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Sample records for australian aboriginal infants

  1. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  2. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  3. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  4. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role as provider and protector within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the moon blocking the sun.

  5. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  6. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  7. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  8. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  9. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf Aboriginal…

  10. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf…

  11. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  12. Pneumococcal vaccination and otitis media in Australian Aboriginal infants: comparison of two birth cohorts before and after introduction of vaccination

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    Mackenzie Grant

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal children in remote Australia have high rates of complicated middle ear disease associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae and other pathogens. We assessed the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination for prevention of otitis media in this setting. Methods We compared two birth cohorts, one enrolled before (1996–2001, and the second enrolled after introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate and booster 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (2001–2004. Source populations were the same for both cohorts. Detailed examinations including tympanometry, video-recorded pneumatic otoscopy and collection of discharge from tympanic membrane perforations, were performed as soon as possible after birth and then at regular intervals until 24 months of life. Analyses (survival, point prevalence and incidence were adjusted for confounding factors and repeated measures with sensitivity analyses of differential follow-up. Results Ninety-seven vaccinees and 51 comparison participants were enrolled. By age 6 months, 96% (81/84 of vaccinees and 100% (41/41 of comparison subjects experienced otitis media with effusion (OME, and by 12 months 89% and 88% experienced acute otitis media (AOM, 34% and 35% experienced tympanic membrane perforation (TMP and 14% and 23% experienced chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM. Age at the first episode of OME, AOM, TMP and CSOM was not significantly different between the two groups. Adjusted incidence of AOM (incidence rate ratio: 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.69–1.13] and TMP (incidence rate ratio: 0.63 [0.36–1.11] was not significantly reduced in vaccinees. Vaccinees experienced less recurrent TMP, 9% (8/95 versus 22% (11/51, (odds ratio: 0.33 [0.11–1.00]. Conclusion Results of this study should be interpreted with caution due to potential bias and confounding. It appears that introduction of pneumococcal vaccination among Aboriginal infants was not associated with significant changes

  13. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

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    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  14. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  15. An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Abori......We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show...

  16. Contextualising the social capital of Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Lise; Treloar, Carla; Chambers, Georgina M; Butler, Tony; Guthrie, Jill

    2016-10-01

    Social capital is a valuable resource that has received little attention in the prison context. Differences in the construct and accessibility of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital exist for Aboriginal Australians in mainstream society, but were previously unexplored in prison. This study seeks to understand contextual differences of social capital for Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison. Thirty male inmates participated in qualitative interviews across three New South Wales (NSW) correctional centres. Interviews were completed between November 2014 and March 2015. Experiences of bonding and linking social capital varied among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Opportunities for bridging social capital were limited for all participants. There is greater scope for building bonding social capital among male inmates than either bridging or linking social capital. Bonding social capital, particularly among Aboriginal men in prison, should be utilised to promote health and other programs to inmates.

  17. Improving palliative care outcomes for Aboriginal Australians: service providers’ perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Shaouli; Bessarab, Dawn; van Schaik, Katherine D; Aoun, Samar M.; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal Australians have a lower rate of utilisation of palliative care services than the general population. This study aimed to explore care providers’ experiences and concerns in providing palliative care for Aboriginal people, and to identify opportunities for overcoming gaps in understanding between them and their Aboriginal patients and families. Methods: In-depth, qualitative interviews with urban, rural and remote palliative care providers were undertaken in inpatient a...

  18. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  19. How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T.M. Schreiner (Agnes)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The article How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art will discuss two events at the Aboriginal Art Museum Utrecht from the perspective of a meeting between two artistic and legal cultures. The first event, on the art and law of the Spinifex people, will pro

  20. Australian Aboriginal Geomythology: Eyewitness Accounts of Cosmic Impacts?

    OpenAIRE

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-01-01

    Descriptions of cosmic impacts and meteorite falls are found throughout Australian Aboriginal oral traditions. In some cases, these texts describe the impact event in detail, sometimes citing the location, suggesting that the events were witnessed. We explore whether cosmic impacts and meteorite falls may have been witnessed by Aboriginal Australians and incorporated into their oral traditions. We discuss the complications and bias in recording and analysing oral texts but suggest that these ...

  1. Phonemic awareness and early spelling skills in urban Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Corinne J; Masterson, Julie J

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the phonological awareness and early spelling skills of 10 Australian Aboriginal and 10 non-Aboriginal children in their first year of schooling at urban schools. Phonological awareness was assessed using a standardized test (the Queensland University Inventory of Literacy), and children completed a standard spelling task that required them to generate spelling attempts in response to 12 line drawings of familiar animals. Spelling was analysed using the Spelling Scoring Sensitivity procedure. All children performed within the normal range for scores on the QUIL. However, as a group, Aboriginal children performed more poorly than their non-Aboriginal peers. Statistically significant differences were found on the subtests non-word spelling, non-word reading, and phoneme segmentation. Both formal scoring and informal observations were used to examine the spelling skills of participants. Possible explanations of the differences between groups are discussed in terms of health and cultural factors, and implications for the education of Aboriginal children are suggested.

  2. Evolutionists and Australian Aboriginal art: 1885-1915

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    Susan Lowish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines key examples of writing about Australian Aboriginal art in the decades around 1900 specifically in relation to the way in which it is used to provide evidence for theories concerning the evolution of art. Analysis of published works by late nineteenth-century men of science reveals the main influences shaping their perceptions of Aboriginal art during this time and provides an early working definition of this emerging category. This paper confirms that turn-of-the-century European understandings of Aboriginal art were based on limited evidence mediated through a specifically ethnographic notion of ‘decorative art’.

  3. Physical activity, healthy lifestyle behaviors, neighborhood environment characteristics and social support among Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macniven, Rona; Richards, Justin; Gubhaju, Lina; Joshy, Grace; Bauman, Adrian; Banks, Emily; Eades, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Physical inactivity is the third leading cause of the burden of disease for Australian Aboriginal adults. The neighborhood environment and social support are known to influence physical activity (PA) participation. This study examined these factors in relation to achieving PA recommendations in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Social, Economic, and Environmental Factor (SEEF) Study in New South Wales, Australia were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants for PA-related attributes, including achieving PA recommendations. ORs for achieving PA recommendations were estimated in both groups. Overall, 63.1% of Aboriginal (n = 314) and 65.4% of non-Aboriginal (n = 59,175) participants met PA recommendations. Odds of healthy sleep duration were lower, and receiving GP advice to be active was higher, among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants. Aboriginal respondents had higher odds of reporting that the crime rate made it unsafe to walk and that local public transport was inaccessible. They had higher odds of disagreeing they have local shops, footpaths or free/low cost recreation facilities. PA correlates were similar in both groups. The factors relating to PA were similar in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. Neighborhood and social features were less PA-favorable for Aboriginal participants suggesting multiple possible avenues for increasing PA in this older population group.

  4. Australian Aboriginal Geomythology: Eyewitness Accounts of Cosmic Impacts?

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    Descriptions of cosmic impacts and meteorite falls are found throughout Australian Aboriginal oral traditions. In some cases, these texts describe the impact event in detail, sometimes citing the location, suggesting that the events were witnessed. We explore whether cosmic impacts and meteorite falls may have been witnessed by Aboriginal Australians and incorporated into their oral traditions. We discuss the complications and bias in recording and analysing oral texts but suggest that these texts may be used both to locate new impact structures or meteorites and model observed impact events. We find that, while detailed Aboriginal descriptions of cosmic impacts are abundant in the literature, there is currently no physical evidence connecting these accounts to impact events currently known to Western science.

  5. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2016-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aborig- inal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral ...

  6. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.

    2016-08-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aboriginal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, and are an efficient way of transmitting oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. The study of Aboriginal astronomy has had an impact extending beyond mere academic curiosity, facilitating cross-cultural understanding, demonstrating the intimate links between science and culture, and helping students to engage with science.

  7. Comet and Meteorite Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2014-01-01

    Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  8. Being, knowing, and doing: a phronetic approach to constructing grounded theory with Aboriginal Australian partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Roxanne; Whiteside, Mary; McCalman, Janya

    2013-02-01

    Researchers working with Aboriginal Australian partners are confronted with an array of historical, social, and political complexities which make it difficult to come to theoretical and methodological decisions. In this article, we describe a culturally safe and respectful framework that maintains the intellectual and theoretical rigor expected of academic research. As an Aboriginal woman and two non-Aboriginal women, we discuss the arguments and some of the challenges of using grounded theory methods in Aboriginal Australian contexts, giving examples from our studies of Aboriginal empowerment processes. We argue that the ethics of care and responsibility embedded in Aboriginal research methodologies fit well with grounded theory studies of Aboriginal social processes. We maintain that theory development grounded in data provides useful insights into the processes for raising the health, well-being, and prosperity of Aboriginal Australians.

  9. Risk factors and comorbidities for invasive pneumococcal disease in Western Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people

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    Faye Janice Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Australian Aboriginal people have among the highest rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD worldwide. We investigated clinical diagnosis, risk factors, comorbidities and vaccine coverage in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal IPD cases. Using enhanced surveillance, we identified IPD cases in Western Australia, Australia, between 1997 and 2007. We calculated the proportion with risk factors and comorbidities in children (<5 years and adults (≥15 years, as well as adults living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions. We then calculated the proportion of cases eligible for vaccination who were vaccinated before contracting IPD. Of the 1,792 IPD cases that were reported, 355 (20% were Aboriginal and 1,155 (65% were adults. Pneumonia was the most common diagnosis (61% of non-Aboriginal and 49% of Aboriginal adult IPD cases in 2001-2007. Congenital abnormality was the most frequent comorbidity in non-Aboriginal children (11%. In Aboriginal children, preterm delivery was most common (14%. Ninety-one percent of non-Aboriginal and 96% of Aboriginal adults had one or more risk factors or comorbidities. In non-Aboriginal adults, cardiovascular disease (34% was the predominant comorbidity whilst excessive alcohol use (66% was the most commonly reported risk factor in Aboriginal adults. In adults, comorbidities were more frequently reported among those in metropolitan regions than those in non-metropolitan regions. Vaccination status was unknown for 637 of 1,082 cases post-July 2001. Forty-one percent of non-Aboriginal and 60% of Aboriginal children were eligible for vaccination but were not vaccinated. Among adults with risk factors who were eligible for vaccination and with known vaccination status, 75% Aboriginal and 94% non-Aboriginal were not vaccinated. An all-of-life immunisation register is needed to evaluate vaccine coverage and effectiveness in preventing IPD in adults.

  10. On the Astronomical Knowledge and Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-12-01

    Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the

  11. Australian Aboriginal Memoir and Memory: A Stolen Generations Trauma Narrative

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    Justine Seran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a re-reading of Aboriginal author Sally Morgan’s Stolen Generations narrative My Place (1987 in post-Apology Australia (2008–present. The novel tells the story of Morgan’s discovery of her maternal Aboriginal origins through the life-stories of her mother and grandmother; the object of a quest for the past that is both relational and matrilineal; incorporating elements of autobiography and as-told-to memoirs to create a form of choral autoethnography. Morgan’s text explores the intergenerational consequences of child removal in the Aboriginal context and is representative of Indigenous-authored narratives in its suggestion that the children and grand-children of victims of colonial policies and practices can work through the trauma of their ancestors. I examine the literary processes of decolonization of the Indigenous writing/written self and community; as well as strategies for individual survival and cultural survivance in the Australian settler colonial context; especially visible through the interactions between traumatic memories and literary memoirs, a genre neglected by trauma theory’s concern with narrative fragmentation and the proliferation of “themed” life-writing centered on a traumatic event. This article calls for a revision of trauma theory’s Eurocentrism through scholarly engagement with Indigenous experiences such as Morgan’s and her family in order to broaden definitions and take into account collective, historical, and inherited trauma.

  12. Effective Nutrition Education for Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from a Diabetes Cooking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Penelope A.; Davison, Joyce E.; Moore, Louise F.; Rubinstein, Raechelle

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the experiences of Aboriginal Australians with or at risk of diabetes who attended urban community cooking courses in 2002-2007; and to develop recommendations for increasing the uptake and effectiveness of nutrition education in Aboriginal communities. Methods: Descriptive qualitative approach using semistructured…

  13. Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial genome variation – an increased understanding of population antiquity and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Nano; van Oven, Mannis; Wilcox, Stephen; van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Ballantyne, Kaye N.; Wilcox, Leah; Papac, Luka; Cooke, Karen; van Oorschot, Roland A. H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Kayser, Manfred; Mitchell, R. John; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Comas, David; Cooper, Alan; Der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Gaieski, Jill B.; GaneshPrasad, ArunKumar; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Hobbs, Angela; Javed, Asif; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Melé, Marta; Merchant, Nirav C.; Owings, Amanda C.; Parida, Laxmi; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Santos, Fabrício R.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Soodyall, Himla; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Vilar, Miguel G.; Wells, R. Spencer; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Ziegle, Janet S.

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians represent one of the oldest continuous cultures outside Africa, with evidence indicating that their ancestors arrived in the ancient landmass of Sahul (present-day New Guinea and Australia) ~55 thousand years ago. Genetic studies, though limited, have demonstrated both the uniqueness and antiquity of Aboriginal Australian genomes. We have further resolved known Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups and discovered novel indigenous lineages by sequencing the mitogenomes of 127 contemporary Aboriginal Australians. In particular, the more common haplogroups observed in our dataset included M42a, M42c, S, P5 and P12, followed by rarer haplogroups M15, M16, N13, O, P3, P6 and P8. We propose some major phylogenetic rearrangements, such as in haplogroup P where we delinked P4a and P4b and redefined them as P4 (New Guinean) and P11 (Australian), respectively. Haplogroup P2b was identified as a novel clade potentially restricted to Torres Strait Islanders. Nearly all Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups detected appear to be ancient, with no evidence of later introgression during the Holocene. Our findings greatly increase knowledge about the geographic distribution and phylogenetic structure of mitochondrial lineages that have survived in contemporary descendants of Australia’s first settlers. PMID:28287095

  14. Telling stories: nurses, politics and Aboriginal Australians, circa 1900-1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Sue

    2007-02-01

    The focus of this paper is stories by, and about, (mainly non-Aboriginal) Registered Nurses working in hospitals and clinics in remote areas of Australia from the early 1900s to the 1980s as they came into contact with, or cared for, Aboriginal people. Government policies that controlled and regulated Aboriginal Australians provide the context for these stories. Memoirs and other contemporary sources reveal the ways in which government policies in different eras influenced nurse's attitudes and clinical practice in relation to Aboriginal people, and helped institutionalise racism in health care. Up until the 1970s, most nurses in this study unquestioningly accepted firstly segregation, then assimilation policies and their underlying paternalistic ideologies, and incorporated them into their practice. The quite marked politicisation of Aboriginal issues in the 1970s in Australia and the move towards self-determination for Aboriginal people politicised many - but not all - nurses. For the first time, many nurses engaged in a robust critique of government policies and what this meant for their practice and for Aboriginal health. Other nurses, however, continued as they had before - neither questioning prevailing policy nor its effects on their practice. It is argued that only by understanding and confronting the historical roots of institutional racism, and by speaking out against such practices, can discrimination and racism be abolished from nursing practice and health care. This is essential for nursing's current and future professional development and for better health for Aboriginal Australians.

  15. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shaun C Ewen,1 David Hollinsworth2 1Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Indigenous Studies, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia Introduction: Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. Methods: A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide “culturally appropriate” clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Results and discussion: Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Conclusion: Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services

  16. Environment and morphology in Australian Aborigines: a re-analysis of the Birdsell database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Ian; Bulbeck, David

    2007-09-01

    Pursuant to his major research interest in the cultural ecology of hunter-gatherers, Birdsell collected an unparalleled body of phenotypic data on Aboriginal Australians during the mid twentieth century. Birdsell did not explicitly relate the geographic patterning in his data to Australia's climatic variation, instead arguing that the observable differences between groups reflect multiple origins of Australian Aborigines. In this article, bivariate correlation and multivariate analyses demonstrate statistically significant associations between climatic variables and the body build of Australians that are consistent with the theoretical expectations of Bergmann's and Allen's rules. While Australian Aborigines in comparison to Eurasian and New World populations can be generally described as long-headed, linear in build, and characterized by elongated distal limbs, the variation in this morphological pattern across the continent evidently reflects biological adaptation to local Holocene climates. These results add to a growing body of evidence for the role of environmental selection in the development of modern human variation.

  17. Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and influence…

  18. Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and…

  19. CMKb: a web-based prototype for integrating Australian Aboriginal customary medicinal plant knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Gaikwad, Jitendra; Khanna, Varun; Vemulpad, Subramanyam; Jamie, Joanne; Kohen, Jim; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2008-01-01

    Background The customary medicinal plant knowledge possessed by the Australian Aboriginal people is a significant resource. Published information on it is scattered throughout the literature, in heterogeneous data formats, and is scattered among various Aboriginal communities across Australia, due to a multiplicity of languages. This ancient knowledge is at risk due to loss of biodiversity, cultural impact and the demise of many of its custodians. We have developed the Customary Medicinal Kno...

  20. “No More Boomerang”: Environment and Technology in Contemporary Aboriginal Australian Poetry

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    John Charles Ryan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based in oral traditions and song cycles, contemporary Aboriginal Australian poetry is full of allusions to the environment. Not merely a physical backdrop for human activities, the ancient Aboriginal landscape is a nexus of ecological, spiritual, material, and more-than-human overlays—and one which is increasingly compromised by modern technological impositions. In literary studies, while Aboriginal poetry has become the subject of critical interest, few studies have foregrounded the interconnections between environment and technology. Instead, scholarship tends to focus on the socio-political and cultural dimensions of the writing. How have contemporary Australian Aboriginal poets responded to the impacts of environmental change and degradation? How have poets addressed the effects of modern technology in ancestral environments, or country? This article will develop an ecocritical and technology-focused perspective on contemporary Aboriginal poetry through an analysis of the writings of three significant literary-activists: Jack Davis (1917–2000, Oodgeroo Noonuccal (1920–1993, and Lionel Fogarty (born 1958. Davis, Noonuccal, and Fogarty strive poetically to draw critical attention to the particular impacts of late modernist technologies on Aboriginal people and country. In developing a critique of invasive technologies that adversely affect the environment and culture, their poetry also invokes the Aboriginal technologies that sustained (and, in places, still sustain people in reciprocal relation to country.

  1. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 1: the ethnobotany of the skyworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2014-11-01

    In Aboriginal Australia, the corpus of cosmological beliefs was united by the centrality of the Skyworld, which was considered to be the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. Early historical accounts of classical Australian hunter-gatherer beliefs described the heavens as inhabited by human and spiritual ancestors who interacted with the same species of plants and animals as they had below. This paper is the first of two that describes Indigenous perceptions of the Skyworld flora and draws out major ethnobotanical themes from the corpus of ethnoastronomical records garnered from a diverse range of Australian Aboriginal cultures. It investigates how Indigenous perceptions of the flora are interwoven with Aboriginal traditions concerning the heavens, and provides examples of how the study of ethnoastronomy can provide insights into the Indigenous use and perception of plants.

  2. Goal Theory and Indigenous Minority School Motivation: Relevance and Application. Australian Aboriginal and Navajo Indian Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    This paper reports on a continuing study of Australian Aboriginal and Navajo Indian children. The study investigates the relevance and applicability of goal theory to explaining indigenous minority motivation in school settings. Task, ego social solidarity, and extrinsic goal structures were examined as a means of explaining and predicting…

  3. Recovering the Tracks. The Story of Australian Archaeology, by David Horton, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra

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    Timothy Murray

    1992-11-01

    Full Text Available This history of archaeology in Australia has been pretty well served since Mulvaney's highly influential survey of three hundred years of opinion about the nature of Australian Aboriginal people (1958. Indeed, the long-running debate about the identity of Australian archaeology, particularly about the extent to which it has developed a distinctive style, or whether its fundamental precepts and orientations remain essentially undeveloped derivations from English and North American influences, has tended to provide a ready market for research into the history of Australian archaeology.

  4. The Australian Aboriginal People: How to Misunderstand Their Science

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2014-01-01

    Just one generation ago, schoolkids were taught that Aboriginal people couldn't count beyond five, wandered the desert scavenging for food, had no civilization or religion, had no agriculture, couldn't navigate, didn't build houses, and peacefully acquiesced when Western Civilisation rescued them in 1788. How did we get it so wrong? Here I show that traditional Aboriginal people knew a great deal about the sky, knew the cycles of movements of the stars and the complex motions of the sun, moon and planets. I argue that school students studying science today could learn much from the way that pre-contact Aboriginal people used observation to build a self-consistent picture of the world around them, with predictive power and practical applications.

  5. An ecological approach to health promotion in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross; Grace, Jocelyn; Brewster, David

    2010-03-01

    Poor environmental conditions and poor child health in remote Australian Aboriginal communities are a symptom of a disjuncture in the cultures of a disadvantaged (and only relatively recently enfranchised) minority population and a proportionally large, wealthy dominant immigrant population, problematic social policies and the legacy of colonialism. Developing effective health promotion interventions in this environment is a challenge. Taking an ecological approach, the objective of this study was to identify the key social, economic, cultural and environmental factors that contribute to poor hygiene in remote Aboriginal communities, and to determine approaches that will improve hygiene and reduce the burden of infection among children. The methods included a mix of quantitative and qualitative community-based studies and literature reviews. Study findings showed that a combination of crowding, non-functioning health hardware and poor standards of personal and domestic hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by children. Also, models of health promotion drawn from developed and developing countries can be adapted for use in remote Australian Aboriginal community contexts. High levels of disadvantage in relation to social determinants of health underlie the problem of poor environmental conditions and poor child health in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Measures need to be taken to address the immediate problems that impact on children's health-for example, by ensuring the availability of functional and adequate water and sanitation facilities-but these interventions are unlikely to have a major effect unless the underlying issues are also addressed.

  6. Improving cardiovascular outcomes among Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from research for primary care

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    Sandra C Thompson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Aboriginal people of Australia have much poorer health and social indicators and a substantial life expectancy gap compared to other Australians, with premature cardiovascular disease a major contributor to poorer health. This article draws on research undertaken to examine cardiovascular disparities and focuses on ways in which primary care practitioners can contribute to reducing cardiovascular disparities and improving Aboriginal health. Methods: The overall research utilised mixed methods and included data analysis, interviews and group processes which included Aboriginal people, service providers and policymakers. Workshop discussions to identify barriers and what works were recorded by notes and on whiteboards, then distilled and circulated to participants and other stakeholders to refine and validate information. Additional engagement occurred through circulation of draft material and further discussions. This report distils the lessons for primary care practitioners to improve outcomes through management that is attentive to the needs of Aboriginal people. Results: Aspects of primordial, primary and secondary prevention are identified, with practical strategies for intervention summarised. The premature onset and high incidence of Aboriginal cardiovascular disease make prevention imperative and require that primary care practitioners understand and work to address the social underpinnings of poor health. Doctors are well placed to reinforce the importance of healthy lifestyle at all visits to involve the family and to reduce barriers which impede early care seeking. Ensuring better information for Aboriginal patients and better integrated care for patients who frequently have complex needs and multi-morbidities will also improve care outcomes. Conclusion: Primary care practitioners have an important role in improving Aboriginal cardiovascular care outcomes. It is essential that they recognise the special needs of their

  7. Tailoring a family-based alcohol intervention for Aboriginal Australians, and the experiences and perceptions of health care providers trained in its delivery

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians experience a disproportionately high burden of alcohol-related harm compared to the general Australian population. Alcohol treatment approaches that simultaneously target individuals and families offer considerable potential to reduce these harms if they can be successfully tailored for routine delivery to Aboriginal Australians. The Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) and Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) are two related interventions th...

  8. Reference genotype and exome data from an Australian Aboriginal population for health-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dave; Anderson, Denise; Francis, Richard W; Syn, Genevieve; Jamieson, Sarra E; Lassmann, Timo; Blackwell, Jenefer M

    2016-04-12

    Genetic analyses, including genome-wide association studies and whole exome sequencing (WES), provide powerful tools for the analysis of complex and rare genetic diseases. To date there are no reference data for Aboriginal Australians to underpin the translation of health-based genomic research. Here we provide a catalogue of variants called after sequencing the exomes of 72 Aboriginal individuals to a depth of 20X coverage in ∼80% of the sequenced nucleotides. We determined 320,976 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 47,313 insertions/deletions using the Genome Analysis Toolkit. We had previously genotyped a subset of the Aboriginal individuals (70/72) using the Illumina Omni2.5 BeadChip platform and found ~99% concordance at overlapping sites, which suggests high quality genotyping. Finally, we compared our SNVs to six publicly available variant databases, such as dbSNP and the Exome Sequencing Project, and 70,115 of our SNVs did not overlap any of the single nucleotide polymorphic sites in all the databases. Our data set provides a useful reference point for genomic studies on Aboriginal Australians.

  9. Learning from both sides: Experiences and opportunities in the investigation of Australian aboriginal medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Bradley S; Claudie, David J; Smith, Nicholas M; McKinnon, Ross A; Semple, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    With one of the oldest surviving cultures in the world, Australian Aboriginal people have developed immense knowledge about the diverse Australian flora. Western scientific investigation of some Australian Aboriginal medicinal plants has demonstrated interesting pharmacological activities and chemistry, however the majority of these species have not yet been extensively examined. We argue that research that is locally initiated and driven by Indigenous traditional owners in collaboration with Western scientists has significant potential to develop new plant-based products. Locally driven medicinal plants research in which traditional owners work as researchers in collaboration with University-based colleagues in the investigation of medicines rather than "stakeholders" or "informants" is one model that may be used in characterising plants with the potential to be developed into sustainable plant-based medicinal products with commercial value. Our team has taken this approach in research located both on traditional homelands and in the laboratory. Research being conducted by the University of South Australia and Chuulangun Aboriginal Corporation has led to patent filing for protection of intellectual property associated with novel compounds and extracts with the potential for development through cosmetic, complementary medicine and pharmaceutical routes. Ongoing research is examining the commercial developmental pathways and requirements for product development in these spaces. This review will address the opportunities that might exist for working in partnership with Australian Indigenous communities, some of the scientific knowledge which has been generated so far from our work together and the lessons learnt since the inception of the collaboration between the Chuulangun Aboriginal Corporation and scientists from the University of South Australia.

  10. A 150-Year Conundrum: Cranial Robusticity and Its Bearing on the Origin of Aboriginal Australians

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    Darren Curnoe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of Aboriginal Australians has been a central question of palaeoanthropology since its inception during the 19th Century. Moreover, the idea that Australians could trace their ancestry to a non-modern Pleistocene population such as Homo erectus in Southeast Asia have existed for more than 100 years, being explicitly linked to cranial robusticity. It is argued here that in order to resolve this issue a new program of research should be embraced, one aiming to test the full range of alternative explanations for robust morphology. Recent developments in the morphological sciences, especially relating to the ontogeny of the cranium indicate that character atomisation, an approach underpinning phylogenetic reconstruction, is fraught with difficulties. This leads to the conclusion that phylogenetic-based explanations for robusticity should be reconsidered and a more parsimonious approach to explaining Aboriginal Australian origins taken. One that takes proper account of the complex processes involved in the growth of the human cranium rather than just assuming natural selection to explain every subtle variation seen in past populations. In doing so, the null hypothesis that robusticity might result from phenotypic plasticity alone cannot be rejected, a position at odds with both reticulate and deep-time continuity models of Australian origins.

  11. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Graham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (Aboriginal account for approximately 3% of the Australian population. They have the poorest health, economic and social outcomes. Higher notification rates of hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV have been reported among Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal people. The identification of Aboriginal people in national surveillance has some weaknesses, with only four of the eight jurisdictions included in national reporting. To address some of these limitations, we aim to estimate the pooled prevalence of anti-HCV among Aboriginal people in Australia. Evidence Acquisition We searched the databases: Pubmed, Web of Science and Informit, and the New South Wales and Northern Territory Public Health Bulletins. A study was included if it reported the number of Aboriginal people testing positive for anti-HCV and the number tested for anti-HCV. A meta-analysis by population-group was conducted if three or more studies reported a prevalence estimate. Variables included: author, year of publication, study design, study period, gender (female, male, age, population group (Aboriginal people in prison, Aboriginal people who inject drugs, number testing anti-HCV positive, number tested for anti-HCV and prevalence (%. Due to a long time period, we separated the studies estimating the prevalence anti-HCV among Aboriginal people in prison into two time periods, 1994 - 2004 and 2005 - 2012. Results Overall, 15 studies met our inclusion criteria. Among Aboriginal people in prison, the pooled prevalence of anti-HCV was 18.1% (95%CI: 6.6 - 29.7. The pooled prevalence among Aboriginal people in prison was 25.7% (95%CI: 4.1-47.3 in studies published between 1994 - 2004 and 14.5% (95%CI: 1.7 - 27.3 in studies published from 2005 - 2012. The pooled prevalence of anti-HCV was 58.7% (95%CI: 53.9 - 63.5 among Aboriginal people who inject drugs and 2.9% (95%CI: 0.30 - 6.1 among Aboriginal people who did not inject drugs, however

  12. "Fringe Finds Centre: Developments in Aboriginal Writing in English", pp. 32-44

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eva Rask

    1991-01-01

    Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity......Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity...

  13. "Fringe Finds Centre: Developments in Aboriginal Wirting in English", pp. 32-44

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eva Rask

    1991-01-01

    Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity......Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity...

  14. Tobacco use among urban Aboriginal Australian young people: a qualitative study of reasons for smoking, barriers to cessation and motivators for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Suzanne; Hawkins, Kimberley; Skaczkowski, Gemma; Copley, David; Bowden, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Smoking prevalence among Aboriginal Australian young people greatly exceeds the prevalence in the broader population of Australian young people, yet limited research has explored the social context in which young Aboriginal Australians smoke. Four focus groups were conducted in 2009 with South Australian Aboriginal smokers aged 15-29 years residing in urban areas (n = 32) to examine attitudes and experiences surrounding smoking and quitting. The primary reasons for smoking initiation and maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people were identified as stress, social influence and boredom. Motivators for quitting were identified as pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons. The barriers to cessation were identified as social influence, the perception of quitting as a distant event and reluctance to access cessation support. However, it appears that social influences and stress were particularly salient contributors to smoking maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people. Smoking cessation interventions targeted at young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers should aim to build motivation to quit by utilising the motivators of pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons, while acknowledging the pertinent role of social influence and stress in the lives of young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers.

  15. Globalising Aboriginal Reconciliation: Indigenous Australians and Asian (Japanese Migrants

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    Minoru Hokari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, I have attended several political meetings concerned with the refugee crisis, multiculturalism or Indigenous rights in Australia, meetings at which liberal democratic–minded ‘left-wing’ people came together to discuss, or agitate for change in, governmental policies. At these meetings, I always found it difficult to accept the slogans on their placards and in their speeches: ‘Shame Australia! Reconciliation for a united Australia’, ‘Wake up Australia! We welcome refugees!’ or ‘True Australians are tolerant! Let’s celebrate multicultural Australia!’ My uncomfortable feeling came not only from the fact that I was left out because of my Japanese nationality but also because I had never seen or heard words like ‘shame Japan’, ‘wake up Japan’ or ‘true Japanese are ...’ at Japanese ‘left-wing’ political gatherings. In Japan, these are words used only by right-wing nationalists. Indeed it is difficult to even imagine liberal-left intellectuals in postwar Japan calling for a ‘true Japanese’ political response (as if such a response was positive, such is the extent to which the idea of ‘good nationalism’ is now regarded as an oxymoron. This is my starting point for an essay in which I want to be attentive to the different roles played by national(ism in the Japanese and Australian political environments.

  16. Eating disorder features in indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian Peoples

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    Hay Phillipa J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and related cardiovascular and metabolic conditions are well recognized problems for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. However, there is a dearth of research on relevant eating disorders (EDs such as binge eating disorder in these groups. Methods Data were obtained from interviews of 3047 (in 2005 and 3034 (in 2008 adults who were participants in a randomly selected South Australian household survey of individuals' age > 15 years. The interviewed comprised a general health survey in which ED questions were embedded. Data were weighted according to national census results and comprised key features of ED symptoms. Results In 2005 there were 94 (85 weighted First Australian respondents, and in 2008 65 (70 weighted. Controlling for secular differences, in 2005 rates of objective binge eating and levels of weight and shape influence on self-evaluation were significantly higher in indigenous compared to non-indigenous participants, but no significant differences were found in ED features in 2008. Conclusions Whilst results on small numbers must be interpreted with caution, the main finding was consistent over the two samples. For First Australians ED symptoms are at least as frequent as for non-indigenous Australians.

  17. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth.

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    Katrina D Hopkins

    Full Text Available Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths' psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status.We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of urban Aboriginal youth (12-17 years, n = 677 drawn from a representative survey of Western Australian Aboriginal children and their families. A composite variable of psychosocial resilient status, derived by cross-classifying youth by high/low family risk exposure and normal/abnormal psychosocial functioning, resulted in four groups- Resilient, Less Resilient, Expected Good and Vulnerable. Separate logistic regression modeling for high and low risk exposed youth revealed that Resilient youth were significantly more likely to have lower self-reported asthma symptoms (OR 3.48, p<.001 and carer reported lifetime health problems (OR 1.76, p<.04 than Less Resilient youth.The findings are consistent with biopsychosocial models and provide a more nuanced understanding of the patterns of risks, resources and adaptation that impact on the physical health of Aboriginal youth. The results support the posited biological pathways between chronic stress and physical health, and identify the protective role of social connections impacting not only psychosocial function but also physical health. Using a resilience framework may identify potent protective factors otherwise undetected in aggregated analyses, offering important insights to augment general public health prevention strategies.

  18. Knowledge translation lessons from an audit of Aboriginal Australians with acute coronary syndrome presenting to a regional hospital

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    Emma Haynes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Translation of evidence into practice by health systems can be slow and incomplete and may disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death among Aboriginal Australians. Timely access to effective medical care for acute coronary syndrome substantially improves survival. A quality-of-care audit conducted at a regional Western Australian hospital in 2011–2012 compared the Emergency Department management of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal acute coronary syndrome patients. This audit is used as a case study of translating knowledge processes in order to identify the factors that support equity-oriented knowledge translation. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of the audit team and further key stakeholders with interest/experience in knowledge translation in the context of Aboriginal health. Interviews were analysed for alignment of the knowledge translation process with the thematic steps outlined in Tugwell’s cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation framework. Results: In preparing the audit, groundwork helped shape management support to ensure receptivity to targeting Aboriginal cardiovascular outcomes. Reporting of audit findings and resulting advocacy were undertaken by the audit team with awareness of the institutional hierarchy, appropriate timing, personal relationships and recognising the importance of tailoring messages to specific audiences. These strategies were also acknowledged as important in the key stakeholder interviews. A follow-up audit documented a general improvement in treatment guideline adherence and a reduction in treatment inequalities for Aboriginal presentations. Conclusion: As well as identifying outcomes such as practice changes, a useful evaluation increases understanding of why and how an intervention worked. Case studies such as this enrich our understanding of the complex human factors, including

  19. Cannabis use and violence in three remote Aboriginal Australian communities: Analysis of clinic presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylie Lee, K S; Sukavatvibul, Krisakorn; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotal reports have linked cannabis use to violence in some remote Australian Aboriginal communities. We examine the relationship between cannabis use and presentations to local clinics for violence-related trauma at a population level. As part of a larger study, estimates of cannabis and alcohol use status were obtained for 264 randomly selected individuals aged 14-42. These estimates were collected from Aboriginal health workers and respected community informants using a previously validated approach. Clinic records for the sample were audited for physical trauma presentations between January 2004 and June 2006. One in 3 individuals (n = 88/264) presented to the clinic with physical trauma. Of these, the majority (65.9%, n = 58/88) had at least one presentation that was violence-related. Nearly 2 in every 3 of the total presentations for trauma following violence (n = 40/63) involved the use of a weapon. Hunting tools were most often used, followed by wooden or rock implements. Individuals who reported any current cannabis use were nearly 4 times more likely than nonusers to present at least once for violent trauma after adjusting for current alcohol use, age, and sex (OR = 3.8, 95% CI [1.5, 9.8]). Aboriginal individuals in these remote communities experience high rates of physical trauma and violence, often involving weapons. A comprehensive study is needed to explore the association between cannabis and violence. At the same time, an investment in local programmes is needed to address cannabis use and underlying risk factors for substance use and for violence.

  20. Appropriate Health Promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their people has generally had limited efficacy and poor sustainability. It has largely failed to recognise and appreciate the importance of local cultures and continues to have minimal emphasis on capacity...... building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization (Geneva) and Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It guides community-focused health promotion practice built on and shaped...... by the respect, understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is not about ‘targeting’, ‘intervening’ or ‘responding’. Rather, it results in health program planners and policy-makers understanding, respecting, empowering and collaborating with communities...

  1. The Importance of Insects in Australian Aboriginal Society: A Dictionary Survey

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    Aung Si

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Insects and their products have long been used in Indigenous Australian societies as food, medicine and construction material, and given prominent roles in myths, traditional songs and ceremonies. However, much of the available information on the uses of insects in Australia remains anecdotal. In this essay, we review published dictionaries of Aboriginal languages spoken in many parts of Australia, to provide an overview of the Indigenous names and knowledge of insects and their products. We find that that native honeybees and insect larvae (particularly of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera are the most highly prized insects, and should be recognized as cultural keystone species. Many insects mentioned in dictionaries lack scientific identifications, however, and we urge documentary linguists to address this important issue.

  2. Continuing Disparities in Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Complications Between Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australians With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy M.E.; Hunt, Kerry; McAullay, Daniel; Chubb, Stephen A.P.; Sillars, Brett A.; Bruce, David G.; Davis, Wendy A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether disparities in the nature and management of type 2 diabetes persist between Aboriginal and the majority Anglo-Celt patients in an urban Australian community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Baseline data from the observational Fremantle Diabetes Study collected from 1993 to 1996 (phase I) and from 2008 to 2011 (phase II) were analyzed. Patients characterized as Aboriginal or Anglo-Celt by self-report and supporting data underwent comprehensive assessment, including questionnaires, examination, and biochemical testing in a single laboratory. Generalized linear modeling with age/sex adjustment was used to examine differences in changes in variables in the two groups between phases I and II. RESULTS The indigenous participants were younger at entry and at diabetes diagnosis than the Anglo-Celt participants in both phases. They were also less likely to be educated beyond primary level and were more likely to be smokers. HbA1c decreased in both groups over time (Aboriginal median 9.6% [interquartile range 7.8–10.7%] to 8.4% [6.6–10.6%] vs. Anglo-Celt median 7.1% [6.2–8.4%] to 6.7% [6.2–7.5%]), but the gap persisted (P = 0.65 for difference between phases I and II by ethnic group). Aboriginal patients were more likely to have microvascular disease in both phases. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (ankle-brachial index ≤0.90 or lower-extremity amputation) increased in Aboriginal but decreased in Anglo-Celt participants (15.8–29.7 vs. 30.7–21.5%; P = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS Diabetes management has improved for Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australian patients, but disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and complications persist. PMID:22815295

  3. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Laura M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1 quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors; (2 qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems.

  4. Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years

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    Davison Belinda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years.

  5. Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships

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    Fuller Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research groups comprising 13–19 partnership staff, policy officers and community members were established at each of two sites to guide the research and to reflect and act on the findings. Network and work practice surveys were conducted with 42 staff, and the results were fed back to the research groups. At the end of the project, 19 informants at the two sites were interviewed, and the researchers conducted critical reflection. The effectiveness and acceptability of the participatory social network method were determined quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Participants in both local research groups considered that the network survey had accurately described the links between workers related to the exchange of clinical and cultural information, team care relationships, involvement in service management and planning and involvement in policy development. This revealed the function of the teams and the roles of workers in each partnership. Aboriginal workers had a high number of direct links in the exchange of cultural information, illustrating their role as the cultural resource, whereas they had fewer direct links with other network members on clinical information exchange and team care. The problem of their current and future roles was discussed inside and outside the local research groups. According to the interview informants the participatory network analysis had opened the way for problem-solving by “putting issues on the table”. While there were confronting and ethically

  6. Potential seasonal ecological challenge of heat strain among Australian Aboriginal people practicing traditional subsistence methods: a computer simulation.

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    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-11-01

    It has been largely accepted that Australian Aboriginal people practicing hunting and gathering traditionally underused their objective economic possibilities by working short hours relative to nonhunter-gatherer populations. However, the possibility that their subsistence quest might have been limited by potential heat strain has not been considered for Australian hunter-gatherers. In this article the influence of work and heat load on the potential for heat strain among adult male Australian Aboriginal people is modelled. The possibility that the short working day of Arnhem Land adults reported in the literature might reflect ecologically limited work scheduling by way of potential heat strain is examined. Three climatic regions of the North of Western Australia and the Northern Territory were identified, using data available from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Data from the months of January, April, July, and October were used with the United States Army Heat Strain Model, along with assumptions with respect to work load and time scheduling. Predictive modelling indicates that a late start to the working day could carry considerable risks of potential heat strain during the summer, when humidity and maximum daily temperature are highest for all three climatic regions, but especially in the tropical coastal region. While extended work times may have been needed to acquire adequate food under traditional conditions, work output could have been limited by potential heat strain under some conditions likely to have prevailed.

  7. Validation of risk assessment scales and predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a cross-sectional survey protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; McEwen, Andy; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoking is a very significant behavioural risk factor for the health of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, and is embedded as a social norm. With a focus on women of childbearing age, and men of similar age, this project aims to determine how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers assess smoking risks and how these assessments contribute to their intentions to quit. The findings from this pragmatic study should contribute to developing culturally ta...

  8. Novel application of X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) for the non-destructive micro-elemental analysis of natural mineral pigments on Aboriginal Australian objects.

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    Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel S; Lenehan, Claire E; Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Howard, Daryl L; de Jonge, Martin D; Paterson, David; Walshe, Keryn; Pring, Allan

    2016-06-07

    This manuscript presents the first non-destructive synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence study of natural mineral pigments on Aboriginal Australian objects. Our results demonstrate the advantage of XFM (X-ray fluorescence microscopy) of Aboriginal Australian objects for optimum sensitivity, elemental analysis, micron-resolution mapping of pigment areas and the method also has the advantage of being non-destructive to the cultural heritage objects. Estimates of pigment thickness can be calculated. In addition, based on the elemental maps of the pigments, further conclusions can be drawn on the composition and mixtures and uses of natural mineral pigments and whether the objects were made using traditional or modern methods and materials. This manuscript highlights the results of this first application of XFM to investigate complex mineral pigments used on Aboriginal Australian objects.

  9. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    OpenAIRE

    Odewumi Adegbija; Wendy Hoy; Zhiqiang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, ...

  10. Theory and Research on Bullying and Racism from an Aboriginal Australian Perspective

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    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Paradies, Yin; Parada, Roberto; Denson, Nida; Priest, Naomi; Bansel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of research on the impact of bullying and racism on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples within Australia. The overarching emphasis was on the variety of physical, social, mental, and educational outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youth, whilst also critiquing the prevailing…

  11. Context, Diversity and Engagement: Early Intervention with Australian Aboriginal Families in Urban and Remote Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gary; Tyler, William; Jones, Yomei; Silburn, Sven; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes challenges met implementing an early intervention programme for Aboriginal parents and their children in the NT (Northern Territory) of Australia in the context of efforts to remediate Aboriginal disadvantage. The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to…

  12. 'Jumping around': exploring young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health in a remote Aboriginal Australian community.

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    Ireland, Sarah; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry; McGrath, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Sexual health indicators for young remote-living Aboriginal women are the worst of all of Australian women. This study aimed to describe and explore young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health, as well as to provide health professionals with cross-cultural insights to assist with health practice. A descriptive ethnographic study was conducted, which included: extended ethnographic field work in one remote community over a six-year period; community observation and participation; field notes; semi-structured interviews; group reproductive ethno-physiology drawing and language sessions; focus-group sessions; training and employment of Aboriginal research assistants; and consultation and advice from a local reference group and a Cultural Mentor. Findings reveal that young women in this remote community have a very poor biomedical understanding of sexually transmitted infections and contraception. This is further compounded by not speaking English as a first language, low literacy levels and different beliefs in relation to body functions. In their sexual relationships, young women often report experiences involving multiple casual partners, marijuana use and violence. Together, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the factors underlying sexual health inequity among young Aboriginal women in Australia.

  13. Exploring disparities in acute myocardial infarction events between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: roles of age, gender, geography and area-level disadvantage.

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    Randall, D A; Jorm, L R; Lujic, S; Eades, S J; Churches, T R; O'Loughlin, A J; Leyland, A H

    2014-07-01

    We investigated disparities in rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in the 199 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in New South Wales, Australia. Using routinely collected and linked hospital and mortality data from 2002 to 2007, we developed multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the relative rates of first AMI events in the study period accounting for area of residence. Rates of AMI in Aboriginal people were more than two times that in non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greatest in more disadvantaged and remote areas. AMI rates in Aboriginal people varied significantly by SLA, as did the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal rate ratio. We identified almost 30 priority areas for universal and targeted preventive interventions that had both high rates of AMI for Aboriginal people and large disparities in rates.

  14. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

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    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C.; Muller, Craig;

    2016-01-01

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversi...

  15. Low back pain risk factors in a large rural Australian Aboriginal community. An opportunity for managing co-morbidities?

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    Parkinson Lynne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is the most prevalent musculo-skeletal condition in rural and remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity are also prevalent amongst Indigenous people contributing to lifestyle diseases and concurrently to the high burden of low back pain. Objectives This paper aims to examine the association between LBP and modifiable risk factors in a large rural Indigenous community as a basis for informing a musculo-skeletal and related health promotion program. Methods A community Advisory Group (CAG comprising Elders, Aboriginal Health Workers, academics, nurses, a general practitioner and chiropractors assisted in the development of measures to assess self-reported musculo-skeletal conditions including LBP risk factors. The Kempsey survey included a community-based survey administered by Aboriginal Health Workers followed by a clinical assessment conducted by chiropractors. Results Age and gender characteristics of this Indigenous sample (n = 189 were comparable to those reported in previous Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS studies of the broader Indigenous population. A history of traumatic events was highly prevalent in the community, as were occupational risk factors. Thirty-four percent of participants reported a previous history of LBP. Sporting injuries were associated with multiple musculo-skeletal conditions, including LBP. Those reporting high levels of pain were often overweight or obese and obesity was associated with self-reported low back strain. Common barriers to medical management of LBP included an attitude of being able to cope with pain, poor health, and the lack of affordable and appropriate health care services. Though many of the modifiable risk factors known to be associated with LBP were highly prevalent in this study, none of these were statistically associated with LBP. Conclusion Addressing particular modifiable risk factors associated with LBP

  16. Developing an Exploratory Framework Linking Australian Aboriginal Peoples’ Connection to Country and Concepts of Wellbeing

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    Bruce Bolam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples’ relationship to their traditional land (known as Country and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples’ health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples’ wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples’ health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation.

  17. Epidemiology, etiology, and motivation of alcohol misuse among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: a descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2015-01-01

    The per capita alcohol consumption of the Northern Territory, Australia, is second highest in the world, estimated 15.1 liters of pure alcohol per year. Alcohol abuse is a major public health concern among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory consume approximately 16.9 liters of pure alcohol per year. This descriptive review is based on current published and grey literature in the context of high risk alcohol use, with a special focus on the epidemiological, etiological, and social factors, to predict alcohol misuse among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Northern Territory. The methodology involved a descriptive search on PubMed, Northern Territory government reports, health databases, and Web sites with an emphasis on the etiology and epidemiology of high-risk alcohol consumption among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory. This review has its own limitations because it does not rely on systematic review methodologies. However, it presents real data on the motives for binge drinking and alcohol-related violent assaults of this vulnerable population. Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related harms are considerably high among the rural and remote communities where additional research is needed. High-risk alcohol misuse within Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders communities often leads to a series of physical and social consequences. This review highlights the need for culturally appropriate intervention approaches focusing on alcohol misuse among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population of the Northern Territory.

  18. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

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    Flynn Kathryn

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population.

  19. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Susan M; Mackerras, Dorothy; Singh, Gurmeet; Bucens, Ingrid; Flynn, Kathryn; Reid, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population. PMID:12659639

  20. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 2: Plant connections with the skyworld

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    Clarke, Philip A.

    2015-03-01

    In the recorded mythology of Aboriginal Australia there is frequent mention of the Skyworld as the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. The heavens were perceived as a country with the same species of plants and animals that existed below. In Aboriginal tradition, large trees were seen as connecting terrestrial space with the sky above, while the movements of celestial bodies were linked to seasonal changes observed with plants on Earth. This paper describes the links between the floras of Earth and the Skyworld.

  1. An Aboriginal Australian Record of the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae

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    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    We present evidence that the Boorong Aboriginal people of northwestern Victoria observed the Great Eruption of Eta ({\\eta}) Carinae in the nineteenth century and incorporated the event into their oral traditions. We identify this star, as well as others not specifically identified by name, using descriptive material presented in the 1858 paper by William Edward Stanbridge in conjunction with early southern star catalogues. This identification of a transient astronomical event supports the assertion that Aboriginal oral traditions are dynamic and evolving, and not static. This is the only definitive indigenous record of {\\eta} Carinae's outburst identified in the literature to date.

  2. Social determinants and psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria: a cross-sectional population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwick, Alison; Ansari, Zahid; Sullivan, Mary; McNeil, John

    2015-03-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts. We sought to explain this inequality, focussing on the social determinants of health. We used population-based survey data from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone survey of 34,168 randomly selected adults. We defined psychological distress as a score of 22 or more on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress scale. We used logistic regression to identify socio-demographic characteristics and social capital indicators that were associated with psychological distress. We then created multivariable models to explore the association between psychological distress and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status that incorporated all significant socioeconomic status (SES) and social capital variables, adjusting for all non-SES socio-demographic characteristics. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians (24.5%) were more than twice as likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (11.3%) to have psychological distress (odds ratio (OR) = 2.56, 95% confidence interval; 1.67-3.93). Controlling for SES, negative perceptions of the residential neighbourhood, lack of social support from family, social and civic distrust, and all non-SES socio-demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, household composition, and rurality), rendered the previously statistically significant inequality in the prevalence of psychological distress, between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians and their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts, insignificant at the p = 0.05 level (OR = 1.50; 0.97-2.32). Psychological distress is an important health risk factor for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults that has yet to be widely acknowledged and addressed. Addressing the

  3. Possible Association of High Urinary Magnesium and Taurine to Creatinine Ratios with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Reduction in Australian Aboriginals

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    Atsumi Hamada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because of the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MS in Australian Aboriginals known for their higher cardiovascular mortality and shorter life expectancy, we analyzed the possible relationship of their MS risks with the current dietary custom. Methods. The subjects were 84 people aged 16–79 years. The health examination was conducted according to the basic protocol of WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison Study. Results. The highest prevalence among MS risks was abdominal obesity (over 60%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity decreased significantly with high level of urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio (Mg/cre (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02–0.57; P<.05. The significant inverse associations of fat intake with Mg/cre and of fast food intake with urinary taurine/creatinine ratio were revealed. Conclusions. The high prevalence of obesity in the Aboriginal people of this area may partly be due to the reduction of beneficial nutrients intake including Mg and taurine.

  4. Queering Place: The Intersection of Feminist Body Theory and Australian Aboriginal Collaboration

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    Somerville, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In this article the author used an auto-ethnographic philosophical approach to construct a fragile history of the present. Margaret Somerville reports doing this through tracing key moments and movements of queering feminist poststructural theory and evolving a queering method of body/place writing through her embeddedness in Aboriginal stories.…

  5. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

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    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  6. High nasopharyngeal carriage of non-vaccine serotypes in Western Australian aboriginal people following 10 years of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination.

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    Deirdre A Collins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD continues to occur at high rates among Australian Aboriginal people. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV was given in a 2-4-6-month schedule from 2001, with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV booster at 18 months, and replaced with 13vPCV in July 2011. Since carriage surveillance can supplement IPD surveillance, we have monitored pneumococcal carriage in western Australia (WA since 2008 to assess the impact of the 10-year 7vPCV program. METHODS: We collected 1,500 nasopharyngeal specimens from Aboriginal people living in varied regions of WA from August 2008 until June 2011. Specimens were cultured on selective media. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by the quellung reaction. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were carried by 71.9%, 63.2% and 63.3% respectively of children <5 years of age, and 34.6%, 22.4% and 27.2% of people ≥5 years. Of 43 pneumococcal serotypes identified, the most common were 19A, 16F and 6C in children <5 years, and 15B, 34 and 22F in older people. 7vPCV serotypes accounted for 14.5% of all serotypeable isolates, 13vPCV for 32.4% and 23vPPV for 49.9%, with little variation across all age groups. Serotypes 1 and 12F were rarely identified, despite causing recent IPD outbreaks in WA. Complete penicillin resistance (MIC ≥2µg/ml was found in 1.6% of serotype 19A (5.2%, 19F (4.9% and 16F (3.2% isolates and reduced penicillin susceptibility (MIC ≥0.125µg/ml in 24.9% of isolates, particularly 19F (92.7%, 19A (41.3%, 16F (29.0%. Multi-resistance to cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and erythromycin was found in 83.0% of 23F isolates. Among non-serotypeable isolates 76.0% had reduced susceptibility and 4.0% showed complete resistance to penicillin. CONCLUSIONS: Ten years after introduction of 7vPCV for Aboriginal Australian children, 7vPCV serotypes account for a small proportion of carried

  7. Alcohol-Related Violence among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: Prioritizing an Agenda for Prevention-Narrative Review Article.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya Ramamoorthi; Rama Jayaraj; Leonard Notaras; Mahiban Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol - related violence among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (also called as “Indigenous”) is a major public health concern in Northern Territory of Australia. There is dearth of epidemiological data that link three contributing epidemics: alcohol misuse, violence, and trauma in the Northern Territory. In this review, we aimed to concentrate on how these epidemics intersect among the Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. In our descriptive review, we have...

  8. Breastfeeding Duration and Residential Isolation amid Aboriginal Children in Western Australia

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    Stephen R. Zubrick

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine factors that impact on breastfeeding duration among Western Australian Aboriginal children. We hypothesised that Aboriginal children living in remote locations in Western Australia were breastfed for longer than those living in metropolitan locations. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from 2000 to 2002 in urban, rural and remote settings across Western Australia. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, using survey weights to produce unbiased estimates for the population of Aboriginal children. Data on demographic, maternal and infant characteristics were collected from 3932 Aboriginal birth mothers about their children aged 0–17 years (representing 22,100 Aboriginal children in Western Australia. Results: 71% of Aboriginal children were breastfed for three months or more. Accounting for other factors, there was a strong gradient for breastfeeding duration by remoteness, with Aboriginal children living in areas of moderate isolation being 3.2 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or more (p < 0.001 compared to children in metropolitan Perth. Those in areas of extreme isolation were 8.6 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or longer (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Greater residential isolation a protective factor linked to longer breastfeeding duration for Aboriginal children in our West Australian cohort.

  9. The clinical course of acute otitis media in high-risk Australian Aboriginal children: a longitudinal study

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    Skull Susan A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear why some children with acute otitis media (AOM have poor outcomes. Our aim was to describe the clinical course of AOM and the associated bacterial nasopharyngeal colonisation in a high-risk population of Australian Aboriginal children. Methods We examined Aboriginal children younger than eight years who had a clinical diagnosis of AOM. Pneumatic otoscopy and video-otoscopy of the tympanic membrane (TM and tympanometry was done every weekday if possible. We followed children for either two weeks (AOM without perforation, or three weeks (AOM with perforation, or for longer periods if the infection persisted. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken at study entry and then weekly. Results We enrolled 31 children and conducted a total of 219 assessments. Most children had bulging of the TM or recent middle ear discharge at diagnosis. Persistent signs of suppurative OM (without ear pain were present in most children 7 days (23/30, 77%, and 14 days (20/26, 77% later. Episodes of AOM did not usually have a sudden onset or short duration. Six of the 14 children with fresh discharge in their ear canal had an intact or functionally intact TM. Perforation size generally remained very small (Streptococcus pneumoniae (82%, Haemophilus influenzae (71%, and Moraxella catarrhalis (95%; 63% of swabs cultured all three pathogens. Conclusion In this high-risk population, AOM was generally painless and persistent. These infections were associated with persistent bacterial colonisation of the nasopharynx and any benefits of antibiotics were modest at best. Systematic follow up with careful examination and review of treatment are required and clinical resolution cannot be assumed.

  10. Wurdi Youang: an Australian Aboriginal stone arrangement with possible solar indications

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    Norris, Ray P; Hamacher, Duane W; Abrahams, Reg

    2012-01-01

    Wurdi Youang is an egg-shaped Aboriginal stone arrangement in Victoria, Australia. Here we present a new survey of the site, and show that its major axis is aligned within a few degrees of east-west. We confirm a previous hypothesis that it contains alignments to the position on the horizon of the setting sun at the equinox and the solstices, and show that two independent sets of indicators are aligned in these directions. We show that these alignments are unlikely to have arisen by chance, and instead the builders of this stone arrangement appear to have deliberately aligned the site on astronomically significant positions.

  11. Mutual Incomprehension: The Cross Cultural Domain of Work in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community

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    Rolf Gerritsen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is set within the context of concerns about Indigenous workforce participation disadvantage. It discusses conflicting life-worlds relating to work of both Aboriginal and non- Indigenous residents in Ngukurr, a remote community in South East Arnhem Land in Australia’s Northern Territory. It contrasts an Indigenous social culture of kinship and relatedness to a Western one where employment is central to identity and its formal rules shape behaviour. We investigate how these different social ideologies affect cross-cultural relationships and shape the formal employment domain in Ngukurr. Given that governments have moved to more assimilationist policies in recent years, there are important policy implications following from this mutual cultural incomprehension.

  12. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

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    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  13. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Is Associated with Strongyloides stercoralis Treatment Failure in Australian Aboriginals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Hays

    Full Text Available To explore the efficacy of ivermectin in the treatment of serologically diagnosed cases of Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis infection in an Aboriginal community and to describe factors that may influence the outcome of treatment.Longitudinal study of a group of 92 individuals with serologically diagnosed S. stercoralis treated with ivermectin and followed up over a period of approximately 6 months. Main outcomes were serological titers pre and post treatment, diabetic status, and duration of follow up.Treatment success was achieved in 62% to 79% of cases dependent on the methods employed for the diagnosis of infection and assessment of treatment outcome. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM was found to be significantly associated with treatment failure in this group for two of the three methods employed.Ivermectin has been confirmed as an effective treatment for S stercoralis infection in this setting. T2DM appears to be an independent risk factor for treatment failure in this population, and plausible mechanisms to explain this observation are presented.

  14. No evidence of increasing Haemophilus influenzae non-b infection in Australian Aboriginal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Menzies

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. High, or increasing, rates of invasive Haemophilus influenzae (Hi type a disease have been reported from North American native children from circumpolar regions, raising the question of serotype replacement being driven by vaccination against Hi type b (Hib. Indigenous Australians from remote areas had high rates of invasive Hib disease in the past, comparable to those in North American Indigenous populations. Objective. Evaluate incidence rates of invasive Hi (overall and by serotype in Indigenous Australian children over time. Design. Descriptive study of Hi incidence rates by serotype, in the Northern Territory (NT and South Australia (SA from 2001 to 2011. Comparison of NT data with a study that was conducted in the NT in 1985–1988, before Hib vaccine was introduced. Results. The average annual rate of invasive Hi type a (Hia disease in Indigenous children aged <5 years was 11/100,000 population. Although the incidence of Hi infection in Indigenous children in 2001–2003 was lower than during 2004–2011, this may be due to changes in surveillance. No other trend over time in individual serotypes or total invasive Hi disease, in Indigenous or non-Indigenous people, was identified. Compared to 1985–1988, rates in 2001–2011 were lower in all serotype groupings, by 98% for Hib, 75% for Hia, 79% for other serotypes and 67% for non-typeable Hi. Conclusions. There is no evidence of increases in invasive disease due to Hia, other specific non-b types, or non-typeable Hi in Australian Indigenous children. These data suggest that the increase in Hia some time after the introduction of Hib vaccine, as seen in the North American Arctic Region, is not common to all populations with high pre-vaccine rates of invasive Hib disease. However, small case numbers and the lack of molecular subtyping and PCR confirmation of pre-vaccine results complicate comparisons with North American epidemiology.

  15. Black on White: or varying shades of grey? Indigenous Australian photomedia artists and the ‘making of’ Aboriginality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 the Centre for Contemporary Photography in Melbourne presented the Indigenous photo-media exhibition Black on White. Promising to explore Indigenous perspectives on non-Aboriginality, its catalogue set forth two questions: how do Aboriginal artists see the people and culture that surrounds t

  16. Medicinal Plants of the Australian Aboriginal Dharawal People Exhibiting Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Most A.; Raju, Ritesh; Beattie, Karren D.; Bodkin, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation contributes to multiple ageing-related musculoskeletal and neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. More recently, chronic neuroinflammation has been attributed to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and autism-spectrum and obsessive-compulsive disorders. To date, pharmacotherapy of inflammatory conditions is based mainly on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which in contrast to cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs do not influence the production of cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α or nitric oxide. However, their prolonged use can cause gastrointestinal toxicity and promote adverse events such as high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, and thrombosis. Hence, there is a critical need to develop novel and safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs possessing alternate mechanism of action. In this study, plants used by the Dharawal Aboriginal people in Australia for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, for example, asthma, arthritis, rheumatism, fever, oedema, eye inflammation, and inflammation of bladder and related inflammatory diseases, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. Ethanolic extracts from 17 Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) were assessed for their capacity to inhibit nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Eucalyptus benthamii showed the most potent nitric oxide inhibitory effect (IC50  5.57 ± 1.4 µg/mL), whilst E. bosistoana, E. botryoides, E. saligna, E. smithii, E. umbra, and E. viminalis exhibited nitric oxide inhibition values between 7.58 and 19.77 µg/mL. PMID:28115968

  17. Medicinal Plants of the Australian Aboriginal Dharawal People Exhibiting Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Most A; Raju, Ritesh; Beattie, Karren D; Bodkin, Frances; Münch, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation contributes to multiple ageing-related musculoskeletal and neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. More recently, chronic neuroinflammation has been attributed to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and autism-spectrum and obsessive-compulsive disorders. To date, pharmacotherapy of inflammatory conditions is based mainly on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which in contrast to cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs do not influence the production of cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α or nitric oxide. However, their prolonged use can cause gastrointestinal toxicity and promote adverse events such as high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, and thrombosis. Hence, there is a critical need to develop novel and safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs possessing alternate mechanism of action. In this study, plants used by the Dharawal Aboriginal people in Australia for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, for example, asthma, arthritis, rheumatism, fever, oedema, eye inflammation, and inflammation of bladder and related inflammatory diseases, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. Ethanolic extracts from 17 Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) were assessed for their capacity to inhibit nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Eucalyptus benthamii showed the most potent nitric oxide inhibitory effect (IC50  5.57 ± 1.4 µg/mL), whilst E. bosistoana, E. botryoides, E. saligna, E. smithii, E. umbra, and E. viminalis exhibited nitric oxide inhibition values between 7.58 and 19.77 µg/mL.

  18. Medicinal Plants of the Australian Aboriginal Dharawal People Exhibiting Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Most A. Akhtar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation contributes to multiple ageing-related musculoskeletal and neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. More recently, chronic neuroinflammation has been attributed to Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease and autism-spectrum and obsessive-compulsive disorders. To date, pharmacotherapy of inflammatory conditions is based mainly on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which in contrast to cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs do not influence the production of cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α or nitric oxide. However, their prolonged use can cause gastrointestinal toxicity and promote adverse events such as high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, and thrombosis. Hence, there is a critical need to develop novel and safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs possessing alternate mechanism of action. In this study, plants used by the Dharawal Aboriginal people in Australia for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, for example, asthma, arthritis, rheumatism, fever, oedema, eye inflammation, and inflammation of bladder and related inflammatory diseases, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. Ethanolic extracts from 17 Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae were assessed for their capacity to inhibit nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Eucalyptus benthamii showed the most potent nitric oxide inhibitory effect (IC50  5.57±1.4 µg/mL, whilst E. bosistoana, E. botryoides, E. saligna, E. smithii, E. umbra, and E. viminalis exhibited nitric oxide inhibition values between 7.58 and 19.77 µg/mL.

  19. Exploring cross-sectional associations between common childhood illness, housing and social conditions in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited epidemiological research that provides insight into the complex web of causative and moderating factors that links housing conditions to a variety of poor health outcomes. This study explores the relationship between housing conditions (with a primary focus on the functional state of infrastructure and common childhood illness in remote Australian Aboriginal communities for the purpose of informing development of housing interventions to improve child health. Methods Hierarchical multi-level analysis of association between carer report of common childhood illnesses and functional and hygienic state of housing infrastructure, socio-economic, psychosocial and health related behaviours using baseline survey data from a housing intervention study. Results Multivariate analysis showed a strong independent association between report of respiratory infection and overall functional condition of the house (Odds Ratio (OR 3.00; 95%CI 1.36-6.63, but no significant association between report of other illnesses and the overall functional condition or the functional condition of infrastructure required for specific healthy living practices. Associations between report of child illness and secondary explanatory variables which showed an OR of 2 or more included: for skin infection - evidence of poor temperature control in the house (OR 3.25; 95%CI 1.06-9.94, evidence of pests and vermin in the house (OR 2.88; 95%CI 1.25-6.60; for respiratory infection - breastfeeding in infancy (OR 0.27; 95%CI 0.14-0.49; for diarrhoea/vomiting - hygienic state of food preparation and storage areas (OR 2.10; 95%CI 1.10-4.00; for ear infection - child care attendance (OR 2.25; 95%CI 1.26-3.99. Conclusion These findings add to other evidence that building programs need to be supported by a range of other social and behavioural interventions for potential health gains to be more fully realised.

  20. Oral health and social and emotional well-being in a birth cohort of Aboriginal Australian young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairney Sheree J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and emotional well-being is an important component of overall health. In the Indigenous Australian context, risk indicators of poor social and emotional well-being include social determinants such as poor education, employment, income and housing as well as substance use, racial discrimination and cultural knowledge. This study sought to investigate associations between oral health-related factors and social and emotional well-being in a birth cohort of young Aboriginal adults residing in the northern region of Australia's Northern Territory. Methods Data were collected on five validated domains of social and emotional well-being: anxiety, resilience, depression, suicide and overall mental health. Independent variables included socio-demographics, dental health behaviour, dental disease experience, oral health-related quality of life, substance use, racial discrimination and cultural knowledge. Results After adjusting for other covariates, poor oral health-related items were associated with each of the social and emotional well-being domains. Specifically, anxiety was associated with being female, having one or more decayed teeth and racial discrimination. Resilience was associated with being male, having a job, owning a toothbrush, having one or more filled teeth and knowing a lot about Indigenous culture; while being female, having experienced dental pain in the past year, use of alcohol, use of marijuana and racial discrimination were associated with depression. Suicide was associated with being female, having experience of untreated dental decay and racial discrimination; while being female, having experience of dental disease in one or more teeth, being dissatisfied about dental appearance and racial discrimination were associated with poor mental health. Conclusion The results suggest there may be value in including oral health-related initiatives when exploring the role of physical conditions on Indigenous

  1. Aborigines of the Imaginary: Applying Lacan to Aboriginal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies the work of Jacques Lacan, a French psychoanalyst, to decipher the desire of the teacher in Aboriginal education. It argues that the images of Aboriginal people represented in Australian classrooms are effects of the teacher's Imaginary, the Imaginary being one of the three psychoanalytic domains theorised by Lacan over a period…

  2. Culture, history, and health in an Australian aboriginal community: the case of utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather; Kowal, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The poor health of Indigenous Australians is well established. However, the health of residents of one remote community in the Northern Territory of Australia called Utopia has been found recently to be much better than expected. In this article, we draw on historical anthropological research to explain this finding. We trace how cultural and social structures were maintained through changing eras of government policy from the 1930s, and show how these structures strengthened psychosocial determinants of health. We argue that the mainstream psychosocial determinants of social cohesion and self-efficacy are usefully reconceptualized in an Indigenous context as connectedness to culture and land, and collective efficacy, respectively. Continuity of cultural and social structures into the 1940s was facilitated by a combination of factors including the relatively late colonial occupation, the intercultural practices typical of the pastoral industry, the absence of a mission or government settlement, and the individual personalities and histories of those connected to Utopia.

  3. First genome-wide association study in an Australian aboriginal population provides insights into genetic risk factors for body mass index and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Denise; Cordell, Heather J; Fakiola, Michaela; Francis, Richard W; Syn, Genevieve; Scaman, Elizabeth S H; Davis, Elizabeth; Miles, Simon J; McLeay, Toby; Jamieson, Sarra E; Blackwell, Jenefer M

    2015-01-01

    A body mass index (BMI) >22kg/m2 is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Aboriginal Australians. To identify loci associated with BMI and T2D we undertook a genome-wide association study using 1,075,436 quality-controlled single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped (Illumina 2.5M Duo Beadchip) in 402 individuals in extended pedigrees from a Western Australian Aboriginal community. Imputation using the thousand genomes (1000G) reference panel extended the analysis to 6,724,284 post quality-control autosomal SNPs. No associations achieved genome-wide significance, commonly accepted as P45,000 years ago. The top hit (rs10868204 Pgenotyped = 1.50x10-6; rs11140653 Pimputed_1000G = 2.90x10-7) for BMI lies 5' of NTRK2, the type 2 neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that regulates energy balance downstream of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). PIK3C2G (rs12816270 Pgenotyped = 8.06x10-6; rs10841048 Pimputed_1000G = 6.28x10-7) was associated with BMI, but not with T2D as reported elsewhere. BMI also associated with CNTNAP2 (rs6960319 Pgenotyped = 4.65x10-5; rs13225016 Pimputed_1000G = 6.57x10-5), previously identified as the strongest gene-by-environment interaction for BMI in African-Americans. The top hit (rs11240074 Pgenotyped = 5.59x10-6, Pimputed_1000G = 5.73x10-6) for T2D lies 5' of BCL9 that, along with TCF7L2, promotes beta-catenin's transcriptional activity in the WNT signaling pathway. Additional hits occurred in genes affecting pancreatic (KCNJ6, KCNA1) and/or GABA (GABRR1, KCNA1) functions. Notable associations observed for genes previously identified at genome-wide significance in other populations included MC4R (Pgenotyped = 4.49x10-4) for BMI and IGF2BP2 Pimputed_1000G = 2.55x10-6) for T2D. Our results may provide novel functional leads in understanding disease pathogenesis in this Australian Aboriginal population.

  4. First genome-wide association study in an Australian aboriginal population provides insights into genetic risk factors for body mass index and type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Anderson

    Full Text Available A body mass index (BMI >22kg/m2 is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D in Aboriginal Australians. To identify loci associated with BMI and T2D we undertook a genome-wide association study using 1,075,436 quality-controlled single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped (Illumina 2.5M Duo Beadchip in 402 individuals in extended pedigrees from a Western Australian Aboriginal community. Imputation using the thousand genomes (1000G reference panel extended the analysis to 6,724,284 post quality-control autosomal SNPs. No associations achieved genome-wide significance, commonly accepted as P45,000 years ago. The top hit (rs10868204 Pgenotyped = 1.50x10-6; rs11140653 Pimputed_1000G = 2.90x10-7 for BMI lies 5' of NTRK2, the type 2 neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF that regulates energy balance downstream of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R. PIK3C2G (rs12816270 Pgenotyped = 8.06x10-6; rs10841048 Pimputed_1000G = 6.28x10-7 was associated with BMI, but not with T2D as reported elsewhere. BMI also associated with CNTNAP2 (rs6960319 Pgenotyped = 4.65x10-5; rs13225016 Pimputed_1000G = 6.57x10-5, previously identified as the strongest gene-by-environment interaction for BMI in African-Americans. The top hit (rs11240074 Pgenotyped = 5.59x10-6, Pimputed_1000G = 5.73x10-6 for T2D lies 5' of BCL9 that, along with TCF7L2, promotes beta-catenin's transcriptional activity in the WNT signaling pathway. Additional hits occurred in genes affecting pancreatic (KCNJ6, KCNA1 and/or GABA (GABRR1, KCNA1 functions. Notable associations observed for genes previously identified at genome-wide significance in other populations included MC4R (Pgenotyped = 4.49x10-4 for BMI and IGF2BP2 Pimputed_1000G = 2.55x10-6 for T2D. Our results may provide novel functional leads in understanding disease pathogenesis in this Australian Aboriginal population.

  5. On the Australian Aboriginal Welfare Conference in 1937%1937年澳大利亚土著福利会议述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪贵

    2012-01-01

    1930年代,面对国内外压力,澳大利亚联邦开始积极介入土著事务。1937年4月,联邦政府召集各州土著事务官员召开了澳大利亚历史上第一次全国土著会议,称之为土著福利会议。与会代表就各州土著状况和土著政策进行了广泛的讨论,西澳内维尔和澳北区库克成为会议的主导人物。会议通过了吸收混血土著的决议,不仅认可和批准各州推行的土著政策,也包含了预示土著政策转变的新因素。%Facing domestic and international pressure, Australian federal government got actively involved in aboriginal affairs in 1930s. In April 1937, the key administrators of Aboriginal affairs gathered in Canberra. It was at this meeting that the different notions and methods were discussed. This conference believes that "the destiny of the native of aboriginal origin, but not of full blood lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth". The policy of absorbing half-castes was authorized by the conference and every state.

  6. Promoting the health of Aboriginal Australians through empowerment: eliciting the components of the family well-being empowerment and leadership programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, Arlene; Haswell, Melissa; Tsey, Komla

    2012-12-01

    Most policies addressing Aboriginal health in Australia promote initiatives that are based on empowerment principles. Articulated programme components are necessary to support personal and group empowerment and to assist individuals in gaining the sense of control and purposefulness needed to exert their political and personal power in the face of the severe stress and powerlessness faced by the Australian Aboriginal people. This paper aims to provide a detailed description of the mechanisms underpinning a 'bottom-up' empowerment initiative, the Family well-being empowerment and leadership programme (FWB), and to analyze how the programme supports empowerment. The five stages of FWB were described and the validity of this model was assessed through the combination of participatory observation, documentation analysis, literature review, semi-structured interviews and iterative feedback with different analytical perspectives. Our study results articulated four distinct programme components: the setting plus inter-relational, educational and experiential actions. FWB is an example of the promotion of both outcome and process pathways towards empowerment. Potential applications of the programme are discussed.

  7. Alcohol-Related Violence among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: Prioritizing an Agenda for Prevention-Narrative Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol - related violence among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (also called as "Indigenous") is a major public health concern in Northern Territory of Australia. There is dearth of epidemiological data that link three contributing epidemics: alcohol misuse, violence, and trauma in the Northern Territory. In this review, we aimed to concentrate on how these epidemics intersect among the Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. In our descriptive review, we have searched published papers, publicly available government and health department reports web sites reporting relevant data on these three risk factors in the Northern Territory. The high rate of family and domestic violence and assaults in the Australian Territory indicates an increased correlation with high risk alcohol use compared to unintentional injuries. Heavy drinking pattern and harmful use of alcohol among Indigenous people are more likely to be associated with the incidence of violent assaults and physical injuries in the Northern Territory. We are trying to emphasize our understanding of co-occurring risk factors on the alcohol - violence relationship and urging a need for interventional approaches to reduce the public health issues in the Northern Territory.

  8. Alcohol-Related Violence among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: Prioritizing an Agenda for Prevention-Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Ramamoorthi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol - related violence among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (also called as "Indigenous" is a major public health concern in Northern Territory of Australia. There is dearth of epidemiological data that link three contributing epidemics: alcohol misuse, violence, and trauma in the Northern Territory. In this review, we aimed to concentrate on how these epidemics intersect among the Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. In our descriptive review, we have searched published papers, publicly available government and health department reports web sites reporting relevant data on these three risk factors in the Northern Territory. The high rate of family and domestic violence and assaults in the Australian Territory indicates an increased correlation with high risk alcohol use compared to unintentional injuries. Heavy drinking pattern and harmful use of alcohol among Indigenous people are more likely to be associated with the incidence of violent assaults and physical injuries in the Northern Territory. We are trying to emphasize our understanding of co-occurring risk factors on the alcohol - violence relationship and urging a need for interventional approaches to reduce the public health issues in the Northern Territory.

  9. Iron intakes of Australian infants and toddlers: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Linda A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Campbell, Karen J; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2016-01-28

    Fe deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and young children are at particular risk. Preventative food-based strategies require knowledge of current intakes, sources of Fe, and factors associated with low Fe intakes; yet few data are available for Australian children under 2 years. This study's objectives were to determine intakes and food sources of Fe for Australian infants and toddlers and identify non-dietary factors associated with Fe intake. Dietary, anthropometric and socio-demographic data from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial Program were analysed for 485 infants (mean age: 9·1 (sd 1·2) months) and 423 toddlers (mean age: 19·6 (sd 2·6) months) and their mothers. Dietary intakes were assessed via 24-h recalls over 3 non-consecutive days. Prevalence of inadequate Fe intake was estimated using the full probability approach. Associations between potential non-dietary predictors (sex, breast-feeding status, age when introduced to solid foods, maternal age, maternal education, maternal employment status and mother's country of birth) and Fe intakes were assessed using linear regression. Mean Fe intakes were 9·1 (sd 4·3) mg/d for infants and 6·6 (sd 2·4) mg/d for toddlers. Our results showed that 32·6 % of infants and 18·6 % of toddlers had inadequate Fe intake. Main food sources of Fe were Fe-fortified infant formula and cereals for infants and toddlers, respectively. Female sex and current breast-feeding were negatively associated with infant Fe intakes. Introduction to solid foods at or later than 6 months was negatively associated with Fe intake in toddlers. These data may facilitate food-based interventions to improve Australian children's Fe intake levels.

  10. Rheumatic Fever Follow-Up Study (RhFFUS protocol: a cohort study investigating the significance of minor echocardiographic abnormalities in Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémond Marc Gerard Wootton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, rheumatic heart disease (RHD is almost exclusively restricted to Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander people with children being at highest risk. International criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of RHD have been developed but the significance of minor heart valve abnormalities which do not reach these criteria remains unclear. The Rheumatic Fever Follow-Up Study (RhFFUS aims to clarify this question in children and adolescents at high risk of RHD. Methods/design RhFFUS is a cohort study of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children and adolescents aged 8–17 years residing in 32 remote Australian communities. Cases are people with non-specific heart valve abnormalities detected on prior screening echocardiography. Controls (two per case are age, gender, community and ethnicity-matched to cases and had a prior normal screening echocardiogram. Participants will have echocardiography about 3 years after initial screening echocardiogram and enhanced surveillance for any history suggestive of acute rheumatic fever (ARF. It will then be determined if cases are at higher risk of (1 ARF or (2 developing progressive echocardiography-detected valve changes consistent with RHD. The occurrence and timing of episodes of ARF will be assessed retrospectively for 5 years from the time of the RhFFUS echocardiogram. Episodes of ARF will be identified through regional surveillance and notification databases, carer/subject interviews, primary healthcare history reviews, and hospital separation diagnoses. Progression of valvular abnormalities will be assessed prospectively using transthoracic echocardiography and standardized operating and reporting procedures. Progression of valve lesions will be determined by specialist cardiologist readers who will assess the initial screening and subsequent RhFFUS screening echocardiogram for each participant. The readers will be blinded to the initial assessment and

  11. Aboriginal Art: Who was interested?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the common assumption that Aboriginal art has been absent from Australian art histories and demonstrates how this is not so. It criticises the notion that art history should be represented by specialised art-history books and argues for the important of art museum displays as texts. It also examines the ways in which Aboriginal art has been examined in literature devoted to Australian history and anthropology. It foregrounds the idea that arts history is not necessarily best represented by official art historical texts.

  12. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo

    2016-09-20

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved

  13. A novel syndrome of paediatric cataract, dysmorphism, ectodermal features, and developmental delay in Australian Aboriginal family maps to 1p35.3-p36.32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gecz Jozef

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A novel phenotype consisting of cataract, mental retardation, erythematous skin rash and facial dysmorphism was recently described in an extended pedigree of Australian Aboriginal descent. Large scale chromosomal re-arrangements had previously been ruled out. We have conducted a genome-wide scan to map the linkage region in this family. Methods Genome-wide linkage analysis using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers on the Affymetrix 10K SNP array was conducted and analysed using MERLIN. Three positional candidate genes (ZBTB17, EPHA2 and EPHB2 were sequenced to screen for segregating mutations. Results Under a fully penetrant, dominant model, the locus for this unique phenotype was mapped to chromosome 1p35.3-p36.32 with a maximum LOD score of 2.41. The critical region spans 48.7 cM between markers rs966321 and rs1441834 and encompasses 527 transcripts from 364 annotated genes. No coding mutations were identified in three positional candidate genes EPHA2, EPHB2 or ZBTB17. The region overlaps with a previously reported region for Volkmann cataract and the phenotype has similarity to that reported for 1p36 monosomy. Conclusions The gene for this syndrome is located in a 25.6 Mb region on 1p35.3-p36.32. The known cataract gene in this region (EPHA2 does not harbour mutations in this family, suggesting that at least one additional gene for cataract is present in this region.

  14. Mediating Tragedy: Facebook, Aboriginal Peoples and Suicide

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    Bronwyn Lee Carlson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some Australian Aboriginal communities experience suicide rates that are among the highest in the world. They are also, however, avid social media users—approximately 20% higher than the national average. This article presents some preliminary findings from a current national study, funded by the Australian Research Council, titled Aboriginal identity and community online: a sociological exploration of Aboriginal peoples’ use of online social media. The purpose of the study is to gain insights into how Aboriginal peoples utilise and interact on social media, and how these technologies can assist with suicide prevention strategies. It found that Aboriginal people are engaging with Facebook to both seek and offer help for issues relating to suicide and self-harm. An existing continuum of suicide prevention strategies was evident—from light emotional support to direct suicide intervention involving health services. These strategies can be leveraged to implement effective and appropriate suicide prevention programs.

  15. The Astronomy of Aboriginal Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2009-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, which is usually reported in terms of songs or stories associated with stars and constellations. Here we argue that the astronomical components extend further, and include a search for meaning in the sky, beyond simply mirroring the earth-bound understanding. In particular, we have found that traditional Aboriginal cultures include a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and that this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. We also present evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, and paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts.

  16. Cognitive mechanism of cultural schemas in interpreting Australian Aboriginal narratives with a high degree of unfamiliarity%文化图式解读澳洲原住民高陌生度文本的认知机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷慧; 岂宇光; 窦志慧

    2016-01-01

    通过对澳洲原住民叙事《卡彭塔利亚湾》中的高陌生度文本的实例分析,说明了动态建构的文化图式是读者与作者进行意义沟通的媒介,是读者对文本进行解读的认知机制。读者首先激活人类共享的人文精神的一般图式,再补充关于澳洲原住民历史、社会、文化、信仰、观念、法律等背景知识,建构出澳洲原住民的生态图式、“梦幻”图式、被殖民的悲怆命运图式。建构的文化图式具有文本推理能力,助推读者在非规约文本的高陌生度语料中,挖掘出文本中蕴含的深层次主题,使读者准确理解作者欲表达的捍卫古老原住民文化的意愿,感知原住民失去家园的苍凉,鉴赏到文本本身彰显的桀骜不驯的审美价值。%Through the analysis of the Australian Aboriginal novel Carpentaria ,the paper illustrates that the dynamic construction of cultural schema is the medium between the communication of readers and authors ,which is also the cognitive mechanism of readers'understanding of the text .Readers would acti‐vate the universal schema of humanism ,and add such background knowledge as Australian Aboriginal his‐tory ,society ,culture ,religion and law to construct the Aboriginal ecological schema ,Dreaming schema , and the tragic fate of being colonized schema .T he constructed cultural schemas enable the readers to make inferences ,to explore the deep theme of the unconventional text of a high degree of unfamiliarity ,and to understand the intended meaning of the Aboriginal w riters for defending their ancient Aboriginal culture . As a result ,the readers would perceive better the desolate fate of Aboriginal people losing their homes and appreciate the aesthetic value of the text .

  17. Biomass uptake and fire as controls on groundwater solute evolution on a southeast Australian granite: aboriginal land management hypothesis

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    J. F. Dean

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of groundwater and surface water is often considered to be dominated by water–rock interactions, particularly weathering; however, it has been increasingly realised that plant uptake can deplete groundwater and surface water of nutrient elements. Here we show, using geochemical mass balance techniques that at our study site in Southwest Victoria, Australia, water–rock interactions do not control the hydrochemistry. Instead the chemical species provided by rainfall are depleted by plant biomass uptake and exported, predominantly through fire. Regular landscape burning by Aboriginal land users is hypothesized to have caused the depletion of chemical species in groundwater for at least the past 20 000 yr by accelerating the export of elements that would otherwise have been stored within the local biomass. These findings are likely to be representative of southeast Australia, as well as similar climatic regions elsewhere in the globe, and contrast with Northern Hemisphere studies of groundwater and surface water chemistry, where water–rock interactions are the dominant hydrochemical control.

  18. In vitro cytotoxicity of Nicotiana gossei leaves, used in the Australian Aboriginal smokeless tobacco known as pituri or mingkulpa.

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    Moghbel, Nahid; Ryu, BoMi; Cabot, Peter J; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2016-07-08

    The Aboriginal population of Central Australia use endemic Nicotiana species to make a smokeless tobacco product known usually as pituri or mingkulpa. Nicotiana leaves are masticated with wood ash into a 'quid' that is chewed/sucked for absorption of nicotine. In addition to nicotine, smokeless tobacco products contain a spectrum of biologically active compounds that may contribute to effects on health. The objective of this study was to quantify nicotine, and related alkaloids and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), in Nicotiana leaves used in pituri, and compare in vitro toxicity of pure nicotine with Nicotiana leaf extract at the same concentration of nicotine. An aqueous extract of dry leaves of Nicotiana gossei and a reference smokeless tobacco (CORESTA CRP2) were quantified for major pyridine alkaloids and TSNAs using HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS. A range of extract concentrations and corresponding concentrations of nicotine standard were tested using an MTS assay to measure human lung epithelium cell (A549) survival. Cells treated for 24h with the maximum concentration of 1.5mg/ml of nicotine resulted in 77% viability. In contrast, extracts from N. gossei leaves and CRP2 containing a similar concentration of nicotine (1.3mg/ml) resulted in remarkably lower viability of 1.5 and 6%, respectively. Comparison of cytotoxicity of pure nicotine with that of the extracts revealed that nicotine was not the source of their cytotoxicity. Other biologically active compounds such as the known carcinogens NNK and NNN, derived from nicotine and nornicotine and found to be present in the smokeless tobacco extracts, may be responsible.

  19. Chemical and biological characterization of novel essential oils from Eremophila bignoniiflora (F. Muell) (Myoporaceae): a traditional Aboriginal Australian bush medicine.

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    Sadgrove, Nicholas John; Hitchcock, Maria; Watson, Kenneth; Jones, Graham Lloyd

    2013-10-01

    Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from the traditional Australian medicinal plant Eremophila bignoniiflora, characterized chemically and then screened for bioactivity. Characterization and quantification were completed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-flame ionization detection, respectively. Antimicrobial capacity was assessed using disc diffusion and micro-titre plate broth dilution and further characterized using thin layer chromatography followed by bioautography to assign activity to separated individual active components. Antifungal capacity was investigated using micro-titre plate broth dilution against pathogenic Trichophyton species. Free radical scavenging ability was assessed using the diphenylpicrylhydradyl reaction in methanol. The predominant components of the essential oil were fenchyl-acetate and bornyl-acetate. However, bioautography indicated antimicrobial ability to be largely linked to the less abundant, more polar constituents. Oils displayed only modest antifungal ability against pathogenic Trichophyton species associated with dermatophytosis, but moderate to high antimicrobial activity, particularly against the yeast Candida albicans and the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis. Essential oils exhibited relatively low free radical scavenging ability. Speculation over the role of essential oils in the traditional medicinal applications of E. bignoniiflora follows, exploring correlations between traditional use and investigated bioactivities.

  20. Health services utilisation disparities between English speaking and non-English speaking background Australian infants

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    Chen Jack

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the differences in health services utilisation and the associated risk factors between infants from non-English speaking background (NESB and English speaking background (ESB within Australia. Methods We analysed data from a national representative longitudinal study, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC which started in 2004. We used survey logistic regression coupled with survey multiple linear regression to examine the factors associated with health services utilisation. Results Similar health status was observed between the two groups. In comparison to ESB infants, NESB infants were significantly less likely to use the following health services: maternal and child health centres or help lines (odds ratio [OR] 0.56; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.40-0.79; maternal and child health nurse visits (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95; general practitioners (GPs (OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.83; and hospital outpatient clinics (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93. Multivariate analysis results showed that the disparities could not be fully explained by the socioeconomic status and language barriers. The association between English proficiency and the service utilised was absent once the NESB was taken into account. Maternal characteristics, family size and income, private health insurance and region of residence were the key factors associated with health services utilisation. Conclusions NESB infants accessed significantly less of the four most frequently used health services compared with ESB infants. Maternal characteristics and family socioeconomic status were linked to health services utilisation. The gaps in health services utilisation between NESB and ESB infants with regard to the use of maternal and child health centres or phone help, maternal and child health nurse visits, GPs and paediatricians require appropriate policy attentions and interventions.

  1. Oral health investigations of indigenous participants in remote settings: a methods paper describing the dental component of wave III of an Australian Aboriginal birth cohort study

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    Sayers Susan M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study has been underway in Australia's Northern Territory since 1987. Inclusion of oral epidemiological information in a follow-up study required flexible and novel approaches with unconventional techniques. Documenting these procedures may be of value to researchers interested in including oral health components in remotely-located studies. The objectives are to compare and describe dental data collection methods in wave III of the ABC study with a more conventional oral health investigation. Methods The Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health (NSAOH was considered the 'conventional' study. Differences between this investigation and the dental component of the ABC study were assessed in terms of ethics, location, recruitment, consent, privacy, equipment, examination, clinical data collection and replication. In the ABC study, recording of clinical data by different voice recording techniques were described and assessed for ease-of-use portability, reliability, time-efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Results Conventional investigation recruitment was by post and telephone. Participants self presented. Examinations took place in dental clinics, using customised dental chairs with standard dental lights attached. For all examinations, a dental assistant recorded dental data directly onto a laptop computer. By contrast, follow-up of ABC study participants involved a multi-phase protocol with reliance on locally-employed Indigenous advocates bringing participants to the examination point. Dental examinations occurred in settings ranging from health centre clinic rooms to improvised spaces outdoors. The dental chair was a lightweight, portable reclining camp chair and the dental light a fire-fighter's head torch with rechargeable batteries. The digital voice recorder was considered the most suitable instrument for clinical dental data collection in the ABC study in comparison with

  2. Are hygiene and public health interventions likely to improve outcomes for Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities? A systematic review of the literature

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    Brewster David

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities still experience a high burden of common infectious diseases which are generally attributed to poor hygiene and unsanitary living conditions. The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the epidemiological evidence for a relationship between various hygiene and public health intervention strategies, separately or in combination, and the occurrence of common preventable childhood infectious diseases. The purpose was to determine what intervention/s might most effectively reduce the incidence of skin, diarrhoeal and infectious diseases experienced by children living in remote Indigenous communities. Methods Studies were identified through systematically searching electronic databases and hand searching. Study types were restricted to those included in Cochrane Collaboration Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group (EPOC guidelines and reviewers assessed the quality of studies and extracted data using the same guidelines. The types of participants eligible were Indigenous populations and populations of developing countries. The types of intervention eligible for inclusion were restricted to those likely to prevent conditions caused by poor personal hygiene and poor living environments. Results The evidence showed that there is clear and strong evidence of effect of education and handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhoeal disease among children (consistent effect in four studies. In the largest well-designed study, children living in households that received plain soap and encouragement to wash their hands had a 53% lower incidence of diarrhoea (95% CI, 0.35, 0.59. There is some evidence of an effect of education and other hygiene behaviour change interventions (six studies, as well as the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene education (two studies on reducing rates of diarrhoeal disease. The size of these effects is

  3. Using the risk behaviour diagnosis scale to understand Australian Aboriginal smoking — A cross-sectional validation survey in regional New South Wales

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    Gillian Sandra Gould

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In these Aboriginal smokers of reproductive age, the RBD Scale appeared valid and reliable. Further research is required to assess whether the RBD Scale and EPPM can predict quit attempts and assist with tailored approaches to counselling and targeted health promotion campaigns.

  4. Imperialism, ANZAC nationalism and the Aboriginal experience of warfare

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    Padraic John Gibson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal protest played a key role in undermining the celebratory settler-nationalism of the bicentennial in 1988. In the lead up to another major nationalist mobilisation, the centenary of the Gallipoli invasion on ANZAC Day 2015, extensive official efforts are being made to incorporate Aboriginal experiences into the day, through celebration of the role of Aboriginal people who served in Australia’s armed forces.   This article provides a critical analysis of the 2014 NAIDOC theme as a way of exploring some of the tensions in this process. The NAIDOC theme, ‘Serving Country: Centenary and Beyond’, presented a continuity between Aboriginal soldiers in WW1 and Aboriginal warriors who fought in defence of their land during the 19th Century Frontier Wars.   In contrast, this article argues that the real historical continuity is between the massacres on the frontier, which often involved Aboriginal troopers fighting for the colonial powers, and the invasions undertaken by Australian soldiers in WW1. New research documenting the horrific scale on which Aboriginal people were killed by Native Police in Queensland in the second half of the 19th Century is integrated with studies of the political economy of Australian settler-capitalism in this period. This analysis is used to demonstrate how capitalist class interests drove both the Frontier Wars and the development of an Australian regional empire, which was consolidated by the mobilisation of Australian troops in WW1.

  5. Effect of health promotion and fluoride varnish on dental caries among Australian Aboriginal children: results from a community-randomized controlled trial*

    OpenAIRE

    Slade, Gary D.; Bailie, Ross S; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye; Leach, Amanda J; Raye, Iris; Endean, Colin; Simmons, Bruce; Morris, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We tested a dental health program in remote Aboriginal communities of Australia's Northern Territory, hypothesizing that it would reduce dental caries in preschool children. Methods In this 2-year, prospective, cluster-randomized, concurrent controlled, open trial of the dental health program compared to no such program, 30 communities were allocated at random to intervention and control groups. All residents aged 18–47 months were invited to participate. Twice per year for 2 years...

  6. Smoking and Other Drug Characteristics of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Prisoners in Australia

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    Robyn L. Richmond

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Although tobacco and alcohol use have declined substantially in the Australian community, substance use among prisoners remains high. The aim was to compare the smoking, drug, and alcohol characteristics, sociodemographic profile, and general health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal male prisoners in a smoking cessation intervention. Design and Methods. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional analysis of data from 425 male prisoners who joined a quit smoking trial conducted at 18 correctional centres in NSW and Queensland using data collected by standardised self-report instruments. Results. Average age was 33 years with 15% from Aboriginal descent. Compared to non-Aboriginal prisoners, Aboriginal prisoners were significantly more likely to have left school with no qualifications, to have been institutionalised as a child, to be previously incarcerated, and commenced smoking at a younger age. The tobacco use profile of both groups was similar; most of them had a medium to high level of nicotine dependence, smoked roll your own tobacco, and were “serious” about quitting. Discussion and Conclusion. Despite differences in terms of sociodemographic characteristics and offending history, the smoking characteristics of Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal prisoners were similar. Incarceration offers an opportunity to encourage smoking cessation and reduction of drug use.

  7. Repositioning the Racial Gaze: Aboriginal Perspectives on Race, Race Relations and Governance

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    Daphne Habibis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, public debate about recognition of the nation’s First Australians through constitutional change has highlighted the complexity and sensitivities surrounding Indigenous/state relations at even the most basic level of legal rights. But the unevenness of race relations has meant Aboriginal perspectives on race relations are not well known. This is an obstacle for reconciliation which, by definition, must be a reciprocal process. It is especially problematic in regions with substantial Aboriginal populations, where Indigenous visibility make race relations a matter of everyday experience and discussion. There has been considerable research on how settler Australians view Aboriginal people but little is known about how Aboriginal people view settler Australians or mainstream institutions. This paper presents the findings from an Australian Research Council project undertaken in partnership with Larrakia Nation Aboriginal Corporation. Drawing on in-depth interviews with a cross-section of Darwin’s Aboriginal residents and visitors, it aims to reverse the racial gaze by investigating how respondents view settler Australian politics, values, priorities and lifestyles. Through interviews with Aboriginal people this research provides a basis for settler Australians to discover how they are viewed from an Aboriginal perspective. It repositions the normativity of settler Australian culture, a prerequisite for a truly multicultural society. Our analysis argues the narratives of the participants produce a story of Aboriginal rejection of the White Australian neo-liberal deal of individual advancement through economic pathways of employment and hyper-consumption. The findings support Honneth’s arguments about the importance of intersubjective recognition by pointing to the way misrecognition creates and reinforces social exclusion.

  8. Aboriginal Self-Determination in Australia: The Effects of Minority-Majority Frames and Target Universalism on Majority Collective Guilt and Compensation Attitudes

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    Reid, Scott A.; Gunter, Helen N.; Smith, Joanne R.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of Aboriginal-Anglo Australian relations, we tested the effect of framing (multiculturalism versus separatism) and majority group members' social values (universalism) on the persuasiveness of Aboriginal group rhetoric, majority collective guilt, attitudes toward compensation, and reparations for Aboriginals. As predicted, Anglo…

  9. On the feasibility of establishing the provenance of Australian Aboriginal artefacts using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and proton-induced X-ray emission

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    Creagh, D. C.; Kubik, M. E.; Sterns, M.

    2007-09-01

    Museums and galleries in Australia have extensive collections of Aboriginal artefacts in their custody. In particular, the National Museum of Australia and the National Gallery of Australia are custodians of works of very considerable significance, in both cultural and financial terms. Art fraud can occur, documentation relating to artefacts can be mislaid, or the artefacts can be incorrectly filed. Because of this, it has become essential to establish protocols for the objective determination of the provenance of artefacts through scientific tests. For the work reported here we are concerned with the comparison of very small quantities of materials, paint scrapings from artefacts. Scrapings from artefacts of unknown provenance are compared with those from artefacts of known provenance, and the database established using an extended set of analytical techniques by Kubik. We describe here our use of synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) to determine the mineral phase compositions of very small amounts of pigment material (<50 μg), and the use of PIXE to give their atomic compositions to a threshold level of 1 ppm for similar masses of material.

  10. The Representation of the Australian Aborigines in Text and Picture: Dr. Med. Pál Almási Balogh (1794-1863 and the Birth of the Science of Anthropology in Central Europe/Hungary

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    Ildiko Sz. Kristof

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a manuscript entitled Az ember Australiában (The Man in Australia found in one of the collections of private files in the University Library of Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest. Preserved in the miscellaneous files of Pál Almási Balogh, a Hungarian physician active mostly during the first half of the 19th century, and written in Hungarian, this writing describes the bodily structure, the way of life and the geographical environment of the Australian aborigines. Written probably around 1835 and divided into chapters like “Religion”, “Habitation”, “Way of life”, “Marriage”, “Superstition”, “Inclinations”, “Dress”, and “Language,” the manuscript seems however never to have been published. The author identifies this writing of Almási Balogh as the first scientific, ethnographical/anthropological monograph ever written in Hungary on the native inhabitants of the fifth continent, and she analyzes its content according to both its textual-philological and visual-figural register. According to her results, the manuscript was compiled from the works of Jules Dumont d’Urville (1790-1842, David Collins (1756-1810, George Barrington (1755-1804, Alan Cunningham (1791-1839, James Cook (1728-1779, and perhaps some other Western European explorers and natural historians of Australia. And, as for its visual register, it relied heavily on the illustrations of Voyage pittoresque autour du monde of Dumont d’Urville, published in different languages in Western Europe from 1834-1835 on.

  11. Teacher Education, Aboriginal Studies and the New National Curriculum

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    Andersen, Clair

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in Australian schools continue to have poor education and health outcomes, and the introduction of a new national curriculum may assist in redressing this situation. This curriculum emphasises recommendations which have been circulating in the sector over many years, to require teacher education…

  12. Bullying in an Aboriginal Context

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    Coffin, Juli; Larson, Ann; Cross, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Aboriginal children appear to be more likely to be involved in bullying than non-Aboriginal children. This paper describes part of the "Solid Kids Solid Schools" research process and discusses some of the results from this three year study involving over 260 Aboriginal children, youth, elders, teachers and Aboriginal Indigenous Education Officers…

  13. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines

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    Chalmers, Kathryn J.; Bond, Kathy S.; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Williams-Tchen, AJ

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian...

  14. E-Mental Health Innovations for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study of Implementation Needs in Health Services

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    Dingwall, Kylie M; Sweet, Michelle; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic mental health (e-mental health) interventions offer effective, easily accessible, and cost effective treatment and support for mental illness and well-being concerns. However, e-mental health approaches have not been well utilized by health services to date and little is known about their implementation in practice, particularly in diverse contexts and communities. Objective This study aims to understand stakeholder perspectives on the requirements for implementing e-mental health approaches in regional and remote health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 managers, directors, chief executive officers (CEOs), and senior practitioners of mental health, well-being, alcohol and other drug and chronic disease services. Results The implementation of e-mental health approaches in this context is likely to be influenced by characteristics related to the adopter (practitioner skill and knowledge, client characteristics, communication barriers), the innovation (engaging and supportive approach, culturally appropriate design, evidence base, data capture, professional development opportunities), and organizational systems (innovation-systems fit, implementation planning, investment). Conclusions There is potential for e-mental health approaches to address mental illness and poor social and emotional well-being amongst Indigenous people and to advance their quality of care. Health service stakeholders reported that e-mental health interventions are likely to be most effective when used to support or extend existing health services, including elements of client-driven and practitioner-supported use. Potential solutions to obstacles for integration of e-mental health approaches into practice were proposed including practitioner training, appropriate tool design using a consultative approach, internal organizational directives and support structures, adaptations to existing systems and policies

  15. Factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal people in Australia: a qualitative study

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    Shahid, Shaouli; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Delayed presentation of symptomatic cancer is associated with poorer survival. Aboriginal patients with cancer have higher rates of distant metastases at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper examined factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal Australians from patient and service providers' perspectives. Methods In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted in two stages (2006–2007 and 2011). Inductive thematic analysis was assisted by use of NVivo looking around delays in presentation, diagnosis and referral for cancer. Participants Aboriginal patients with cancer/family members (n=30) and health service providers (n=62) were recruited from metropolitan Perth and six rural/remote regions of Western Australia. Results Three broad themes of factors were identified: (1) Contextual factors such as intergenerational impact of colonisation and racism and socioeconomic deprivation have negatively impacted on Aboriginal Australians' trust of the healthcare professionals; (2) health service-related factors included low accessibility to health services, long waiting periods, inadequate numbers of Aboriginal professionals and high staff turnover; (3) patient appraisal of symptoms and decision-making, fear of cancer and denial of symptoms were key reasons patients procrastinated in seeking help. Elements of shame, embarrassment, shyness of seeing the doctor, psychological ‘fear of the whole health system’, attachment to the land and ‘fear of leaving home’ for cancer treatment in metropolitan cities were other deterrents for Aboriginal people. Manifestation of masculinity and the belief that ‘health is women's domain’ emerged as a reason why Aboriginal men were reluctant to receive health checks. Conclusions Solutions to improved Aboriginal cancer outcomes include focusing on the primary care sector encouraging general practitioners to be proactive to suspicion of symptoms with appropriate

  16. Strengthening Aboriginal community wellbeing

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    Bronwyn Batten

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008 the NSW Government has been investigating the concept of ‘wellbeing’ as it relates to Aboriginal communities. Adopting a focus on wellbeing has meant delving into questions about what makes communities strong, and what factors are unique to creating strong Aboriginal communities, as well as considering the government’s role (if any in supporting Aboriginal community wellbeing. This paper seeks to convey the essence of the journey into wellbeing to date. It details the positions and assumptions that this work started with, and analyses why this has shifted over time. It examines what worked and was feasible, and what didn’t. In particular, the paper overviews the creation of the Strengthening Aboriginal Community Wellbeing Framework (the policy context, and the development of a resource in the form of a user friendly software program for communities wishing to holistically assess their wellbeing – the ‘toolkit’ (the practical outcome of the work to date.

  17. Under-ascertainment of Aboriginality in records of cardiovascular disease in hospital morbidity and mortality data in Western Australia: a record linkage study

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    Katzenellenbogen Judy M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring the real burden of cardiovascular disease in Australian Aboriginals is complicated by under-identification of Aboriginality in administrative health data collections. Accurate data is essential to measure Australia's progress in its efforts to intervene to improve health outcomes of Australian Aboriginals. We estimated the under-ascertainment of Aboriginal status in linked morbidity and mortality databases in patients hospitalised with cardiovascular disease. Methods Persons with public hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in Western Australia during 2000-2005 (and their 20-year admission history or who subsequently died were identified from linkage data. The Aboriginal status flag in all records for a given individual was variously used to determine their ethnicity (index positive, and in all records both majority positive or ever positive and stratified by region, age and gender. The index admission was the baseline comparator. Results Index cases comprised 62,692 individuals who shared a total of 778,714 hospital admissions over 20 years, of which 19,809 subsequently died. There were 3,060 (4.9% persons identified as Aboriginal on index admission. An additional 83 (2.7% Aboriginal cases were identified through death records, increasing to 3.7% when cases with a positive Aboriginal identifier in the majority (≥50% of previous hospital admissions over twenty years were added and by 20.8% when those with a positive flag in any record over 20 years were incorporated. These results equated to underestimating Aboriginal status in unlinked index admission by 2.6%, 3.5% and 17.2%, respectively. Deaths classified as Aboriginal in official records would underestimate total Aboriginal deaths by 26.8% (95% Confidence Interval 24.1 to 29.6%. Conclusions Combining Aboriginal determinations in morbidity and official death records increases ascertainment of unlinked cardiovascular morbidity in Western Australian

  18. Mortality after admission for acute myocardial infarction in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in New South Wales, Australia: a multilevel data linkage study

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    Randall Deborah A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart disease is a leading cause of the gap in burden of disease between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Our study investigated short- and long-term mortality after admission for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI to public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, and examined the impact of the hospital of admission on outcomes. Methods Admission records were linked to mortality records for 60047 patients aged 25–84 years admitted with a diagnosis of AMI between July 2001 and December 2008. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR for 30- and 365-day all-cause mortality. Results Aboriginal patients admitted with an AMI were younger than non-Aboriginal patients, and more likely to be admitted to lower volume, remote hospitals without on-site angiography. Adjusting for age, sex, year and hospital, Aboriginal patients had a similar 30-day mortality risk to non-Aboriginal patients (AOR: 1.07; 95% CI 0.83-1.37 but a higher risk of dying within 365 days (AOR: 1.34; 95% CI 1.10-1.63. The latter difference did not persist after adjustment for comorbid conditions (AOR: 1.12; 95% CI 0.91-1.38. Patients admitted to more remote hospitals, those with lower patient volume and those without on-site angiography had increased risk of short and long-term mortality regardless of Aboriginal status. Conclusions Improving access to larger hospitals and those with specialist cardiac facilities could improve outcomes following AMI for all patients. However, major efforts to boost primary and secondary prevention of AMI are required to reduce the mortality gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people.

  19. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

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    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  20. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

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    Pat Dudgeon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  1. A socioecological framework to understand weight-related issues in Aboriginal children in Canada.

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    Willows, Noreen D; Hanley, Anthony J G; Delormier, Treena

    2012-02-01

    Obesity prevention efforts in Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, or Inuit) communities in Canada should focus predominantly on children given their demographic significance and the accelerated time course of occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Aboriginal population. A socioecological model to address childhood obesity in Aboriginal populations would focus on the numerous environments at different times in childhood that influence weight status, including prenatal, sociocultural, family, and community environments. Importantly, for Aboriginal children, obesity interventions need to also be situated within the context of a history of colonization and inequities in the social determinants of health. This review therefore advocates for the inclusion of a historical perspective and a life-course approach to obesity prevention in Aboriginal children in addition to developing interventions around the socioecological framework. We emphasize that childhood obesity prevention efforts should focus on promoting maternal health behaviours before and during pregnancy, and on breastfeeding and good infant and child nutrition in the postpartum and early childhood development periods. Ameliorating food insecurity by focusing on improving the sociodemographic risk factors for it, such as increasing income and educational attainment, are essential. More research is required to understand and measure obesogenic Aboriginal environments, to examine how altering specific environments modifies the foods that children eat and the activities that they do, and to examine how restoring and rebuilding cultural continuity in Aboriginal communities modifies the many determinants of obesity. This research needs to be done with the full participation of Aboriginal communities as partners in the research.

  2. Double Oppressions of Racism and Sexism: Australian Indigenous Women in Prichard's Fiction about the Aborigines%种族与性别的双重压迫:普里查德土著题材小说中的澳大利亚土著女性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐在中

    2011-01-01

    澳大利亚作家凯瑟琳·苏珊娜·普里查德,在她的土著题材作品中,努力克服种族偏见,对土著民和土著文化倾注了同情、理解和尊重;不仅如此,作为一个女性作家,她还对土著女性的不利生存地位给予了特别的关注,这使得她的土著题材作品既有反对种族主义的一面,又有关注性别歧视的一面。本文结合《库娜图》等四部作品,探讨了澳大利亚土著女性在19世纪末至20世纪初的殖民时期所遭受的种族和性别的双重压迫。%In her fictional writing about the Australian Aborigines, Katharine Susannab Prichard uniquely attempts to free herself from racial prejudice and expresses her sympathy, understanding and respect towards the Aborigines in general. As a woman writer, she also concerns with Indigenous women's disadvantaged living status. This renders her novels and other works characteristically anti- racist and anti-sexist. In the study of Coonardoo and her three other works, this paper examines the double oppressions of racism and sexism imposed upon Indigenous women in colonial Australia in the late 19th and early 20th century.

  3. Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study

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    Sun Wenxing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM. Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1-  Results Carriage rates of Pnc, NTHi and Mcat at age 1-  Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk factors for carriage such as overcrowding and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early administration of pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae D protein conjugate vaccine to reduce bacterial carriage in infants, may be beneficial for Aboriginal children; such an approach is currently being evaluated in Australia.

  4. Pieces of a thousand stories: repatriation of the history of Aboriginal Sydney

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    Peter Read

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The on-line project A History of Aboriginal Sydney, based at the University of Sydney, takes existing educational and Australian Indigenous digital initiatives in a new direction. By dividing Sydney into six geographical areas, we are creating a knowledge base of post-invasion Aboriginal history, incorporating different forms of tagging, timeline and digital mapping to provide multiple paths to information in text, videos, still images and, in the future, three dimensional reconstructions of former living areas. After eighteen months research we are maintaining a balance between unearthing new and forgotten material, incorporating it into our developing database, and exploring the potential of digital mapping, animation and 3D historical reconstruction for educational and research purposes. With close Indigenous consultation, especially the Aboriginal Educational Consultative Groups, we hope to digitally construct the Aboriginal history of Sydney and return it to the people who have been deprived of so much of their history for so long.

  5. Influences of indigenous language on spatial frames of reference in Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2014-06-01

    The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as `in front' and `behind.' Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian language Iwaidja use the intrinsic frame of reference in contexts where speakers of Standard Australian English use the relative frame of reference. Children speaking Aboriginal English show patterns of use that parallel the Iwaidja contexts. This paper presents detailed examples of spatial descriptions in Iwaidja and Aboriginal English that demonstrate the parallel patterns of use. The data comes from a study that investigated how an understanding of spatial frame of reference in Iwaidja could assist teaching mathematics to Indigenous language-speaking students. Implications for teaching mathematics are explored for teachers without previous experience in a remote Indigenous community.

  6. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  7. The perspectives of Aboriginal patients and their health care providers on improving the quality of hemodialysis services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease has a higher prevalence in Indigenous populations globally. The incidence of end-stage kidney disease in Australian Aboriginal people is eight times higher than non-Aboriginal Australians. Providing services to rural and remote Aboriginal people with chronic disease is challenging because of access and cultural differences. This study aims to describe and analyze the perspectives of Aboriginal patients' and health care providers' experience of renal services, to inform service improvement for rural Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with Aboriginal patients (n = 18) receiving hemodialysis in rural Australia and health care providers involved in their care (n = 29). An overarching theme of avoiding the "costly" crisis encompassed four subthemes: (1) Engaging patients earlier (prevent late diagnosis, slow disease progression); (2) flexible family-focused care (early engagement of family, flexibility to facilitate family and cultural obligations); (3) managing fear of mainstream services (originating in family dialysis experiences and previous racism when engaging with government organizations); (4) service provision shaped by culture (increased home dialysis, Aboriginal support and Aboriginal-led cultural education). Patients and health care providers believe service redesign is required to meet the needs of Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. Participants identified early screening and improving the relationship of Aboriginal people with health systems would reduce crisis entry to hemodialysis. These strategies alongside improving the cultural competence of staff would reduce patients' fear of mainstream services, decrease the current emotional and family costs of care, and increase efficiency of health expenditure on a challenging and increasingly unsustainable treatment system.

  8. Teachers Make a Difference to the Study of Aboriginal Music in NSW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Anne; Bradley, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Australian Indigenous music and culture are in the foreground when Australia celebrates itself in international contexts but their inclusion in the school curriculum is sporadic. In New South Wales (NSW), high school music teachers are responsible for educating students about Aboriginal music(s) and culture(s) within a mandatory focus on…

  9. Down Under Australiana: Seven Little Australians--A Hundred Years down the Old Bush Track.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frances

    1995-01-01

    Discusses 20 Australian titles published in 1994, including picture books, short story collections, thrillers, poetry, novels, and books with Aboriginal themes, that are suitable for grades 1-12. (JKP)

  10. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  11. Social Exclusion/Inclusion for Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

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    Maggie Walter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion social inclusion are useful concepts for making sense of the deeply embedded socio-economic disadvantaged position of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people in Australian. The concepts not only describe exclusion from social and economic participation; but seek to understand the dynamic processes behind their creation and reproduction. Yet few Australian studies go beyond describing Aboriginal over-representation on social exclusion indicators. Neither do they address the translatability of the concepts from non-Indigenous to Indigenous contexts despite mainstream studies finding the pattern of social exclusion (and therefore what social inclusion might look like differs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to that of other disadvantaged groups. This paper uses data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous children to explore patterns of social exclusion across social, economic, well-being and community dimensions for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait families. The paper then develops a contextual understanding of the processes and patterns that create and sustain social exclusion and the opportunities and challenges of moving to greater social inclusion for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people/s.

  12. The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH: study protocol

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    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11

  13. Learning through an Aboriginal Language: The Impact on Students' English and Aboriginal Language Skills

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    Usborne, Esther; Peck, Josephine; Smith, Donna-Lee; Taylor, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal communities across Canada are implementing Aboriginal language programs in their schools. In the present research, we explore the impact of learning through an Aboriginal language on students' English and Aboriginal language skills by contrasting a Mi'kmaq language immersion program with a Mi'kmaq as a second language program. The…

  14. "If you don't believe it, it won't help you": use of bush medicine in treating cancer among Aboriginal people in Western Australia

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    Bessarab Dawn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the use of bush medicine and traditional healing among Aboriginal Australians for their treatment of cancer and the meanings attached to it. A qualitative study that explored Aboriginal Australians' perspectives and experiences of cancer and cancer services in Western Australia provided an opportunity to analyse the contemporary meanings attached and use of bush medicine by Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia Methods Data collection occurred in Perth, both rural and remote areas and included individual in-depth interviews, observations and field notes. Of the thirty-seven interviews with Aboriginal cancer patients, family members of people who died from cancer and some Aboriginal health care providers, 11 participants whose responses included substantial mention on the issue of bush medicine and traditional healing were selected for the analysis for this paper. Results The study findings have shown that as part of their healing some Aboriginal Australians use traditional medicine for treating their cancer. Such healing processes and medicines were preferred by some because it helped reconnect them with their heritage, land, culture and the spirits of their ancestors, bringing peace of mind during their illness. Spiritual beliefs and holistic health approaches and practices play an important role in the treatment choices for some patients. Conclusions Service providers need to acknowledge and understand the existence of Aboriginal knowledge (epistemology and accept that traditional healing can be an important addition to an Aboriginal person's healing complementing Western medical treatment regimes. Allowing and supporting traditional approaches to treatment reflects a commitment by modern medical services to adopting an Aboriginal-friendly approach that is not only culturally appropriate but assists with the cultural security of the service.

  15. Aboriginal English Inside and Outside the Classroom.

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    Malcolm, Ian G.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an analysis of five first-person oral narratives of Aboriginal children of Western Australia recorded outside the classroom. These narratives are compared with a first-person oral narrative of a non-Aboriginal child and with teacher-led interactions in the classes of which the Aboriginal children are members. (26 references) (Author/CK)

  16. Aborigines, colonizers and newcomers: the landscape of transcultural psychiatry research in Australia.

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    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; de Moore, Gregory

    2013-12-01

    The authors present an analysis of transcultural psychiatry research in relation to three main population groups in Australia: Aboriginal Australians, documented immigrants, and refugees. The pioneering reports produced by Western psychiatrists in Aboriginal communities are examined in this article. Additional quantitative and qualitative studies developed with Aboriginal people in the context of a traumatic acculturation process are also reviewed. Subsequently, the authors examine the challenges faced by immigrants with mental disorders in a health care system still unequipped to treat a new array of clinical presentations unfamiliar to the clinical staff. The authors also highlight the development of policies aimed at providing quality mental health care to a mosaic of cultures in an evolving multicultural society. Lastly, the psychiatric manifestations of refugees and asylum seekers are analysed in the context of a series of vulnerabilities and deprivations they have experienced, including basic human rights.

  17. Mapping Early Speech: Prescriptive Developmental Profiles for Very Remote Aboriginal Students in the First Two Years of School

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    Kenny, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the issues surrounding the mapping of the oral language development of Standard Australian English (SAE) in the early school years of remote and very remote Aboriginal education in the Northern Territory (NT). Currently, teachers in this context have 2 mandated documents as guides that chart the development of SAE oracy.…

  18. Mobile Devices for Tertiary Study--Philosophy Meets Pragmatics for Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women

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    Townsend, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines PhD research which suggests mobile learning fits the cultural philosophies and roles of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who are preservice teachers in the very remote Australian communities where the research was conducted. The problem which the research addresses is the low completion rates for two community-based…

  19. Wind power projects and Aboriginal consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, T. [McCarthy Tetrault LLP, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation outlined some of the legal aspects related to Aboriginal involvement in wind power development consultation processes and disputes. Aboriginal rights are rights held by Aboriginal people that are an element of a practice, custom, or tradition integral to the culture of groups claiming such rights. Wind power developers should understand that Aboriginal rights claims may include fishing; whaling; transportation; and cultural and spiritual activities. Aboriginal title is a subcategory of Aboriginal rights, and is a right to land itself, and an encumbrance on the Crown's underlying title to land. Weak Aboriginal claims where potential infringement by energy developers is minor may only require notice and information. Strong prima facie cases for Aboriginal rights and title where the potential for infringement is of high significance may result in more extensive consultation involving interim solutions; formal Aboriginal participation in decision-making processes; and written responses demonstrating how Aboriginal concerns have been considered. There are a number of circumstances requiring a case-by-case approach, and the Crown may make decisions in the face of Aboriginal disagreement. However, energy developers should ensure that consultation processes are fair and reasonable. Conflicting interests can often be successfully resolved through consultation, and accommodation to Aboriginal rights may include mitigation, avoiding interference, and agreeing to as little infringement as possible. Aboriginal title may attach to private land but only to the Crown's underlying title. The Crown has no duty to consult respecting Aboriginal title on private land because title has already been infringed. In these cases, duty to consult and accommodate may be discharged through other regulatory processes such as environmental impact assessments. It was concluded that wind power project proponents should build a relationship with the Crown, as avoiding

  20. Aboriginal Determination: Native Title Claims and Barriers to Recognition

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    Zia Akhtar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Australian government has proposed a referendum in 2012 to decide the constitutional status of its indigenous people. There is at present no mechanism to define the indigenous people as a domestic or foreign entity of the Commonwealth. This is an important issue because other settler governments have developed a framework to implement their relationship with the native people. As a result, it is difficult prove title to land that has been abrogated by the deeds of the settlers. In Mabo v Queensland (2,the Commonwealth government was found to have breached its fiduciary duty to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment led to the Native Title Act 1993 that established the process of asserting native rights that were held to coexist with pastoral ownership. The promulgation of the Native Title Amendment Act 1998 reversed this process and augmented the powers of non-native landlords by providing the device to extinguish native rights. In Western Australia v Ward, a mining lease was held to have precedence over native title that was adjudged to be part of a bundle of rights. In implementing the Native Title Act the issue turns on the determination of the ties to land/ sea that the government allows to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment in Harrington-Smith on behalf of the Wongatha People v Western Australia indicates that title can be excluded on procedural grounds and that there was an incompatibility between the claims of the Aboriginal peoples and the settlers’ claims. The road map towards a more effective regime of proving title can be achieved if the Aboriginal peoples are granted recognition as a nation in the Constitution and a treaty is signed with them.

  1. 'Connecting tracks': exploring the roles of an Aboriginal women's cancer support network.

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    Cuesta-Briand, Beatriz; Bessarab, Dawn; Shahid, Shaouli; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-11-01

    Aboriginal Australians are at higher risk of developing certain types of cancer and, once diagnosed, they have poorer outcomes than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Lower access to cancer screening programmes, deficiencies in treatment and cultural barriers contribute to poor outcomes. Additional logistical factors affecting those living in rural areas compound these barriers. Cancer support groups have positive effects on people affected by cancer; however, there is limited evidence on peer-support programmes for Aboriginal cancer patients in Australia. This paper explores the roles played by an Aboriginal women's cancer support network operating in a regional town in Western Australia. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 participants including Aboriginal and mainstream healthcare service providers, and network members and clients. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were subjected to inductive thematic analysis. Connecting and linking people and services was perceived as the main role of the network. This role had four distinct domains: (i) facilitating access to cancer services; (ii) fostering social interaction; (iii) providing a culturally safe space; and (iv) building relationships with other agencies. Other network roles included providing emotional and practical support, delivering health education and facilitating engagement in cancer screening initiatives. Despite the network's achievements, unresolved tensions around role definition negatively impacted on the working relationship between the network and mainstream service providers, and posed a threat to the network's sustainability. Different perspectives need to be acknowledged and addressed in order to build strong, effective partnerships between service providers and Aboriginal communities. Valuing and honouring the Aboriginal approaches and expertise, and adopting an intercultural approach are suggested as necessary to the way forward.

  2. An Aboriginal Adult Literacy Campaign Pilot Study in Australia using Yes I Can

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    Bob Boughton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, the remote Aboriginal community of Wilcannia in western NSW hosted the first Australian pilot of a Cuban mass adult literacy campaign model known as Yes I Can. The aim was to investigate the appropriateness of this model in Aboriginal Australia. Building on an intensive community development process of ‘socialisation and mobilisation’, sixteen community members with very low literacy graduated from the basic literacy course, with the majority continuing on into post-literacy activities, further training and/or employment. The pilot was initiated by the National Aboriginal Adult Literacy Campaign Steering Committee (NAALCSC consisting of Aboriginal leaders from the education and health sectors, and managed by the University of New England (UNE, working in partnership with the Wilcannia Local Aboriginal Land Council as the local lead agency. The pilot was supported by a Cuban academic who came to Australia for this purpose, and included a Participatory Action Research (PAR evaluation led by the UNE Project Manager. In this paper, members of the project team and the NAALCSC describe the pilot and reflect on its outcomes.

  3. Stand Up for the Burrup: Saving the Largest Aboriginal Rock Art Precinct in Australia

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    Jenny Gregory

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dampier Rock Art Precinct contains the largest and most ancient collection of Aboriginal rock art in Australia. The cultural landscape created by generations of Aboriginal people includes images of long-extinct fauna and demonstrates the response of peoples to a changing climate over thousands of years as well as the continuity of lived experience. Despite Australian national heritage listing in 2007, this cultural landscape continues to be threatened by industrial development. Rock art on the eastern side of the archipelago, on the Burrup Peninsula, was relocated following the discovery of adjacent off-shore gas reserves so that a major gas plant could be constructed. Work has now begun on the construction of a second major gas plant nearby. This article describes the rock art of the Dampier Archipelago and the troubled history of European-Aboriginal contact history, before examining the impact of industry on the region and its environment. The destruction of Aboriginal rock art to meet the needs of industry is an example of continuing indifference to Aboriginal culture. While the complex struggle to protect the cultural landscape of the Burrup, in particular, involving Indigenous people, archaeologists, historians, state and federal politicians, government bureaucrats and multi-national companies, eventually led to national heritage listing, it is not clear that the battle to save the Burrup has been won.

  4. Cultivating Aboriginal Cultures and Educating Aboriginal Children in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Karen; Kuo, Li Tsung Wen

    2007-01-01

    Many Americans believe that diversity issues are limited to the United States. The truth is, however, that many cultures struggle to recognize and foster cultural diversity. In this article, the authors have two aims: (1) to recognize various ethnic groups in Taiwan, in particular aboriginal groups; and (2) to inform educators about what they can…

  5. “Unwell while Aboriginal”: iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

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    Ewen, Shaun C; Hollinsworth, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. Methods A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide “culturally appropriate” clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Results and discussion Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Conclusion Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services and improved health outcomes are needed and welcome. Such efforts need to be critically examined and rigorously evaluated to avoid the reproduction of pathologizing stereotypes and reductionist explanations for persistent poor outcomes for Aboriginal people. PMID:27313485

  6. Distinct modes of transmission of tuberculosis in aboriginal and non-aboriginal populations in Taiwan.

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    Yih-Yuan Chen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis incidence among aborigines is significantly higher than for Han Chinese in Taiwan, but the extent to which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strain characteristics contribute to this difference is not well understood. MTB isolates from aborigines and Han Chinese living in eastern and southern Taiwan, the major regions of aborigines, were analyzed by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. In eastern Taiwan, 60% of aboriginal patients were ≤20 years old, significantly younger than the non-aboriginal patients there; aborigines were more likely to have clustered MTB isolates than Han Chinese (odds ratio (OR = 5.98, p<0.0001. MTB lineages with high clustering were EAI (54.9% among southern people, and Beijing (62.5% and Haarlem (52.9% among eastern aborigines. Resistance to first-line drugs and multidrug resistance (MDR were significantly higher among eastern aborigines (≥15% than in any other geographic and ethnic group (p<0.05; MDR was detected in 5 of 28 eastern aboriginal patients ≤20 years old. Among patients from the eastern region, clustered strains (p = 0.01 and aboriginal ethnicity (p = 0.04 were independent risk factors for MDR. The lifestyles of aborigines in eastern Taiwan may explain why the percentage of infected aborigines is much higher than for their Han Chinese counterparts. The significantly higher percentage of the MDR-MTB strains in the aboriginal population warrants close attention to control policy and vaccination strategy.

  7. Measuring emotional and social wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations: an analysis of a Negative Life Events Scale

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    Gunthorpe Wendy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience widespread socioeconomic disadvantage and health inequality. In an attempt to make Indigenous health research more culturally-appropriate, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have called for more attention to the concept of emotional and social wellbeing (ESWB. Although it has been widely recognised that ESWB is of crucial importance to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, there is little consensus on how to measure in Indigenous populations, hampering efforts to better understand and improve the psychosocial determinants of health. This paper explores the policy and political context to this situation, and suggests ways to move forward. The second part of the paper explores how scales can be evaluated in a health research setting, including assessments of endorsement, discrimination, internal and external reliability. We then evaluate the use of a measure of stressful life events, the Negative Life Events Scale (NLES, in two samples of Aboriginal people living in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. We argue that the Negative Life Events Scale is a promising assessment of psychosocial wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Evaluation of the scale and its performance in other samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is imperative if we hope to develop better, rather than more, scales for measuring ESWB among Indigenous Australians. Only then will it be possible to establish standardized methods of measuring ESWB and develop a body of comparable literature that can guide both a better understanding of ESWB, and evaluation of interventions designed to improve the psychosocial health of Indigenous populations and decrease health inequalities.

  8. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

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    Kumar, Satish; Ravuri, Rajasekhara Reddy; Koneru, Padmaja; Urade, BP; Sarkar, BN; Chandrasekar, A; Rao, VR

    2009-01-01

    Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route". PMID:19624810

  9. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

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    Sarkar BN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route".

  10. Australian Indigenous Higher Education: Politics, Policy and Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katie; Wilks, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The growth of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participation in Australian higher education from 1959 to the present is notable statistically, but below population parity. Distinct patterns in government policy-making and programme development, inconsistent funding and political influences, together with Indigenous representation during the…

  11. In Search of the Aboriginal Self

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    Lloyd Hawkeye Robertson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Notions of aboriginal cultural reclamation and healing presuppose the existence of distinctly aboriginal selves that were damaged or lost in a process of colonization and that those selves can be “restored” in some meaningful way. Such aboriginal healing has been done without a detailed examination of the selves of individuals to be assisted in this manner. This article examines the selves of four contemporary individuals with varying relationships to the concept of aboriginality using a method of mapping the self with elemental units of culture called “memes.” It is suggested that a spectrum of healthy selves is possible for people who either identify with aboriginality culturally or satisfy a racial definition of the concept. The co-evolution of the self and culture is discussed along with the utility of various definitions of what it means to be aboriginal in a North American context.

  12. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

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    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  13. Primary oral health service provision in Aboriginal Medical Services-based dental clinics in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Estie; Perera, Irosha; Tennant, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Australians living in rural and remote areas have poorer access to dental care. This situation is attributed to workforce shortages, limited facilities and large distances to care centres. Against this backdrop, rural and remote Indigenous (Aboriginal) communities in Western Australia seem to be more disadvantaged because evidence suggests they have poorer oral health than non-Indigenous people. Hence, provision of dental care for Aboriginal populations in culturally appropriate settings in rural and remote Western Australia is an important public health issue. The aim of this research was to compare services between the Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS)-based clinics and a typical rural community clinic. A retrospective analysis of patient demographics and clinical treatment data was undertaken among patients who attended the dental clinics over a period of 6 years from 1999 to 2004. The majority of patients who received dental care at AMS dental clinics were Aboriginal (95.3%), compared with 8% at the non-AMS clinic. The rate of emergency at the non-AMS clinic was 33.5%, compared with 79.2% at the AMS clinics. The present study confirmed that more Indigenous patients were treated in AMS dental clinics and the mix of dental care provided was dominated by emergency care and oral surgery. This indicated a higher burden of oral disease and late utilisation of dental care services (more focus on tooth extraction) among rural and remote Indigenous people in Western Australia.

  14. Weeding out or Developing Capacity? Challenges for Aboriginal Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Teacher education is critical to the development of Aboriginal teachers able to ensure success among Aboriginal learners and contribute to the preservation and renewal of Aboriginal communities. In a series of talking circles, six beginning Aboriginal teachers discussed their teacher preparation and their first years of practice. They expressed…

  15. Reconstructing the star knowledge of Aboriginal Tasmanians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantevoort, Michelle; Hamacher, Duane W.; Lischick, Savannah

    2016-12-01

    The canopy of stars is a central presence in the daily and spiritual lives of Aboriginal Tasmanians. With the arrival of European colonists, Tasmanian astronomical knowledge and traditions were interrupted and dispersed. Fragments can be found scattered in the ethnographic and historical record throughout the nineteenth century. We draw from these ethnohistorical documents to analyse and reconstruct Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania. This analysis demonstrates that stars, the Milky Way, constellations, dark nebula, the Sun, Moon, meteors and aurorae held cultural, spiritual and subsistence significance for the Aboriginal cultures of Tasmania. We move beyond a monolithic view of Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania, commonly portrayed in previous research, to lay the groundwork for future ethnographic and archaeological fieldwork with Aboriginal elders and communities.

  16. Reconstructing the Star Knowledge of Aboriginal Tasmanians

    CERN Document Server

    Gantevoort, Michelle; Lischick, Savannah

    2016-01-01

    The canopy of stars is a central presence in the daily and spiritual lives of Aboriginal Tasmanians. With the arrival of European colonists, Tasmanian astronomical knowledge and traditions were interrupted and dispersed. Fragments can be found scattered in the ethnographic and historical record throughout the nineteenth century. We draw from ethnohistorical documents to analyse and reconstruct Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania. This analysis demonstrates that stars, the Milky Way, constellations, dark nebula, the Sun, Moon, meteors, and aurorae held cultural, spiritual, and subsistence significance within the Aboriginal cultures of Tasmania. We move beyond a monolithic view of Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania, commonly portrayed in previous research, to lay the groundwork for future ethnographic and archaeological fieldwork with Aboriginal elders and communities.

  17. Decolonisation: a critical step for improving Aboriginal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Juanita; Edwards, Tahnia

    2006-09-01

    Aboriginal health continues to be in crisis in Australia although expenditure has increased in service provision, strategic planning, research and policy development over the last thirty years. This paper recommends that a shift must occur to make Aboriginal health improvement a reality. This shift requires the decolonising of Aboriginal health so that the experts in Aboriginal health, namely Aboriginal people, can voice and action initiatives that address their health issues. This shift is from the current western dominant approach that continues to manage Aboriginal health in its linear spectrum of illness and disease. Aboriginal people view health differently; their contexts for health issues are also diverse requiring a more holistic and informed response.

  18. Explaining aboriginal/non-aboriginal inequalities in postseparation violence against Canadian women: application of a structural violence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jeanette Somlak; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Pulkingham, Jane

    2013-08-01

    Adopting a structural violence approach, we analyzed 2004 Canadian General Social Survey data to examine Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequalities in postseparation intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Aboriginal women had 4.12 times higher odds of postseparation IPV than non-Aboriginal women (p structural violence, especially colonialism and its negative consequences.

  19. Exploration of the beliefs and experiences of Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia: a methodology to acknowledge cultural difference and build understanding

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    Howat Peter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA. This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so

  20. The Murri clinic: a comparative retrospective study of an antenatal clinic developed for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women

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    Kildea Sue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians are a small, widely dispersed population. Regarding childbearing women and infants, inequities in service delivery and culturally unsafe services contribute to significantly poorer outcomes, with a lack of high-level research to guide service redesign. This paper reports on an Evaluation of a specialist (Murri antenatal clinic for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. Methods A triangulated mixed method approach generated and analysed data from a range of sources: individual and focus group interviews; surveys; mother and infant audit data; and routinely collected data. A retrospective analysis compared clinical outcomes of women who attended the Murri clinic (n=367 with Indigenous women attending standard care (n=414 provided by the same hospital over the same period. Both services see women of all risk status. Results The majority of women attending the Murri clinic reported high levels of satisfaction, specifically with continuity of carer antenatally. However, disappointment with the lack of continuity during labour/birth and postnatally left some women feeling abandoned and uncared for. Compared to Indigenous women attending standard care, those attending the Murri clinic were statistically less likely to be primiparous or partnered, to experience perineal trauma, to have an epidural and to have a baby admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and were more likely to have a non-instrumental vaginal birth. Multivariate analysis found higher normal birth (spontaneous onset of labour, no epidural, non-instrumental vaginal birth without episiotomy rates amongst women attending the Murri clinic. Conclusions Significant benefits were associated with attending the Murri clinic. Recommendations for improvement included ongoing cultural competency training for all hospital staff, reducing duplication of services, improving co-ordination and communication between community and tertiary

  1. Aboriginal Astronomical Traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 2: Animals in the Ooldean Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Leaman, Trevor M; Carter, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Australian Indigenous astronomical traditions hint at a relationship between animals in the skyworld and the behaviour patterns of their terrestrial counterparts. In our continued study of Aboriginal astronomical traditions from the Great Victoria Desert, South Australia, we investigate the relationship between animal behaviour and stellar positions. We develop a methodology to test the hypothesis that the behaviour of these animals is predicted by the positions of their celestial counterparts at particular times of the day. Of the twelve animals identified in the Ooldean sky, the nine stellar (i.e. non-planet or non-galactic) associations were analysed and each demonstrated a close connection between animal behaviour and stellar positions. We suggest that this may be a recurring theme in Aboriginal astronomical traditions, requiring further development of the methodology.

  2. Aboriginal Astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 2: Animals in the Ooldean Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.; Carter, Mark T.

    2016-04-01

    Australian Indigenous astronomical traditions demonstrate a relationship between animals in the skyworld and the behaviour patterns of their terrestrial counterparts. In our continued study of Aboriginal astronomical traditions from the Great Victoria Desert, South Australia, we investigate the relationship between animal behaviour and stellar positions when these relationships are not explicitly described in the written records. We develop a methodology to test the hypothesis that the behaviour of these animals is predicted by the positions of their celestial counterparts at particular times of the day. Of the twelve animals identified in the Ooldean sky, the nine stellar (i.e. non-planet or non-galactic) associations were analysed and each demonstrated a close connection between animal behaviour and stellar positions. We suggest that this may be a recurring theme in Aboriginal astronomical traditions, requiring further development of the methodology.

  3. Unsettling Australian Settler Supremacy: Combating Resistance in University Aboriginal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinsworth, David

    2016-01-01

    Higher education courses designed to equip students to work effectively with Indigenous peoples by teaching about racism and inequality often encounter resistance to these concepts. In particular, students argue that individual and structural racisms, and their own white privilege, are 'not their fault'. This article examines different forms of…

  4. On the significance of saying “sorry” – politics of memory and Aboriginal Reconciliation in Australia

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    Isabelle Auguste

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available 2007 marked the 40th anniversary of the 1967 Referendum. Back on May 27th 1967, more than 90% of Australian eligible voters said “yes’ to two changes of the Australian Constitution considered discriminatory to Aboriginal people. This event is often considered as the first stage of Reconciliation in Australia. 2007 also marked the 10th Anniversary of the release of the Bringing Them Home Report that highlighted the forced removal of Aboriginal children from their family as part of an assimilation policy. From 1997, the issue of an apology became a sine qua non condition to Reconciliation. It was an important element of the recommendations the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation submitted to Parliament in 2000. But, Liberal Prime Minister John Howard, in office for more than ten years, refused to say the word “sorry” on the basis that Australians of today are not responsible for the actions of the past and that guilt is not hereditary. His focus was on what is called “practical reconciliation”. Some changes are now on the way as Labor leader, Kevin Rudd, who defeated him at the last federal election in November 24th 2007, has promised to make a formal apology to the stolen generation. Why is it important to say “sorry”? At a time of dramatic developments in Indigenous Affairs, this paper deals with the significance of an apology for Reconciliation in Australia.

  5. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

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    Strathdee Steffanie

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  6. Does the EDI Equivalently Measure Facets of School Readiness for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children?

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    Muhajarine, Nazeem; Puchala, Chassidy; Janus, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current paper was to examine the equivalence of the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher rating measure of school readiness, for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. The current study used an approach, which analyzes the structure and properties of the EDI at the subdomain level. Similar subdomain score distributions…

  7. Aboriginal Education as Cultural Brokerage: New Aboriginal Teachers Reflect on Language and Culture in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a Talking Circle of six beginning Aboriginal teachers who discussed their roles as teachers. Participants criticized teacher education programs for not preparing them to teach in ways that are respectful of Aboriginal languages and culture. They discussed the importance of coming to know themselves and their culture. The…

  8. The contribution of Australian residential early parenting centres to comprehensive mental health care for mothers of infants: evidence from a prospective study

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    Fisher Jane RW

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia's public access residential early parenting services provide programs to assist parents who self-refer, to care for their infants and young children. Treatment programs target infant feeding and sleeping difficulties and maternal mental health. There is limited systematic evidence of maternal and infant mental health, psychosocial circumstances or presenting problems, or the effectiveness of the programs. The aim of this study was to contribute to the evidence base about residential early parenting services. Methods A prospective cohort design was used. A consecutive sample of mothers with infants under one year old recruited during admission to a public access residential early parenting service for a 4 or 5 night stay in Melbourne, Australia was recruited. They completed structured self-report questionnaires, incorporating standardised measures of infant behaviour and maternal mood, during admission and at one and six months after discharge. Changes in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning after discharge were observed. Results 79 women completed the first questionnaire during admission, and 58 provided complete data. Women admitted to the residential program have poor physical and mental health, limited family support, and infants with substantial behaviour difficulties. One month after discharge significant improvements in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning were observed (mean (SD daily crying and fussing during admission = 101.02 (100.8 minutes reduced to 37.7 (55.2 at one month post discharge, p Conclusions This psycho-educational approach is an effective and acceptable early intervention for parenting difficulties and maternal mood disturbance, and contributes to a system of comprehensive mental health care for mothers of infants.

  9. Teachers' Attitudes to Including Indigenous Knowledges in the Australian Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Renee

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction of the Australian National Curriculum containing the "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures" Cross-Curriculum Priority (CCP) and "Intercultural Understanding" General Capability, there has been a renewed push to embed Indigenous content into secondary school subjects. This paper…

  10. Culture-based literacy and Aboriginal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Janet; Williams, Lewis; Cooper, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    This is a summary report of the Aboriginal content of the Language and Culture theme at the Canadian Public Health Association's Second Canadian Conference on Literacy and Health. Our key premise is that Indigenous conceptualizations of literacy need to build on Indigenous understandings and perspectives. We support this premise through a review of the relevant literature in the disciplines of Aboriginal literacy, Indigenous education, health literacy, health promotion, and knowledge translation and our synthesis of the presentations, workshops, and discussions at the meeting. Key emergent themes include: the unique and culturally determined ways in which Aboriginal peoples and their languages conceptualize learning, education, and health; and the recognition that self-determination of language and learning are human rights. Aboriginal concepts of and approaches to literacy naturally link to and overlap with Aboriginal concepts of and approaches to health. The paper includes an overview of gaps in the field and an example of the way that research and practice can be brought together in the context of one First Nations community.

  11. Where culture takes hold: "overimitation" and its flexible deployment in Western, Aboriginal, and Bushmen children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mark; Mushin, Ilana; Tomaselli, Keyan; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Children often "overimitate," comprehensively copying others' actions despite manifest perceptual cues to their causal ineffectuality. The inflexibility of this behavior renders its adaptive significance difficult to apprehend. This study explored the boundaries of overimitation in 3- to 6-year-old children of three distinct cultures: Westernized, urban Australians (N = 64 in Experiment 1; N = 19 in Experiment 2) and remote communities of South African Bushmen (N = 64) and Australian Aborigines (N = 19). Children overimitated at high frequency in all communities and generalized what they had learned about techniques and object affordances from one object to another. Overimitation thus provides a powerful means of acquiring and flexibly deploying cultural knowledge. The potency of such social learning was also documented compared to opportunities for exploration and practice.

  12. Closing the Education Gap: A Case for Aboriginal Early Childhood Education in Canada, a Look at the Aboriginal Headstart Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Mai

    2011-01-01

    This paper raises awareness concerning the education gap between Aboriginal youth and the non-Aboriginal youth population in Canada. It argues that the historical consequences of colonialism that resulted in diminished sense of self-worth, self-determination, and culture have placed Aboriginals at the low-end of the socio-economic strata. This…

  13. A cross-sectional survey assessing the acceptability and feasibility of self-report electronic data collection about health risks from patients attending an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians experience significantly worse health and a higher burden of chronic disease than non-Aboriginal Australians. Electronic self-report data collection is a systematic means of collecting data about health risk factors which could help to overcome screening barriers and assist in the provision of preventive health care. Yet this approach has not been tested in an Aboriginal health care setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the acceptability and feasibility of a health risk questionnaire administered on a touch screen laptop computer for patients attending an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). Methods In 2012, consecutive adult patients attending an ACCHS in rural New South Wales, Australia, were asked to complete a health risk survey on a touch screen computer. Health risk factors assessed in the questionnaire included smoking status, body mass index, and level of physical activity. The questionnaire included visual cues to improve accuracy and minimise literacy barriers and was completed while participants were waiting for their appointment. Results A total of 188 participants completed the questionnaire, with a consent rate of 71%. The mean time taken to complete the questionnaire was less than 12 minutes. Over 90% of participants agreed that: the questionnaire instructions were easy to follow; the touch screen computer was easy to use; they had enough privacy; the questions were easy to understand; they felt comfortable answering all the questions. Conclusions Results indicate that the use of a touch screen questionnaire to collect information from patients about health risk factors affecting Aboriginal Australians is feasible and acceptable in the ACCHS setting. This approach has potential to improve identification and management of at-risk individuals, therein providing significant opportunities to reduce the burden of disease among Aboriginal Australians. PMID:24739205

  14. The politics of evaluating Aboriginal Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, R

    1989-01-01

    Evaluation of Aboriginal Health Services (AHSs) has become a topic of importance to service providers and governments in recent years. This paper examines some of the difficulties AHSs have in conducting evaluation and presents an example of an inappropriate evaluation methodology as proposed by the Commonwealth Department of Aboriginal Affairs (DAA) in 1986. The paper examines the contradictory nature of the DAA proposal and the mistrust it has engendered in many AHSs. It then highlights some of the political difficulties in developing meaningful national and community health objectives as a basis for sound evaluation of health services. The paper concludes by identifying some of the processes whereby more appropriate evaluation methodologies might be developed and suggests that negotiation and consultation with the Aboriginal communities and their health services are imperative to successful evaluation.

  15. Delivery of eye and vision services in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care centres

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    Anthea M Burnett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Routine eye and vision assessments are vital for the detection and subsequent management of vision loss, which is particularly important for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, who face higher rates of vision loss than other Australians. In order to guide improvements, this paper will describe patterns, variations and gaps in these eye and vision assessments for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Methods: Clinical audits from 124 primary health care centres (sample size 15,175 from five Australian States and Territories were conducted during 2005-2012. Main outcome measure was adherence to current guidelines for delivery of eye and vision assessments to adults with diabetes, those without a diagnosed major chronic disease and children attending primary health care centres. Results: Overall delivery of recommended eye and vision assessments varied widely between health centres. Of the adults with diabetes, 45% had a visual acuity assessment recorded within the previous 12 months (health centre range 0-88%, and 33% had a retinal examination recorded (health centre range 0-73%. Of the adults with no diagnosed major chronic disease, 31% had a visual acuity assessment recorded within the previous two years (health centre range 0-30%, and 13% had received an examination for trichiasis (health centre range 0-40%. In children, 49% had a record of a vision assessment (health centre range 0-97%, and 25% had a record of an examination for trachoma within the previous 12 months (health centre range 0-63%. Conclusions: There was considerable range, and variation in the recorded delivery of scheduled eye and vision assessments across health centres. Sharing the successful strategies of the better-performing health centres to support focused improvements in key areas of need may increase overall rates of eye examinations – important for the timely detection, referral and treatment of eye conditions affecting Aboriginal and

  16. Australian trachoma surveillance annual report, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Carleigh S; Liu, Bette C; Snelling, Thomas L; Ward, James S; Kaldor, John M; Wilson, David P

    2016-06-30

    Australia remains the only developed country to have endemic levels of trachoma (a prevalence of 5% or greater among children) in some regions. Endemic trachoma in Australia is found predominantly in remote and very remote Aboriginal communities. The Australian Government funds the National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit to collate, analyse and report trachoma prevalence data and document trachoma control strategies in Australia through an annual surveillance report. This report presents data collected in 2013. Data are collected from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island communities designated at-risk for endemic trachoma within New South Wales, the Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia. The World Health Organization grading criteria were used to diagnose cases of trachoma in Aboriginal children, with jurisdictions focusing screening activities on the 5-9 years age group; but some children in the 1-4 and 10-14 years age groups were also screened. The prevalence of trachoma within a community was used to guide treatment strategies as a public health response. Aboriginal adults aged 40 years or over were screened for trichiasis. Screening coverage for the estimated population of children aged 5-9 years and adults aged 40 years or over in at-risk communities required to be screened in 2013 was 84% and 30%, respectively. There was a 4% prevalence of trachoma among children aged 5-9 years who were screened. Of communities screened, 50% were found to have no cases of active trachoma and 33% were found to have endemic levels of trachoma. Treatment was required in 75 at-risk communities screened. Treatment coverage for active cases and their contacts varied between jurisdictions from 79% to 100%. Trichiasis prevalence was 1% within the screened communities.

  17. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gendron; C. Hille

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are current

  18. Micmac Indians Present Aboriginal Rights Claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northian, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Nova Scotia's Micmac Indian leaders presented their claim for aboriginal rights to the Federal Government April 25, 1977 in an historic and symbolic ceremony on their home ground at the Eskasoni Reserve. The article discusses this event and some of the Micmacs' demands. (NQ)

  19. Australian Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Australia in World Affairs 1966-1970, (Melbourne: Cheshire Publishing Pty Ltd , 1974), p. 258. 6Department of Defence, Australian Defence Review...Pvt, Ltd .: 1977), p. 69. 74 17Desmond Ball, "American Bases: Implications for Australian Securi- ty" The Strategic and Defence Studies Centre...million with aircraft, or 3) a " Woolworth " carrier costing $300-400 million with aircraft.33 Defence planners are now faced with determin- ing which

  20. A simple diabetes vascular severity staging instrument and its application to a Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal adult cohort of north Australia

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    Gibson Odette R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop an instrument that predicts diabetes-related vascular disease severity using routinely collected data on Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults with type 2 diabetes, in the absence of diabetes duration. Methods A complex diabetes severity classification system was simplified and adapted for use with an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adult population with type 2 diabetes in north Queensland. Detailed vascular health risks and morbidities were mapped to routinely collected measures. Individual–level health screening, hospital separation and mortality data were linked and used to plot mean monthly in-patient hospital cost and percent mortality by disease severity as defined by the newly developed instrument, to test construct validity. Results The revised instrument consists of four combined diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular stages that range from least severe (stage 1 to severe irreversible vascular impairment (stage 4. When applied to data of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian population the instrument showed good construct validity, predicting higher hospital cost and mortality as vascular disease severity increased. Conclusions This instrument discriminates between levels of diabetes-related vascular disease severity, displays good construct validity by predicting increased hospital cost and mortality with worsening severity and can be populated with routinely collected data. It may assist with future health service research and its use could be extended to practice settings for health care planning for diabetes management programs and monitoring vascular disease progression.

  1. The Truth That Will Set Us All Free: An Uncertain History of Memorials to Indigenous Australians

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    Peter Read

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aborigines and other Australians have not met with amity. Memorials to the Aboriginal people of Australia are not common and some of the more prominent are regularly damaged. Eddies of past tempests slap disturbingly at modern day memorials thousands of kilometres and several generations removed from the eye of furious storms. This article traces a difficult story of what seems at first sight to be blind racism, at a second sight, a rampant colonialism, and at a more reflective third, perhaps, the economy of the pastoralist and the farmer in deadly disharmony to that of the hunter gatherer. Whatever the origins, the consequences of conflict endure for centuries.

  2. Strategic approaches to enhanced health service delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness: a qualitative study

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    Aspin Clive

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness confront multiple challenges that contribute to their poor health outcomes, and to the health disparities that exist in Australian society. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to care and support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. Methods Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes, chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n-16 and family carers (n = 3. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and the transcripts were analysed using content analysis. Recurrent themes were identified and these were used to inform the key findings of the study. Results Participants reported both negative and positive influences that affected their health and well-being. Among the negative influences, they identified poor access to culturally appropriate health services, dislocation from cultural support systems, exposure to racism, poor communication with health care professionals and economic hardship. As a counter to these, participants pointed to cultural and traditional knowledge as well as insights from their own experiences. Participants said that while they often felt overwhelmed and confused by the burden of chronic illness, they drew strength from being part of an Aboriginal community, having regular and ongoing access to primary health care, and being well-connected to a supportive family network. Within this context, elders played an important role in increasing people’s awareness of the impact of chronic illness on people and communities. Conclusions Our study indicated that non-Indigenous health services struggled to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. To address their complex needs, health services could gain considerably by recognising that Aboriginal and Torres Strait

  3. The missing link in Aboriginal care: resource accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, C W; Duffie-Ashton, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Resource accounting principles provide more effective planning for Aboriginal healthcare delivery through driving best management practices, efficacious techniques for long-term resource allocation, transparency of information and performance measurement. Major improvements to Aboriginal health in New Zealand and Australia were facilitated in the context of this public finance paradigm, rather than cash accounting systems that remain the current method for public departments in Canada. Multiple funding sources and fragmented delivery of Aboriginal healthcare can be remedied through similar adoption of such principles.

  4. Sea-change or Atrophy? The Australian Convict Inheritance

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    Cynthia vanden Driesen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an offshoot of a larger project which explored the possibility for the erstwhile settler-colonizer undergoing the sea-change into settler-indigene emergent through a study of selected novels of Patrick White. It became apparent to me that the convict figure, who played an ancillary role in these works, could lay claim to the status of white indigene well ahead of the main protagonist. Robert Hughes (in The Fatal Shore discredits the idea of any bonding between the convict and the Aborigine but acknowledges examples of “white blackfellas”—white men who had successfully been adopted into Aboriginal societies. Martin Tucker’s nineteenth century work, Ralph Rashleigh, offers surprising testimony of a creative work which bears this out in a context where Australian literature generally reflected the national amnesia with regard to the Aborigine and barely accorded them human status. Grenville’s The Secret River (2005, based broadly on the history of her own ancestor, appears to support Hughes’ original contention but is also replete with ambivalences that work against a simple resolution. This paper will explore some of the ambivalences, the ‘food for thought’ on aspects of the Australian experience highlighted by these literary texts, and glances briefly also at variations on the theme in Carey’s Jack Maggs and the The True Story of the Kelly Gang.

  5. Disparities in healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Albertan residents, 1997-2006: a population database study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely recognised that significant discrepancies exist between the health of indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Whilst the reasons are incompletely defined, one potential cause is that indigenous communities do not access healthcare to the same extent. We investigated healthcare utilisation rates in the Canadian Aboriginal population to elucidate the contribution of this fundamental social determinant for health to such disparities. METHODS: Healthcare utilisation data over a nine-year period were analysed for a cohort of nearly two million individuals to determine the rates at which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations utilised two specialties (Cardiology and Ophthalmology in Alberta, Canada. Unadjusted and adjusted healthcare utilisation rates obtained by mixed linear and Poisson regressions, respectively, were compared amongst three population groups - federally registered Aboriginals, individuals receiving welfare, and other Albertans. RESULTS: Healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginals were substantially lower than those of non-Aboriginals and welfare recipients at each time point and subspecialty studied [e.g. During 2005/06, unadjusted Cardiology utilisation rates were 0.28% (Aboriginal, n = 97,080, 0.93% (non-Aboriginal, n = 1,720,041 and 1.37% (Welfare, n = 52,514, p = <0.001]. The age distribution of the Aboriginal population was markedly different [2.7%≥65 years of age, non-Aboriginal 10.7%], and comparable utilisation rates were obtained after adjustment for fiscal year and estimated life expectancy [Cardiology: Incidence Rate Ratio 0.66, Ophthalmology: IRR 0.85]. DISCUSSION: The analysis revealed that Aboriginal people utilised subspecialty healthcare at a consistently lower rate than either comparatively economically disadvantaged groups or the general population. Notably, the differences were relatively invariant between the major provincial centres and over a nine year period

  6. Chronic liver disease in Aboriginal North Americans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John D Scott; Naomi Garland

    2008-01-01

    A structured literature review was performed to detail the frequency and etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) in Aboriginal North Americans. CLD affects Aboriginal North Americans disproportionately and is now one of the most common causes of death.Alcoholic liver disease is the leading etiology of CLD,but viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis C, is an important and growing cause of CLD. High rates of autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are reported in regions of coastal British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. Non-alcoholic liver disease is a common, but understudied, cause of CLD.Future research should monitor the incidence and etiology of CLD and should be geographically inclusive.In addition, more research is needed on the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and non-alcoholicfatty liver disease (NAFLD) in this population.

  7. Consulting Whom? Lessons from the Toronto Urban Aboriginal Strategy

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    Mai T. Nguyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted here looks at the current Urban Aboriginal Strategy (UAS in Toronto. The purpose of this Strategy is to provide long-term investments to support Aboriginal communities in urban settings by focusing on three priority areas: improving life skills; promoting job training, skills, and entrepreneurship; and supporting Aboriginal women, children, and families. This article seeks to answer the following question: Does the UAS provide Aboriginal participants with the ability to effectively participant in the consultation process? It argues that the UAS process of consulting with the urban Aboriginal community does not allow for the effective participation of Aboriginal peoples because of problematics related to consulting in an urban setting and despite the language of partnership, the federal government still reserves the right to make final decisions. These problems diminish the ability to build renewed Aboriginal-State relations based on mutual respect and trust, which has been absent within the Aboriginal-State apparatus and resulted in the political exclusion of Aboriginals in Canada. Though consultation can be a vehicle for empowering participants with decision-making authority, this is not the case in Toronto. The lack of a common vision, political buy-in, and the aura of secrecy leads to a political relationship built on mistrust. Mistrust between members and government renders the consultation process ineffective. This article combines the literature on public consultations with official government documents to identify critical components that must be evident for consultations to be fruitful and participation effective. These criteria are the benchmarks upon which to measure effectiveness. Based on interviews with the Steering Committee, this article finds that the UAS process of consulting with the Toronto Aboriginal community does not enable Aboriginal participants to effectively participate in the democratic process.

  8. Aboriginal English: Some Grammatical Features and Their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal English has been documented in widely separated parts of Australia and, despite some stylistic and regional variation, is remarkably consistent across the continent, and provides a vehicle for the common expression of Aboriginal identity. There is, however, some indeterminacy in the way in which the term is used in much academic and…

  9. Becoming Aboriginal: Experiences of a European Woman in Kamchatka's Wilderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churikova, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    A Russian woman describes how living in remote Kamchatka helped her develop an aboriginal perspective. Chopping wood, hauling water, gathering food, alternately homeschooling her children and sending them to an ecological school, and interacting with local aboriginal people taught her the importance of conserving natural resources and living in…

  10. Storied Understandings: Bringing Aboriginal Voices to Canada's Multicultural Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the implications and complexities of Canada's multicultural policies for aboriginal students in its post-secondary education systems. The author, a Pakistani-Canadian multicultural educator, interviewed an Aboriginal-Canadian multicultural educator, to discuss the cultural differences, divisions, and resistances between…

  11. Reconsidering Approaches to Aboriginal Science and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterenberg, Gladys; Hogue, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In Canada, Aboriginal postsecondary enrollment and completion rates are significantly lower than those of non-Aboriginal students. This is most evident in studies involving science and mathematics. The investigation of this issue was informed by focus group discussions with eight participants representing a Blackfoot community. Themes emerging in…

  12. Aboriginal nurses' beliefs, attitudes, and values about sexuality in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2002-11-01

    The potential of risky sexual behaviors and adolescent unplanned pregnancy has become a primary issue in the health care system for aborigines in eastern Taiwan. Using aboriginal nurses to provide information on sexual behaviors may have potential in promoting healthy sexual practices among aborigines. The purposes of this study were to explore Taiwanese aboriginal nurses beliefs. attitudes, and values about sexuality. Several health centers in eastern Taiwan were randomly selected to recruit participants in the year 2000. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 206 female nurses (mean age = 28.4, SD = 7.4) who worked in various clinical units. The results revealed that aboriginal nurses hold moderately positive beliefs, attitudes, and values about sexuality. The conflict between aboriginal nurses' belief and value systems about sexuality was clear. A conflict between aboriginal nurses' value systems and patients behaviors also existed. Strategies to help aboriginal nurses to be more aware of their beliefs, attitudes, and values about sexuality should be an essential issue in the practice and education of nurses.

  13. Silencing Aboriginal Curricular Content and Perspectives through Multiculturalism: "There Are Other Children Here"

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Denis, Verna

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how multicultural discourses impact the reception of Aboriginal teachers, and the Aboriginal knowledge, history, and experience they bring into Canadian public schools. The author argues that what happens to Aboriginal teachers in Canadian public schools as they attempt to include Aboriginal content and perspectives is a…

  14. Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada: Current Trends and Issues. Purich's Aboriginal Issues Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, John H., Ed.

    This book contains 13 chapters analyzing important practical issues that must be addressed as Aboriginal self-government becomes fully operational in Canada. These issues are related to social problems and policies, criminal justice, community services, education, employment and job training, finance, the land base of government, women's rights…

  15. The Structural and Predictive Properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E.; Neumann, Craig S.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Hare, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we were…

  16. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

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    Woods John A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2. Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%, noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data

  17. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Jasmine G.; O’Dea, Kerin; Karen Z Walker

    2014-01-01

    Background Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia’s Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors...

  18. Clinical Features and Correlates of Outcomes for High-Risk, Marginalized Mothers and Newborn Infants Engaged with a Specialist Perinatal and Family Drug Health Service

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    Lee Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a paucity of research in Australia on the characteristics of women in treatment for illicit substance use in pregnancy and the health outcomes of their neonates. Aims. To determine the clinical features and outcomes of high-risk, marginalized women seeking treatment for illicit substance use in pregnancy and their neonates. Methods. 139 women with a history of substance abuse/dependence engaged with a perinatal drug health service in Sydney, Australia. Maternal (demographic, drug use, psychological, physical, obstetric, and antenatal care and neonatal characteristics (delivery, early health outcomes were examined. Results. Compared to national figures, pregnant women attending a specialist perinatal and family drug health service were more likely to report being Australian born, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, younger, unemployed, and multiparous. Opiates were the primary drug of concern (81.3%. Pregnancy complications were common (61.9%. Neonates were more likely to be preterm, have low birth weight, and be admitted to special care nursery. NAS was the most prevalent birth complication (69.8% and almost half required pharmacotherapy. Conclusion. Mother-infant dyads affected by substance use in pregnancy are at significant risk. There is a need to review clinical models of care and examine the longer-term impacts on infant development.

  19. Effect of socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and Indigenous status on hospital usage for Western Australian preterm infants under 12 months of age: a population-based data linkage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Natalie A; Peter, Sue; McAuley, Kimberley E; McAullay, Daniel R; Marriott, Rhonda; Edmond, Karen M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our primary objective was to determine the incidence of hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous and non-Indigenous preterm infants aged postdischarge from birth admission to 11 months in Western Australia. Secondary objectives were to assess incidence in the poorest infants from remote areas and to determine the primary causes of hospital usage in preterm infants. Design Prospective population-based linked data set. Setting and participants All preterm babies born in Western Australia during 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measures All-cause hospitalisations and emergency department presentations. Results There were 6.9% (4211/61 254) preterm infants, 13.1% (433/3311) Indigenous preterm infants and 6.5% (3778/57 943) non-Indigenous preterm infants born in Western Australia. Indigenous preterm infants had a higher incidence of hospital admission (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.24, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.42) and emergency department presentation (aIRR 1.71, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.02) compared with non-Indigenous preterm infants. The most disadvantaged preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the most advantaged infants (3.1/1000 person days) (aIRR 1.61, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.00). The most remote preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the least remote preterm infants (3.0/1000 person days; aIRR 1.82, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.22). Conclusions In Western Australia, preterm infants have high hospital usage in their first year of life. Infants living in disadvantaged areas, remote area infants and Indigenous infants are at increased risk. Our data highlight the need for improved postdischarge care for preterm infants. PMID:28100563

  20. Socially responsible genetic research with descendants of the First Australians

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    van Holst Pellekaan Sheila M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal Australians, one of the world’s indigenous peoples now outnumbered through colonization, are the most under-represented in genetic research because they feel that the benefits do not outweigh the social cost of involvement. Descendants of the First Australians have survived a period of European occupation during which time they were dispossessed of land, language and cultural identity resulting in inequities in health, education, and employment opportunities. Compared to Maori and Native American peoples, the ability to form organizations that help to control their affairs is very recent. The desire to control is understandably strong yet the ‘gate-keeping’ role of some organizations risks shifting the control away from smaller communities and has become increasingly politicized. In the past, research practices by Western scientists were poorly presented and have resulted in resistance to proposals that are perceived to have no beneficial outcomes for participants. In this age of advanced technological expertise in genetics, benefits to all humanity are clear to those carrying out research projects, yet not always to those being asked to participate, presenting extra challenges. Excellent guidelines for ethical conduct in research are available to assist researchers, prospective participants, and ethics committees or review boards that approve and monitor procedures. The essence of these guidelines are that research should be carried out with a spirit of integrity, respect, reciprocity, parity, recognition of survival and protection of social and cultural values, a need for control and shared responsibility. Specific Aboriginal organizations, with which researchers need to work to negotiate partnerships, vary within and between Australian states and will always expect Aboriginal personnel to be involved. People experienced in the consultation process are necessary as part of a team. By working patiently through lengthy

  1. Experience of menopause in aboriginal women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, N; Chadha, V; Ross, S; Sydora, B C

    2016-01-01

    Every woman experiences the menopause transition period in a very individual way. Menopause symptoms and management are greatly influenced by socioeconomic status in addition to genetic background and medical history. Because of their very unique cultural heritage and often holistic view of health and well-being, menopause symptoms and management might differ greatly in aboriginals compared to non-aboriginals. Our aim was to investigate the extent and scope of the current literature in describing the menopause experience of aboriginal women. Our systematic literature review included nine health-related databases using the keywords 'menopause' and 'climacteric symptoms' in combination with various keywords describing aboriginal populations. Data were collected from selected articles and descriptive analysis was applied. Twenty-eight relevant articles were included in our analysis. These articles represent data from 12 countries and aboriginal groups from at least eight distinctive geographical regions. Knowledge of menopause and symptom experience vary greatly among study groups. The average age of menopause onset appears earlier in most aboriginal groups, often attributed to malnutrition and a harsher lifestyle. This literature review highlights a need for further research of the menopause transition period among aboriginal women to fully explore understanding and treatment of menopause symptoms and ultimately advance an important dialogue about women's health care.

  2. The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants

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    Segan Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illness (ARI is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to Māori. Methods/Design This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program. Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Discussion Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of

  3. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

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    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, the use of rising and setting stars as indicators of special events, recorded observations of variable stars, the solar cycle, and lunar phases (including ocean tides and eclipses) in oral tradition, as well as astronomical measurements of the equinox, solstice, and cardinal points.

  4. A comparison of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students on the inter-related dimensions of self-concept, strengths and achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Whitley

    2014-01-01

    Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. The current study explored the relationships between multidimensional self-concept, perceived strengths and academic achievement among a sample Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students. Results indicated that ...

  5. Aboriginal Labour Market Performance in Canada: 2007-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kar-Fai Gee; Andrew Sharpe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this report is to examine Aboriginal labour market performance in Canada from 2007 to 2011 using data from the Labour Force Survey, which excludes people living on-reserve or in the territories. This is performed by first providing an overview of how the recession affected the Canadian labour market, followed by a Canada-wide portrait of the Aboriginal labour market in 2011. The Aboriginal labour market performance from 2007 to 2011 is then compared to the rest of the labour ...

  6. Building Competency in Infant Mental Health Practice: The Edith Cowan University Pregnancy to Parenthood Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matacz, Rochelle; Priddis, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a unique Australian infant mental health (IMH) service for families from pregnancy through to early parenthood (0-3 years) and training center for postgraduate clinical psychology students. The Australian Association for Infant Mental Health Incorporated, West Australia Branch (AAIMHI WA) "Competency Guidelines"®…

  7. Australian Research Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.

  8. Aboriginal Perspectives on Social-Emotional Competence in Early Childhood

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    Melissa Tremblay

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaining an understanding of how best to support the development of Aboriginal children is important in promoting positive social, emotional, educational, and health outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to identify the most important elements of healthy development for Aboriginal children, with a particular focus on social-emotional development. Focus groups were conducted with 37 Aboriginal Canadians, including parents, service providers, adolescents, and young adults. Five inter-connected themes emerged: cultural wellness, emotional wellness, mental wellness, social wellness, and strong identity, with strong identity described as central and foundational to the other themes. This study strengthens the assertion that Aboriginal children require an additional set of social-emotional skills to successfully navigate different cultural contexts during development. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  9. The blot on the landscape: Fred Williams and Australian art history

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    Keith Broadfoot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A defining shift in Australian art historiography occurred with the publishing of Bernard Smith’s 1980 Boyer Lecture series, The Spectre of Truganini. Seeing the exclusion of an Aboriginal presence in Australian art through the ideas of Freud, the history of Australian art, Smith proposed, was a history of repression. After Smith, Ian McLean has developed the most detailed account of the history of Australian art according to this methodology. This essay examines the work of the modern Australian artist Fred Williams in relation to both Smith and McLean’s understanding of the history of Australian art but to expand on their work I argue that, rather than Freud alone, it is Lacan’s refiguring of Freud that offers us the most insight into Williams’s work. Further, insofar as I argue that the history of Australian art is the very subject matter of Williams’s work, his work stands in for a wider project, the understanding of the history of Australian art according to Lacan’s proposal of a foundational split between the eye and the gaze.

  10. Knowledge Building in an Aboriginal Context

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    Alexander McAuley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The report on the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996, the Kelowna Accord announced in 2005 (five-billion dollars followed by its demise in 2006, and the settlement in 2006 for Aboriginal survivors of residential schools (1.9 billion dollars, are but some of the recent high-profile indicators of the challenges to Canada in dealing with the 500-year history of European contact with North America’s original inhabitants. While not without its challenges, the creation of Nunavut in 1999 stands apart from this history as a landmark for Inuit self-determination in Canada and a beacon of hope for other Aboriginal peoples. Building on the idea that educational change takes place within the intersecting socio-cultural contexts of the school and the larger world around it, and drawing on data from an eight-year series of design experiments in classrooms in the Baffin (now Qikiqtani region of Nunavut, this paper explores the potential of knowledge building and knowledge-building technologies to support powerful bilingual (Inuktitut/English and bicultural learning experiences for Aboriginal students. Résumé : Le rapport de la Commission royale sur les peuples autochtones (1996, l’Accord de Kelowna annoncé en 2005 (cinq milliards de dollars, suivi de son annulation en 2006, de même que le règlement de 2006 visant à indemniser les victimes de sévices infligés dans les pensionnats indiens (1,9 milliard de dollars, ne sont que quelques-uns des événements marquants récents qui témoignent des défis que le Canada doit relever en ce qui a trait à son histoire de 500 ans de contact entre les Européens et les Premières nations d’Amérique du Nord. Bien qu’elle ait comporté sa part de défis, la création du Nunavut en 1999 se démarque dans le cours de l’histoire en tant que point de repère pour l’autodétermination des Inuits au Canada et représente une lueur d’espoir pour les autres nations autochtones. S

  11. Renal biopsy findings among Indigenous Australians: a nationwide review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; Samuel, Terence; Mott, Susan A; Kincaid-Smith, Priscilla S; Fogo, Agnes B; Dowling, John P; Hughson, Michael D; Sinniah, Rajalingam; Pugsley, David J; Kirubakaran, Meshach G; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Bertram, John F

    2012-12-01

    Australia's Indigenous people have high rates of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure. To define renal disease among these people, we reviewed 643 renal biopsies on Indigenous people across Australia, and compared them with 249 biopsies of non-Indigenous patients. The intent was to reach a consensus on pathological findings and terminology, quantify glomerular size, and establish and compare regional biopsy profiles. The relative population-adjusted biopsy frequencies were 16.9, 6.6, and 1, respectively, for Aboriginal people living remotely/very remotely, for Torres Strait Islander people, and for non-remote-living Aboriginal people. Indigenous people more often had heavy proteinuria and renal failure at biopsy. No single condition defined the Indigenous biopsies and, where biopsy rates were high, all common conditions were in absolute excess. Indigenous people were more often diabetic than non-Indigenous people, but diabetic changes were still present in fewer than half their biopsies. Their biopsies also had higher rates of segmental sclerosis, post-infectious glomerulonephritis, and mixed morphologies. Among the great excess of biopsies in remote/very remote Aborigines, females predominated, with younger age at biopsy and larger mean glomerular volumes. Glomerulomegaly characterized biopsies with mesangiopathic changes only, with IgA deposition, or with diabetic change, and with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). This review reveals great variations in biopsy rates and findings among Indigenous Australians, and findings refute the prevailing dogma that most indigenous renal disease is due to diabetes. Glomerulomegaly in remote/very remote Aboriginal people is probably due to nephron deficiency, in part related to low birth weight, and probably contributes to the increased susceptibility to kidney disease and the predisposition to FSGS.

  12. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001–2009

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    Ofer Amram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06, and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL.

  13. Optimisation modelling to assess cost of dietary improvement in remote Aboriginal Australia.

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    Julie Brimblecombe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cost and dietary choices required to fulfil nutrient recommendations defined nationally, need investigation, particularly for disadvantaged populations. OBJECTIVE: We used optimisation modelling to examine the dietary change required to achieve nutrient requirements at minimum cost for an Aboriginal population in remote Australia, using where possible minimally-processed whole foods. DESIGN: A twelve month cross-section of population-level purchased food, food price and nutrient content data was used as the baseline. Relative amounts from 34 food group categories were varied to achieve specific energy and nutrient density goals at minimum cost while meeting model constraints intended to minimise deviation from the purchased diet. RESULTS: Simultaneous achievement of all nutrient goals was not feasible. The two most successful models (A & B met all nutrient targets except sodium (146.2% and 148.9% of the respective target and saturated fat (12.0% and 11.7% of energy. Model A was achieved with 3.2% lower cost than the baseline diet (which cost approximately AUD$13.01/person/day and Model B at 7.8% lower cost but with a reduction in energy of 4.4%. Both models required very large reductions in sugar sweetened beverages (-90% and refined cereals (-90% and an approximate four-fold increase in vegetables, fruit, dairy foods, eggs, fish and seafood, and wholegrain cereals. CONCLUSION: This modelling approach suggested population level dietary recommendations at minimal cost based on the baseline purchased diet. Large shifts in diet in remote Aboriginal Australian populations are needed to achieve national nutrient targets. The modeling approach used was not able to meet all nutrient targets at less than current food expenditure.

  14. Food Perceptions and Concerns of Aboriginal Women Coping with Gestational Diabetes in Winnipeg, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Hannah Tait

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe how Aboriginal women in an urban setting perceive dietary treatment recommendations associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Semi-structured explanatory model interviews explored Aboriginal women's illness experiences with GDM. Setting and Participants: Twenty-nine self-declared Aboriginal women who had…

  15. Aboriginal Students' Achievement in Science Education: The Effect of Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Jimmy; Bouchamma, Yamina; Larose, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Some authors assume that the academic difficulties encountered by Aboriginal students can be partly explained by the discrepancy between teaching methods and Aboriginal learning styles. However, this hypothesis lacks empirical foundations. Using pan-Canadian data, we tried to identify the most efficient teaching methods for Aboriginal students and…

  16. Dancing with Ethnic Identities: An Aboriginal Dance Club in a Taiwanese Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shwu-Meei; Lee, Young Ah

    2015-01-01

    Research in Taiwan has shown that aboriginal students often have low self-esteem and a negative view of their life due to their heritage. This research studied 14 Taiwan aboriginal students to understand how the experience of an aboriginal dance club influenced the development of their ethnic identity. The results showed that the experiences of…

  17. Philip McLaren and the Indigenous-Australian Crime Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis Martin Renes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper locates the postcolonial crime novel as a space for disenfranchised groups to write back to the marginalisation inherent in the process of colonisation, and explores the example of Australia. From its inception in the mid-19th century, Australian crime fiction reflected upon the challenging harshness and otherness of the Australian experience for the free and convict settler, expelled from the metropole. It created a series of popular subgenres derived from the convict narrative proper, while more ‘standard’ modes of crime fiction, popularised in and through British and American crime fiction, were late to develop. Whereas Australian crime fiction has given expression to the white experience of the continent in manifold ways, up until recently it made no room for Indigenous voices – with the exception of the classic Inspector Napoleon Bonaparte series written by the prolific Arthur Upfield in the first half of the 20th century. For the longest time, this absence reflected the dispossession, dispersal and disenfranchisement of the colonised Indigenous peoples at large; there were neither Aboriginal voices nor Aboriginal authors, which made the textual space of the Australian crime novel a discursive terra nullius. This paper will look at the only Indigenous-Australian author to date with a substantial body of work in crime fiction, Philip McLaren, and elucidate how his four crime novels break new ground in Australian crime fiction by embedding themselves within a political framework of Aboriginal resilience and resistance to neo/colonialism. Written as of the 1990s, McLaren’s oeuvre is eclectic in that it does not respond to traditional formats of Australian crime fiction, shifts between generic subtypes and makes incursions into other genres. The paper concludes that McLaren’s oeuvre has not been conceived of as the work of a crime writer per se, but rather that its form and content are deeply informed by the racist violence

  18. Consultation with Aboriginal peoples : impacts on the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogarassy, A. [Clark Wilson, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Litton, K. [Macleod Dixon LLP, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Two recent rulings by the British Columbia Court of Appeal have placed the onus for consultation and accommodation with Aboriginal peoples affected by resource development on the shoulders of industry. The authors discussed this new responsibility for the petroleum industry from a legal perspective. The first part of the document consists of an overview of Aboriginal and treaty rights. The Supreme Court of Canada's justification test of infringement of Aboriginal and treaty rights were reviewed in the second part. In part three, the authors reviewed the scope and nature of consultation, as well as the various sources for duty of consultation. These sources include administrative law, legislation, and potential new sources of the law of fiduciaries, and the 1982 Constitution Act between Aboriginal peoples and industry. Part four reviewed the Haida decisions and the duty of consultation with Aboriginal peoples as formulated by the British Columbia Court of Appeal. The impact of this decision on the petroleum industry was then discussed. refs.

  19. Memorialising the Past: Is there an 'Aboriginal' Way?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Batten

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There is debate about how the Aboriginal past can and should be memorialised. This paper utilises a series of example memorials to discuss the ways in which Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Australia are choosing to depict – in a physical, public form – Aboriginal perspectives of the past. The paper focuses on the issues of cultural evolution and the adoption of so-called ‘European’ ways of memorialising. It also looks at the role of landscapes and natural materials in memorials to the Aboriginal past and the evolving role of counter- and anti-memorials to commemorate the past. The examples of memorials from around Australia suggest that, above all, we must be open-minded about what constitutes an ‘Aboriginal’ memorial. Ways of memorialising the Aboriginal past can range, for example, from natural to constructed, from created by Indigenous people exclusively to otherwise, and from targeting an exclusively Indigenous audience, a non-Indigenous audience, or both. There is more than one way of memorialising the Aboriginal past.

  20. Combining aboriginal and non-aboriginal knowledge to assess and manage feral water buffalo impacts on perennial freshwater springs of the aboriginal-owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  1. Moving the body painting into the art gallery — knowing about and appreciating works of Aboriginal art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Morphy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on two kinds of relationship: between Western fine art and Indigenous art, and between anthropological and art historical approaches to understanding and appreciating works of art. The primary focus is on the process by which Australian Aboriginal art came to be incorporated within galleries of fine art. This process brought both kinds of relationships to the fore in the contemporary context and challenged established boundaries exemplified by the distinction between the museum and the art gallery. It is argued that objects encompassed within the category of fine art come from very different cultural traditions and historical backgrounds. The methods of both art history and anthropology can be productively applied in analysing the forms and significance of artworks in their social and cultural contexts. The paper concludes by considering some of the implications of the co-presence of artworks from different cultural traditions in the same contemporary gallery spaces.

  2. A short historical investigation into cross-cultural Australian ideas about the marine animal group Teredinidae, their socioecological consequences and some options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gardner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available How are contemporary multicultural coastal Australians, Aboriginals and settlers alike, to develop wiser ideas and practices towards marine animals as well as each other? To illustrate the importance and complexity of this question, I offer a short historical investigation of some contrasting ideas and practices held by Australian Aboriginal and settler cultures about marine animals of the group Teredinidae. I present two “screenshots”: one from the period 1798-1826 and another from 1970-2012. The first period examines a negative but influential interpretation by Thomas Malthus of a cross cultural encounter featuring Australian Aboriginal consumption of local Teredinidae known as “cobra”. While this cultural tone remains largely unchanged in the second period, the biological understanding of the marine animals has developed greatly. So has awareness of the socioecology of Teredinidae: their estuarine habitats and cultural significance. Their potential role as subjects of community based monitoring is undeveloped but could serve overlapping concerns of environmental justice as well as the restoration and “future proofing” of habitats. Such a new composite of ideas and practices will rely on better integration of biology with community based social innovations. A symbolic beginning would be a change in Australian English colloquialisms for Teredinidae, from the erroneous “shipworm” or “mangrove worm” to the more accurate “burrowing clam”.

  3. Urban Aboriginal Creation Stories and History: contesting the past and the present. The Eleventh Doireann MacDermott Lecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Everett

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the 11th annual Doireann MacDermott public lecture presented at the Universitat de Barcelona in November, 2010. It is a critique of discourses and representations in Australian society, and indeed, embedded in all western societies (and many non-western societies I suspect which support and reinforce artificial binary oppositions which make up social structures and institutions. Binary oppositions reinforce oppositional power dynamics, making one term positive and the other negative, not recognizing categories in-between. Linguistically, for example, the terms ‘Indigenous’ and ‘non-Indigenous’ articulate a false dichotomy between people who, empirically, are not two discrete groups, but rather, multiple groups within each category which interact within and between groups in complex and fluid engagements. The discourses and representations I discuss in this paper articulate imaginary binary oppositions out of social processes and identities which are, in fact, very similar. However, because these discourses and representations are constructed by different social groups with unequal power relationships they are treated as opposites, one with a higher value than the other. In this paper I am primarily concerned with history and myth, and in two related ‘stories’, the Lachlan Macquarie story, classified as history because it is primarily written and ‘belongs’ to the dominant Australian society, and the Maria Locke story, classified as myth because it is primarily oral, and explains the emergence and characteristics of a group of Aboriginal people who claim traditional Aboriginal ownership of a large part of what is today called Sydney.

  4. A dermatoglyphic study of the Kavalan aboriginal population of Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yao-Fong; ZHANG HaiGuo; LAI Chun-Hung; LU ZhenYu; WANG ZhuGang

    2007-01-01

    By the 1970s, a number of dermatoglyphic studies of Taiwan aborigines (Gaoshan nationality) had been published, however in each only a few dermatoglyphic variables were addressed. Since that time, little new research has been conducted. In this study, we collected and analyzed the dermatoglyphs of 100 individuals of Kavalan, a Taiwan aboriginal population, and we reported a wide range of dermatoglyphic variables including total finger ridge count (TFRC), a-b total ridge count (a-b RC), atd angle and axial triradius percent distance (tPD), and frequencies of fingerprint pattern, palmar thenar pattern, palmar interdigital pattern, palmar hypothenar pattern, and simian line. This study is the first comprehensive dermatoglyphic research of any Taiwan aboriginal population.

  5. Ethnoveterinary practices of aborigine tribes in Odisha, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bikram K Mallik; Tribhuban Panda; Rabindra N Padhy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To record ethnoveterinary information of numerous aboriginal tribes of Kalahandi district of Odisha state, India. Methods: A survey of about 20 hamlets in the district was done with a questioner and personal interviews using the snowball technique in survey and sampling.Results:Seventy-three plants belonging to 41 families (Acanthaceae, Alangiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacadiaceae, Annonaceae, Araceae, Arecaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Bombaceae, Brassicaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Combretaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Lecythidaceae, Loganiaceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Moringaceae, Musaceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Umbelliferae, Verbenaceae, Vitaceae and Zingiberaceae) are used by aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district, Odisha, India, for treating ailments of domestic animals. Conclusion: Aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district use about 73 plants for treating ailments of animals.

  6. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  7. Language Experiences of Preverbal Children in Australian Childcare Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Berenice

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the language experiences of preverbal infants in Australian childcare centres with the aim of examining cultural regulation within the childcare context. Language is defined as a social and communicative act that is related to the development of voluntary action (Vygotsky 1962; Lock 1980; Leontiev 1994). The study uses…

  8. Traditional Aboriginal Preparation Alters the Chemical Profile of Carica papaya Leaves and Impacts on Cytotoxicity towards Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Hodson, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya leaf decoction, an Australian Aboriginal remedy, has been used widely for its healing capabilities against cancer, with numerous anecdotal reports. In this study we investigated its in vitro cytotoxicity on human squamous cell carcinoma cells followed by metabolomic profiling of Carica papaya leaf decoction and leaf juice/brewed leaf juice to determine the effects imparted by the long heating process typical of the Aboriginal remedy preparation. MTT assay results showed that in comparison with the decoction, the leaf juice not only exhibited a stronger cytotoxic effect on SCC25 cancer cells, but also produced a significant cancer-selective effect as shown by tests on non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Furthermore, evidence from testing brewed leaf juice on these two cell lines suggested that the brewing process markedly reduced the selective effect of Carica papaya leaf on SCC25 cancer cells. To tentatively identify the compounds that contribute to the distinct selective anticancer activity of leaf juice, an untargeted metabolomic approach employing Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry followed by multivariate data analysis was applied. Some 90 and 104 peaks in positive and negative mode respectively were selected as discriminatory features from the chemical profile of leaf juice and >1500 putative compound IDs were obtained via database searching. Direct comparison of chromatographic and tandem mass spectral data to available reference compounds confirmed one feature as a match with its proposed authentic standard, namely pheophorbide A. However, despite pheophorbide A exhibiting cytotoxic activity on SCC25 cancer cells, it did not prove to be the compound contributing principally to the selective activity of leaf juice. With promising results suggesting stronger and more selective anticancer effects when compared to the Aboriginal remedy, Carica papaya leaf juice warrants further study

  9. Community Guide to Evaluating Aboriginal Healing Foundation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboriginal Healing Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF), based in Ottawa (Ontario), works with Canada Native communities to reduce incidents of physical and sexual abuse, children in care, suicide, and incarceration among residential school survivors and their families. This guide has been prepared to help communities evaluate their AHF-funded activities in the…

  10. Schooling Taiwan's Aboriginal Baseball Players for the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junwei; Bairner, Alan

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges that faces nation-builders in postcolonial societies is the incorporation of subaltern groups, particularly aboriginal peoples, into a collective national project. One vehicle for addressing this challenge is sport with schools being amongst the most important venues. This article offers an empirical study of the role…

  11. Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students: A Programmatic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melançon, Jérôme; Goebel, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students (PLAS) program at the University of Alberta (UofA) is a creative outgrowth of the growing Personal Librarian programs in academic libraries, in which a student is partnered with an individual librarian for the academic year. In the case of the UofA's PLAS program, first-year undergraduate students who…

  12. The management of diabetes in indigenous Australians from primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Merlin C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians have high rates of diabetes and its complications. This study examines ethnic differences in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes in Australian primary care. Methods Diabetes management and outcomes in Indigenous patients enrolled in the NEFRON study (n = 144 was systematically compared with that in non-Indigenous patients presenting consecutively to the same practitioner (n = 449, and the NEFRON cohort as a whole (n = 3893. Results Indigenous Australians with diabetes had high rates of micro- and macrovascular disease. 60% of Indigenous patients had an abnormal albumin to creatinine ratio compared to 33% of non-Indigenous patients (p 1c ≥ 8.0%, observed in 55% of all Indigenous patients, despite the similar frequency use of oral antidiabetic agents and insulin. Smoking was also more common in Indigenous patients (38%vs 10%, p Conclusion Although seeing the same doctors and receiving the same medications, glycaemic and smoking cessation targets remain unfulfilled in Indigenous patients. This cross-sectional study confirms Aboriginal ethnicity as a powerful risk factor for microvascular and macrovascular disease, which practitioners should use to identify candidates for intensive multifactorial intervention.

  13. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... he or she eats. Do not allow an infant to crawl around while eating or drinking from a bottle. Never tie pacifiers, jewelry, chains, bracelets, or anything else around an infant's neck or wrists. Alternative Names Rescue breathing and ...

  14. Why should Aboriginal peoples learn to write?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Serra Pagès

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultures and worldviews are inscribed by means of ‘writing’, or what Derrida calls ‘the perdurable inscription of a sign’ (Of Grammatology. A sign is the union between signifier and signified. The signifier may be natural (clouds indicate that it is going to rain or artificial. All cultures are made up of relations that stay at the level of signs, that is, everything that belongs to culture is empirical and conventional. In this regard, both Aboriginal and Western culture remain at the same level. Moreover, both cultures produce objectivity by means of contrast and experimentation, in the design of a sharp object, for example an arrow or a knife. In Ancient Greece, Havelock contends that the invention of writing dramatically increased the possibilities of objective thought (The Muse Learns To Write, but it also created a logic of binaries that transcended the objectivity of science and transpired into the ideology behind colonialism. In this context, the role of writing is analyzed in David Malouf’s Remembering Babylon. How does writing affect Gemmy all throughout the book? Already in the first Chapter, the teacher and the minister of the colony analyze Gemmy ‘in writing’. Gemmy knows what writing is but hasn’t learnt its ‘trick’: he does not know how to read or write. All he can see is that what he tells about his life, all his pain and suffering, is translated into marks and magic squiggles on the paper: only the spirit of the story he tells is captured. But little by little, the cognitive effects of writing get hold of Gemmy, until he starts to understand his life within the framework of the logic of binaries and identity upon which all reflective thought and science rest. All in all, this deconstructive reading can be seen as a critique of Europe’s modern idea of the autonomy of reason, in the name of a heteronymous rationality in the form of writing.

  15. [Infant botulism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Absalom; Afriat, Amichay; Hubary, Yechiel; Herzog, Lior; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2014-01-01

    Infant botulism is a paralytic syndrome which manifests as a result of ingesting spores of the toxin secreting bacterium Clostridium botulinum by infants. As opposed to botulism in adults, treating infant botulism with horse antiserum was not approved due to several safety issues. This restriction has led to the development of Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV; sells under BabyBIG). In this article we review infant botulism and the advantages of treating it with BIG-IV.

  16. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women.

  17. “We Are Not Being Heard”: Aboriginal Perspectives on Traditional Foods Access and Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike.

  18. “We Are Not Being Heard”: Aboriginal Perspectives on Traditional Foods Access and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Bethany; Jayatilaka, Deepthi; Brown, Contessa; Varley, Leslie; Corbett, Kitty K.

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike. PMID:23346118

  19. The use of joint ventures to accomplish aboriginal economic development: Two examples from British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Boyd

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available “Aboriginal economic development” differs from other forms of development by emphasizing aboriginal values and community involvement. Joint ventures, while providing business advantages, may not be able to contribute to aboriginal economic development. This paper examines two joint ventures in the interior of British Columbia to examine their ability or inability to contribute the extra dimensions of development desired by aboriginal communities. The AED framework examines business structure; profitability; employment; aboriginal capacity in education, experience, and finance; preservation of traditional values, culture and language; control of forest management over traditional territory; and community support. Established in the context of unresolved land claims, both enterprises partially contribute to aboriginal economic development, but in different ways and with different overall results.

  20. "We are not being heard": Aboriginal perspectives on traditional foods access and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Bethany; Jayatilaka, Deepthi; Brown, Contessa; Varley, Leslie; Corbett, Kitty K

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike.

  1. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  2. Feasibility and costs of water fluoridation in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsani Jonathon P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoridation of public water supplies remains the key potential strategy for prevention of dental caries. The water supplies of many remote Indigenous communities do not contain adequate levels of natural fluoride. The small and dispersed nature of communities presents challenges for the provision of fluoridation infrastructure and until recently smaller settlements were considered unfavourable for cost-effective water fluoridation. Technological advances in water treatment and fluoridation are resulting in new and more cost-effective water fluoridation options and recent cost analyses support water fluoridation for communities of less than 1,000 people. Methods Small scale fluoridation plants were installed in two remote Northern Territory communities in early 2004. Fluoride levels in community water supplies were expected to be monitored by local staff and by a remote electronic system. Site visits were undertaken by project investigators at commissioning and approximately two years later. Interviews were conducted with key informants and documentation pertaining to costs of the plants and operational reports were reviewed. Results The fluoridation plants were operational for about 80% of the trial period. A number of technical features that interfered with plant operation were identified and addressed though redesign. Management systems and the attitudes and capacity of operational staff also impacted on the effective functioning of the plants. Capital costs for the wider implementation of these plants in remote communities is estimated at about $US94,000 with recurrent annual costs of $US11,800 per unit. Conclusion Operational issues during the trial indicate the need for effective management systems, including policy and funding responsibility. Reliable manufacturers and suppliers of equipment should be identified and contractual agreements should provide for ongoing technical assistance. Water fluoridation units should be considered as a potential priority component of health related infrastructure in at least the larger remote Indigenous communities which have inadequate levels of natural fluoride and high levels of dental caries.

  3. Medicinal Plants of the Australian Aboriginal Dharawal People Exhibiting Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Most A.; Ritesh Raju; Beattie, Karren D.; Frances Bodkin; Gerald Münch

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation contributes to multiple ageing-related musculoskeletal and neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. More recently, chronic neuroinflammation has been attributed to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and autism-spectrum and obsessive-compulsive disorders. To date, pharmacotherapy of inflammatory conditions is based mainly on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which in contrast to cytokine-suppress...

  4. Bioactivity and chemical characterisation of Lophostemon suaveolens--an endemic Australian Aboriginal traditional medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Tarannum; Packer, Joanne; Yin, Ping; Brophy, Joseph J; Wohlmuth, Hans; Renshaw, Dane E; Smith, Joshua; Elders, Yaegl Community; Vemulpad, Subramanyam R; Jamie, Joanne F

    2016-01-01

    Lophostemon suaveolens is a relatively unexplored endemic medicinal plant of Australia. Extracts of fresh leaves of L. suaveolens obtained from sequential extraction with n-hexane and dichloromethane exhibited antibacterial activity in the disc diffusion and MTT microdilution assays against Streptococcus pyogenes and methicillin sensitive and resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (minimum bactericidal concentration < 63 μg/mL). The dichloromethane extract and chromatographic fractions therein inhibited nitric oxide in RAW264.7 murine macrophages (IC50 3.7-11.6 μg/mL) and also PGE2 in 3T3 murine fibroblasts (IC50 2.8-19.7 μg/mL). The crude n-hexane, dichloromethane and water extracts of the leaves and chromatographic fractions from the dichloromethane extract also showed modest antioxidant activity in the ORAC assay. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane fraction showed the presence of the antibacterial compounds aromadendrene, spathulenol, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-pinene and the anti-inflammatory compounds β-caryophyllene and spathulenol. Fractionation of the dichloromethane extract led to the isolation of eucalyptin and the known anti-inflammatory compound betulinic acid.

  5. Health beliefs and behavior: the practicalities of "looking after yourself" in an Australian aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Kate; Chenhall, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Recently, social determinants of health frameworks are receiving some criticism in that they do not engage with questions related to individual subjectivity and agency as they relate to health decision-making behavior. This article examines the different ways in which people living in a remote Arnhem Land community in the Northern Territory of Australia, take responsibility for their own health and the extent to which they are able to prevent illness. A number of related sub-questions are explored relating to how people perceive their health and their role in health care in their community, including their engagement with the health clinic, traditional medicines, and the influence of sorcery on ill health and sickness.

  6. Closing the Aboriginal Education Gap in Canada: The Impact on Employment, GDP, and Labour Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Calver

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvements between 2001 and 2011, Canada’s Aboriginal population continues to underperform in the labour market. The Aboriginal educational attainment gap is often seen as the major source of these disparities. Using data from the 2011 National Household Survey, projections of Aboriginal population growth, and forecasts of aggregate economic conditions, we estimate the economic impact of closing the educational attainment gap by 2031. We find that the benefits of achieving such a fe...

  7. The community network: an Aboriginal community football club bringing people together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Alister; Anders, Wendy; Rowley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    There are few empirical studies about the role of Aboriginal sporting organisations in promoting wellbeing. The aim of the present study was to understand the impact of an Aboriginal community sporting team and its environment on the social, emotional and physical wellbeing of young Aboriginal men, and to identify barriers and motivators for participation. A literature review of the impact of sport on the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal participants was conducted. This informed a qualitative study design with a grounded theory approach. Four semistructured interviews and three focus groups were completed with nine current players and five past players of the Fitzroy Stars Football Club to collect data about the social, emotional and physical wellbeing impact of an Aboriginal football team on its Aboriginal players. Results of the interviews were consistent with the literature, with common concepts emerging around community connection, cultural values and identity, health, values, racism and discrimination. However, the interviews provided further detail around the significance of cultural values and community connection for Aboriginal people. The complex nature of social connections and the strength of Aboriginal community networks in sports settings were also evident. Social reasons were just as important as individual health reasons for participation. Social and community connection is an important mechanism for maintaining and strengthening cultural values and identity. Barriers and motivators for participation in Aboriginal sports teams can be complex and interrelated. Aboriginal sports teams have the potential to have a profound impact on the health of Aboriginal people, especially its players, by fostering a safe and culturally strengthening environment and encompassing a significant positive social hub for the Aboriginal community.

  8. From the community to the classroom: the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Kristen; Strasser, Roger; Peltier, Ian

    2014-01-01

    More undergraduate medical education programs are including curricula concerning the health, culture and history of Aboriginal people. This is in response to growing international recognition of the large divide in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and the role medical education may play in achieving health equity. In this paper, we describe the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM). We describe a process for curriculum development and delivery, which includes ongoing engagement with Aboriginal communities as well as faculty expertise. Aboriginal health is delivered as a core curriculum, and learning is evaluated in summative assessments. Aboriginal health objectives are present in 4 of 5 required courses, primarily in years 1 and 2. Students attend a required 4-week Aboriginal cultural immersion placement at the end of year 1. Resources of Aboriginal knowledge are integrated into learning. In this paper, we reflect on the key challenges encountered in the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum. These include differences in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge; risk of reinforcing stereotypes in case presentations; negotiation of curricular time; and faculty readiness and development. An organizational commitment to social accountability and the resulting community engagement model have been instrumental in creating a robust, sustainable program in Aboriginal health at NOSM.

  9. Distribution of Hepatitis C Risk Factors and HCV Treatment Outcomes among Central Canadian Aboriginal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Parmvir; Corsi, Daniel J.; Cooper, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aboriginal Canadians face many lifestyle risk factors for hepatitis C exposure. Methods. An analysis of Ottawa Hospital Viral Hepatitis Clinic (Ottawa, Canada) patients between January 2000 and August 2013 was performed. HCV infection risk factors and HCV treatment outcomes were assessed. Socioeconomic status markers were based on area-level indicators linked to postal codes using administrative databases. Results. 55 (2.8%) Aboriginal and 1923 (97.2%) non-Aboriginal patients were evaluated. Aboriginals were younger (45.6 versus 49.6 years, p < 0.01). The distribution of gender (63.6% versus 68.3% male), HIV coinfection (9.1% versus 8.1%), advanced fibrosis stage (29.2% versus 28.0%), and SVR (56.3% versus 58.9%) was similar between groups. Aboriginals had a higher number of HCV risk factors, (mean 4.2 versus 3.1, p < 0.001) with an odds ratio of 2.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.4–4.4) for having 4+ risk factors. This was not explained after adjustment for income, social deprivation, and poor housing. Aboriginal status was not related to SVR. Aboriginals interrupted therapy more often due to loss to follow-up, poor adherence, and substance abuse (25.0% versus 4.6%). Conclusion. Aboriginal Canadians have higher levels of HCV risk factors, even when adjusting for socioeconomic markers. Despite facing greater barriers to care, SVR rates were comparable with non-Aboriginals. PMID:27446875

  10. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in IndigenousAustralians with diabetes in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To perform a systematic review of reportedneonatal and pregnancy outcomes of IndigenousAustralians with diabetes in pregnancy (DIP).METHODS: Electronic searches of PubMed and Web ofScience were carried out. Articles were selected if theycontained original data on DIP outcomes in IndigenousAustralians. There were no specific exclusion criteria.RESULTS: A total of eight articles, predominantly fromQueensland and Western Australia were identifiedonce inclusion criteria were applied. Birth data frommidwifery registries or paper charts encompassingyears 1985-2008 were used. A total of 465591 pregnantwomen with and without DIP were included in the eightstudies, with 1363 being Indigenous women with DIP.Indigenous Australians experienced increased ratesof many known adverse outcomes of DIP including:macrosomia, caesarean section, congenital deformities,low birth weight, hypoglycaemia, and neonatal trauma.There were regional differences among IndigenousAustralians, particularly regional/remote vs metropolitanpopulations where the regional/remote data showedworse outcomes. Two of the articles did not note adifference between Aboriginals and Caucasians inthe rates of measured adverse outcome. Studiesvaried significantly in size, measured outcomes, andsubsequent analysis.CONCLUSION: The health disparities between IndigenousAustralians and non-Indigenous Australiansare further evidenced by poorer outcomes in DIP.This has broader implications for Indigenous health ingeneral.

  11. IN SEARCH OF POLITICAL INTEGRITY : COMPLIANCE OF AUSTRALIAN LAW IN INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHT LAW IN REPRESENTING INDIGENOUS PEOPLES

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    Mehari Fisseha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper articulates the human rights violation of the minority group of Aborigines Community in Australia. Australia has ratified the International Committee for Elimination of Racial Discrimination (ICERD, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR, and other human rights doctrines that protect the rights of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders; however the Government of Australia from its inception have done little to ensure that those political protections are effective in ensuring the genuine protection of the rights of indigenous peoples. Most frequently cited is the failure of international laws to ensure the land and self-determination rights of these peoples. However, domestic law could undoubtedly ensure that these rights are in place, if the desire to do so is present within the Australian government.

  12. The determinants of chronic bronchitis in Aboriginal children and youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Alomgir; Konrad, Stephanie; Dosman, James A; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; McCrosky, Jesse; Pahwa, Punam

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge concerning chronic bronchitis (CB) in Canadian Aboriginal peoples. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence (crude and adjusted) of CB and its associated risk factors in Canadian Aboriginal children and youth six to 14 years of age. METHODS: Data from the cross-sectional Aboriginal Peoples Survey were analyzed in the present study. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors influencing the prevalence of CB among Aboriginal children and youth. The balanced repeated replication method was used to compute standard errors of regression coefficients to account for clustering inherent in the study design. The outcome of interest was based on the question: “Have you been told by a doctor, nurse or other health professional that you have chronic bronchitis?” Demographics, environment and population characteristics (predisposing and enabling resources) were tested for an association with CB. RESULTS: The prevalence of CB was 3.1% for boys and 2.8% for girls. Other significant risk factors of CB were age (OR 1.38 [95% CI 1.24 to 1.52] for 12 to 14 year olds versus six to eight year olds), income (OR 2.28 [95% CI 2.02 to 2.59] for income category <$25,000/year versus ≥$85,000/year), allergies (OR 1.96 [95% CI 1.78 to 2.16] for having allergies versus no allergies), asthma (OR 7.61 [ 95% CI 6.91 to 8.37] for having asthma versus no asthma) and location of residence (rural/urban and geographical location). A significant two-way interaction between sex and body mass index indicated that the relationship between the prevalence of CB and body mass index was modified by sex. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of CB was related to well-known risk factors among adults, including older age and lower annual income. PMID:23248806

  13. Astronomical Heritage and Aboriginal People: Conflicts and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín López, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    In this presentation we will address the issues relating to the astronomical heritage of contemporary aboriginal groups and othe minorities. We will deal specially with the intangible astronomical heritage and their particularities. We will study (from the ethnographic experience with Aboriginal groups, Creoles and Europeans in the Argentine Chaco) the conflicts referring to the different ways, in which the native's knowledge and practice are categorized by the natives themselves, by the scientists, the state politicians, the professional artists and NGOs. We will address several cases to illustrate this kind of conflicts. We will analyze the complexities of patrimonial policies when it are applied to practices and representations of contemporary communities involved in power relations with national states and the global system. The essentialization of identities, the folklorization of representations and practices, the fossilization of aboriginal peoples are some of the risks of give the label of "cultural heritage" without a careful consideration of each specific case.In particular we will suggest possible forms by which he international scientific community could collaborate to improve the agenda of national states instead of reproducing colonial prejudices. In this way we will contribute to promote the respect for ethnic and religious minorities.

  14. Astronomical Heritage and Aboriginal People: Conflicts and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro Martín

    2016-10-01

    In this presentation we address issues relating to the astronomical heritage of contemporary aboriginal groups and other minorities. We deal specially with intangible astronomical heritage and its particularities. Also, we study (from ethnographic experience with Aboriginal groups, Creoles and Europeans in the Argentine Chaco) the conflicts referring to the different ways in which the natives' knowledge and practice are categorized by the natives themselves, by scientists, state politicians, professional artists and NGOs. Furthermore, we address several cases that illustrate these kinds of conflicts. We aim to analyze the complexities of patrimonial policies when they are applied to practices and representations of contemporary communities involved in power relations with national states and the global system. The essentialization of identities, the folklorization of representations and practices, and the fossilization of aboriginal peoples are some of the risks of applying the label ``cultural heritage'' without a careful consideration of each specific case. In particular we suggest possible ways in which the international scientific community could collaborate to improve the agenda of national states instead of reproducing colonial prejudices. In this way, we aim to contribute to the promotion of respect for ethnic and religious minorities.

  15. Forestry and Road Development: Direct and Indirect Impacts from an Aboriginal Perspective.

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    Tom M. Beckley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest industry is a significant contributor to the development of roads and most are constructed on Aboriginal territories. Many Aboriginal communities are isolated both socially and economically and Aboriginal cultures are often described as having inherent socio-environmental relationships. Aboriginal communities, therefore, may be the most likely to benefit and be most vulnerable to the impacts of road development. We use a case study approach to explore how an Aboriginal community interprets and responds to the increasing development of roads in its territory. The results are interpreted using the theory of access in order to frame the interactions between people and nature within a cohesive system which includes elements which are spatially located, flow, interact, and can be disturbed. The dominant themes discussed as being affected by the influence of roads on access included issues of the following nature: Aboriginal, hunting, foreign, territorial and environmental. Issues pertaining to Aboriginal actors as opposed to foreign actors such as the industry or non-aboriginal hunters and fishers dominated discussions. Although the positive effects provided by roads were alluded to, focus tended towards the affected relationships and ties between the territory, the environment and Aboriginal members. Roads are associated with changes in traditional roles and practices which benefit individualistic behaviors. The access mechanisms mediating and controlling the use of resources through traditional norms and roles such as sharing, asking permission, and helping in the practice of traditional activities no longer apply effectively. Changes in the traditional spatial organization of the territory have minimized the influence of knowledge, identity, and negotiation in mediating access among communities. Results highlight that conflicts have thus resulted between and among Aboriginal communities. Also, perception of the role of the environment

  16. Otitis media in young Aboriginal children from remote communities in Northern and Central Australia: a cross-sectional survey

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    Silberberg Peter

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Middle ear disease (otitis media is common and frequently severe in Australian Aboriginal children. There have not been any recent large-scale surveys using clear definitions and a standardised middle ear assessment. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of middle ear disease (otitis media in a high-risk population of young Aboriginal children from remote communities in Northern and Central Australia. Methods 709 Aboriginal children aged 6–30 months living in 29 communities from 4 health regions participated in the study between May and November 2001. Otitis media (OM and perforation of the tympanic membrane (TM were diagnosed by tympanometry, pneumatic otoscopy, and video-otoscopy. We used otoscopic criteria (bulging TM or recent perforation to diagnose acute otitis media. Results 914 children were eligible to participate in the study and 709 were assessed (78%. Otitis media affected nearly all children (91%, 95%CI 88, 94. Overall prevalence estimates adjusted for clustering by community were: 10% (95%CI 8, 12 for unilateral otitis media with effusion (OME; 31% (95%CI 27, 34 for bilateral OME; 26% (95%CI 23, 30 for acute otitis media without perforation (AOM/woP; 7% (95%CI 4, 9 for AOM with perforation (AOM/wiP; 2% (95%CI 1, 3 for dry perforation; and 15% (95%CI 11, 19 for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM. The perforation prevalence ranged from 0–60% between communities and from 19–33% between regions. Perforations of the tympanic membrane affected 40% of children in their first 18 months of life. These were not always persistent. Conclusion Overall, 1 in every 2 children examined had otoscopic signs consistent with suppurative ear disease and 1 in 4 children had a perforated tympanic membrane. Some of the children with intact tympanic membranes had experienced a perforation that healed before the survey. In this high-risk population, high rates of tympanic perforation were associated with high

  17. Infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, R A; Brown, L W

    1979-05-01

    Infant botulism is a unique neuromuscular disease affecting infants less than six months old. It is the result of intraintestinal toxin production by C. botulinum (toxi-infection). Characteristic symptoms include constipation, lethargy, and decreased feeding. Physical examination often reveals generalized hypotonia with cranial nerve impairment. Recovery is dependent on supportive care in an intensive care setting. The relationship of this disease to the sudden infant death syndrome requires further study.

  18. Community as Teacher Model: Health Profession Students Learn Cultural Safety from an Aboriginal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Cathy C.; Godolphin, William J.; Chhina, Gagun S.; Towle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Communication between health care professionals and Aboriginal patients is complicated by cultural differences and the enduring effects of colonization. Health care providers need better training to meet the needs of Aboriginal patients and communities. We describe the development and outcomes of a community-driven service-learning program in…

  19. Native Tongue, Captive Voice: The Representation of the Aboriginal "Voice" in Colonial South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Robert; Muhlhausler, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Examines the way in which the Aboriginal "voice" was represented in colonial South Australia, particularly in the form of pidgin English. The first part of the article focuses on the first decade of settlement; the second part examines the period between 1860 and the turn of the century. Findings indicate that the Aboriginal voice in South…

  20. Cultural mismatch and the education of Aboriginal youths: the interplay of cultural identities and teacher ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; D'Arrisso, Alexandra; Flores, Heidi; Ponizovskiy, Vladimir; Ranney, John D; Mandour, Tarek; Tootoosis, Curtis; Robinson, Sandy; Russo, Natalie; Burack, Jacob A

    2013-01-01

    In response to the enduring "deficit" approach to the educational attainment of Aboriginal students in North America, we hypothesized that academic underperformance is related to a cultural mismatch between Aboriginal students' cultural background, which emphasizes connectedness and interdependence, and the mainstream White model of education, which focuses on independence and assertiveness. The participants included virtually all the secondary students (N = 115) in the Naskapi community of Kawawachikamach, Quebec, Canada. We obtained self-reports of identification with Aboriginal and White culture, teacher reports of assertiveness, and official grades. We found that high identification with either Aboriginal or White culture was related to higher grades, regardless of whether the students were perceived as assertive by their teacher. Conversely, at low levels of cultural identification toward Aboriginal or White culture, being perceived as low in assertiveness by one's teacher predicted lower grades. This suggests that both high cultural identification and assertiveness can contribute to enhancing the educational outcomes of Aboriginal students, but that Aboriginal students with low levels of both cultural identification and assertiveness are at particular risk as they are mismatched with the culture of mainstream schools and do not benefit from the protective effects of identity. The relationships among identity, cultural values, and academic performance point to the need to reject the notion of an inherent deficit in education among Aboriginal youths in favor of a different framework in which success can be attained when alternative ways of being are fostered and nurtured in schools.

  1. Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

    2014-01-01

    Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities.

  2. Creating Inclusive Space for Aboriginal Scholars and Scholarship in the Academy: Implications for Employment Equity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Many Canadian universities report an under-representation of Aboriginal scholars in their professoriate. Employment equity policy seeks to redress the under-representation of marginalized groups in the Canadian workforce, including Aboriginal peoples. This article presents the findings of a case study which sought to examine, from the perspective…

  3. Aboriginal Homelessness: A Framework for Best Practice in the Context of Structural Violence

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    Nelly D. Oelke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Homelessness among Indigenous peoples is an important issue in Canada and internationally. Research was conducted in seven metropolitan areas in the four western provinces of Canada to explore current services with the aim of developing a best practices framework to end homelessness for Aboriginal peoples. Sequential mixed methods were used. Key results found agreement that Aboriginal peoples were overrepresented among the homeless and policy determined the approach to and comprehensiveness of services provided. Funding, lack of time, and lack of resources were highlighted as issues. Gaps identified included a lack of partnership, cross-cultural collaboration, cultural safety, and evaluation and research in service provision. Best practices included ensuring cultural safety, fostering partnerships among agencies, implementing Aboriginal governance, ensuring adequate and sustainable funding, equitable employment of Aboriginal staff, incorporating cultural reconnection, and undertaking research and evaluation to guide policy and practices related to homelessness among Aboriginal peoples.

  4. Characteristics and outcome of type 2 diabetes in urban Aboriginal people: the Fremantle Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T M E; McAullay, D; Davis, W A; Bruce, D G

    2007-01-01

    We analysed data from Aboriginal patients with type 2 diabetes recruited to the community-based Fremantle Diabetes Study and compared them with those from the Anglo-Celt participants. Diabetes prevalence among Aboriginal people in the Fremantle area was more than double that of Anglo-Celts and the average age at diagnosis was 14 years or younger. Glycaemic control, urinary albumin :creatinine and the proportion of smokers were all higher in the Aboriginal group and there was evidence of lower diabetes-related quality of life and high rates of disability at a young age. The Aboriginal patients died 18 years or younger than their Anglo-Celt counterparts. Specialized, culturally-sensitive and sustainable programmes are urgently needed to improve the management of diabetes in urban Aboriginal communities.

  5. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

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    Jessica Orchard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

  6. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many support groups for parents of premature babies. Ask the social worker in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved ... Prematurity can have long-term effects. Many premature infants ...

  7. Dental health of aboriginal pre-school children in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, W K; Amaratunge, A; Bennett, R; Bronsch, D; Lai, P Y

    1996-06-01

    This investigation studied the dental health status of a group of 184 Australian Aboriginal children with a mean age of 4.4 +/- 0.8 years, who were attending pre-schools in metropolitan Brisbane, a non-fluoridated state capital city. The DDE (Developmental Defects of Enamel) Index was used to chart enamel hypoplasia and enamel opacities. WHO criteria was used to diagnose dental caries. The results showed that 98% of children had at least one tooth showing developmental enamel defects. Each child had a mean of 3.8 +/- 1.7 teeth affected by enamel hypoplasia and another 1.1 +/- 0.8 teeth affected by enamel opacity. Seventy-eight percent of the children had dental caries. The mean number of decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft) per child was 3.8 +/- 3.7. The decayed component constituted 3.5 (95%) of the mean dmft, indicating a high unmet restorative need in this group. The mean dmfs (decayed, missing, filled, surfaces) was 5.9 +/- 7.3. Maxillary anterior labial decay of at least one tooth affected 43 (23%) of the children. In this sub-group, the dmft and dmfs was 9.1 +/- 2.8 and 15.4 +/- 7.7 respectively. Oral debris was found in 98% of the children. It is hypothesized that the high levels of underlying developmental enamel defects, compounded by low fluoride exposure, poor oral hygiene and a diet high in refined sugars pose an important caries risk factor in this group of children.

  8. A comparison of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students on the inter-related dimensions of self-concept, strengths and achievement

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    Jessica Whitley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. The current study explored the relationships between multidimensional self-concept, perceived strengths and academic achievement among a sample Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students. Results indicated that perceived self-concept and strengths were largely similar across groups. However, students in the two groups drew on different strengths to comprise their general self-concept. Findings are explored within the context of existing research and theory.

  9. Beyond Savagery: The Limits of Australian ‘Aboriginalism’

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    Kay Anderson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ideas and representations of the supposedly savage condition of the New World's indigenous peoples have informed a now familiar account of colonialism. These have been understood as the ‘constructions’ of a discourse concerned to justify its colonisation of indigenous lands, and to legitimate its dispossession of indigenous peoples. There is no doubt that racial stereotypes were invoked to support colonialism. But their instrumentalisation—as self-serving constructions of ‘otherness’—has not only tended to define the colonial ‘encounter’ as a unilateral exercise of power; in so doing, it has effaced its very character as an encounter. In this paper, we critically engage this account of colonial discourse in its application to the Australian colonial context. Drawing less upon Edward Said’s description of the power of discourse, and more upon Homi Bhabha’s attempt to elicit its limits, our aim here is to restore to the Australian colonial encounter something of its specificity as an encounter. For this encounter, we argue here, provides a salient—if not a crucial—instance of the failure of colonial discourse to ‘construct’ Aboriginal peoples as savages.

  10. Inequality in provider continuity for children by Australian general practitioners

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    Reynolds Graham

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little published on provider continuity in Australian general practice and none on its effect on inequality of care for children. Method Questionnaire administered to parents of the ACT Kindergarten Health Screen asking the name of their child's usual GP and practice address between 2001 and 2008. Results Parents of 30,789 children named 433 GPs and 141 practices. In each year, an average of 77% of parents could name both the GP and the practice, an average of 11% of parents could name only the practice, and an average of 12% of parents could name neither. In each year, 25% of parents could not name a usual GP for children of Aboriginal or Torres Straight Islander descent, or children born outside of Australia, compared to 10% of all other children (p = Conclusions Many GPs (39% were reported to provide continuity of care for in the ACT region and some GPs (20% displayed transient care. Indigenous children or children born outside of Australia had less equity of access to a nominated GP than all other children. Such inequity might disappear if voluntary registration of children was adopted in Australian general practice.

  11. Expertise in exploiting ground water in Australian prehistory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandler, H. [Macquarie Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2000-12-01

    The presence of human beings on the Australian continent has been established to go back to at least 40 000 years. Recent research has put this back to about 60 000 years B.P. (Before Present). With the awareness of living on an extremely arid continent, the need to satisfy water demands was a constant concern. Finding water for all members of the various groups, but especially for those living in the Australian inland with extremely low precipitation, was a perpetual challenge. Thus, in desert areas seeking, finding and protecting ground water was demanded continuously. Native wells were established and used for many centuries often when surface water had dried in nearby watercourses. A number of wells found in the Simpson Desert, with habitation around them until recently, are most interesting. In Central Australia, in the Cleland Hills, the location of habitation has been found at a huge rock shelter close to a rock hole providing permanent ground water when all other sources in the vicinity have dried out. It was scientifically established that this occupation goes back 22 000 years. These examples of obtaining ground water in Australian prehistory many thousands of years ago by Aborigines show a highly developed culture. (orig.) [German] Bisher wurde angenommen, dass die Besiedelung des australischen Kontinents durch den Menschen vor 40 000 Jahren begann. Neueste Untersuchungen datieren diesen Zeitpunkt jedoch auf 60 000 Jahre zurueck. Fuer das Leben auf diesem extrem trockenen Erdteil war die Sicherung des Wasserbedarfs von jeher existenziell. Lebenswichtiges Wasser zu finden war fuer alle Mitglieder der verschiedenen Bevoelkerungsgruppen, vor allem aber fuer diejenigen, die sich im australischen Hinterland ansiedelten, von hoechster Bedeutung. Grundwasser in der Wueste zu suchen, zu finden und zu schuetzen war oberstes Ziel. Urspruengliche Brunnen wurden errichtet und ueber Jahrhunderte hindurch genutzt, wenn alle anderen Wasserressourcen versiegten. Hierbei

  12. “I know it’s bad for me and yet I do it”: exploring the factors that perpetuate smoking in Aboriginal Health Workers - a qualitative study

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    Dawson Anna P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs have a mandate to deliver smoking cessation support to Aboriginal people. However, a high proportion of AHWs are smokers and this undermines their delivery of smoking cessation programs. Smoking tobacco is the leading contributor to the burden of disease in Aboriginal Australians and must be prevented. Little is known about how to enable AHWs to quit smoking. An understanding of the factors that perpetuate smoking in AHWs is needed to inform the development of culturally relevant programs that enable AHWs to quit smoking. A reduction of smoking in AHWs is important to promote their health and also optimise the delivery of smoking cessation support to Aboriginal clients. Methods We conducted a fundamental qualitative description study that was nested within a larger mixed method participatory research project. The individual and contextual factors that directly or indirectly promote (i.e. perpetuate smoking behaviours in AHWs were explored in 34 interviews and 3 focus groups. AHWs, other health service staff and tobacco control personnel shared their perspectives. Data analysis was performed using a qualitative content analysis approach with collective member checking by AHW representatives. Results AHWs were highly stressed, burdened by their responsibilities, felt powerless and undervalued, and used smoking to cope with and support a sense of social connectedness in their lives. Factors directly and indirectly associated with smoking were reported at six levels of behavioural influence: personal factors (e.g. stress, nicotine addiction, family (e.g. breakdown of family dynamics, grief and loss, interpersonal processes (e.g. socialisation and connection, domestic disputes, the health service (e.g. job insecurity and financial insecurity, demanding work, the community (e.g. racism, social disadvantage and policy (e.g. short term and insecure funding. Conclusions An extensive array of factors

  13. The cultural appropriateness and diagnostic usefulness of standardized language assessments for Indigenous Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Wendy M; Williams, Cori

    2013-08-01

    Speech-language pathologists experience uncertainty about how to interpret standardized assessment results for Indigenous Australian children. There are risks for inappropriate diagnosis: both over- and under-diagnosis of language impairment may occur due to a convergence of linguistic features which causes difficulty in distinguishing between impairment and difference. While the literature suggests that standardized assessments are inappropriate for Indigenous Australian children, there is an absence of empirical documentation to show how Indigenous children perform on standardized tests of language ability. This study examined the performance of 19 Indigenous Australian children, aged 8;01-13;08, from one school on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition, Australian Standardized Edition. Standardized scores were compared with teacher ratings of children's oral language skills. Analysis showed poor alignment between teacher ratings and language assessment, and assessment scores were negatively influenced by features of Aboriginal English. Children rated with above average language skills presented with different linguistic profiles from the children rated with average and below average language abilities. The inappropriateness of current standardized language assessments for Indigenous children and the need for further research to guide appropriate assessment are discussed.

  14. A dermatoglyphic study of the Amis aboriginal population of Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Amis is the largest aboriginal population in Taiwan. The previous dermatoglyphic studies of the Amis only reported limited data. In this study, we collected and analyzed the dermatoglyphs of 200 Amis in-dividuals, and we reported a wide range of dermatoglyphic variables including total finger ridge count, a-b ridge count, atd angle, axial triradius percent distance, and frequencies of fingerprint pattern, pal-mar thenar pattern, palmar interdigital pattern, and simian line. This study is the first comprehensive dermatoglyphic research of Amis since 1960s, and its dermatoglyphic data will be useful for future re-search in anthropology, genetics and medicine.

  15. A dermatoglyphic study of the Amis aboriginal population of Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Amis is the largest aboriginal population in Taiwan. The previous dermatoglyphic studies of the Amis only reported limited data. In this study, we collected and analyzed the dermatoglyphs of 200 Amis individuals, and we reported a wide range of dermatoglyphic variables including total finger ridge count, a-b ridge count, atd angle, axial triradius percent distance, and frequencies of fingerprint pattern, palmar thenar pattern, palmar interdigital pattern, and simian line. This study is the first comprehensive dermatoglyphic research of Amis since 1960s, and its dermatoglyphic data will be useful for future research in anthropology, genetics and medicine.

  16. Meteoritics and cosmology among the Aboriginal cultures of Central Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    The night sky played an important role in the social structure, oral traditions, and cosmology of the Arrernte and Luritja Aboriginal cultures of Central Australia. A component of this cosmology relates to meteors, meteorites, and impact craters. This paper discusses the role of meteoritic phenomena in Arrernte and Luritja cosmology, showing not only that these groups incorporated this phenomenon in their cultural traditions, but that their oral traditions regarding the relationship between meteors, meteorites and impact structures suggests the Arrernte and Luritja understood that they are directly related.

  17. Knowledge, attitudes and other factors associated with assessment of tobacco smoking among pregnant Aboriginal women by health care providers: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passey Megan E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As with many Indigenous peoples, smoking rates among Aboriginal Australians are considerably higher than those of the non-Indigenous population. Approximately 50% of Indigenous women smoke during pregnancy, a time when women are more motivated to quit. Antenatal care providers are potentially important change agents for reducing the harms associated with smoking, yet little is known about their knowledge, attitudes or skills, or the factors associated with providing smoking cessation advice. Methods This paper aimed to explore the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers caring for pregnant Australian Aboriginal women with regard to smoking risks and cessation; and to identify factors associated with self-reported assessment of smoking. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with 127 staff providing antenatal care to Aboriginal women from two jurisdictions: the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Measures included respondents' estimate of the prevalence of smoking among pregnant women; optimal and actual assessment of smoking status; knowledge of risks associated with antenatal smoking; knowledge of smoking cessation; attitudes to providing cessation advice to pregnant women; and perceived barriers and motivators for cessation for pregnant women. Results The median provider estimate of the smoking prevalence was 69% (95%CI: 60,70. The majority of respondents considered assessment of smoking status to be integral to antenatal care and a professional responsibility. Most (79% indicated that they assess smoking status in 100% of clients. Knowledge of risks was generally good, but knowledge of cessation was poor. Factors independently associated with assessing smoking status among all women were: employer service type (p = 0.025; cessation knowledge score (p = 0.011; and disagreeing with the statement that giving advice is not worth it given the low level of success (p = 0.011. Conclusions Addressing

  18. Traditional Education of Aboriginal People in Canada: Principles, Methods and Characteristic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapotichna Maria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the period of traditional education of aboriginal people in Canada in precolonial times has been presented. The main objectives have been defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; characteristic of theoretical framework in understanding the concept of traditional aboriginal pedagogy and main principles underlying the education of younger generations of the indigenous people in Canada. The major components of teaching methods (practical, visual and oral have been specified. Practical, visual and oral methods of imparting knowledge have been discussed and peculiarities of the traditional education of native population in Canada in precolonial period have been identified. The problem of traditional education of aboriginal people in Canada has been studied by scientists: aboriginal education (M. Battiste, J. Henderson, J. Lambe; development of aboriginal education (J. Friesen, V. Friesen, J. Miller, E. Neegan; tertiary education of aboriginal people (V. Kirkness; traditional education of aboriginal people (L. McGregor. The research methodology comprises theoretical methods (comparative-historical method; logical and comparative methods; methods of induction and deduction, synthesis and analysis.

  19. Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccols, Allison; Dell, Colleen Anne; Clarke, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and their children. For many women, substance abuse offers a means of coping with trauma, such as childhood abuse, partner violence, and, for Aboriginal women, the intergenerational effects of colonization. In this paper, we review treatment issues for Aboriginal mothers with substance use problems and their children. We discuss gender-specific issues in substance abuse, the need for women-specific treatment, the impact of substance abuse on children and parenting, the additional risks for Aboriginal women and children, and the need for integrated programs (those that integrate pregnancy-, parenting-, and child-related services with women-specific addiction treatment). We describe New Choices as an example of an integrated program, review research on existing treatment for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues, and describe Sheway as a promising integrated program for Aboriginal women with substance abuse issues and their young children. There are few treatment programs specifically for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues and their children and very little research on their effectiveness. Based on our review of existing evidence, we offer recommendations for future research and practice. PMID:24976814

  20. Reflecting the Lives of Aboriginal Women in Canadian Public Library Collection Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests some, but not all, the core titles needed for developing a public library collection that would reflect the diversity and complexity of the lives of Aboriginal women in Canada. The titles include major authors, essential titles, journals, magazines, indexes, databases, reference books, websites, film, music, and spoken word as well as some recommended collection sources. The works reveal an emerging literature and cultural production for, by, and about Aboriginal women that steers away from pathologizing their lives as discussed in the l998 Status of Women in Canada report Aboriginal Women in Canada: Strategic Research Directions for Policy Development. Library customers who are seeking a better understanding of the lives of Aboriginal women in Canada, or Aboriginal women who are seeking materials that reflect the strengths, challenges, reality, and dreams of their lives, should be able to expect a core collection in the public libraries of the communities in which they live. This paper will outline some of the arguments for developing a core collection of work for, and about, Aboriginal women in Canada, and will suggest some criteria and selection sources critical for this collection. For this paper, Aboriginal women in Canada include women who identify themselves as First Nation, Inuit and Metis.

  1. Infant Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care ... Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Diapers & Clothing > Infant Constipation Ages & Stages Listen Español Text ...

  2. Infant Curiosity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This publication is one in a series that reviews tips parents can use to improve the relationships with their children and the learning that happens within the family. This publication deals in particular with infant development.

  3. Offshore oil and gas and coastal British Columbia : Aboriginal rights, title and interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D. [First Nations Summit, West Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation discussed the legal duty of offshore proponents in the oil and gas industry to consult with Aboriginal nations. The Crown court's support for Aboriginal title to ocean areas within proposed offshore regions was also discussed, and Aboriginal rights to manage ocean resources were outlined. Haida and Taku River Tlingit legal decisions have confirmed both a constitutional and fiduciary duty for the Crown to consult with Aboriginal nations who assert their rights or title to lands subject to development. Resource rights granted without meaningful consultation with Aboriginal nations can be challenged, which may result in legal and financial liability for resource companies. A consultative process that addresses ownership, capacity and benefit sharing must be developed so that Aboriginal governments can participate in the design and development of appropriate fiscal and regulatory regimes. The developed regime must consider benefit and revenue sharing, as well as the integration of traditional knowledge within western science for the lifetime of any project. All decision-making bodies must include participation from Aboriginal groups. Mechanisms must also be developed to mitigate the environmental and socio-economic consequences of resource development. Impact and benefit agreements must be negotiated with coastal nations. Dissatisfaction with the concept of consultation processes has led first nations to reconsider the role that they must play in ensuring that oil and gas developments in the coastal regions of British Columbia do not negatively impact on their communities. It was noted that Inuit land claims reserve special rights for the Inuit over 18,800 miles of tidal waters. Earlier attempts by Aboriginal societies to assert their right to control their own ocean resources free from governmental interference were also discussed. It was concluded that litigation of Aboriginal rights and title poses serious challenges to offshore oil and gas

  4. The Australian Movement against Uranium Mining: Its Rationale and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty Branagan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with a brief historical overview of the Australian movement against uranium mining, before focussing on two major campaigns: Roxby and Jabiluka. It describes the reasons the activists gave at the time for their blockades of the Roxby Downs uranium mine in South Australia in 1983 and 1984. These reasons – such as perceptions that the industry is unsafe - have changed little over time and were the basis for the campaign against the proposed Jabiluka mine in the Northern Territory in 1998. They continue to be cited by environmental groups and Aboriginal Traditional Owners to this day as new situations arise, such as the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident.The paper then describes how the movement evolved between the Roxby and Jabiluka blockades, with changes to the movement’s philosophy, strategy, tactics and internal dynamics. This analysis includes a comparison between two anti-nuclear bike rides, one a year after the 1984 Roxby blockade and involving some of the same activists, and another at the time of the Jabiluka blockade. This author was present at all these events, and provides an emic (insider perspective within a longitudinal participant-observation methodology. Although this perspective obviously has a subjective element, the paper fills a gap in that there is little written history of these blockades (particularly Roxby and more generally of Australian resistance to uranium mining, let alone the aspects of nonviolence and movement evolution. It is an introductory history of these campaigns, examining the direct action components, the practicalities of nonviolent campaigning, and the evolution of Australian anti-uranium activism.

  5. Molecular analysis of HLA-B in the Malaysian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, K; Zaidi, A S; Lokman Hakim, S; Kimura, A; Ong, K J; Kikuchi, M; Nasuruddin, H A; Kojima, S; Mak, J W

    1996-12-01

    We have examined 56 unrelated individuals from Malaysian aborigines for their DNA polymorphism of the HLA-B gene by sequence specific oligonucleotide probe (SSO) method. Using the SSO hybridization, we found that one specific DNA allele with a B*1513 like pattern of epitope combination (ECB1513) was dominant among the Melayu Asli (Af = 41.9%) and the Senoi (Af = 24%). To determine the nucleotide sequences of ECB1513, a DNA fragment spanning from the beginning of exon 1 to the middle of exon 4 of the HLA-B gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from two ECB1513 positive individuals, and the PCR products were cloned and sequenced. This sequencing analysis confirmed that ECB1513 was identical to HLA-B*1513 in exon 1, 2, 3, and 4. Amino acid sequence of this major allele, HLA-B*1513, in the aborigines especially around the peptide binding groove (B and F pockets), was compared with that of African B*5301 that had been suggested to confer resistance to malaria infection in Africa. The amino acid residues composing of the F pocket were completely identical in B*1513 and B*5301. These observations suggest that a common environmental factor, the malaria infection, might have independently enhanced the selection of functional change in the polymorphic portion of HLA-B gene in Africa and in South-East Asia.

  6. The Australian National University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2007-01-01

    The Australian National University was established by Federal Parliament in 1946 with a mission to bring credit to the nation and to be one of the world’s great universities.It was the country’s only full-time research university at the time,and had no undergraduate teaching responsibilities.

  7. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…

  8. Australianness as fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Skrbis, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    such as fairness, openness and egalitarianism effectively enhances cosmopolitan outlooks. It identifies the mechanisms through which these same virtues are mobilized to rationalize the failure to actualize cosmopolitanism in everyday practice. We argue that Australianness understood as the popular ‘fair...

  9. Hardening: Australian for Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    defence.gov.au 38 ibid: no page no. 39 ibid: no page no. 40 Aldo Borgu , The Defence Capability Review 2003: A Modest and Incomplete Review. Australian Strategic...Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2002. Borgu Aldo, The Defence Capability Review 2003: A Modest and Incomplete Review. Canberra

  10. Bringing safety and responsiveness into the forefront of care for pregnant and parenting aboriginal people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dawn; Edwards, Nancy; Varcoe, Colleen; Martens, Patricia J; Davies, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Poor access to prenatal care for Aboriginal people is well documented, and is explicated as an unethical barrier to care resulting from colonial and neocolonial values, attitudes, and practices. A postcolonial standpoint, participatory research principles, and a case study design were used to investigate 2 Aboriginal organizations' experiences improving care for pregnant and parenting Aboriginal people. Data were collected through exploratory interviews and small-group discussions with purposefully selected community leaders, providers, and community members. The study found that safety in healthcare relationships and settings, and responsiveness to individuals' and families' unique experiences and capacities must be brought into the forefront of care. Results suggest that the intention of care must be situated within a broader view of colonizing relations to improve early access to, and relevance of, care during pregnancy and parenting for Aboriginal people.

  11. Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events.

  12. Illicit and prescription drug problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada: the role of traditional culture in protection and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal

  13. Reanimating Lost Landscapes: Bringing Visualisation to Aboriginal History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Public History Review volume 11, Peter Osborne called for the methodologies of environmental history to be brought more securely and more imaginatively into public history. Environmental history by its own definition, he argued, encompassed Indigenous, ethnic and Anglo-Celtic histories, and heritages natural and built, material and intangible. I believe too that we public historians need to Incorporate changing landscapes and topographies as a vital element in understanding why communities and their built heritages constantly transfigure. Sometimes a single geographic factor such as the northern Gulf Stream can go far to explain the spectacular rise of a small island like Great Britain to world power. Equally we can help to explain the precipitous decline of towns like Bourke by degradation and siltation in the Darling River. This paper uses the case study of the Narrabeen town camp to explore the potential of digital visual technologies in Aboriginal History.

  14. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components Thereof, DN 2976; the Commission is soliciting...

  15. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  16. Potential effectiveness of specific anti-smoking mass media advertisements among Australian Indigenous smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harold S; Bowden, Jacqueline A; Bayly, Megan C; Sharplin, Greg R; Durkin, Sarah J; Miller, Caroline L; Givans, Sharon E; Warne, Charles D; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2011-12-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156 non-Indigenous smokers from South Australia were shown 10 anti-smoking advertisements representing a range of advertisements typically aired in Australia. Participants rated advertisements on a five-point Likert scale assessing factors including message acceptance and personalized effectiveness. On average, Indigenous people rated the mainstream advertisements higher than non-Indigenous people and were more likely to report that they provided new information. Advertisements with strong graphic imagery depicting the health effects of smoking were rated highest by Indigenous smokers. Advertisements featuring real people describing the serious health consequences of smoking received mixed responses. Those featuring an ill person were rated higher by Indigenous people than those featuring the family of the person affected by a smoking-related disease. With limited Indigenous-specific messages available and given the finite resources of most public health campaigns, exposure to mainstream strong graphic and emotive first-person narratives about the health effects of smoking are likely to be highly motivating for Indigenous smokers.

  17. Writing the history of Australian art: its past, present and possible future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Smith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the years around 1980 the history of Australian art was reconceived in a bewildering variety of ways. A historiographical revolution was underway. This was largely the result of plethora of new approaches to art history that emerged worldwide during the 1970s: contextual, feminist, populist, Marxist. Aboriginal art awaited detailed art historical consideration. This article places these changes in the context of previous efforts to chart the history of Australian art, which the author argues occurred in six phases: colonial, bourgeois nationalist, realist versus aestheticist, modernist, culturalist, and the approaches noted above. Most of these approaches developed in Australia and were applied by local authors. In recent decades, however, ‘external’ approaches are more evident, and are deeply preoccupied with the question of defining modernism in Australia, which they largely fail to do. The author surveys a number of such attempts, taking this question as the paradoxical key to unraveling the overall structure of the history of Australian art.

  18. A cross-cultural study: anti-inflammatory activity of Australian and Chinese plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rachel W; Myers, Stephen P; Leach, David N; Lin, G David; Leach, Greg

    2003-03-01

    In this study, in vitro inhibitory effects of 33 ethanol extracts obtained from 24 plant species (representing 11 different families) on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) were evaluated. The plant materials selected for this study have been used in aboriginal medicine in Australia and traditional medicine in China for the treatment of various diseases that are considered as inflammation in nature, e.g. asthma, arthritis, rheumatism, fever, edema, infections, snakebite and related inflammatory diseases. All of the selected plants, with one exception, showed inhibitory activity against COX-1, which supports their traditional uses. The most potent COX-1 inhibition were observed from the extracts of Acacia ancistrocarpa leaves (IC(50)=23 microg/ml). Ficus racemosa bark, Clematis pickeringii stem, Acacia adsurgens leaves, Tinospora smilacina stem and Morinda citrifolia fruit powder exhibited inhibition of COX-1 with the IC(50) of 100, 141, 144, 158 and 163 microg/ml, respectively. Aspirin and indomethacin used as the reference COX-1 inhibitors in this study inhibited COX-1 with IC(50) of 241 and 1.2 microg/ml, respectively. The findings of this study may explain at least in part why these plants have been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in Australian aboriginal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine.

  19. Australian University International Student Finances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  20. BUILDING A WORKFORCE COMPETENCY-BASED TRAINING PROGRAM IN INFANT/EARLY CHILDHOOD MENTAL HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddis, Lynn E; Matacz, Rochelle; Weatherston, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article describes findings from a project conducted in Western Australia (Mental Health Commission WA, 2015) that investigated the education and training needs of the Infant/Early Childhood Mental Health (I/ECMH) workforce. We examined international training programs and models of delivery in infant mental health, including a review of the current training available in Australia. Data collected from over 60 interviews were analyzed, and a staged delivery model for I/ECMH training and supervision that aligned with the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health (2014) Competency Guidelines was recommended. These findings led to the purchase of the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health (2014) for use in Western Australia. In a very short time, use of the Michigan Competency Framework by the Australian Association for Infant Mental Health West Australian Branch Incorporated has begun to change the training and education opportunities for upskilling the infant and early childhood workforce in Western Australia. It has resulted in a map to guide and develop training in the I/ECMH field for individual practitioners and professionals as well as for workplaces that will ultimately benefit Western Australian infants, young children, and their families during the perinatal period and in the early years.

  1. The Australian Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Howe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients recently became the target of an unprecedented internet campaign by an individual who disagrees with the content and conclusions of a paper published in the journal last year, viz. “The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe that Overweight and Obesity Have Increased” by Alan W. Barclay and Jennie Brand-Miller, Nutrients 2011, 3, 491–504. Regrettably, his criticism has extended to the journal and its peer review processes for permitting publication of the article. [...

  2. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... that are born full-term. A lack of vitamin D may also lead to osteopenia in infants. ...

  3. Correlation of clinical trachoma and infection in Aboriginal communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude-Edouard C Michel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness due to conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. The presence of active trachoma and evidence of infection are poorly correlated and a strong immunologically-mediated inflammatory response means that clinical signs last much longer than infection. This population-based study in five Aboriginal communities endemic for trachoma in northern Australia compared a fine grading of clinical trachoma with diagnostic positivity and organism load. METHODS: A consensus fine grading of trachoma, based on clinical assessment and photograding, was compared to PCR, a lipopolysacharide (LPS-based point-of-care (POC and a 16S RNA-based nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. Organism load was measured in PCR positive samples. RESULTS: A total of 1282 residents, or 85.2% of the study population, was examined. Taking the findings of both eyes, the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF in children aged 1-9 years was 25.1% (96/383 of whom 13 (13.7% were PCR positive on the left eye. When clinical data were limited to the left eye as this was tested for PCR, the prevalence of TF decreased to 21.4% (82/383. The 301 TF negative children, 13 (4.3% were PCR positive. The fine grading of active trachoma strongly correlated with organism load and disease severity (rs = 0.498, P = 0.0004. Overall, 53% of clinical activity (TF(1 or TF(2 and 59% of PCR positivity was found in those with disease scores less than the WHO simplified grade of TF. CONCLUSION: Detailed studies of the pathogenesis, distribution and natural history of trachoma should use finer grading schemes for the more precise identification of clinical status. In low prevalence areas, the LPS-based POC test lacks the sensitivity to detect active ocular infection and nucleic acid amplification tests such as PCR or the 16S-RNA based NAAT performed better. Trachoma in the Aboriginal communities requires specific control

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Sequential with Triple Therapy for Helicobacter pylori in an Aboriginal Community in the Canadian North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Morse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection occurs more frequently in Arctic Aboriginal settings than elsewhere in North America and Europe. Research aimed at reducing health risks from H pylori infection has been conducted in the Aboriginal community of Aklavik, Northwest Territories.

  5. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Asthma in Off-Reserve Aboriginal Children and Adults in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ju Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation.

  6. Invasive pneumococcal disease in New South Wales, Australia: reporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status improves epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Durrheim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the feasibility of improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recording for notifiable diseases using all Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD notifications in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.In Australia people with IPD are nearly always admitted to hospital and their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status is recorded. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status was determined for IPD notifications by referring to the routine hospital admission data, in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.There were 234 notifications in the regional area of Hunter New England during the period 2007–2009. Initially, 168 (72% notifications had Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recorded. After referring to the routine hospital admission data the recorded status increased to 232 (99%. Updating the surveillance data required less than five minutes per notification.Referring to routine hospital admission data proved a useful and time-efficient surveillance strategy to increase the proportion of notifications with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status. These data can then be used to better understand the current epidemiology of IPD. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–4 years have a two- to threefold higher rate of invasive pneumococcal disease than non-Aboriginal children, thus high levels of timely pneumococcal immunization coverage remain important for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

  7. An examination of stress among Aboriginal women and men with diabetes in Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoshi; Bartlett, Judith; O'Neil, John

    2004-05-01

    In this study, a series of focus groups were conducted to gain an understanding of the nature of stress among Canadian Aboriginal women and men living with diabetes. Specifically, attention was given to the meanings Aboriginal peoples with diabetes attach to their lived experiences of stress, and the major sources or causes of stress in their lives. The key common themes identified are concerned not only with health-related issues (i.e. physical stress of managing diabetes, psychological stress of managing diabetes, fears about the future, suffering the complications of diabetes, and financial aspects of living with diabetes), but also with marginal economic conditions (e.g. poverty, unemployment); trauma and violence (e.g. abuse, murder, suicide, missing children, bereavement); and cultural, historical, and political aspects linked to the identity of being Aboriginal (e.g. 'deep-rooted racism', identity problems). These themes are, in fact, acknowledged not as mutually exclusive, but as intertwined. Furthermore, the findings suggest that it is important to give attention to diversity in the Aboriginal population. Specifically, Métis-specific stressors, as well as female-specific stressors, were identified. An understanding of stress experienced by Aboriginal women and men with diabetes has important implications for policy and programme planning to help eliminate or reduce at-risk stress factors, prevent stress-related illnesses, and enhance their health and life quality.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in aboriginal peoples of Taiwan, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yih-Yuan; Chang, Jia-Ru; Huang, Wei-Feng; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Yeh, Jun-Jun; Lee, Jen-Jyh; Jang, Chang-Sheng; Sun, Jun-Ren; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Su, Ih-Jen; Dou, Horng-Yunn

    2014-04-01

    Previous research revealed a 6-fold higher incidence of tuberculosis (TB) amongst aborigines compared to Han Chinese in Taiwan. To investigate the reasons for this disparity, we genotyped Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains obtained from members of different aboriginal tribes in different geographical regions of Taiwan by using molecular methods. In total, 177 isolates of MTB collected from patients at four hospitals in Taiwan from January 2006 to December 2011 were analysed by spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. The most prevalent strains in the eastern and central regions of Taiwan were Beijing (45.7% in eastern) and Haarlem (39.1% in eastern, 37.1% in central) lineages, whereas in southern regions the most prevalent strains were EAI (47.7%) and Haarlem (20.5%) lineages. The high prevalence of EAI in southern Taiwan aborigines may be closely associated with Austronesian culture. This study provides a first overview of the M. tuberculosis strains circulating in aboriginal populations in Taiwan. The high prevalences of certain MTB lineages within aboriginal sub-populations suggest that transmission of MTB may have been restricted to close contacts.

  9. Melq'ilwiye: coming together--intersections of identity, culture, and health for urban Aboriginal youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Natalie; Walton, Patrick; Drolet, Julie; Tribute, Tara; Jules, Georgia; Main, Talicia; Arnouse, Mike

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this exploratory community-based participatory action research project was twofold: to determine how urban Aboriginal youth identify their health needs within a culturally centred model of health and wellness, and to create new knowledge and research capacity by and with urban Aboriginal youth and urban Aboriginal health-care providers. A mixed-method approach was employed to examine these experiences using talking circles and a survey. The study contributes to anticolonial research in that it resists narratives of dis(ease) put forth through neocolonial research paradigms.A key focus was the development of strategies that address the aspirations of urban Aboriginal youth, laying foundations upon which their potential in health and wellness can be nurtured, supported, and realized. The study contributes to a new narrative of the health of urban Aboriginal youth within a culturally centred and culturally safe framework that acknowledges their strong connection to their Indigenous lands, languages, and traditions while also recognizing the spaces between which they move.

  10. The relevance of postcolonial theoretical perspectives to research in Aboriginal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Annette J; Smye, Victoria L; Varcoe, Colleen

    2005-12-01

    The authors critically examine the relevance of postcolonial theoretical perspectives to nursing research in the area of Aboriginal health. They discuss key theoretical underpinnings of postcolonial theory, citing differences and commonalities in postcolonial theory, postcolonial indigenous thinking, and other forms of critical theory. Drawing on insights from Aboriginal scholars, they critique the relevance of postcolonial discourses to issues of concern to Aboriginal peoples, and the potential limitations of those discourses. They then consider the implications of conducting research that is informed by postcolonial perspectives. They argue that postcolonial perspectives provide direction for research with Aboriginal communities in 4 interrelated ways. These are focused on (a) issues of partnership and "voice" in the research process, (b) a commitment to engaging in praxis-oriented inquiry, (c) understanding how continuities from the past shape the present context of health and health care, and (d) the colonizing potential of research. The authors draw attention to the concept of cultural safety as an instrument for incorporating postcolonial perspectives into the realm of nursing. To illustrate applications of postcolonial theory, they give examples from recent research conducted in partnership with Aboriginal communities. Although postcolonial theories are relatively new in nursing discourses, they provide a powerful analytical framework for considering the legacy of the colonial past and the neocolonial present as the context in which health care is delivered.

  11. Awakening: 'Spontaneous recovery’ from substance abuse among Aboriginal peoples in Canada

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    Elder Campbell Papequash

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of research on spontaneous recovery (SR from substance abuse in general, and specific to Aboriginal peoples. There is also limited understanding of the healing process associated with SR. In this study, SR was examined among a group of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Employing a decolonizing methodology, thematic analysis of traditional talking circle narratives identified an association between a traumatic life event and an ‘awakening.’ This ‘awakening’ was embedded in primary (i.e., consider impact on personal well-being and secondary (i.e., implement alternative coping mechanism cognitive appraisal processes and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation rooted in increased traditional Aboriginal cultural awareness and understanding. This contributed to both abstinence (i.e., recovery and sustained well-being (i.e.,continued abstinence. Three key interrelated ‘themes’ specific to the role of culture in SR and recovery maintenance were identified: Aboriginal identity, cultural practices, and traditional values. These findings,combined with the limited literature, were developed into a prospective model of SR from substance abuse inAboriginal peoples. This model highlights the potential need for substance abuse treatment and intervention policy to consider culture as a determinant of health and well-being.

  12. Antenatal information sources for maternal and infant diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Ruth; Brodribb, Wendy; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W

    2015-07-01

    This report describes information sources accessed by pregnant women around antenatal and early infant diet. Australian women in their first pregnancy (n = 277) responded to questionnaires online and on paper between June 2010 and March 2011 as part of the Feeding Queensland Babies Study. Antenatal information sources are reported for maternal diet, breastfeeding and formula-feeding. Pregnant women sought and encountered information for their own and their infants' diet from many sources. Health care professionals provided antenatal dietary information for 80% of respondents and infant feeding advice for 69%. Relatives or friends were the respondents' largest reported information source for infant feeding, reported by 78%. Information on artificial baby milk was accessed on television by 77% and on the internet by 52% of respondents. Health care professionals should proactively support clients' informational needs and address encountered nutrition misinformation. Further research is necessary to establish the nature and accuracy of dietary information in the mass media.

  13. Couples Counseling for Aboriginal Clients Following Intimate Partner Violence: Service Providers' Perceptions of Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Elissa; Languedoc, Sue; Brown, Jason; Gerrits, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Interventions for family violence in Aboriginal communities should take a culture-based approach and focus on healing for the whole family. The purpose of this research was to identify risk issues from the perspective of service providers for couples counseling with Aboriginal clients following intimate partner violence. A total of 25 service providers participated in over the phone interviews concerning risk with Aboriginal men in couple counseling. Five concepts emerged including (a) collaterals, (b) commitment to change, (c) violence, (d) mind-set, and (e) mental health. It was concluded that culturally competent interventions should involve the entire community and have a restorative approach. The concepts were compared and contrasted with the available literature.

  14. Using narrative inquiry to elicit diabetes self-care experience in an Aboriginal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Sylvia S

    2008-09-01

    A narrative inquiry approach was used to explore the experience of Aboriginal people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a rural community. Narrative inquiry based on hermeneutic phenomenological philosophy was the methodology used to guide the research. A purposive sample of 4 persons of Nuxalk ancestry living in Bella Coola, Canada, were selected for their ability to present rich life narratives and to reveal meaning in their particular diabetes stories. Three key insights or overarching analytical interpretations emerged and could contribute broadly to Aboriginal health research. The focus of the article is the expansion of our understanding of diabetes within a specific cultural context. The discussion connects various philosophical, epistemological, and methodological orientations to research with Aboriginal people living with diabetes.

  15. Balancing Culture, Ethics, and Methods in Qualitative Health Research with Aboriginal Peoples

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    L. M. Meadows

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Including Aboriginal women in qualitative health research expands our understanding of factors that contribute to their health and well-being. As part of the larger WHEALTH study, we gathered qualitative health data on midlife Aboriginal women living both on and off reserves. Despite careful planning and a commitment to methodological congruence and purposiveness we encountered a number of challenges that raised ethical questions. We present how we addressed these issues as we attempted to produce ethical, culturally sensitive, and sound research in a timely fashion. This article provides important considerations for other researchers and funding bodies while illustrating the benefits of working with Aboriginal women as an under researched population.

  16. "Mean mugging": an exploration of young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, Jennifer L; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F

    2015-08-01

    Bullying among youth is rampant and research suggests that young Aboriginal women may be particularly susceptible to bullying. Sport participation has been identified as a possible mechanism to prevent bullying behaviors, yet few researchers have explored bullying within the context of sport. The purpose of this qualitative description study was to explore young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports. Eight young Aboriginal women participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews and follow-up phone interviews. Data were analyzed using a content analysis, and findings were represented by five themes: (1) mean mugging, (2) sport specific, (3) happens all the time, (4) team bonding to address bullying, and (5) prevention through active coaches. The detailed descriptions shared by participants provide insight into a broad range of bullying experiences and serve as a foundation for addressing the bullying that occurs in sport.

  17. Problems of communicating radiation doses to aboriginal members of the public in the Alligator Rivers Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, D. (Northern Land Council, Darwin (Australia))

    1985-04-01

    Since the early 1970s, Aboriginal people of the Alligator Rivers Region have had to come to grips with the effects of uranium mining at Nabarlek and Ranger. One element in their cost-benefit approach to mine operations has been the expectation that bush foods in the region will not be contaminated by the mining operations. Recent studies on radionuclide concentrations in freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi) in the region have shown this species, and perhaps others, to be efficient accumulators of radium. Information concerning natural radium accumulation in mussels and accompanying health risk estimates have been conveyed to Aboriginal people of the area and such information transfer has not been without its problems. Application of the ALARA principle to environmental management of the effluent pathways needs to consider Aboriginal expectations.

  18. The CIET Aboriginal Youth Resilience Studies: 14 Years of Capacity Building and Methods Development in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    CIET started supporting Canadian Aboriginal community-based researchers of resilience in 1995. An evolving approach to Aboriginal resilience used a combination of standard instruments and questionnaires of local design. Over the years, CIET measured personal assets like sense of coherence, spirituality, knowledge, pride in one's heritage, mastery or self-efficacy, self-esteem, low levels of distress, involvement in traditional ways and activities, church attendance. Other indicators reflected the social dimension of resilience: feeling supported; parental care and support; parental monitoring, attitudes, and example; peer support; and support from the wider community.Pride in one's heritage, self-esteem, low distress, and mastery were measurable personal assets of resilient Aboriginal youth in a variety of cultures and circumstances. Early efforts to link resilience with specific features of culture or spirituality did not meet with success - largely reflecting failure to ask the right questions. Parental care and support, parental monitoring, parental attitudes, and parental example clearly supported the resilient Aboriginal youth in most settings. But peers are an even stronger influence, critical in relation to different types of behaviour from smoking to drinking to substance abuse to violence, unsafe sex, and suicidal tendencies. More generally, having someone to confide in, to count on in times of crisis, someone to give advice and someone who makes one feel cared for are important factors in youth resilience and something that communities can help to provide even where the family is not the support it should be and where peers are more of a hindrance than a help.CIET currently supports three resilience research projects involving Aboriginal youth in Canada: suicide prevention, reduction of HIV risk, and reduction of domestic violence. The latest resilience measurement tools include enculturation and revised approaches to Aboriginal spirituality.

  19. Mental health first aid for Indigenous Australians: using Delphi consensus studies to develop guidelines for culturally appropriate responses to mental health problems

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    Kelly Claire M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic minority groups are under-represented in mental health care services because of barriers such as poor mental health literacy. In 2007, the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA program implemented a cultural adaptation of its first aid course to improve the capacity of Indigenous Australians to recognise and respond to mental health issues within their own communities. It became apparent that the content of this training would be improved by the development of best practice guidelines. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal mental health, participated in six independent Delphi studies investigating depression, psychosis, suicidal thoughts and behaviours, deliberate self-injury, trauma and loss, and cultural considerations. The panel varied in size across the studies, from 20-24 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about possible first aid actions via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the survey content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ≥ 90% of panellists as essential or important. Each study developed one guideline from the outcomes of three Delphi questionnaire rounds. At the end of the six Delphi studies, participants were asked to give feedback on the value of the project and their participation experience. Results From a total of 1,016 statements shown to the panel of experts, 536 statements were endorsed (94 for depression, 151 for psychosis, 52 for suicidal thoughts and behaviours, 53 for deliberate self-injury, 155 for trauma and loss, and 31 for cultural considerations. The methodology and the guidelines themselves were found to be useful

  20. Poor adherence to national and international breastfeeding duration targets in an Australian longitudinal cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis J Hure

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To report on the proportion and characteristics of Australian infants who are fed, and mothers who feed, in accordance with the national and international breastfeeding duration targets of six, 12 and 24 months. Furthermore, to examine the longitudinal breastfeeding duration patterns for women with more than one child. METHODS: Breastfeeding duration data for 9773 children have been self-reported by a national sample of 5091 mothers aged 30-36 years in 2009, participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. RESULTS: Only 60% of infants received the minimum recommended 6 months of breast milk, irrespective of breastfeeding exclusivity. Less than 30% of infants received any breast milk at 12 months, and less than 3% were breastfed to the international target of 24 months. Young, less educated, unmarried or low-income women were at an increased risk of premature breastfeeding cessation. For women with three or more children, nearly 75% of women who breastfed their first child for at least six months reached this breastfeeding duration target for their next two children. CONCLUSION: While national breastfeeding rates are typically evaluated in relation to the infant, a novel component of our study is that we have assessed maternal adherence to breastfeeding duration targets and the longitudinal feeding practices of women with more than one child. Separate evaluations of maternal and infant breastfeeding rates are important as they differ in their implications for public health policy and practice.

  1. Innovations on a shoestring: a study of a collaborative community-based Aboriginal mental health service model in rural Canada

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    Graham Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaborative, culturally safe services that integrate clinical approaches with traditional Aboriginal healing have been hailed as promising approaches to ameliorate the high rates of mental health problems in Aboriginal communities in Canada. Overcoming significant financial and human resources barriers, a mental health team in northern Ontario is beginning to realize this ideal. We studied the strategies, strengths and challenges related to collaborative Aboriginal mental health care. Methods A participatory action research approach was employed to evaluate the Knaw Chi Ge Win services and their place in the broader mental health system. Qualitative methods were used as the primary source of data collection and included document review, ethnographic interviews with 15 providers and 23 clients; and 3 focus groups with community workers and managers. Results The Knaw Chi Ge Win model is an innovative, community-based Aboriginal mental health care model that has led to various improvements in care in a challenging rural, high needs environment. Formal opportunities to share information, shared protocols and ongoing education support this model of collaborative care. Positive outcomes associated with this model include improved quality of care, cultural safety, and integration of traditional Aboriginal healing with clinical approaches. Ongoing challenges include chronic lack of resources, health information and the still cursory understanding of Aboriginal healing and outcomes. Conclusions This model can serve to inform collaborative care in other rural and Indigenous mental health systems. Further research into traditional Aboriginal approaches to mental health is needed to continue advances in collaborative practice in a clinical setting.

  2. Determinants of healthy eating in Aboriginal peoples in Canada: the current state of knowledge and research gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Noreen D

    2005-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are the original inhabitants of Canada. These many diverse peoples have distinct languages, cultures, religious beliefs and political systems. The current dietary practices of Aboriginal peoples pose significant health risks. Interventions to improve the nutritional status of Aboriginal peoples must reflect the realities of how people make food choices and therefore should be informed by an understanding of contemporary patterns of food procurement, preparation and distribution. Most of the literature documenting the health of Aboriginal peoples is primarily epidemiologic, and there is limited discussion of the determinants that contribute to health status. The majority of studies examining dietary intake in Aboriginal communities do not aim to study the determinants of food intake per se even though many describe differences in food intake across sex, age groups, seasons and sometimes communities, and may describe factors that could have an effect on food consumption (e.g., employment status, level of education, household size, presence of a hunter/trapper/fisher, occupation, main source of income). For these reasons, there are many gaps in knowledge pertaining to the determinants of healthy eating in Aboriginal peoples that must be filled. Given the diversity of Aboriginal peoples, research to address the gaps should take place at both the national level and at a more local level. Research would be important for each of Inuit, Métis and First Nations.

  3. Knowledge, Internal, and Environmental Factors on Environmental Care Behaviour among Aboriginal Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Norshariani Abd

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the contribution of predictor factors (i.e. knowledge about the environment as well as internal and environmental factors) on environmental care behaviour among aboriginal students. The knowledge about the environment that was investigated in this research includes environmental knowledge and environmental action knowledge.…

  4. Modern contact investigation methods for enhancing tuberculosis control in Aboriginal communities

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    Victoria J. Cook

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aboriginal communities in Canada are challenged by a disproportionate burden of TB infection and disease. Contact investigation (CI guidelines exist but these strategies do not take into account the unique social structure of different populations. Because of the limitations of traditional CI, new approaches are under investigation and include the use of social network analysis, geographic information systems and genomics, in addition to the widespread use of genotyping to better understand TB transmission. Guidelines for the routine use of network methods and other novel methodologies for TB CI and outbreak investigation do not exist despite the gathering evidence that these approaches can positively impact TB control efforts, even in Aboriginal communities. The feasibility and efficacy of these novel approaches to CI in Aboriginal communities requires further investigation. The successful integration of these novel methodologies will require community involvement, capacity building and ongoing support at every level. The outcome will not only be the systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of CI data in high-burden communities to assess transmission but the prioritization of contacts who are candidates for treatment of LTBI which will break the cycle of transmission. Ultimately, the measure of success will be a clear and sustained decline in TB incidence in Aboriginal communities.

  5. Formative Evaluation of the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership Program. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the report on the formative evaluation of the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership (ASEP) program conducted by Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC), covering the period from November 2003 to November 2006. The report is organized into four sections. Section 1 presents an overview of the ASEP program…

  6. The Development of Cross-Cultural Relations with a Canadian Aboriginal Community through Sport Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Robert J.; Hanrahan, Stephanie J.; Eys, Mark A.; Blodgett, Amy; Peltier, Duke; Ritchie, Stephen Douglas; Pheasant, Chris; Enosse, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    When sport psychology researchers from the mainstream work with people from marginalized cultures, they can be challenged by cultural differences as well as mistrust. For this article, researchers born in mainstream North America partnered with Canadian Aboriginal community members. The coauthors have worked together for 5 years. What follows is…

  7. The birthing experiences of rural Aboriginal women in context: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen; Varcoe, Colleen; Calam, Betty

    2011-12-01

    It has been established that the birthing experiences and outcomes of rural women are shaped by poverty, isolation, limited economic opportunities, and diminishing maternity services. We lack research into how these dynamics are compounded by intersecting forms of oppression faced by Aboriginal women, to impact on their birthing experiences and outcomes. The findings of this study of rural Aboriginal maternity care in 4 communities in British Columbia show how diminishing local birthing choices and women's struggles to exert power, choice, and control are influenced by centuries of colonization. The research questions focus on rural Aboriginal women's experiences of birthing and maternity care in this neocolonial context and their desire for supportive birthing environments. A community-based participatory and ethnographic design was employed. Individual interviews, focus groups, and participant observation were the primary data sources. Although the women's experiences in each community were shaped by distinct histories and traditions, economics, politics, and geographies, the impacts of colonization and medical paternalism and the struggle for control of women's bodies during birth intersect, placing additional stress on women. The implications for nurses of accounting for the intersecting dynamics that shape Aboriginal women's experiences and birth outcomes are discussed.

  8. Knowledge Transfer and Exchange Processes for Environmental Health Issues in Canadian Aboriginal Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Dobbins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Within Canadian Aboriginal communities, the process for utilizing environmental health research evidence in the development of policies and programs is not well understood. This fundamental qualitative descriptive study explored the perceptions of 28 environmental health researchers, senior external decision-makers and decision-makers working within Aboriginal communities about factors influencing knowledge transfer and exchange, beliefs about research evidence and Traditional Knowledge and the preferred communication channels for disseminating and receiving evidence. The results indicate that collaborative relationships between researchers and decision-makers, initiated early and maintained throughout a research project, promote both the efficient conduct of a study and increase the likelihood of knowledge transfer and exchange. Participants identified that empirical research findings and Traditional Knowledge are different and distinct types of evidence that should be equally valued and used where possible to provide a holistic understanding of environmental issues and support decisions in Aboriginal communities. To facilitate the dissemination of research findings within Aboriginal communities, participants described the elements required for successfully crafting key messages, locating and using credible messengers to deliver the messages, strategies for using cultural brokers and identifying the communication channels commonly used to disseminate and receive this type of information.

  9. Influences of Indigenous Language on Spatial Frames of Reference in Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2014-01-01

    The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as "in front" and "behind." Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian…

  10. School Engagement among Aboriginal Students in Northern Canada: Perspectives From Activity Settings Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Colleen M.; Hawe, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    Background: Educational disengagement is a public health concern among Aboriginal populations in many countries. It has been investigated previously in a variety of ways, with the conventional focus being on the children themselves. Activity settings are events and places, theorized in terms of their symbols, roles, time frame, funds, people, and…

  11. Understanding Aboriginal English in the Legal System: A Critical Sociolinguistics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, Diana

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews sociolinguistic work which has addressed the provision of justice for Aboriginal English (AE) speakers in Australia. It questions the assumptions about cultural and linguistic diversity and inequality which underlie this work, and proposes a critical sociolinguistic approach, which draws on social theory in the analysis of how…

  12. The Learning Circle: A New Model of BSW Education for Alberta's Rural, Remote, and Aboriginal Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapf, M. K.; Bastien, B.; Bodor, R.; Carriere, J.; Pelech, W.

    In 1998, a consortium including the University of Calgary (Alberta) and representatives from social service agencies and Native organizations developed a Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) model for delivery in rural, remote, and Aboriginal communities. The model called for innovative course content that was culturally and geographically relevant to…

  13. Mining Aboriginal Labour: Examining Capital Reconversion Strategies Occurring on the Risk Management Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines a vocational education and training partnership occurring in the Canadian oil sands mining industry. The case study involves a corporate-sponsored pre-apprenticeship training programme designed to procure aboriginal labour in the province of Alberta. Interviews with members of key partner groups and stakeholders occurred…

  14. Science Education Curriculum Development Principles in Taiwan: Connecting with Aboriginal Learning and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Hua; Liu, Yuan-Chen

    2017-01-01

    This paper reflects thorough consideration of cultural perspectives in the establishment of science curriculum development principles in Taiwan. The authority explicitly states that education measures and activities of aboriginal peoples' ethnic group should be implemented consistently to incorporate their history, language, art, living customs,…

  15. "Friendly Racism" and White Guilt: Midwifery Students' Engagement with Aboriginal Content in Their Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackrah, Rosalie D.; Thompson, Sandra C.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2011, all first year students in a health sciences faculty at a university in Western Australia complete a compulsory (half) Unit titled Indigenous Cultures and Health. The Unit introduces students to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history, diversity, cultural protocols, social structures, patterns of communication, contemporary…

  16. Re-Presenting Urban Aboriginal Identities: Self-Representation in "Children of the Sun"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumby, Bronwyn; McGloin, Colleen

    2009-01-01

    Teaching Aboriginal studies to a diverse student cohort presents challenges in the pursuit of developing a critical pedagogy. In this paper, we present "Children of the Sun" (2006), a local film made by Indigenous youth in the Illawarra region south of Sydney, New South Wales. We outline the film's genesis and its utilisation in our…

  17. "Giving Guilt the Flick"?: An Investigation of Mothers' Talk about Guilt in Relation to Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kate; Donaghue, Ngaire; Kurz, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Manuals offering advice to new parents on the topic of infant feeding have recently begun to attend to the possible implications of pro-breast-feeding discourses for mothers' subjective experiences, particularly with respect to guilt. In this article, we present a discursive analysis of focus groups with 35 Australian mothers in which we examine…

  18. Risk indicators for severe impaired oral health among indigenous Australian young adults

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    Roberts-Thomson Kaye F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health impairment comprises three conceptual domains; pain, appearance and function. This study sought to: (1 estimate the prevalence of severe oral health impairment as assessed by a summary oral health impairment measure, including aspects of dental pain, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and difficulty eating, among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australian young adults (n = 442, age range 16-20 years; (2 compare prevalence according to demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and oral health outcome risk indicators; and (3 ascertain the independent contribution of those risk indicators to severe oral health impairment in this population. Methods Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Data for this analysis pertained to Wave-3 of the study only. Severe oral health impairment was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance and food avoidance in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and clinical oral disease indicators on severe oral health impairment. Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR. Results The percent of participants with severe oral health impairment was 16.3 (95% CI 12.9-19.7. In the multivariate model, severe oral health impairment was associated with untreated dental decay (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.6. In addition to that clinical indicator, greater odds of severe oral health impairment were associated with being female (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, being aged 19-20 years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, soft drink consumption every day or a few days a week (OR 2.6, 95% 1.2-5.6 and non-ownership of a toothbrush (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4. Conclusions Severe oral health impairment was prevalent among this population. The findings

  19. Chronic disease, medications and lifestyle: perceptions from a regional Victorian Aboriginal community

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    Deacon-Crouch M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor medication management may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of Aboriginal people in Australia. Yet while there is extensive literature about the perceptions of healthcare providers on this issue, there is limited information on the perceptions of Aboriginal people themselves. Objectives: To investigate the perceptions of a group of Aboriginal people attending a Victorian regional Aboriginal Health Service (AHS with diagnosed medical conditions requiring medications, of their lifestyle, disease management and medication usage. Methods: Data was collected through one to one in depth interviews using a semi-structured ‘yarning’ process. Twenty patients were invited to participate in the study and were interviewed by Aboriginal Health Workers in a culturally appropriate manner. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: Our results show that the majority of participants perceived that changes in lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise, and smoking cessation would help improve their health. Most patients reported having been counselled on their medicines, and while the majority reported adherence and acknowledgement of the efficacy of their medicines, there was a lack of clarity regarding long term maintenance on regimens. Finally, while the majority reported taking over the counter products, some did not see the need to inform their doctor about this, or chose not to. Conclusion: Chronic illness was perceived as common in families and community. Patients relied mostly on their health care professionals as sources for their drug information. Patients may have benefited from further counselling in the area of complementary and other over the counter medicines, as well as on the necessity of maintenance of regimes for chronic disease management. Finally, lifestyle changes such as dietary improvements and smoking cessation were identified as

  20. Health and nutrition content claims on websites advertising infant formula available in Australia: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Nina J; Gribble, Karleen D

    2016-10-14

    The use of health and nutrition content claims in infant formula advertising is restricted by many governments in response to WHO policies and WHA resolutions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such prohibited claims could be observed in Australian websites that advertise infant formula products. A comprehensive internet search was conducted to identify websites that advertise infant formula available for purchase in Australia. Content analysis was used to identify prohibited claims. The coding frame was closely aligned with the provisions of the Australian and New Zealand Food Standard Code, which prohibits these claims. The outcome measures were the presence of health claims, nutrition content claims, or references to the nutritional content of human milk. Web pages advertising 25 unique infant formula products available for purchase in Australia were identified. Every advertisement (100%) contained at least one health claim. Eighteen (72%) also contained at least one nutrition content claim. Three web pages (12%) advertising brands associated with infant formula products referenced the nutritional content of human milk. All of these claims appear in spite of national regulations prohibiting them indicating a failure of monitoring and/or enforcement. Where countries have enacted instruments to prohibit health and other claims in infant formula advertising, the marketing of infant formula must be actively monitored to be effective.

  1. Phytochemical Profile and Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plants Used by Aboriginal People of New South Wales, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Akter, Kaisarun; Emma C. Barnes; Brophy, Joseph J.; Harrington, David; Community Elders, Yaegl; Vemulpad, Subramanyam R; Jamie, Joanne F.

    2016-01-01

    Aboriginal people of Australia possess a rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of sores, wounds, and skin infections, ailments which impose a high global disease burden and require effective treatments. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical contents of extracts, obtained from eight medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia, for the treatment of skin related ailments, were assessed to add value to and provide an ...

  2. Aboriginal Children and Their Caregivers Living with Low Income: Outcomes from a Two-Generation Preschool Program

    OpenAIRE

    Benzies, Karen; Tough, Suzanne; Edwards, Nancy; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Donnelly, Carlene

    2010-01-01

    The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of Aboriginal heritage is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a two-generation, multi-cultural preschool program on 45 children...

  3. Auditory Responses of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Betty Springer; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Forty infants, 3- to 12-months-old, participated in a study designed to differentiate the auditory response characteristics of normally developing infants in the age ranges 3 - 5 months, 6 - 8 months, and 9 - 12 months. (Author)

  4. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  5. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding are good. This is due to immature abdominal muscles used for pushing and does not need to ... holding, rocking, or cuddling. The infant's growth or development does not appear normal. Your infant seems to ...

  6. Prebiotics in infant formula

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenplas,Yvan; DE GREEF, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota ...

  7. Deriving Multiple Benefits from Carbon Market-Based Savanna Fire Management: An Australian Example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Russell-Smith

    Full Text Available Carbon markets afford potentially useful opportunities for supporting socially and environmentally sustainable land management programs but, to date, have been little applied in globally significant fire-prone savanna settings. While fire is intrinsic to regulating the composition, structure and dynamics of savanna systems, in north Australian savannas frequent and extensive late dry season wildfires incur significant environmental, production and social impacts. Here we assess the potential of market-based savanna burning greenhouse gas emissions abatement and allied carbon biosequestration projects to deliver compatible environmental and broader socio-economic benefits in a highly biodiverse north Australian setting. Drawing on extensive regional ecological knowledge of fire regime effects on fire-vulnerable taxa and communities, we compare three fire regime metrics (seasonal fire frequency, proportion of long-unburnt vegetation, fire patch-size distribution over a 15-year period for three national parks with an indigenously (Aboriginal owned and managed market-based emissions abatement enterprise. Our assessment indicates improved fire management outcomes under the emissions abatement program, and mostly little change or declining outcomes on the parks. We attribute improved outcomes and putative biodiversity benefits under the abatement program to enhanced strategic management made possible by the market-based mitigation arrangement. For these same sites we estimate quanta of carbon credits that could be delivered under realistic enhanced fire management practice, using currently available and developing accredited Australian savanna burning accounting methods. We conclude that, in appropriate situations, market-based savanna burning activities can provide transformative climate change mitigation, ecosystem health, and community benefits in northern Australia, and, despite significant challenges, potentially in other fire-prone savanna

  8. A decolonizing approach to health promotion in Canada: the case of the Urban Aboriginal Community Kitchen Garden Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundel, Erika; Chapman, Gwen E

    2010-06-01

    Aboriginal people in Canada suffer ill-health at much higher rates compared with the rest of the population. A key challenge is the disjuncture between the dominant biomedical approach to health in Canada and the holistic and integrative understandings of and approaches to health in many Aboriginal cultures. More fundamentally, colonization is at the root of the health challenges faced by this population. Thus, effective approaches to health promotion with Aboriginal people will require decolonizing practices. In this paper, we look at one case study of a health promotion project, the Urban Aboriginal Community Kitchen Garden Project in Vancouver, Canada, which, guided by the teachings of the Medicine Wheel, aims to provide culturally appropriate health promotion. By drawing on Aboriginal approaches to healing, acknowledging the legacy of colonization and providing a context for cultural celebration, we suggest that the project can be seen as an example of what decolonizing health promotion could look like. Further, we suggest that a decolonizing approach to health promotion has the potential to address immediate needs while simultaneously beginning to address underlying causes of Aboriginal health inequities.

  9. Indigenous Australian Education and Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Wendy

    1997-09-01

    This article focuses on the impact of colonisation and its associated impact on Indigenous teaching and learning. Western European institutions have dominated Indigenous ways of knowing and in Australia this has led to barriers which restrict the participation of Aboriginal people in education systems. Globally Indigenous people are attempting to bring into the introduced educational systems culturally appropriate teaching and learning practices so that a more holistic approach to education can become the norm rather than the exception. The relationship between Indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge and knowing need to placed in a framework of mutual interaction so that not only do Indigenous people benefit, but so do non-Indigenous educators and students.

  10. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; van der Wal, M.F.; Brugman, E.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  11. Translating E-Mental Health Into Practice: What Are the Barriers and Enablers to E-Mental Health Implementation by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Judy; DuBois, Simon; Hyde, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Background With increasing evidence for the effectiveness of e-mental health interventions for enhancing mental health and well-being, a growing challenge is how to translate promising research findings into service delivery contexts. A 2012 e-mental health initiative by the Australian Federal Government (eMHPrac) has sought to address the issue through several strategies, one of which has been to train different health professional workforces in e-mental health (e-MH). Objective The aim of the study was to report on the barriers and enablers of e-MH uptake in a cohort of predominantly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health professionals (21 Indigenous, 5 non-Indigenous) who occupied mainly support or case management roles within their organizations. Methods A 3- or 2-day e-MH training program was followed by up to 5 consultation sessions (mean 2.4 sessions) provided by the 2 trainers. The trainer-consultants provided written reports on each of the 30 consultation sessions for 7 consultation groups. They were also interviewed as part of the study. The written reports and interview data were thematically analyzed by 2 members of the research team. Results Uptake of e-MH among the consultation group was moderate (22%-30% of participants). There were significant organizational barriers to uptake resulting from procedural and administrative problems, demanding workloads, prohibitive policies, and a lack of fit between the organizational culture and the introduction of new technologies. Personal barriers included participant beliefs about the applicability of e-MH to certain populations, and workers’ lack of confidence and skills. However, enthusiastic managers and tech-savvy champions could provide a counter-balance as organizational enablers of e-MH; and the consultation sessions themselves appear to have enhanced skills and confidence, shifted attitudes to new technologies, and seeded a perception that e-MH could be a valuable health education resource

  12. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  13. The Aboriginal Challenge − the Post-Soviet Response: Can the Aboriginal Peoples of Russia Be Rescued from the Modernisation Shock?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Steljmah

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper treats the theme of aboriginal/native peoples in Post-Soviet Russia. First the authors ask: how is a people to be defined as aboriginal, or else how can such a people be distinguished from "small ethnic groups" or "ethnic minorities"? They find an answer in Convention No. 169 of the International Labour Organisation, which gives two criteria: a a social type in which pre-state forms are maintained, a more or less traditional economy and remains of collective land ownership, b a specific view of the world, sacralisation of nature, the land and its resources. According to this, 26 ethnic groups in the North and Far East of the Russian Federation can be termed aboriginal. Their total number does not surpass 9% of the population of these areas. Their present situation is marked by crisis, caused, inter alia, by the demise of former economic forms and general deculturation, unequal participation in the modern economy, demographic catastrophe, a poor health situation, aggravated by alcoholism, with also an increase of suicides and depression. The authors find the reasons for this crisis in: 1 the modernisation shock which traditional societies always suffer when coming into contact with industrial or post-industrial societies, 2 crude interference in the Soviet period into traditional modes of livings, 3 an undefined legal status and system for the protection of aboriginals and 4 years of ignoring the opinions of the latter regarding their position in the broader society. The authors identify three models of adaptation to modemisation: full adaptation, partial adaptation and no adaptation. The first is typical of individuals, but on the group level does not preserve ethnicity. The third leads to ethnic self-isolation, which is rare in Russia. The third model dominates − it entails rejection of marginalisation and a striving to be included into the broader society, but not at the expense of ethnic specificity. This was expressed by the

  14. Austrade Commissioner Tells Australian Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Jingjing; Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ As a large country with 7.69 million sq.km, is Australia a vast market for Chinese products such as cars and some traditional arts and crafts as people expect? With such questions bear in mind, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Mrs.Liu Bing, Commissioner of The Australian Trade Commission (Austrade). Let's hear what she said.

  15. Austrade Commissioner Tells Australian Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng; Jingjing; Sun; Yongjian

    2005-01-01

      As a large country with 7.69 million sq.km, is Australia a vast market for Chinese products such as cars and some traditional arts and crafts as people expect? With such questions bear in mind, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Mrs.Liu Bing, Commissioner of The Australian Trade Commission (Austrade). Let's hear what she said.……

  16. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  17. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  18. Promoting Leadership in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…

  19. Screening for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and developmental delay in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan HL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hsiang-Lin Chan,1,2,* Wen-Sheng Liu,3–6,* Yi-Hsuan Hsieh,1,2 Chiao-Fan Lin,1,2 Tiing-Soon Ling,2,7 Yu-Shu Huang1,2 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 2College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 3Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taipei City Hospital, Zhong-Xing Branch, Taipei, Taiwan; 4School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6College of Science and Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 7Department of Family Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the percentages of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children. Child development level was compared between the two groups. Methods: Teachers completed screening questionnaires for ADHD, ASD, and development level for 36- to 72-month-old children in kindergartens in Taiwan. The questionnaire results were compared between the aboriginal and nonaboriginal children. One child psychiatrist then interviewed the aboriginal preschool children to determine if they had ADHD and/or ASD. Results: We collected 93 questionnaires from the aboriginal group and 60 from the nonaboriginal group. In the aboriginal group, 5.37% of the children were identified to have ADHD, while 1.08% were identified to have ASD. Significantly fewer aboriginal children had developmental delays for situation comprehension and personal–social development (P=0.012 and 0.002, respectively than nonaboriginal children. Conclusion: Aboriginal children in Taiwan had typical percentages of ADHD and ASD compared to those published in the literature. Aboriginal children showed relative strengths in situation

  20. Hyperuricemia and gout among Taiwan Aborigines and Taiwanese-prevalence and risk factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周昌德

    2003-01-01

    @@ Gout is a metabolic disorder which normally undergoes 4 stages: hyperuricemia, acute gouty arthritis, an intercritical period, and final tophus. Priority associated with gout is hyperuricemia. Only 5%-10% of patients with hyperuricemia will develop gout. Indeed, the serum uric acid level is correlated with the prospects of gouty attack.1 Therefore, study of gout epidemiology should focus on the hyperuricemia of a community or ethnic population. Twenty-three million people live in Taiwan, among them, an ethnic minority of 330 000 native inhabitants (called "Aborigines"), who live mainly in high mountain areas. The rest are "ethnic Taiwanese", most of whom came from the southern Mainland Chinese provinces some 400 years ago. Some of the "ethnic Taiwanese" arrived from the central and northern areas of Mainland China 50 years ago. The languages, dietary habits and cultures of the Taiwanese and Aborigines are completely different.2

  1. An interview with Avigail Eisenberg : “Reasoning about the Identity of Aboriginal People”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Blanchard

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Avigail Eisenberg is an Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science, University of Victoria. She was also a fellow of CRÉUM during the 2004-2005 academic year. She has written important texts on the issues of identity, race, gender, minority rights, and in particular, Aboriginal claims. Her writing displays intelligent and acute commentaries in which she demonstrates an ability to tackle difficult questions in a refreshing way. Martin Blanchard of CRÉUM asked Professor Eisenberg if she would be willing to be interviewed via email on the subject of an article she had just finished writing, entitled “Reasoning about the Identity of Aboriginal People”. (This text is forthcoming in Accommodating Cultural Diversity: Contemporary Issues in Theory and Practice, Stephen Tierney ed., London: Ashgate. She kindly accepted to answer his questions.

  2. From (b)edouin to (a)borigine: the myth of the desert noble savage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graulund, Rune

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the myth of the supposed superiority of the desert noble savage over civilized man. With the Bedouin of Arabia and the Aborigines of Australia as its two prime examples, the article argues that two versions of this myth can be traced: one in which the desert noble savage is valorized due to his valour, physical prowess and martial skill (Bedouin); and another, later version, where the desert noble savage is valorized as a pacifist, an ecologist and a mythmaker/storyteller (Aborigines). The article concludes by examining the way in which this turn from one type of desert noble savage to another reflects the manner in which western modernity has shifted its values from Cartesian dualities and Enlightenment rationalism to that of networks, potentialities, ecology and myth.

  3. Autoimmune liver disease and the Canadian First Nations Aboriginal Communities of British Columbia's Pacific Northwest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric M Yoshida; Mark Riley; Laura T Arbour

    2006-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a well-known but uncommon chronic liver disease that is presumed to be of autoimmune etiology. Recently, investigations in British Columbia (BC), a province of Canada situated along the Pacific North-West of North America, have suggested that PBC is not a rare disease amongst BC's Aboriginal (i.e. First Nations) communities. Geographically, BC is adjacent to South East Alaska, an American state that has also reported an increased prevalence of PBC amongst its Aboriginal communities. In this article, the medical evidence supporting a hypothesis of increased risk of PBC amongst BC's First Nations communities is reviewed. Evidence suggesting that autoimmune hepatitis is also more likely amongst BC's First Nations communities is also presented.(C)2006 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  4. Oral hygiene risk indicators among 6- to 9-year-old Taiwanese aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Ju; Huang, Shun-Te; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Chiou, Meng-Jao; Liao, Cheng-Ta

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the dental health status, dietary habits, oral hygiene levels, and caretaker risk indicators among Taiwanese children. This cross-sectional purposive sampling study included 256 aboriginal children, 6 to 9 years old, living in remote regions in southern Taiwan. Participants received dental examinations, and questionnaires were completed by caretakers. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, and multiple logistic regressions. The deft (sum of decayed, extracted, and filled primary teeth) and defs (sum of the decayed, extracted, and filled primary dentition surfaces) indices were affected by the frequencies of drinking sweetened beverages (P = .0006) and daily toothbrushing (P = .0032). Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency was a significant predictor of children's oral hygiene status (P oral hygiene was 2.04 (P = .0184). Oral hygiene among aboriginal children in this study was inadequate. Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency and betel quid habit were significant predictors of poor children's oral hygiene.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA evidence supports northeast Indian origin of the aboriginal Andamanese in the Late Paleolithic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Wei Wang; Bikash Mitra; Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri; Malliya gounder Palanichamy; Qing-Peng Kong; Ya-Ping Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In view of the geographically closest location to Andaman archipelago,Myanmar was suggested to be the origin place of aboriginal Andamanese.However,for lacking any genetic information from this region,which has prevented to resolve the dispute on whether the aboriginal Andamanese were originated from mainland India or Myanmar.To solve this question and better understand the origin of the aboriginal Andamanese,we screened for haplogroups M31(from which Andaman-specific lineage M31a1 branched off)and M32 among 846mitochondrial DNAs(mtDNAs)sampled across Myanmar.As a result,two Myanmar individuals belonging to haplogroup M31 were identified,and completely sequencing the entire mtDNA genomes of both samples testified that the two M31 individuals observed in Myanmar were probably attributed to the recent gene flow from northeast India populations.Since no root lineages of haplogroup M31 or M32 were observed in Myanmar,it is unlikely that Myanmar may serve as the source place of the aboriginal Andamanese.To get further insight into the origin of this unique population,the detailed phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed by including additional 7 new entire mtDNA genomes and 113 M31 mtDNAs pinpointed from South Asian populations,and the results suggested that Andaman-specific M31a1 could in fact trace its origin to northeast India.Time estimation results further indicated that the Andaman archipelago was likely settled by modern humans from northeast India via the land-bridge which connected the Andaman archipelago and Myanmar around the Last Glacial Maximum(LGM),a scenario in well agreement with the evidence from linguistic and palaeoclimate studies.

  6. Distribution of intestinal parasitic infections amongst aborigine children at Post Sungai Rual, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartini, Y; Geishamimi, G; Mariam, A Z; Mohamed-Kamel, A G; Hidayatul, F O; Ismarul, Y I

    2013-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are important public health problems among underprivileged communities. This study was carried out to evaluate the infection rate of intestinal parasites among aborigine children at Pos Sungai Rual, Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 111 faecal samples from aborigine children aged 4-12 years were screened for intestinal parasites by direct smear technique. Harada-Mori culture was also performed to identify hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae. The results showed that 87.4% of the children examined were positive for one or more parasites. Intestinal parasites were significantly lower in boys (78.7%) as compared to girls (93.8%). The infection occurred in very young children aged 4-6 years (80.0%) and the percentage of parasite-positive cases appeared to be significantly higher (92.9%) among the children aged 7-9 years. Trichuris trichiura was the most common parasite found in aborigine children (65.8%). Low socioeconomic status, poor environmental sanitation and poor personal hygiene are possible contributing factors that increase the rate of intestinal parasitic infections among the children. Thus, the parasitic diseases will continue to threaten the people's health especially among communities from rural areas if no appropriate actions are taken to diminish the transmission of the parasites.

  7. Predictors of betel quid chewing behavior and cessation patterns in Taiwan aborigines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shun-Jen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel quid, chewed by about 600 million people worldwide, is one of the most widely used addictive substances. Cessation factors in betel quid chewers are unknown. The present study explores prevalence and the quit rate of betel quid chewing in Taiwan aborigines. Our goal was to delineate potential predictors of chewing cessation. Methods A stratified random community-based survey was designed for the entire aborigines communities in Taiwan. A total of 7144 participants were included between June 2003 and May 2004 in this study. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, such as gender, age, obesity, education years, marital status, ethnicity, and habits of betel quid chewing, smoking and drinking was collected by trained interviewers. Results The prevalence of betel quid chewers was 46.1%. Betel quid chewing was closely associated with obesity (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.40–1.85. Betel quid chewers were most likely to use alcohol and cigarettes together. Quit rate of betel quid chewers was 7.6%. Betel quid chewers who did not drink alcohol were more likely to quit (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.43–2.50. Alcohol use is a significant factor related to cessation of betel quid chewing, but smoking is not. Conclusion Taiwan aborigines have a high prevalence of betel quid chewers and a low quit rate. Alcohol use is strongly association with betel quid chewing. Efforts to reduce habitual alcohol consumption might be of benefit in cessation of betel quid chewing.

  8. Increased risk for hepatitis C associated with solvent use among Canadian Aboriginal injection drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Ann M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solvent abuse is a particularly serious issue affecting Aboriginal people. Here we examine the association between solvent use and socio-demographic variables, drug-related risk factors, and pathogen prevalence in Aboriginal injection drug users (IDU in Manitoba, Canada. Methods Data originated from a cross-sectional survey of IDU from December 2003 to September 2004. Associations between solvent use and variables of interest were assessed by multiple logistic regression. Results A total of 266 Aboriginal IDU were included in the analysis of which 44 self-reported recent solvent use. Hepatitis C infection was 81% in solvent-users, compared to 55% in those reporting no solvent use. In multivariable models, solvent-users were younger and more likely to be infected with hepatitis C (AOR: 3.5; 95%CI: 1.3,14.7, to have shared needles in the last six months (AOR: 2.6; 95%CI:1.0,6.8, and to have injected talwin & Ritalin (AOR: 10.0; 95%CI: 3.8,26.3. Interpretation High hepatitis C prevalence, even after controlling for risky injection practices, suggests that solvent users may form closed networks of higher risk even amongst an already high-risk IDU population. Understanding the social-epidemiological context of initiation and maintenance of solvent use is necessary to address the inherent inequalities encountered by this subpopulation of substance users, and may inform prevention strategies for other marginalized populations.

  9. Hepatitis C Virus in American Indian/Alaskan Native and Aboriginal Peoples of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Uhanova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Liver diseases, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV, are “broken spirit” diseases. The prevalence of HCV infection for American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN in the United States and Canadian Aboriginals varies; nonetheless, incidence rates of newly diagnosed HCV infection are typically higher relative to non-indigenous people. For AI/AN and Aboriginal peoples risk factors for the diagnosis of HCV can reflect that of the general population: predominately male, a history of injection drug use, in midlife years, with a connection with urban centers. However, the face of the indigenous HCV infected individual is becoming increasingly female and younger compared to non-indigenous counterparts. Epidemiology studies indicate that more effective clearance of acute HCV infection can occur for select Aboriginal populations, a phenomenon which may be linked to unique immune characteristics. For individuals progressing to chronic HCV infection treatment outcomes are comparable to other racial cohorts. Disease progression, however, is propelled by elevated rates of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and alcohol use, along with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV co-infection relative to non-indigenous patients. Historical and personal trauma has a major role in the participation of high risk behaviors and associated diseases. Although emerging treatments provide hope, combating HCV related morbidity and mortality will require interventions that address the etiology of broken spirit diseases.

  10. Workforce insights on how health promotion is practised in an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Kathryn; Devine, Sue; Judd, Jenni; Nichols, Nina; Watt, Kerrianne

    2017-02-03

    Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services deliver holistic and culturally appropriate primary health care to over 150 communities in Australia. Health promotion is a core function of comprehensive primary health care; however, little has been published on what enables or challenges health promotion practice in an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service. Apunipima Cape York Health Council (Apunipima) delivers primary health care to 11 remote north Queensland communities. The workforce includes medical, allied health, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers and health practitioners and corporate support staff. This study aimed to identify current health promotion practices at Apunipima, and the enablers and challenges identified by the workforce, which support or hinder health promotion practice. Sixty-three staff from across this workforce completed an online survey in February 2015 (42% response rate). Key findings were: (1) health promotion is delivered across a continuum of one-on-one approaches through to population advocacy and policy change efforts; (2) the attitude towards health promotion was very positive; and (3) health promotion capacity can be enhanced at both individual and organisational levels. Workforce insights have identified areas for continued support and areas that, now identified, can be targeted to strengthen the health promotion capacity of Apunipima.

  11. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Funston

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Child Sexual Assault (CSA in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP, families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services.

  12. A network approach to policy framing: A case study of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Jennifer; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Gleeson, Deborah; Adams, Karen; Atkinson, Petah; Hayes, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal health policy in Australia represents a unique policy subsystem comprising a diverse network of Aboriginal-specific and "mainstream" organisations, often with competing interests. This paper describes the network structure of organisations attempting to influence national Aboriginal health policy and examines how the different subgroups within the network approached the policy discourse. Public submissions made as part of a policy development process for the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan were analysed using a novel combination of network analysis and qualitative framing analysis. Other organisational actors in the network in each submission were identified, and relationships between them determined; these were used to generate a network map depicting the ties between actors. A qualitative framing analysis was undertaken, using inductive coding of the policy discourses in the submissions. The frames were overlaid with the network map to identify the relationship between the structure of the network and the way in which organisations framed Aboriginal health problems. Aboriginal organisations were central to the network and strongly connected with each other. The network consisted of several densely connected subgroups, whose central nodes were closely connected to one another. Each subgroup deployed a particular policy frame, with a frame of "system dysfunction" also adopted by all but one subgroup. Analysis of submissions revealed that many of the stakeholders in Aboriginal health policy actors are connected to one another. These connections help to drive the policy discourse. The combination of network and framing analysis illuminates competing interests within a network, and can assist advocacy organisations to identify which network members are most influential.

  13. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments.

  14. Acquired methemoglobinemia in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mutlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the etiologic factors of acquired methemoglobinemia in infants younger than three months in our region. Material and Methods: This study was carried out retrospectively in infants with methemoglobinemia admitted to Karadeniz Technical University, Pediatric Clinic, during the period 2000-2009. Infants with methemoglobinemia were identified according to the medical records or ICD-10 code. Results: Nine infants with acquired methemoglobinemia (8 male, 1 female were included in the study. Seven cases were associated with the use of prilocaine for circumcision, one case with the use of prilocaine-lidocaine for local pain therapy, and one case with neonatal sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.Conclusion: Prilocaine should not be used in infants less than three months of age because of the risk of methemoglobinemia. Ascorbic acid is an effective therapy if methylene blue is not obtained. It should not be forgotten that sepsis caused by S. aureus may cause methemoglobinemia in infants.

  15. The contribution of infant food marketing to the obesogenic environment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie

    2007-03-01

    Obesity has been growing rapidly among both children and adult Australians in recent decades, raising concern at the associated chronic disease burden, and generating debate over the extent of individual versus government responsibility. This paper briefly reviews recent scientific evidence on links between poor early life nutrition and obesity in later life, which suggests that artificial baby milk rather than breastfeeding in infancy is associated with a 30-50% higher likelihood of later life obesity. It then presents data on long-term trends in breastfeeding in Australia and on consumption of infant milk products since 1939. Evidence is also presented of increased marketing and promotion of breastmilk substitutes from the mid 1950s, including through the healthcare system, associated with the emergence of increased competition in the Australian infant food industry. This collaborative marketing effort by industry and health professionals in turn contributed importantly to the sharp decline in breastfeeding from the mid 1950s. As a consequence, most Australians born since 1955 were exposed to artificial baby milk in early infancy. A substantial proportion of Australian infants are still partially fed with artificial baby milk in the first 12 months of life. The example of infant food highlights that the healthcare system and the food industry, and not just individual mothers' choices, have contributed to poor infant nutrition and obesity trends in Australia. Redressing healthcare system and industry practices to restore a supportive environment for breastfeeding is thus argued to be a necessary element of the public health response to the current obesity problem.

  16. Healthy Buddies[TM] Reduces Body Mass Index Z-Score and Waist Circumference in Aboriginal Children Living in Remote Coastal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsley, Rebecca; Lee, Andrew S.; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal children are at increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Healthy Buddies [TM]-First Nations (HB) is a curriculum-based, peer-led program promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and self-esteem. Methods: Although originally designed as a pilot pre-/post-analysis of 3 remote Aboriginal schools that requested and…

  17. Insights into origins of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 based on new strains from aboriginal people of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonov, Anton; Coulthart, Michael B; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Crandall, Keith A; Posada, David; Padmore, Ruth; Giulivi, Antonio; Oger, Joel J; Peters, Andrew A; Dekaban, Gregory A

    2012-12-01

    The causes of the worldwide distribution of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) remain incompletely understood, with competing hypotheses regarding the number and timing of events leading to intercontinental spread on historical and prehistoric timescales. Ongoing discovery of this virus in aboriginal populations of Asia and the Americas has been the main source of evidence for the latter. We conducted molecular phylogenetic and dating analyses for 13 newly reported HTLV-1 strains from Canada. We analyzed two full-length proviral genomes from aboriginal residents of Nunavut (an autonomous territory in Northern Canada including most of the Canadian Arctic), 11 long-terminal-repeat (LTR) sequences from aboriginal residents of British Columbia's Pacific coast, and 2 LTR sequences from non-aboriginal Canadians. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a well-supported affinity between the two Nunavut strains and two East Asian strains, suggesting the presence of an Asian-American sublineage within the widespread "transcontinental" subgroup A clade of HTLV-1 Cosmopolitan subtype a. This putative sublineage was estimated to be 5400-11,900 years in age, consistent with a long-term presence of HTLV-1 in aboriginal populations of the Canadian Arctic. Phylogenetic affinities of the other 11 Canadian HTLV-1 aboriginal strains were diverse, strengthening earlier evidence for multiple incursions of this virus into coastal aboriginal populations of British Columbia. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis of ancient presence of HTLV-1 in aboriginal populations of North America.

  18. In Quest of Indigeneity, Quality, and Credibility in Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education in Canada: Problematic, Contexts, and Potential Ways Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Jerald; Fallon, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Learning involves conceptual frameworks embedded in worldviews and values. The overarching problematic of Aboriginal post-secondary education is complex and multifaceted. Normative and institutional forces as well as the credentialing and certification agenda of post-secondary education limit the degree to which Aboriginal education at any level…

  19. Australian network of magnetic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C. E.

    Six magnetic observatories are presently operated by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics (BMR), with assistance from various other organizations. Variometer recordings are made of three or more elements of the field at minute intervals, and absolute measurements are made weekly. There are four observatories on the continent (Canberra, Gnangara, Charters Towers, and Learmonth), one on Macquarie Island, and one at Mawson Station in eastern Antarctica (Figure 1). In addition, semiweekly absolute observations of the field (D, H, and F) are made at the other two permanent Australian Antarctic bases (Casey and Davis). A three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (EDA Electronics, Toronto , Canada) is operated independently by the Upper Atmosphere Physics group at Davis. Monthly mean values, K indices, and information about magnetic disturbances are published monthly in the BMR Geophysical Observatory Report.

  20. Implications of the nutrition transition for vitamin D intake and status in Aboriginal groups in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hayek Fares, Jessy; Weiler, Hope A

    2016-09-01

    Aboriginal Canadians have low intakes of vitamin D and are shifting away from consumption of traditional foods. Higher body mass index, skin pigmentation, and geographic latitude of residence further predispose Canadian Aboriginal populations to low vitamin D status. Low vitamin D status could compromise bone health and other health outcomes. Studies assessing vitamin D status of different Aboriginal groups are limited. The aim of this review is to examine the literature on vitamin D status and intakes of Canadian Aboriginal populations living in the Arctic. PubMed was searched for relevant articles published from 1983 to 2013. The prevalence of 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency ranged from 13.9% to 76.0% among children and adults in the summer. Furthermore, mean vitamin D intakes among all age groups were below the estimated average requirement. As vitamin D deficiency has been recently associated with chronic diseases, and Aboriginal populations living in the Arctic are at high risk for low vitamin D status, their vitamin D status should be assessed regularly across seasons.

  1. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited.

  2. Contemporary Australian writers and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available It is amazing to see just how much travel writing, writing which does not exclusively belong to the travel sub-genre of "creative non-fiction", and also how many non-Australian locales, with emphasis on European and Asian ones, there are in the recent contemporary Australian writing since the 1960s. This perhaps speaks about a certain preoccupation or downright trait in the Australian national character. Perhaps, it is a reflection of a particular condition of being "down under", itself derived from "a tradition of colonialism and post-colonialism; from geographical location, both a deterrent and a spur; from post-Romantic literary tradition, coinciding with the early years of white settlement; and from the universal lure of ideas of travel, never more flourishing than at the present" (Hergenhan, Petersson xiii. Tourism is an increasingly global phenomenon to some extent shaping the physical reality as well as the spiritual world of the people involved in it. Within this globalization process, with the prospect of "cyber" travel, there is, however, always an individual "national" experience of the country of destination that a literary traveller puts into words, an experience which is typical and conditioned by specific socio-political and cultural circumstances.

  3. The relationship between breastfeeding and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Jane A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding has been shown consistently in observational studies to be protective of overweight and obesity in later life. This study aimed to investigate the association between breastfeeding duration and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data involving 2066, males and females aged 9 to 16 years from all Australian states and territories. The effect of breastfeeding duration on weight status was estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to those who were never breastfed, children breastfed for ≥6 months were significantly less likely to be overweight (adjusted odds ratio: 0.64, 95%CI: 0.45, 0.91 or obese (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.29, 0.90 in later childhood, after adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education and ethnicity and children's age, gender, mean energy intake, level of moderate and vigorous physical activity, screen time and sleep duration. Conclusions Breastfeeding for 6 or more months appears to be protective against later overweight and obesity in this population of Australian children. The beneficial short-term health outcomes of breastfeeding for the infant are well recognised and this study provides further observational evidence of a potential long-term health outcome and additional justification for the continued support and promotion of breastfeeding to six months and beyond.

  4. "I'm thankful for being Native and my body is part of that": the body pride experiences of young Aboriginal women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Tara-Leigh F; Coppola, Angela M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2014-06-01

    Body pride may be a predictor of health and well-being among Aboriginal youth. Body pride could potentially be addressed in health interventions, but it is critical to understand how body pride is conceptualized among Aboriginal youth. The purpose of this qualitative description study was to better understand the experiences of body pride among young Aboriginal women living in urban centers in Alberta, Canada. Eight young Aboriginal women (15-18 years old) participated in one-on-one interviews. A qualitative content analysis highlighted five themes that represent the participants' meanings of body pride. Participants described how body pride is: (a) accepting everything about your body, (b) who you are and how you show it, (c) connected to culture, (d) being healthy, and (e) being thankful to be Native. This research makes a contribution to the growing body pride literature by providing an initial glimpse into the complexities of young Aboriginal women's body pride experiences.

  5. Education resources in remote Australian Indigenous community dog health programs: a comparison of community and extra-community-produced resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Sophie Elizabeth; Dixon, Roselyn May; Dixon, Robert John

    2013-09-01

    Commercial dog health programs in Australian Indigenous communities are a relatively recent occurrence. Health promotion for these programs is an even more recent development, and lacks data on effective practices. This paper analyses 38 resources created by veterinary-community partnerships in Indigenous communities, to 71 resources available through local veterinary service providers. On average, community-produced resources used significantly more of the resource area as image, more imagery as communicative rather than decorative images, larger fonts and smaller segments of text and used images of people with a range of skin tones. As well as informal registers of Standard Australian English, community-produced resources used Aboriginal English and/or Creole languages in their text, while extra-community (EC)-produced resources did not. The text of EC resources had Flesh-Kincaid reading grade levels that excluded a large proportion of community recipients. Also, they did not cover some topics of importance in communities, used academic, formal and technical language, and did not depict people of a representative range of skin tones. As such, community-produced resources were more relevant to the unique situations in remote communities, while EC resources were often inappropriate and in some cases could even distance recipients by using inappropriate language, formats and imagery.

  6. Lords of the Square Ring: Future Capital and Career Transition Issues for Elite Indigenous Australian Boxers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Marie Stronach

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Australia a serious and widely documented statistical gap exists between the socio-economic circumstances of the country’s Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Areas of divergence include life expectancy, health, housing, income, and educational opportunity and employment. This has made career attainment problematic for most Aboriginal people. Among male Indigenous people, professional sport is portrayed as one of the few realms in which they can prosper. This is particularly true in the major football codes – Australian Rules and rugby league – and a feature of elite-level boxing, where Indigenous fighters are also statistically over-represented. However, while sport has provided opportunities for a small number of talented Indigenous athletes, it has rarely been a pathway to lifelong prosperity. This paper contends that as a result of over-reliance on an abundant bank of physical capital, Indigenous Australian boxers are particularly vulnerable to potential occupational obsolescence should their bodily assets erode more quickly than envisaged. Drawing on an Indigenous concept, Dadirri, to inform a wider interpretive phenomenological approach, the paper examines retirement experiences of fourteen elite male Indigenous Australian boxers; the goal of this research is to understand their post-sport career decision making. In this respect, Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus, capital and field are utilised to frame and interpret the capacity of Indigenous boxers to develop sustainable career pathways – which we describe as future capital – during their time as elite athletes. For this group of athletes, being an Indigenous person was found to be a significant factor in their decision-making to enter the sport, which may then leave them open to exploitation within the field. Many boxers find their engagement with education and vocational training remains restricted to occupations that complement an Indigenous sense of cultural

  7. Aboriginal-mainstream partnerships: exploring the challenges and enhancers of a collaborative service arrangement for Aboriginal clients with substance use issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Kate P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partnerships between different health services are integral to addressing the complex health needs of vulnerable populations. In Australia, partnerships between Aboriginal1 community controlled and mainstream services can extend health care options and improve the cultural safety of services. However, although government funding supports such collaborations, many factors can cause these arrangements to be tenuous, impacting the quality of health care received. Research was undertaken to explore the challenges and enhancers of a government initiated service partnership between an Aboriginal Community Controlled alcohol and drug service and three mainstream alcohol rehabilitation and support services. Methods Sixteen staff including senior managers (n=5, clinical team leaders (n=5 and counsellors (n=6 from the four services were purposively recruited and interviewed. Interviews were semi-structured and explored staff experience of the partnership including the client intake and referral process, shared client care, inter-service communication and ways of working. Results & discussion Communication issues, partner unfamiliarity, ‘mainstreaming’ of Aboriginal funding, divergent views regarding staff competencies, client referral issues, staff turnover and different ways of working emerged as issues, emphasizing the challenges of working with a population with complex issues in a persistent climate of limited resourcing. Factors enhancing the partnership included adding a richness and diversity to treatment possibilities and opportunities to explore different, more culturally appropriate ways of working. Conclusion While the literature strongly advises partnerships be suitably mature before commencing service delivery, the reality of funding cycles may require partnerships become operational before relationships are adequately consolidated. Allowing sufficient time and funding for both the operation and relational aspects of a

  8. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk.

  9. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C;

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  10. Cerebral Asymmetry in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Corballis, Michael C.

    This paper describes two experiments conducted to replicate the reported findings (Entus, 1975) that infants demonstrate a right ear advantage in the perception of dichotically presented syllables. Using the non-nutritive sucking paradigm, 48 infants 1-3 months of age were presented with verbal stimuli contingent upon criterion level sucking.…

  11. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  12. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ultrasound: Infant Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Infant Hip A A A What's in this ... en los lactantes What It Is A hip ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  13. High risk alcohol-related trauma among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, Rama; Thomas, Mahiban; Thomson, Valerie; Griffin, Carolyn; Mayo, Luke; Whitty, Megan; d'Abbs, Peter; Nagel, Tricia

    2012-08-03

    High risk drinking is linked with high rates of physical harm. The reported incidence of alcohol - related trauma among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Northern Territory is the highest in the world. Facial fractures are common among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. They are often linked with misuse of alcohol in the Northern Territory and are frequently secondary to assault. This review focuses on alcohol-related trauma in the Territory and draws attention to an urgent need for preventative health approach to address this critical issue.

  14. Novel quasi-subgenotype D2 of hepatitis B virus identified in Taiwanese aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Huy; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Lin, I-Ling; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Chuang, Wan-Long; Abe, Kenji

    2014-08-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes in Taiwanese aborigines, whose ancestors have lived in Taiwan for over 10,000 years, have not been characterized. In order to characterize of HBV in this special population, serum samples were obtained from serologically HBsAg-positive 27 Taiwanese aborigines. The pre-S1/S2 region and the full-length 3.2 kb of the HBV genome were amplified by PCR. Obtained amplicons were sequenced and confirmed the HBV genotypes by phylogenetic analysis. By phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of pre-S1/pre-S2 region, HBV/B2 (21/27: 78 %) was the most prevalent followed by genotype D (6/27: 22 %). Two strains of HBV/B2, each having 3,215 bp genomes, had recombination with genotype C in the pre-C/C gene which is characteristic of subgenotype B2 circulating in Southeast Asia. Interestingly, six strains of genotype D formed a distinct cluster between subgenotypes D1 and D2 suggesting a novel group of HBV. A similar finding could also be confirmed based on the entire 3,182 bp genome from four strains of HBV/D. This new cluster was supported by a branch with 99 % bootstrap value and 3.4-5.8 % nucleotide divergence over the entire genome from other known subgenotypes D1 to D9. Four strains of the new D subgenotype showed serotype ayw2, but had unique amino acid sequences consisting of N115 in the preS/S gene; P41 in the X gene; S239, K/E295, V567, and P708 in the P gene, respectively. From the above results, we provisionally proposed to designate it as novel quasi-subgenotype D2 identified in Taiwanese aborigines.

  15. Providing choices for a marginalized community. A community-based project with Malaysian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, P

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the Family Planning Association (FPA) of the Malaysian state of Perak initiated a community-based development project in the remote Aborigine village of Kampung Tisong. The community consists of approximately 34 households who survive on an average income of about US $37. Malnutrition is pervasive, even minor ailments cause death, more serious afflictions are prevalent, and the closest government clinic is 20 kilometers away and seldom used by the Aborigines. 70% of the children have access to education, but parental illiteracy is a serious educational obstacle. The goals of the FPA program are to 1) promote maternal and child health and responsible parenthood, 2) provide health education, 3) encourage women to seek self-determination, and 4) encourage the development of self-reliance in the community as a whole. The first step was to survey the community's culture, beliefs, and health status with the help of the Aborigines Department and the village headman. After a series of preliminary meetings with other agencies, the FPA began to provide activities including health talks, health courses and demonstrations, medical examinations and check-ups, and first aid training. Environmental protection and sanitation measures were included in the educational activities, and following the traditional "mutual aid system," a small plot of land was cleared for vegetable production. Vegetable gardens and needlecraft will become income-producing activities for the women. Attempts to motivate the women to use family planning have been hindered by the fact that the health of 2 women deteriorated after they began using oral contraceptives. Positive changes are occurring slowly and steadily, however, and the FPA has been instrumental in having the settlement included in a program for the hardcore poor which will provide new housing and farming projects.

  16. The sociology of the Australian agricultural environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, F.

    1994-01-01

    Australian agriculture is in crisis, the terms of trade for agriculture are falling, many farmers have negative incomes, and there is massive structural adjustment with government policy assisting the exit of marginal farmers out of agriculture. Australian governments are gripped with the philosophy

  17. A National Australian Curriculum: In Whose Interests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of an Australian curriculum is likely to have a widespread and long-term impact on schools, teachers and students, and yet there has been a swift and an almost unquestioning acceptance of its introduction by the Australian public and by educators. This paper will use theoretical frameworks informed by Gramsci's cultural hegemony…

  18. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  19. Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginbottom Gina MA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2 with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3. The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge

  20. HIV Testing and Care in Canadian Aboriginal Youth: A community based mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Ted

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection is a serious concern in the Canadian Aboriginal population, particularly among youth; however, there is limited attention to this issue in research literature. The purpose of this national study was to explore HIV testing and care decisions of Canadian Aboriginal youth. Methods A community-based mixed-method design incorporating the Aboriginal research principles of Ownership, Control, Access and Possession (OCAP was used. Data were collected through surveys (n = 413 and qualitative interviews (n = 28. Eleven community-based organizations including urban Aboriginal AIDS service organizations and health and friendship centres in seven provinces and one territory assisted with the recruitment of youth (15 to 30 years. Results Average age of survey participants was 21.5 years (median = 21.0 years and qualitative interview participants was 24.4 years (median = 24.0. Fifty-one percent of the survey respondents (210 of 413 youth and 25 of 28 interview participants had been tested for HIV. The most common reason to seek testing was having sex without a condom (43.6% or pregnancy (35.4% while common reasons for not testing were the perception of being low HIV risk (45.3% or not having had sex with an infected person (34.5%. Among interviewees, a contributing reason for not testing was feeling invulnerable. Most surveyed youth tested in the community in which they lived (86.5% and 34.1% visited a physician for the test. The majority of surveyed youth (60.0% had tested once or twice in the previous 2 years, however, about one-quarter had tested more than twice. Among the 26 surveyed youth who reported that they were HIV-positive, 6 (23.1% had AIDS at the time of diagnosis. Delays in care-seeking after diagnosis varied from a few months to seven years from time of test. Conclusion It is encouraging that many youth who had tested for HIV did so based on a realistic self-assessment of HIV risk behaviours; however, for others

  1. The Emotional Economies of Protestant Missions to Aboriginal People in Nineteenth-Century Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise

    2014-01-01

    of emotional control in terms of social development. Yet missionaries were not the only agents of emotional change, and their emotional agendas were not always realised in the ways that they had anticipated. Rather, this paper proposes that both missionaries and Aboriginal residents were participants......Taking Norbert Elias’ ideas about emotional change as its foil, this paper explores the changing role and function of emotion on late-nineteenth century Protestant missions in Australia. Like Elias, though for religious rather than historical reasons, missionaries during this period conceived...... in systems of emotional circulation and exchange which I conceptualise as ‘emotional economies’....

  2. Streptococcal peritonitis in Australian peritoneal dialysis patients: predictors, treatment and outcomes in 287 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald Stephen P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has not been a comprehensive, multi-centre study of streptococcal peritonitis in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD to date. Methods The predictors, treatment and clinical outcomes of streptococcal peritonitis were examined by binary logistic regression and multilevel, multivariate poisson regression in all Australian PD patients involving 66 centres between 2003 and 2006. Results Two hundred and eighty-seven episodes of streptococcal peritonitis (4.6% of all peritonitis episodes occurred in 256 individuals. Its occurrence was independently predicted by Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander racial origin. Compared with other organisms, streptococcal peritonitis was associated with significantly lower risks of relapse (3% vs 15%, catheter removal (10% vs 23% and permanent haemodialysis transfer (9% vs 18%, as well as a shorter duration of hospitalisation (5 vs 6 days. Overall, 249 (87% patients were successfully treated with antibiotics without experiencing relapse, catheter removal or death. The majority of streptococcal peritonitis episodes were treated with either intraperitoneal vancomycin (most common or first-generation cephalosporins for a median period of 13 days (interquartile range 8–18 days. Initial empiric antibiotic choice did not influence outcomes. Conclusion Streptococcal peritonitis is a not infrequent complication of PD, which is more common in indigenous patients. When treated with either first-generation cephalosporins or vancomycin for a period of 2 weeks, streptococcal peritonitis is associated with lower risks of relapse, catheter removal and permanent haemodialysis transfer than other forms of PD-associated peritonitis.

  3. Identification and quantification of phenolics in Australian native mint (Mentha australis R. Br.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kitty S C; Konczak, Izabela; Zhao, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Australian native mints have traditionally been used by the aboriginal people for natural remedies; however, their bioactive components have not been studied. Antioxidant capacity and composition of phenolic compounds of Mentha australis R. Br., Lamiaceae were investigated for the first time. Phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC photodiode array detector, liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Aqueous methanolic extract of the mint exhibited comparable antioxidant capacity to the common spearmint. Major compounds identified in the extract were rosmarinic acid (160.4 ± 0.85 μg mg(-1)purified extract), neoponcirin (145.0 ± 0.42 μg gallic acid equivalent(GAE) mg(-1)), narirutin (30.3 ± 0.02 μg GAE mg(-1)), chlorogenic acid (15.4 ± 0.05 μg mg(-1)) and biochanin A (9.6 ± 0.06 μg GAE mg(-1)), while minor compounds were caffeic acid, apigenin, hesperetin and naringenin. Neoponcirin and biochanin A were identified for the first time in the Mentha genus.

  4. Succession Planning in Australian Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hicks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is that succession planning in Australian farming is under-developed.It may be linked to economic and social change which suggests that farmers need to adapt togenerational change but this is being resisted or ignored. The implications of this are the slowdecline of family farming, a poor transfer of skills and knowledge to subsequent generationsof farmers in some parts of the agricultural sector and the potential for an extension of thefinancial services industry to develop a more effective raft of succession planning measuresto mitigate the effects of a traditional approach to succession in agriculture.

  5. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  6. The Streamlining of the Kabinakagami River Hydroelectric Project Environmental Assessment: What is the "Duty to Consult" with Other Impacted Aboriginal Communities When the Co-Proponent of the Project is an Aboriginal Community?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Gardner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is existing tension within many Aboriginal communities between economic development and preservation of traditional lands for the continued practice of traditional activities. The "duty to consult" doctrine has has become an important mechanism by which these concerns were identified and addressed (when possible prior to development. This is a legal requirement that is rooted in the Constitution Act (1982 and subsequent legal case law that has further defined and outlined requirements under this obligation. This article describes the process that was carried out to advance the proposed Kabinakagami River Hydro Project Class Environmental Assessment in Northern Ontario, Canada with an emphasis on the approach to Aboriginal consultation. This project is unique because the co-proponent of the project is an Aboriginal community, with several neighbouring Aboriginal communities potentially affected by the project. This project raises questions about the approach to carrying out the duty to consult in an effective way. An evaluative framework was developed to examine timeline, information, means, and flexibility and transparency of the process to highlight shortcomings in the process and make recommendations for improvement.

  7. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...... indicating that some of the excess risk may have a placental origin. To further understand the associations between maternal obesity and late fetal and infant death, we need better and more detailed clinical data, which is difficult to obtain on a population level given the rarity of the outcomes. The best...

  8. Australian Expatriates: Who are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón Prada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is made up of 20 million people and, interestingly enough, over one million of the total population live overseas. Australians living abroad are known as `expatriates´ and they have a particular profile: highly educated and better skilled than their counterparts at home. Thus, on the one hand, a general division may be established between expatriates and Australians living at home; on the other, a particular division between expatriates themselves, which depends on the individual reasons that push them to leave Australia. At this point, it is important to outline the general reasons that lead expatriates to go overseas. To begin with, in terms of migration, Australia is both historically and contemporarily linked to other countries. Secondly, Australia is geographically isolated and, therefore, far away from the main global markets. Finally, it is quite right to conclude that although the logical assumption of expatriation is distance, expatriates are mentally, and often emotionally, linked to Australia and, therefore, the understanding of their situation is more positive than negative

  9. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  10. Aboriginal health learning in the forest and cultivated gardens: building a nutritious and sustainable food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroink, Mirella L; Nelson, Connie H

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable food systems are those in which diverse foods are produced in close proximity to a market. A dynamic, adaptive knowledge base that is grounded in local culture and geography and connected to outside knowledge resources is essential for such food systems to thrive. Sustainable food systems are particularly important to remote and Aboriginal communities, where extensive transportation makes food expensive and of poorer nutritional value. The Learning Garden program was developed and run with two First Nation communities in northwestern Ontario. With this program, the team adopted a holistic and experiential model of learning to begin rebuilding a knowledge base that would support a sustainable local food system. The program involved a series of workshops held in each community and facilitated by a community-based coordinator. Topics included cultivated gardening and forest foods. Results of survey data collected from 20 Aboriginal workshop participants are presented, revealing a moderate to low level of baseline knowledge of the traditional food system, and a reliance on the mainstream food system that is supported by food values that place convenience, ease, and price above the localness or cultural connectedness of the food. Preliminary findings from qualitative data are also presented on the process of learning that occurred in the program and some of the insights we have gained that are relevant to future adaptations of this program.

  11. Nonmetric tooth crown traits in the Ami tribe, Taiwan aborigines: comparisons with other east Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Y; Rokutanda, A; Kitagawa, Y

    1992-10-01

    The frequencies of occurrence of 17 tooth crown traits in the living Ami tribe, which inhabits the east coast of Taiwan, were investigated and compared with other East Asian populations based on Turner's (1987) Mongoloid dental variation theory. Principal coordinate analysis based on Smith's mean measure of divergence using frequencies of the 17 traits suggests that the Ami tribe together with the Yami tribe and the Bunun tribe is included in the sinodont group typical of the Chinese mainland and northeast Asia. In light of these results and the estimated distribution of sinodonty and sundadonty in the past and the present, we speculate that the gene flow from Chinese mainlanders to native sundadonts, who seem to have migrated northward to Taiwan, contributed significantly to the formation of the living Taiwan aboriginal groups, sinodonts. Among the aboriginal tribes of Taiwan, the Ami have characteristics intermediate between those of the Yami and the Bunun. The relative positions of these tribes in East Asian populations suggests that the extent of sinodontification and of genetic isolation is one of the causes of the intertribal variation.

  12. Mini-med school for Aboriginal youth: experiential science outreach to tackle systemic barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita I. Henderson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Addressing systemic barriers experienced by low-income and minority students to accessing medical school, the University of Calgary's Cumming School of Medicine has spearheaded a year-round, mini-med school outreach initiative for Aboriginal students. Method: Junior and senior high school youth generally attend the half-day program in classes or camps of 15–25, breaking into small groups for multisession activities. Undergraduate medical education students mentor the youth in stations offering experiential lessons in physical examination, reading x-rays, and anatomy. All resources from the medical school are offered in-kind, including a pizza lunch at midday, whereas community partners organize transportation for the attendees. Results: Opening the medical school and its resources to the community offers great benefits to resource-constrained schools often limited in terms of science education resources. The model is also an effort to address challenges among the medical professions around attracting and retaining students from underserved populations. Conclusion: The prospect of increasing admission rates and successful completion of medical education among students from marginalized communities poses a real, though difficult-to-measure, possibility of increasing the workforce most likely to return to and work in such challenging contexts. A mini-medical school for Aboriginal youth highlights mutual, long-term benefit for diverse partners, encouraging medical educators and community-based science educators to explore the possibilities for deepening partnerships in their own regions.

  13. Cultural and Social Capital and Talent Development: A Study of a High-Ability Aboriginal Student in a Remote Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenko, Karen; Merrotsy, Peter

    2009-01-01

    During the course of a school year, a study was conducted on the cultural context, the social milieu and the personal characteristics of a high ability Aboriginal student in a remote community in Canada. Using the lenses of cultural capital, social capital and human capital, the study explores the development of the student's talent through his…

  14. Antimicrobial activity of customary medicinal plants of the Yaegl Aboriginal community of northern New South Wales, Australia: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Packer, Joanne; Naz, Tarannum; ,; Harrington, David; Jamie, Joanne F.; Vemulpad, Subramanyam R

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is a collaboration between Macquarie University researchers and the Yaegl Aboriginal Community of northern NSW, Australia to investigate the antimicrobial potential of plants used in the topical treatment of wounds, sores and skin infections. Based on previously documented medicinal applications, aqueous and aqueous ethanolic extracts of Alocasia brisbanensis, Canavalia rosea, Corymbia intermedia, Hibbertia scandens, Ipomoea brasiliensis, Lophostemon suaveolens and Synca...

  15. Mental health of Aboriginal children and adolescents in violent school environments: protective mediators of violence and psychological/nervous disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Violet

    2013-03-01

    The effect of school violence on mental health was examined among 12,366 Aboriginal children and adolescents, primarily First Nations, Métis, and Inuit residing off reservations in the Canadian provinces and territories. Analyses were based on the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples' Survey, a postcensal national survey of Aboriginal youth aged 6-14 years. More than one-fifth of students in the sample attended schools where violence was perceived as a problem. The occurrence of psychological or nervous disorders was about 50% higher among students exposed to school violence than among other students. School violence was a significant predictor of mental health difficulties, irrespective of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Virtually the entire effect was mediated by interpersonal processes, or negative quality of parent-child and peer relationships, while the effect was not explained by cultural detachment through lack of interactions with Elders and traditional language ability/use. Results underscored school violence as a significant public health concern for Aboriginal elementary and high school students, and the need for evidence-based mental health interventions for at-risk populations.

  16. Hearing the Voice of Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Training Stakeholders Using Research Methodologies and Theoretical Frames of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, John; Osborne, Sam; Arnott, Allan; McRae-Williams, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander contexts within Australia are frequently faced with the challenges of working in an intercultural space where channels of communication are garbled with interference created by the complexities of misunderstood worldviews, languages, values and expectations. A concern of many researchers…

  17. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Aboriginal and European Canadian Mothers' Beliefs regarding Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Sheperd, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the maternal beliefs and practices regarding preschool children's proactive and reactive aggression, within a cross-cultural framework. Participants included 30 Aboriginal and 45 European Canadian mothers of preschoolers who provided their emotional reactions, causal attributions, socialization…

  18. The Fallacy of the Bolted Horse: Changing Our Thinking about Mature-Age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plater, Suzanne; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Lander, Jo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to critically review and analyse the public representations of mature-age university students in developed and some developing nations and how they compare to the public representations of mature-age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students in Australia ("students" also refers to graduates…

  19. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  20. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  1. Infant formulas - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... based formulas. These formulas are made with cow's milk protein that has been changed to be more like ... be helpful for infants who have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or wheezing ...

  2. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  3. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  4. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  5. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for it until their first birthdays. Spores of Clostridium botulinum bacteria, found in dirt and dust, can contaminate ... from the illness. Prevention Like many germs, the Clostridium botulinum spores that cause botulism in infants are everywhere ...

  6. CHEST PHYSIOTHERAPY FOR INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti S. Christian (M.P.T Cardiopulmonary Conditions

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the normal lung, secretions are removed by Mucociliary activity, normal breathing cycles, and cough. In disease, increased secretion viscosity and volume, dyskinesia of the cilia, and ineffective cough combine to reduce the ability to clear secretions, and may increase exacerbations and infections. Many chest physiotherapy techniques like postural drainage, percussion and vibration are used since many years. These techniques are derived from adult studies but these techniques are quite stressful for the infants as the infant respiratory system is different from the adult respiratory system. Advance chest physiotherapy techniques were developed specifically for infants; in accordance with their physiological characteristics. So this review is to introduce some new chest physiotherapy helpful for newborn infants.

  7. [Prebiotics in infant health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirdo, Fernando G; Menéndez, Ana M; Pita Martín de Portela, María L; Sosa, Patricia; Toca, María del C; Trifone, Liliana; Vecchiarelli, Carmen

    2011-02-01

    The composition of human milk is the main base for the development of infant formulas concerning its macronutrients and micronutrients contents and bioactive compounds. Technological advances in the composition of human milk have identified a great number of bioactive compounds such as prebiotics which are responsible for immunological protection and the prevention of different pathologies. In order to achieve similar benefits, they are part of the contents of infant formulas.

  8. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. Fire in Australian Savannas: from leaf to landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, J.; Hutley, L. B.; Tapper, N. J.; Cernusak, L. A.; Lynch, A. H.; Görgen, K.; Abramson, D.; Uotila, P.

    2009-04-01

    Tropical savanna ecosystems account for 11.5% of the global landscape (Scholes and Hall 1996). Up to 75% of this landscape burns annually (Hao et al. 1990) and 50% of all biomass burning in tropical regions originates from savannas (Hao and Liu 1994). The wet-dry tropics of northern Australia feature extensive tracts of savanna vegetation which occupy approximately 2 million km2. This area is equivalent to 12% of the world's tropical savanna estate, making this savanna biome of global significance. Fire is arguably the greatest natural and anthropogenic environmental disturbance in this region. Vast tracts are burnt each year by pastoralists, aboriginal landholders and conservation managers (Russell-Smith et al. 2000; Williams et al. 2002). Fire in Australian savannas, results in a scorched canopy that dramatically reduces the green Leaf Area Index (LAI) and blackens the soil. These surface changes are likely to result in altered energy partitioning (enhanced sensible heat flux) and shifts in albedo. In addition, the aerodynamic and biological properties of the ecosystem may change, affecting surface-atmosphere coupling. For example, a loss of canopy leaf area due to fire could reduce canopy photosynthesis and evapotranspiration, greatly influencing post-fire fluxes of water and carbon. We measured radiative, energy and carbon exchanges over unburned and burned open forest savanna at Howard Springs, Darwin, Australia. Fire affected the radiative balance immediately following fire through the consumption of the grass-dominated understorey and blackening of the surface. Albedo was halved following fire (0.12 to 0.06). A moderate intensity fire resulted in a comprehensive canopy scorch and almost complete leaf drop in the weeks following fire. The shutdown of most leaves within the canopy reduced transpiration and altered energy partitioning. Leaf death and shedding also resulted in a cessation of ecosystem carbon uptake and the savanna turned from a sink to a source

  10. The Australian Bogong moth Agrotis infusa: A long-distance nocturnal navigator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eWarrant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September, Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m. In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they hibernate over the summer months (referred to as aestivation. Towards the end of the summer (February and March, the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their aestivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear

  11. Population and Australian development assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  12. The Australian synchrotron; Le synchrotron australien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, R

    2005-06-15

    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  13. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  14. China's first Australian Garden opens in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The opening for the Australian Garden was jointly held by the BHP Billiton China and the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province on 18 January.

  15. Military Retirement Reform: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ADF Australian Defence Force COLA cost of living adjustment CPI consumer price index CSB career status bonus CSS...will help you build a Lego city; however, mum will still need to change the nappies. xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION...by Disney and Johnson (2001) and the World Bank (Pordes, 1994). There have also been various papers and reviews about Australian and U.S. military

  16. Modelling and forecasting Australian domestic tourism

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we model and forecast Australian domestic tourism demand. We use a regression framework to estimate important economic relationships for domestic tourism demand. We also identify the impact of world events such as the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the 2002 Bali bombings on Australian domestic tourism. To explore the time series nature of the data, we use innovation state space models to forecast the domestic tourism demand. Combining these two frameworks, we build innovation state s...

  17. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for the nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities (HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promotes training, provides advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities.

  18. An overview of Australian Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a brief introduction to Australian higher education in the following aspects such as educational ideas, teaching methods and assessment. The author of this paper holds the opinion that it’s necessary to take an overview of Australian higher education into consideration, if you hope that your study in Australia runs smoothly. In brief, this paper makes an attempt to provide a brief idea of higher education in Australia, especially to those who want to study in Australia for reference.

  19. Australian Politics in a Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Peter John

    2013-01-01

    Information and communications technologies are increasingly important in the Australian political landscape. From the adoption of new forms of electoral campaigning to the use of networking technology to organise social movements, media technology has the potential to radically change the way politics is conducted and experienced in this country. The first comprehensive volume on the impact of digital media on Australian politics, this book examines the way these technologies shape political...

  20. Biodiveristy and Stability of Aboriginal Salmon Fisheries in the Fraser River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, H. K.; Moore, J.

    2015-12-01

    Natural watersheds are hierarchical networks that may confer stability to ecosystem functions through integration of upstream biodiversity, whereby upstream asset diversification stabilizes the aggregate downstream through the portfolio effect. Here we show that riverine structure and its associated diversity confer stability of salmon catch and lengthened fishing seasons for Aboriginal fisheries on the Fraser River (1370km) in BC, Canada, the second longest dam-free salmon migration route in North America. In Canada, Aboriginal people have rights to fish for food, social, and ceremonial (FSC) purposes. FSC fisheries are located throughout the Fraser watershed and have access to varying levels of salmon diversity based on their location. For instance, fisheries at the mouth of the river have access to all of the salmon that spawn throughout the entire watershed, thus integrating across the complete diversity profile of the entire river. In contrast, fisheries in the headwaters have access to fewer salmon species and populations and thus fish from a much less diverse portfolio. These spatial gradients of diversity within watersheds provide a natural contrast for quantifying the effects of different types of diversity on interannual resource stability and seasonal availability. We acquired weekly and yearly catch totals from 1983 to 2012 (30 years) for Chinook, chum, coho, pink, and sockeye salmon for 21 FSC fishing sites throughout the Fraser River watershed from Fisheries and Oceans Canada. We examined how both population- and species-level diversity affects catch stability and season length at each site by quantifying year-to-year variability and within-year season length respectively. Salmon species diversity made fisheries up to 28% more stable in their catch than predicted with 3.7 more weeks to fish on average. Fisheries with access to high population diversity had up to 3.8 times more stable catch and 3 times longer seasons than less diverse fisheries. We

  1. Publishing and Australian Literature: Crisis, Decline or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bode

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  2. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  3. Respect for Grizzly Bears: an Aboriginal Approach for Co-existence and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Scott. Slocombe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal peoples’ respect for grizzly bear (Ursus arctos is widely acknowledged, but rarely explored, in wildlife management discourse in northern Canada. Practices of respect expressed toward bears were observed and grouped into four categories: terminology, stories, reciprocity, and ritual. In the southwest Yukon, practices in all four categories form a coherent qualitative resource management system that may enhance the resilience of the bear-human system as a whole. This system also demonstrates the possibility of a previously unrecognized human role in maintaining productive riparian ecosystems and salmon runs, potentially providing a range of valued social-ecological outcomes. Practices of respect hold promise for new strategies to manage bear-human interactions, but such successful systems may be irreducibly small scale and place based.

  4. The Durkheim-Tarde debate and the social study of aboriginal youth suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezen, Ronald

    2015-02-01

    A debate that took place in France in the early 20th century still has much to tell us about the interpretation and strategies of intervention of suicide, particularly the "cohort effect" of aboriginal youth suicide. The act of suicide, for Durkheim, was inseparable from the problem of social cohesion, with extremes in solidarity and regulation predictably reflected in high rates of suicide. For Gabriel Tarde, by contrast, suicide was seen as an outcome of changeable ideas found in processes of innovation and imitation among creatively receptive individuals. This latter approach remains overlooked in favor of a growing reliance on conceptions of historical trauma and conditions of social disintegration. Recognizing the idea of suicide itself as a potential locus of solidarity opens up other possibilities for responding to and intervening in suicide crises or "clusters."

  5. The cultural and ecological impacts of aboriginal tourism: a case study on Taiwan's Tao tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Dau-Jye

    2014-01-01

    We show that tourism activities severely impact the ecology of Orchid Island, its natural resources, and the culture of the Tao tribe. For example, highway widening, in response to the increased traffic volumes caused by tourism, required many Pandanus trees to be cut and removed, which has placed the coconut crabs in danger of extinction. To promote eco-tourism, observation trips to observe Elegant Scops owls and Birdwing butterflies have taken place, which has affected the breeding of these two protected species. The Elegant Scops owls- and Birdwing butterflies-related tourism activities also break the "evil spirits" taboo of the Tao people and have caused the disappearance of the specifications for using traditional natural resources, causing natural ecosystems to face the threat of excessive use. In addition to promoting and advocating aboriginal tourism of the Tao people on Orchid Island, the Taiwanese government should help the Tao people to develop a management model that combines traditional regulations and tourism activities.

  6. Natural-Series Radionuclides in Traditional Aboriginal Foods in Tropical Northern Australia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Martin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a review of available information on natural-series radionuclides in traditional Aboriginal foods of northern Australia. Research on this topic has been carried out primarily for radiological impact assessment purposes in relation to uranium mining activities in the region. Many of the studies have concentrated on providing purely concentration data or concentration ratios, although more detailed uptake studies have been undertaken for freshwater mussels, turtles, and water lilies. The most-studied radionuclides are 238U and 226Ra. However, dose estimates based on current data highlight the importance of 210Po, particularly for the natural (nonmining-related dose. Data on uptake by terrestrial flora and fauna are scarce in comparison with aquatic organisms, and this knowledge gap will need to be addressed in relation to planning for uranium minesite rehabilitation.

  7. The Aboriginal Conundrum; Finding a way out of the welfare trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helin, C. [Native Investment and Trade Association, Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The historical development of First Nations peoples following the conquest of North America, the development of the native reserves system, the creation of a culture of expectancy and the institutionalization of the dependence on welfare and transfer payments, and recent trends in First Nations demographics are sketched. The impact of these factors on First Nations peoples, especially low income, high incidence of substance abuse, high suicide rate among the young, high rate of incarceration, demoralizing loss of confidence, and inward focus, is explored, followed by a series of suggestions as to what can be and what must be done to break the cycle of welfare dependency. Short term solutions include focusing on education and training; longer term term solutions are more complex, but most likely include taking ownership of Aboriginal problems by First Nations peoples themselves, and switching gears from concentrating on grievances to focusing on development issues.

  8. Infant death scene investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Pamela D; Ragan, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The sudden unexpected death of an infant is a tragedy to the family, a concern to the community, and an indicator of national health. To accurately determine the cause and manner of the infant's death, a thorough and accurate death scene investigation by properly trained personnel is key. Funding and resources are directed based on autopsy reports, which are only as accurate as the scene investigation. The investigation should include a standardized format, body diagrams, and a photographed or videotaped scene recreation utilizing doll reenactment. Forensic nurses, with their basic nursing knowledge and additional forensic skills and abilities, are optimally suited to conduct infant death scene investigations as well as train others to properly conduct death scene investigations. Currently, 49 states have child death review teams, which is an idea avenue for a forensic nurse to become involved in death scene investigations.

  9. Aboriginal new world epidemiolgy and medical care, and the impact of Old World disease imports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M T

    1976-11-01

    Various workers, including T. D. Stewart, claim that the aboriginal Americas were relatively disease-free because of the bering Strait cold-screen, eliminating many pathogens, and the paucity of zoonotic infections because of few domestic animals. Evidence of varying validity suggests that precontact Americns had their own strains of treponemic infections, bacillary and amoebic dysenteries, influenza and viral penumonia and other respiratory diseases, salmonellosis and perhaps other food poisoning, various arthritides, some endoparasites such as the ascarids, and several geographically circumscribed diseases such as the rickettsial verruca (Carrion's disease) and New World leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis. Questionably aboriginal are tuberculosis and typhus. Accordingly, virtually all the "crowd-type" ecopathogenic diseases such as smallpox, yellow fever, typhoid, malaria, measles, pertussis, polio, etc., appear to have been absent from the New World, and were only brought in by White conquerors and their Black slaves. My hypothesis is that native American medical care systems--especially in the more culturally advanced areas--were sufficiently sophisticated to deal with native disease entities with reasonable competence. But native medical systems could not cope with the "crowd-type" disease imports that struck Indian and Eskimos as "virgin-field" populations. Reanalysis of native population losses through a genocidal combination of diease, war, slavery and attendant cultural disruption by Dobyns, Cook and others strongly suggest that traditiona estimates underplayed the death toll by a factor of the general order of ten. This would make for an immediately pre-contact Indian population of some 90-111 million instead of the tradition 8-11 million. Evidence is growing that Indians may have been no more susceptible to new pathogens that are other "virgin soil" populations, and thus their immune systems need not be considered less effective than those in other people

  10. A Review of Programs That Targeted Environmental Determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Rowley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. Methods and Results: We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller’s Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Conclusions: Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. Implications: While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous

  11. Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Pamela

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS, questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community.

  12. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  13. The Practical Application of the Multi-dimensional Integrated Teaching Method in Canada for Teaching Aboriginal Courses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Qiong

    2014-01-01

    The multi-dimensional integrated teaching method is reflected in the teaching of Ab-original courses by Prof .Georges E .Sioui at the University of Ottawa .The course is an “Introduc-tion to Canadian Aboriginal Societies and Cul-tures”.The practical application of this method is a process which organically combines all kinds of resources during the teaching of the course , and forms a powerful force of the course which effec-tively promotes the successful completion of the course , and the achievement of the teaching objec-tives of the curriculum . At the same time , the method provides an important inspiration and refer-ence for related teaching of national courses and reforms in the universities for nationalities of Chi-na . Ⅰ.Looking from the perspective of the ob-jectives of teaching the course , its composition is characterized by diversified background . All the students , no matter what their background , learn with strong initiation and consciousness as well as with a high level of class participation and enthusi-asm. Ⅱ.From the aspect of the aims for teaching the course , it gradually enhances students ’ under-standing of the Canadian aboriginal languages , cul-tures, medicine, native cultural activities, cultural centers and economies .It further helps them to view the status of Canadian history , politics, cul-ture and society within a Canadian multicultural policy background in an objective and impartial way, and promotes cultural understanding among different social groups .At the same time , it also helps the students to have better choices for future occupations , and serve the public better , especial-ly aboriginal people .Of course , it plays an impor-tant communications role for transferring Aboriginal information effectively . Ⅲ.The effect of the practical application of the multi-dimensional integrated teaching method is obvious . 1 .The participation of multi resources ( 1 ) participation of the Student Learning Service Center of

  14. Australian Infrastructure Financial Management Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Champion

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Institute of Public Works Engineering Australia (IPWEA has recently published the Australian Infrastructure Financial Management Guidelines. The Guidelines provide new assistance to link the technical (engineering and financial aspects of managing infrastructure and services, and to assist infrastructure owners such as local government to develop sustainable long-term asset and financial management plans. Financial management for long-life infrastructure assets (such as roads, water, sewerage, and stormwater networks, and community buildings is about ensuring sustainability in the provision of services required by the community. These new Guidelines offer advice for every organisation and individual with responsibility for the management of infrastructure assets. They assist in defining best practice approaches for: • Accounting for infrastructure • Depreciation, valuation, useful life, fair value • Managing financial sustainability • Integrating asset management planning and long term financial planning • Meeting requirements for financial reporting The project was a joint initiative of IPWEA and the National Local Government Financial Management Forum. A steering committee representing national and state governments, technical and financial professionals, local government associations and auditors oversaw it.

  15. A gendered analysis of Canadian Aboriginal individuals admitted to inpatient substance abuse detoxification: a three-year medical chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Russell C; Cull, Randi; Vettese, Lisa C; Taylor, Lawren

    2006-01-01

    This study examined gender differences within a sample of Canadian Aboriginal individuals admitted to an inpatient, hospital-based substance abuse detoxification program. Even though alcohol was the most frequent primary drug of detoxification for both genders, women received proportionately higher rates of cocaine or opiate detoxification diagnoses. In addition to a younger age, females reported higher rates of physical and sexual abuse. Women were also administered antidepressants, antibiotic medication protocols, and more medical evaluation tests. It appears that Canadian Aboriginal women have a diverse set of psychological and medical needs. This study demonstrates the need for detoxification programs to address the substantial rates of intravenous drug use and the associated risk of infectious disease (eg, Hepatitis C, HIV) among this treatment-seeking population.

  16. The Touch Pad Body: A Generative Transcultural Digital Device Interrupting Received Ideas and Practices in Aboriginal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Christie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yolŋu Aboriginal understandings of the body, health, life and sickness, and roles their ancestral epistemologies and knowledge practices play in making agreement have seldom been taken seriously in the biomedical world. In this paper, we describe how insights developed in three different cross-cultural collaborative transdisciplinary research projects led to the design of a digital device aimed at intervening in communicative practices around body, health, life and sickness, interrupting the received practices and assumptions on both sides of the practitioner-client divide. The interrupting device slows down and opens up communication practices potentially leading to mutual understanding, collective agreement making, and bottom-up changes in remote Aboriginal health policy and practice.

  17. Someone Else's Story? Reflections on Australian Studies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eva Rask; Leer, Martin Hugo; Ward, Stuart James

    2004-01-01

    History of Australian Studies in Europe, European/Danish Perspectives, teaching and research approach......History of Australian Studies in Europe, European/Danish Perspectives, teaching and research approach...

  18. Chikungunya infection in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.

  19. Lactose intolerance in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cathy

    Cathy Taylor describes the pathophysiology and aetiology of lactose intolerance and how to diagnose and treat it. Management of the infant by the primary health care team is discussed, with emphasis on advice and nutritional support that can be recommended to parents.

  20. Bromoderma in an infant*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefel, Isadora da Rosa; Camozzato, Fernanda Oliveira; Hagemann, Laura Netto; Rhoden, Deise Louise Bohn; Kiszewski, Ana Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Bromoderma is a cutaneous eruption caused by the absorption of bromide. Clinical manifestations include acneiform and vegetative lesions. We report the case of an infant with bromoderma caused by the use of syrup for abdominal colic containing calcium bromide. The lesions regressed after discontinuation of the drug.

  1. Colic in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Colic in infants leads one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a system

  2. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  3. The role of traditional medicine practice in primary health care within Aboriginal Australia: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stefanie J

    2013-07-02

    The practice of traditional Aboriginal medicine within Australia is at risk of being lost due to the impact of colonisation. Displacement of people from traditional lands as well as changes in family structures affecting passing on of cultural knowledge are two major examples of this impact. Prior to colonisation traditional forms of healing, such as the use of traditional healers, healing songs and bush medicines were the only source of primary health care. It is unclear to what extent traditional medical practice remains in Australia in 2013 within the primary health care setting, and how this practice sits alongside the current biomedical health care model. An extensive literature search was performed from a wide range of literature sources in attempt to identify and examine both qualitatively and quantitatively traditional medicine practices within Aboriginal Australia today. Whilst there is a lack of academic literature and research on this subject the literature found suggests that traditional medicine practice in Aboriginal Australia still remains and the extent to which it is practiced varies widely amongst communities across Australia. This variation was found to depend on association with culture and beliefs about disease causation, type of illness presenting, success of biomedical treatment, and accessibility to traditional healers and bush medicines. Traditional medicine practices were found to be used sequentially, compartmentally and concurrently with biomedical healthcare. Understanding more clearly the role of traditional medicine practice, as well as looking to improve and support integrative and governance models for traditional medicine practice, could have a positive impact on primary health care outcomes for Aboriginal Australia.

  4. An Evaluation of the Pearsonian Type I Curve of Fertility for Aboriginal Populations in Canada, 1996 to 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Ravi B.P.; Loh, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    EnglishIn 2005, Statistics Canada published new projections of the Aboriginal populations (NorthAmerican Indians, Métis, and Inuit) in Canada, the provinces and territories from 2001 to2017. To derive the number of births in these projections, the age-specific fertility rates weresimulated by fitting the Pearsonian Type I curve using the projected fertility parameters: totalfertility rates, mean ages of fertility, and modal ages of fertility. For the base period 1996 to2001, the parameters we...

  5. Trimethopim-sulfamethoxazole compared with benzathine penicillin for treatment of impetigo in Aboriginal children: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Steven Y C; Andrews, Ross M; Kearns, Therese; Gundjirryirr, Rosalyn; McDonald, Malcolm I; Currie, Bart J; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2010-03-01

    We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to benzathine penicillin for treatment of impetigo in Aboriginal children. Treatment was successful in 7 of 7 children treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 5 of 6 treated with benzathine penicillin. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole achieved microbiological clearance and healing of sores from which beta-hemolytic streptococci and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were initially cultured.

  6. A Review of the Experience, Epidemiology, and Management of Pain among American Indian, Alaska Native, and Aboriginal Canadian Peoples

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, Nathalia; Garroutte, Eva; Kundu, Anjana; Morales, Leo; Buchwald, Dedra

    2011-01-01

    Substantial literature suggests that diverse biological, psychological, and sociocultural mechanisms account for differences by race and ethnicity in the experience, epidemiology, and management of pain. Many studies have examined differences between Whites and minority populations, but American Indians (AIs), Alaska Natives (ANs), and Aboriginal peoples of Canada have been neglected both in studies of pain and in efforts to understand its bio-psychosocial and cultural determinants. This arti...

  7. Representations of the Japanese in Contemporary Australian Literature and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Smith

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate general contemporary Australian perceptions of the Japanese. I will do this by exploring how Australian contemporary literature (2006- 2007) and Australian contemporary film (1997-2007) depicts Japanese characters. By analysing the representation of the Japanese characters in these areas I will attempt to gather a broad understanding of how Australians represent, perceive and identify the Japanese today.

  8. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual.

  9. A new dolphin species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp. nov., endemic to southern Australian coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Charlton-Robb

    Full Text Available Small coastal dolphins endemic to south-eastern Australia have variously been assigned to described species Tursiops truncatus, T. aduncus or T. maugeanus; however the specific affinities of these animals is controversial and have recently been questioned. Historically 'the southern Australian Tursiops' was identified as unique and was formally named Tursiops maugeanus but was later synonymised with T. truncatus. Morphologically, these coastal dolphins share some characters with both aforementioned recognised Tursiops species, but they also possess unique characters not found in either. Recent mtDNA and microsatellite genetic evidence indicates deep evolutionary divergence between this dolphin and the two currently recognised Tursiops species. However, in accordance with the recommendations of the Workshop on Cetacean Systematics, and the Unified Species Concept the use of molecular evidence alone is inadequate for describing new species. Here we describe the macro-morphological, colouration and cranial characters of these animals, assess the available and new genetic data, and conclude that multiple lines of evidence clearly indicate a new species of dolphin. We demonstrate that the syntype material of T. maugeanus comprises two different species, one of which is the historical 'southern form of Tursiops' most similar to T. truncatus, and the other is representative of the new species and requires formal classification. These dolphins are here described as Tursiops australis sp. nov., with the common name of 'Burrunan Dolphin' following Australian aboriginal narrative. The recognition of T. australis sp. nov. is particularly significant given the endemism of this new species to a small geographic region of southern and south-eastern Australia, where only two small resident populations in close proximity to a major urban and agricultural centre are known, giving them a high conservation value and making them susceptible to numerous anthropogenic

  10. A new dolphin species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp. nov., endemic to southern Australian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Robb, Kate; Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Thompson, Ross; Austin, Jeremy; Owen, Kylie; McKechnie, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Small coastal dolphins endemic to south-eastern Australia have variously been assigned to described species Tursiops truncatus, T. aduncus or T. maugeanus; however the specific affinities of these animals is controversial and have recently been questioned. Historically 'the southern Australian Tursiops' was identified as unique and was formally named Tursiops maugeanus but was later synonymised with T. truncatus. Morphologically, these coastal dolphins share some characters with both aforementioned recognised Tursiops species, but they also possess unique characters not found in either. Recent mtDNA and microsatellite genetic evidence indicates deep evolutionary divergence between this dolphin and the two currently recognised Tursiops species. However, in accordance with the recommendations of the Workshop on Cetacean Systematics, and the Unified Species Concept the use of molecular evidence alone is inadequate for describing new species. Here we describe the macro-morphological, colouration and cranial characters of these animals, assess the available and new genetic data, and conclude that multiple lines of evidence clearly indicate a new species of dolphin. We demonstrate that the syntype material of T. maugeanus comprises two different species, one of which is the historical 'southern form of Tursiops' most similar to T. truncatus, and the other is representative of the new species and requires formal classification. These dolphins are here described as Tursiops australis sp. nov., with the common name of 'Burrunan Dolphin' following Australian aboriginal narrative. The recognition of T. australis sp. nov. is particularly significant given the endemism of this new species to a small geographic region of southern and south-eastern Australia, where only two small resident populations in close proximity to a major urban and agricultural centre are known, giving them a high conservation value and making them susceptible to numerous anthropogenic threats.

  11. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  12. The ideas of Frantz Fanon and culturally safe practices for aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Luke; Grootjans, John

    2014-03-01

    Mainstream mental health services in Australia have failed to provide culturally appropriate care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people despite several national reports and policies that have attempted to promote positive service development in response to the calls for change from the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. In light of this situation, this article considers the ideas of Frantz Fanon and their potential for promoting cultural safety (Ramsden, 2002) in mainstream mental health services. This article argues that Fanon's ideas provide a conceptual strategy for nurses that prompts reflection and establishes a critical theoretical perspective linking power imbalance and inequitable social relationships in health care, thus complementing the aims of cultural safety. The purpose of this critical reflection is to guide nurses' understanding of the relationship between colonization and health status in order to change their attitudes from those that continue to support current hegemonic practices and systems of health care to those that support the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

  13. Phytochemical Profile and Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plants Used by Aboriginal People of New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Kaisarun; Barnes, Emma C; Brophy, Joseph J; Harrington, David; Community Elders, Yaegl; Vemulpad, Subramanyam R; Jamie, Joanne F

    2016-01-01

    Aboriginal people of Australia possess a rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of sores, wounds, and skin infections, ailments which impose a high global disease burden and require effective treatments. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical contents of extracts, obtained from eight medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia, for the treatment of skin related ailments, were assessed to add value to and provide an evidence-base for their traditional uses. Extracts of Acacia implexa, Acacia falcata, Cassytha glabella, Eucalyptus haemastoma, Smilax glyciphylla, Sterculia quadrifida, and Syncarpia glomulifera were evaluated. All extracts except that of S. quadrifida showed activity against sensitive and multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 7.81 to 1000 μg/mL. The sap of E. haemastoma and bark of A. implexa possessed high total phenolic contents (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging abilities. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract of S. glomulifera identified known antimicrobial compounds. Together, these results support the traditional uses of the examined plants for the treatment of skin related ailments and infections by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia.

  14. Phytochemical Profile and Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plants Used by Aboriginal People of New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisarun Akter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people of Australia possess a rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of sores, wounds, and skin infections, ailments which impose a high global disease burden and require effective treatments. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical contents of extracts, obtained from eight medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia, for the treatment of skin related ailments, were assessed to add value to and provide an evidence-base for their traditional uses. Extracts of Acacia implexa, Acacia falcata, Cassytha glabella, Eucalyptus haemastoma, Smilax glyciphylla, Sterculia quadrifida, and Syncarpia glomulifera were evaluated. All extracts except that of S. quadrifida showed activity against sensitive and multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 7.81 to 1000 μg/mL. The sap of E. haemastoma and bark of A. implexa possessed high total phenolic contents (TPC and strong DPPH radical scavenging abilities. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract of S. glomulifera identified known antimicrobial compounds. Together, these results support the traditional uses of the examined plants for the treatment of skin related ailments and infections by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia.

  15. Seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus in the normal blood donor population and two aboriginal communities in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, H F; Mahomed, N M; Mak, J W; Riddell, M A; Li, F; Anderson, D A

    1999-10-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been examined in many countries, but such studies have generally been limited to majority populations such as those represented in healthy blood donors or cross sections of urban populations. Due to its major route of enteric transmission, large differences in HEV prevalence might be expected between populations in the same country but with different living conditions. Using an ELISA based on GST-ORF2.1 antigen, the prevalence of IgG-class antibodies to HEV was examined in three distinct populations in Malaysia: the normal (urban) blood donor population and two aboriginal communities located at Betau, Pahang and Parit Tanjung, Perak. IgG anti-HEV was detected in 45 (44%) of 102 samples from Betau and 15 (50%) of 30 samples from Parit Tanjung, compared to only 2 (2%) of 100 normal blood donors. The distribution of sample ELISA reactivities was also consistent with ongoing sporadic infection in the aboriginal communities, while there was no significant relationship between HEV exposure and age, sex, or malaria infection. The high prevalence of antibodies to HEV in the two aboriginal communities indicates that this group of people are at high risk of exposure to HEV compared to the general blood donors, and the results suggest that studies of HEV seroprevalence within countries must take into account the possibility of widely varying infection rates between populations with marked differences in living conditions.

  16. The creation of the expected Aboriginal woman drug offender in Canada: Exploring relations between victimization, punishment, and cultural identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Kilty, Jennifer M

    2012-06-14

    This article illustrates how the Aboriginal female drug user is responded to as an expected offender based on the intersection of her gender, race, and class. Drawing on the findings of a national Canadian study documenting the lived experiences of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit female drug users, we argue that the strengthening of cultural identity can potentially disrupt this expected status at both the individual and social system levels. Within the framework of critical victimology, the challenge then becomes to translate this understanding into praxis. In response, we suggest advancing women's agency at the individual level in the face of disempowering images and practices related to the offender, the victim, and Aboriginality. For change at the system level, we return to Christie's notion of the need to dismantle the stereotypical construction of the Aboriginal female drug user. We illustrate both levels of change with an innovative form of knowledge sharing, which aims to evoke transformation with respect to individual and socially constructed conceptualizations of identity.

  17. Time Travel: Australian Tourists and Britain's Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard White

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Across the twentieth century, Britain drew more Australian tourists for longer and more intense experiences than anywhere else, though as early as the 1970s Asia was attracting more Australians than Europe. They found much to admire and to deprecate in Britain but above all they were seduced by Britain’s past, or what they imagined it to be. This paper examines the Australian experience of history in Britain, their admiration for notions of tradition, for an unchanging village life, for fading imperial glory, for sheer antiquity. Some looked for their own ancestors and family but most were satisfied to have their school lessons and imaginative reading validated by being there. The response they had to British history was an intensely emotional one: this article argues that it was a result not of imperial sentiment but of a desire for a deep and meaningful past.

  18. Topics from Australian Conferences on Teaching Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Brian; Martin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The first OZCOTS conference in 1998 was inspired by papers contributed by Australians to the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics. In 2008, as part of the program of one of the first National Senior Teaching Fellowships, the 6th OZCOTS was held in conjunction with the Australian Statistical Conference, with Fellowship keynotes and contributed papers, optional refereeing and proceedings. This venture was so successful that the 7th and 8th OZCOTS were similarly run, conjoined with Australian Statistical Conferences in 2010 and 2012. Authors of papers from these OZCOTS conferences were invited to develop chapters for refereeing and inclusion in this volume. There are sections on keynote topics, undergraduate curriculum and learning, professional development, postgraduate learning, and papers from OZCOTS 2012. Because OZCOTS aim to unite statisticians and statistics educators, the approaches this volume takes are immediately relevant to all who have a vested interest in good teaching practices. Glo...

  19. Encephalization of Australian and New Guinean marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, K W S

    2008-01-01

    Encephalization of Australian marsupials was analyzed using the endocranial volume (ECV) of 52 species of Dasyuromorphia and Notoryctemorphia, 14 species of Peramelemorphia and 116 species of Diprotodontia from Australia and New Guinea and compared with 16 species of Ameridelphian marsupials and 3 species of native and recently introduced Australian eutherian carnivores (dingo, feral cat and feral fox). Linear regression analysis of the relationship between ECV and body weight for marsupials revealed that allometric parameters for these groups are different from those previously derived for samples of (mainly eutherian) mammals, with higher slopes for Dasyuromorphia and Diprotodontia and lower slopes for Ameridelphians and Peramelemorphia. Absolute ECV for small Australian and New Guinea marsupial carnivores (Antechinus and Sminthopsis) were found to be comparable to eutherians of similar body weight, but large marsupial carnivores such as the Tasmanian devil and thylacine had substantially smaller ECVs than eutherian carnivores of similar body weight. Similarly, members of some superfamilies within Diprotodontia (Burramyoidea, Petauroidea, Tarsipedoidea) had ECVs comparable to prosimians, whereas bandicoots, bilbies and many macropods were found to be poorly encephalized. When both encephalization quotient (EQ) and residuals from regression analysis were used to compare relative ECV of extinct/threatened species with common species there were no significant differences for any of the orders of Australian marsupials, suggesting that encephalization is not a major factor in the current extinction crisis for Australian marsupials. Similarly there were no consistent differences in relative ECV between marsupials from New Guinea and associated islands compared to Australia or between arid and non-arid Australian regions for any of the marsupial orders. The results indicate that marsupials are not uniformly poorly encephalized and that small marsupial carnivores and

  20. Globalisation and the Australian Aborigines: gain or strain? La Mondialisation : une chance pour les Aborigènes d’Australie ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludivine Royer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La mondialisation est un phénomène très complexe, qui implique à la fois l’émergence de l’économie de marché, l’accélération du commerce international, l’ouverture des frontières, la libre circulation des personnes et des biens, le développement extraordinaire des transports et de la technologie de l’information, la montée en puissance des télécommunications et des médias à l’échelle planétaire, l’expansion des cultures occidentales et le déclin des États-nations au profit d’institutions internationales en plein essor. Un nouvel ordre mondial est né, et comme la plupart des autres pays, l’Australie a connu de profonds changements depuis la fin des années 1980. Cet article se propose de montrer l’impact direct et indirect de la mondialisation économique, culturelle, technologique et politique sur le peuple aborigène. Bien entendu, il ne s’agit pas de présenter de manière exhaustive les conséquences multiples et complexes de la mondialisation sur les droits, cultures, et sociétés aborigènes, leur développement économique et leur statut politique. Il s’attelle en revanche à mettre en évidence les logiques politiques et socio-culturelles que la mondialisation a favorisées dans les affaires aborigènes, de l’assimilation à l’auto-détermination.