligament (16.5%. The most common location was the lower limbs (78.6% and, specifically, the thigh (39.8%. Physical load periods (September and February were highlighted as the months of highest incidence and the average number of visits per injury was 1.34. A statistically significant relationship between hours of training and injuries was noted. Conclusions: In the literature, there are similar publications, who studied these variables, separately. This work provides us with a certain amount of descriptive results, which may serve as a model for future research projects, performing interventions by coaches and medical services of football clubs, to reduce the injuries incidence, especially in the months of greatest physical load and, therefore, improve the performance. Football is a safe sport to practice, at any age, because injuries, regularly, are not serious and it is highly recommended, given the amount of health benefits obtained.

  18. Effect of kinesio taping on the isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s) were measured. [Results] A significant difference was found in peak torque and total work of the flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s, as well as in the average power of extension at 180°/s. [Conclusion] Though it is not the main therapy for muscle function in football athletes with injury, kinesio taping was an effective adjunct therapy. PMID:26957761

  19. Time-trends and circumstances surrounding ankle injuries in men's professional football : an 11-year follow-up of the UEFA Champions League injury study

    OpenAIRE

    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Ekstrand, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Ankle injury is common in football, but the circumstances surrounding them are not well characterised. Aim To investigate the rates, especially time-trends, and circumstances of ankle injuries in male professional football. Methods 27 European clubs with 1743 players were followed prospectively between 2001/2002 and 2011/2012. Time loss injuries and individual-player exposure during training sessions and matches were recorded. Injury rate was defined as the number of injuries/1000 ...

  20. Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme

    OpenAIRE

    Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme—biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, e...

  1. The first concussion crisis: head injury and evidence in early American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emily A

    2014-05-01

    In the early 21st century, sports concussion has become a prominent public health problem, popularly labeled "The Concussion Crisis." Football-related concussion contributes much of the epidemiological burden and inspires much of the public awareness. Though often cast as a recent phenomenon, the crisis in fact began more than a century ago, as concussions were identified among footballers in the game's first decades. This early concussion crisis subsided-allowing the problem to proliferate-because work was done by football's supporters to reshape public acceptance of risk. They appealed to an American culture that permitted violence, shifted attention to reforms addressing more visible injuries, and legitimized football within morally reputable institutions. Meanwhile, changing demands on the medical profession made practitioners reluctant to take a definitive stance. Drawing on scientific journals, public newspapers, and personal letters of players and coaches, this history of the early crisis raises critical questions about solutions being negotiated at present. PMID:24625171

  2. A review of football injuries on third and fourth generation artificial turfs compared with natural turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sean; Hume, Patria A; Kara, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    Football codes (rugby union, soccer, American football) train and play matches on natural and artificial turfs. A review of injuries on different turfs was needed to inform practitioners and sporting bodies on turf-related injury mechanisms and risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this review was to compare the incidence, nature and mechanisms of injuries sustained on newer generation artificial turfs and natural turfs. Electronic databases were searched using the keywords 'artificial turf', 'natural turf', 'grass' and 'inj*'. Delimitation of 120 articles sourced to those addressing injuries in football codes and those using third and fourth generation artificial turfs or natural turfs resulted in 11 experimental papers. These 11 papers provided 20 cohorts that could be assessed using magnitude-based inferences for injury incidence rate ratio calculations pertaining to differences between surfaces. Analysis showed that 16 of the 20 cohorts showed trivial effects for overall incidence rate ratios between surfaces. There was increased risk of ankle injury playing on artificial turf in eight cohorts, with incidence rate ratios from 0.7 to 5.2. Evidence concerning risk of knee injuries on the two surfaces was inconsistent, with incidence rate ratios from 0.4 to 2.8. Two cohorts showed beneficial inferences over the 90% likelihood value for effects of artificial surface on muscle injuries for soccer players; however, there were also two harmful, four unclear and five trivial inferences across the three football codes. Inferences relating to injury severity were inconsistent, with the exception that artificial turf was very likely to have harmful effects for minor injuries in rugby union training and severe injuries in young female soccer players. No clear differences between surfaces were evident in relation to training versus match injuries. Potential mechanisms for differing injury patterns on artificial turf compared with natural turf include increased peak torque and

  3. Injury prediction in veteran football players using the Functional Movement Screen™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, Daniel; Aus der Fünten, Karen; Bizzini, Mario; Meyer, Tim

    2016-07-01

    The Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) is aimed at assessing fundamental movements and is often used to identify players' injury risk. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the FMS™ can be used to predict injuries in veteran footballers (aged > 32 years). Eighteen veteran football teams (n = 238) were recruited and prospectively followed for 9 months. The players (44 ± 7 years; 178 ± 7 cm, 84 ± 11 kg) performed the FMS™ at the start of the study period. Players' exposure hours and injuries were recorded. The difference of FMS™ overall score between injured and uninjured players was not significant (11.7 ± 2.9 vs 12.2 ± 2.8 points; Mann-Whitney U-test P = 0.17). Players scoring 14 (score > 1 SD above the mean) was found. Further analyses of potential risk factors suggest higher age, lower body mass and a longer football career to be risk factors for injuries. The findings of this study suggest that the suitability of the FMS™ for injury prediction in veteran footballers is limited. PMID:26939907

  4. Biomarkers of brain injury following an American football game: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatzki, Matthew J; Soja, Scott E; McCabe, Colleen A; Breckenridge, Ryanne E; White, Jeffrey L; Baker, Julien S

    2016-09-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if the biomarkers of head injury, NSE and S100B, increased in serum following an American football game. Serum creatine kinase (CK) and cortisol levels were also measured to determine muscle damage and stress caused by the football game. NSE, S100B, CK, and cortisol were measured in the serum of 17 football players before and after a collegiate junior varsity football game. No head injuries were reported by the players, athletic training staff, or coaches yet both NSE (Pre-game: 7.0 μg•L-1 ± 2.2 versus Post-game: 13.1 μg•L-1 ± 7.0, P <0.001) and S100B (Pre-game: 0.013 μg•L-1 ± 0.012 versus Post-game: 0.069 μg•L-1 ± 0.036, P <0.001) increased significantly. Neither CK (Pre-game: 90.5 U•L-1 ± 41.9 versus Post-game: 120.2 U•L-1 ± 62.7, P = 0.116) nor cortisol (Pre-game: 369.2 nmoles•L-1 ± 159.8 versus Post-game: 353.0 nmoles•L-1 ± 170.5, P = 0.349) increased significantly following the football game. There was little correlation found between S100B and body mass (R2 = 0.029) or CK (R2 = 0.352) levels. Although serum NSE and S100B increase as a result of playing in an American football game, the values are similar to or lower than levels found following competition in other contact and non-contact sports. Furthermore, the lack of correlation between S100B and body mass or CK indicates that S100B increases independent of body mass or muscle injury. PMID:27387898

  5. Tackle and impact detection in elite Australian football using wearable microsensor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastin, Paul B; McLean, Owen C; Breed, Ray V P; Spittle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of a wearable microsensor device (MinimaxX(TM) S4, Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, VIC, Australia) to automatically detect tackles and impact events in elite Australian football (AF) was assessed during four matches. Video observation was used as the criterion measure. A total of 352 tackles were observed, with 78% correctly detected as tackles by the manufacturer's software. Tackles against (i.e. tackled by an opponent) were more accurately detected than tackles made (90% v 66%). Of the 77 tackles that were not detected at all, the majority (74%) were categorised as low-intensity. In contrast, a total of 1510 "tackle" events were detected, with only 18% of these verified as tackles. A further 57% were from contested ball situations involving player contact. The remaining 25% were in general play where no contact was evident; these were significantly lower in peak Player Load™ than those involving player contact (P tackle detection algorithm, developed primarily for rugby, was not suitable for tackle detection in AF. The underlying sensor data may have the potential to detect a range of events within contact sports such as AF, yet to do so is a complex task and requires sophisticated sport and event-specific algorithms. PMID:24499311

  6. PLAYER MOVEMENT PATTERNS IN AN ELITE JUNIOR AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALL TEAM: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Veale

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the physical movement patterns associated with an elite Under 18 Australian Football (AF team. Five field positions were selected with observations recording the number and relative per cent of "working" efforts (jogging, running, and sprinting, "resting" efforts (walking and the total distances associated with "working" or "resting" efforts. Intra-observer reliability, using test- retest method, showed correlations were r = 0.98 or greater. The Wing position covered 11,877 m, the greatest total distance during an entire game, whilst the HBF and Centre positions both recorded 11,545 m and 11,537 m respectively and the Ruck position covered 9,203 m. The HBF recorded the greatest frequency of 'working' and 'resting' efforts (180 and 182 respectively, whilst the Wing (166 and 158, Centre (162 and 149 and Ruck (161 and 166 showed similarities in their results. The Wing position recorded the longest average distance per 'working' effort (58 m whilst the Centre position recorded the longest average distance per 'resting' effort (17 m. Results also show the completion of less total efforts and smaller total distances, in Under 18 players, recorded compared to professional senior AF data. The results from this study suggest that further in-depth research is required into movement patterns and game activity demands in this AF playing group

  7. PROFILE OF POSITION MOVEMENT DEMANDS IN ELITE JUNIOR AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Pearce

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the positional movement patterns in elite junior Australian Football (AF. Thirty players (17.1 ± 0.9 years participating in this study were tracked over seven home games of the regular 2006 Victorian junior (Under 18 league season. Using lapsed-time video analysis, each position for an entire match was videotaped on three separate occasions over the course of the season. Data analysed included the number of individual efforts, duration and frequency of efforts; distance and percentage time for the classifications of standing, walking jogging, running and sprinting. Results showed that the midfield position travelled the greatest distance (4173 ± 238 m per quarter; p < 0.05; ES = .94 whilst the full forward/full back travelled the least (2605 ± 348 m per quarter, p < 0.05, ES = 1.21. For all positions, walking or jogging accounted for the greatest number of efforts (45-55%, conversely running and sprinting accounted for 5-13% of match efforts. The majority of efforts across all classifications were between 0-3.99 s. The data from this study provides further evidence that AF is an intermittent sport characterised by high intensity movements separated by low intensity movements at a ratio of one high intensity effort every 12-40 s. However, careful interpretation of the data is required when training junior AF players for specific positions, given the specific group studied.

  8. The application of a multi-dimensional assessment approach to talent identification in Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Raynor, Annette J; Bruce, Lyndell; McDonald, Zane; Robertson, Sam

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated whether a multi-dimensional assessment could assist with talent identification in junior Australian football (AF). Participants were recruited from an elite under 18 (U18) AF competition and classified into two groups; talent identified (State U18 Academy representatives; n = 42; 17.6 ± 0.4 y) and non-talent identified (non-State U18 Academy representatives; n = 42; 17.4 ± 0.5 y). Both groups completed a multi-dimensional assessment, which consisted of physical (standing height, dynamic vertical jump height and 20 m multistage fitness test), technical (kicking and handballing tests) and perceptual-cognitive (video decision-making task) performance outcome tests. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of status on the test criterions, whilst a receiver operating characteristic curve assessed the discrimination provided from the full assessment. The talent identified players outperformed their non-talent identified peers in each test (P performance qualities when identifying talented team sports. PMID:26862858

  9. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in National Football League Athletes From 2010 to 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, Christopher C.; Secrist, Eric S.; Bhat, Suneel B; Woods, Daniel P.; Deluca, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among National Football League (NFL) athletes; however, the incidence of reinjury in this population is unknown. Purpose: This retrospective epidemiological study analyzed all publicly disclosed ACL tears occurring in NFL players between 2010 and 2013 to characterize injury trends and determine the incidence of reinjury. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: A comprehensive online search ide...

  10. Injury rates of the German Women's American Football National Team from 2009 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezechieli, Marco; Berger, Stephan; Siebert, Christian-Helge; Miltner, Oliver

    2012-09-01

    American football is one of the leading causes of athletic-related injuries. Injury rates in female elite players are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the injury rates of female was comparable to those in men's football during practice, as well as games. From 2009 to 2011, injury data were collected from the German female national team during training camps, World Championship 2010 and International friendly matches. The injury was categorized by location on the body and recorded as fracture/dislocation, strain, concussion, contusion or other injury. Injury rates were determined based on the exposure of an athlete to a game or practice event. The injury rate was calculated as the ratio of injuries per 1000 athlete exposures (AE). The rate of injury was significantly higher during games (58.8/1000 AE) than practices [16.3/1000 AE, (Pfootball players can be compared to those described for male players. Higher injury rates during matches than in training should also be underlined. PMID:23066496

  11. Risk of injury on artificial turf and natural grass in young female football players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Kathrin; Andersen, Thor Einar; Bahr, Roald

    2007-01-01

    Background Artificial turf is becoming increasingly popular, although the risk of injury on newer generations of turf is unknown. Aim To investigate the risk of injury on artificial turf compared with natural grass among young female football players. Study design Prospective cohort study. Methods 2020 players from 109 teams (mean (SD) 15.4 (0.8) years) participated in the study during the 2005 football season. Time‐loss injuries and exposure data on different types of turf were recorded over an eight‐month period. Results 421 (21%) players sustained 526 injuries, leading to an injury incidence of 3.7/1000 playing hours (95% CI 3.4 to 4.0). The incidence of acute injuries on artificial turf and grass did not differ significantly with respect to match injuries (rate ratio (RR) 1.0, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.3; p = 0.72) or training injuries (RR 1.0, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.5, p = 0.93). In matches, the incidence of serious injuries was significantly higher on artificial turf (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.2; p = 0.03). Ankle sprain was the most common type of injury (34% of all acute injuries), and there was a trend towards more ankle sprains on artificial turf than on grass (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.2; p = 0.06). Conclusion In the present study among young female football players, the overall risk of acute injuries was similar between artificial turf and natural grass. PMID:17550919

  12. The effect of emotional factors on football injury rates--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddington, R D; Troxell, J R

    1980-12-01

    The Life Event Scale for Adolescents (LES A) was used to gather data regarding the events that had occurred during the previous year from 114 high school football players. Injuries during the season were classified according to the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS). The findings indicated that players who experienced more family instability, particularly those who experienced parental illnesses, separations, divorces and deaths, were more likely to sustain a significant injury. It is postulated that a player's mental or emotional state may increase his risk of injury. PMID:7451953

  13. Australian rural football club leaders as mental health advocates: an investigation of the impact of the Coach the Coach project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobell Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental ill health, especially depression, is recognised as an important health concern, potentially with greater impact in rural communities. This paper reports on a project, Coach the Coach, in which Australian rural football clubs were the setting and football coaches the leaders in providing greater mental health awareness and capacity to support early help seeking behaviour among young males experiencing mental health difficulties, especially depression. Coaches and other football club leaders were provided with Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training. Method Pre-post measures of the ability of those club leaders undertaking mental health training to recognise depression and schizophrenia and of their knowledge of evidence supported treatment options, and confidence in responding to mental health difficulties were obtained using a questionnaire. This was supplemented by focus group interviews. Pre-post questionnaire data from players in participating football clubs was used to investigate attitudes to depression, treatment options and ability to recognise depression from a clinical scenario. Key project stakeholders were also interviewed. Results Club leaders (n = 36 who were trained in MHFA and club players (n = 275 who were not trained, participated in this evaluation. More than 50% of club leaders who undertook the training showed increased capacity to recognise mental illness and 66% reported increased confidence to respond to mental health difficulties in others. They reported that this training built upon their existing skills, fulfilled their perceived social responsibilities and empowered them. Indirect benefit to club players from this approach seemed limited as minimal changes in attitudes were reported by players. Key stakeholders regarded the project as valuable. Conclusions Rural football clubs appear to be appropriate social structures to promote rural mental health awareness. Club leaders, including many

  14. A Prospective Analysis of the Injury Incidence of Young Male Professional Football Players on Artificial Turf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonino; Spedicato, Mirco; Petrucci, Marco; Messina, Giuseppe; Thomas, Ewan; Nese Sahin, Fatma; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of synthetic surfaces on the risk of injuries is still debated in literature and the majority of published data seems to be contradictory. For such reasons the understanding of injury incidence on such surfaces, especially in youth sport, is fundamental for injury prevention. Objectives: The aim of this study was to prospectively report the epidemiology of injuries in young football players, playing on artificial turfs, during a one sports season. Patients and Methods: 80 young male football players (age 16.1 ± 3.7 years; height 174 ± 6.6 cm; weight 64.2 ± 6.3 kg) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. The participants were then divided in two groups; the first included players age ranging from 17 to 19 (OP) whereas the second included players age ranging from 13 to 16 (YP). Injury incidence was recorded prospectively, according to the consensus statement for soccer. Results: A total of 107 injuries (35 from the OP and 72 from the YP) were recorded during an exposure time of 83.760 hours (incidence 1.28/1000 per player hours); 22 during matches (incidence 2.84/1000 per player hours, 20.5%) and 85 during training (incidence 1.15/1000 per player hours, 79.5%). Thigh and groin were the most common injury locations (33.6% and 21.5%, respectively) while muscle injuries such as contractures and strains were the most common injury typologies (68.23%). No statistical differences between groups were displayed, except for the rate of severe injuries during matches, with the OP displaying slightly higher rates compared to the YP. Severe injuries accounted for 10.28% of the total injuries reported. The average time lost due to injuries was 14 days. Re-injuries accounted for 4.67% of all injuries sustained during the season. Conclusions: In professional youth soccer injury rates are reasonably low. Muscle injuries are the most common type of injuries while groin and thigh the most common locations. Artificial turf pitches don’t seem to

  15. Discriminating Talent Identified Junior Australian Footballers Using a Fundamental Gross Athletic Movement Assessment

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    Carl T. Woods, Harry G. Banyard, Ian McKeown, Job Fransen, Sam Robertson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Talent identification (TID is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF. This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18 AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives. Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA, consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs, single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs, and a push up (six movement criterions. Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 – 0.87; p = 0.01 – 0.02. Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE = -0.89(0.44; p < 0.05, with a score of 4.5 classifying 64% and 88% of the talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent

  16. Pre-training perceived wellness impacts training output in Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Tania F; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Lorenzen, Christian H

    2016-08-01

    The impact of perceived wellness on a range of external load parameters, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and external load:RPE ratios, was explored during skill-based training in Australian footballers. Fifteen training sessions involving 36 participants were analysed. Each morning before any physical training, players completed a customised perceived wellness questionnaire (sleep quality, fatigue, stress, mood and muscle soreness). Microtechnology devices provided external load (average speed, high-speed running distance, player load and player load slow). Players provided RPE using the modified Borg category-ratio 10 RPE scale. Mixed-effect linear models revealed significant effects of wellness Z-score on player load and player load slow. Effects are reported with 95% confidence limits. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a -4.9 ± 3.1 and -8.6 ± 3.9% reduction in player load and player load slow, respectively, compared to those without reduced wellness. Small significant effects were also seen in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE models. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a 0.43 ± 0.38 m·min(-1) and -0.02 ± 0.01 au·min(-1) change in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE ratios, respectively. Magnitude-based analysis revealed that the practical size of the effect of a pre-training perceived wellness Z-score of -1 would have on player load slow was likely negative. The results of this study suggests that monitoring pre-training perceived wellness may provide coaches with information about the intensity of output that can be expected from individual players during a training session. PMID:26637525

  17. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Goncalves Arliani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.

  18. Injury risks of heading in young football players

    OpenAIRE

    Lukášek, Miloš; Kalichová, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research is to contribute to findings concerning increasingly acute problems connected with heading in football. Unlike most of available studies where heading with adults is dealt with, our study focuses primarily on heading with children. 16 children aged 10, weighing 36.2 ± 4.7 kg took part in the research. Each tested person executed headings of a ball dropped from 0 m (3.13 m/s), 1 m (4.43 m/s) and 1,5 m (5.43 m/s) ie. 3 headings in total. The total number of tests was 48....

  19. Irish rugby injury survey: Dungannon Football Club (1986-87).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addley, K; Farren, J

    1988-03-01

    The injuries sustained during one season by players at an Ulster Senior Rugby Club were documented with reference to time of injury, phase of play, team position, and nature of injury. The overall injury pattern in Irish rugby as found in this study is broadly comparable with that in similar studies in England and Scotland. Eighty-four players were injured in total. Three of these had fractures of which one required hospital admission for open reduction of a fractured wrist. The remaining eighty-one players had various types and grades of soft-tissue damage. The tackle accounted for approximately one-third of all injuries. There were few serious injuries and none involving the spine. Injuries to forwards made up almost sixty per cent of the total. PMID:3370398

  20. Influence of Extrinsic Risk Factors on National Football League Injury Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David W.; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of injury associated with American football is significant, with recent reports indicating that football has one of the highest rates of all-cause injury, including concussion, of all major sports. There are limited studies examining risk factors for injuries in the National Football League (NFL). Purpose: To identify risk factors for NFL concussions and musculoskeletal injuries. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Injury report data were collected prospectively for each week over the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 regular seasons for all 32 teams. Poisson regression models were used to identify the relationship between predetermined variables and the risk of the 5 most frequent injuries (knee, ankle, hamstring, shoulder, and concussion). Results: A total of 480 games or 960 team games (TGs) from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 regular seasons were included in this study. A trend to an increasing risk of concussion and TG ankle injury with decreasing mean game-day temperature was observed. The risk of TG concussion (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 2.16; 95% CI, 1.35-3.45; P = .001) and TG ankle injury (IRR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-1.98; P = .01) was significantly greater for TGs played at a mean game-day temperature of ≤9.7°C (≤49.5°F) compared with a mean game-day temperature of ≥21.0°C (≥69.8°F). The risk of TG shoulder injury was significantly increased for TGs played on grass surfaces (IRR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81; P = .038) compared with synthetic surfaces. The risk of TG injury was not associated with time in season, altitude, time zone change prior to game, or distance traveled to a game. Conclusion: This study evaluated extrinsic risk factors for injury in the NFL. A hazardous association was identified for risk of concussion and ankle injury with colder game-day temperature. Further research should be conducted to substantiate this relationship and its potential implication for injury prevention initiatives. PMID

  1. Comparison of Indiana High School Football Injury Rates by Inclusion of the USA Football “Heads Up Football” Player Safety Coach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Dalton, Sara L.; Roos, Karen G.; Djoko, Aristarque; Phelps, Jennifer; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Indiana, high school football coaches are required to complete a coaching education course with material related to concussion awareness, equipment fitting, heat emergency preparedness, and proper technique. Some high schools have also opted to implement a player safety coach (PSC). The PSC, an integral component of USA Football’s Heads Up Football (HUF) program, is a coach whose primary responsibility is to ensure that other coaches are implementing proper tackling and blocking techniques alongside other components of the HUF program. Purpose: To compare injury rates in Indiana high school football teams by their usage of a PSC or online coaching education only. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Athletic trainers (ATs) evaluated and tracked injuries at each practice and game during the 2015 high school football season. Players were drawn from 6 teams in Indiana. The PSC group, which used the PSC component, was comprised of 204 players from 3 teams. The “education only” group (EDU), which utilized coaching education only, was composed of 186 players from 3 teams. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: During 25,938 athlete-exposures (AEs), a total of 149 injuries were reported, of which 54 (36.2%) and 95 (63.8%) originated from the PSC and EDU groups, respectively. The practice injury rate was lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (2.99 vs 4.83/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.95). The game injury rate was also lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (11.37 vs 26.37/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.74). When restricted to concussions only, the rate was lower in the PSC group (0.09 vs 0.73/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.01-0.94), although only 1 concussion was reported in the PSC group. No differences were found in game concussion rates (0.60 vs 4.39/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-1.11). Conclusion: Findings support the PSC as an effective

  2. Is a cognitive-behavioural biofeedback intervention useful to reduce injury risk in junior football players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Arne; Ivarsson, Andreas; Johnson, Urban

    2012-01-01

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old) were divided into one experiment (n = 13) and one control group (n = 14). Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale), history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes) and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28) in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney U-tests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14) = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study), to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given. Key pointsCognitive-behavioral training together with biofeedback training seems to be an effective strategy to decrease the occurrence of injuries.More intervention studies should be conducted applying existing biofeedback methodology, especially in the injury preventive area.Future research should develop a bio-psychological injury model aimed at predicting injury occurrence which describes the physiological stress responses and how they

  3. Association football injuries to the brain. A preliminary report.

    OpenAIRE

    Tysvaer, A.; Storli, O.

    1981-01-01

    In 1975 the authors sent a questionnaire to all players in the Norwegian First Division League Clubs to record the incidence of head injuries due to heading. The conclusion of the questionnaire is that there seems to be a low percentage of serious head injuries. None of the players had been operated on for epi- or subdural hematoma or other brain damage and only a few have had concussion due to heading. In sixty per cent of the players a full neurological examination and EEG recording was und...

  4. Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

  5. IS A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL BIOFEEDBACK INTERVENTION USEFUL TO REDUCE INJURY RISK IN JUNIOR FOOTBALL PLAYERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Edvardsson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old were divided into one experiment (n = 13 and one control group (n = 14. Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale, history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28 in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney U-tests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14 = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study, to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given

  6. COMPARISON KNOWLEDGE RATE OF RECOGNITION AND PREVENTION MANAGEMENT AGAINST SPORT INJURY IN AMATEUR AND PROFESSIONAL COLLEGIATE FEMALE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba kashani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is; comparison knowledge rate of recognition and preventionmanagement against sport injury in Amator and professional collegiate female football players.Research statistical sample athletes in football competition on 8 areal country that among 9groups : 7 groups answered knowledge injury Questionair Vang (2006. Results of investigationshowed that with attention to T-Test rate between groups; there is not a significant differentamong score mean on two groups. Also in survery of relation between background athleteswith their knowledge score with regard to (p value<0/05 just in variable management ofpathology basics there is significant relation; namely. Increase experience lead to pathologyhigh score.

  7. A congested football calendar and the wellbeing of players: correlation between match exposure of European footballers before the World Cup 2002 and their injuries and performances during that World Cup

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrand, J; Walden, M; Hagglund, M

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the correlation between exposure of footballers in European clubs to match play in the months before the World Cup 2002 and their injuries and performances during that World Cup.

  8. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in elite football: a prospective three-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Magnusson, Henrik; Ekstrand, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury causes long lay-off time and is often complicated with subsequent new knee injury and osteoarthritis. Female gender is associated with an increased ACL injury risk, but few studies have adjusted for gender-related differences in age although female players are often younger when sustaining their ACL injury. The objective of this three-cohort study was to describe ACL injury characteristics in teams from the Swedish men's and women's first leagues and from several European men's professional first leagues. Over a varying number of seasons from 2001 to 2009, 57 clubs (2,329 players) were followed prospectively and during this period 78 ACL injuries occurred (five partial). Mean age at ACL injury was lower in women compared to men (20.6 ± 2.2 vs. 25.2 ± 4.5 years, P = 0.0002). Using a Cox regression, the female-to-male hazard ratio (HR) was 2.6 (95% CI 1.4-4.6) in all three cohorts studied and 2.6 (95% CI 1.3-5.3) in the Swedish cohorts; adjusted for age, the HR was reduced to 2.4 (95% CI 1.3-4.2) and 2.1 (95% CI 1.0-4.2), respectively. Match play was associated with a higher ACL injury risk with a match-to-training ratio of 20.8 (95% CI 12.4-34.8) and 45 ACL injuries (58%) occurred due to non-contact mechanisms. Hamstrings grafts were used more often in Sweden than in Europe (67 vs. 34%, P = 0.028), and there were no differences in time to return to play after ACL reconstruction between the cohorts or different grafts. In conclusion, this study showed that the ACL injury incidence in female elite footballers was more than doubled compared to their male counterparts, but also that they were significantly younger at ACL injury than males. These findings suggest that future preventive research primarily should address the young female football player. PMID:20532869

  9. INJURY INCIDENCE IN A SPANISH SUB-ELITE PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL TEAM: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY DURING FOUR CONSECUTIVE SEASONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Mallo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the injury incidence and injury characteristics of a Spanish sub-elite professional football team during four consecutive seasons. A team was followed prospectively from the season 2003-2004 to 2006-2007 and individual player exposure and time loss injuries were recorded during all club training sessions and matches. A total of 313 time-loss injuries were recorded. The mean injury incidence was 10.9 injuries/1000 hours (5.2 injuries/1000 training hours and 44.1 injuries/1000 match hours. The injury incidence during competitive matches was higher (p 28 days absence was 0.4 injuries/1000 hours. The thigh was the most commonly (35% injured region and caused 29% of all competitive match absence. Muscle injuries in the four main groups of the lower limbs (hamstrings, adductors, quadriceps and calf muscles caused 43% of competitive match unavailability. The results of this study show that the risk to sustain a major injury in the course of the season was low for sub- elite footballers in comparison to elite players. Thigh strains were the first cause of absence in competition due to injury.

  10. A simple football injury leading to a grade 4 renal trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, Deirdre Mary

    2012-01-01

    This case highlights the need for cautious management and serial regular examination of trauma patients. A 22-year-old Caucasian male presented to the emergency department 4 h following an injury sustained during football training. He complained of the immediate onset of severe left upper quadrant and left flank pain. He subsequently developed frank haematuria. On initial review, he was haemodynamically stable. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed a grade 4 renal trauma. Over the following 36 h, he remained haemodynamically stable. On serial abdominal examinations however, he developed a rigid abdomen and was noted to have a haemoglobin drop. Interval CT scan showed a progression of his injury and the presence of a haemoperitoneum. An emergency laparotomy was performed resulting in a left nephrectomy. He made an uneventful recovery.

  11. A prospective epidemiological study of injury incidence and injury patterns in a Hong Kong male professional football league during the competitive season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Wai-Yuk Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the match and training injury incidence, injury patterns and severity, and their monthly variation in a Hong Kong male professional football league. The study design was a prospective cohort study. Seven teams in the Hong Kong Football Association first division league and 152 players from 10 professional teams participated in this study. On a weekly basis throughout the 9-month season, time-loss injuries and individual exposure were collected from injury recorders team visits. Operational injury definitions and procedures followed the recommendations of a football consensus. The overall injury incidence was 7.4 injuries/1000 player hours and 296 injuries were recorded. The relative risk of match injury was 17 times greater than the risk of training injury [relative ratio (RR, 17.3; 95% confidence injury (CI, 11.6–25.7; p < 0.001]. Ankle sprain was the most common injury type (16.2% of all injuries and 52% of these injuries were recurrent. Thigh strain was the second most common injury type with 82% of the injuries involving the hamstring muscle and 80% of hamstring strains were noncontact injuries. During the competitive season, the relative risk of injury was highest in October (RR, 6.8; 95% CI, 6.7–6.9; p < 0.001 and February (RR, 4.7; 95% CI, 4.3–5.2; p < 0.001. This highlighted that Hong Kong professional football has a high match injury incidence. The relative risk of injury was highest at the beginning of the competitive season. A prospective multicentre epidemiological study is warranted to examine regional differences in injury risks. Coaches, players, health professionals, and researchers should join their efforts to investigate the effect on injury incidence and injury pattern associated with the duration and content of the preseason period, and the number of friendly matches held during preseason.

  12. Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme-biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence. PMID:23322894

  13. Rehabilitation after first-time anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction in female football players: a study of resilience factors

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Urban; Ivarsson, Andreas; Karlsson, Jón; Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus; Börjesson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Background Most of the research in the area of psychosocial factors in rehabilitation after sports injuries has focused on risk behaviors, while relatively few studies have focused on behaviors that facilitate rehabilitation. The objective of our study was to understand the psychosocial features that characterize elite female football players who express a resilient behaviour during rehabilitation after a first-time anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction. Methods A qualita...

  14. Preventing knee injuries in adolescent female football players – design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [NCT00894595

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldén Markus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee injuries in football are common regardless of age, gender or playing level, but adolescent females seem to have the highest risk. The consequences after severe knee injury, for example anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury, are well-known, but less is known about knee injury prevention. We have designed a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate the effect of a warm-up program aimed at preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football. Methods In this cluster randomized trial 516 teams (309 clusters in eight regional football districts in Sweden with female players aged 13–17 years were randomized into an intervention group (260 teams or a control group (256 teams. The teams in the intervention group were instructed to do a structured warm-up program at two training sessions per week throughout the 2009 competitive season (April to October and those in the control group were informed to train and play as usual. Sixty-eight sports physical therapists are assigned to the clubs to assist both groups in data collection and to examine the players' acute knee injuries during the study period. Three different forms are used in the trial: (1 baseline player data form collected at the start of the trial, (2 computer-based registration form collected every month, on which one of the coaches/team leaders documents individual player exposure, and (3 injury report form on which the study therapists report acute knee injuries resulting in time loss from training or match play. The primary outcome is the incidence of ACL injury and the secondary outcomes are the incidence of any acute knee injury (except contusion and incidence of severe knee injury (defined as injury resulting in absence of more than 4 weeks. Outcome measures are assessed after the end of the 2009 season. Discussion Prevention of knee injury is beneficial for players, clubs, insurance companies, and society. If the warm-up program is proven to

  15. FIFA 11+: an effective programme to prevent football injuries in various player groups worldwide-a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, FIFA promoted and disseminated the FIFA 11+ injury prevention programme worldwide. Developed and studied by the FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC), the programme was based on a randomised controlled study and one countrywide campaign in amateur football that significantly reduced injuries and healthcare costs. Since the FIFA 11+ launch, key publications have confirmed the preventive effects of the programme and have evaluated its performance effects in female as well as male amateur football players. Furthermore, implementation strategies of this prevention programme have also been studied. The goal of this narrative review was to summarise the available scientific evidence about the FIFA 11+ programme. While FIFA continues to disseminate and implement FIFA 11+ among its Member Associations, adaptations of the injury prevention programme for children and referees have been developed and are currently being evaluated. PMID:25878073

  16. The impact of the FIFA 11+ training program on injury prevention in football players: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barengo, Noël C; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Cohen, Daniel Dylan; Tovar, Gustavo; Bautista, Jorge Enrique Correa

    2014-11-01

    The FIFA 11+ is a simple, and easy to implement, sports injury prevention program comprising a warm up of 10 conditioning exercises. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of the FIFA 11+ on injury incidence, compliance and cost effectiveness when implemented among football players. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched using the search terms "FIFA 11+", "football", "soccer", "injury prevention", and "The 11". The titles and abstracts were screened by two independent reviewers and the data were filtered by one reviewer using a standardized extraction form and thereafter checked by another one. The risk of bias and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated through the PEDro score and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). A total of 911 studies were identified, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria of the review. The FIFA 11+ has demonstrated how a simple exercise program completed as part of warm-up can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. In general, considerable reductions in the number of injured players, ranging between 30% and 70%, have been observed among the teams that implemented the FIFA 11+. In addition, players with high compliance to the FIFA 11+ program had an estimated risk reduction of all injuries by 35% and show significant improvements in components of neuromuscular and motor performance when participating in structured warm-up sessions at least 1.5 times/week. Most studies had high methodological quality and a low risk of bias. Given the large number of people who play football at amateur level and the detrimental impact of sports injuries on a personal and societal level, the FIFA 11+ can be considered as a fundamental tool to minimize the risks of participation in a sport with substantial health benefits. PMID:25415209

  17. Biceps femoris and semitendinosus—teammates or competitors? New insights into hamstring injury mechanisms in male football players: a muscle functional MRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Schuermans, Joke; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Danneels, Lieven; Witvrouw, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hamstring injury mechanism was assessed by investigating the exercise-related metabolic activity characteristics of the hamstring muscles using a muscle functional MRI (mfMRI) protocol. Methods: 27 healthy male football players and 27 football players with a history of hamstring injuries (recovered and playing fully) underwent standardised mfMR Imaging. The mfMRI protocol consisted of a resting scan, a strenuous bilateral eccentric hamstring exercise and a postexercise scan...

  18. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players: the influence of age, gender, history of knee injury and level of competition.

    OpenAIRE

    Frobell, Richard; Svensson, E.; Göthrick, M; Roos, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if self-reported activity level or knee functions are influenced by subject characteristics, level of competition and history of knee injury. Cross-Sectional study using questionnaires distributed at a personal visit. One hundred and eighty-eight (65 women) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Sc...

  19. Lumbar Spine Injury/Pathology as a Predictor of Outcomes in National Football League Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Thomas Sean; Schroeder, Greg; Gibbs, Daniel; Chow, Ian; LaBelle, Mark; Savage, Jason W.; Patel, Alpesh; Hsu, Wellington; Nuber, Gordon W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine if a pre-existing lumbar diagnosis such as spondylosis, a herniated lumbar disc, or spondylolysis affects a football player’s draft status or his performance and longevity in the NFL. Methods: The written medical evaluations and imaging reports of prospective professional American football athletes from 2003-2011 from one NFL franchise during the NFL combine (annual college football player evaluation prior to the NFL draft) were compiled and evaluated. All players were evaluated for a pre-existing lumbar diagnosis which were compiled from previous injury/medical records including radiographic imaging reports. Those players with a lumbar spine diagnosis and with appropriate radiograph, MRI and CT imaging were included in this study. These athletes were then matched by age, position, year, and round drafted to control draftees without a lumbar spine diagnosis. Career statistics were compiled including length of play and number of games started. Additionally, a previously established “Performance Score” was calculated for all players excluding offensive linemen. The continuous variables of each cohort were compared using a two-sided (tailed) Student’s t-test for normally distributed data. A chi-squared analysis was performed to analyze the categorical data. Statistical significance was accepted with a p < 0.05. Results: Out of a total of 2,965 athletes evaluated from the NFL combine, 414 players were identified with a pre-existing lumbar spine diagnosis. Athletes who attended the NFL combine without a lumbar spine diagnosis were significantly more likely to be drafted than those with one (74% vs. 61% respectively, p < 0.01). There was no difference between the investigational and control group with regard to round drafted, age, year drafted, or position. Overall, athletes with a lumbar spine injury compared to the control group had no difference in the number of years played (4.0 vs. 4.3 years, respectively

  20. The National Football Head and Neck Injury Registry: 14-year report on cervical quadriplegia (1971-1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torg, J S; Vegso, J J; Sennett, B

    1987-01-01

    The specter of catastrophic cervical neurotrauma resulting from athletic participation, although infrequent, has been consistently associated with football, water sports, gymnastics, rugby, and ice hockey. Injury involving intracranial hemorrhage can result in death or permanent neurologic impairment, whereas certain fractures and dislocations of the cervical spine are associated with quadriplegia. Athletic injuries to both the central nervous system and spinal cord demand our attention as an active area of clinical and basic injury. A review of the available literature reveals changing injury patterns as well as current concepts regarding the mechanism responsible for most athletic injuries to these structures. Accurate descriptions of the mechanism(s) responsible for a particular injury transcend simple academic interest. In order that preventive measures be implemented, the manner in which injury occurs must be accurately defined. The purpose of this article is to describe how the application of this principle resulted in the significant reduction of cervical spine injuries associated with quadriplegia that have occurred in tackle football since 1976. PMID:3509870

  1. The Impact of the FIFA 11+ Training Program on Injury Prevention in Football Players: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Barengo, Noël C; José Francisco Meneses-Echávez; Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Daniel Dylan Cohen; Gustavo Tovar; Jorge Enrique Correa Bautista

    2014-01-01

    The FIFA 11+ is a simple, and easy to implement, sports injury prevention program comprising a warm up of 10 conditioning exercises. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of the FIFA 11+ on injury incidence, compliance and cost effectiveness when implemented among football players. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched using the search terms “FIFA 11+”, “football”, “soccer”, “injury prevention”, and “The 11”. The titles and abstracts were screened by two in...

  2. A comparison of paediatric soccer, gaelic football and rugby injuries presenting to an emergency department in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Rourke, K P

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: Children presenting with sport related injuries (SRIs) as a result of soccer, rugby and gaelic football are frequently seen in an emergency medicine (EM) setting in Ireland. A comparison of the demographics of injuries in these three sports has however not previously been performed. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date data on the nature of these SRIs. METHOD: Data was collected retrospectively on all children (<17 years of age), injured in these three sports, presenting to an emergency medicine department over 6 months, and was entered into a database for analysis. RESULTS: Retrospective analysis was performed on 23,000 charts, and 409 SRIs were identified over a 6-month period. None of the children reported using any form of protective gear, and 27% reported a previous presentation to the emergency department with a SRI. Most injuries were as a result of soccer (56%), with 24% occurring in gaelic football, and 20% occurring in rugby. The predominant mechanism of injury was different in each sport, in soccer-falls (38%), in gaelic football-collisions with objects (balls) (37%), and in rugby-collision with persons (55%). Although the predominant type of injury in soccer and gaelic football was a fracture, accounting for 50% and 42% of injuries, respectively, in rugby however, skin\\/soft tissue injuries presented more commonly, accounting for 44% of injuries. When the general site of injury was investigated, the upper limb accounted for the majority of SRIs in each sport. In the management of SRIs, oral analgesics were prescribed in 50%, however, it was observed that no use was made of topical, intramuscular or rectal analgesic routes of administration. In addition it was observed that RICE\\/general injury advice was given in only 27%, physiotherapy was requested in 2%, and no injury prevention advice was given to any child. Overall, 8% required admission. CONCLUSIONS: The data provided from this study may raise awareness of the nature

  3. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordi Ramin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match football injuries sustained on dirt field are scarce. The objectives of this study was to compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur male football players. Methods A prospective two-cohort design was employed. Participants were 252 male football players (mean age 27 years, range 18-43 in 14 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a dirt field and 216 male football players (mean age 28 years, range 17-40 in 12 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a artificial turf field in the same zone of the city. Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. Results The overall incidence of match injuries for men was 36.9 injuries/1000 player hours on dirt field and 19.5 on artificial turf (incidence rate ratio 1.88; 95% CI 1.19-3.05. Most common injured part on dirt field was ankle (26.7% and on artificial turf was knee (24.3%. The most common injury type in the dirt field was skin injuries (abrasion and laceration and in the artificial turf was sprain and ligament injury followed by haematoma/contusion/bruise. Most injuries were acute (artificial turf 89%, dirt field 91% and resulted from player-to-player contact (artificial turf 59.2%, dirt field 51.4%. Most injuries were slight and minimal in dirt field cohort but in artificial turf cohort the most injuries were mild. Conclusions There were differences in the incidence and type of football match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf.

  4. Toward reducing impact induced brain injury: Lessons from a computational study of army and football helmet pads

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, W C; Blackman, E G

    2012-01-01

    We use computational simulations to compare the impact response of different football and U.S. Army helmet pad materials. We conduct experiments to characterize the material response of different helmet pads. We simulate experimental helmet impact tests performed by the U.S. Army to validate our methods. We then simulate a cylindrical impactor striking different pads. The acceleration history of the impactor is used to calculate the Head Injury Criterion for each pad. We conduct sensitivity studies exploring the effects of pad composition, geometry, and material stiffness. We find that: (1) The football pad materials do not outperform the currently used military pad material in militarily-relevant impact scenarios; (2) Optimal material properties for a pad depend on impact energy; and (3) Thicker pads perform better at all velocities. Our analysis suggests that by using larger helmet shells with correspondingly thicker pads, impact-induced traumatic brain injury may be significantly reduced. Keywords: helmet,...

  5. Anatomy, physiology and biomechanics of hamstrings injury in football and effective strength and flexibility exercises for its prevention

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The muscles of the back of the thigh with its particular role in movement of athletes and people in general and, therefore, the position of the musculoskeletal system require specific attention in the athlete's training planned procession. As a group of muscles, which has an impact on two joint systems performs multiple missions, it is susceptible to various injuries. They act on the hip joints and knees, which are very important in basic movements of football players. Stabilizing role during...

  6. Risk Factors of Tendo-Achilles Injury in Football, Cricket and Badminton Players at Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M J; Giasuddin, A S M; Khalil, M I

    2015-04-01

    Achilles tendon is the tendon connecting the heel with the calf muscles. Tendo-achilles injury (TAI) in players is common in games. The frequency of TAI is unknown and aetiology is controversial: The present descriptive cross-sectional study was done to determine the prevalence of TAI and associated factors contributing to it in football, cricket and badminton. From January to June 2012, male players (n = 131), age -17-35 years, were selected by purposive sampling technique from renowned sporting clubs at Dhaka, Bangladesh. TAI was diagnosed through structured questionnaire and interviewing the respondents. The analysis by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme revealed that 11.5% players suffered from TAI, i.e. prevalence was 115 per 1000 respondents. Most injuries (70/131; 53.4%) occurred in the playground and (59/131; 45.3%) happened in practice field. Injuries among the players of third division were higher, i.e. about 36% (p = 0.000). TAI was significantly dependent on occupation (p = 0.046), BMI (p = 0.008), divisional status (p = 0.023), game type (p = 0.043), ground condition (p = 0.05) and injury severity (p = 0.000). The injured players referred for treatment to the physiotherapist was highest (9/15, i.e. 60%) followed by the physicians (5/15, i.e. 33%) (p = 0.000). The associations of TAI with various factors were discussed suggesting effective measures be taken and treatment, particularly physiotherapy, be given to injured players. However, there is a need of team work with sports medicine specialist also to enable the injured players to continue their professional games. PMID:27089630

  7. The Impact of the FIFA 11+ Training Program on Injury Prevention in Football Players: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noël C. Barengo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The FIFA 11+ is a simple, and easy to implement, sports injury prevention program comprising a warm up of 10 conditioning exercises. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of the FIFA 11+ on injury incidence, compliance and cost effectiveness when implemented among football players. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched using the search terms “FIFA 11+”, “football”, “soccer”, “injury prevention”, and “The 11”. The titles and abstracts were screened by two independent reviewers and the data were filtered by one reviewer using a standardized extraction form and thereafter checked by another one. The risk of bias and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated through the PEDro score and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP. A total of 911 studies were identified, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria of the review. The FIFA 11+ has demonstrated how a simple exercise program completed as part of warm-up can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. In general, considerable reductions in the number of injured players, ranging between 30% and 70%, have been observed among the teams that implemented the FIFA 11+. In addition, players with high compliance to the FIFA 11+ program had an estimated risk reduction of all injuries by 35% and show significant improvements in components of neuromuscular and motor performance when participating in structured warm-up sessions at least 1.5 times/week. Most studies had high methodological quality and a low risk of bias. Given the large number of people who play football at amateur level and the detrimental impact of sports injuries on a personal and societal level, the FIFA 11+ can be considered as a fundamental tool to minimize the risks of participation in a sport with substantial health benefits.

  8. The National Football Head and Neck Injury Registry. 14-year report on cervical quadriplegia, 1971 through 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torg, J S; Vegso, J J; Sennett, B; Das, M

    1985-12-27

    Data on cervical spine injuries resulting from participation in football have been compiled by a national registry. Analysis of epidemiologic data and cinematographic documentation clearly demonstrated that the majority of cervical fractures and dislocations were due to axial loading. On the basis of this observation, rule changes banning both deliberate "spearing" and the use of the top of the helmet as the initial point of contact in making a tackle were implemented at the high school and college level. Subsequently, a marked decrease in cervical spine injury rates has occurred. The occurrence of permanent cervical quadriplegia decreased from 34 in 1976 to five in the 1984 season. It is suggested that axial loading of the cervical spine is also responsible for the catastrophic injuries in diving, rugby, ice hockey, and gymnastics. Implementation of appropriate changes in playing techniques and/or equipment modifications could possibly reduce the incidence of cervical spine injuries in these activities. PMID:4068184

  9. The epidemiology of anterior cruciate ligament injury in football (soccer) : a review of the literature from a gender-related perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Werner, Jonas; Ekstrand, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Football (soccer), the most popular sport worldwide, is associated with a high injury risk, and the knee joint is often affected. Several studies have found female players to be more susceptible to knee injury, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in particular, compared to their male counterparts. There is, however, some controversy regarding the magnitude of this risk increase and a few studies have found no differences. The influence of age and activity type on gender-related difference...

  10. Rugby football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzen, C J; Topping, B R

    1999-02-01

    Rugby union football continues to gain in popularity in the United States. Both men's and women's clubs have been established at several colleges and universities. There has been substantial growth in the number of high school rugby football clubs in recent years. With the increase in numbers of young participants in this sport, it is important that great efforts be mounted to attempt to control the injury rates and severity of injuries in rugby football. Players and coaches must be knowledgeable of the rules of the game, and referees must strictly enforce these rules. Physicians and dentists should be involved in educating parents, coaches, players, and school officials about the inherent risks of injury and the means for injury prevention. Medical personnel must also be instrumental in educating players about alcohol abuse/addiction. Rugby players should be encouraged to use the limited protective gear that is allowed: wraps, tape, joint sleeves, scrum caps, and facial grease to prevent lacerations. Mouthguards are strongly recommended at any level of play and should be mandated. The use of helmets, face masks, and shoulder pads has been suggested by some authors. Such rule changes could actually increase injury rates and severity, because this equipment could be used as weapons as they are in American football. It is recommended that rugby clubs purchase or build equipment to practice scrummage skills. Coaches should be experienced and attend clinics or complete video courses on medical emergencies and safe techniques of the game. Injury frequency and severity can be decreased by adequate preseason training and conditioning, proper tackling and falling techniques, strengthening of neck muscles, and allowing only experienced, fit athletes to play in the front row. Medical surveillance must be improved at matches and, ideally, at practice sessions. At present, it is common for no emergency medical personnel or physicians to be present at matches in the United

  11. The University of the National Football League: How Technology, Injury Surveillance, and Health Care Have Improved the Safety of America's Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matava, Matthew J; Görtz, Simon

    2016-07-01

    American football has become one of the most popular sports in the United States. Despite the millions of players at all levels of competition who gain the physical, social, and psychological rewards that football provides, many interested stakeholders continue to ask, "Is football safe?" Although there are only approximately 1,700 players on National Football League (NFL) rosters, the injuries they sustain have garnered the most attention-and criticism-from the national media. Increased public awareness of the injury potential football possesses has led to an open debate and a major shift in public sentiment over the past 5 years. Although no sport is perfectly safe, the question is whether it can be made relatively safe and if the long-term consequences are worth the risk. This article reviews the methods by which one sports league-the NFL-has used advances in medical technology and injury surveillance to improve the health and safety of its players. PMID:27258045

  12. 大学生足球运动常见运动损伤与预防的研究%Football Sports Injury and Prevention in Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹崇将

    2011-01-01

    Using the methods of documentary, questionnaire investigation, interview method, statistics, it studies the common football injuries in college students' movement, including injuries parts and the types of damages. By the use the knowledge of the movement anatomy analyzing football sports common injury mechanism. The study on college students' football injuries prevention and college students' healthy development of football has certain directive significance for college football education workers' safety education, and the prevention of football sports injuries and damage emergency treatment also has certain theoretical significance.%运用文献资料法、问卷调查法、访谈法、统计法等方法对大学生足球运动中常见的运动损伤产生的部位、损伤的类型等进行调查研究,运用运动解剖学的知识对足球运动常见运动损伤产生的机理加以分析研究,对大学生足球运动预防损伤发生与大学生足球运动健康发展具有一定的现实指导意义,对高校足球教育工作者进行安全教育、预防足球运动损伤及损伤应急救治处理也具有一定的理论指导意义。

  13. The Epidemiology of Injuries in Australian Professional Rugby Union 2014 Super Rugby Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Timothy; Orr, Robin; Fitzgerald, Edward; Harries, Simon; McLellan, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rugby union is a collision-based ball sport played at the professional level internationally. Rugby union has one of the highest reported incidences of injury of all team sports. Purpose: To identify the characteristics, incidence, and severity of injuries occurring in Australian professional Super Rugby Union. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The present study was a prospective epidemiology study on a cohort of 180 professional players from 5 Australian Super Rugby teams during the 2014 Super Rugby Union Tournament. Team medical staff collected and submitted daily training and match-play injury data through a secure, web-based electronic platform. The injury data included the main anatomic location of the injury, specific anatomic structure of the injury, injury diagnosis, training or match injury occurrence, main player position, mechanism of injury, and the severity of the injury quantified based on the number of days lost from training and/or competition due to injury. Results: The total combined incidence rate for injury during training and match-play across all Australian Super Rugby Union teams was 6.96 per 1000 hours, with a mean injury severity of 37.45 days lost from training and competition. The match-play injury incidence rate was 66.07 per 1000 hours, with a mean severity of 39.80 days lost from training and competition. No significant differences were observed between forward- and back-playing positions for match or training injury incidence rate or severity. Conclusion: The incidence of injury for the present study was lower during match-play than has previously been reported in professional rugby union; however, the overall time loss was higher compared with previous studies in professional rugby union. The high overall time loss was due fundamentally to a high incidence of injuries with greater than 28 days’ severity. PMID:27069947

  14. Anatomy, physiology and biomechanics of hamstrings injury in football and effective strength and flexibility exercises for its prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORIĆ IVAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The muscles of the back of the thigh with its particular role in movement of athletes and people in general and, therefore, the position of the musculoskeletal system require specific attention in the athlete's training planned procession. As a group of muscles, which has an impact on two joint systems performs multiple missions, it is susceptible to various injuries. They act on the hip joints and knees, which are very important in basic movements of football players. Stabilizing role during movement requires very good coordination among these muscles with the synchronized activity of other muscles. Concentric and especially eccentric movements are very prominent during the movement of the hamstring muscles. Eccentric movements of the muscles lengthen muscle that is contracted and thus require much greater force activity that contributes to a risk of injury. Football as a complex activity has acyclic interval that requires a high degree of development of physical abilities in the modern sport but nobody paid attention to this muscle group. For this reason and many other factors, muscles of the back of the thigh have been frequently injured. Identifying all factors of risk, and trying to remove them is concern of many sports doctors, which is only possible with care and active participation of athletes themselves.

  15. Performance enhancement effects of Fédération Internationale de Football Association's "The 11+" injury prevention training program in youth futsal players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, Ivan; Rebelo, António; Krustrup, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate if Fédération Internationale de Football Association's "The 11+" injury prevention program improves physical fitness and technical performance in youth futsal players. DESIGN:: Randomized cohort study. SETTING:: Futsal club. PARTICIPANTS:: Thirty-six futsal players (17.3 ± 0...

  16. Modern aspects of physical rehabilitation after football injuries of the capsule-ligament knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parish Mokhammad Reza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the most typical causes of damage to the musculoskeletal system in football. Showing contemporary approaches to physical rehabilitation, reconstruction of the capsule-ligament knee athletes after surgery by arthroscopy. It is shown the various recovery tools and terms of use. It is established that the widespread development of arthroscopy, requires a balanced complex of physical rehabilitation. Complexes should reduce postoperative complications and gradual adaptation to favor the player to the training load.

  17. Rye grass is associated with fewer non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries than bermuda grass

    OpenAIRE

    Orchard, J; Chivers, I; Aldous, D; Bennell, K; Seward, H

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of ground variables including grass type to the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the Australian Football League (AFL), specifically which factors are primarily responsible for previously observed warm season and early season biases for ACL injuries.

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION ON THE INFLUENCE OF POSITION ON ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURY AND RECONSTRUCTION IN RECREATIONAL RUGBY FOOTBALL UNION PARTICIPANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Dawes

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The different player positions in rugby union may place varying demands on a reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL in regards to 'cutting manoeuvres', this in turn may effect performance. In order to investigate sporting performance post reconstruction, a questionnaire was sent to amateur rugby clubs affiliated to the Oxfordshire Rugby Football Union (R.F.U. From the returned questionnaires player positions were placed into categories based on similar 'cutting manoeuvre' demands. Seventy five percent of Individuals playing in the category 1 (low 'cutting manoeuvre' demands at slow running speeds could play a full game with a damaged ACL and post-reconstruction the majority returned to play at a higher level. Fifty percent of ACL injuries occurred on category 2 (high 'cutting manoeuvre' demands at medium running speeds suggesting they may be more prone to ACL injury than other positions. The majority of individuals playing in category 3 (high 'cutting manoeuvre' demands at fast speeds played at a lower level of rugby post reconstruction. Positional demands may influence ACL injury and post reconstruction sporting performance. However, more research is needed

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in elite football : a prospective three-cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Magnusson, Henrik; Ekstrand, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury causes long lay-off time and is often complicated with subsequent new knee injury and osteoarthritis. Female gender is associated with an increased ACL injury risk, but few studies have adjusted for gender-related differences in age although female players are often younger when sustaining their ACL injury. The objective of this three-cohort study was to describe ACL injury characteristics in teams from the Swedish men's and women's first leagues and fr...

  20. The reach and adoption of a coach-led exercise training programme in community football

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, Caroline F; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Twomey, Dara M; Doyle, Tim L. A.; Lloyd, David G; Young, Warren; Elliott, Bruce C

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the reach and adoption of a coach-led exercise training programme for lower limb injury prevention. Design Secondary analysis of data from a group-clustered randomised controlled trial. Setting A periodised exercise training warm-up programme was delivered to players during training sessions over an 8-week preseason (weeks 1–8) and 18-week playing season. Participants 1564 community Australian football players. Main outcome measurements Reach, measured weekly, was the n...

  1. Does time off work after injury vary by jurisdiction? A comparative study of eight Australian workers' compensation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Collie, Alex; Lane, Tyler J; Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Thompson, Jason; McLeod, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the jurisdiction in which a work-related injury compensation claim is made is an independent predictor of duration of time off work following work injury, and if so, the magnitude of the effect. Setting Eight Australian state and territory workers' compensation systems, providing coverage for more than 90% of the Australian labour force. Administrative claims data from these systems were provided by government regulatory authorities for the study. Participants ...

  2. Neuromuscular adaptations in football athletes with prior history of hamstring strain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Areia, Carlos Morgado

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hamstring strain injuries (HSI) are one of the most common injuries in a wide variety of running-sports, resulting in a considerable loss of competition and training time. One of the most problematic consequences regarding HSI is the recurrence rate and its non-decrease over the past decades, despite increasing evidence. Recent studies also found several maladaptations post-HSI probably due to neuromuscular inhibition and it has been proposed that these adaptations post-injury may...

  3. Football Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢连香

    2000-01-01

    Do you know there are two kinds of football games? One is American football, the other is soccer. In China, many young people like playing soccer. It is very popular in China. But Chinese don't call it soccer, They call it football. There are eleven players in a team. And the ball is round.

  4. Review of physiotherapy records to characterise musculoskeletal injury in Australian soldiers in the 16th Air Defence Regiment

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Sellentin; Penny Sanchez

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is scant information on the types of musculoskeletal injuries, their causes and injury patterns that are sustained by Australian garrison soldiers (a permanent military post or place where troops are stationed). Rigorous physical training, manually emplacing weapon systems and daily military duties carried out by soldiers of the 16th Air Defence Regiment reflect the types of injuries observed in this study. It defines the injury patterns for trained soldiers and addresses t...

  5. Evaluation of microfracture of traumatic chondral injuries to the knee in professional football and rugby players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Christer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic chondral lesions of the knee are common in football and rugby players. The diagnosis is often confirmed by arthroscopy which can be therapeutic by performing microfracture. Prospective information about the clinical results after microfracture is still limited. Aim To evaluate the short-term outcome of microfractured lesions in professional football ad rugby players in terms of healing and ability to return to play. Methods Twenty-four consecutive professional male players with isolated full-thickness articular cartilage defects on weight-bearing surface of femoral condyles were treated with microfracture. Clinical assessment of healing was done at three, six, 12 and at 18 months by using modified Cincinnati subjective and objective functional scoring. All 24 subjects were periodically scanned by 3-Tesla MRI on the day of the clinical evaluations and scored by the Henderson MRI classification for cartilage healing. A second look arthroscopy was carried out in 10 players five to seven months after surgery to evaluate lesion healing by using ICRS scoring system. This was done due to presence of discrepancy between a "normal" MRI and persistent clinical symptoms. Results This study showed that 83.3% of players' resume full training between five to seven months (mean: 6.2 after microfracture of full-thickness chondral lesions of weight-bearing surface of the knee. Function and MRI knee scores of the 24 subjects gradually improved over 18 months, and showed good correlation in assessing healing after microfracture at six, 12 and 18 months (r2 = 0.993, 0.986 and 0.993, respectively however, the second look arthroscopy score proved to have stronger strength of association with function score than MRI score. Conclusion We confirmed that microfracture is a safe and effective procedure in treating isolated traumatic chondral lesions of the load-bearing areas of the knee. Healing as defined by subjective symptoms and evaluated

  6. A congested football calendar and the wellbeing of players : The correlation between exposure to match play for football players in European clubs during the months prior to the World Cup 2002 and the injuries and performance of these players during the World Cup

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrand, Jan; Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To investigate the correlation between exposure to match play for football players in European clubs during the months prior to the World Cup 2002 and the injuries and performance of these players during the World Cup. Methods: The team doctors at eleven of the best football clubs in Europe prospectively recorded player’s exposure and injuries during the 2001-2002 season (July 2001-May 2002). Sixty-five  players  participated in the World Cup in Korea/Japan (June 2002). D...

  7. Knee and ankle injuries from playing football; Knie- und Sprunggelenkverletzungen beim Fussballspiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G. [Roentgeninstitut am Schillerpark, Linz (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    Soccer is the most common sport activity worldwide. Over the last two decades the increase in soccer players has mainly been due to increased interest by females. In general, soccer is a relatively safe sport activity, especially if minor injuries resulting in short periods of absence from playing or training are neglected. However, due to the high number of soccer players severe injuries are also frequent. These are a problem not only for the injured player and the team but may also become problematic for the socio-economic system. In up to 80-90% structures of the lower extremities are injured. For sufficient radiological diagnosis knowledge of the biomechanics of the soccer game and some details about the history of the injury may be of help. To prevent soccer injuries or keep the degree of injury low, special programs had been developed. (orig.) [German] Fussball ist die weltweit am meisten verbreitete Sportart. Der Zuwachs an Fussballspieler(innen) in den letzten beiden Jahrzehnten wird jedoch hauptsaechlich auf das verstaerkte Interesse an weiblichen Spielern zurueckgefuehrt. Das Fussballspiel gilt grundsaetzlich, insbesondere wenn man geringfuegige Verletzungen, die keine therapeutischen Massnahmen notwendig machen, sondern lediglich eine kurzfristige Trainings- oder Spielpause bedingen, als eine relativ sichere Sportart. Auf Grund der Vielzahl an SpielerInnen kommt es allerdings doch zu einer betraechtlichen Anzahl durchaus sehr schwerer Verletzungen. Diese Tatsache stellt ein Problem fuer Spieler und Team dar und mag moeglicherweise auch fuer das soziooekonomische System problematisch werden. Von Verletzungen sind v. a. auf Grund der Natur des Spieles die unteren Extremitaeten betroffen. Zur Durchfuehrung einer suffizienten radiologischen Diagnostik sind Kenntnisse der moeglichen Verletzungsmechanismen und eine Anamneseerhebung von nicht zu unterschaetzendem Wert. Um jedoch derartige Laesionen zu vermeiden bzw. gering zu halten, wurde ueber die Jahre

  8. Morel-Lavallée Lesion: A Case of an American Football Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Yogesh; Hooda, Kusum; Lo, Lawrence; Karol, Ian

    2015-09-01

    Morel-Lavallée Lesion (MLL) is a posttraumatic, closed degloving injury where the skin and superficial fascia get separated from deep fascia (fascialata) in the trochanteric region and upper thigh, hence creating a potential space. Similar lesions at other locations (e.g., abdominal wall and lumbar regions) have been described as Morel-Lavallée effusion, hematoma, or extravasation. Injury to an area with rich vascular and lymphatic supply leads to filling of this space with blood, lymph, fat, and necrotic debris. MLL usually presents as painful fluctuant swelling in the anterolateral portion o fthe upper thigh. Many of these maybe missed at initial evaluation and present weeks to months after the initial trauma. PMID:26506679

  9. Changes in the incidence and outcome for early acute kidney injury in a cohort of Australian intensive care units

    OpenAIRE

    Bagshaw, Sean M.; George, Carol; Bellomo, Rinaldo; ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction There is limited information on whether the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients has changed over time and there is controversy on whether its outcome has improved. Methods We interrogated the Australian New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database to obtain data on all adult admissions to 20 Australian intensive care units (ICUs) for ≥ 24 hours from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2005. Trends in incidence and mortality for ICU admissions ...

  10. Health organizations in football clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Handziski, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Accordingly with the chellenges of modern football game from one side, and the necessity for the prevention of illnesses and injuries on other side; the importance of appropriate health care and its organization is an imperative. Although FIFA and UEFA provide continuous education and actions in these directions, especially in the prevention of suddendeath in international football competitions andin applying anti-doping rules, health care and health organization in a lot of national level fo...

  11. Metabolic changes in concussed American football players during the acute and chronic post-injury phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellemberg Dave

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite negative neuroimaging findings many athletes display neurophysiological alterations and post-concussion symptoms that may be attributable to neurometabolic alterations. Methods The present study investigated the effects of sports concussion on brain metabolism using 1H-MR Spectroscopy by comparing a group of 10 non-concussed athletes with a group of 10 concussed athletes of the same age (mean: 22.5 years and education (mean: 16 years within both the acute and chronic post-injury phases. All athletes were scanned 1-6 days post-concussion and again 6-months later in a 3T Siemens MRI. Results Concussed athletes demonstrated neurometabolic impairment in prefrontal and motor (M1 cortices in the acute phase where NAA:Cr levels remained depressed relative to controls. There was some recovery observed in the chronic phase where Glu:Cr levels returned to those of control athletes; however, there was a pathological increase of m-I:Cr levels in M1 that was only present in the chronic phase. Conclusions These results confirm cortical neurometabolic changes in the acute post-concussion phase as well as recovery and continued metabolic abnormalities in the chronic phase. The results indicate that complex pathophysiological processes differ depending on the post-injury phase and the neurometabolite in question.

  12. Brain damage in former association football players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three former football players from the National Football Team of Norway were examined by cerebral computer tomography (CT). The CT studies, evaluated for brain atrophy, visually and by linear measurements compared two different normal materials. One third of the players were found to have central cerebral atrophy. It is concluded that the atrophy probably was caused by repeated small head injuries during the football play, mainly in connection with heading the ball. (orig.)

  13. Reliability of an instrument to determine lower limb comfort in professional football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kinchington

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Kinchington1, Kevin Ball1, Geraldine Naughton21School of Human Movement, Recreation and Performance, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia; 2The Centre of Physical Activity Across the Lifespan (COPAAL, Australian Catholic University, Victoria, AustraliaAims and Objectives: This study extends previous work in the field of injury awareness using a novel lower limb comfort index (LLCI, which was developed to assess comfort in professional football. Participants rated comfort for designated anatomical segments of the lower limb utilizing a seven point Likert scale. The aims of the study were (i to assess the reliability of the LLCI in a competitive football environment (Australian Rules and Rugby League, and (ii to assess whether LLCI measurements were responsive to changes in lower limb comfort over time.Methods and Results: The reliability of the LLCI was observed in two professional football environments: Training Week (mean difference 0.1 point, intra-class correlation coefficient, ICC 0.99 for n = 41 participants; and Match Day (mean difference 0.2 points, ICC 0.97 for n = 22 players. Measurements of lower limb comfort were responsive to changes in comfort over time. Within-player differences were not significant for periods 0–8 hrs (P > 0.05 but, generally, significant for time periods 0–24 hrs (P < 0.05, and significant between 24–96 hrs (P < 0.01. The results indicate that the LLCI was reliable when tested for repeated measures and indicated how the index measures lower limb comfort changes over time.Conclusion: This study shows that the use of a lower limb comfort index, when used in a competitive football environment, is both reliable and responsive to change during both a training week and under match day conditions.Keywords: lower limb comfort, musculoskeletal, football, injury

  14. A new injury prevention programme for children's football--FIFA 11+ Kids--can improve motor performance: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, R; Donath, L; Bizzini, M; Faude, O

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of a newly developed injury prevention programme for children's football ("FIFA 11+ Kids") on motor performance in 7-12-year-old children. We stratified 12 football teams (under-9/-11/-13 age categories) into intervention (INT, N = 56 players) and control groups (CON, N = 67). INT conducted the 15-min warm-up programme "FIFA 11+ Kids" twice a week for 10 weeks. CON followed a standard warm-up (sham treatment). Pre- and post-tests were conducted using: single leg stance; Y-balance test; drop and countermovement jump; standing long jump; 20-m sprint; agility run; slalom dribble; and wall volley test. We used magnitude-based inferences and linear mixed-effects models to analyse performance test results. We observed likely beneficial effects favouring INT in Y-balance (right leg; +3.2%; standardised mean difference (SMD) = 0.34; P = 0.58) and agility run (+3.6%; SMD = 0.45; P = 0.008). Possibly beneficial effects were found in Y-balance, drop jump reactive strength index, drop jump height, countermovement jump, standing long jump, slalom dribble and wall volley test. At least possibly beneficial improvements in favour of "FIFA 11+ Kids" were observed in nearly all parameters. Most effects were small, but slight improvements in motor performance may potentially contribute to a reduction of injury risk. PMID:26508531

  15. Review of physiotherapy records to characterise musculoskeletal injury in Australian soldiers in the 16th Air Defence Regiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Sellentin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is scant information on the types of musculoskeletal injuries, their causes and injury patterns that are sustained by Australian garrison soldiers (a permanent military post or place where troops are stationed. Rigorous physical training, manually emplacing weapon systems and daily military duties carried out by soldiers of the 16th Air Defence Regiment reflect the types of injuries observed in this study. It defines the injury patterns for trained soldiers and addresses those aspects of injury and mechanism of injury, forming the basis for further research targetted at injury prevention. Purpose: To identify the predominant musculoskeletal injuries sustained by soldiers of the 16th Air Defence Regiment and to explore the relationship between the type of injury and subunit as well as the relationship between type of injury and cause. This is important so that remedial measures can be engaged in an attempt to reduce the incidence of musculoskeletal injury to Australian soldiers, to maintain the regimental fighting strength and deployable status and to reduce the financial burden of rehabilitation and compensation borne by the Australian Defence Force and the Federal Government. Materials and Methods: All patients were trained serving soldiers of the 16th Air Defence Regiment and were referred by the Medical Officer for physiotherapy treatment. On conclusion of a course of treatment, a physiotherapy patient discharge summary (PM 528 was written and it is from these summaries that the demographic data for this study was extracted, which included the type of musculoskeletal injury (diagnosis, cause of that injury and the subunit that the soldier belonged to in the 16th Air Defence Regiment during the years 2008 to 2010. Tests of significance based on the chi-square test statistic were carried out at the 0.05 significance level using Minitab 16 statistical software. When the chi-square test of independence was significant, then the

  16. 足球教学中的运动损伤原因与预防%On the Reason & Prevention of Injury in the Football Teaching Sport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张虎

    2000-01-01

    The injury in football game is a more question in ball games. Besides usual abrasion and contusion,there are still serious injuries. So it is very important how to prevent and reduce the injuries of sport into full playin the course of matches The paper makes a study of and analyse the reason caused by those injuries mentionedabove in order to reduce injuries of sport into lowest play in the course of the teaching, training and matches offootball sport.%足球运动的损伤是球类运动中较多的.除一般常见的擦伤和挫伤外,还有严重的损伤。因此,如何最大限度地预防和减少在教学训练、比赛过程中运动损伤的预防进行探讨,使运动损伤在足球运动的教学、训练和比赛中减少到最低程度.

  17. Spanish Football

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The authors analyze the financial situation of the Spanish football industry. They first argue that a relevant analysis of the industry's financial results relies on a careful description of how historical and cultural factors have influenced its organization. Moreover, they stress the important relationship between the industry and television. The authors suggest that the situation of the Spanish football industry suffers from some structural weaknesses in its accounts. However, the situatio...

  18. 我国优秀青少年女子足球运动员运动损伤调查研究%The Research on Sports Injuries of Excellent Adolescent Women Football Players in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶澜; 李增明; 杜晓宁; 刘永敬

    2011-01-01

    While the national adolescent women footba21 team was on spring training in 2010, this study conducted an investiga-tion on the sport injuries in a sample of 130 excellent football women players from 12 women football teams with the methods of questionnaire survey and mathematical statistics. The result indicates that the occurrence rate of adolescent women football palyers' sports injuries is 132.8%, in which the acute injury is 50. 8% and the chronic injury is 49.2%. The most common injuries occurred in knee, ankle and waist. The occurrence rate is 41%, 34. 4% and 19. 7% respectively. The intensive research and analyses to the cause, the injury course, injury type, and remedy were conducted. According to the survey results several suggestions to prevent sports injuries were proposed.%运用问卷调查法和数理统计法,对参加2010年春训的全国12支青少年女子足球队130名优秀运动员进行运动损伤调查。结果表明:青少年女子足球运动损伤发生率为132.8%,其中急性损伤占50.8%,慢性损伤占49.2%。损伤中膝关节、踝关节和腰部最为多见,其发生率分别为41%、34.4%和19.7%。对其病因、病程、损伤种类及治疗方法等进行了较为详细的调查分析,根据损伤调查结果提出了防治运动损伤的建议。

  19. FUNCTIONAL PROGRESSION AND RETURN TO SPORT CRITERIA FOR A HIGH SCHOOL FOOTBALL PLAYER FOLLOWING SURGERY FOR A LISFRANC INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Beauchamp, Chad

    2013-01-01

    Lisfranc injuries are a challenging diagnosis for the sports physical therapist because of the lack of data on how to rehabilitate them properly. To date, the available rehabilitation literature has focused on the mechanism of injury and the conservative management of this injury. Furthermore, there is a lack of consensus on the appropriate testing and return to play criteria for an athlete recovering from this perplexing injury. This case describes a high school athlete whose primary sport w...

  20. How to Rescue American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, George D; Metzner, David

    2016-01-01

    Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study. PMID:27284499

  1. Stress fractures in elite male football players

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrand, Jan; Torstveit, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the incidence, type and distribution of stress fractures in professional male football players. Fifty-four football teams, comprising 2379 players, were followed prospectively for 189 team seasons during the years 2001–2009. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries. The first team squads of 24 clubs selected by UEFA as belonging to the 50 best European teams, 15 teams of the Swedish Super League and 15 teams playing their h...

  2. 无锡市中学足球教学中运动损伤的调查与分析%Survey and Analysis of Sports Injuries in Middle School Football Teaching in Wuxi City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔毳

    2011-01-01

    文章采用问卷调查、访谈等研究方法,对无锡市区6所普通中学学生在足球教学中的损伤发生率,损伤分布特点,损伤发生程度,损伤多发季节,损伤的年级分布以及损因进行了调研分析。对中学生足球教学损伤规律进行调查、分析研究,有针对性地提出有效的预防和改善措施。%This paper using questionnaires,interviews and other research methods,for 6 general secondary schools teaching football injury incidence in Wuxi,injury distribution,extent of injury,injury-prone season,injury and loss due to the distribution of grades for the research and analysis.Damage on the football teaching law students to investigate,analysis,targeted to make effective prevention and improvement measures.

  3. Survey of High School Football Team Strength and Conditioning Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Finamore, Leonard V.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the level of preseason conditioning and health maintenance for high school football players in Massachusetts. In July 1988, data were obtained through a survey of high school football coaches regarding players' conditioning programs and injury rates. A total of 286 surveys were distributed to public, private, and parochial schools that have interscholastic football programs. Of these, 182 correctly completed surveys were collected for a 64% return rate. Although many high ...

  4. Football in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter Mindegaard

    A brief story of Danish football has been attempted, describing new patterns of time and location. The examples that have been chosen aim to show that football, as body culture, must be understood in connection with societal changes. Yet what do we learn by analysing these tendencies? Football...... of European sports culture. Such writing reduces football to a different concept: "soccer", that is, a hierarchical and competitive sport. This soccer paradigm does not recognise the diversity and pluralism of football as it exists today and as it has always existed. Football is a multiplicity of...... configurations, including not just elite and professional soccer, but also a game of the people, "grassroots football"....

  5. The correlation between the imaging characteristics of hamstring injury and time required before returning to sports: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports. PMID:27419106

  6. The polygenic profile of Russian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Emiliya S; Borisova, Alyona V; Mustafina, Leysan J; Arkhipova, Alina A; Gabbasov, Rashid T; Druzhevskaya, Anastasiya M; Astratenkova, Irina V; Ahmetov, Ildus I

    2014-01-01

    Research concerned with predictors of talent in football has highlighted a number of potentially important and partially inherited measures such as body size, anaerobic power, aerobic capacity, agility, psychological profile, game intelligence and susceptibility to injuries. Genotyping for performance-associated DNA polymorphisms at an early age could be useful in predicting later success in football. The aim of the study was to investigate individually and in combination the association of common gene polymorphisms with football player's status. A total of 246 Russian football players and 872 controls were genotyped for 8 gene polymorphisms, which were previously reported to be associated with athlete status. Four alleles (ACE D, ACTN3 Arg577, PPARA rs4253778 C and UCP2 55Val) were first identified, showing discrete associations with football player's status. Next, we determined the total genotype score (TGS, from the accumulated combination of the 4 polymorphisms, with a maximum value of 100 for the theoretically optimal polygenic score) in athletes and controls. The mean TGS was significantly higher in football players (52.0 (17.6) vs. 41.3 (15.5); P < 0.0001) than in controls. These data suggest that the likelihood of becoming a football player depends on the carriage of a high number of "favourable" gene variants. PMID:24784145

  7. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M;

    2008-01-01

    ) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football...... recommended. We suggest that self-reported Tegner Activity Scale scores should be adjusted for age, gender and level of competition. In amateur football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender....

  8. High adherence to a neuromuscular injury prevention programme (FIFA 11+) improves functional balance and reduces injury risk in Canadian youth female football players: A cluster randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, Kathrin; Emery, Carolyn; Romiti, Maria; Kang, Jian; Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri; Finch, Caroline; Meeuwisse, Willem

    2013-01-01

    A protective effect on injury risk in youth sports through neuromuscular warm-up training routines has consistently been demonstrated. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the quantity and quality of coach-led injury prevention programmes and its impact on the physical performance of players. The aim of this cluster-randomised controlled trial was to assess whether different delivery methods of an injury prevention programme (FIFA 11+) to coaches could improve player performan...

  9. Implementation of the FIFA 11+ football warm up program: How to approach and convince the Football associations to invest in prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Bizzini, Mario; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, injury prevention has received a lot of attention in sports medicine, and recently international sports-governing bodies, such as the International Olympic Committee, declared the protection of the athletes’ health as one of their major objectives. In 1994, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) established its Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) with the aim ‘to prevent football injuries and to promote football as a health-enhancing leisu...

  10. Football Fitness - a new version of football?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila Susanne

    2014-01-01

    organised as small-sided games is highly beneficial for enhancing overall fitness. In addition, studies indicate that team sports such as football may have an advantage over individual sports when it comes to personal development and the development of social capital. The aim of this paper is to explore a...... new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF), with a specific focus on organisational issues. In doing so, we would like to contribute to the discussion of how to organise sports as a means for promoting health within sporting organisations. The theoretical framework is...... Danish context. Key words: Football Fitness, Health, Sports clubs, Sports Organisations, Path dependency...

  11. Injury rate,mechanism,and risk factors of hamstring strain injuries in sports:A review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui; Liu; William; E.Garrett; Claude; T.Moorman; Bing; Yu

    2012-01-01

    <正>Hamstring strains are one of most common sports injuries.The purpose of this literature review is to summarize studies on hamstring strain injury rate,mechanism,and risk factors in the last several decades with a focus on the prevention and rehabilitation of this injury.Hamstring injury commonly occurs in sporting events in which high speed sprinting and kicking are frequently performed,such as Australian football. English rugby,American football,and soccer.Basic science studies have demonstrated that a muscle strain injury occurs due to excessive strain in eccentric contraction instead of force,and that elongation speed and duration of activation before eccentric contraction affect the severity of the injury.Hamstring strain injury is likely to occur during the late swing phase and late stance phase of sprint running.Shortened optimum muscle length,lack of muscle flexibility,strength imbalance,insufficient warm-up,fatigue,lower back injury,poor lumbar posture,and increased muscle neural tension have been identified as modifiable risk factors while muscle compositions,age,race,and previous injuries are non-modifiable risk factors.The theoretical basis of some of these risk factors,however,is lacking,and the results of clinical studies on these risk factors are inconsistent.Future studies are needed to establish the cause-and-effect relationships between those proposed risk factors and the injury.

  12. 中国女子足球运动员运动损伤规律及防治的初步研究%The Prevention and Treatment of Injuries in Chinese Female Football Players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国川; 欧阳孝

    2001-01-01

    1997年春训时,对国家队等8支女子足球队共175名运动员进行了运动损伤调查及病因分析,结果显示:女子足球运动损伤发生率为235.4%,其中急性损伤占41.8%,慢性损伤占58.2%。发病率列前6位的运动损伤依次为踝关节扭伤、膝关节韧带损伤、大腿后肌群拉伤、颈椎劳损、踝部骨关节病、腰肌劳损。损伤原因为:训练水平不足、训练缺乏科学性、人为因素、客观原因。针对病因,我们以广东队等4队93名运动员作为防治组(陕西队等3队58人作为自然对照组),采取了综合防治措施。1998年春训时调查结果显示:防治组运动损伤发生率为105.4%,而对照组运动损伤发生率为229.3%,二者有显著性差异(P<0.05),表明在目前条件下,采取本文综合性防治措施是行之有效的。%For the purpose of preventing and treating the injuries in female football players, we investigated the incidence and the types of injuries, and analyzed the causes that lead to the injuries in 175 players from 8 female football teams. The results were as follows: (1) The incidence of injuries was 235.4 %, including 41.8 % of acute and 58.2 % of chronic injuries. (2) The main injures included contusion (46.5 %), sprain (22.8 %), muscle torsion (11.5 %), and abrasion (10.9 %). (3) The injuries usually occurred in ankle (22%), knee (14.8 %), thigh (14 %), head and neck (9.5 %), leg (8.5 %), foot (7.4 %), lumbar (6.6 %). (4) The major causes of injuries included: inadequate training (33.3 %), disobeying training principles (25.2 %), man-made factors (24.2 %),and others (17.5 %). In accordance with the causes, 93 players from Guangdong, Henan, Shandong, Bayi female football teams in 1997 were taken as the treatment group with various prevention and treatment measures, while 58 players from Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi female football teams were taken as the control group. The

  13. The language of football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard

    2014-01-01

    video analysis the World Cup nations Brazil, Netherlands, Italy and England are analysed to illustrate different dialects within football. Danesi, M. (2003). Second Language Teaching: A View From the Right Side of the Brain. Berlin: Springer Schein, E. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership. San......The language of football: A cultural analysis of selected World Cup nations. This essay describes how actions on the football field relate to the nations’ different cultural understanding of football and how these actions become spoken dialects within a language of football. Saussure reasoned...... language to have two components: a language system and language users (Danesi, 2003). Consequently, football can be characterized as a language containing a system with specific rules of the game and users with actual choices and actions within the game. All football players can be considered language...

  14. The language of football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard

    2014-01-01

    analysis the World Cup nations Brazil, Netherlands, Italy and England are analysed to illustrate different dialects within football. Danesi, M. (2003). Second Language Teaching: A View From the Right Side of the Brain. Berlin: Springer Schein, E. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco......The language of football: A cultural analysis of selected World Cup nations. This essay describes how actions on the football field relate to the nations’ different cultural understanding of football and how these actions become spoken dialects within a language of football. Saussure reasoned...... language to have two components: a language system and language users (Danesi, 2003). Consequently, football can be characterized as a language containing a system with specific rules of the game and users with actual choices and actions within the game. All football players can be considered language...

  15. Behavioral Intervention for Teaching Tackling Skills to High School Football Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, John V.; Luiselli, James K.; Reed, Derek D.

    2010-01-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, football-related injuries accounted for 1,060,823 emergency room visits to U.S. hospitals (Mello, Myers, Christian, Palmisciano, & Linakis, 2009). Among high school football athletes, statistics reveal that for the period of 1984 to 1999, there were 63 injuries resulting in permanent disability (Mueller, 2001). Additional…

  16. Epidemiological study on professional football injuries during the 2011 Copa America, Argentina Estudo epidemiológico das lesões no futebol profissional durante a Copa América de 2011, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pedrinelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Develop an epidemiological study of injuries occurred among male professional football players during the Copa America 2011, held in Argentina. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of injuries sustained during the 43rd edition of the Copa America football in Argentina, in 2011. The lesions were evaluated by the medical department of the selections and reported to the CONMEBOL. The data were compiled and reported in accordance with rules established by the FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC in 2005. RESULTS: There was a higher prevalence of lesions in the lower limbs. Thighs and knees were the most affected segments. The most frequent diagnoses were muscle injuries. The injuries were mostly minor degrees of severity and there was little difference in the prevalence of lesions according to the stages of the match, with slight predominance in the final 15 minutes. The incidence of lesions per 1,000 game hours was similar to the average found in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained allowed us to outline a profile of the prevalence, distribution per body segment, minute in which occurred and severity of injuries in professional football players of participating teams in the Copa America 2011 in Argentina. The extreme rigor of referees may be partly attributed to the highly competitive nature of international tournaments. However, this results cannot be considered definitive because of the need to be compared to other epidemiological studies with same design using similar concepts and criteria. OBJETIVO: Desenvolver estudo epidemiológico sobre as lesões ocorridas entre os jogadores profissionais de futebol masculino durante a Copa América de 2011, na Argentina. MÉTODOS: Fez-se estudo retrospectivo das lesões ocorridas durante a 43ª edição da Copa América de Futebol na Argentina, em 2011. As lesões foram avaliadas pelo departamento médico das seleções e reportadas à Conmebol. Os dados foram

  17. Chondral Rib Fractures in Professional American Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Timothy R.; Deimel, Jay F.; Ferguson, Jeff; Beamer, Brandon S.; Beaulieu, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although a recognized and discussed injury, chondral rib fractures in professional American football have not been previously reported in the literature. There currently exists no consensus on how to identify and treat these injuries or the expected return to play for the athlete. Purpose: To present 2 cases of chondral rib injuries in the National Football League (NFL) and discuss the current practice patterns for management of these injuries among the NFL team physicians. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Two cases of NFL players with chondral rib injuries are presented. A survey regarding work-up and treatment of these injuries was completed by team physicians at the 2014 NFL Combine. Our experience in identifying and treating these injuries is presented in conjunction with a survey of NFL team physicians’ experiences. Results: Two cases of rib chondral injuries were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and treated with rest and protective splinting. Return to play was 2 to 4 weeks. NFL Combine survey results show that NFL team physicians see a mean of 4 costal cartilage injuries per 5-year period, or approximately 1 case per year per team. Seventy percent of team physicians use CT scanning and 43% use magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of these injuries. An anesthetic block is used acutely in 57% and only electively in subsequent games by 39%. Conclusion: A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose chondral rib injuries in American football. CT scan is most commonly used to confirm diagnosis. Return to play can take up to 2 to 4 weeks with a protective device, although anesthetic blocks can be used to potentially expedite return. Clinical Relevance: Chondral rib injuries are common among NFL football players, while there is no literature to support proper diagnosis and treatment of these injuries or expected duration of recovery. These injuries are likely common in other contact sports and levels of

  18. Preventive effect of eccentric training on acute hamstring injuries in men's soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann;

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of acute hamstring injuries is high in several sports, including the different forms of football.......The incidence of acute hamstring injuries is high in several sports, including the different forms of football....

  19. The Effectiveness of Shin Guards Used by Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar Tatar; Nusret Ramazanoglu; Asiye Filiz Camliguney; Evrim Karadag Saygi; Hasan Birol Cotuk

    2013-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world’s governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the follo...

  20. The Anthropology of Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropological interest in football has been on the rise since the beginning of the century, which can be attested to by the rising number of studies, papers, collective publications and scientific conferences on the topic. Seeing as anthropology is no longer the study of the culturally bizarre and exotic, it is clear that the first anthropological studies of football as a cultural phenomenon are linked to those environments in which football figures as an important cultural trait, which is the reason why this sub discipline thrived in Europe or in places where football was treated as an esoteric phenomenon and where there as a longer tradition of anthropological study of native cultures. From the first analogies between the game of football and its rules with rituals of so called primitive cultures, the anthropological study of football developed into a relatively encompassing approach which includes interest in all the actors who establish the game as a public, cultural good – players, experts, supporters, journalists, organizers etc. – as well as its various cultural manifestations, in the form of a tool for the construction of identity and cultural symbol, a leisure activity with ties to economy, to a specific apotheosis of the concepts of globalization and commodification of culture. Anthropological studies of football are present in Serbia as well, and their subject matter corresponds to the role and position held by football, as a cultural artefact, in Serbian society and other countries in the region.

  1. Return to Play After Shoulder Stabilization in National Football League Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    White, Matthew J.; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Aune, Kyle; Andrews, James R.; Dugas, Jeffrey R.; Cain, E. Lyle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Shoulder instability is a common and limiting injury to football players. The return to play (RTP) percentage and factors affecting RTP after shoulder stabilization in National Football League (NFL) players are not defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of return to professional football play in the NFL after shoulder stabilization and to determine what factors may affect RTP in these athletes. Methods: Sixty NFL players who had undergone shoulder stabilizati...

  2. VIth World Congress on Science and Football, Book of Abstracts, January 16-20, 2007, Antalya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Uniting Edson Arantes do Nascimento's (Pele's "the beautiful game" with David Beckham's "bending the ball" (talented players apply the laws of physics to the ball is the major motivation of the 6th.World Congress on Science and Football. From Chinese tsu chu to today's modern football games, science was and will be an important part of this excellent sport (http://www7.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0606/feature1/index.html.The congress encourages all scientific aspects of football including soccer (1848 including Australian rules (1866, Rugby (1845, American football (1876, Gaelic football (1884 and Canadian football (1882. Issues such as Biomechanics, Nutrition, Psychology, Academies, Talent identification, Medical aspects, Injuries, Special Population, Coaching, Physiology, Testing, Referee, Fair play, Hooliganism, Management, Economics and Skill learning will be discussed during this congress.Research is as significant as the coach, team and player in competition. Any player can aspire to become a superstar. Encouraging all participants and steak holders will take them to new places where no one has ever dreamt of. Are we close to these dreams? The answer to this question depends on what and how much we sacrifice for science and education. From science and education information should flow into the field. The decisive elements of the game are the referees, trainers, players and supporters. Their approach creates the "climate". They can end or start a war. Football is the sport that leads. It's no miracle but it promotes passion and love. If you are committed, you may even change the world. Football encompasses millions of players, coaches, scientists, administrators, physical education teachers, politicians and inevitably parents of young players. This "simple" game that requires a ball and a goal is not only the game of heroes but also of those who bear a childish enthusiasm that makes dreams come true. Skills include heading, tapping, passing

  3. Role of the team physiotherapist in rugby union football.

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, D A

    1990-01-01

    The team physiotherapist plays an important role in rugby union football. Traditionally, this is seen as injury care and rehabilitation, but increasingly the role focuses on injury prevention. The author discusses these aspects with reference to statistics from recent Scottish international tours.

  4. Revision, uptake and coding issues related to the open access Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS versions 8, 9 and 10.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orchard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available John Orchard1, Katherine Rae1, John Brooks2, Martin Hägglund3, Lluis Til4, David Wales5, Tim Wood61Sports Medicine at Sydney University, Sydney NSW Australia; 2Rugby Football Union, Twickenham, England, UK; 3Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4FC Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 5Arsenal FC, Highbury, England, UK; 6Tennis Australia, Melbourne, Vic, AustraliaAbstract: The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS is one of the world’s most commonly used systems for coding injury diagnoses in sports injury surveillance systems. Its major strengths are that it has wide usage, has codes specific to sports medicine and that it is free to use. Literature searches and stakeholder consultations were made to assess the uptake of OSICS and to develop new versions. OSICS was commonly used in the sports of football (soccer, Australian football, rugby union, cricket and tennis. It is referenced in international papers in three sports and used in four commercially available computerised injury management systems. Suggested injury categories for the major sports are presented. New versions OSICS 9 (three digit codes and OSICS 10.1 (four digit codes are presented. OSICS is a potentially helpful component of a comprehensive sports injury surveillance system, but many other components are required. Choices made in developing these components should ideally be agreed upon by groups of researchers in consensus statements.Keywords: sports injury classification, epidemiology, surveillance, coding

  5. Tibial shaft fractures in football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisley Susan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Football is officially the most popular sport in the world. In the UK, 10% of the adult population play football at least once a year. Despite this, there are few papers in the literature on tibial diaphyseal fractures in this sporting group. In addition, conflicting views on the nature of this injury exist. The purpose of this paper is to compare our experience of tibial shaft football fractures with the little available literature and identify any similarities and differences. Methods and Results A retrospective study of all tibial football fractures that presented to a teaching hospital was undertaken over a 5 year period from 1997 to 2001. There were 244 tibial fractures treated. 24 (9.8% of these were football related. All patients were male with a mean age of 23 years (range 15 to 29 and shin guards were worn in 95.8% of cases. 11/24 (45.8% were treated conservatively, 11/24 (45.8% by Grosse Kemp intramedullary nail and 2/24 (8.3% with plating. A difference in union times was noted, conservative 19 weeks compared to operative group 23.9 weeks (p Conclusion Our series compared similarly with the few reports available in the literature. However, a striking finding noted by the authors was a drop in the incidence of tibial shaft football fractures. It is likely that this is a reflection of recent compulsory FIFA regulations on shinguards as well as improvements in the design over the past decade since its introduction.

  6. Incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in men's amateur rugby union: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a paucity of epidemiological data on neck injury in amateur rugby union populations. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in Australian men's amateur rugby union. Methods Data was collected from a cohort of 262 participants from two Australian amateur men's rugby union clubs via a prospective cohort study design. A modified version of the Rugby Union Injury Report Form for Games and Training was used by the clubs physiotherapist or chiropractor in data collection. Results The participants sustained 90 (eight recurrent neck injuries. Exposure time was calculated at 31143.8 hours of play (12863.8 hours of match time and 18280 hours of training. Incidence of neck injury was 2.9 injuries/1000 player-hours (95%CI: 2.3, 3.6. As a consequence 69.3% neck injuries were minor, 17% mild, 6.8% moderate and 6.8% severe. Neck compression was the most frequent aetiology and was weakly associated with severity. Cervical facet injury was the most frequent neck injury type. Conclusions This is the first prospective cohort study in an amateur men's rugby union population since the inception of professionalism that presents injury rate, severity, aetiology and injury type data for neck injury. Current epidemiological data should be sought when evaluating the risks associated with rugby union football.

  7. The language of football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard

    2016-01-01

    Italian national team football cultures were examined. The basis of the analysis was both document and video analysis. The documents were mostly research studies and popular books on the national football cultures, while the video analysis included all matches including Italy and Brazil from the World Cup...... in 2010 and 2014. The cultural analysis showed some coherence between the national football cultures and the national teams, which suggested a national dialect with the language of the game. Each national dialect seemed to be based on different basic assumptions and to some extent specific symbolic...

  8. Women’s football migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    What is intriguing about women’s football as a cultural phenomenon is that unlike men’s football the finances and media interest for the game are sparse. Nevertheless we have found that migration of female football players is growing steadily and women’s football is becoming global in nature. The...... question is then what drives this globalization process? According to our study of women’s football migration into Scandinavia, one of the centers of women’s football, transnational networks play a crucial role in mobilizing global migratory moves. Using the concept of friends-of-friends networks from Bale...

  9. The Effectiveness of Prophylactic Knee Bracing in American Football

    OpenAIRE

    Salata, Michael J.; Gibbs, Aimee E.; Sekiya, Jon K.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Knee injuries, particularly of the medial collateral ligament (MCL), are the most common injury sustained in American football. In 1979, Anderson et al described a knee brace that could protect uninjured knees from MCL injuries resulting from lateral impact. Since then, a number of light and free-moving bracing devices have been developed. However, the efficacy of prophylactic knee bracing remains in question. Objective: A systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic knee bracin...

  10. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives.

  11. The classification of football patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Braungart, V.; Kotschick, D.

    2006-01-01

    We prove that every spherical football (also known as a spherical soccer ball) is a branched cover, branched only in the vertices, of the standard football made up of 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons. We also give examples showing that the corresponding result is not true for footballs of higher genera. Moreover, we classify the possible pairs (k,l) for which football patterns on the sphere exist satisfying a natural generalisation of the usual incidence relation between pentagons and hexagons to...

  12. Football Fitness - a new version of football?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren; Wikman, Johan Michael; Ottesen, Laila Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF). Data are from quantitative and qualitative methods, and the theoretical framework for the analysis of the organizational form of FF is the theory of path dependency (Mahoney) and first- and second......-order change (Watzlawick et al.). Theories of Pestoff concerning differences between state, market, and the civil society and theories of voluntary associations in a Danish context (Kaspersen & Ottesen; Ibsen & Seippel) are applied. This article indicates how FF is a result of the changing landscape of sport...... and argues that it can be beneficial to target sports organizations and include the expertise of non-profit sports clubs if the goal is to raise the physical activity level of the local community and make these long lasting. But the organizations need to consider how this is to be done. FF...

  13. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives. How can Chinese football come out from

  14. Football – Feminisation – Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction......Football has long time been considered as a genuine masculine domain. However, in the current football culture, the dualism of masculinity and femaleness is in progress. More and more women consume football which is in many countries considered the most popular sport, not only in Scandinavia where....... Yet, the combination ‘women and football’ is still adhered to certain scepticism. Objective The overall objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to contribute to the body of knowledge associated with the distinct aspects of women’s football, female fandom and gender identities in European football drawing...

  15. Statistics of football dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, R. S.; Malacarne, L. C.; Anteneodo, C.

    2007-06-01

    We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by q-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.

  16. Statistics of football dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, R S; Anteneodo, C

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by $q$-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.

  17. Sideline concussion testing in high school football on Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Duenas

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The feasibility of SCT use in Guam high school football was established and our pilot study identified areas for improvement. Established definitions of concussion and RTP guidelines were lacking. Therefore, an opportunity exists through public health efforts that involve the entire community to increase concussion awareness and reduce injuries in high school sports on Guam.

  18. Implementation of the FIFA 11+ football warm up program: how to approach and convince the Football associations to invest in prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzini, Mario; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-08-01

    In the last decade, injury prevention has received a lot of attention in sports medicine, and recently international sports-governing bodies, such as the International Olympic Committee, declared the protection of the athletes' health as one of their major objectives. In 1994, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) established its Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) with the aim 'to prevent football injuries and to promote football as a health-enhancing leisure activity, improving social behaviour'. Since then, FIFA has developed and evaluated its injury-prevention programmes 'The 11' and 'FIFA 11+' have demonstrated in several scientific studies how simple exercise-based programmes can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. This paper summarises 18 years of scientific and on-field work in injury prevention by an international sports federation (FIFA), from formulating the aim to make its sport safer to the worldwide dissemination of its injury-prevention programme in amateur football. PMID:23813485

  19. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Luke W Hogarth; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line ...

  20. A Football Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭硕

    2002-01-01

    It was a Saturday morning, our school football team was going to have a match with the No. 28 Middle Schooh They were really a strong team. But we weren't afraid of them. We had many mare good players on our team, so we were stronger than ever before.

  1. What a Football Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保安; 孙鹏

    2004-01-01

    While the football fan was thrilled to be at the Super Bowl, he was disappointed with the location of his seat. Peering across the stadium through his binoculars, he spied an empty seat on the 50-yard line and made his way there.

  2. Changing the Culture: Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In this article college football coach Ricky Santo argues that in order to change the ways of the misunderstood world of racism, one needs to acknowledge the sociocultural consciousness in society today. The sociocultural consciousness is a way to understand how people think and behave which is influenced by their race/ethnicity, social class, and…

  3. CONCUSSION OCCURRENCE AND KNOWLEDGE IN ITALIAN FOOTBALL (SOCCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Broglio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate concussion history, knowledge, injury identification, and management strategies among athletes, coaches, and medical staff in Italian club level football (soccer clubs. Surveys (N=727 were distributed among Italian football clubs. Athletes' surveys were designed to evaluate athlete knowledge of concussive signs and symptoms and injury reporting. Coaches' surveys explored the understanding of concussive signs and symptoms and management practices. Medical staff surveys explored the standard of care regarding concussions. A total of 342 surveys were returned, for a 47% response rate. Descriptive analyses indicated 10% of athletes sustaining a concussion in the past year and 62% of these injuries were not reported, primarily due to the athletes not thinking the injury was serious enough. Coaches consistently identified non-concussion related symptoms (98.7%, but were unable to identify symptoms associated with concussion (38.9%. Most understood that loss of consciousness is not the sole indicator of injury (82.6%. Medical staff reported a heavy reliance on the clinical exam (92% and athlete symptom reports (92% to make the concussion diagnosis and return to play decision, with little use of neurocognitive (16.7% or balance (0.0% testing. Italian football athletes appear to report concussions at a rate similar to American football players, with a slightly higher rate of unreported injuries. Most of these athletes were aware they were concussed, but did not feel the injury was serious enough to report. Although coaches served as the primary person to whom concussions were reported, the majority of coaches were unable to accurately identify concussion related symptoms. With little use for neurocognitive and postural control assessments, the medical personnel may be missing injuries or returning athletes to play too soon. Collectively, these findings suggest that athletes, coaches, and medical personnel would

  4. Bilateral locked posterior shoulder dislocation in a footballer.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, J; Whitten, M

    1997-01-01

    Posterior dislocation of the shoulder is an uncommon injury, accounting for between 2% and 4% of all shoulder dislocations. It occurs most frequently in patients following convulsions or direct anterior force to the shoulder. It is a particularly uncommon injury in sport. This paper reports an unusual case of bilateal locked posteriorly dislocated shoulders in a previously healthy young man who fell while playing football.

  5. Who Will Save Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Like a drama unfolding in a riveting suspense novel, the quadrennial global football gala is becoming more and more compelling as the climax approaches. Billions of people are glued to the tube watching the World Cup in Germany, and Chinese football fans are following the countdown with the rest of the world. According to a poll by China Central Television, the national broadcaster, World Cup games have attracted combined viewers of at least 10 billion. For Chinese football enthusiasts, however, the joy ...

  6. Cervical stenosis in a professional rugby league football player: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoskins Wayne

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a case of C7 radiculopathy in a professional rugby league player after repeated cervical spine trauma. The report outlines the management of the patient following an acute cervical hyperflexion injury with chiropractic manipulation and soft tissue therapies. It also presents a change in approach to include distractive techniques on presentation of a neurological deficit following re-injury. The clinical outcomes, while good, were very dependent upon the athlete restricting himself from further trauma during games, which is a challenge for a professional athlete. Case presentation A 30-year old male front row Australian rugby league player presented complaining of neck pain after a hyperflexion and compressive injury during a game. Repeated trauma over a four month period resulted in radicular pain. Radiographs revealed decreased disc height at the C5-C6 and C6-C7 levels and mild calcification within the anterior longitudinal ligament at the C6-C7 level. MRI revealed a right postero-lateral disc protrusion at the C6-C7 level causing a C7 nerve root compression. Conclusion Recommendations from the available literature at the present time suggest that conservative management of cervical discogenic pain and disc protrusion, including chiropractic manipulation and ancillary therapies, can be successful in the absence of progressive neurological deficit. The current case highlights the initial successful management of a football athlete, and the later unsuccessful management. This case highlights the issues involvement in the management of a collision sport athlete with a serious neck injury.

  7. The football laboratory: policing football supporters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Spaaij

    2012-01-01

    An advanced security assemblage is now at the permanent disposal of authorities in their quest to pre-empt and manage risk at football matches. This chapter proposes the ‘football stadia-as-laboratories’ metaphor as an analytical lens through which to examine the security and risk management technol

  8. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tend to play contact sports, like football and soccer. More severe injuries happen when the outside of ... impact activities, like swimming, bike riding, or protected running. Talk to your doctor about what you can ...

  9. The Effect of Short-Time Pre-Season Intensive, Neuromuscular Training on Postural Stability on Elite Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk, Małgorzata; Łoboda, Natalia; Śmigielski, Robert; Popieluch, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Adequate neuromuscular training is proven to be of enormous importance in the prevention of injuries. It enhances the ability to use somatosensory information, which improves postural capabilities, reduces injury ratios and improves player’s sport performance. We hypothesized that a short-time (3 week) intensive neuromuscular training would significantly improve postural balance of professional football players. We also hypothesized that the non-dominant leg of football players wo...

  10. College Football Games and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Daniel I.; Schnepel, Kevin T.

    2008-01-01

    There is a great deal of anecdotal evidence that college football games can lead to aggressive and destructive behavior by fans. However, to date, no empirical study has attempted to document the magnitude of this phenomenon. We match daily data on offenses from the NIBRS to 26 Division I-A college football programs in order to estimate the…

  11. Football: Action on the Gridiron

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    On any fall weekend across the United States, football reigns as the nation's favorite sport. Thousands of high school teams, the pride of communities from coast to coast, compete under the lights on Friday nights. Saturdays feature the tradition and pageantry of college football. Sundays belong to the 32 professional teams that play in the major…

  12. Analysis and visualization of collective motion in football : Analysis of youth football using GPS and visualization of professional football

    OpenAIRE

    Rosén, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Football is one of the biggest sports in the world. Professional teams track their player's positions using GPS (Global Positioning System). This report is divided into two parts, both focusing on applying collective motion to football. % The goal of the first part was to both see if a set of cheaper GPS units could be used to analyze the collective motion of a youth football team. 15 football players did two experiments and played three versus three football matches against each other while ...

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study of Horse-Related Injuries in Veterinary and Animal Science Students at an Australian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Christopher B; Liddiard, Jessica R; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-01-01

    Specific estimates of the risk of horse-related injury (HRI) to university students enrolled in veterinary and animal sciences have not been reported. This study aimed to determine the risk of student HRI during their university education, the nature and management of such injuries. A retrospective questionnaire solicited demographic information, data on students' equine experience prior to and during their educational programs, and on HRI during their program of study. Of 260 respondents, 22 (8.5%) reported HRI (27 incidents). Including concurrent injuries the most commonly injured body parts were the foot or ankle (nine of 32 injures), the upper leg or knee (eight of 32), and hands (three of 32). Trampling and being kicked by a hind limb were each associated with 30.4% of HRI, and 13% with being bitten. Bruising (91.3% of respondents) and an open wound (17.4%) were most commonly described. No treatment occurred for 60.9% of incidents; professional medical treatment was not sought for the remainder. Most incidents (56.5%) occurred during program-related work experience placements. Although injury rates and severity were modest, a proactive approach to injury prevention and reporting is recommended for students required to handle horses as part of their education. Student accident and injury data should be monitored to ensure effective evaluation of risk-reduction initiatives. The risk and nature of university student horse-related injury (HRI) was studied. Of 260 students, 22 (8.5%) reported HRI (27 incidents). Including multiple injuries, reports described involvement of the foot or ankle (nine of 32 injures), upper leg or knee (eight of 32), and hands (three of 32). Trampling (30.4%) and being kicked (30.4%) accounted for most HRI. The injuries were usually bruising (91.3%) or an open wound (17.4%). Most (60.9%) injuries were untreated; professional medical treatment was not sought for the rest. Most incidents (56.5%) occurred during program-related off

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study of Horse-Related Injuries in Veterinary and Animal Science Students at an Australian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Riley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific estimates of the risk of horse-related injury (HRI to university students enrolled in veterinary and animal sciences have not been reported. This study aimed to determine the risk of student HRI during their university education, the nature and management of such injuries. A retrospective questionnaire solicited demographic information, data on students’ equine experience prior to and during their educational programs, and on HRI during their program of study. Of 260 respondents, 22 (8.5% reported HRI (27 incidents. Including concurrent injuries the most commonly injured body parts were the foot or ankle (nine of 32 injures, the upper leg or knee (eight of 32, and hands (three of 32. Trampling and being kicked by a hind limb were each associated with 30.4% of HRI, and 13% with being bitten. Bruising (91.3% of respondents and an open wound (17.4% were most commonly described. No treatment occurred for 60.9% of incidents; professional medical treatment was not sought for the remainder. Most incidents (56.5% occurred during program-related work experience placements. Although injury rates and severity were modest, a proactive approach to injury prevention and reporting is recommended for students required to handle horses as part of their education. Student accident and injury data should be monitored to ensure effective evaluation of risk-reduction initiatives. The risk and nature of university student horse-related injury (HRI was studied. Of 260 students, 22 (8.5% reported HRI (27 incidents. Including multiple injuries, reports described involvement of the foot or ankle (nine of 32 injures, upper leg or knee (eight of 32, and hands (three of 32. Trampling (30.4% and being kicked (30.4% accounted for most HRI. The injuries were usually bruising (91.3% or an open wound (17.4%. Most (60.9% injuries were untreated; professional medical treatment was not sought for the rest. Most incidents (56.5% occurred during program-related off

  15. Traumatic Carpal Axial Instability in a Professional Football Player: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettig, Lance; Rettig, Arthur; Cleland, Kirk

    2016-05-01

    This is a case of traumatic carpal axial instability in a professional football player. Traumatic carpal axial instability characteristically involves longitudinal separation of the ulnar or radial distal carpal row along with intermetacarpal injury. Rarely, pancarpal ligament disruption occurs, as in this case. Early diagnosis and treatment of unstable wrist injuries is important in achieving a satisfactory outcome. PMID:26502186

  16. Wireless nanosensors for monitoring concussion of football players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Harbaugh, Robert E.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2015-04-01

    Football players are more to violent impacts and injuries more than any athlete in any other sport. Concussion or mild traumatic brain injuries were one of the lesser known sports injuries until the last decade. With the advent of modern technologies in medical and engineering disciplines, people are now more aware of concussion detection and prevention. These concussions are often overlooked by football players themselves. The cumulative effect of these mild traumatic brain injuries can cause long-term residual brain dysfunctions. The principle of concussion is based the movement of the brain in the neurocranium and viscerocranium. The brain is encapsulated by the cerebrospinal fluid which acts as a protective layer for the brain. This fluid can protect the brain against minor movements, however, any rapid movements of the brain may mitigate the protective capability of the cerebrospinal fluid. In this paper, we propose a wireless health monitoring helmet that addresses the concerns of the current monitoring methods - it is non-invasive for a football player as helmet is not an additional gear, it is efficient in performance as it is equipped with EEG nanosensors and 3D accelerometer, it does not restrict the movement of the user as it wirelessly communicates to the remote monitoring station, requirement of individual monitoring stations are not required for each player as the ZigBee protocol can couple multiple transmitters with one receiver. A helmet was developed and validated according to the above mentioned parameters.

  17. Football players, asset management & the unexploited potential of enhanced player engagement in football management & marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....

  18. Football Fitness, a new concept in football clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Laila Susanne; Bennike, Søren

    2013-01-01

    received and adapted in the Danish sports organizations and associations. The Danish Football Association has launched a new concept called "Football Fitness" with a focus on the health dimension of football, both of physiological, psychological and social nature, rather than a focus on the competition...... aspect or the actual game. Currently the concept is in the implementation phase in more than 50 clubs, and is predominantly targeting inactive user groups, new to the club. A wide range of stakeholders engaged in health policy emphasize the need for knowledge about how to anchor health related...

  19. Hypoconnectivity and Hyperfrontality in Retired American Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Adam; MacDonald, Alex; Owen, Adrian M.

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has raised concerns about the long-term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive injuries in professional players of American Football. Despite this interest, the neural and psychological status of retired players remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the performances and brain activation patterns of retired National Football League players (NFL alumni) relative to controls using an fMRI-optimised neuropsychological test of executive function. Behaviourally, the NFL alumni showed only modest performance deficits on the executive task. By contrast, they showed pronounced hyperactivation and hypoconnectivity of the dorsolateral frontal and frontopolar cortices. Critically, abnormal frontal-lobe function was correlated with the number of times that NFL alumni reported having been removed from play after head injury and was evident in individual players. These results support the hypothesis that NFL alumni have a heightened probability of developing executive dysfunction and suggest that fMRI provides the most sensitive biomarker of the underlying neural abnormality.

  20. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  1. Being a Football Kid. Football as a Mediatised Play Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2016-01-01

    Media and mediatization must be seen as a prerequisite for children’s play today. Children’s fan cultures cover a wide range of topics; yet, football is a field with specific explanatory power due to its structural and cultural specificities. In this chapter, football is seen as a specific play...... practice, carried out both physically and through engagements with a diverse range of traditional and new media. The chapter draws on empirical fieldwork among Danish children aged 8 to 13, describing football kids as active users of media, active play practitioners, and active performers of identity...... projects in relation to friends and family. For these children, football as a mediatized play practice is their point of departure, forming the grounds of their everyday practices....

  2. Acute Subdural Hematoma in a High School Football Player

    OpenAIRE

    Litt, David W.

    1995-01-01

    A 16-year-old football player developed a headache following a collision during a game. When his headache persisted for 1 week, he underwent a computerized tomographic (CT) scan to determine the cause. Findings were normal and a concussion was diagnosed. Seventeen days after the injury, the athlete reported disappearance of his symptoms. Provocative testing failed to recreate symptoms. The athlete continued to deny any symptoms and was cleared for unlimited participation 30 days after the ini...

  3. Efficacy of the FIFA 11+ Warm-Up Programme in Male Youth Football: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoeye, Oluwatoyosi B A; Akinbo, Sunday R A; Tella, Bosede A; Olawale, Olajide A

    2014-05-01

    The FIFA 11+ is a structured warm-up programme specially designed to prevent injuries among football players from age 14 years and above. However, studies to prove its efficacy are generally few and it is yet to be tested in male youth footballers and among African players. The purpose of the study was to examine the efficacy of the FIFA 11+ programme in reducing the risk of injuries among male youth football players of the Lagos Junior League. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted. All the 20 teams (414 players aged 14 -19 years) in the Premier League division were block-randomised into either an intervention (INT) or a control (CON) group. The INT group performed the FIFA 11+ exercises as warm-up during training sessions and the CON group performed usual warm-up. Participating teams were prospectively followed through an entire league season of 6 months in which they were visited every week to assess injured players for time-loss injuries in both groups. The primary outcomes were any injury to the players, injuries by type of exposure and injuries specific to the lower extremities. The secondary outcomes were injuries reported by body location, aetiology, mechanism and severity. In total, 130 injuries were recorded affecting 104 (25%) of the 416 players. Team and player compliance with the INT was 60% and 74% respectively. Based on the primary outcome measures of the study, the FIFA 11+ programme significantly reduced the overall rate of injury in the INT group by 41% [RR = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.40 - 0.86; p = 0.006)] and all lower extremity injuries by 48% [RR = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.34 - 0.82; p = 0.004)]. However, the rate of injury reduction based on secondary outcomes mostly did not reach the level of statistical significance. The FIFA 11+ programme is effective in reducing the rates of injuries in male youth football players. Key pointsThe FIFA 11+ has only been tested in randomised controlled trials conducted on female youth football players; this study

  4. Proton Football European Championship 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Check out the European championship of proton football 2016 at CERN. Produced by: CERN Audiovisual Productions Service Director: Jacques Fichet Editor: Jacques Fichet Music : Burnt of Jingle Punks You can follow us on:

  5. The Birth of American Football

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程国清

    2002-01-01

    A hundred years ago, the game we now call football did not exist (存在). American football started during a game between two colleges. The teams had gotten together to play what called “football”, but each team played by different rules. One team played what we now call soccer.The other played what we now call rugby (橄榄球).

  6. Coaching the fundamentals of football

    OpenAIRE

    Ijäs, Niko

    2010-01-01

    The principle objective of this thesis is to provide material on what basic technical skills, player positions and physical demands there are when playing football and how to coach them. This thesis also provides information on how to use psychological interventions in order to improve as a player. This material is targeted for sports instructors working at the Shilin Sport Center in Taipei, Taiwan. The Shilin Sport Center does not have any form of football coaching program on offer, which is...

  7. Dietary intakes and food use of groups of elite Australian male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L M; Gollan, R A; Read, R S

    1991-12-01

    The present study conducted dietary surveys of four groups of Australian male athletes: triathletes, marathon runners, Australian Rules football players, and Olympic weightlifters. Their training diets were assessed via a 7-day food record from which mean daily intakes of energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients were estimated. The data were compared between groups as well as to recommendations in the literature for athlete nutrition. Results showed major differences between groups. The contribution of carbohydrate to total energy intake was greater for triathletes and marathon runners than for the other two groups. There was no difference between all four groups in the total amount of fat consumed, yet its contribution to total energy intake was significantly lower for triathletes and marathon runners. The football players and weightlifters consumed a similar fat:energy ratio as the typical Australian diet. Furthermore, the micronutrient density of the football players' diets was significantly lower than that of the other groups. PMID:1844570

  8. Lisfranc Joint Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa Chinn

    2009-01-01

    @@ The ankle and foot are the most common sites for athletic injuries.[1]Midfoot,or Lisfranc,injuries are the second most common foot injury and have a high in cidence in particular sports.They account for 4% of all football injuries per year,occurring frequently in linemen.[2]They are also common in equestrians,surfers,and windsurfers.[2]Lisfranc injuries are often misdiagnosed and if not treated properly can have lingering symptoms.It is estimated that Lisfranc joint injuries occur in 1 in every 55,000 persons every year.[3,4

  9. Children's rights in football: Welfare and work

    OpenAIRE

    Brackenridge, CH

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines issues of labour and play in children's football. It asks whether global capitalism and the growth of girls' and women's football might lead to greater sexual victimization among female players.

  10. SUITABILITY OF FIFA'S "THE 11" TRAINING PROGRAMME FOR YOUNG FOOTBALL PLAYERS - IMPACT ON PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Kuzmic

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of evidence regarding the use of injury prevention programmes for preadolescents participating in sport. "The 11" injury prevention programme was developed by FIFA's medical research centre (F-MARC to help reduce the risk of injury in football players aged 14 years and over. The aim of this study was to determine the suitability and effectiveness of "The 11" for younger football players. Twenty-four [12 experimental (EXP, 12 control (CON] young football players (age 10.4 ± 1.4 yr participated. The EXP group followed "The 11" training programme 5 days per week, for 6 weeks, completing all but one of the 10 exercises. Prior to, and after the intervention, both EXP and CON groups performed a battery of football-specific physical tests. Changes in performance scores within each group were compared using independent t-tests (p ? 0.05. Feedback was also gathered on the young players' perceptions of "The 11". No injuries occurred during the study in either group. Compliance to the intervention was 72%. Measures of leg power (3 step jump and counter-movement jump increased significantly (3.4 and 6.0% respectively, p < 0.05. Speed over 20 m improved by 2% (p < 0.05. Most players considered "The 11" beneficial but not enjoyable in the prescribed format. Given the observed improvements in the physical abilities and the perceived benefits of "The 11", it would appear that a modified version of the programme is appropriate and should be included in the training of young football players, for both physical development and potential injury prevention purposes, as well as to promote fair play. To further engage young football players in such a programme, some modification to "The 11" should be considered

  11. Methodological issues associated with collecting sensitive information over the telephone - experience from an Australian non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullerton Simon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collecting population data on sensitive issues such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is problematic. Case note audits or hospital/clinic based presentations only record severe cases and do not distinguish between suicidal and non-suicidal intent. Community surveys have largely been limited to school and university students, resulting in little much needed population-based data on NSSI. Collecting these data via a large scale population survey presents challenges to survey methodologists. This paper addresses the methodological issues associated with collecting this type of data via CATI. Methods An Australia-wide population survey was funded by the Australian Government to determine prevalence estimates of NSSI and associations, predictors, relationships to suicide attempts and suicide ideation, and outcomes. Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI on a random sample of the Australian population aged 10+ years of age from randomly selected households, was undertaken. Results Overall, from 31,216 eligible households, 12,006 interviews were undertaken (response rate 38.5%. The 4-week prevalence of NSSI was 1.1% (95% ci 0.9-1.3% and lifetime prevalence was 8.1% (95% ci 7.6-8.6. Methodological concerns and challenges in regard to collection of these data included extensive interviewer training and post interview counselling. Ethical considerations, especially with children as young as 10 years of age being asked sensitive questions, were addressed prior to data collection. The solution required a large amount of information to be sent to each selected household prior to the telephone interview which contributed to a lower than expected response rate. Non-coverage error caused by the population of interest being highly mobile, homeless or institutionalised was also a suspected issue in this low prevalence condition. In many circumstances the numbers missing from the sampling frame are small enough to not cause worry

  12. Women's football: Player characteristics and demands of the game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Martínez-Lagunas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of scientific investigations on women's football specific to the topics of player characteristics and demands of the game has considerably increased in recent years due to the increased popularity of the women's game worldwide, although they are not yet as numerous as in the case of men's football. To date, only two scientific publications have attempted to review the main findings of studies published in this area. However, one of them was published about 20 years ago, when women's football was still in its infancy and there were only a few studies to report on. The other review was more recent. Nonetheless, its main focus was on the game and training demands of senior elite female players. Thus, information on female footballers of lower competitive levels and younger age groups was not included. Consequently, an updated review is needed in this area. The present article therefore aims to provide an overview of a series of studies that have been published so far on the specific characteristics of female football players and the demands of match-play. Mean values reported in the literature for age (12–27 years, body height (155–174 cm, body mass (48–72 kg, percent body fat (13%–29%, maximal oxygen uptake (45.1–55.5 mL/kg/min, Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (780–1379 m, maximum heart rate (189–202 bpm, 30 m sprint times (4.34–4.96 s, and counter-movement jump or vertical jump (28–50 cm vary mostly according to the players' competitive level and positional role. There are also some special considerations that coaches and other practitioners should be aware of when working with female athletes such as the menstrual cycle, potential pregnancy and lactation, common injury risks (particularly knee and head injuries and health concerns (e.g., female athlete triad, iron deficiency, and anemia that may affect players' football performance, health or return to play. Reported mean values for total distance

  13. The major traumas in youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, P; Pozzoni, R; Galli, M

    2003-11-01

    For 4 years we followed a group of football players in the youth division of a professional club, ranging in age from 9 to 19 years, and analyzed the major injuries, i.e., those which required them to be sidelined for at least 4 weeks. We observed 23 sprains, 16 fractures, 16 cases of osteochondrosis, 7 muscle lesions, 6 cases of groin pain (athletic pubalgia), and 4 tendonopathies. The most frequent sites were the knee (n=30) and the ankle (n=11); the trauma factor was predominant (65.2%) with respect to overuse; noncontact traumas were more numerous (63.8%) than those resulting from contrast. Of a total 72 cases 8 regarded goalkeepers, and the remaining 64 cases were distributed among the other positions. As regards the age categories we detected a prevalence of osteochondrosis, traumatic detachments, and some fractures in the younger players, while in the older athletes we observed more sprains, muscle lesions, and tendonopathies. PMID:14618321

  14. Burnout among football coaches in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    ATHANASIOS KOUSTELIOS

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived level of burnout among football coaches in Greece. The sample consisted of 132 male football coaches from Greece. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to measure burnout. Results indicated that Greek football coaches of this sample were experienced low level of burnout. Findings also revealed no statistically significant age differences on the burnout subscales.

  15. Defining Football: Brand Confusion or a Matter of Semantics? An Exploratory Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Duarte Alonso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of professional sport leagues, including football, also referred to as ‘soccer’ in some environments and in the media, is an occurring phenomenon in different nations, where interest and consumption of sport appear to be growing. Football’s establishment in the form of a professional league may however pose a dilemma to professional club marketers in the form of misunderstandings or confusion among consumers, particularly where there are more professional sports that have been traditionally known as “football”. This study investigates both the level of association with and consumption of professional football among residents in a large Australian city. An online questionnaire gathered both quantitative and qualitative data from 695 respondents. The findings illustrate the potential for ‘brand confusion’ when new leagues and teams enter the domestic and international sport marketplace. For instance, almost 30% of respondents associated football with at least one more sport, with no one sport positioning its form of football as exclusive and different from the others. The overall findings underline the need for sport marketers to increase their educational efforts to differentiate their product, their brand, and ultimately their form of football among professional sport consumers.

  16. English professional football players concussion knowledge and attitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joshua M. Williams; Jody L. Langdon; James L. McMillan; Thomas A. Buckley

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concussions are a common pathology in football and multiple misconceptions exist amongst the players and managers. To address these misconceptions, and potentially reduce concussion associated sequela, effective educational interventions need to be developed. However, the current knowledge and attitude status must be ascertained to appropriately develop these interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the concussion knowledge and attitude of English professional footballers. Methods: Twenty-six participants from one English Football League Championship club completed the study. A mixed methods approach included the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (RoCKAS) and a semi-structured interview. The RoCKAS contains separate knowledge (0–25) and attitude (15–75) scores and was followed by a semi-structured interview consisting of concussion knowledge, attitude, and behavior related questions. Results: The mean score on the RoCKAS knowledge was 16.4 ± 2.9 (range 11–22) and the attitude score was 59.6 ± 8.5 (range 41–71). The interview responses identified inconsistencies between the RoCKAS and the intended behaviors, endorsing multiple concussion misconceptions, and revealed barriers to concussion reporting. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Championship Level English footballers have moderate concussion knowledge, safe attitudes, and good concussion symptom recognition when assessed with pen and paper questionnaires. However, within the semi-structured interview many respondents reported unsafe concussion behaviors despite accurately identifying the potential risks. Further, multiple barriers to concussion reporting were identified which included perceived severity of the injury, game situations, and the substitution rule. These findings can help form the foundation of educational interventions to potentially improve concussion reporting behaviors amongst professional footballers.

  17. Kicking the Football?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-10-01

    Here it is, mid-August, and I don't have my syllabus (or all my plans) together for the fall semester that will begin in a couple of weeks. I leave for the ACS meeting in a day and a half. There are so many things to do. Entropy reigns! (Well, only figuratively. See the papers on pages 1382-1397.) Will I get it all together before that big first day of classes? At this time of year I always have great plans, but also I wonder whether I am Charlie Brownthe eternal optimist, ready to try to kick that football one more time. I know I could score a field goal if only the football weren't pulled away at the last millisecond. But it seems invariably to be pulled away. Or maybe I just don't connect with it properly. Why do I keep kicking that football? What is it about a new school year that gets me psyched up and excited? Teaching (that is, devising and implementing environments and experiences that help people learn) is a challenge, largely because we don't really know that much about how to do it effectively. It's so easy for that football to slither away, never having gotten off the ground. That's one of the things that make teaching interesting and exciting. There are so many ideas to try, and it's fun to see whether they will work. Both successes and failures suggest additional new approaches. Teaching science, like science itself, seems always to produce more questions than answers. For those of us who enjoy experiments, it is an ideal profession. Another reason to get fired up is that a new school year offers opportunities to work with such wonderful people. Whether courses are successful depends on teachers, students, and interactions among them. Every fall there are new groups of students, providing teachers with new opportunities, challenges, experiences, and even friendships. Every fall we teachers have new ideas about both content and pedagogy that spur us to greater efforts and thereby help to develop our students' intellects and abilities. Even more

  18. Large eccentric strength increase using the Copenhagen Adduction exercise in football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøi, L; Sørensen, C N; Kaae, N M; Jørgensen, L B; Hölmich, P; Serner, A

    2016-01-01

    Hip adductor injuries are frequent in football, and players with low adductor strength appear to be at increased risk of injury. High adductor muscle activity has been shown in the Copenhagen Adduction exercise (CA); however, an associated strength gain has not been investigated. This study aims to...... implemented in-season with an 8-week progressive training program elicited a large significant increase in EHAD, EHAB, and EHAD/EHAB ratio....... examine the eccentric hip adduction strength (EHAD) gain using the CA in-season. Two U-19 sub-elite football teams, including 24 football players, were randomized to either an 8-week supervised progressive training program in addition to the usual training (intervention) or to continue training as usual...

  19. Prevention of groin injuries in sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteve, E; Rathleff, M S; Bagur-Calafat, C;

    2015-01-01

    performed in Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS: Seven trials were included: six on football players (four male and two female populations) and one on male handball players. In total there were 4191 participants with a total of 157 injuries. The primary analysis, including all participants, did not show a......BACKGROUND/AIM: Groin injuries are common in football and ice hockey, and previous groin injury is a strong risk factor for future groin injuries, which calls for primary prevention. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of specific groin-injury prevention programmes in...

  20. Serious head injury in sport.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, K W; McLatchie, G; Jennett, B

    1980-01-01

    Of 1900 head injuries serious enough to be admitted to the neurosurgical unit in Glasgow over a five year period, 52 (2.7%) were due to "sport." Golf, horse-riding, and Association football were the sports most commonly linked with serious head injury. Golfing injuries were all compound depressed fractures, and all these patients made a good recovery; horse-riding produced more severe injuries, three of the eight patients being left with residual disability. Much attention has been directed t...

  1. Community-based recreational football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs...... under the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community......As the number of cancer survivors continues to increase, there is an increasing focus on management of the long-term consequences of cancer including health promotion and prevention of co-morbidity. Prostate cancer is the most frequent type of cancer type in men and causes increased risk of heart...

  2. Sport injuries in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Habelt; Carol Claudius Hasler; Klaus Steinbrück; Martin Majewski

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during scho...

  3. Midfoot sprains in the National Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbahr, Daryl C; O'Loughlin, Padhraig F; Drakos, Mark C; Barnes, Ronnie P; Kennedy, John G; Warren, Russell F

    2014-12-01

    Midfoot sprains in the National Football League (NFL) are uncommon. There are few studies on midfoot sprains in professional athletes, as most studies focus on severe traumatic injuries resulting in Lisfranc fracture-dislocations. We conducted a study to evaluate midfoot sprains in NFL players to allow for better identification and management of these injuries. All midfoot sprains from a single NFL team database were reviewed over a 15-year period, and 32 NFL team physicians completed a questionnaire detailing their management approach. A comparative analysis was performed analyzing several variables, including diagnosis, treatment methods, and time lost from participation. Fifteen NFL players sustained midfoot sprains. Most injuries occurred during games as opposed to practice, and the injury typically resulted from direct impact rather than torsion. Twelve players had nonoperative treatment, and 3 had operative treatment. Nonoperative management resulted in a mean of 11.7 days of time lost from participation. However, there was a significant (P=.047) difference in mean (SD) time lost between the grade 1 sprain group, 3.1 (1.9) days, and the grade 2 sprain group, 36 (26.1) days. Of the 3 operative grade 3 patients, 1 returned in 73 days, and 2 were injured late in the season and returned the next season. Eleven (92%) of the 12 players who had nonoperative treatment had a successful return to play, and 10 (83%) of the 12 played more games and seasons after their midfoot injury. Depending on the diastasis category, NFL team physicians vary treatment: no diastasis (84% cam walker), latent diastasis (47% surgery, 34% cam walker), and frank diastasis (94% surgery). In the NFL, midfoot sprains can be a source of significant disability. Successful return to play can be achieved with nonoperative management for grade 1 injuries within 1 week and grade 2 injuries within 5 weeks. However, severe injuries with frank diastasis that require operative management will

  4. Footballer's ankle: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Footballer' s ankle is anterior bony spur or anterior impingement symptom of the ankle with anterior ankle pain, limited and painful dorsiflexion. The cause is commonly seen in athletes and dancers, and is probably due to repetitive minor trauma. The condition was firstly described by Morris;1 McMurray2 reported good results from excision of the spurs, naming it footballer's ankle. Opening resection of osteophytes of the anterior tibial and superior talar is an effective treatment for anterior impingement of the ankle.

  5. The precision and torque production of common hip adductor squeeze tests used in elite football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Light, N; Thorborg, K

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Decreased hip adductor strength is a known risk factor for groin injury in footballers, with clinicians testing adductor strength in various positions and using different protocols. Understanding how reliable and how much torque different adductor squeeze tests produce will facilitate...

  6. Aplicación de la dinamometría isocinética para establecer perfiles de riesgo de lesión isquiosural en futbolistas profesionales. [The use of isokinetic dynamometry to establish risk profiles of hamstring injury in professional football players].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Moreno-Perez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones en la musculatura isquiosural son frecuentes en el fútbol profesional y han sido relacionadas con el desequilibrio entre la fuerza de los flexores y extensores de rodilla. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue comprobar si la ratio de fuerza máxima excéntrica de flexores/concéntrica de extensores (ratio Flexexc30/Extcon240 y el ángulo de rodilla donde la musculatura isquiosural alcanza su máximo momento de fuerza, son variables útiles para establecer perfiles de riesgo de lesión isquiosural en futbolistas profesionales. Veinte jugadores de un equipo de la Segunda División de la Liga de Fútbol Profesional realizaron bilateralmente un test isocinético de flexión excéntrica de rodilla a 30º/s y extensión concéntrica de rodilla a 240º/s durante la pretemporada. Tras calcular la ratio Flexexc30/Extcon240 y el ángulo de máximo momento de fuerza, se registraron las lesiones sufridas por los jugadores a lo largo de la temporada. Los resultados mostraron que dos de los cinco jugadores lesionados presentaron ratios Flexexc30/Extcon240 menores de 0.89, valor que ha sido utilizado previamente para determinar el desequilibrio entre la musculatura flexora y extensora de rodilla y el riesgo de lesión (Croisier, Ganteaume, Binet, Genty, y Ferret, 2008. Además, otros dos de los jugadores lesionados obtuvieron ratios entre 0.93 y 1.00. Por otro lado, no se encontraron diferencias en el ángulo de máximo momento de fuerza entre jugadores lesionados y no lesionados. Estos resultados indican que la ratio Flexexc30/Extcon240 puede ser un índice útil para determinar el riesgo de lesión isquiosural en futbolistas profesionales.AbstractHamstring injuries are common in professional football and have been related to the imbalance between knee flexor and extensor strength. The aim of our study was to establish whether the flexor eccentric/extensor concentric strength ratio (Flexexc30/Extcon240 ratio and the knee angle where the peak

  7. Sporting Chance: Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Gorman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many non-Indigenous Australians the only time they have any engagement with Indigenous peoples, history or issues is through watching sport on television or being at a football match at the MCG. This general myopia and indifference by settler Australians with Indigenous Australians manifests itself in many ways but perhaps most obscenely in the simple fact that Indigenous Australians die nearly 20 years younger than the rest of Australias citizens. Many non-Indigenous Australians do not know this. Sport in many ways has offered Indigenous Australians a platform from which to begin the slow, hard process for social justice and equity to be actualised. This paper will discuss the participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and show how sport has enabled Indigenous Australians to create a space so that they can speak out against the injustices they have experienced and to further improve on relations going into the future. The central contention is that through sport all Australians can begin a process of engaging with Indigenous history as a means to improve race relations between the two groups.

  8. Implementing evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients with mild traumatic brain injuries in Australian emergency care departments: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Mild head injuries commonly present to emergency departments. The challenges facing clinicians in emergency departments include identifying which patients have traumatic brain injury, and which patients can safely be sent home. Traumatic brain injuries may exist with subtle symptoms or signs, but can still lead to adverse outcomes. Despite the existence of several high quality clinical practice guidelines, internationally and in Australia, research shows inconsistent implementation of these recommendations. The aim of this trial is to test the effectiveness of a targeted, theory- and evidence-informed implementation intervention to increase the uptake of three key clinical recommendations regarding the emergency department management of adult patients (18 years of age or older) who present following mild head injuries (concussion), compared with passive dissemination of these recommendations. The primary objective is to establish whether the intervention is effective in increasing the percentage of patients for which appropriate post-traumatic amnesia screening is performed. Methods/design The design of this study is a cluster randomised trial. We aim to include 34 Australian 24-hour emergency departments, which will be randomised to an intervention or control group. Control group departments will receive a copy of the most recent Australian evidence-based clinical practice guideline on the acute management of patients with mild head injuries. The intervention group will receive an implementation intervention based on an analysis of influencing factors, which include local stakeholder meetings, identification of nursing and medical opinion leaders in each site, a train-the-trainer day and standardised education and interactive workshops delivered by the opinion leaders during a 3 month period of time. Clinical practice outcomes will be collected retrospectively from medical records by independent chart auditors over the 2 month period following

  9. Leading Cause of Eye Injuries in School-Aged Children are Sports-Related

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 14 years old - Approximately 45 percent of all football eye injuries occur in players aged 15 to 24 years old · Racket Sports o Leading cause of eye injury in adult women o 23 percent cases of hyphema (blood in ...

  10. Effect of turf on the cutting movement of female football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Strutzenberger

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: These findings provide some support for the use of AT in female football, with no evidence to suggests that there is an increased risk of injury when performing on an artificial turf. The ankle response was less clear and further research is warranted. This initial study provides a platform for more detailed analysis, and highlights the importance of exploring the biomechanical changes in performance and injury risk with the introduction of AT.

  11. Fraud in football:research into how football protects itself against fraud

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, Jim; Button, Mark; Brooks, Graham

    2011-01-01

    Fraud is therefore not a victimless crime, it costs those involved in football and those who watch football. With the loss of revenue due to fraud, both football clubs, and local businesses that provide services to football clubs, are less financially stable, as invoices are left unpaid, the value of shares is reduced and it is difficult to attract all important external investment and sponsorship.

  12. The epidemiologic, pathologic, biomechanical, and cinematographic analysis of football-induced cervical spine trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torg, J S; Vegso, J J; O'Neill, M J; Sennett, B

    1990-01-01

    Epidemiologic, pathologic, biomechanical, and cinematographic data on head and neck injuries occurring in tackle football have been compiled since 1971 by the National Football Head and Neck Injury Registry. Preliminary analysis performed in 1975 indicated that the majority of serious cervical spine football injuries were caused by axial loading. Based on this observation, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and National Federation of High School Athletic Associations (NFHSAA) implemented rule changes banning "spearing" and the use of the top of the helmet as the initial point of contact in striking an opponent during a tackle or block. Between 1976 and 1987, as a result of these rule changes, the Registry has documented a dramatic decrease in both the total number of cervical spine injuries and those resulting in quadriplegia at both the high school and college level. It is suggested that development and implementation of similar preventative measures based on clearly defined injury mechanisms would decrease injury rates in diving, rugby, ice hockey, trampolining, wrestling, and other high-risk sports as well. PMID:2301692

  13. Foreign Exchange Exposure of Football Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Nath-Hazarika, Amar

    2007-01-01

    The Premier League is a billion pound industry and English football clubs can deal with significant amounts of foreign cash flow. This dissertation seeks to investigate if and how English football clubs protect themselves against foreign exchange exposure and how this compares to regular UK MNCs. From examination of the financial reports, some of the football clubs in the Premier League state that they manage foreign exchange risk and use financial instruments to do so, whereas others do not ...

  14. Effects of expertise on football betting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaal Yasser

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Football (soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football, and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson, controlling for age and gender. Results The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%. Conclusions Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the “illusion of control.” Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.

  15. Effects of expertise on football betting

    OpenAIRE

    Khazaal Yasser; Chatton Anne; Billieux Joël; Bizzini Lucio; Monney Grégoire; Fresard Emmanuelle; Thorens Gabriel; Bondolfi Guido; El-Guebaly Nady; Zullino Daniele; Khan Riaz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are bet...

  16. European football: Back to the 1950s

    OpenAIRE

    Loek Groot

    2005-01-01

    The point of departure in this paper is the diagnosis of Hoehn and Szymanski (1999) that the interlocking system of European football creates an unbalanced system. To secure competitive balance at both the European and the national level, they recommend to reform European football into a closed superleague American-style. In this paper I argue for a radically different route. Instead of giving up dominant traditions of European football, like promotion-relegation and the interlocking system, ...

  17. The Long-Term Game: An Analysis of the Life Expectancy of National Football League Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud Koning

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Football League (NFL has recently received significant negative media attention surrounding the safety of its players, revolving largely around the long term health risks of playing the sport. Recent premature deaths and instances of suicide associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other football related injuries have brought the sport under increased scrutiny. By comparing mortality rates of the general population to mortality rates of players using publically available data from the 1970 and 1994 NFL seasons, we test whether participation in football is significantly harmful to the longevity of the players. We conclude that, in total, players in the NFL have lower mortality rates than the general population. However, there is evidence that line players have higher mortality rates than other players and that those who played more games have higher mortality rates than those who played fewer games.

  18. Chatting about girl’s football and family: an exploration into gender, football and family relationships.

    OpenAIRE

    Pielichaty, Hanya

    2014-01-01

    In previous research on girls’ and women’s football the focus has been on gender identity, sexuality, fandom, leadership and media portrayal. To date there is a lack of literature connecting girls’ and women’s football playing experiences to their family relationships. Fathering through football is viewed as a familiar concept for boy’s football but there has yet to be parallel research surrounding football playing daughters. Taken from one element of the author’s current PhD study, this pape...

  19. Measuring tactical behaviour in football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, J; Maçãs, V

    2012-05-01

    The present study explored how football players' dynamic positional data can be used to assess tactical behaviour by measuring movement patterns and inter-player coordination. A pre post-test design was used to assess the effects of a 13-week constructivist and cognitivist training program by measuring behaviour in a 5 × 5 football small-sided game, played on a 60 × 40 m outdoor natural turf pitch. Data was captured at 5 Hz by GPS devices (SPI Pro, GPSports, Canberra, Australia) and analysed with non-linear signal processing methods. Approximate entropy values were lower in post-test situations suggesting that these time series became more regular with increasing expertise in football. Relative phase post-test values showed frequent periods with a clear trend to moving in anti-phase, as measured by players' distance to the centre of the team. These advances may open new research topics under the tactical scope and allow narrowing the gap between sports sciences and sports coaching. PMID:22377947

  20. Syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains in the National Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbahr, Daryl C; Drakos, Mark C; O'Loughlin, Padhraig F; Lyman, Stephen; Barnes, Ronnie P; Kennedy, John G; Warren, Russell F

    2013-11-01

    Syndesmosis sprains in the National Football League (NFL) can be a persistent source of disability, especially compared with lateral ankle injuries. This study evaluated syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains in NFL players to allow for better identification and management of these injuries. Syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains from a single NFL team database were reviewed over a 15-year period, and 32 NFL team physicians completed a questionnaire detailing their management approach. A comparative analysis was performed analyzing several variables, including diagnosis, treatment methods, and time lost from sports participation. Thirty-six syndesmosis and 53 lateral ankle sprains occurred in the cohort of NFL players. The injury mechanism typically resulted from direct impact in the syndesmosis and torsion in the lateral ankle sprain group (P=.034). All players were managed nonoperatively. The mean time lost from participation was 15.4 days in the syndesmosis and 6.5 days in the lateral ankle sprain groups (P⩽.001). National Football League team physicians varied treatment for syndesmosis sprains depending on the category of diastasis but recommended nonoperative management for lateral ankle sprains. Syndesmosis sprains in the NFL can be a source of significant disability compared with lateral ankle sprains. Successful return to play with nonoperative management is frequently achieved for syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains depending on injury severity. With modern treatment algorithms for syndesmosis sprains, more aggressive nonoperative treatment is advocated. Although the current study shows that syndesmosis injuries require longer rehabilitation periods when compared with lateral ankle sprains, the time lost from participation may not be as prolonged as previously reported. PMID:24200441

  1. Protocol for an Observational Study on the Effects of Playing High School Football on Later Life Cognitive Functioning and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Sameer K.; Raiden B. Hasegawa; Rabinowitz, Amanda R.; Whyte, John; Roan, Carol L.; Tabatabaei, Andrew; Baiocchi, Michael; Karlawish, Jason H.; Master, Christina L.; Small, Dylan S.

    2016-01-01

    A potential causal relationship between head injuries sustained by NFL players and later-life neurological decline may have broad implications for participants in youth and high school football programs. However, brain trauma risk at the professional level may be different than that at the youth and high school levels and the long-term effects of participation at these levels is as-yet unclear. To investigate the effect of playing high school football on later life depression and cognitive fu...

  2. Inter-rater reliability of isometric hip abductor strength, 1RM leg press, hamstrings flexibility and the Star Excursion Balance Test in elite female football- and handball players: A methodological stud

    OpenAIRE

    Harøy, Joar

    2013-01-01

    Strength-, flexibility- and balance measures are tools used to examine risk factors for injuries in a clinical setting. In an on-going prospective cohort study at the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center aimed at investigating risk factors for ACL injuries in elite female football- and handball players several of these tests are used. The different tests have shown high inter-rater reliability, but the studies are rarely conducted on elite female football- or handball players. Th...

  3. Playing With "patriotic fire": women and football in the Antipodes during the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The revelation that women first played Australian Rules football during the period of the Great War is an important element in overall understandings of how both masculine and feminine ideals were challenged and redefined by sporting practices in a time of general social flux. This paper reveals that the genesis of the women's code was in Western Australia, where contests occurred as early as 1915. Three years later, with the war nearing its conclusion, the template of women's involvement in charity matches with strong military and patriotic overtones was adopted in the state of Victoria, the code's heartland. Investigations such as this one, indicative of the complex relationships between sport and gender during the First World War, offer scope for deeper comprehension of a much-studied military conflict, and point the way forward for those that bemoan the static agenda of research into women's football. PMID:21966704

  4. Personality and Performance in Intercollegiate Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Daniel J.; Barry, John R.

    The present study, based on Chelladurai and Carron's (1978) multidimensional theory of leadership, sought to determine if selected personality traits and specific leader behaviors are predictive of performance in collegiate football. Prior to regular season competition, collegiate football players (N=272) from three southeastern United States…

  5. Cognitive Support in Teaching Football Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Henryk

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To improve the teaching of football techniques by applying cognitive and imagery techniques. Material and methods: Four groups of subjects, n = 32 each, were studied: male and female physical education students aged 20-21 years, not engaged previously in football training; male juniors and minors, aged 16 and 13 years, respectively,…

  6. Sport or school? Dreams and dilemmas for young football talents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Kahr Sørensen, Jan

    2008-01-01

      Introduction The national football and sports elite unions in Denmark urge young football talents to complete upper secondary education while they are building football careers. The football culture has a magnetic attraction on young football players. Yet, attempting a professional career in...... experiences, especially the difficulties of submitting to the demands of both football training and education. Methods The study was a qualitative inquiry into the young football players´ subjective experiences of balancing football and education. The study used focus group interviews with 6-8 players from 4...... different clubs and 8 in-depth interviews with 2 players from each of the 4 clubs. Results The interviews suggested that very few of the young football players felt they successfully balanced the requirement of school and football training. Most of them actually found it hard to maintain and finish...

  7. Australian Extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  8. Exercise program for prevention of groin pain in football players: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölmich, P; Larsen, K; Krogsgaard, K; Gluud, C

    2010-12-01

    Groin injuries cause major problems in sports and particularly in football. Exercise is effective in treating adductor-related groin pain, but no trials have been published regarding the specific prevention of groin pain or prevention specifically targeting overuse injuries in sport using exercise programs. We performed a cluster-randomized trial including 55 football clubs representing 1211 players. The clubs were randomized to an exercise program aimed at preventing groin injuries (n=27) or to a control group training as usual (n=28). The intervention program consisted of six exercises including strengthening (concentric and eccentric), coordination, and core stability exercises for the muscles related to the pelvis. Physiotherapists assigned to each club registered all groin injuries. Twenty-two clubs in each group completed the study, represented by 977 players. There was no significant effect of the intervention (HR=0.69, 95% CI 0.40-1.19). The risk of a groin injury was reduced by 31%, but this reduction was not significant. A univariate analysis showed that having had a previous groin injury almost doubles the risk of developing a new groin injury and playing at a higher level almost triples the risk of developing a groin injury. PMID:19883386

  9. Thinner Cortex in Collegiate Football Players With, but not Without, a Self-Reported History of Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Timothy B; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Bergamino, Maurizio; Ling, Josef M; Mayer, Andrew R

    2016-02-15

    Emerging evidence suggests that a history of sports-related concussions can lead to long-term neuroanatomical changes. The extent to which similar changes are present in young athletes is undetermined at this time. Here, we tested the hypothesis that collegiate football athletes with (n = 25) and without (n = 24) a self-reported history of concussion would have cortical thickness differences and altered white matter integrity relative to healthy controls (n = 27) in fronto-temporal regions that appear particularly susceptible to traumatic brain injury. Freesurfer software was used to estimate cortical thickness, fractional anisotropy was calculated in a priori white matter tracts, and behavior was assessed using a concussion behavioral battery. Groups did not differ in self-reported symptoms (p > 0.10) or cognitive performance (p > 0.10). Healthy controls reported significantly higher happiness levels than both football groups (all p  0.10). However, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the left anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex, and medial superior frontal cortex relative to healthy controls (p = 0.02, d = -0.69). Further, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the right central sulcus and precentral gyrus relative to football athletes without a history of concussion (p = 0.03, d = -0.71). No differences were observed between football athletes without a history of concussion and healthy controls. These results suggest that previous concussions, but not necessarily football exposure, may be associated with cortical thickness differences in collegiate football athletes. PMID:26061068

  10. The opinions concerning economic, social and cultural of the foreign footballers about playing football in the Turkish Professional Football Leagues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyüp Yıldırım

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the opinions concerning economic, social and cultural of foreign footballers about playing football in the Turkish professional football leagues. The population of the study consisted of 71 foreign players from 12 teams (Ç. Rize, Sivas Spor, Konya Spor, Kayseri Spor, Kayseri Erciyes Spor, G. Antep Spor, Antalya Spor, Denizli Spor, Sakarya Spor, Ankaragücü, Gençlerbirliği, Ankaraspor, in 2006-2007 football seasons in Turkcell Super League and Bank Asya 1st League category. Data had got from the questionnaire which has been done to the sample players by the researcher. Frequency, percent and arithmetic average was used for the description statistical analysis of the subjects’ personal info. As a result, it has been determined that the foreign footballers’ reason of selecting playing football in Turkey caused of economical reasons, they can create a friendship in and out of football field with native footballers, enjoying Turkish cuisine and Turkish music, telling positive opinions about Turkey when they return to their country, they want some special requests in their agreements. 

  11. Football Gets a Red Card

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Referees blow the whistle on their collaborations with officials in match-fixing scandals China’s trouble-plagued top soccer league,the Chinese Football Association Super League(CSL),kicked off its 2011 season on April 2 without a sponsor or a national TV deal.Days before the new season,three former league referees,who are awaiting trial,revealed the extent of match-fixing scandals that have led to the punishment of clubs,offi-cials,coaches and former players.

  12. Football refereeing: Identifying innovative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MohammadKazemi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the potentials innovation in football industry. Data were collected from 10 national and international referees, assistant referees and referees’ supervisors in Iran. In this study, technological innovations are identified that assist better refereeing performances. The analysis revealed a significant relationship between using new technologies and referees ‘performance. The results indicate that elite referees, assistant referees and supervisors agreed to use new technological innovations during the game. According to their comments, this kind of technology causes the referees’ performance development.

  13. PUTTING FOOTBALL ON THE AIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Football fans and TV stations seize their opportunities to indulge in World Cup mania In China, Huang Jianxiang is the king of sports commentators. His popularity is such that the affable but confident doyen of television broadcasting is mobbed when he goes out in public. He is a new breed of voice maestro, adopting a more professional and relaxed style to the commentators of the past. Those veterans come from an era of radio and are used to describing every detail of the play and the audience, despite v...

  14. [Almaty club "KAIRAT" young football players' health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausova, G K; Karabaeva, A I

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study young football players' health. The study was conducted on 161 football players (mean age 12.3) of six children football teams of Almaty club "KAIRAT" during the competition period. It was found that 55,5% of the football players are practically healthy; 18,6% of football players have iron deficiency anemia. 32,6% of football players have caries; 5% of football players have problems of cardiopulmonary system. Investigation reveal, that in a junior sportsman was body weigh surging with downtrend during contest, testify to portability of aerobic load and in childhood unconformable of metabolism' level. This tendency was retain also in the oldest sportsman, this testify to most emulative aerobic load in comparison with junior sportsman. According as the age increases it is emulative load's extension and free occurrence of body weigh subsequent reduction but in the oldest sportsman with prevalence macrosomia. Concurrently with improvement of the anthropometric profile as far as increase of age in soccer players it is forming of a high training level. In spite of lowering of energy resources and the physical load organism's adaptation there are these phenomena. According as the age increases in a soccer player's performance of cardiac and respiratory system are improved. PMID:24214593

  15. Football and physical health: what do we know?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnell, Daniel; Cope, Ed; Bailey, Richard;

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding is that football is a popular intervention option and can offer valuable health improvement programme success. This includes interventions delivered by professional football clubs and their respective in the community programmes, as well as other sports clubs organizing ...... effectiveness of football-led physical health interventions.......Our current understanding is that football is a popular intervention option and can offer valuable health improvement programme success. This includes interventions delivered by professional football clubs and their respective in the community programmes, as well as other sports clubs organizing...... recreational football and Football Fitness, which is small-sided football training rather than competitive 11v11 matches. This article seeks to communicate an understanding of the role of football in physical health improvement using research, grey literature and policy documentation undertaken predominantly...

  16. POSTERIOR STERNOCLAVICULAR JOINT DISLOCATION IN A DIVISION I FOOTBALL PLAYER: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Mario F.; Erdeljac, Joe; Williams, Richard(Institut für Theoretische Physik, Justus-Liebig–Universität Giessen, 35392 Giessen, Germany); Brown, Mike; Bolgla, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Posterior dislocation of the sterno‐clavicular (SC) joint is a rare injury in athletes. It normally occurs in high collision sports such as American football or rugby. Acute posterior dislocations of the SC joint can be life‐threatening as the posteriorly displaced clavicle can cause damage to vital vascular and respiratory structures such as the aortic arch, the carotid and subclavian arteries, and the trachea. The potential severity of a posterior SC joint dislocation provides multiple chal...

  17. Social pressure influences decisions of individuals: evidence from the behavior of football referees

    OpenAIRE

    Dohmen, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Analyzing the neutrality of referees during twelve German premier league (1st Bundesliga) football seasons, this paper documents evidence that social forces influence agents' preferences and decisions. Those, who are appointed to be impartial, tend to favor the home team as they systematically award more injury time in close matches when the home team is behind. Referees also tend to favor the home team in decisions to award goals and penalty kicks. The composition of the crowd affects the si...

  18. Medial collateral ligament injuries of the knee: current treatment concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lan; Kim, Paul D.; Ahmad, Christopher S.; Levine, William N.

    2007-01-01

    The medial collateral ligament is one of the most commonly injured ligaments of the knee. Most injuries result from a valgus force on the knee. The increased participation in football, ice hockey, and skiing has all contributed to the increased frequency of MCL injuries. Prophylactic knee bracing in contact sports may prevent injury; however, performance may suffer. The majority of patients who sustain an MCL injury will achieve their pre-injury activity level with non-operative treatment alo...

  19. Head, Neck, Face, and Shoulder Injuries in Female and Male Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havkins, Sabina B.

    1986-01-01

    Injuries to 150 players in the Southern California Rugby Football Union were studied in order to compare head, neck, face, and shoulder injury rates for female and male players. While overall rates did not differ significantly, women received fewer disabling injuries. Ways to decrease injuries are recommended. (Author/MT)

  20. The environment of marketing of football clubs of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michuda Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA, and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a control system by marketing activity of football clubs of Iraq is defined. Positive and negative factors which define management efficiency marketing of football clubs are revealed.

  1. On the flight of an American Football

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, Curtis

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine the detailed theory of the American football in flight, with spin and air resistance included. We find the theory has much in common with the theory of a gyroscope and also rocket trajectory with a misaligned thruster. Unfortunately most of the air resistance data, for rocketry and ballistics, is for speeds of Mach 1 or higher, where the air resistance increases dramatically. We shall approximate a realistic air resistance, at the slower speeds of football flight, with a drag force proportional to cross sectional area and either $v$ or $v^2$, depending on speed, where $v$ is velocity of the football. We begin with a discussion of the motion, giving as much detail as possible without the use of complex analytic calculations. We point out the previous errors made with moments of inertia and make the necessary corrections for more accurate results. We show that the shape of an American football closely resembles a parabola of revolution.

  2. FINDING, PREPARING AND TRAINING FOOTBALL REFEREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gh.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Football has surpassed the status of being a social phenomenon at a national and international scale for a long time, as it is the new “religion of the 21st century” which brings together game practitioners under its scope regardless of religion, skin colour, geographical area, culture, philosophy, gender, age which has been proven by the number of members in more than 200 FIFA member national federations. As stated in the FIFA status, “each FIFA member shall organize football games by the Laws of the Game promulgated by the International Board which has complete and exclusive jurisdiction to modify them. Football game rules bring together a set of laws under which a game, game relations and player relations must take place, actually being the single criterion to assess players” behaviour as permissible or impermissible. Football game management is provided by referees. A referee guarantees that a competition shall take place according to the Laws of the Game. However, arbitration work in football is not a profession in every sense of the word, but a social function that a person with a specific training performs regularly at various football competitions for children, youth and pros. As in any purposeful and social value activity, football arbitration too requires the set-up of a scientifically based system of recruitment, selection, training, promotion. This system requires a certain way of combining and providing theoretical training, physical training, and psychological/mental training of referees. A referee plays an important role in modern football. Therefore, a referee must be trained, selected and protected from various influences (clubs, league, political field.

  3. Le futsal: un autre monde du football?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gaubert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although far behind association football, futsal is the second most played variant of football in the world. Both sports have comparable global expansion strategies; but with different roots and outcomes. Futsal, which originated in South America, has experienced a more limited geographic expansion. Its recent integration into the FIFA is progressively changing its geographic presence. Consequently, futsal has become an increasingly global sport.

  4. Drug use in English professional football

    OpenAIRE

    Waddington, I.; Malcolm, D.; Roderick, M.; Naik, R; Spitzer, G.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine several issues related to drug use in English professional football. More particularly the project sought to gather data on: players' use of permitted supplements (mineral and vitamin pills and creatine); whether they sought advice, and if so from whom, about their use of supplements; their experience of and attitudes towards drug testing; their views on the extent of the use of banned performance enhancing and recreational drugs in football; and their personal knowledg...

  5. Sport injuries of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion. (orig.)

  6. Mental Toughness among Footballers: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Omar-Fauzee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the mental toughness perceived by selected the National football players. A sample of twelve Malaysian footballers (current and ex-players, aged 19 to 57 years old agreed to participate. All of them have been playing in the Malaysia National Football League that consists of four former national footballers, four former state footballers and four currently active footballers. Among them, five individuals are active as a coach. A semi-structure interview scheduled was used in the research. All of the respondents have signed the informed consent letter for tape-recorded during the interviewed. The transcribed verbatim from the tapes were content analyzed by the authors to identify the themes. Results show that eight themes emerged from the interviews, which are motivation, negative energy, self-confidence, positive energy, visual and imagery control, patriotic spirit, perseverance and attention control. Almost all of the themes have been identified by previous researchers (i.e., Fourie & Potgieter, 2001; Jones, Hanton & Connoughton, 2002; 2007; and Loehr, 1986, except for patriotic and perseverance. Recommendations for further research also suggested.

  7. Football with three ‘halves’: A qualitative exploratory study of the football3 model at the Football for Hope Festival 2010

    OpenAIRE

    KR, Gannett; ZA, Kaufman; MA, Clark; ST, McGarvey

    2014-01-01

    The “football3” model refers to a restructuring of traditional football/soccer rules to bring social and developmental benefits to participating youth and their communities. The model incorporates three “halves”: pre-game discussion, football match, and post-game discussion. This study was carried out to shed light on the experiences of youth and adults with the football3 model at the Football for Hope Festival 2010. As an official 2010 FIFA World Cup event, the festival assembled 32 mixed-se...

  8. A radioactive football world cup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organization of the 2014 football world cup by Brazil is an opportunity to recall how the level of natural radioactivity can change from a country to another. Brazil is with Iran and India one of the 3 countries where the level of natural radioactivity is the highest. In Brazil the average value for natural radioactivity is about 10 mSv/year but you can find spots on the Brazilian 'planalto' where natural radioactivity ranges from 10 to a few tens of mSv/year. The mean value of natural radioactivity at the world scale is about 2.5 mSv/year. The value of 10 mSv/year is the radiation threshold that may trigger the evacuation of the local population in case of a nuclear accident in France. These various figures show that radiation dose limits are very low and should not be considered as representative of actual health hazards. (A.C.)

  9. Australian Research Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.

  10. Physiological responses and physical performance during football in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nybo, Lars; Grantham, Justin;

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impact of hot ambient conditions on physical performance and physiological responses during football match-play.......To examine the impact of hot ambient conditions on physical performance and physiological responses during football match-play....

  11. Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158807.html Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision Study of college ... concussion, a new study says. During a regular football season, about two dozen college players developed a ...

  12. High School Football Players Suffer More Symptoms After Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158603.html High School Football Players Suffer More Symptoms After Concussion: Study Meanwhile, ... MONDAY, May 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- High school football players are more likely to suffer more symptoms ...

  13. FREE Policy Brief No. 3 - Women's Football and Female Fans

    OpenAIRE

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Sonntag, Albrecht; Ranc, David

    2015-01-01

    Football Research in an Enlarged Europe (FREE).This is the third of three policy briefs based on findings from the FREE project. It summarises results from the project's research stream on the feminisation of football.

  14. Customer Relationship Management Strategy in Swedish Football Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Sölgén, Samuel; Wiklund, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Aim of the Thesis: To investigate the practice of using a CRM strategy in football clubs by comparing earlier successful and unsuccessful CRM implementations by football clubs and study fan relationship theories in a large Swedish football club, thereby presenting guidelines on how to further develop a CRM strategy in a Swedish football club.   Methodology: A quantitative approach and a qualitative approach have been used, first collecting empirical data on supporter views through a questionn...

  15. How the Iranian Football Coaches and Players Know About Doping?

    OpenAIRE

    Seif Barghi, Tohid; Halabchi, Farzin; Dvorak, Jiri; Hosseinnejad, Heydar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, doping is an intricate dilemma. Football is the nationally popular sport in Iran. On the other hand, doping is a serious health hazard sport faces today. Studies dealing with athletes’ knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning doping in football are scarce. Objectives: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among the football coaches and players. Patients and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 375 participants (239 football play...

  16. Personal Branding of Elite Football Players through Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Pyhtilä, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis focuses on personal branding of professional football players in social media. Giovanni Quartana, Co-Founder of a start-up football agency TalentBox Group has commissioned this thesis. The reason for writing this thesis on personal branding for football players is because TalentBox is aiming to revamp their Marketing and Sponsorship department. This department will focus on improving football players’ personal branding by developing a unique and customized plan for ...

  17. '... far to the north' : geography and football in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Goksøyr, Matti; Olstad, Finn

    2009-01-01

    From an international football perspective football in Norway may be considered as a 'different sort of country'. This essay concerns itself with the tension between the interest in football in Norway and the geographical and topographical preconditions for the sport. This is discussed in three main parts. The first addresses the relation between centre and periphery: how to build a national football community when the local communities are so scattered and different in character? The second ...

  18. Sport, Movement, and the Event: understanding the expressivity of football

    OpenAIRE

    Barnfield, A. F. R.

    2013-01-01

    Football was codified in Britain in 1863, the Football League was established in 1888, and by 1950 there were 92 professional clubs in England. In 1992 the top twenty professional teams in England broke away from the Football Association’s league programme to establish the English Premier League (EPL). Over the following decade football, the Premier League in particular, has developed considerably. The league now has a global reach with games being broadcast live around the world to audiences...

  19. In-form: Football as the Popular Game of Malappuram

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMED SHAFEEQ K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that while it remains a fact that football is the most visible sport in Malappuram, football also allows identifications for the mainstream to describe Malappuram that is by definition in this discourse an other-ed space. By delineating the importance of affect in football and its resistance to being quantified, I argue that the form of football necessitates a spectator whose spectatorship has to be manifested in bodily rituals. I also argue that the category fan has histo...

  20. FREE Policy Brief No. 3 - Women's Football and Female Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Sonntag, Albrecht; Ranc, David

    2015-01-01

    Football Research in an Enlarged Europe (FREE). This is the third of three policy briefs based on findings from the FREE project. It summarises results from the project's research stream on the feminisation of football.......Football Research in an Enlarged Europe (FREE). This is the third of three policy briefs based on findings from the FREE project. It summarises results from the project's research stream on the feminisation of football....

  1. Cultural Differences, behavior and assimilation: player nationality and penalties in football

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca, Giacomo; Schokkaert, Jeroen; SWINNEN, Jo

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of a different cultural background on individual behavior, focusing on penalties in football matches of southern European and northern European football players in the English Premier League. Southern European football players collect on average more football penalties than their British colleagues and northern European football players collect on average less football penalties than their British colleagues. The number of football penalties incurred by southern European...

  2. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  3. Football business: how markets are breaking the beautiful game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van der Tsjalle

    2014-01-01

    In Football business Tsjalle van der Burg shows how the economics of football have developed and been corrupted. In a series of engaging stories he uncovers the mysteries of football finance. Van der Burg explains why if the 2013 English Premiership champions, Manchester United, had played their 196

  4. Alcohol-Related Fan Behavior on College Football Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley E.; Jobli, Edessa; Bian, Hui

    2007-01-01

    High-risk drinking on game day represents a unique public health challenge. Objective: The authors examined the drinking behavior of college football fans and assessed the support for related interventions. Participants: The authors randomly selected 762 football fans, including college students, alumni, and other college football fans, to…

  5. Tips to Increase Girls' Participation in Flag Football Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Despite the apparent popularity of flag football as an activity in physical education class and football as an after-school offering for girls, studies related to gender stereotyping of sports have found overwhelming evidence indicating that football is perceived as a masculine activity among males and females in primary school, secondary school,…

  6. The effectiveness of shin guards used by football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world's governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker's foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key PointsShin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries.Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. PMID:24570615

  7. Conservative treatment of anterior inferior and superior avulsion fractures of spina iliaca in adolescent amateur footballer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Hatay Gölge

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS and the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS avulsion fracture is a rare injury of pelvis. It usually occurs during the sport activities especially in football while hitting the ball. It is commonly misdiagnosed so that a detailed history and physical examination have a great importance. We present two cases of AIIS and ASIS avulsion fracture. Both of the patients applied to outpatient clinics with hip pain and difficulty in walking. History revealed the complaints started after hitting the ball during the football match and hip movements were limited. The patients were fifteen and sixteen years and after physical examination and radiological evaluation, avulsion fracture of the AIIS and the ASIS were diagnosed. Patients were treated conservatively with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and limited weight bearing with crutches for a month. The patients were free of pain and had full range of hip movements after one month period. At the end of the second month patients returned to active sports. AIIS and ASIS avulsion fractures are more common in adolescent football players but clinicians sometimes fail to diagnose this rare injury. We emphasize the importance of the detailed history and clinical examination and direct radiography could be enough for the diagnosis.

  8. Mini-open repair of achilles rupture in the national football league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Kirk A; Shaw, Christopher M; Anderson, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Tears of the Achilles tendon in professional athletes are an infrequent yet devastating injury. Historical studies have demonstrated not only a poor rate of return to competitive play but have also noted significant declines in performance for those able to return. While classic treatment of these injuries in the competitive athlete has been an open, locked suture repair, this article reports on a consecutive series of professional football athletes who underwent mini-open repair. All athletes returned to professional football, with seven out of nine (78%) returning to National Football League (NFL) competition. Average return to play was 273 days (8.9 months), with one athlete returning at 166 days (5.4 months). There have been no reruptures and no sural nerve or wound healing complications. Although limited in number currently, mini-open repair in NFL athletes has allowed successful return to competitive play with no reruptures and a trend toward faster return to play compared with historical open repair outcomes. PMID:25785466

  9. Finite element modeling of human brain response to football helmet impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, T; Muthuswamy, J; Rajan, S D

    2016-10-01

    The football helmet is used to help mitigate the occurrence of impact-related traumatic (TBI) and minor traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in the game of American football. While the current helmet design methodology may be adequate for reducing linear acceleration of the head and minimizing TBI, it however has had less effect in minimizing mTBI. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop and validate a coupled finite element (FE) model of a football helmet and the human body, and (b) to assess responses of different regions of the brain to two different impact conditions - frontal oblique and crown impact conditions. The FE helmet model was validated using experimental results of drop tests. Subsequently, the integrated helmet-human body FE model was used to assess the responses of different regions of the brain to impact loads. Strain-rate, strain, and stress measures in the corpus callosum, midbrain, and brain stem were assessed. Results show that maximum strain-rates of 27 and 19 s(-1) are observed in the brain-stem and mid-brain, respectively. This could potentially lead to axonal injuries and neuronal cell death during crown impact conditions. The developed experimental-numerical framework can be used in the study of other helmet-related impact conditions. PMID:26867124

  10. Acute subdural hematoma in a high school football player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, D W

    1995-03-01

    A 16-year-old football player developed a headache following a collision during a game. When his headache persisted for 1 week, he underwent a computerized tomographic (CT) scan to determine the cause. Findings were normal and a concussion was diagnosed. Seventeen days after the injury, the athlete reported disappearance of his symptoms. Provocative testing failed to recreate symptoms. The athlete continued to deny any symptoms and was cleared for unlimited participation 30 days after the initial injury. In the next game, the athlete collided with an opposing player, ran to the sidelines, and deteriorated on the sidelines after complaining of dizziness. Local Emergency Medical Squad personnel intubated him and transported him to a local hospital emergency room. Attending neurosurgeons diagnosed a right subdural hematoma by CT scan. A burr hole craniotomy evacuated the lesion. The operative report noted a second area of chronic membrane formation consistent with past head trauma. This lesion had escaped detection on two CT scans. In an interview 4 months postoperatively, the athlete admitted having experienced constant symptoms between the first and second injuries. PMID:16558315

  11. Talking with parents of high school football players about chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a concise summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Shawn; Solomon, Gary S

    2015-05-01

    Over the past decade, athletic-related chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has garnered a great deal of attention in the popular press and, more recently, in the scientific press. With increasing frequency, sports medicine practitioners and providers are faced with questions from the parents of high school football players about CTE and the risk posed to children who participate in this or other contact or collision sports. The purpose of this review was to summarize the research on CTE in an attempt to provide some evidence-based answers to frequently asked questions in clinics from parents. Addressed are (1) the definitions of CTE and its symptoms, (2) the evidence for CTE in football, (3) abnormal tau protein, (4) the use of neuroimaging in CTE diagnosis, (5) risk for CTE, (6) CTE diagnosis in youth, (7) CTE and its relationship to suicide, and (8) contact and collision sports as a risk factor for permanent brain injury or death. PMID:24907288

  12. Efficacy of the FIFA 11+ Warm-Up Programme in Male Youth Football: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyosi B. A. Owoeye

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The FIFA 11+ is a structured warm-up programme specially designed to prevent injuries among football players from age 14 years and above. However, studies to prove its efficacy are generally few and it is yet to be tested in male youth footballers and among African players. The purpose of the study was to examine the efficacy of the FIFA 11+ programme in reducing the risk of injuries among male youth football players of the Lagos Junior League. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted. All the 20 teams (414 players aged 14 -19 years in the Premier League division were block-randomised into either an intervention (INT or a control (CON group. The INT group performed the FIFA 11+ exercises as warm-up during training sessions and the CON group performed usual warm-up. Participating teams were prospectively followed through an entire league season of 6 months in which they were visited every week to assess injured players for time-loss injuries in both groups. The primary outcomes were any injury to the players, injuries by type of exposure and injuries specific to the lower extremities. The secondary outcomes were injuries reported by body location, aetiology, mechanism and severity. In total, 130 injuries were recorded affecting 104 (25% of the 416 players. Team and player compliance with the INT was 60% and 74% respectively. Based on the primary outcome measures of the study, the FIFA 11+ programme significantly reduced the overall rate of injury in the INT group by 41% [RR = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.40 – 0.86; p = 0.006] and all lower extremity injuries by 48% [RR = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.34 – 0.82; p = 0.004]. However, the rate of injury reduction based on secondary outcomes mostly did not reach the level of statistical significance. The FIFA 11+ programme is effective in reducing the rates of injuries in male youth football players.

  13. Five Year Overview of Sport Injuries: The NAIRS Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, William E.

    1982-01-01

    Data from a survey of institutional members of the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) are presented and discussed. Included are tables showing injuries reported in high schools and colleges and universities for male and female athletes in baseball, basketball, football, gymnastics, soccer, wrestling, field hockey, track and…

  14. Home advantage in Greek football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage. PMID:24533517

  15. Using Twitter to predict football outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kampakis, Stylianos; Adamides, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Twitter has been proven to be a notable source for predictive modelling on various domains such as the stock market, the dissemination of diseases or sports outcomes. However, such a study has not been conducted in football (soccer) so far. The purpose of this research was to study whether data mined from Twitter can be used for this purpose. We built a set of predictive models for the outcome of football games of the English Premier League for a 3 month period based on tweets and we studied ...

  16. Soft Budget Constraints in Professional Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    European professional football clubs go out of business even though they operate chronically on the edge of financial collapse? The paper argues that the paradox can be explained by the fact that professional football clubs operate within soft budget constraints in a way which is similar to the role of...... large companies in socialist economies – a phenomenon which was first identified by the Hungarian Economist János Kornai. More generally, it is argued that our understanding of the peculiar economics of professional team sports can be enhanced significantly by applying the soft budget constrain concept...

  17. Has the athlete trained enough to return to play safely? The acute:chronic workload ratio permits clinicians to quantify a player's risk of subsequent injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Peter; Gabbett, Tim J

    2016-04-01

    The return to sport from injury is a difficult multifactorial decision, and risk of reinjury is an important component. Most protocols for ascertaining the return to play status involve assessment of the healing status of the original injury and functional tests which have little proven predictive ability. Little attention has been paid to ascertaining whether an athlete has completed sufficient training to be prepared for competition. Recently, we have completed a series of studies in cricket, rugby league and Australian rules football that have shown that when an athlete's training and playing load for a given week (acute load) spikes above what they have been doing on average over the past 4 weeks (chronic load), they are more likely to be injured. This spike in the acute:chronic workload ratio may be from an unusual week or an ebbing of the athlete's training load over a period of time as in recuperation from injury. Our findings demonstrate a strong predictive (R(2)=0.53) polynomial relationship between acute:chronic workload ratio and injury likelihood. In the elite team setting, it is possible to quantify the loads we are expecting athletes to endure when returning to sport, so assessment of the acute:chronic workload ratio should be included in the return to play decision-making process. PMID:26701923

  18. The impacts of football point systems on the competitive balance: evidence from some European footbal leagues

    OpenAIRE

    Halicioglu, Ferda

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. – 1. Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports. – 2. Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports. – 3. Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence . – 4. Some concluding remarks.

  19. The impact of football point systems on the competitive balance: evidence from some european football leagues

    OpenAIRE

    Ferda Halicioglu

    2006-01-01

    Introduction - 1 Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports - 2 Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports - 3 Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence - 4. Concluding remarks

  20. Which Screening Tools Can Predict Injury to the Lower Extremities in Team Sports? A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is evi

  1. The Effectiveness of Shin Guards Used by Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar Tatar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world’s governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™ and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1 A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker’s foot. 2 An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3 A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™ (p = 0.000. Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000. In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards.

  2. Winners and Losers of Danish Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    This paper deals with European and Danish soccer and its commercialization focusing on the Danish male first tier clubs. Based on the systems theoretical argument that sport serves as a mirror system in (late-) modern society, the Danish football clubs are measured against a simple matrix of main...

  3. THE PROFILE OF THE ROMANIAN FOOTBALL MANAGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN STELESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is an exercise that every professional can use to see what the value of the manager is, "whether or not you're a manager," and the professional football coach without borders, boundaries of countries or cultures-in which we were born and professional culture in which we live and we want to live now and in the future.

  4. The Profile of the Romanian Football Manager

    OpenAIRE

    IOAN STELESCU

    2013-01-01

    It is an exercise that every professional can use to see what the value of the manager is, "whether or not you're a manager," and the professional football coach without borders, boundaries of countries or cultures-in which we were born and professional culture in which we live and we want to live now and in the future.

  5. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  6. Recognizing team formation in american football

    KAUST Repository

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati

    2014-01-01

    Most existing software packages for sports video analysis require manual annotation of important events in the video. Despite being the most popular sport in the United States, most American football game analysis is still done manually. Line of scrimmage and offensive team formation recognition are two statistics that must be tagged by American Football coaches when watching and evaluating past play video clips, a process which takesmanyman hours per week. These two statistics are the building blocks for more high-level analysis such as play strategy inference and automatic statistic generation. In this chapter, we propose a novel framework where given an American football play clip, we automatically identify the video frame in which the offensive team lines in formation (formation frame), the line of scrimmage for that play, and the type of player formation the offensive team takes on. The proposed framework achieves 95% accuracy in detecting the formation frame, 98% accuracy in detecting the line of scrimmage, and up to 67%accuracy in classifying the offensive team’s formation. To validate our framework, we compiled a large dataset comprising more than 800 play-clips of standard and high definition resolution from real-world football games. This dataset will be made publicly available for future comparison.

  7. Modern Apprenticeships in English Professional Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Des; Olsson, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper will examine the two year modern apprenticeship undertaken by trainees in the English professional football industry. Design/methodology/approach: Representatives of seven clubs were interviewed in the summer of 2005; all of them were responsible for youth development in their club. These interviews were the first of what will…

  8. 'Footballs', conical singularities, and the Liouville equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We generalize the football shaped extra dimensions scenario to an arbitrary number of branes. The problem is related to the solution of the Liouville equation with singularities, and explicit solutions are presented for the case of three branes. The tensions of the branes do not need to be tuned with each other but only satisfy mild global constraints

  9. Exploring Discrete Mathematics with American Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon Brown, Tricia; Kahn, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extended project that offers, through American football, an application of concepts from enumerative combinatorics and an introduction to proofs course. The questions in this paper and subsequent details concerning equivalence relations and counting techniques can be used to reinforce these new topics to students in such a…

  10. Coed Football: Hazards, Implications, and Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Harold B.

    1986-01-01

    Football, it is argued, is too dangerous for most girls and for many boys. Data on male-female differences in size, speed, and strength are reviewed. A preparticipation screening program with equal requirements for both sexes is proposed. (Author/MT)

  11. Football to tackle overweight in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faude, O; Kerper, O; Multhaupt, M; Winter, C; Beziel, K; Junge, A; Meyer, T

    2010-04-01

    The present study aimed at analyzing the efficacy of a 6-month football training program compared with a standard exercise program on health and fitness parameters in overweight children. The study design was a 6-month, two-arm, parallel-group randomized trial. Twenty-two overweight children were randomly assigned to two groups (age=10.8+/-1.2 years, height=1.56+/-0.08 m, weight= 65.1+/-11.4 kg). One group conducted a football training program, and the other group an established standard sports program. Both interventions took place three times per week from mid-May to mid-November. Before, after 3 months and after the training period, comprehensive testing was conducted: anthropometric characteristics, cycling ergometry, psychometric monitoring as well as several motor ability tests. Maximal performance capacity increased and submaximal heart rate during cycling ergometry decreased significantly. Several motor skills as well as self-esteem also improved considerably. Body composition and other psychometric variables remained nearly unchanged. No relevant differences were observed between both exercise programs. It can be concluded that a 6-month football training is as efficacious in improving the physical capacity, health-related fitness parameters and self-esteem of overweight children as a standard exercise program. These results provide further evidence that playing football has significant health effects. PMID:20136766

  12. THE DEGREE OF COMPETITION IN THE EUROPEAN FOOTBALL LEAGUES: A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Halicioglu, Ferda

    2005-01-01

    As a professional sport, professional football teams in a league compete in imperfect market conditions since every team in a professional football league may be known by their differentiated product (i.e. the quality of football they play). If the competition level increases, the quality of football being played may also increase. Thus, consumers`(i.e. football spectators) value of money spent on football should increase too. Thus, this paper tries to implement the above mentioned economic p...

  13. Adapting to Finland through professional football : perceptions of players and coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Swarts, Christoffer M. J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores how football migrants (foreign professional football / soccer players) perceive the adaptation process in Finland. Globalization and legislation have made it easier for football players to work abroad. The amount of football migrants in Finland is increasing each year. The internationalization of Finnish football requires study. Successful adaptation has a positive outcome on a migrant, which will increase the chances of personal, and thus in the case of football, t...

  14. Mismanaging Concussions in Intercollegiate Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Austin; Miller, John J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, Adrian Arrington filed a class action lawsuit against the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) on behalf of himself and other athletes who had sustained concussions that resulted in long-term injuries. In the lawsuit, Arrington alleged that the NCAA employed a negligent approach to concussed student-athletes.

  15. Sport injuries in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habelt, Susanne; Hasler, Carol Claudius; Steinbrück, Klaus; Majewski, Martin

    2011-09-01

    In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during school (8.77%). The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34%) and ligament tears (18.76%); 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1) and fractures (7:2) in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6). Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3). Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1). Fractures were noted during football (1:9), skiing (1:9), inline (2:3), and during school sports (1:11). Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports.It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education. PMID

  16. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Habelt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.

  17. The Language in British and Slovene Football Anthems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Križan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Football is probably the world’s most popular game, with a huge number of fans. There are numerous ways in which football fans express dedication to their club and the feelings they have for their team, for example, wearing certain colours, waving banners and flags, and singing. Football anthems are nothing new for football fans, and many clubs have a long-established tradition of them. In this paper, I will address and compare the language in some popular British and Slovene football anthems, and attempt to explain its contribution to the creation of fan identity, to the fans’ sense of belonging, unity, and motivation. The linguistic analysis identities the linguistic resources used in football anthems to express attitudes, form bonds and create identities.

  18. Intermittent Testing and Training for High-Level Football Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    four articles that focus on physical testing and training for elite and sub-elite football players.The first article (Study I) aims to identify and establish aerobic capacities and anthropometric characteristics of elite female football players with the use of laboratory tests, and to examine whether...... characteristics or aerobic capacitymeasures across the football player positions in female elite football players when we apply traditional laboratory tests (i.e. VO2max and anaerobic threshold). We speculate whether this may be caused by the parameters not being sufficiently sensitive to differentiate between...... traditional laboratory tests of physical fitness of football players are not suitable to detect physical differences between elite female football players in different playing positions. This indicates that they are not sufficiently related to the relevant physical parameters of each playing position (i...

  19. Female fans of men's football - a case study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Lenneis, Verena; Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Football is an invention by men for men, and today, the majority of players and fans are men. There is an abundance of literature on football and fandom; however, gender is mostly not an issue in these publications. Research about female football supporters and fans is very limited. This is also...... true for Denmark, the country, which is the focus of this article. Based on gender and socialization theories, this contribution addresses women and their (lack of) interest in men's football. The main questions refer to the numbers of female supporters and their patterns of football consumption. The...... sources of information are reader and user data of mass media, results of surveys about the habits of the Danish population and the results of an interview study with female fans. A specific focus of this article is on the minority of female supporters who attend football games. How do they adapt to a...

  20. The battle for centre stage: Women's football in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa

    2010-01-01

    . This Focus draws on academic research, media reports and interviews with national team players to highlight the struggles and victories of South African women footballers over the last 40 years. Despite numerous challenges and setbacks, womenB football has experienced immense growth over the past 15......From when the first official South African Women's National Football team was established in 1993, Banyana Banyana have been 'making it happen' for women's football in South Africa. National team players have become inspirational icons and role models for thousands of South African women and girls...... years. Highlighting examples of battles for power and leadership, homophobic attitudes and attempts to feminise the bodies of women footballers, this Focus illustrates the hard fought victories and disappointing losses in the history of South African women's football....

  1. Australian clinical guidelines for radiological event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Health Protection Committee oversees national health protection priorities in: communicable disease outbreaks; chemical, biological or radiological incidents; mass casualty incidents; and deployment of Australian health teams overseas. The Australian Clinical Guidelines for a Radiological Event to complement existing national guidelines on chemical agents, anthrax, and smallpox. Other prompts included the need to revise the ARPANSA Guidance Manual, Medical Management of Individuals Involved in Radiation Accidents, 2000, and the requirement for specific therapeutic information regarding the indications and use of radiological decorporation agents held as part of the National Medical Stockpile. Matters identified by clinicians requiring specific guidance included: basic understanding of radiation; an approach to dose assessment; specific thresholds for initiating decorporation and other therapy; the role of gastric lavage, as contemporary practice considers this ineffective for other toxicological indications. rationale for, and detailed description of pulmonary lavage; advice on prenatal exposure to radiation; protocols for biodosimetry and other laboratory analysis. The objective was to produce a plain language guidance document for Australian clinicians on the diagnosis and management of radiation injury. It was to be based on evaluation of existing Australian documents, a literature review and consultation of appropriate specialists. Content areas included human health effects of radiation, scenario-based risk assessment and risk management, pre-hospital and hospital systems of care, management of specific injury types, radionuclide pathophysiology and decorporation protocols, biodosimetry options, individual psychological support 'and public health information, and Australian responsibilities under the Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network, of the World Health Organization. The range of resources utilised in preparing the

  2. Variations in Star Excursion Balance Test Performance Between High School and Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Ryan S; Kosik, Kyle B; Beard, Megan Q; Terada, Masafumi; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Gribble, Phillip A

    2015-10-01

    The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) is a reliable inexpensive tool used to assess dynamic postural control deficits and efficacy in the prediction of musculoskeletal injuries, but with little previous consideration for performance differences across age and skill levels. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in SEBT scores between high school and collegiate football players. Three-hundred eighteen high school football players and 180 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate football players volunteered to participate. Star Excursion Balance Test scores were obtained bilaterally for anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions, and for an overall composite (COMP) score. The mean of 3 trials from each leg was normalized to stance leg length and presented as a percentage score. Bilaterally averaged scores were compared between high school and collegiate football players using separate independent t-tests. A multiple linear backward regression determined the amount of variance in SEBT scores explained by age, mass, and height. Compared with collegiate athletes, high school athletes had lower PL (72.8 ± 11.4% vs. 77.1 ± 10.2%; p < 0.001), PM (83.5 ± 10.2% vs. 86.7 ± 10.7%; p = 0.001), and COMP (75.4 ± 8.5% vs. 78.0 ± 7.4%; p = 0.001) scores. Anterior scores did not differ between high school (69.9 ± 7.9%) and collegiate (70.3 ± 7.1%) athletes (p = 0.545). Age, mass, and height were not meaningful contributors to ANT (R = 0.089; p < 0.001), PL (R = 0.032; p < 0.001), PM (R = 0.030; p = 0.002), and COMP (R = 0.048; p < 0.001) variances. Disparity between high school and collegiate athletes should be considered when using the SEBT to identify risk of or deficits related to lower extremity injury in football players. PMID:25785704

  3. Effects of a Custom Bite-Aligning Mouthguard on Performance in College Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Scott N; Swisher, Anna M; Buchanan, Christina A; Donath, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Drum, SN, Swisher, AM, Buchanan, CA, and Donath, L. Effects of a custom bite-aligning mouthguard on performance in college football players. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1409-1415, 2016-Besides injury prevention, mouthguards can also be employed to improve physical performance. The effects of personalization of mouthguards have rarely been investigated. This 3-armed, randomized, controlled crossover trial investigated the difference of wearing (a) personalized or custom-made (CM, e.g., bite-aligned), (b) standard (BB, boil and bite), and (c) no (CON) mouthguards on general fitness parameters in experienced collegiate football players. A group of 10 upperclassmen (age, 19-22 years; mean ± SD: age = 20.7 ± 0.8 years; body mass = 83 ± 7.4 kg; height = 179.1 ± 5.2 cm; body mass index = 25.9 ± 2.2 kg·cm), National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II football players with at least 2 years of playing experience, were randomly assigned to the 3 mouthguard conditions: a randomized, within-subjects repeated-measures design was applied. All participants were randomly tested on strength and endurance performance V[Combining Dot Above]O2max testing, with Bruce treadmill protocol including (a) time to fatigue, (b) blood lactate concentration in millimoles per liter at stage 2 and (c) at peak fatigue, (d) flexibility, (e) reaction time, (f) squat vertical jump, (g) countermovement vertical jump, and (h) 1 repetition maximum bench press. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no significant differences between the 3 conditions for each outcome variable (0.23 enhancement in young Division II football players is questioned. Further studies with larger sample sizes, gender comparison, and (sport) discipline-specific performance testing are needed. PMID:26466128

  4. Turkiye 1. Profesyonel Football Ligi Rekabet Duzeyi: 1958-1998 ( Degree of Football Competition in the Turkish First Division: 1958-1998) (In TURKISH)

    OpenAIRE

    Halicioglu, Ferda

    2005-01-01

    This study is primarily concerned with the degree of professional football competition in the Turkish first division football since its establishment. Moreover, this article aims to find the optimal number of football teams in a league as well as presenting the effects of the changes in point system on the degree of football competition. Finally, the Turkish first division's football competition level is compared to the selected European leagues.

  5. Modern English Football Hooliganism: A Quantitative Exploration in Criminological Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Rich A.

    1998-01-01

    Studies of football hooliganism have developed in a number of academic disciplines, yet little of this literature directly relates to criminology. The fighting, disorderly conduct, and destructive behavior of those who attend football matches, especially in Europe has blossomed over the past thirty years and deserves criminological attention. Football hooliganism is criminal activity, but is unique because of its context specific nature, occurring almost entirely inside the grounds or in prox...

  6. Developing Youth Football Academies in Greece: Managing Issues and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Trikalis; Zisis Papanikolaou; Sofia Trikali

    2014-01-01

    Present study firstly investigated the goals and objectives of youth football academies in Greece, according to the different sector that they operate (public, private, voluntary) and secondly created proposals for future youth football academies development. Research was conducted in Greece, at the period of 2010-2011. Fourteen youth football academies participated in this study and divided into three categories (five academies in commercial sector, four academies in public sector, and five ...

  7. Ambivalent football : an ethnographic approach to postcolonial player migration

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: This thesis is based on data stemming from fieldwork conducted during the spring of 2007, in a professional football club in Lisbon, Portugal. I am interested in how migrant players from the former colonies are included in the local football community. This thesis thus explores the inclusion and exclusion mechanisms of Portuguese football. The ethnographic approach led me to an exploration of local manifestations of global migration processes. Foreign players are making their ma...

  8. Women’s Football: Still in the Hands of Men

    OpenAIRE

    John Schulz; Louise Stirling

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the experiences of a group of women footballers growing up in England. It specifically looks at their similarities and differences in relation to how they entered the world of football and whether gender relations continue to impact on both their access to and opportunities in sport. The discussion draws on information from nine semi structured interviews with women of varying ages and mixed abilities who have grown up and played football in England. The interview data...

  9. Tomgoy and Tombirl: football girls and negotiating the gendered self

    OpenAIRE

    Pielichaty, Hanya

    2015-01-01

    Girls’ and women’s football is currently experiencing high levels of media attention, financial support and significant participation rates. This progression is seemingly positive for the game but does not necessarily mirror changing ideological views about females playing football. This paper will explore the manner in which football girls negotiate their gendered Web of Selves through participation. A sport feminist lens was used to explore the spoken conversations shared during a season-lo...

  10. Price, Income & Unemployment Effects on Greek Professional Football

    OpenAIRE

    Vassiliki Avgerinou; Stefanos Giakoumatos

    2009-01-01

    Based on data of 26 Greek professional football clubs of Division A’ and B’ for 16 seasons (1991/92-2006/07), we investigate the effect of sporting and economic variables on the attendance in Greek football stadia. Price, income and unemployment are found to be statistically significant in the small Greek football market, while controlling for classic sporting determinants of demand such as success, entertainment and promotion/relegation. We include two more dummy variables; one for the new s...

  11. Effects of two football stud configurations on biomechanical characteristics of single-leg landing and cutting movements on infilled synthetic turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Elizabeth; Zhang, Songning; Milner, Clare; Liu, Xuan; Brosnan, James T; Sorochan, John C

    2014-11-01

    Multiple playing surfaces and footwear used in American football warrant a better understanding of relationship between different combinations of turf and footwear. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of shoe and stud types on ground reaction force (GRF) and ankle and knee kinematics of a 180° cut and a single-leg 90° land-cut on synthetic turf. Fourteen recreational football players performed five trials of the 180° cut and 90° land-cut in three shoe conditions: non-studded running shoe, and football shoe with natural and synthetic turf studs. Variables were analyzed with a 3 × 2 (shoe × movement) repeated measures analysis of variance (p vertical GRF (p loading rate (p vertical GRF and loading rate compared to the 180° cut. Overall, increased GRFs in the 90° land-cut movement may increase the chance of injury. PMID:25301011

  12. Valuation of football players : a complete pricing framework

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbrandsen, Anders Munkhaugen; Gulbrandsen, Christian Munkhaugen

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we will describe a football player’s value to a football club. First we will explore how a player can generate revenue. In doing so, we will describe two valuation factors, where a football player can fulfil none, one or both of them. The two factors will describe how a football player can generate revenue for his club. Next we will present a valuation model based on theory from option pricing. The valuation model will be linked up to the two factors, and give us...

  13. Gambling and football: Epidemiological research on gambling participation and problem gambling among adult football players in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Tryggvi Þór Einarsson 1990

    2016-01-01

    There is not much known about the gambling behaviour of Icelandic football players. Aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of total gambling participation and problem gambling among Icelandic football players, to examine if Icelandic football players have been involved in behaviour that could possibly be related to game fixing and to examine players attitudes towards banning coaches and players to gamble on games the Icelandic championship. Participants were 725, of which 75...

  14. Heat Illness in Football: Current Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Austin R; Sikka, Robby; Olson, David E

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing health and safety concerns, American football remains a vastly popular sport in the United States. Unfortunately, even with increased efforts in promoting education and hydration, the incidence of death from exertional heat stroke continues to rise. General risk factors such as hydration status, obesity, fitness level, and football-specific risk factors such as timing of training camp and equipment all contribute to the development of heat illness. At the professional level, changes have been made to effectively reduce mortality from heat stroke with no deaths since August 2001. However, there have been at least 33 total deaths at the high school and collegiate levels since this time. More efforts need to be focused at these levels to mandate exertional heat illness prevention guidelines in order to reverse this trend of mortality in our younger athletes. PMID:26561768

  15. Micropolitical workings in semi-professional football

    OpenAIRE

    Potrac, Paul; Jones, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to illuminate the micropolitical strategies that Gavin (a pseudonym) used in an attempt to persuade the players, the assistant coach, and the chairman at Erewhon City Football (soccer) Club to “buy into” his coaching program and methods. Data for the study were collected through in-depth, semistructured interviews, and a reflective log relating to those interviews. The interviews were transcribed verbatim with the subsequent transcripts being subject to a process of ...

  16. Medicolegal aspects of doping in football

    OpenAIRE

    Graf‐Baumann, T

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the historical background of the medicolegal aspects of doping in sports and especially in football. The definitions of legal terms are explained and the procedure of individual case management as part of FIFA's approach to doping is presented. Finally, three medicolegal problems awaiting urgent solution are outlined: firstly, the difficulties in decision making arising from the decrease of the T/E ratio from 6 to 4; secondly, the therapeutic application of α‐reductase ...

  17. Football to Improve Math and Reading Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Van Klaveren, C.; Witte, K.

    2012-01-01

    Schools frequently increase instructional time to improve students' numeric and reading performance, but there is little evidence on the effectiveness of such an increase. This study evaluates 'Playing for Success', an extended day program for underachieving pupils that uses the football environment as a motivating force. Primary school pupils with low motivation and self-esteem are offered practical and sports related teaching content for 30 additional hours. The program is evaluated using a...

  18. Robot Football Team from Minho University

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Carlos; Costa, Ilidio; Sampaio, Sérgio; Ribeiro, António Fernando

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an Autonomous Mobile Robot team which plays football, developed by the Group of Automation and Robotics at the Industrial Electronics department of the University of Minho, in Guimarães (Portugal). In this competition each team is free to use and/or build all the different electronics, sensory systems, playing algorithms, etc. as far as they cope with the rules imposed by the organisation. Instead of using several different sensors increasing electronics complexity, th...

  19. Developing Youth Football Academies in Greece: Managing Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Trikalis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study firstly investigated the goals and objectives of youth football academies in Greece, according to the different sector that they operate (public, private, voluntary and secondly created proposals for future youth football academies development. Research was conducted in Greece, at the period of 2010-2011. Fourteen youth football academies participated in this study and divided into three categories (five academies in commercial sector, four academies in public sector, and five academies in voluntary sector. Goals and objectives in each youth football academy were recorded in three different theoretical areas: a administrative, b coaching, and c supportive services. Data were collected through interviews via open and closed question formats from fourteen administrative and fourteen coaching staff of the corresponding teams. Qualitative analysis was applied. The results of the study indicated significant differences in operation of youth football academies according to the different sector they operated: a the commercial sector academies attempted to improve rapidly the technical skills of child footballers, using their good facilities / services, b the public sector academies aimed primarily to improve the number of children, and c the voluntary sector academies aimed mainly to identify footballers talent and excellent skills. The above results, conducted the following proposals for the overall development of youth football academies in Greece: a a new management philosophy should require to adopted by football stakeholders, b scientific methods of training and cooperation with scientific institutions should be applied, and c any action should be taken in mind the recent economic crisis in Greece. In conclusion, youth football academies in the region of Thessaly _ in which this study was conducted_ could be under development if new management strategies be adopted by football shareholders.

  20. ACCURACY IN FOOTBALL: SCORING A GOAL AS THE ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE OF FOOTBALL GAME

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Milenković; Igor Stanojević

    2013-01-01

    The study included 60 young football players aged 10 and 11 years with the aim to examine the influence of motor skills on a specific accuracy in football. The following tests for assessment of motoric abilities were used: Coordination: jumping over the horizontal rope, envelope test, figure „8“ with bending; Flexibility: forward bend-standing upper-body rotation-touch, the splits, side-stepping with a baton; Balance: standing on one leg along the balance bench, standing on one leg with eyes ...

  1. An Exploratory Study of the Potential Effects of Vision Training on Concussion Incidence in Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F. Clark, PHD, ATC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vision training has become a component of sports enhancement training; however, quantifiable and validated improvement in visual performance has not been clearly demonstrated. In addition, there is minimal literature related to the effects of vision training on sports performance and injury risk reduction. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine the effects of vision training on peripheral vision and concussion incidence. Methods: Vision training was initiated among the University of Cincinnati football team at the beginning of the 2010 season and continued for four years (2010 to 2013. The sports vision enhancement was conducted during the two weeks of preseason camp. Typical vision training consisted of Dynavision D2 light board training, Nike strobe glasses, and tracking drills. Nike Strobe glasses and tracking drills were done with pairs of pitch-and-catch drills using footballs and tennis balls, with instructions to vary arc, speed, and trajectory. For skilled players, “high ball” drills were the focus, whereas for linemen, bounce passes and low pitch drills were stressed. Reaction time data was recorded for each athlete during every Dynavision D2 training session. We monitored the incidence of concussion during the four consecutive seasons of vision training, as well as the previous four consecutive seasons, and compared incidence of concussions (2006 to 2009 referent seasons v. 2010 to 2013 vision training seasons. Results: During the 2006-2013 pre- and regular football seasons, there were 41 sustained concussion events reported. The overall concussion incidence rate for the entire cohort was 5.1 cases per 100 player seasons. When the data were evaluated relative to vision trained versus referent untrained player seasons, a statistically significant lower rate of concussion was noted in player season in the vision training cohort (1.4 concussions per 100 player seasons compared to players who did not

  2. Injury prevention strategies at the FIFA 2014 World Cup: perceptions and practices of the physicians from the 32 participating national teams

    OpenAIRE

    McCall, Alan; Davison, Michael; Andersen, Thor Einar; Beasley, Ian; Bizzini, Mario; Dupont, Gregory; Duffield, Rob; Carling, Chris; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The available scientific research regarding injury prevention practices in international football is sparse. The purpose of this study was to quantify current practice with regard to (1) injury prevention of top-level footballers competing in an international tournament, and (2) determine the main challenges and issues faced by practitioners in these national teams. Methods A survey was administered to physicians of the 32 competing national teams at the FIFA 2014 World Cup. The surve...

  3. Injury prevention strategies at the FIFA 2014 World Cup: perceptions and practices of the physicians from the 32 participating national teams

    OpenAIRE

    McCall, Alan; Davison, Michael; Andersen, Thor Einar; Beasley, Ian; Bizzini, Mario; Dupont, Gregory; Duffield, Rob; Carling, Chris; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The available scientific research regarding injury prevention practices in international football is sparse. The purpose of this study was to quantify current practice with regard to (1) injury prevention of top-level footballers competing in an international tournament, and (2) determine the main challenges and issues faced by practitioners in these national teams. Methods: A survey was administered to physicians of the 32 competing national teams at the FIFA 2014 World Cup. The...

  4. The colour of a football outfit affects visibility and team success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Rikkert, J.; Haes, V.D.; Barsingerhorn, A.D.; Theelen, T.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the colour of football outfits on localising football players and on the results of football matches. Two studies were conducted: an experimental study examining the effects of outfit colour on the assessment of the positions of computer-animated football players in a v

  5. Sport or School? Dreams and Dilemmas for Talented Young Danish Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr

    2009-01-01

    Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…

  6. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  7. Metaphorical Conceptualizations of Football Coach through Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervent, Fatih; Inan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the metaphors which were used to describe the concept "football coach" by some stakeholders in football, such as players, club officials and referees. Each individual (N = 389) within the study group was asked to reveal the single metaphor s/he has in mind in respect of the concept of football…

  8. Playoffs & Payoffs: The College Football-Coaching Carousel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer Lee

    2015-01-01

    The circulation of head football coaches is a well-established practice, and with it, salary costs are significantly outpacing other spending as institutions compete in the pursuit of prestige. This movement of college football coaches is known in the popular press as the "coaching carousel." The carousel is a fitting metaphor for a…

  9. Female football players don't have balls

    OpenAIRE

    Lippe, Gerd von der

    2008-01-01

    You need balls to play football. So it is obvious that being a girl just won't do as far as the guys are concerned, says Gerd von der Lippe in a devastating critique of the state of affairs in the reporting and support of women's football in Norway.

  10. Asserting the Right to Play. Women’s Football in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brus, Anne Birgitte; Trangbæk, Else

    2004-01-01

    In 1970 the Danish Football club Boldklubben Femina (BK Femina) became unofficial world champions. The success of BK Femina women's football team was not a coincidence and should be placed in the context of a ten-year struggle to have football accepted as a sport for women in Denmark. This essay...... examines three consecutive periods in Danish women's football: the establishment of women's football in Denmark before 1970; the time of women's admission to the Danish Football Association (DBU) in 1970–72; and finally, the development of women's football in the DBU from 1972 to 2002....

  11. Psychological features of personality and perspective of young footballers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukova L.M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research - the identification of a person's psychological, define promising young players. The study involved 56 players aged 13-17 years, enrolled in training groups of at the stage of basic training specialist. The necessity of study of personality's structure in young footballers at prognostication of perspective of young footballers has confirmed. The degree of expression of personality qualities in footballers on the stage of the specialized base preparation was determined. The search of distinctions of indexes of personality qualities of sportsmen perspective and unpromising is conducted. Intercommunication between activity of footballers intellectual and sporting is exposed. Information about psychological features can be instrumental in prognostication of development of the special capabilities of footballers in the sporting activity.

  12. Position-Specific Hip and Knee Kinematics in NCAA Football Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneweth, Jessica M.; Pomeroy, Shannon M.; Russell, Jason R.; McLean, Scott G.; Zernicke, Ronald F.; Bedi, Asheesh; Goulet, Grant C.

    2014-01-01

    to negatively correlate with maximal knee kinematics. Conclusion: A normative database of hip and knee kinematics utilized by football athletes was developed. Position-specific analyses revealed that linemen use smaller joint motions when executing dynamic tasks but do not demonstrate passive range of motion deficits compared with other positions. Clinical Relevance: Knowledge of requisite game-like hip and knee ranges of motion is critical for developing goals for nonoperative or surgical recovery of hip and knee range of motion in the symptomatic athlete. These data help to identify playing positions that require remedial hip-related strength and conditioning protocols. Negative correlations between hip and knee kinematics indicated that constrained hip motion, as seen in linemen, could promote injurious motions at the knee. PMID:26535334

  13. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried...

  14. Tech to Protect Football Players' Heads Technology Emerging to Detect and Prevent Concussions in Football

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amanda Onion; 丁娓娓

    2004-01-01

    @@ During a Saturday night football game under the lights this September,DeShawn Smith snagged② a pass③ and turned to run when he was smacked by a defensive player--helmet④ to helmet. He struggled to his feet and walked to the sideline, where he sat down and collapsed.

  15. ACCURACY IN FOOTBALL: SCORING A GOAL AS THE ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE OF FOOTBALL GAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Milenković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study included 60 young football players aged 10 and 11 years with the aim to examine the influence of motor skills on a specific accuracy in football. The following tests for assessment of motoric abilities were used: Coordination: jumping over the horizontal rope, envelope test, figure „8“ with bending; Flexibility: forward bend-standing upper-body rotation-touch, the splits, side-stepping with a baton; Balance: standing on one leg along the balance bench, standing on one leg with eyes closed, flamingo test. Tests for specific accuracy in football included: elevational accuracy by foot - vertical target, elevational accuracy by foot - horizontal target, linear accuracy by foot - vertical target, the hits of ball by foot on the wall after it rebounces from the surface, elevational accuracy by head - vertical target and elevational accuracy by head - horizontal target. Results obtained by processing the data applying canonical correlation and regression analysis indicated the indisputable influence of motor abilities of young football players on the majority of specific accuracy tests.

  16. Private firm, public corporation or member's association – Governance structures in European football

    OpenAIRE

    Egon Franck

    2010-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the specific industry environment in which football clubs compete, this paper presents a comparative institutional analysis of three paradigmatic structures of football club governance: classical (privately owned) football firms, modern football corporations (stock corporations with dispersed ownership) and members’ associations with an own legal personality (Verein). The results of the analysis are applied to current developments in German and English football and to...

  17. RESEARCHING THE EFFECT OF FOOTBALL IN DISTRIBUTION OF SOLE PRESSURE IN FEMALE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzun Ahmet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research is to research the effect of football on sole comparing the peak pressure, average maximal pressure and pressure–time integral pedobarographic parameters of 11 contact areas of soles of professional female football players and healthy individuals. Working Plan: 22 female football players (18,80 ± 2,2 age and 28 female volunteers (27,5 ±6,6 age (as the control group having no foot complaints were included in the study. In the research EMED-SF (Novel GmbH, Munich, Germany plantar pressure analysis system was used. It was examined whether there was any statistically significant difference between the experiment and control group means using non-parametric Mann Whitney U test, the size of the linear relation between physical structure and variables of sole was examined by calculating Pearson’s (r coefficient. In the measurements 95% reliability range and P < 0.01 – 0.05 were accepted as meaningfulness level. Findings: At the end of the measurements, it was found that there were meaningful differences between the female football players and control group in right foot 2 left feet 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th metatarsal heads sole 11 contact areas peak pressure and in the 3rd, 4th and 5th toes, at average maximal pressure in right and left foot in 2nd metatarsal heads and time pressure integral in right foot 2nd and 3rd metatarsal heads and left foot heel medial, heel lateral, 2nd, 3rd and 4th metatarsal heads. Arguments: In our findings, it was found that the pressure in football players’ sole front interior regions was higher than both the control group and the other regions in their own feet. It was determined that the particularly the crampons used by the football players were insufficient to protect the sole and failed to prevent permanent sole pressure parameters. As a result, Football players’ excessive pressing against their soles in forcing movements in long term exercises and matches are indicated to

  18. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players...... weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short...... (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen...

  19. Localized bioimpedance to assess muscle injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injuries to lower limb muscles are common among football players. Localized bioimpedance analysis (BIA) utilizes electrical measurements to assess soft tissue hydration and cell membrane integrity non-invasively. This study reports the effects of the severity of muscle injury and recovery on BIA variables. We made serial tetra-polar, phase-sensitive 50 kHz localized BIA measurements of quadriceps, hamstring and calf muscles of three male football players before and after injury and during recovery until return-to-play, to determine changes in BIA variables (resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase angle (PA)) in different degrees of muscle injury. Compared to non-injury values, R, Xc and PA decreased with increasing muscle injury severity: grade III (23.1%, 45.1% and 27.6%), grade II (20.6%, 31.6% and 13.3%) and grade I (11.9%, 23.5% and 12.1%). These findings indicate that decreases in R reflect localized fluid accumulation, and reductions in Xc and PA highlight disruption of cellular membrane integrity and injury. Localized BIA measurements of muscle groups enable the practical detection of soft tissue injury and its severity. (paper)

  20. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jepsen

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband) stations (see fig. 1 and table 1). The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  1. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jepsen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband stations (see fig. 1 and table 1. The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  2. Locomotor activity of professional football referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manilo Y.V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To study the structure of the motor activity of foreign (European football referees qualifications and Ukrainian arbitrators (Premier League, the first, second league. The objectives of the study was to determine the amount and direction of the motor activity of soccer referees. Also perform a comparative analysis of the motor activity of football referees of different qualifications in Europe and Ukraine. Material : The study involved 38 referees - soccer referees first, second, of the Premier League with the different regions of Ukraine, as well as foreign arbitrators FIFA. Results : It was found that in the period of the motor activity of the arbitrator was walking - 13.0% of the total distance when moving, running at a moderate pace - 67.4%, accelerating - 16.7%, jumps - 2.9%. Average per match referee overcomes distance 8970.2 m: foreign arbitrators - 12,030.0 m., Arbitrators Premier League - 9292.5 m., 1 league - 7530.0 m., 2 leagues - 7028.3 m. Ukrainian Premier League referees are inferior to move moderate jogging foreign arbitrators FIFA respectively - 6,425.0 m (69.1% and 9615.3 m (79.9%. Conclusions : The results of the research showed that the magnitude of motor activity during football matches in professional arbitrators may be different. It depends on their physical fitness Championship (competition, the league, the level of the teams playing, the nature of the intensity of the match. The arbitrator must remain near the gaming moments to control them and prevent possible confrontation.

  3. Squash ball to eye ball: the likelihood of squash players incurring an eye injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrell, G V; Cooper, P J; Elkington, A R; Macfadyen, J M; Powell, R G; Tormey, P

    1981-10-01

    The records of the 118 patients treated as Southampton Eye Hospital during 1978-9 for injuries incurred while playing squash, badminton, tennis, table tennis, cricket, and football show that for squash the main cause of eye injury was the player being hit by the ball. Severe eye injuries--those requiring treatment as an inpatient--were rare but much more frequent than such injuries in other sports. Less serious injuries--those requiring treatment as an outpatient--were also rare, with a frequency comparable with that of similar injuries in football and badminton. Squash players are most unlikely to incur an eye injury, but should this occur it has far-reaching consequences both in the short and the long term. Each individual player must weigh these chances and consequences against the possible inconvenience of using some form of eye protection. PMID:6793167

  4. Technology of physical training young footballers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Nikolaenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove the technology of physical training of young players. Material and Methods: pedagogical observation and analysis of literature, both in the field of football, sports physiology and in the use of technologies that protect the health of the process of physical training of young athletes. Results: notes the need to review approaches to the organization of long-term preparation of sportsmen. It established the contradiction between the increasing demand for training of young sportsmen and features of the growing organism. Conclusion: the ways of rational construction of training process on the basis of the strategy of preparation of sports reserve and health at talented youth

  5. ARCTIC FOOTBALL FORUMIN VISUAALISEN IDENTITEETIN SUUNNITTELU

    OpenAIRE

    Tanninen, Aki

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on visuaalisen identiteetin suunnitteleminen Arctic Football Forum -jalkapallokonferenssille. Toteutin työn työskennellessäni mainostoimisto Familyssä. Työskentelytapa oli itsenäinen, mutta työskentely tapahtui mainos-toimistossa ja minulla oli mahdollisuus saada konsultointia muilta graafisilta suunnittelijoilta. Tutkin opinnäytetytössäni visuaalisen identiteetin rakennetta ja sen yhteyttä onnistuneeseen visuaaliseen lopputulokseen. Avaan käytännö...

  6. British Asians, Covert Racism and Exclusion in English Professional Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kilvington

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group. Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work will provide an overview of the barriers that have excluded British Asian football communities from the professional ranks. In particular, I shall discuss some of the key obstacles including overt racism, ‘all-Asian’ football structures and cultural differences. However, the focus of this paper is to explore the impact and persist-ing nature of institutional racism within football. With the aid of oral testimonies, this work shall present British Asian experiences of covert racism in the game. I shall therefore demonstrate that coaches/scouts (as gatekeepers have a tendency to stereotype and racialize British Asian footballers, thus exacerbating the British Asian football exclusion. Finally, the article will offer policy recommendations for reform. These recommendations, which have come out of primary and secondary research, aspire to challenge institutional racism and combat inequalities within the game.

  7. Women’s Football: Still in the Hands of Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schulz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the experiences of a group of women footballers growing up in England. It specifically looks at their similarities and differences in relation to how they entered the world of football and whether gender relations continue to impact on both their access to and opportunities in sport. The discussion draws on information from nine semi structured interviews with women of varying ages and mixed abilities who have grown up and played football in England. The interview data highlights the prevalence of early male influence within the game and what effect the school education system has on young girls. What emerges from the interviews is that male figures tend to be the most influential in encouraging girls to play football. Developments seem to be being made at primary school level as girls’ access to football is improving. However, whatever strides are gained becomes lost as soon as the girls commence secondary school, due to the absence of football from the curriculum. As the girls reach adulthood the traditional feminine values are more highly sort after, so ‘tomboyish’ behaviours are considered unsuitable and unnatural. There are entrenched cultural attitudes towards the women’s game, which are proving hard to break down. These along with the physical barriers make women’s involvement in sport very difficult, even more so with football.

  8. The Financial Performance of the Greek Football Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Dimitropoulos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the financial performance of the football clubs participating within the first division of the Greek football league for a period of 14 years (1993-2006 and to propose specific actions that need to be taken by both managers and regulators in order to improve the financial stability of the clubs. We perform financial analysis of key accounting ratios extracted from the football club’s annual financial statements in order to explain the particular causes of the recent financial crisis which characterizes the Greek professional football league. The analysis of the clubs’ annual financial statements revealed that the Greek football clubs are highly leveraged, have intense liquidity and profitability problems and face an increased danger of financial distress, despite the increased amounts that football clubs invested during 2005. The above mentioned crisis can be attributed to aggregate financial mismanagement and political inefficiencies during the last fifteen years. The paper proposes specific actions that need to be taken by both managers and regulators in order to improve the financial stability of the clubs and the overall competitiveness of the Greek football league.

  9. The accounting and tax legislation of the Greek football clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANAGIOTIS E. DIMITROPOULOS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 1979 was a cornerstone for the football in Greece, since it practically meant the transformation of the sport’s organization from amateurism to professionalism, establishing new rules and conditions to the management of football clubs. The increased popularity of this sport and the evolutions that took place in Europe and worldwide, forced the Greek government to establish a legislative framework for the successful management of football clubs. These interventions lead to changes in many aspects of football management such as organizational and financial. The new legal environment of football management, required the organization of this sport into a more stable and professional base, following the financial standards of other corporations operating within the Greek state. By these means the government wanted to create a fair economic framework under which the football clubs would operate with common organizational, financial and tax administration rules. The aim of this paper is to present the characteristics of the new «capital form» establishment of the football clubs (Societe Anonyme, the main financial frame under which the new establishment has to operate and the tax obligations that originate from the aforementioned legal form.

  10. Finacial Expertise, Authority and Power in the European Football 'Industry'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertbert F. Moorhouse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to provoke discussion about two issues. Firstly, how do economic ideas, concepts, theories, principles and information enter into the discourse of the owners and controllers of Europe’s most popular sport – football – and into political discussion about the game? It stresses the role management consultants have created for themselves in the new football 'industry'. Secondly, as a specific example of the general concern, the paper considers the role of the Deloitte company in European football. Its publications – especially the Annual Reviews of Football Finance – have been very influential and the company has acted as consultants for UEFA on many of the key issues in contemporary football. The paper critically assesses the approach Deloitte has adopted to the commercialisation of football, and explores difficulties in the way it has analysed some of the key issues in European football. It suggests that some countervailing forces need to be created to limit the authority and influence Deloitte currently exercise.

  11. Incidence and severity of reported acute sports injuries in 35 sports using insurance registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åman, M; Forssblad, M; Henriksson-Larsén, K

    2016-04-01

    Acute injuries in sport are still a problem where limited knowledge of incidence and severity in different sports at national level exists. In Sweden, 80% of the sports federations have their mandatory injury insurance for all athletes in the same insurance company and injury data are systematically kept in a national database. The aim of the study was to identify high-risk sports with respect to incidence of acute and severe injuries in 35 sports reported to the database. The number and incidences of injuries as well as injuries leading to permanent medical impairment (PMI) were calculated during 2008-2011. Each year approximately 12,000 injuries and 1,162,660 licensed athletes were eligible for analysis. Eighty-five percent of the injuries were reported in football, ice hockey, floorball, and handball. The highest injury incidence as well as PMI was in motorcycle, handball, skating, and ice hockey. Females had higher risk of a PMI compared with males in automobile sport, handball, floorball, and football. High-risk sports with numerous injuries and high incidence of PMI injuries were motorcycle, handball, ice hockey, football, floorball, and automobile sports. Thus, these sports ought to be the target of preventive actions at national level. PMID:25850826

  12. Football as promotion of active citizenship and identity development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Knud Eske; Stelter, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    encouraged and motivated to develop life-skills to support everyday life. Furthermore they learn to be part of a team, enhancing their social capability which expands their possibilities for adjusting to society. 3 weekly training sessions, matches and coach education for motivated boys are part of the study...... expressed to be enhanced due to the study. Conclusions are not definite yet, but will indicate how to structure and work with active citizenship through football. The main result will thus point out the social effects football can have for these boys, and how football can help to establish a connection and...

  13. Elevated gastrocnemius forces compensate for decreased hamstrings forces during the weight-acceptance phase of single-leg jump landing: implications for anterior cruciate ligament injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kristin D; Donnelly, Cyril J; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-17

    Approximately 320,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the United States each year are non-contact injuries, with many occurring during a single-leg jump landing. To reduce ACL injury risk, one option is to improve muscle strength and/or the activation of muscles crossing the knee under elevated external loading. This study's purpose was to characterize the relative force production of the muscles supporting the knee during the weight-acceptance (WA) phase of single-leg jump landing and investigate the gastrocnemii forces compared to the hamstrings forces. Amateur male Western Australian Rules Football players completed a single-leg jump landing protocol and six participants were randomly chosen for further modeling and simulation. A three-dimensional, 14-segment, 37 degree-of-freedom, 92 muscle-tendon actuated model was created for each participant in OpenSim. Computed muscle control was used to generate 12 muscle-driven simulations, 2 trials per participant, of the WA phase of single-leg jump landing. A one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc analysis showed both the quadriceps and gastrocnemii muscle force estimates were significantly greater than the hamstrings (p<0.001). Elevated gastrocnemii forces corresponded with increased joint compression and lower ACL forces. The elevated quadriceps and gastrocnemii forces during landing may represent a generalized muscle strategy to increase knee joint stiffness, protecting the knee and ACL from external knee loading and injury risk. These results contribute to our understanding of how muscle's function during single-leg jump landing and should serve as the foundation for novel muscle-targeted training intervention programs aimed to reduce ACL injuries in sport. PMID:25218505

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOBBING (PSYCHOLOGICAL VIOLENCE AND LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FOOTBALL TRAINERS IN TURKISH FOOTBALL CLUBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep CENGİZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to determine the relationship between Mobbing and Level of Job Satisfaction among football trainers in football clubs. In this research the data was gathered randomly from Turkish football trainers who had participated in Turkish trainer development seminar 2010-2011 which was organized jointly by Football Federation of Turkey and Turkey Football Coaches Association. Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ which was developed by Einarsen, Raknes, Matthiesen and Hellesoy and adopted by Cemaloglu into Turkish version and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ were applied to all participants. 524 of them answered the questionnaire and 515 out of 524 were evaluated. The answers from the questionnaire were analyzed by Reliability analysis and Correlation analysis. Sub dimensions of NAQ are positively correlated with moderate level. The highest positive correlation was found between organizational communication and duty. On the other hand the lowest correlation was found between organizational communication and social relationships. It is easily seen that from the analysis, level of Job satisfaction of football trainers who was exposed to mobbing is lower than who was not exposed. As a result of this survey there is a relationship between level of job satisfaction and mobbing especially in younger football trainers.

  15. Australian G20 Presidency

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei G. Sakharov; Andrei V. Shelepov; Elizaveta A. Safonkina; Mark R. Rakhmangulov

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Australian presidency took place against the backdrop of multiple challenges in both global economy and international politics, with Ukrainian crisis, Syrian conflict, Islamic State, and Ebola. Thus, despite being an economic forum, the G20 could not avoid addressing these issues, with discussions taking place during the bilateral meetings and on the sidelines of the forum. The article attempts to analyze the Australian G20 Presidency within a functional paradigm, assessing G20 perfo...

  16. Consequences of repeated blood-brain barrier disruption in football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Nicola; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Puvenna, Vikram; Janigro, Mattia; Ghosh, Chaitali; Zhong, Jianhui; Zhu, Tong; Blackman, Eric; Stewart, Desiree; Ellis, Jasmina; Butler, Robert; Janigro, Damir

    2013-01-01

    The acknowledgement of risks for traumatic brain injury in American football players has prompted studies for sideline concussion diagnosis and testing for neurological deficits. While concussions are recognized etiological factors for a spectrum of neurological sequelae, the consequences of sub-concussive events are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) and the accompanying surge of the astrocytic protein S100B in blood may cause an immune response associated with production of auto-antibodies. We also wished to determine whether these events result in disrupted white matter on diffusion tensor imaging (DT) scans. Players from three college football teams were enrolled (total of 67 volunteers). None of the players experienced a concussion. Blood samples were collected before and after games (n = 57); the number of head hits in all players was monitored by movie review and post-game interviews. S100B serum levels and auto-antibodies against S100B were measured and correlated by direct and reverse immunoassays (n = 15 players; 5 games). A subset of players underwent DTI scans pre- and post-season and after a 6-month interval (n = 10). Cognitive and functional assessments were also performed. After a game, transient BBB damage measured by serum S100B was detected only in players experiencing the greatest number of sub-concussive head hits. Elevated levels of auto-antibodies against S100B were elevated only after repeated sub-concussive events characterized by BBBD. Serum levels of S100B auto-antibodies also predicted persistence of MRI-DTI abnormalities which in turn correlated with cognitive changes. Even in the absence of concussion, football players may experience repeated BBBD and serum surges of the potential auto-antigen S100B. The correlation of serum S100B, auto-antibodies and DTI changes support a link between repeated BBBD and future risk for cognitive changes. PMID:23483891

  17. Football Coaches' Practical Sense of Talent. A Qualitative Study of Talent Identification in Danish National Youth Team Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    particular the concept of practical sense. The data compile from eight biographical, in-depth interviews with Danish national youth team football coaches. The interviews are analyzed through a process of coding and recoding. Thematic cross-case analyses as well as purposeful selected single-case analyses are......' classificatory schemes. Conclusively, the study supports the theory that talent identification in top-level football is strongly connected to the coach's practical sense of the game and taste for football talents. Furthermore, the study points at the importance of being aware of the person "behind" the coach...

  18. COMPARING COMPETITIVE BALANCE IN AUSTRALIAN SPORTS LEAGUES, THE AFL, NBL AND NRL: DOES THE AFL'S TEAM SALARY CAP AND PLAYER DRAFT MEASURE UP?

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Booth

    2005-01-01

    In the period following the introduction by the Australian Football League (AFL) of the team salary cap in 1985 and the player draft at the end of 1986, within-season competitive balance (measured by the seasonal distribution of team win percents) has increased. This paper continues the investigation into whether the improvement in competitive balance in the AFL can be attributed to these labour market changes by examining competitive balance outcomes and labour market changes in two other Au...

  19. Individual and social factors associated with workplace injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Kumar

    2011-01-01

    636,000 Australians injured themselves in a work-related injury in the period 2009-2010. Of these injured Australians, 88% continued to work in their same place, 5.2% had to change their jobs, and 6.9% were no longer employed. Men continue to be the most injured individuals in workplace injuries (56%) with the highest rates of injury in the 45-49 years (72 per 1000 people) and 20-24 years (63 per 1000 people) age groups. Furthermore, 59% of these 636,000 Australians injured in workplace injur...

  20. A relationship between temperature and aggression in NFL football penalties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Curtis Craig; Randy W. Overbeek; Miles V. Condon; Shannon B. Rinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased ambient temperature has been implicated in increased physical aggression, which has important practical consequences. The present study investigates this established relationship between aggressive behavior and ambient temperature in the highly aggressive context of professional football in the National Football League (NFL). Methods: Using a publicly available dataset, authors conducted multiple hierarchical regression analyses on game-level data (2326 games). Results: The analysis revealed that temperature positively predicted aggressive penalties in football, and that this relationship was significant for teams playing at home but not for visiting teams. Conclusion: These results indicate that even in the aggressive context of football, warmer weather contributes to increased violence. Further, the presence of the heat-aggression relationship for the home team suggests that the characteristics of interacting groups may influence whether heat would have an adverse effect on the outcome of those interactions.

  1. Main trends and patterns in Women’s Football Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Tiesler, Nina Clara

    2011-01-01

    Paper presented at the International conference “Globalization, Migration and Development: The role of Football from a transnational perspective,” at Maastricht University, co-organized by Sport Science Institute of the University of Lausanne, 23 June 2011

  2. Refereeing and the perspectives of a career in football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Petracovschi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the profile of the referee from the Football County Association from the Timis county. With the help of the sociological investigation, a questionnaire with 32 items was applied on a group of 63 referees (57 male and 6 female. It has been noticed that the majority of referees have practiced football up to a certain level and failing to make a sportive career in football has determined the choice of a career in refereeing. In conclusion, refereeing is an option for a future career that can be practiced at the highest level (1st League of UEFA referee until the age of 45. After reaching this age, these people can become observers (for the Romanian Football Federation or UEFA.

  3. Observational methodology in football: Development of an instrument to study the offensive game in football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sarmento

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper introduces a new approach to the analysis of offensive game in football. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to create an instrument for collecting information for the analysis of offensive action and interactions game. The observation instrument that was used to accomplish the main objective of this work consists of a combination of format fields (FC and systems of categories (SC. This methodology is a particular strategy of the scientific method that has as an objective to analyse the perceptible behaviour that occurs in habitual contexts, allowing them to be formally recorded and quantified and using an ad hoc instrument in order to obtain a behaviour systematic registration that, since they have been transformed in quantitative data with the necessary reliability and validity determined level, will allow analysis of the relations between these behaviours. The codifications undertaken to date in various games of football have shown that it serves the purposes for which it was developed, allowing more research into the offensive game methods in football.

  4. A goal-setting system for offensive football coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Harrah, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Goal setting is one of the most effective techniques developed for enhancing performance. This paper has presented an outline of how the principles of goal setting might be applied to offensive football. As teams and situations vary greatly, it was not the focus of this paper to provide exact goals and examples for every situation, but rather to suggest how the principles of goal setting might be adapted to an offensive football setting, and to suggest resources ...

  5. Alcohol marketing in televised international football: frequency analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Jean; Coleman, James; White, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol marketing includes sponsorship of individuals, organisations and sporting events. Football (soccer) is one of the most popular spectator sports worldwide. No previous studies have quantified the frequency of alcohol marketing in a high profile international football tournament. The aims were to determine: the frequency and nature of visual references to alcohol in a representative sample of EURO2012 matches broadcast in the UK; and if frequency or nature varied between matc...

  6. Amateur and professional football player to investigate of nutritional habits

    OpenAIRE

    Ozcan Saygın; Kemal Göral; Ertugrul Gelen

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigate the nutritional habits level of footballers, considering the different league categories. From Turkey Super League, 2. League category A, 2.League category B, 3.League, 1.Amateur League, 2.Amateur League teams 360 active football players participated in the survey. To determine their the survey form developed by the researcher, benefiting previous scientific studies, consisting of 13 personal information questions, 20 nutritional habits quest...

  7. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN ENGLISH FOOTBALL: HISTORY AND PRESENT

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad ROŞCA

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive research is to present what kind of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities English football clubs are implementing. The paper was designed by approaching the examples of the twenty clubs playing in the 2010-2011 season of the Premier League. A key finding is that football clubs are not only interested in the sporting outcome on the field, but they are also aware of their social status. An implication of this research would be to encourage academics to...

  8. Recreational football as a health promoting activity: a topical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per; Nybo, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    -intensity continuous running and strength training. Further, recreational football training enhances fat oxidation during exercise and results in a higher fat loss than interval training and strength training, and results in marked muscle hypertrophy and elevates bone mass, more than interval and continuous running...... on muscles and bones. Recreational football training in untrained men results in marked improvements in maximum aerobic power, blood pressure, muscle capillarization and intermittent exercise performance, and those effects are similar to interval training and more pronounced than moderate...

  9. The formalization of club organization in Norwegian professional football

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Stig-Erik; Gammelsæter, Hallgeir; Fløysand, Arnt; Nese, Gjermund

    2005-01-01

    Like professional football in other European countries Norwegian top football has experienced increased commercialization since the early 1990s. This development has been characterised by a growth in turn-over, and the development of larger and more complex organisations. New organizational structures have been introduced to ensure the supply of external resources and to obtain adequate internal resource allocation. In this empirical paper we analyse the recent transition period within Norweg...

  10. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    OpenAIRE

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two...

  11. The Financial Effects of Going Public on Football Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Gareth; Karlsson, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we analyze the financial performance of Football clubs following an initial public offering (IPO). We conduct several analyses using time series stock data with a focus on finding evidence of long-run underperformance and IPO over/underpricing. To this end, we estimate cumulative abnormal returns (CAR) and Jensen’s Alpha. We also analyze coefficients such as beta to describe the volatility and the link football clubs’ stocks have to the general market. We look at historical eve...

  12. Women's football: Player characteristics and demands of the game

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Martínez-Lagunas; Margot Niessen; Ulrich Hartmann

    2014-01-01

    The number of scientific investigations on women's football specific to the topics of player characteristics and demands of the game has considerably increased in recent years due to the increased popularity of the women's game worldwide, although they are not yet as numerous as in the case of men's football. To date, only two scientific publications have attempted to review the main findings of studies published in this area. However, one of them was published about 20 years ago, when women'...

  13. Family matters: football playing daughters, gender and bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Pielichaty, Hanya

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, scholarly work surrounding women’s football has focused on sexualities (Caudwell, 1999), gender identity development (Jeanes, 2006; 2011), international perspectives (Ben-Porat, 2011) and sexualisation through the media (Jones and Greer, 2011). Up until now the relationships between footballer and family have yet to be explored and analysed. Furthermore, research on youth studies has overlooked the importance of family relationships to young people over the past two decades (...

  14. Division I College Football Concussion Rates Are Higher at Higher Altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynall, Robert C; Kerr, Zachary Y; Parr, Matthew S; Hackney, Anthony C; Mihalik, Jason P

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Participating in sports at high altitude may have a protective effect on the brain, according to research studies. Research using validated data-collection methods in a previously unexplored cohort may better estimate the association between concussion injury risk and altitude. Objectives To determine the association between concussion rates and altitude during college football games. Methods Athletic trainers from 21 Division I football programs provided exposure and injury data to the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) from the 2009-2010 to 2013-2014 academic years. The elevation of each stadium was determined. Concussion rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) were compared in 2 ways, based on the sample of stadium elevations: (1) median split (elevation higher than 178 m or lower than 178 m), and (2) quartile split. Rate ratios (RRs), rate differences, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed. Results One hundred sixty-nine concussions were reported over 49 040 AEs (3.45/1000 AEs). Using the median split, the concussion rate above 178 m (RR = 4.18/1000 AEs) was 1.47 times the concussion rate below 178 m (RR = 2.84/1000 AEs; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.00; P = .01). The concussion rate at the highest altitude quartile (higher than 284 m; RR = 5.01/1000 AEs) was 1.67 times greater than the concussion rate at the lowest altitude quartile (lower than 43 m; RR = 3.00/1000 AEs; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.48; P = .01). Conclusion College football game concussion rates appear to increase at higher altitudes. The clinical significance of this relatively small increase is unknown. Future research should explore potential physiologic underpinnings associated with concussion risk at relatively higher and lower altitudes. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(2):96-103. Epub 11 Jan 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6315. PMID:26755407

  15. Change indicators of miotonometry under the influence of physical rehabilitation programs for football players with anterior cruciate ligament damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parish Mohammadreza.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of the effectiveness of physical rehabilitation program designed to include physiotherapy, special proprioceptive exercises and functional training, aimed at restoring stability and mobility in the joint, muscle tone, intermuscular coordination, proprioception of the knee joint and the prevention of recurrent injuries in football players after ACL reconstruction. The data miotonometry quadriceps injured extremity surveyed 58 players. Found that decreasing physical activity leads to trophic changes and decrease in muscle tone of the injured extremity. The use of the physical rehabilitation program possible to state its high efficiency.

  16. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eAlesi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Football may be a physical and sport activities able to improve motor and cognitive growth in children. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times.Forty-six children with chronological age of ~9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=24 attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n=22 was composed of sedentary children.Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a natural and enjoyable tool to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development.

  17. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a "natural and enjoyable tool" to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014

  18. Managing brazilian football clubs: Alternative sources of income.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Vicente Di Gioia Ferreira Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Football as a business is a chance of socio economic leverage. Football organizations need to become modern since the Brazilian society is unhappy with the quality of service provide and clubs, mostly emerged on debts, end up devaluating their brands associated with an inefficient administration. In 1998, a new factor came to influence this scenario: it was sanctioned the Law no. 9.615, know as “Lei Pelé”, which extinguished the pass of football players. Before that, football clubs have as their major income source the transfer of players. After this regulatory change, clubs were obligated to develop alternative sources of income. The current article intends to analyze this new scenario and to propose options to the clubs not only related to the players transfer market. To do that, it will be shown a comparative study between the Brazilian football and the European Football, identifying the strategies and the results. In this context, public support and the relation between clubs and their clients appeared as the major items.

  19. Established – outsider relations in youth football tournaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa; Agergaard, Sine; Maguire, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This article examines Scandinavian constructions and readings of potential football migrants from the African continent by providing an investigation of the dynamics and narratives surrounding African football teams’ participation in three youth football tournaments. Drawing on Elias and Scotson’...... of the tournament organizers, as being providers of ‘development’ and gender equity programmes to African teams, is fundamental in maintaining the established-outsider power relations between Scandinavian and African football teams.......’s (1965/1994) theory of established-outsider relations, we explore the transnational power relations and processes of inclusion and exclusion in group relationships. The data were collected between July and August 2012, as part of a wider study examining transnational migration and mobility in...... Scandinavian women’s football. Ethnographic observations were conducted at three Scandinavian youth football tournaments, and interviews were conducted with tournament organizers and representatives from participating women’s clubs/teams. The data suggest that a particular representation of self, on the part...

  20. Injuries in male versus female soccer players: epidemiology of a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufty, S; Bollars, P; Vanlommel, L; Van Crombrugge, K; Corten, K; Bellemans, J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse soccer injuries on a national scale over one decade and to compare injury rates by gender. Detailed injury data obtained from the Royal Belgian Football Association from seasons 1999-2000 and 2009-2010 were recorded and gender differences in incidences of injuries, type of injury, affected body part and timing of injury were compared. A significant decrease in injuries from 7.56 to 5.96 injuries per 100 players was seen (pfemale players. Proportionally, females sustained more severe injuries than men (pfemales. The number of injuries in male and female soccer players has decreased over the past decade. A higher injury rate was seen in men but proportionally, females sustained more severe injuries. PMID:26280969

  1. Testicular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your testicles might get hit or kicked, like football, hockey, soccer, or karate. An athletic supporter, or ... a Guy. How Can I Talk to My Female Doctor About Certain Things? Testicular Exams How to ...

  2. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke W Hogarth

    Full Text Available This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2 and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98 and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03-1.18 than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR distance/min (ES = 0.67 and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95 during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69-1.15 and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56. Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43-0.80 for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions.

  3. Comparison of Somatotype Values of Football Players in Two Professional League Football Teams According to the Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Orhan, Özlem; Sagir, Mehmet; Zorba, Erdal

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the somatotype values of football players according to their playing positions. The study aimed to determine the physical profiles of players and to analyze the relationships between somatotypes and playing positions. Study participants were members of two teams in the Turkey Professional Football League, Gençlerbirligi Sports Team (GB) (N=24) and Gençlerbirligi Oftas Sports Team (GBO) (N=24). Anthropometric measurements of the players were performed according to technique...

  4. Forecasting football match results - A study on modeling principles and efficiency of fixed-odds betting markets in football

    OpenAIRE

    Sillanpää, Ville; Heino, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Objectives of the study This thesis is about the statistical forecasting of (European) football match results. More specifically, the purpose of this thesis is to assess how a statistical forecast model that uses only publicly available information fares against public market odds in forecasting football match outcomes. Academic background and methodology The forecasting of sports results has been widely researched because it provides important insight into how betting markets ope...

  5. A network theory analysis of football strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Peña, Javier López

    2012-01-01

    We showcase in this paper the use of some tools from network theory to describe the strategy of football teams. Using passing data made available by FIFA during the 2010 World Cup, we construct for each team a weighted and directed network in which nodes correspond to players and arrows to passes. The resulting network or graph provides a direct visual inspection of a team's strategy, from which we can identify play pattern, determine hot-spots on the play and localize potential weaknesses. Using different centrality measures, we can also determine the relative importance of each player in the game, the `popularity' of a player, and the effect of removing players from the game.

  6. Football goal distributions and extremal statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhough, J.; Birch, P. C.; Chapman, S. C.; Rowlands, G.

    2002-12-01

    We analyse the distributions of the number of goals scored by home teams, away teams, and the total scored in the match, in domestic football games from 169 countries between 1999 and 2001. The probability density functions (PDFs) of goals scored are too heavy-tailed to be fitted over their entire ranges by Poisson or negative binomial distributions which would be expected for uncorrelated processes. Log-normal distributions cannot include zero scores and here we find that the PDFs are consistent with those arising from extremal statistics. In addition, we show that it is sufficient to model English top division and FA Cup matches in the seasons of 1970/71-2000/01 on Poisson or negative binomial distributions, as reported in analyses of earlier seasons, and that these are not consistent with extremal statistics.

  7. Exercise performance of professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, C L; Whitney, F E; Zomar, V D

    1984-01-01

    With the likely hypothesis that the degree to which a football player is physically suited to his position will determine his value as a player, we attempted to describe the characteristics of a given player and position and, from that, to determine the characteristics that make up a first class player in that position. Over a 4-year period 167 football players were examined at the National Athletic Health Institute, Inglewood, California, and grouped according to playing position and class. Position groups were: 1, linemen; 2, linebackers and tight ends; 3, running backs, quarterbacks and kickers; and 4, wide receivers and defensive backs. Classes were: I, rookies (nonstarters); II, veterans (nonstarters); and III, starters (veterans and an occasional rookie). Testing was in two phases, body characteristics and direct measurement of body function. All testing was done in connection with the preseason physical exam. Significant differences were found when data were analyzed by position. Position 1 players were taller, heavier, and had a higher percentage of body fat than players at other positions. These values decreased from Position 1 to Position 4. In terms of cardiovascular fitness the opposite trend was seen. Strength measures were also specific to given position groups. While few differences were seen when data were analyzed by class, one interesting finding was that Class III players (starters) were not only the oldest, but also had the highest level of cardiovascular fitness. Our conclusion is that while size, strength, and endurance are obvious advantages for the successful regular player, there is an unmeasurable quality reflected in the playing ability of the veteran player that is not easily identified in the beginning player. PMID:6507716

  8. Scleroderma in Australian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurauskas, J; Beroukas, D; Walker, J G; Smith, M D; Ahern, M J; Roberts-Thomson, P J

    2005-01-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) has not been reported before in Australian Aborigines. We describe in detail a community middle-aged Aboriginal woman whose diffuse scleroderma terminated fatally with a renal crisis. Moreover, we have identified a further five Aboriginal patients on the South Australian Scleroderma Register (two with diffuse, two with limited and one with overlap scleroderma), a number consistent with that expected from the 2001 census data for our state. However, an analysis of all antinuclear antibody (ANA) requests from the Top End of Australia over a 6-year period revealed only two Aborigines with low titre anticentromere antibody (despite frequent occurrence of ANA with other specificities). Neither of these Aborigines had features of scleroderma. In conclusion, scleroderma does occur in indigenous Australians but further studies are needed to confirm the apparent infrequency of centromere-associated limited scleroderma (which is the commonest form of scleroderma in our Caucasian population). PMID:15667472

  9. The Professionalisation and Commercialisation of Football in China (1993–2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhouxiang, Lu

    2013-01-01

    The professionalisation and commercialisation of football in China began in 1993, followed in 1994 by the launch of a league system that was modelled on the systems of Western countries. With the support of the market, football began to become self-sufficient and no longer reliant on government support. State-owned football clubs were replaced by an increasing number of privately owned and collectively owned clubs. Athletes started to play football for their own sakes, pursuing fortune, honou...

  10. Forecasting football match results: Are the many smarter than the few?

    OpenAIRE

    García, Jaume; Pérez, Levi; Rodríguez, Plácido

    2016-01-01

    An empirical analysis of Spanish football betting odds is carried out here to test whether football matches final result estimates by experts (bookmakers) differ (better/worse) from those by the ‘crowd’ (football pools bettors). Examination of implied probabilities for each of the possible outcomes evidences the existence of favourite long-shot bias in the betting market for Spanish football. A further study of the accuracy of probability forecasts concludes that experts seem to be better in ...

  11. Price structure in football clubs. A theoretical approach using two-sided market models

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Bjørn Harald

    2015-01-01

    Football (also known as soccer) is by far the most popular sport in the world with several billion fans worldwide. In this thesis the focus will be on two different sides of a football club, spectators and advertisers (sponsors). These two sides have fundamentally different incentives why they want to associate with a football club; the spectators have emotional incentives, while the advertisers have economical incentives. The popularity of football and the different incentives of the two sid...

  12. STRATEGIES AND GUIDELINES FOR THE SELECTION AND TAKING DEBUTANTES WOMEN'S FOOTBALL

    OpenAIRE

    DAMIAN GEORGE COSMIN; OANCEA BOGDAN; PETCU DAMIAN; POPA CRISTIAN; MELENCO IONEL; STĂNCULESCU GEORGE; MUSAT GEORGE

    2012-01-01

    PurposeFrom its inception until today, the game of football has seen considerable progress without limits foresee this. Considering that nearly all countries in the world is developing a national championship football, we conclude that it - football game - is the most popular sport development area in the world.But achieving high performance in football is conditional on early detection as real girls practicing the qualities for soccer, the application of scientific criteria in their selectio...

  13. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  14. Treatment of burns casualties after fire at Bradford City football ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, D T; Roberts, A H; Barclay, T L; Dickson, W A; Settle, J A; Crockett, D J; Mossad, M G

    1985-01-01

    On 11 May 1985 the main stand of Bradford City Football Club caught fire. Within four minutes the stand was alight from end to end. Fifty three people were burnt to death and about 250 injured; 83 required admission to hospital, and 55 of these were treated by primary excision of their burns and skin grafting. In such disasters the help of staff from other hospitals and areas is essential. Patients should be assessed to see whether they have burns that will ultimately be fatal; if they have they should not be sent to regional burns units, where they would take up beds that could be used for patients with treatable burns. All districts should ensure that their plans for accidents in which burns injuries predominate are adequate. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:3929974

  15. Football Cheerings on the Content of Music and Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli Ozan ÇAKIR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Music as a fact which surrounds human being in all fields of life has been used as a tool for healing, communication, entertainment and also used in production wi th focusing function, in warfare with encouraging function and in sports with motivating function. (Colombe, 2006:34; Aydoğan, 2001:23. Shortly it can be claimed that music that is always in previous of movement is in relation with sports which is compose d by moving. The cheerings in sports culture are initially considered as very easy and si mple. However it can be claimed that they provide a deep and complex structure on behalf of the social events of their era. Cheerings as a part of intangible sports legacy provide the contiunity of tradition and incentive of creativity as an oral traditional form. The emotions are coming around and the memories are remembered through stimulating by music. Football always keep the attention alive therefore it gets a place in the society as a tool which entertains masses and unifies them through the same goal. The industralised structure of football is accepted as a tool of social engineering with the help of media which provides the power to create and change the agendum. In this meaning it is mentioned that football indicates the life styles, be liefs and values. In our study we will search the cheerings of spectators on the content of their relations with social conditions since 20th century in which modern football has been initially played in organised forms. In this context it is purposed to contribute into sociological analysis of modern football throughout the social meanings of football matches in different eras and socio - economic conditions and the relations between societies and football. There will be performed a theoretical research based on literature search.

  16. A Review of Self-Esteem of the Hearing Impaired Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açak, Mahmut; Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at reviewing the level of self-esteem of the hearing impaired football players. The sample of the study was composed of 95 football players who played in the 1st hearing impaired football league. To gather the study-data; a Personal Information Form and Self-esteem Scale were used. The data obtained were analyzed through…

  17. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  18. Training Load and Player Monitoring in High-Level Football: Current Practice and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akenhead, Richard; Nassis, George P

    2016-07-01

    Training load (TL) is monitored with the aim of making evidence-based decisions on appropriate loading schemes to reduce injuries and enhance team performance. However, little is known in detail about the variables of load and methods of analysis used in high-level football. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide information on the practices and practitioners' perceptions of monitoring in professional clubs. Eighty-two high-level football clubs from Europe, the United States, and Australia were invited to answer questions relating to how TL is quantified, how players' responses are monitored, and their perceptions of the effectiveness of monitoring. Forty-one responses were received. All teams used GPS and heart-rate monitors during all training sessions, and 28 used rating of perceived exertion. The top-5-ranking TL variables were acceleration (various thresholds), total distance, distance covered above 5.5 m/s, estimated metabolic power, and heart-rate exertion. Players' responses to training are monitored using questionnaires (68% of clubs) and submaximal exercise protocols (41%). Differences in expected vs actual effectiveness of monitoring were 23% and 20% for injury prevention and performance enhancement, respectively (P human resources scored highest, followed by coach buy-in. The discrepancy between expected and actual effectiveness appears to be due to suboptimal integration with coaches, insufficient human resources, and concerns over the reliability of assessment tools. Future approaches should critically evaluate the usefulness of current monitoring tools and explore methods of reducing the identified barriers to effectiveness. PMID:26456711

  19. Hamstring strains in football. Prevention and rehabilitation rules. Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATHANASIOU HADJIMICHAEL MICHALIS1

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The strain on the hamstrings muscles is one of the most common sport related injury and football seems to hold the biggest percentage of all sports. The aim of this study was to push forward the best prevention and rehabilitation methods to be followed regarding football. Once the key words were identified, there was a randomized search of controlled trials on EBSCO Host, Proquest, Medline, SportDiscus, Cinahl Plus, health source, FreeMedicalJournals.com, PubMed, PubMed Central, SPORTDiscus database and on Google Scholar. In addition, the software H Publish or Perish helped in the process of searching. The particular studies were tested based on the criteria of admission and exclusion that were set and selected as the most appropriate ones for the review. The methodological process of the studies was assessed by Furlan et al (22 criteria and the classification for the level of the evidence of this systematic review was done using the 6 level table of Van Tulden et al (55. Twenty nine randomized controlled trials were selected, with a total of 10686 participants that were placed in the review. Twenty four out of these were related to preventing hamstring strain (6 eccentric exercises, 11 neuromuscular training programs, 7 stretching and 5 of these rehabilitation (1 eccentric exercise, 2 neuromuscular warm up training programs, 2 stretching. According to Furlan et al (22 all the studies were marked over 50%. Moreover, based on the classification for the level of evidence of Van Tulden et al (55 the eccentric exercises and the different types of neuromuscular warm up programs ( except FIFA 11 are classified in level 1 with positive findings within multiple randomized controlled trials, regarding prevention as well as rehabilitation. As far as prevention is concerned, stretching are classified in level 5, whereas, as far as rehabilitation is concerned they are classified in level 2, since there is an indication of the Slump test effectiveness

  20. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, M. J.; W. Hutchinson

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  1. Determinants of Demand for Televised Live Football: Features of the German National Football Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Arne; Rott, Armin

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes all 216 broadcasts of the German national football team from January 1993 to June 2008 to identify which factors ensure the success of televised sport broadcasts. The results reveal that demand depends mostly on the type of match and its importance in a tournament context....... Viewers prefer a national team with established star players and high-quality opponents. Factors unrelated to the sport, such as the kickoff time or weather, have some influence, but coaches and holidays are insignificant. Forecasts based on the proposed model can aid television broadcasters, sports...... rights agencies, advertisers, and media planners in determining the value of a particular broadcast....

  2. An investigation of shoulder forces in active shoulder tackles in rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew S; Fréchède, Bertrand

    2011-11-01

    In rugby union football the tackle is the most frequently executed skill and one most associated with injury, including shoulder injury to the tackler. Despite the importance of the tackle, little is known about the magnitude of shoulder forces in the tackle and influencing factors. The objectives of the study were to measure the shoulder force in the tackle, as well as the effects of shoulder padding, skill level, side of body, player size, and experimental setting on shoulder force. Experiments were conducted in laboratory and field settings using a repeated measures design. Thirty-five participants were recruited to the laboratory and 98 to the field setting. All were male aged over 18 years with rugby experience. The maximum force applied to the shoulder in an active shoulder tackle was measured with a custom built forceplate incorporated into a 45 kg tackle bag. The overall average maximum shoulder force was 1660 N in the laboratory and 1997 N in the field. This difference was significant. The shoulder force for tackling without shoulder pads was 1684 N compared to 1635 N with shoulder pads. There was no difference between the shoulder forces on the dominant and non-dominant sides. Shoulder force reduced with tackle repetition. No relationship was observed between player skill level and size. A substantial force can be applied to the shoulder and to an opponent in the tackle. This force is within the shoulder's injury tolerance range and is unaffected by shoulder pads. PMID:21689986

  3. A strategy to reduce illicit drug use is effective in elite Australian football

    OpenAIRE

    Harcourt, Peter R; Unglik, Harry; Cook, Jill L

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prescribes that drug testing is conducted in sports competitions to detect drug use in athletes. This testing includes performance-enhancing drugs as well as illicit substances such as marijuana, amphetamines and cocaine. Illicit drugs are tested for on match days but not on non-match days. Some athletes are known to use illicit substances for recreational purposes, away from competition times and this poses a serious health and welfare issue not...

  4. Sport and Children's Nutrition: What Can We Learn from the Junior Australian Football Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sam; Velardo, Stefania; Drummond, Murray; Drummond, Claire

    2016-01-01

    There is a widely held belief that sport participation inherently enhances health among youth. Such a perception often motivates parents to encourage children's initial and ongoing involvement in organised sport and physical activity. While sport certainly comprises an important vehicle for accruing physical activity, the sport environment may not…

  5. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: design of a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    van Beijsterveldt, Anna M C; Krist, Mark R; Schmikli, Sandor L; Stubbe, Janine H; de Wit, G. Ardine; Inklaar, Han; van de Port, Ingrid G. L.; Backx, Frank J G

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Approximately 16% of all sports injuries in the Netherlands are caused by outdoor soccer. A cluster-randomised controlled trial has been designed to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an injury prevention programme (‘The11’) for male amateur soccer players. The injury prevention programme The11, developed with the support of the World Football Association FIFA, aims to reduce the impact of intrinsic injury risk factors in soccer. Methods Teams playing ...

  6. Management of Syndesmotic Ankle Injuries in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Benjamin J; Kramer, Dennis E

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric ankle injuries are common, especially in athletes; however, the incidence of syndesmosis injuries in children has been scarcely reported. Injuries to the ankle syndesmosis, termed "high ankle sprains," can affect high-level and recreational athletes and have been related to delayed return to play, persistent pain, and adult injuries have been associated with long-term disability. Syndesmotic injuries do occur in children, especially those who participate in sports that involve cutting and pivoting (football, soccer) or sports with rigid immobilization of the ankle (skiing, hockey). Unstable pediatric syndesmosis injuries requiring surgical fixation are often associated with concomitant fibular fracture in skeletally mature children. Physician vigilance and careful clinical examination coupled with appropriate radiographs can determine the extent of the injury in the majority of circumstances. PMID:27100034

  7. The Current Investigation and Analysis for the Level of the Primary Schools’ Football Coach in Qingdao

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Jia

    2012-01-01

    As the leader of the football reform and the famous city in China, it’s certain that Qingdao’s development of the football in primary school has reprehensive. The primary school is the foundation of the basic level school and it also becomes the fertile ground which General Administration of Sport puts great effort to develop football in the school. However, the football coaches of the primary school are the executors and play a very important role in the whole system of the football events. ...

  8. The globalization of football: a study in the glocalization of the 'serious life'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianotti, Richard; Robertson, Roland

    2004-12-01

    Sport, in particular football, constitutes one of the most dynamic, sociologically illuminating domains of globalization. This paper examines the globalization of football with particular reference to Robertson's theorizations of global processes. We examine football's cultural globalization through the concept of 'glocalization', which highlights the interdependence of local and global processes within the game's identities and institutions. We address economic globalization in football by considering the world's leading clubs as 'glocal' transnational corporations. We assess the political globalization of football with reference to the possible enhancement of democracy within the game's international governance. We conclude by affirming the utility of sport in advancing our empirical and theoretical understanding of globalization processes. PMID:15663424

  9. Does sports performance influence revenues and economic results in Spanish football?

    OpenAIRE

    Barajas, Angel; Fernández-Jardón, Carlos; Crolley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    English football began taking steps towards becoming a business earlier than Spanish football did, and academic studies on the football industry to date also focus primarily on football in the UK. The evidence for the relationship between sports performance and revenues appear clear in English football. There is even research about the effects of a club’s wealth on its sports performance, or the effects of a club’s sporting situations on its finances. In this paper, we ana-lyse the relationsh...

  10. A European Football Family? German and British Television Broadcasts of the 2010 Football World Cup and the Representation of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Lichtenstein

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Football World Cup tournament ranks amongst the largest international sports events, captivating vast live and television audiences. A key characteristic of football can be seen in its community-building function. Football provides opportunities for identification, strengthening local and national bonds. But does this also apply to the still vague category of Europe? Does the televised coverage of the Football World Cup hold the potential to foster a European identity? This paper employs a quantitative content analysis of the German and British live-commentaries of the 2010 World Cup matches between European and non-European teams. It analyzes and compares the description and evaluation of European and non-European participants. TV-commentaries have proven an ability to influence the audiences´ perception of the match. It is therefore assumed that the commentaries contribute to a feeling of European identity and unity – if they make the European category salient. The analysis reveals some differences in the portrayal of European and non-European participants with the commentators paying more attention to participants from European countries. Whereas the evaluation of the European and non-European teams differs, the evaluation of the individual football players is well-balanced. In regard to the analyzed criteria, British and German commentaries tend to be very similar.

  11. Football and Film: Comrade President – Center-Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is the first in the planned series of texts on football in films and TV programmes in Yugoslavia (Serbia and Croatia. The film Comrade President – Center-Forward (1960, directed by Žorž Skrigin, labelled as the genre of “film humoresque”, presents a ramifying and intertwined story about a small provincial town. The narrative is structured around a celebration of the agricultural cooperative and an important football match played by the local team. Through these two narrative lines the film speaks about the invention of traditions, modernization and industrialization, clothes, arts, popular music, and the elements of romantic comedy and the events surrounding the football match present the media through which the messages are conveyed about the phenomena in a small Serbian town and wider, in the society of the 1950s.

  12. Muscle variables of importance for physiological performance in competitive football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Thomassen, Martin; Girard, Olivier;

    2016-01-01

    .46) correlated to total game distance. Peak 5-min game distance faster than 21 km h(-1) was related to the Na(+)-K(+) ATPase subunit (α1, α2, β1 and FXYD1) protein levels (r = 0.54-0.70), while Yo-Yo IR2 performance explained 40 % of the variance in high-intensity game distance. Total and 1-min peak sprint...... complexity of parameters predicting physical football performance with Yo-Yo IR1 and HAD as the best predictors of total distance, while high expression of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase proteins and the Yo-Yo IR2 test are better predictors of high-intensity performance. Finally, sprint performance relates to skeletal......PURPOSE: To examine how match performance parameters in trained footballers relate to skeletal muscle parameters, sprint ability and intermittent exercise performance. METHODS: 19 male elite football players completed an experimental game with physical performance determined by video analysis and...

  13. A Topic Model Approach to Representing and Classifying Football Plays

    KAUST Repository

    Varadarajan, Jagannadan

    2013-09-09

    We address the problem of modeling and classifying American Football offense teams’ plays in video, a challenging example of group activity analysis. Automatic play classification will allow coaches to infer patterns and tendencies of opponents more ef- ficiently, resulting in better strategy planning in a game. We define a football play as a unique combination of player trajectories. To this end, we develop a framework that uses player trajectories as inputs to MedLDA, a supervised topic model. The joint maximiza- tion of both likelihood and inter-class margins of MedLDA in learning the topics allows us to learn semantically meaningful play type templates, as well as, classify different play types with 70% average accuracy. Furthermore, this method is extended to analyze individual player roles in classifying each play type. We validate our method on a large dataset comprising 271 play clips from real-world football games, which will be made publicly available for future comparisons.

  14. The spread of Neo-Pentecostalism in Brazilian football: socio-anthropological analysis of the relationship between religion, football and public space in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Claude Petrognani

    2015-01-01

    This text deals with the relationship between religion, football and public space in Brazil. Specifically, it is about a certain aspect of the Brazilian religious field, i.e. the evangelical field, and particularly the Neo-Pentecostal one and its appearance and spread in sports, mainly football. By using data taken from doctoral research, it will be possible to demonstrate, without claiming to be exhaustive, that there is a spread of evangelicalism in football which is making this religious m...

  15. AN EXPLORATION INTO FOOTBALL FANS VIEWS OF ENGLISH FOOTBALL SPONSORSHIP WITH A FOCUS ON THE CONSUMER AWARENESS OF THE SPONSORS'BUSINESS ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Birring, Raj

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is a qualitative study that focuses on consumers' perceptions of sponsorship in English professional football. Research objectives look at the level of recall of sponsors within English football; the consumers' awareness of the business activities of the sponsors and the possible pitfalls, including ambush marketing, of being involved in football sponsorship. The relevant background is outlined in the research context, which is followed by a comprehensive literature re...

  16. Effects of personal goal management program on school and football self-determination motivation and satisfaction of newcomers within a football training centre

    OpenAIRE

    Laurin, Raphaël; Nicolas, Michel; Lacassagne, Marie-Françoise

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a personal goal-based intervention on school and football self-determination motivation and satisfaction of newcomers within football training centres. Twenty-three trainees were divided randomly into two groups, either a treatment group or a control group. The treatment proposed to the participants was the personal goal management program (Bouffard, Labelle, Dubé & Lapierre, 1999). Trainees' school and football motivation and satisfaction ...

  17. Camp Sports Injuries: Analysis of Causes, Modes and Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Papageorgiou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the description of sports injuries sustained by campers at summer camps, aged 7-15 years. A sample of 8 camps from the Greek camp population participated in this sport injury surveillance study. Doctors and camp directors completed reports detailing the number of sports injuries events sustained and provided specific information about each event. During the period of the study, 337 sport injury reports were completed. A total of 237 (70.3% boys and 100 (29.7% girls reported having a sport injury. Age of campers sustaining a sport injury was 10-12 years old (60.8%. The frequency of sports injuries was highest during the first camp season. The leading causes of sports injuries in children’s were: falls, crushed by object, collision with other person and slips. Cut/scratch injuries were the most common diagnoses (38.9%. Football, basketball and volleyball were the most frequent sport activities for injuries. Reports based surveillance systems can be successfully used to conducts sport injury surveillance among children attending summer camps. Data collected via such systems can be used to calculate sports injury rates, to describe patterns of sport injury and to identify risk factors for camper – related sport injuries. The results provide necessary information to develop prevention interventions to decrease the number of youth whose camp experiences are negatively affected by sport injury.

  18. The Current Investigation and Analysis for the Level of the Primary Schools’ Football Coach in Qingdao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As the leader of the football reform and the famous city in China, it’s certain that Qingdao’s development of the football in primary school has reprehensive. The primary school is the foundation of the basic level school and it also becomes the fertile ground which General Administration of Sport puts great effort to develop football in the school. However, the football coaches of the primary school are the executors and play a very important role in the whole system of the football events. So this thesis has invested and analyzed the current situation of the level of the primary school football coaches in Qingdao by means of questionnaires, interview and other methods. Through these ways we can find some problems that exist in the coaches. And we can put forward the appropriate measures to improve the comprehensive qualities of the football coaches in primary school and enhance the primary school in Qingdao developing smoothly.

  19. Arthrography in sport injuries of the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arthrography is one of the most important diagnostic methods of sport injuries of the knee joint. The examination must give an exact information to the surgeon; a good technique and standard X-rays are an absolute postulate. The submitted examinations are based on 6687 arthrographies during a period of 5 years. The arthrography should not be carried out before the acute symptomatology has ceased, usually after an interval of 2-3 weeks. Most frequently are the meniscus injuries by rotary traumas of the knee-joint. Football as the most popular sport is responsible for more than 50% of the injuries, followed by skiing, handball and jogging. (orig.)

  20. Increasing the Commercial Value of Womens Football Through a Holistic View on Sponsorship : A Case Study on Women's Football in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Elardt, Pernilla; Hasselgren, Linnéa; Havik, Felicia

    2015-01-01

    Background Football is the most popular sport in Sweden today, however the interest for women’s football is decreasing (Sponsor Insight, 2014, Appendix II). The development of women’s football in Sweden has been remarkable during the last decades. Although, the image and value of women’s football are still perceived to be rather low in today’s modern society if looking at the low attendance figures, low exploitation in the media and difficulties with acquiring sponsorship. Sponsoring is the b...

  1. A Qualitative Examination of Police Officers’ Perception of Football Supporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jonas; Joern, Lise; Rasmussen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Several studies stress the importance of thorough knowledge of supporter culture in order to assess the actual level of risk at football matches thereby ensuring a balanced approach by the police in order to avoid conflict situations. This study examines how Danish police officers perceive and...... engaging in dialogue with football supporters. As a consequence of these findings, the East Jutland Police department initiated an educational programme on dialogue policing in 2010. The programme has been successfully evaluated and is now implemented on a national basis....

  2. 'No systematic doping in football': A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Dominic; Waddington, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    This essay examines the degree to which football administrators are correct to believe that there is relatively little use of performance-enhancing drugs in elite football. In contrast to FIFA's reliance on the results of drug testing as a means of gauging this phenomenon, this essay attempts to triangulate the evidence from the broader spectrum of sources of information about drug use in sport. Though meaningful and accurate data on the use of such drugs in a sport are difficult to obtain, s...

  3. The Australian synchrotron project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron to be built at Monash University, is a synchrotron light facility based on a 3-GeV electron storage ring. It is scheduled to be fully operational in 2007. In this paper we describe the accelerator systems that lie at the heart of the facility, and describe the spectral characteristics of the 'light' - ranging from infra-red to hard x-rays - that will be provided from bend magnets, undulators, and wigglers

  4. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  5. A Game Informatical Comparison of Chess and Association Football (Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norizan Mat Diah

    Full Text Available Games which persist across cultures and eras are not static institutions; they evolve when they do not go extinct. Changes of rules, styles and strategies contribute to the evolution of games. Western chess and football continue to grow in popularity afte ...

  6. Football Games: Victory, Defeat, and Spectators' Power Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Burt S.; Alker, Henry A.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed a conceptual distinction between two types of experienced power and examined its relevance to participation in power-relaxed activities. After two college football games, spectators chose an image-of-power position after a hometeam defeat, and an actual-power position after a hometeam victory. Experiences of vicarious success or failure…

  7. Liberating the modern Chinese football fan: a theoretical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cockayne, David; Wright, Len Tiu

    2014-01-01

    The cultural and philosophical heritage of modernism underpinning general marketing management theory imparts profound implications for organisations operating in professional sport. This theoretical paper uses the context of China’s professional football industry to argue that marketing may benefit from a more postmodern approach to marketing management.

  8. Football on television: technological evolution and entertainment language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor José Siquieri Savenhago

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The first broadcast of a World Cup footballon television, to Brazil was in 1970, via Embratel. Before that, the people followed the games of the Brazilian team on the radio. Gradually, the owners of television networks realized that football could generate good financial results, with the exposing of advertisements during the broadcasts, similar to what was already done on the radio. Thus, the television, focused on the growth of audience and number of advertisers, covered football with a language of entertainment. The narration of the matches, in which the figure of the narrator is more like that of an entertainer, and improvement of the transmission technologies that improve the image quality every day, take away from football the characteristic of being just a sport to occupy the place of an entertainment. In this context, the sport becomes an article of purchase and sale. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how this entertainment language was made up on Brazilian television, based on the broadcast sports, especially football, and like the television, which represented a technological leapin the country over the radio, assumed of the sport, country’s most popular as a commodity, interfering with the dynamics of Brazilian society. Finally, an attempt to understand how the researches that allow a technological development change behaviors and vice versa, that is, how the demands of society lead to a race to develop new technologies.

  9. New Fantasy Football League Tests NCAA's Rules on Amateur Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The long-simmering debate over the commercialization of college sports reached a boiling point recently when CBS, the NCAA's key corporate partner, announced that it was creating a fantasy football league that uses college athletes' names. Not everyone however, is quite so enthusiastic. Some observers see it as part of a continuing assault on the…

  10. Evaluating Motoric Performance of 10 - 12 Age Group Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KUMARTAŞLI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate motoric perfromance of 10 - 12 age group football players. Akdeniz University tiny football team joined as experiment group and 80. Yıl Cumhuriyet Grammar School football team joined to the study as control group. An exercise programme with educational game format considering physical capacities and develeopment features was applied to the student as 8 weeks, 3 days a week. Standing long jump, flexibilty, 20 m. speed, handgrip strength, arm pull, vert ical jump, 10x5 shuttle run and leg strength tests were applied to the students. Handled data were compared at SPSS 10 statistic programme by using Independent Sample t Test. Students’ lenght and weight measurements were calculated. As a result of measurem ents, there were not found diffrences between experimental and control group’s standing long jump, flexibilty, 20 m. speed, handgrip strength, a vertical jump, 10x5 shuttle run and leg strength tests (p>0,05; but in arm pull test, statistically difference was found (p<0,01. While evaluating the physical performance in cihldren and adolescents, growth process is had to be considered. The results of football players that exercise regularly from small ages at physical and physiologic measurements have an importance according to their age. Performance observed in children is sudden and temporary. There are a few studies in the literature about negative psycological effects of starting trainings in early ages.

  11. Automatic recognition of offensive team formation in american football plays

    KAUST Repository

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati

    2013-06-01

    Compared to security surveillance and military applications, where automated action analysis is prevalent, the sports domain is extremely under-served. Most existing software packages for sports video analysis require manual annotation of important events in the video. American football is the most popular sport in the United States, however most game analysis is still done manually. Line of scrimmage and offensive team formation recognition are two statistics that must be tagged by American Football coaches when watching and evaluating past play video clips, a process which takes many man hours per week. These two statistics are also the building blocks for more high-level analysis such as play strategy inference and automatic statistic generation. In this paper, we propose a novel framework where given an American football play clip, we automatically identify the video frame in which the offensive team lines in formation (formation frame), the line of scrimmage for that play, and the type of player formation the offensive team takes on. The proposed framework achieves 95% accuracy in detecting the formation frame, 98% accuracy in detecting the line of scrimmage, and up to 67% accuracy in classifying the offensive team\\'s formation. To validate our framework, we compiled a large dataset comprising more than 800 play-clips of standard and high definition resolution from real-world football games. This dataset will be made publicly available for future comparison. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. A Critical Analysis of Football Bowl Subdivision Coaching Contract Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Justin Keith

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study is designed to inventory and analyze contract components used by Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) institutions in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to further contribute to the body research. The FBS is comprised of 120 institutions and 94 of those institutions submitted contracts to "USA Today"…

  13. Concussion Education for High School Football Players: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse-Cohick, Nancy J.; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2014-01-01

    This survey study compared high school football players' knowledge and attitudes about concussion before and after receiving concussion education. There were no significant changes in the Concussion Attitude Index. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in the athletes' scores for the Concussion Knowledge Index,…

  14. Dynamic Social Networks in High Performance Football Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhino, Joseph; Mallett, Cliff; Rynne, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sports coaching is largely a social activity where engagement with athletes and support staff can enhance the experiences for all involved. This paper examines how high performance football coaches develop knowledge through their interactions with others within a social learning theory framework. Purpose: The key purpose of this study…

  15. Soccer-Speedball-Flag Football Guide. June 1974-June 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    This guide, produced by the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS), is a collection of essays by various authors on soccer, speedball, and flag football. There is a separate section for each sport. In the section, the following topics are covered: goalkeeping, the use of tires as a teaching aid, skill testing, problem-solving…

  16. Soccer; Speedball; Flag Football, June 1976--June 1978. NAGWS Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Anne, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for soccer, speedball, and flag football is one in a series of guides for 22 sports published by the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS). Guides contain information on NAGWS-approved playing rules, officials' ratings, articles on teaching, coaching and organization, rules governing national championships,…

  17. Girls' Touch Football, Physical Education: 5551.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kathy

    This course outline is a guide for teaching basic understanding of fundamental skills and rules of girls' touch football in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures, demonstrations, practice of basic skills, visual aids, lead-up games, presentation and practice of officiating techniques, tournaments, and written and skills tests. Course…

  18. Modifying Flag Football for Gender Equitable Engagement in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Flag or touch football is a popular activity unit in American secondary physical education curricula. However, unlike other sports its stigmatization as a masculine-typed activity and frequent inequitable distribution of game play opportunities at the skill positions (e.g., receiver, quarterback) results in the marginalization of female…

  19. Gender Gaps and the Presence and Profitability of College Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishe, Patrick James

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes data from the 1995-96 academic year for schools that compete at the Division I level of college athletics to determine the influence of the presence and profitability of football on female athletes in terms of funding and opportunity. Reveals that presence and profitability, as well as regional and ethnic considerations, influence…

  20. Relationship between football playing ability and selected performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Donald T; Ostarello, John Z; Suess, Eric A; Dempsey, Mary

    2002-11-01

    The relationships between football playing ability (FPA) and selected anthropometric and performance measures were determined among NCAA Division I-A football players (N = 40). Football playing ability (determined by the average of coaches' rankings) was significantly correlated with vertical jump (VJ) in all groups (offense, defense, and position groups of wide receiver-defensive back, offensive linemen-defensive linemen, and running back-tight end-linebacker). Eleven of 50 correlations (groups by variables), or 22%, were important for FPA. Five of the 11 relationships were related to VJ. Forward stepwise regression equations for each group explained over half of the criterion variable, FPA, as indicated by the R(2) values for each model. Vertical jump was the prime predictor variable in the equations for all groups. The findings of this study are discussed in relation to the specificity hypothesis. Strength and conditioning programs that facilitate the capacity for football players to develop forceful and rapid concentric action through plantar flexion of the ankle, as well as extension of the knee and hip, may be highly profitable. PMID:12423194