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Sample records for australia 1916-2004 implications

  1. Implications of climate change for tourism in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, B.; Nicholls, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the impacts of projected climate change on Australia's tourism industry. Based on application of the Tourism Climatic Index, it investigates potential changes in climatic attractiveness for Australia's major destinations, and discusses implications for tourist flows and tourism p

  2. The Goethe Institute with Implications for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Natalie

    1976-01-01

    The work of the Goethe Institute in teaching German to foreigners and in fostering interest in German culture is described. The desirability of a change in attitude in Australia toward foreign language study is discussed. (RM)

  3. Flow characteristics of rivers in northern Australia: Implications for development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petheram, Cuan; McMahon, Thomas A.; Peel, Murray C.

    2008-07-01

    SummaryAnnual, monthly and daily streamflows from 99 unregulated rivers across northern Australia were analysed to assess the general surface water resources of the region and their implications for development. The potential for carry-over storages was assessed using the Gould-Dincer Gamma method, which utilises the mean, standard deviation, skewness and lag-one serial correlation coefficient of annual flows. Runs Analysis was used to describe the characteristics of drought in northern Australia and the potential for 'active' water harvesting was evaluated by Base Flow Separation, Flow Duration Curves and Spells Analysis. These parameters for northern Australia were compared with data from southern Australia and data for similar Köppen class from around the world. Notably, the variability and seasonality of annual streamflow across northern Australia were observed to be high compared with that of similar Köppen classes from the rest of the world (RoW). The high inter-annual variability of runoff means that carry-over storages in northern Australia will need to be considerably larger than for rivers from the RoW (assuming similar mean annual runoff, yield and reliability). For example, in the three major Köppen zones across the North, it was possible (theoretically) to only exploit approximately 33% (Köppen Aw; n = 6), 25% (Köppen BSh; n = 12) and 13% (Köppen BWh; n = 11) of mean annual streamflow (assuming a hypothetical storage size equal to the mean annual flow). Over 90% of north Australian rivers had a Base Flow Index of less than 0.4, 72% had negative annual lag-one autocorrelation values and in half the rivers sampled greater than 80% of the total flow occurred during the 3-month peak period. These data confirm that flow in the rivers of northern Australia is largely event driven and that the north Australian environment has limited natural storage capacity. Hence, there is relatively little opportunity in many northern rivers to actively harvest water

  4. Obituary: David Stanley Evans, 1916-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, Frank N.

    2005-12-01

    David Stanley Evans died on 14 November 2004 in Austin, Texas. He was a noted observational astronomer whose career was divided between South Africa and Texas. He also used the extensive historical collections at the University of Texas to write several books on the history of astronomy. He was born in Cardiff, Wales on 28 January 1916. David received his BA degree in mathematics in 1937 from Kings College, Cambridge. He became a PhD student at Cambridge Observatory in 1937, and was one of Sir Arthur Eddington's last surviving students. He received his PhD degree in 1941 with a dissertation entitled, "The Formation of the Balmer Series of Hydrogen in Stellar Atmospheres." He was a conscientious objector to war and, thus, spent the war years at Oxford working with physicist Kurt Mendelssohn on medical problems, involving cadavers, relating to the war. During these years, David was scientific editor of "Discovery", and he was editor of "The Observatory". David left England in 1946 in order to take up the position of Second Assistant at the Radcliffe Observatory, Pretoria, South Africa. He and H. Knox Shaw were the entire staff after R. O. Redman left, and they aluminized and installed the mirrors in the 74-inch telescope. His notable scientific contribution was to use lunar occultations to measure stellar angular diameters during the 1950s. He succeeded in determining the angular diameter of Antares and determined that Arcturus was not circular but had an elliptical shape. The elliptical shape was later shown to be an instrumental artifact, but the utility of using lunar occultations to measure stellar diameters and stellar multiplicity was conclusively demonstrated. T. Gold presented David's paper on lunar occultation angular diameters at the January 1953 meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society. For the rest of his life, David resented Gold's remarks, because he felt that he had been ridiculed. By 1953, David Evans was Chief Assistant at the Royal Observatory headquartered in Cape Town, South Africa. David had designed and built a Newtonian spectrograph for the 74-inch Radcliffe Telescope with which he measured the first southern galaxy redshifts. David and his family spent 1965-66 in Austin, Texas, where he was a National Science Foundation Senior Visiting Scientist at the University of Texas and McDonald Observatory. They moved permanently to Austin in 1968 and David became a Professor of Astronomy and Associate Director of McDonald Observatory at the University of Texas at Austin. At McDonald Observatory, R. E. Nather had devised a high-speed photometer capable of measuring millisecond time-scale changes in brightness and with Brian Warner, he invented "high-speed astronomy". This instrument caused Evans to revive his occultation program and, over the next twenty years, he produced the major part of the angular diameters of late-type stars with his students and collaborators. In addition, David and collaborators used the extensive collections of the University of Texas to write "Herschel at the Cape". David was also involved in observing the occultation of ? Sco by Jupiter in 1972 and in observing, during a solar eclipse in 1973, the gravitational deflections in the positions of stars whose light passes near to the Sun. The eclipse was observed from Mauritania, and the observations confirmed Einstein's prediction again. David Evans and his students studied late-type stars that have large star-spots and others that flare. In addition, they studied stars whose lunar occultation observations had revealed them to be double or even more than two stars. David Evans's major scientific contribution was an application of his stellar angular diameters to deduce the surface brightness of stars with the result that with suitable color indices one could use photometry to deduce the angular diameter of stars. This is applicable to stars which can never be occulted by the Moon, and its application to Cepheid variable stars has yielded their distances. This relation between angular diameters and a V-R color index is called the Barnes-Evans Relation. Tom Barnes gives most of the credit to Evans, but said that David insisted that the authors be listed in alphabetical order. This work was greeted with initial skepticism but it stimulated an enormous amount of interest and has been used to measure distances to 100 Cepheid variable stars in our galaxy. The method gives a distance to one of them, Delta Cephei, that agrees closely with recently measured parallaxes using HST. The Barnes-Evans method yields distances which are accurate to a few percent and is applicable to Cepheids in nearby galaxies. Before coming to Texas, David Evans had never given a large lecture course at a university, and his efforts met with mixed success especially in introductory classes for freshmen facing a "science requirement." David had considerably more success supervising PhD dissertations. He was supervisor for four. He was promoted to the position of Jack S. Josey Centennial Professor of Astronomy in 1984, which is the position he held until his retirement in 1986. He was awarded the Gill Medal of the Astronomical Society of South Africa in 1988. David Evans had a remarkable facility for language, especially English. He was an author of eight books including a 1966 edition of "Teach Yourself Astronomy", which was an introduction to astronomy and an inspiration to a number of currently active astronomers. He also loved history, especially of Southern Hemisphere astronomy but also of the McDonald Observatory. In fact, David continued to be very active after retirement and when he died he had completed a book (with Karen Winget) on the eclipse expedition to Mauritania, which is not yet printed.

  5. Australia's Retirement Income System: Implications for Saving and Capital Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Edey; John Simon

    1996-01-01

    Australia is in the early stages of introducing a system of self-provision for retirement through mandatory contributions to" private superannuation funds. For most employees, the scheme will eventually replace, either fully or partially, the government age pension, currently relied upon by a large majority of retirees. The scheme has been implemented reasonably smoothly by building on existing financial infrastructure for voluntary superannuation. This paper summarizes the historical backgro...

  6. Implications of climate change for skin cancer prevention in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Jen

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that nearly 450,000 Australians get skin cancer every year. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight has been identified as the cause of more than 95% of skin cancers in Australia. Accordingly, the focus of skin cancer prevention programs is reducing exposure to UV radiation. In Victoria, improvements in sun protection behaviours and reductions in sunburn and melanoma incidence rates among younger people have been observed since the SunSmart program was established in 1988. However, climate change has the potential to undermine these successes. First, surface UVB radiation is dependent on stratospheric total ozone amounts. While signs of impact of international restrictions on the production of ozone-depleting substances have been observed, improvements have not yet returned ozone to pre-1970s levels. Interactions between ozone depletion and climate change may slow the recovery of the ozone layer and compound increases in UV radiation at some latitudes. Before recovery, it is expected that higher levels of UV radiation will continue in most Australian regions, with an associated higher risk of skin cancer. Indeed, recent data show increases in surface UV radiation throughout Australia since the 1970s. Second, mean temperatures in Australia have increased over the past 30 years and are projected to rise further by 2030. Australian data shows that with higher temperatures, adults spend more time outdoors, are less likely to wear covering clothing and more likely to be sunburnt. Hence, rising temperatures can be expected to result in increases in sun exposure, sunburn and correspondingly, skin cancer risk. PMID:22518918

  7. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted.

  8. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted. PMID:25376129

  9. Musical Preferences of Argentines and Uruguayans Living in Australia: Implications for Music Therapy Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christobel C Moore

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the elements that impact on the cultural identity of Argentines and Uruguayans in Australia, their relationship to music and the implications for music therapy clinical practice. A survey collected quantitative data on musical preferences and qualitative data on what respondents associated with different genres. The final sample of 12 respondents was not representative of the Australian communities, but collected data was congruent with the reviewed literature and significant internal consistency was observed.Classical music, ballads, folk and tango had the highest preference across age groups with consistent associations on musical, intrapersonal, interpersonal and abstract levels.

  10. Wild dogma Ⅱ: The role and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin L. ALLEN; Richard M. ENGEMAN; Lee R. ALLEN

    2011-01-01

    The studies of Allen (2011) and Allen et al.(2011) revently examined the methodology underpinning claims that dingoes provide net benefits to biodiversity by suppressing foxes and cats.They found most studies to have design flaws and/or observational methods that preclude valid interpretations from the data,describing most of the current literature as 'wild dogma'.In this short supplement,we briefly highlight the roles and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia.We discuss nomenclature,and the influence that unreliable science can have on policy and practice changes related to apex predator management [Current Zoology 57 (6):737-740,2011].

  11. Regime shifts in annual maximum rainfall across Australia - implications for intensity-frequency-duration (IFD) relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon-Kidd, D. C.; Kiem, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall intensity-frequency-duration (IFD) relationships are commonly required for the design and planning of water supply and management systems around the world. Currently, IFD information is based on the "stationary climate assumption" that weather at any point in time will vary randomly and that the underlying climate statistics (including both averages and extremes) will remain constant irrespective of the period of record. However, the validity of this assumption has been questioned over the last 15 years, particularly in Australia, following an improved understanding of the significant impact of climate variability and change occurring on interannual to multidecadal timescales. This paper provides evidence of regime shifts in annual maximum rainfall time series (between 1913-2010) using 96 daily rainfall stations and 66 sub-daily rainfall stations across Australia. Furthermore, the effect of these regime shifts on the resulting IFD estimates are explored for three long-term (1913-2010) sub-daily rainfall records (Brisbane, Sydney, and Melbourne) utilizing insights into multidecadal climate variability. It is demonstrated that IFD relationships may under- or over-estimate the design rainfall depending on the length and time period spanned by the rainfall data used to develop the IFD information. It is recommended that regime shifts in annual maximum rainfall be explicitly considered and appropriately treated in the ongoing revisions of the Engineers Australia guide to estimating and utilizing IFD information, Australian Rainfall and Runoff (ARR), and that clear guidance needs to be provided on how to deal with the issue of regime shifts in extreme events (irrespective of whether this is due to natural or anthropogenic climate change). The findings of our study also have important implications for other regions of the world that exhibit considerable hydroclimatic variability and where IFD information is based on relatively short data sets.

  12. Changes in Köppen-Geiger climate types under a future climate for Australia: hydrological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Crosbie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Köppen-Geiger climate classification has been used for over a century to delineate climate types across the globe. As it was developed to mimic the distribution of vegetation, it may provide a useful surrogate for making projections of the future distribution of vegetation, and hence resultant hydrological implications, under climate change scenarios. This paper developed projections of the Köppen-Geiger climate types covering the Australian continent for a 2030 and 2050 climate relative to a 1990 historical baseline climate using 17 Global Climate Models (GCMs and five global warming scenarios. At the highest level of classification for a +2.4 °C future climate (the upper limit projected for 2050 relative to the historical baseline, it was projected that the area of the continent covered by

    – tropical climate types would increase from 8.8% to 9.1%;
    – arid climate types would increase from 76.5% to 81.7%;
    – temperate climate types would decrease from 14.7% to 9.2%;
    – cold climate types would decrease from 0.016% to 0.001%.

    Previous climate change impact studies on water resources in Australia have assumed a static vegetation distribution. If the change in projected climate types is used as a surrogate for a change in vegetation, then the major transition in climate from temperate to arid in parts of Australia under a drier future climate could cause indirect effects on water resources. A transition from annual cropping to perennial grassland would have a compounding effect on the projected reduction in recharge. In contrast, a transition from forest to grassland would have a mitigating effect on the projected reduction in runoff.

  13. Changes in Köppen-Geiger climate types under a future climate for Australia: hydrological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Crosbie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Köppen-Geiger climate classification has been used for over a century to delineate climate types across the globe. As it was developed to mimic the distribution of vegetation it may provide a useful surrogate for making projections of the future distribution of vegetation, and hence resultant hydrological implications, under climate change scenarios. This paper developed projections of the Köppen-Geiger climate types covering the Australian continent for a 2030 and 2050 climate relative to a 1990 historical baseline climate using 17 Global Climate Models (GCMs and five global warming scenarios. At the highest level of classification for a +2.4 °C future climate (the upper limit projected for 2050 relative to the historical baseline, it was projected that the area of the continent covered by:
    – Tropical climate types would increase from 8.8% to 9.1%
    – Arid climate types would increase from 76.5% to 81.7%
    – Temperate climate types would decrease from 14.7% to 9.2%
    – Cold climate types would decrease from 0.016% to 0.001%.
    Previous climate change impact studies on water resources in Australia have assumed a static vegetation distribution. If the change in projected climate types is used as a surrogate for a change in vegetation, then the major transition in climate from Temperate to Arid in parts of Australia under a drier future climate could cause indirect effects on water resources. For a transition from annual cropping to perennial grassland this would have a compounding effect on the projected reduction in recharge. In contrast, a transition from forest to grassland would have a mitigating effect on the projected reduction in runoff.

  14. The Demand for Wine in Australia Using a Systems Approach: Industry Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hui-Shung (Christie); Griffith, Garry; Bettington, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explain the factors determining the demand for wine in Australia, based on a systems approach where wine demand is modelled as part of the broader demand for alcoholic drinks (beer, wine and spirits). Time series data on retail price indexes and apparent per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages for Australia for the period 1975/76 to 1998/99 are used for econometric estimation of an Almost Ideal Demand System. The results show that the demand for beer an...

  15. Variations of the Summer Somali and Australia Cross-Equatorial Flows and the Implications for the Asian Summer Monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yali

    2012-01-01

    The temporal variations during 1948-2010 and vertical structures of the summer Somali and Australia cross-equatorial flows (CEFs) and the implications for the Asian summer monsoon were explored in this study.The strongest southerly and northerly CEFs exist at 925 hPa and 150 hPa level,respectively.The low-level Somali (LLS) CEFs were significantly connected with the rainfall in most regions of India (especially the monsoon regions),except in a small area in southwest India.In comparison to the climatology,the lowlevel Australia (LLA) CEFs exhibited stronger variations at interannual time scale and are more closely connected to the East Asian summer monsoon circulation than to the LLS CEFs.The East Asian summer monsoon circulation anomalies related to stronger LLA CEFs were associated with less water vapor content and less rainfall in the region between the middle Yellow River and Yangtze River and with more water vapor and more rainfall in southern China.The sea-surface temperature anomalies east of Australia related to summer LLA CEFs emerge in spring and persist into summer,with implications for the seasonal prediction of summer rainfall in East Asia.The connection between the LLA CEFs and East Asian summer monsoon rainfall may be partly due to its linkage with El Nino-Southern Oscillation.In addition,both the LLA and LLS CEFs exhibited interdecadal shifts in the late 1970s and the late 1990s,consistent with the phase shifts of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO).

  16. Recruitment and Financing of Candidates To Study Overseas: Its Implications for Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Don

    Growing numbers of Malaysian students are going to Australia for overseas study. This paper begins with a discussion of Malaysia's New Economic Policy, whose provisions include a phasing out of English as the language of instruction in favor of Bahasa Malaya, the language of the indigenous Malay majority. This policy provides a background for the…

  17. India’s long-term growth potential and the implications for Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Ralston; Wilson Au-Yeung; Bill Brummitt

    2011-01-01

    After 20 years of economic reform this article discusses India’s long-term growth potential and canvasses some of the challenges that Indian policy makers will need to overcome to realise this potential. Some of the consequences of India’s growth for Australia are also explored.

  18. Young People and the Environment in Australia: Beliefs, Knowledge, Commitment and Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Sharon; Fien, John; Sykes, Helen; Yencken, David

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research in Australia on the nature of young people's attitudes, knowledge and actions. This paper reports on the findings from one such study of Australian high school students. The research was based on a survey of 5,688 students form Melbourne and Brisbane. These young people identified protection of the environment…

  19. Are LGBT populations at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors in Australia? Research findings and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney M; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the Australian literature about suicidality in minority sexual identity and/or behavior groups in order to determine the evidence base for their reported higher vulnerability to suicidal behaviors than heterosexual and non-transgendered individuals in the Australian context, as well as to identify the factors that are predictive of suicidal behaviors in these groups in Australia. A literature search for all available years (until the end of 2012) was conducted using the databases Scopus, Medline, and Proquest for articles published in English in peer-reviewed academic journals. All peer-reviewed publications that provided empirical evidence for prevalence and predictive factors of suicidal behaviors among LGBT individuals (or a subset thereof) in Australia were included. Reference lists were also scrutinized to identify "gray" literature for inclusion. The results revealed that there is only limited research from Australia. Nevertheless, although no population-based studies have been published, research indicates that sexual minorities are indeed at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors. In order to further the understanding of suicidal behaviors and potential prevention among LGBT groups in the Australia, further research is needed, particularly on fatal suicidal behaviors. PMID:25569508

  20. GM Food Crop Technology and Trade Measures: Some Economic Implications for Australia and New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Kym Anderson; Lee Ann Jacskon

    2004-01-01

    How much might the potential economic benefit from a farm productivity boost associated with crop biotechnology adoption by Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) be offset by a loss of market access abroad for crops that may contain genetically modified (GM) organisms? This paper uses the global GTAP model to estimate effects of other countriesÂ’ GM policies without and with ANZ farmers adopting GM varieties of various grains and oilseeds. The gross economic benefits to ANZ from adopting GM crops u...

  1. GM crop technology and trade restraints: economic implications for Australia and New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kym; Jackson, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    How much might the potential economic benefit from enhanced farm productivity associated with crop biotechnology adoption by Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) be offset by a loss of market access abroad for crops that may contain genetically modified (GM) organisms? This paper uses the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model to estimate effects of other countries’ GM policies without and with ANZ farmers adopting GM varieties of various grains and oilseeds. The gross economic benefits to ANZ...

  2. Germination biology of Hibiscus tridactylites in Australia and the implications for weed management

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagirath Singh Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus tridactylites is a problematic broadleaf weed in many crops in Australia; however, very limited information is available on seed germination biology of Australian populations. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination and emergence of H. tridactylites. Germination was stimulated by seed scarification, suggesting the inhibition of germination in this species is mainly due to the hard seed coat. Germination was not affected by light condi...

  3. Cd hyperaccumulative characteristics of Australia ecotype Solanum nigrum L. and its implication in screening hyperaccumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shuhe; Clark, Gary; Doronila, Augustine Ignatius; Jin, Jian; Monsant, Alison Carol

    2013-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was used to determine the differences in uptake characteristics of a cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. discovered in China, an ecotype from Melbourne, Australia and a non-hyperaccumulator Solanum melogena Australian ecotype was not significantly different to the China ecotype. In particular, Cd concentration in leaves and shoots of S. nigrum collected from Australia were 166.0 and 146.3 mg kg(-1) respectively when 20 mg kg(-1) Cd spiked, and were not significantly different to the ecotype imported from China which had 109.8 and 85.3 mg kg(-1) respectively, in the stems and leaves. In contrast, the tolerance of the eggplant to Cd was significantly less than the two S. nigrum ecotypes. Although some morphological properties of S. nigrum collected from Australia were different from that of the plants collected from China, Cd hyperaccumulator characteristics of two ecotypes were similar. The results suggested that the tolerance and uptake of Cd may be a constitutive trait of this species. PMID:23488006

  4. Non–stationarity in annual maxima rainfall across Australiaimplications for Intensity–Frequency–Duration (IFD relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Verdon-Kidd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall Intensity–Frequency–Duration (IFD relationships are commonly required for the design and planning of water supply and management systems around the world. Currently IFD information is based on the "stationary climate assumption" – that weather at any point in time will vary randomly and that the underlying climate statistics (including both averages and extremes will remain constant irrespective of the period of record. However, the validity of this assumption has been questioned over the last 15 years, particularly in Australia, following an improved understanding of the significant impact of climate variability and change occurring on interannual to multidecadal timescales. This paper provides evidence of non-stationarity in annual maxima rainfall timeseries using 96 daily rainfall stations and 66 sub-daily rainfall stations across Australia. Further, the effect of non-stationarity on the resulting IFD estimates are explored for three long-term sub-daily rainfall records (Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne utilising insights into multidecadal climate variability. It is demonstrated that IFD relationships may under- or over-estimate the design rainfall depending on the length and time period spanned by the rainfall data used to develop the IFD information. It is recommended that non-stationarity in annual maxima rainfall be explicitly considered and appropriately treated in the ongoing revisions of Engineers Australia's guide to estimating and utilising IFD information, "Australian Rainfall and Runoff", and that clear guidance needs to be provided on how to deal with the issue of non-stationarity of extreme events (irrespective of whether that non-stationarity is due to natural or anthropogenic climate change. The findings of our study also have important implications for other regions of the world that exhibit considerable hydroclimatic variability and where IFD information is based on relatively short data sets.

  5. Paleoseismicity of two historically quiescent faults in Australia: Implications for fault behavior in stable continental regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, A.J.; De Martini, P. M.; Machette, M.M.; Okumura, K.; Prescott, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Paleoseismic studies of two historically aseismic Quaternary faults in Australia confirm that cratonic faults in stable continental regions (SCR) typically have a long-term behavior characterized by episodes of activity separated by quiescent intervals of at least 10,000 and commonly 100,000 years or more. Studies of the approximately 30-km-long Roopena fault in South Australia and the approximately 30-km-long Hyden fault in Western Australia document multiple Quaternary surface-faulting events that are unevenly spaced in time. The episodic clustering of events on cratonic SCR faults may be related to temporal fluctuations of fault-zone fluid pore pressures in a volume of strained crust. The long-term slip rate on cratonic SCR faults is extremely low, so the geomorphic expression of many cratonic SCR faults is subtle, and scarps may be difficult to detect because they are poorly preserved. Both the Roopena and Hyden faults are in areas of limited or no significant seismicity; these and other faults that we have studied indicate that many potentially hazardous SCR faults cannot be recognized solely on the basis of instrumental data or historical earthquakes. Although cratonic SCR faults may appear to be nonhazardous because they have been historically aseismic, those that are favorably oriented for movement in the current stress field can and have produced unexpected damaging earthquakes. Paleoseismic studies of modern and prehistoric SCR faulting events provide the basis for understanding of the long-term behavior of these faults and ultimately contribute to better seismic-hazard assessments.

  6. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry. PMID:25783163

  7. National Health and Hospital Network for Australia's future: implications for Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Gerry; Ashby, Richard

    2010-10-01

    The proposals arising from the agreement reached between the Rudd government and the States and Territories (except Western Australia) in April 2010 represent the most fundamental realignment of health responsibilities since the creation of Medicare in 1984. They will change the health system, and the structures that will craft its future direction and design. These proposals will have a significant impact on Emergency Medicine; an impact from not only the system-wide effects of the proposals but also those that derive from the specific recommendations to create an activity-based funding mechanism for EDs, to implement the four hour rule and to develop a performance indicator framework for EDs. The present paper will examine the potential impact of the proposals on Emergency Medicine to inform those who work within the system and to help guide further developments. More work is required to better evaluate the proposals and to guide the design and development of specific reform instruments. Any such efforts should be based upon a proper analysis of the available evidence, and a structured approach to research and development so as to deliver on improved services to the community, and on improved quality and safety of emergency medical care.

  8. Urban Flood Damage and Greenhouse Scenarios. The Implications for Policy. An Example from Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban flooding is often used as an illustration of the potentially adverse effects of greenhouse-induced climate change on extreme events. There is however, a paucity of studies that convert climate scenarios into changes in flood damage. This account summarises the use of modelling techniques, for three flood prone urban catchments in south eastern Australia, to assess changes to urban flood losses for the 'most wet' and ,most dry' scenarios for the year 2070. The most wet scenario indicates that annual average flood damage could increase within the range of 2.5 to 10 times, under the most dry scenario flood regimes would be similar to those experienced at present. The socio-economic scenarios based on the changes to flood losses are used to consider policy responses. It is unlikely that many local government authorities will respond because of lack of interest and because of major changes to the climate scenarios proposed over the last decade. Any response is likely to be incremental and accord with the 'no regrets' and 'the precautionary principle'. 21 refs

  9. Geology and Mineralogy of Uranium Deposits from Mount Isa, Australia: Implications for Albitite Uranium Deposit Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wilson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New geological, bulk chemical and mineralogical (QEMSCAN and FEG-EPMA data are presented for albitite-type uranium deposits of the Mount Isa region of Queensland, Australia. Early albitisation of interbedded metabasalt and metasiltstone predated intense deformation along D2 high strain (mylonite zones. The early sodic alteration paragenetic stage includes albite, riebeckite, aegirine, apatite, zircon and magnetite. This paragenetic stage was overprinted by potassic microveins, containing K-feldspar, biotite, coffinite, brannerite, rare uraninite, ilmenite and rutile. An unusual U-Zr phase has also been identified which exhibits continuous solid solution with a uranium silicate possibly coffinite or nenadkevite. Calcite, epidote and sulphide veinlets represent the latest stage of mineralisation. This transition from ductile deformation and sodic alteration to vein-controlled uranium is mirrored in other examples of the deposit type. The association of uranium with F-rich minerals and a suite of high field strength elements; phosphorous and zirconium is interpreted to be indicative of a magmatic rather than metamorphic or basinal fluid source. No large intrusions of appropriate age outcrop near the deposits; but we suggest a relationship with B- and Be-rich pegmatites and quartz-tourmaline veins.

  10. Germination biology of Hibiscus tridactylites in Australia and the implications for weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus tridactylites is a problematic broadleaf weed in many crops in Australia; however, very limited information is available on seed germination biology of Australian populations. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination and emergence of H. tridactylites. Germination was stimulated by seed scarification, suggesting the inhibition of germination in this species is mainly due to the hard seed coat. Germination was not affected by light conditions, suggesting that seeds of this species are not photoblastic. Germination was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (74%) and 35/25 °C (69%) than at 25/15 °C (63%). Moderate salinity and water stress did not inhibit germination of H. tridactylites. Seedling emergence of H. tridactylites was highest (57%) for the seeds buried at a 2 cm depth in the soil; 18% of seedlings emerged from seeds buried at 8 cm but no seedlings emerged below this depth. Soil inversion by tillage to bury weed seeds below their maximum depth of emergence could serve an important tool for managing H. tridactylites. PMID:27174752

  11. Environmental implications of offshore oil and gas development in Australia. Part 3; Drilling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on the environmental effects of offshore drilling activities comprises a review of published literature on the subject, mostly from overseas though some with particular reference to Australia, and reports made available by offshore operators. Australian operators drill between 50 and 100 offshore wells per year, of which about 25 per cent are development wells on multi-well platforms where environmental effects can be more concentrated. The major potential environmental effects from offshore drilling operations result from the discharge of wastes, including drilling fluids and drill cuttings. Of these effects, burial and substrate modification caused by sedimentation within a few hundred metres of the well are the most important. Discharges of drilling wastes generally have been shown to have only minor effects on water quality and pelagic ecosystems. These effects are more severe where oil-based fluids are used. Many drilling fluid constituents or impurities are known to be toxic to marine organisms at very high concentrations, which are typically quantified as the 96-hr LC50 value, being the concentration at which 50 per cent of the test population dies after 96 hours of exposure. In the field such concentrations would only be found in the water column for short times after a discharge and within a few tens of metres from point of discharge, and on the sea bed typically less than 100 m from the discharge point for a single well, and up to 400 m from a multi-well platform. 430 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs

  12. Implications of Sponge Biodiversity Patterns for the Management of a Marine Reserve in Northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Alvarez, Belinda; Kool, Johnathan; Bridge, Tom; Caley, M Julian; Nichol, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Marine reserves are becoming progressively more important as anthropogenic impacts continue to increase, but we have little baseline information for most marine environments. In this study, we focus on the Oceanic Shoals Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) in northern Australia, particularly the carbonate banks and terraces of the Sahul Shelf and Van Diemen Rise which have been designated a Key Ecological Feature (KEF). We use a species-level inventory compiled from three marine surveys to the CMR to address several questions relevant to marine management: 1) Are carbonate banks and other raised geomorphic features associated with biodiversity hotspots? 2) Can environmental (depth, substrate hardness, slope) or biogeographic (east vs west) variables help explain local and regional differences in community structure? 3) Do sponge communities differ among individual raised geomorphic features? Approximately 750 sponge specimens were collected in the Oceanic Shoals CMR and assigned to 348 species, of which only 18% included taxonomically described species. Between eastern and western areas of the CMR, there was no difference between sponge species richness or assemblages on raised geomorphic features. Among individual raised geomorphic features, sponge assemblages were significantly different, but species richness was not. Species richness showed no linear relationships with measured environmental factors, but sponge assemblages were weakly associated with several environmental variables including mean depth and mean backscatter (east and west) and mean slope (east only). These patterns of sponge diversity are applied to support the future management and monitoring of this region, particularly noting the importance of spatial scale in biodiversity assessments and associated management strategies.

  13. National Health and Hospital Network for Australia's future: implications for Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Gerry; Ashby, Richard

    2010-10-01

    The proposals arising from the agreement reached between the Rudd government and the States and Territories (except Western Australia) in April 2010 represent the most fundamental realignment of health responsibilities since the creation of Medicare in 1984. They will change the health system, and the structures that will craft its future direction and design. These proposals will have a significant impact on Emergency Medicine; an impact from not only the system-wide effects of the proposals but also those that derive from the specific recommendations to create an activity-based funding mechanism for EDs, to implement the four hour rule and to develop a performance indicator framework for EDs. The present paper will examine the potential impact of the proposals on Emergency Medicine to inform those who work within the system and to help guide further developments. More work is required to better evaluate the proposals and to guide the design and development of specific reform instruments. Any such efforts should be based upon a proper analysis of the available evidence, and a structured approach to research and development so as to deliver on improved services to the community, and on improved quality and safety of emergency medical care. PMID:21040482

  14. Outside Society? The social implications of gated and secured neighbourhoods in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Rowland; Tranter, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Within and beyond Australia’s urban centres a complex archipelago of target-hardened, walled and otherwise secured neighbourhoods and individual homes has risen. In place of traditionally ‘porous’ suburbs and domestic environments has occurred a tendentious move by some to a built environment that holds implications for patterns of sociability, social networks and mobility. These spatial configurations suggest the rise of community forms preoccupied with social privatism and the withdrawal of...

  15. Hydrodynamics of Shark Bay, Western Australia: Implications for Population Dynamics of Snapper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, E. L.; Jackson, G.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Ivey, G. N.

    2001-12-01

    Field data and hydrodynamic modeling were used to examine the dynamics of Shark Bay, a large inverse estuary in Western Australia. Work was focused on the hydrodynamic factors influencing snapper - a fish important to both commercial and recreational fisheries in the region. Shark Bay is a large coastal embayment, with inverse estuarine features, shallow waters, and the relatively warm Leeuwin current running along its seaward boundary. Other important physical influences include highly seasonal winds, with snapper spawning occurring in winter months when winds are low in magnitude and variable in direction. Density contours from fieldwork showed a vertically mixed system, implying a dominance of horizontal diffusive transport and therefore low volume or exchange fluxes in the Bay. T-S diagrams showed unique water signatures throughout; consistent with the concept of limited mixing. Hydrodynamic modeling, using typical tidal, current and meteorological data for winter, supported the limited mixing scheme, with low residual velocities in most areas. The model also showed the ubiquitous presence of topographically generated eddies, which operate as effective retention mechanisms, preventing large-scale mixing. Finally, biological field data on snapper spawning locations were used to seed the model. Particles released in the model were consistently located in or advected into cyclonic eddy structures, and therefore experienced little advection through the system. However, the process is seasonal, with retention mechanisms only in place in wintertime when winds are low and the system is tidally driven. These results verify the hypothesis that young snapper - eggs and larvae - do not mix throughout the bay, and are therefore isolated within specific spawning areas.

  16. The perceptions of pharmacists in Victoria, Australia on pharmacogenetics and its implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon T

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to explore how well Victorian pharmacists perceived they understood pharmacogenetics, their perceived capacity to counsel a patient about such testing, how they believed pharmacogenetics would impact upon their profession, and to investigate the ways in which Victorian pharmacists would like to be educated about pharmacogenetics.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was dispatched to 800 Victorian pharmacists. The participants were randomly selected and the survey was anonymous. The survey contained questions about where the pharmacists worked, the pharmacists’ perceived knowledge of pharmacogenetics, how well they believed they would be able to counsel patients about pharmacogenetic testing, how they thought pharmacists should be educated on the topic and how they believed pharmacogenetics would impact upon their profession.Results: 291 surveys were returned (36% response rate. Results suggest that Victorian pharmacists generally perceived they had a poor understanding of pharmacogenetics and that those who have more recently graduated from tertiary education had a better perceived understanding than those who have been in the workforce for longer. Most pharmacists indicated that they did not believe that they could counsel a patient adequately about the results of a pharmacogenetic test. Regarding education about pharmacogenetics, participants suggested that this would be best delivered during tertiary studies, and as seminars and workshops forming part of their continuing professional development. Although some pharmacists were unsure how pharmacogenetics would affect their profession, many believed it would have a major impact upon their role as a pharmacist and lead to improved patient care. Some concerns about the implementation of pharmacogenetics were noted, including economic and ethical issues.Conclusion: This study highlights the need for further research across the pharmacy profession in Australia on the

  17. TROUBLING TIMES-THE GFC AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR REGIONAL PERFORMANCE. PART TWO: AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Stimson

    2013-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) was a profound exogenous shock which has had profound impacts the performance of national economies and the regions within them. The differential outcomes are vast. In many parts of the world there is evidence of what is being referred to as the ‘two-speed’ economy - or even a ‘multi-speed’ - economy. This has implications for regional economic development theory in which, over the last two to three decades, there has been an increasing emphasis on endogenous...

  18. Earliest Life on Earth Preserved in Hotspring Deposits: Evidence from the 3.5 Ga Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton, Australia, and Implications for the Search for Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kranendonk, M. J.; Djokic, T.; Campbell, K. A.; Walter, M. R.; Oto, T.; Nakamura, E.

    2016-05-01

    A variety of biosignatures preserved in hotspring facies from the c. 3.5 Ga Dresser Formation, Australia, lends support to an origin of life in terrestrial hotsprings, and have profound implications for the search for life on Mars.

  19. Long-term spatio-temporal precipitation variability in arid-zone Australia and implications for groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acworth, R. Ian; Rau, Gabriel C.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; Jensen, Evan; Leggett, Keith

    2016-06-01

    Quantifying dryland groundwater recharge as a function of climate variability is becoming increasingly important in the face of a globally depleted resource, yet this remains a major challenge due to lack of adequate monitoring and the complexity of processes involved. A previously unpublished and unique dataset of high density and frequency rainfall measurements is presented, from the Fowlers Gap Arid Zone Research Station in western New South Wales (Australia). The dataset confirms extreme spatial and temporal variability in rainfall distribution which has been observed in other dryland areas and is generally explained by the dominance of individual storm cells. Contrary to previous observations, however, this dataset contains only a few localised storm cells despite the variability. The implications of spatiotemporal rainfall variability on the estimation of groundwater recharge is assessed and show that the most likely recharge mechanism is through indirect and localised, rather than direct, recharge. Examples of rainfall and stream gauge height illustrate runoff generation when a spatially averaged threshold of 15-25 mm (depending on the antecedent moisture conditions) is exceeded. Preliminary assessment of groundwater levels illustrates that the regional water table is much deeper than anticipated, especially considering the expected magnitude of indirect and localised recharge. A possible explanation is that pathways for indirect and localised recharge are inhibited by the large quantities of Aeolian dust observed at the site. Runoff readily occurs with water collecting in surface lakes which slowly dry and disappear. Assuming direct groundwater recharge under these conditions will significantly overestimate actual recharge.

  20. Links between the Big Dry in Australia and hemispheric multi-decadal climate variability - implications for water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon-Kidd, D. C.; Kiem, A. S.; Moran, R.

    2014-06-01

    Southeast Australia (SEA) experienced a protracted drought during the mid-1990s until early 2010 (known as the Big Dry or Millennium Drought) that resulted in serious environmental, social and economic effects. This paper analyses a range of historical climate data sets to place the recent drought into context in terms of Southern Hemisphere inter-annual to multi-decadal hydroclimatic variability. The findings indicate that the recent Big Dry in SEA is in fact linked to the widespread Southern Hemisphere climate shift towards drier conditions that began in the mid-1970s. However, it is shown that this link is masked because the large-scale climate drivers responsible for drying in other regions of the mid-latitudes since the mid-1970s did not have the same effect on SEA during the mid- to late 1980s and early 1990s. More specifically, smaller-scale synoptic processes resulted in elevated autumn and winter rainfall (a crucial period for SEA hydrology) during the mid- to late 1980s and early 1990s, which punctuated the longer-term drying. From the mid-1990s to 2010 the frequency of the synoptic processes associated with elevated autumn/winter rainfall decreased, resulting in a return to drier than average conditions and the onset of the Big Dry. The findings presented in this paper have marked implications for water management and climate attribution studies in SEA, in particular for understanding and dealing with "baseline" (i.e. current) hydroclimatic risks.

  1. Potential impacts of global warming on Australia's unique tropical biodiversity and implications for tropical biodiversity in general

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Full text: Globally, forest clearing is often thought to be the greatest threat to biodiversity in the tropics, and rates of clearing are certainly highest there, particularly in tropical South-East Asia. Climate change in the tropics has been less studied in tropical regions than in temperate, boreal or arctic ecosystems. However, modelling studies in Australian rainforests indicate that climate change may be a particularly significant threat to the long-term preservation of the biodiversity of tropical, rainforest biodiversity. Our research has shown that global warming can have a particularly strong impact on the biodiversity of mountainous tropical regions, including the Wet Tropics of north-east Queensland. Here, the mountain tops and higher tablelands are relatively cool islands in a sea of warmer climates. These species-rich islands, mostly limited in their biodiversity by warm interglacial periods, are separated from each other by the warmer valleys and form a scattered archipelago of habitat for organisms that are unable to survive and reproduce in warmer climates. Many of the endemic Australian Wet Tropics species live only in these cooler regions. Similar situations occur throughout south-east Asia and in the highlands of the Neotropics. Unfortunately, these upland and highland areas represent the majority of biodiversity conservation areas because they are less suitable for clearing for agriculture. This presentation will summarise research about the potential impacts of climate change on the biodiversity in Australia's rainforests, the potential implications for tropical biodiversity in general and discuss the limitations of these projections and the need for further research that could reduce uncertainties and inform effective adaptation strategies

  2. Mercury in 16 demersal sharks from southeast Australia: Biotic and abiotic sources of variation and consumer health implications

    OpenAIRE

    Pethybridge, Heidi; Cossa, Daniel; Butler, Edward C.V.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Total mercury (THg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations were determined in the tissues of demersal shark (Order Squaliformes and the Families: Scyliorhinidae, Hexanchidae) and chimaera species (Families: Chimaeridae and Rhinochimaeridae) from continental shelf and slope waters off southeast Australia, including embryos, juveniles and adults. The distribution of THg in various tissues (muscle, liver, kidney, and skin), examined in ten species, shows higher levels in...

  3. End-of-life experiences and expectations of Africans in Australia: cultural implications for palliative and hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruy, Kiros; Mwanri, Lillian

    2014-03-01

    The ageing and frail migrants who are at the end of life are an increasing share of migrants living in Australia. However, within such populations, information about end-of-life experiences is limited, particularly among Africans. This article provides some insights into the sociocultural end-of-life experiences of Africans in Australia and their interaction with the health services in general and end-of-life care in particular. It provides points for discussion to consider an ethical framework that include Afro-communitarian ethical principles to enhance the capacity of current health services to provide culturally appropriate and ethical care. This article contributes to our knowledge regarding the provision of culturally appropriate and ethical care to African patients and their families by enabling the learning of health service providers to improve the competence of palliative care systems and professionals in Australia. Additionally, it initiates the discussion to highlight the importance of paying sufficient attention to a diverse range of factors including the migration history when providing palliative and hospice care for patients from African migrant populations.

  4. Low-temperature thermochronology of the northern Thomson Orogen: Implications for exhumation of basement rocks in NE Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdel, Charles; Stockli, Daniel; Purdy, David

    2016-01-01

    The Tasmanides of eastern Australia record much of the Phanerozoic tectonic development of the retreating Pacific-Australia plate boundary and are an oft-cited example of an orogen that has undergone "tectonic mode switching." To begin to constrain the timing of exhumation of basement rocks that are now exposed in portions of the NE Tasmanides, we measured apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages from the Thomson Orogen and overlying Paleozoic strata in the back-arc of the New England Orogen in NE Australia. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages from basement samples (including those recovered from boreholes at depths of up to 1.1 km) are characterized by large inter- and intra-sample variability and range from approximately 180 Ma (Early Jurassic) to 375 Ma (Late Devonian). (U-Th)/He zircon ages from several individual samples are negatively correlated with effective uranium (eU), a pattern that is also true of the dataset as a whole, suggesting that variations in U and Th zoning and radiation damage are partially responsible for the age variability. The oldest zircon (U-Th)/He cooling ages coincide with the formation of regionally extensive Late Devonian-early Carboniferous back-arc basins, suggesting that Late Devonian extension played a significant role in exhumation of parts of the northern Thomson Orogen. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages from a basement sample and a late Permian sandstone in the overlying Bowen Basin, which are also marked by intra-sample variability and age-eU correlations, span from the Early Cretaceous through Oligocene, in general agreement with previous apatite fission track data. In conjunction with observations of key geologic relationships and prior K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar data, our results suggest four overall phases in the thermal history of the northern Thomson Orogen: (1) Cambrian-early Silurian metamorphism during the Delamerian and Benambran Orogenies; (2) protracted cooling during the Late Devonian through mid-Permian that likely resulted from extensional

  5. Depositional variability of estuarine intertidal sediments and implications for metal distribution: An example from Moreton Bay (Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Guia; Gasparon, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the patterns of depositional variability, sediment geochemistry and metal distribution in intertidal areas of Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland, Australia. Recent concern over increasing human impact on the bay has generated the need to obtain evidence on how the disturbance of the depositional setting might affect the natural estuarine environment. Sediment stratigraphy, major, and trace element analyses of sediment cores show that the sedimentation pattern is unique to each intertidal site. Disturbed 210Pb and 137Cs activity profiles of some of the cores indicate that sediment reworking occurs across the intertidal flats up to a depth of at least 80 cm. With some notable exceptions, an accurate geochronology of the surface sediments could not be established due to low 210Pb activities and sediment mixing. Thus, an increase in Pb, Zn and Cu towards the surface sediments observed at various sites is attributed to both anthropogenic contribution following the rapid urban development in the last century and to post-depositional diagenetic processes, bioturbation and sediment re-suspension induced by tides, storms or floods. Sediment cores are representative only of the local sedimentation and may not always allow extensive correlation to larger areas. Vertical profiles of heavy metals reflect the different depositional environment controlled by the complex hydrodynamics of the bay. Local hydrologic, physical, and tidal conditions might induce metals redistribution at different scales. This information is of critical importance in view of sediment remobilization caused by future development such as dredging, intertidal areas reclamation or excavation of new navigational channels.

  6. Batch fecundity of Lutjanus carponotatus (Lutjanidae) and implications of no-take marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R. D.; Russ, G. R.; Kritzer, J. P.

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated body size to fecundity relationships of a reef fish species targeted by line fishing, and examines the potential benefits of increased batch fecundity in no-take reserves compared to fished areas around the Palm, Whitsunday and Keppel Island Groups, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Lutjanus carponotatus batch fecundity increased with fork length in a non-linear relationship that was best described by a power function. Batch fecundity differed by more than 100-fold among individuals, with a range from 7,074 to 748,957 eggs in fish ranging from 184 to 305 mm fork length. Furthermore, egg diameter increased with fish size. Based on underwater visual census, the potential batch fecundity per unit area in all three island groups ranged from 1.0 to 4.2 times greater in the no-take reserves than in the fished areas between 2001 and 2004. In 2002, a mean 2.3-fold difference in biomass between no-take reserves and fished areas converted to a mean 2.5-fold difference in batch fecundity per unit area. Greater batch fecundity, longer spawning seasons and potentially greater larval survival due to larger egg size from bigger individuals might significantly enhance the potential benefits of no-take marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef.

  7. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Ramos

    Full Text Available Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters.

  8. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters.

  9. Measurements of occupational ultraviolet exposure and the implications of timetabled yard duty for school teachers in Queensland, Australia: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, N J; Parisi, A V; Igoe, D

    2014-02-01

    Simultaneous personal measurements of the occupational ultraviolet exposure weighted to the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection hazard sensitivity spectrum (UVICNIRP) were made over a five week period (44 person-days) in the second half of the summer school term of 2012 in Queensland, Australia for individual high school teachers located at latitudes of 27.5°S and 23.5°S. These teachers were employed for the duration of the study in a predominately indoor classroom teaching role, excluding mandatory periods of lunch time yard duty and school sport supervisions. Data is presented from personal measurements made to the shirt collar using polyphenylene oxide (PPO) film UV dosimeters. UVICNIRP exposure data is presented for each week of the study period for the shirt collar measurement site and are further expressed relative to the measured ambient horizontal plane exposure. Personal exposures were correlated with time outdoors, showing a higher exposure trend on days when teachers were required to supervise outdoor areas for more than 2h per week (mean daily exposure: 168Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±5Jm(-2) (1σ)) compared to the study average (mean daily exposure: 115Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±91Jm(-2) (1σ)). Time spent in an open playground environment was found to be the most critical factor influencing the occupational UVICNIRP exposure. A linear model was developed showing a correlation (R(2)=0.77) between the time teachers spent on yard duty and UVICNIRP exposure, expressed relative to ambient. The research findings indicate a greater reduction in personal exposure can be achieved by timetabling for yard duty periods in playground areas which offer more shade from trees and surrounding buildings. All mean daily personal exposures measured at the shirt collar site were higher than the ICNIRP occupational daily exposure limit of 30Jm(-2) for outdoor workers.

  10. Train-borne Measurements of Enhanced Wet Season Methane Emissions in Northern Australia - Implications for Australian Tropical Wetland Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutscher, N. M.; Griffith, D. W.; Paton-Walsh, C.

    2008-12-01

    We present the first transect measurements of CH4, CO2, CO and N2O taken on the Ghan railway travelling on a N-S transect of the Australian continent between Adelaide (34.9°S, 138.6°E) and Darwin (12.5°S, 130.9°E). The Ghan crosses Australia from the mainly agricultural mid-latitude south through the arid interior to the wet-dry tropical savannah south of and around Darwin. In the 2008 wet season (February) we observed a significant latitudinal gradient of CH4 increasing towards the north. The same pattern was observed in the late 2008 wet season (March-April), with a smaller latitudinal gradient. These will be compared with a dry season transect, to be undertaken in September/October 2008. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM), a regional scale prognostic meteorological model, is used to estimate the surface methane source strength required to explain the observed latitudinal gradient in CH4 in the wet season, and investigate the source type. Fluxes from cattle and termites together contribute up to 25% of the enhancements seen, leaving wetlands as the major source of wet season methane in the Australian tropics. Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere, and tropical wetlands are responsible for the majority of the interannual variation in methane source strength. We attempt to quantify the annual methane flux contributed by anaerobic organic breakdown due to wet- season flooding in tropical Northern Territory.

  11. Assessing loss of coral cover on Australia's Great Barrier Reef over two decades, with implications for longer-term trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweatman, H.; Delean, S.; Syms, C.

    2011-06-01

    While coral reefs in many parts of the world are in decline as a direct consequence of human pressures, Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is unusual in that direct human pressures are low and the entire system of ~2,900 reefs has been managed as a marine park since the 1980s. In spite of these advantages, standard annual surveys of a large number of reefs showed that from 1986 to 2004, average live coral cover across the GBR declined from 28 to 22%. This overall decline was mainly due to large losses in six (21%) of 29 subregions. Declines in live coral cover on reefs in two inshore subregions coincided with thermal bleaching in 1998, while declines in four mid-self subregions were due to outbreaks of predatory starfish. Otherwise, living coral cover increased in one subregion (3%) and 22 subregions (76%) showed no substantial change. Reefs in the great majority of subregions showed cycles of decline and recovery over the survey period, but with little synchrony among subregions. Two previous studies examined long-term changes in live coral cover on GBR reefs using meta-analyses including historical data from before the mid-1980s. Both found greater rates of loss of coral and recorded a marked decrease in living coral cover on the GBR in 1986, coinciding exactly with the start of large-scale monitoring. We argue that much of the apparent long-term decrease results from combining data from selective, sparse, small-scale studies before 1986 with data from both small-scale studies and large-scale monitoring surveys after that date. The GBR has clearly been changed by human activities and live coral cover has declined overall, but losses of coral in the past 40-50 years have probably been overestimated.

  12. Structural evolution of the early Permian Nambucca Block (New England Orogen, eastern Australia) and implications for oroclinal bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaanan, Uri; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Li, Pengfei; Vasconcelos, Paulo

    2014-07-01

    The Paleozoic to early Mesozoic southern New England Orogen of eastern Australia exhibits a remarkable ear-shaped curvature (orocline), but the geodynamic processes responsible for its formation are unclear. Oroclinal bending took place during the early Permian, simultaneously with the deposition of the rift-related Sydney, Gunnedah, and Bowen basins, which bound the oroclines to the west. The Nambucca Block is another early Permian rift basin, but it is situated in the core of the oroclinal structure. Here we present new stratigraphic, structural, and geochronological data from the Nambucca Block in an attempt to better understand its tectonic history and relationships to the formation of the oroclines. We recognized four phases of folding and associated structural fabrics (S1-4), with the second phase (S2) dated at 275-265 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of muscovite. This age overlaps with independent constraints on the timing of oroclinal bending, suggesting that the earlier two phases of deformation in the Nambucca Block (F1 and F2) were associated with orocline formation. We propose that oroclinal bending involved three major stages. The first stage (basins in a hot extensional back-arc setting. This was followed by a second stage of oroclinal bending, possibly linked to dextral wrench faulting, which involved ~ N-S contraction (F1). Subsequent deformation at 275-265 Ma involved formation of nappe-style structures (F2). This phase of contractional deformation may have resulted from an increased plate coupling that was possibly linked to flat-slab subduction.

  13. FUSE - Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Announces the establishment of a division of FUSE in Australia, at Sturt College of Advanced Education, for the purpose of disseminating the concept of unified science and to facilitate the development of unified science programs. (BR)

  14. Implications of 3.2 Ga deep seawater from sulfur isotopic analysis of barite crystals in Pilbara, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, T.; Kiyokawa, S.; Takahata, N.; Ishida, A.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Sano, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur isotopic (δ34S) analysis is used as one of the methods of Precambrian environmental reconstruction. It has been pointed out that δ34S fluctuations of sulfate and sulfide have close relationship with rise of oxygen level and increase in biological activity of sulfate reducing bacteria. For example, the difference of δ34S between sulfate and sulfide is small in Archean while it gets larger after evolution of oxygen level and biological activity (e.g. Canfield and Farquhar, 2009).  However, evidence of δ34S difference between sulfate and sulfide in Archean is scarce. In this study, we focused on barite and pyrite occurred at the layer in the 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation in coastal Pilbara terrane, Western Australia.  We found pyrites in from the bottom of the Black Chert Member to the Varicolored Chert Member of the Dixon Island Formation. Particularly, we can see pyrite layers of a few millimeters thick which make an alternate layers with black chert layers in the Varicolored Chert Member. The bulk δ34S values of these layers are -10.1~+26.8‰ (Sakamoto, 2010MS) and micro-meter scale heterogeneity of δ34S can be seen in minute spherical shell pyrite which was formed at early stage of diagenesis (Miki, 2015MS).  On the other hand, barite layers are remained in the lower part of the Black Chert Member in the Dixon Island Formation. In these layers, columnar quartz crystals were representative which are considered to be a pseudomorph of barite. Such equigranular occurrences of barite are typical character in submarine hydrothermal system (Kiyokawa et al., 2006). There exist small crystals of barite (less than 200 um in diameter) which are expected to be remnants of original barite. We performed microscale sulfur isotope analyses using a NanoSIMS.  As a preliminary result, we obtained δ34S value of +3.4~+9.1‰ (n=11). These values are similar to the reported values of barite which are considered to be a hydrothermal origin in 3.47 Ga North Pole

  15. Evolution of foredune barriers at Admiral Bay, Western Australia - Implications for Holocene relative sea levels and extreme wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Max; May, Simon Matthias; Scheffers, Anja; Squire, Peter; Pint, Anna; Kelletat, Dieter; Brückner, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    Only few geomorphological studies on the Canning Coast of Western Australia exist to date, most probably reflecting its remoteness and low population density. However, WA's annual gross state product (GSP) growth of ~5 % during the past decade and the highest GSP per capita nationwide resulting from a mining boom increase public attention as well as the demand for precise information on landscape inventory and evolution. In this paper, new data from a sequence of vegetated foredune barriers, gradually being eroded by a migrating estuary inside the macrotidal Admiral Bay (also known as McKelson Creek, Whistle Creek or Panganunganyjal), 110 km southwest of Broome, are presented. Based on sediment cores, DGPS-based elevation transects, and stratigraphical analyses on outcrops of the relict foredunes, we aim at (i) reconstructing lateral coastal changes during the Holocene, (ii) drawing inferences on relative sea-level (RSL) change, and (iii) identifying and dating imprints of extreme-wave events. Sedimentary analyses comprise documentation of bedding structures, foraminiferal content and macrofaunal remains (including shell taphonomy), grain size, and organic matter. Chronological contexts are established using 26 14C-AMS datings. Marine flooding of the pre-Holocene base landward of the 2.5 km-wide foredunes can be pinpointed to 7400-7200 cal BP. A mangrove ecosystem established and was quickly replaced by intertidal coarse sands after only 200-400 years. The high-energy intertidal environment prevailed until c. 4000 cal BP before turning into the present supralittoral mudflat environment. At that time, coastal regression led to beach progradation and isochronic formation of foredune barriers. Drivers of progradation were a stable RSL or gradual RSL fall after the mid-Holocene highstand and a positive sand budget provided by high sublittoral productivity of calcareous shells in combination with erosion at the adjacent sandstone capes and longshore drift. The foredunes

  16. Implications of deep drainage through saline clay for groundwater recharge and sustainable cropping in a semi-arid catchment, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Timms

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude and timing of deep drainage and salt leaching through clay soils is a critical issue for dryland agriculture in semi-arid regions (<500 mm yr−1 rainfall, potential evapotranspiration >2000 mm yr−1 such as parts of Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB. In this rare study, hydrogeological measurements and estimations of the historic water balance of crops grown on overlying Grey Vertosols were combined to estimate the contribution of deep drainage below crop roots to recharge and salinization of shallow groundwater. Soil sampling at two sites on the alluvial flood plain of the Lower Namoi catchment revealed significant peaks in chloride concentrations at 0.8–1.2 m depth under perennial vegetation and at 2.0–2.5 m depth under continuous cropping indicating deep drainage and salt leaching since conversion to cropping. Total salt loads of 91–229 t ha−1 NaCl equivalent were measured for perennial vegetation and cropping, with salinity to ≥ 10 m depth that was not detected by shallow soil surveys. Groundwater salinity varied spatially from 910 to 2430 mS m−1 at 21 to 37 m depth (N = 5, whereas deeper groundwater was less saline (290 mS m−1 with use restricted to livestock and rural domestic supplies in this area. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM software package predicted deep drainage of 3.3–9.5 mm yr−1 (0.7–2.1% rainfall based on site records of grain yields, rainfall, salt leaching and soil properties. Predicted deep drainage was highly episodic, dependent on rainfall and antecedent soil water content, and over a 39 yr period was restricted mainly to the record wet winter of 1998. During the study period, groundwater levels were unresponsive to major rainfall events (70 and 190 mm total, and most piezometers at about 18 m depth remained dry. In this area, at this time, recharge appears to be negligible due to low

  17. Implications of deep drainage through saline clay for groundwater recharge and sustainable cropping in a semi-arid catchment, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Timms

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude and timing of deep drainage and salt leaching through clay soils is a critical issue for dryland agriculture in semi-arid regions (<500 mm yr−1 rainfall, such as parts of Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB. In this unique study, hydrogeological measurements and estimations of the historic water balance of crops grown on overlying Grey Vertosols were combined to estimate the contribution of deep drainage below crop roots to recharge and salinization of shallow groundwater. Soil sampling at two sites on the alluvial flood plain of the Lower Namoi catchment revealed significant peaks in chloride concentrations at 0.8–1.2 m depth under perennial vegetation and at 2.0–2.5 m depth under continuous cropping indicating deep drainage and salt leaching since conversion to cropping. Total salt loads of 91–229 t ha−1 NaCl equivalent were measured for perennial vegetation and cropping, with salinity to ≥10 m depth that is not detected by shallow soil surveys. Groundwater salinity varied spatially from 910 to 2430 mS m−1 at 21 to 37 m depth (N = 5, whereas deeper groundwater was less saline (290 mS m−1 with use restricted to livestock and rural domestic supplies in this area. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM software package predicted deep drainage of 3.3–9.5 mm yr−1 (0.7–2.1% rainfall based on site records of grain yields, rainfall, salt leaching and soil properties. Predicted deep drainage was highly episodic, dependent on rainfall and antecedent, and over a 39 yr period was restricted mainly to the record wet winter of 1998. During the study period, groundwater levels were unresponsive to major rainfall events (70 and 190 mm total, and most piezometers at about 18 m depth remained dry. In this area, at this time, recharge negligible due to low rainfall and large potential evapotranspiration, transient hydrological conditionsafter changes

  18. Unsettling Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    This book is a critical intervention into debates on Australia's cultural history. The book demonstrates the interconnectedness of themes commonly seen as separate discursive formations, and shows the fruitfulness of bringing a combined cultural studies and postcolonial approach to bear on a number...

  19. Australia: the coming of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, A C

    1988-01-01

    Current demographic trends in Australia and their implications are assessed. The author concludes that "Australia faces a relatively favourable demographic future: ageing is proceeding at a slower pace here, the pattern of the labour force ageing is conducive to restructuring in the intermediate future, and a well-established immigration policy can be used to accommodate demographics with social and economic goals. The financing of social services for the aged will produce fewer concerns here partly because of less immediate demographic pressures and partly because of the orientation of the age-pension system." PMID:12233479

  20. The curious case of the date of introduction of leaded fuel to Australia: Implications for the history of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric lead pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. E.; Gale, S. J.

    By comparison with the Northern Hemisphere, the history of atmospheric lead pollution in the Southern Hemisphere is still poorly understood. Until recently, the main source of atmospheric lead fallout in the Southern Hemisphere was tetraethyl lead from motor fuel and for most of the 20th century the most important single source of this pollutant was Australia. Yet there is little agreement over when leaded fuel made its first appearance in Australia. Reported dates range from the early 1920s to the late 1940s. A study of oil company advertisements and reports in motoring and oil company journals shows that leaded petrol first became available in Australia in August 1932. This date is important both for the reconstruction of lead pollution histories and in the use of lead stratigraphies to determine chronology.

  1. A Qualitative Study of the Teaching of Modern Greek in Western Australia under the "Seconded Teachers from Greece Scheme": Implications for Other Similar Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelinou-Yiannakis, Angela; O'Donoghue, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study reported in this paper was to develop an understanding of how the key stakeholders in Western Australia (WA) "dealt with" the teaching of Modern Greek (Greek) as a second language under the "Seconded Teachers from Greece Scheme" (STGS). It addressed a deficit in research in the field not only in relation to WA, but…

  2. en Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bell

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El argumento de que los mercados financieros globales imponen una “camisa de fuerza dorada” consistente en políticas macroeconómicas restrictivas es probada con relación a la política monetaria australiana. En contraste con los argumentos comunes de los teóricos de la globalización y las restricciones de política se argumenta que las autoridades monetarias en Australia han sido capaces de forjar un enfoque de política relativamente distintivo que ha empujado al crecimiento. Se argumenta así, por lo menos en este caso, que los argumentos restrictivos de la política neoliberal no deberían retraer innovaciones en la elección de política interna.

  3. Immigrant Families in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Jock Collins

    1992-01-01

    Australia has a larger and more diverse immigrant population than most Western societies. Australia's immigration history is linked to the story of family migration as Australia sought immigrants for permanent settlement. However, it is important to aviod over-generalisation when studying immigrant families in Australia today. The main hypothesis is that in order to understand the immigrant family in Australia today it is necessary to study the intersection of factors such as ethnicity, class...

  4. Aboriginal Consumption of Estuarine Food Resources and Potential Implications for Health through Trace Metal Exposure; A Study in Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Shaina; Sullivan, Caroline A; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%). Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%). Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet) and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters) continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the provisional

  5. Trace element uptake by Eleocharis equisetina (spike rush) in an abandoned acid mine tailings pond, northeastern Australia: Implications for land and water reclamation in tropical regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G., E-mail: Bernd.Lottermoser@utas.edu.au [School of Earth Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 79, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Ashley, Paul M. [Earth Sciences, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    This study was conducted to determine the uptake of trace elements by the emergent wetland plant species Eleocharis equisetina at the historic Jumna tin processing plant, tropical Australia. The perennial emergent sedge was found growing in acid waters (pH 2.45) and metal-rich tailings (SnAsCuPbZn). E. equisetina displayed a pronounced acid tolerance and tendency to exclude environmentally significant elements (Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, La, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, Y, Zn) from its above-substrate biomass. This study demonstrates that geobotanical and biogeochemical examinations of wetland plants at abandoned mined lands of tropical areas can reveal pioneering, metal-excluding macrophytes. Such aquatic macrophytes are of potential use in the remediation of acid mine waters and sulfidic tailings and the reclamation of disturbed acid sulfate soils in subtropical and tropical regions. - Highlights: > In tropical Australia, Eleocharis equisetina grows in an acid mine tailings pond. > Eleocharis equisetina excludes environmentally significant elements from its biomass. > Inspections of equatorial mined lands can reveal metal-excluding aquatic macrophytes. > Such plants are of use in land and water remediation in tropical regions. - The metal-excluding aquatic macrophyte Eleocharis equisetina is of use in land and water remediation in tropical regions.

  6. Sheeted and bulbous pluton intrusion mechanisms of a small granitoid from southeastern Australia: implications for dyke-to-pluton transformation during emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, T. J.

    1994-06-01

    The small late syn-tectonic Carboniferous Davys Creek Granite (DCG) of southeastern Australia consists of microgranitic intrusive bodies of diverse geometry and structure. These bodies include: (1) subvertical concordant sheets; (2) bulbous peneconcordant plutons with apophyses and discordant lobes; and (3) subvertical dykes and stocks. The sequence of changing intrusive style is broadly 1-2-3. Transition from 1 to 2 was probably a response to rising magma pressures or declining tectonic stresses. The λ parameter of Emerman and Marrett (1990), which discriminates between stable sheet-like and potential stock/pluton/batholith emplacement modes, adequately predicts the transitions between sheet and pluton emplacements for the DCG. Ductile dyking along actively forming foliations appears to have been an important early intrusive mechanism. A transition from sheet to bulbous pluton intrusion style is suggested to have been in response to magma pressure increases.

  7. Timing and causes of gully erosion in the riparian zone of the semi-arid tropical Victoria River, Australia: Management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, G. L.; Wasson, R. J.; Boggs, G. S.; Douglas, M.

    2016-08-01

    Gully erosion in the seasonally wet tropics of Australia is a major source of sediment in rivers. Stabilization of gullies to reduce impacts on aquatic ecosystems and water storages is a focus for management. However, the cause of the gully erosion is poorly understood and so a critical context for soil conservation is missing. It is uncertain if they are the result of post-European cattle grazing or are they much older and related to non-human factors. The causes of riparian gully erosion along a reach of the Victoria River in the semi-arid tropics of Australia were investigated using several methods. Gully complexes were described and characterised by two major components: a Flood Drainage Channel (FDC) and upslope of this an Outer Erosion Feature (OEF) characterised by badlands set within an amphitheatre. The OEF is likely to be a major source of sediment that appears to be of recent origin. A review of historical records, combined with Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating, showed that the FDCs were well established prior to the introduction of domestic stock. It also showed that the badlands began to develop about 90 years ago; that is, about 40 years after the arrival of domestic stock. In addition, an analysis of aerial photos coupled with an on-ground survey and analysis of fallout radionuclides revealed that erosion processes are still active within the gully complexes. While the FDCs are natural drainage channels, cattle grazing probably triggered the badland formation, with the expansion aided by increased rainfall in the past 40 years. Therefore, the OEFs are of human origin and protection from grazing of the riparian zone should slow badland erosion and reduce sediment input to the river.

  8. Changes in the lead isotopic composition of blood, diet and air in Australia over a decade: Globalization and implications for future isotopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    increases in blood 206Pb/204Pb ratio combined with globalization, which has resulted in the increases in 206Pb/204Pb ratio for diet, means that isotopic studies undertaken with a high degree of certainty of outcomes over a decade ago, are now considerably more difficult, not only in Australia but also in other countries where the isotopic differences are even less than in Australia

  9. The structural controls of gold mineralisation within the Bardoc Tectonic Zone, Eastern Goldfields Province, Western Australia: implications for gold endowment in shear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Anthony A.; Weinberg, Roberto F.; Bierlein, Frank P.

    2007-08-01

    The Bardoc Tectonic Zone (BTZ) of the late Archaean Eastern Goldfields Province, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, is physically linked along strike to the Boulder-Lefroy Shear Zone (BLSZ), one of the richest orogenic gold shear systems in the world. However, gold production in the BTZ has only been one order of magnitude smaller than that of the BLSZ (˜100 t Au vs >1,500 t Au). The reasons for this difference can be found in the relative timing, distribution and style(s) of deformation that controlled gold deposition in the two shear systems. Deformation within the BTZ was relatively simple and is associated with tight to iso-clinal folding and reverse to transpressive shear zones over a <12-km-wide area of high straining, where lithological contacts have been rotated towards the plane of maximum shortening. These structures control gold mineralisation and also correspond to the second major shortening phase of the province (D2). In contrast, shearing within the BLSZ is concentrated to narrow shear zones (<2 km wide) cutting through rocks at a range of orientations that underwent more complex dip- and strike-slip deformation, possibly developed throughout the different deformation phases recorded in the region (D1-D4). Independent of other physico-chemical factors, these differences provided for effective fluid localisation to host units with greater competency contrasts during a prolonged mineralisation process in the BLSZ as compared to the more simple structural history of the BTZ.

  10. Public assessment of the usefulness of "draft" tsunami evacuation maps from Sydney, Australiaimplications for the establishment of formal evacuation plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dall'Osso

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Australia is at risk from tsunamis and recent work has identified the need for models to assess the vulnerability of exposed coastal areas – a fundamental element of the risk management process. Outputs of vulnerability assessment can be used as a baseline for the generation of tsunami prevention and mitigation measures, including evacuation maps. Having noted that no evacuation maps exist for Manly, Sydney (an area recently subjected to high resolution building vulnerability assessment by Dall'Osso et al., 2009b, we use the results of the analysis by Dall'Osso et al. (2009b to "draft" tsunami evacuation maps that could be used by the local emergency service organisations. We then interviewed 500 permanent residents of Manly in order to gain a rapid assessment on their views about the potential usefulness of the draft evacuation maps we generated. Results of the survey indicate that residents think the maps are useful and understandable, and include insights that should be considered by local government planners and emergency risk management specialists during the development of official evacuation maps (and plans in the future.

  11. Paleomagnetism of the Marble Bar Chert Member, Western Australia: Implications for apparent polar wander path for Pilbara craton during Archean time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Yusuke; Hamano, Yozo; Niitsuma, Sachiko; Hoashi, Masamichi; Hisamitsu, Toshio; Niitsuma, Nobuaki; Kodama, Kazuto; Nedachi, Munetomo

    2006-12-01

    The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP) drilled a continuous 270 m long oriented core from the Towers Formation, which includes the Marble Bar Chert Member (3456.1-3476.0 Ma) in the Pilbara craton, northwestern Australia. A paleomagnetic study of 261 discrete specimens, collected from a 158.5 to 182.0 m section of the Marble Bar Chert Member, revealed two distinct magnetic components (LT and MT). The MT component yields seven different mean paleomagnetic directions clustered as MB1 to MB7. These, together with the published paleomagnetic poles of early Archean rocks from the Pilbara craton, draw a continuous paleomagnetic pole path, which likely to be regarded as the early to late Archean apparent polar wander path (APWP) for the Pilbara craton. The APWP implies that the Pilbara craton underwent a latitudinal drift of about 21° during the interval when the magnetization of the Marble Bar Chert Member was acquired. The estimated speed of the lateral drift is 12-112 cm/yr (120-1120 km/Myr), which is large compared with current plate motion velocities, suggesting that continents might have moved during the Archean faster than in the Phanerozoic.

  12. Ratio of anogenital warts between different anatomical sites in homosexual and heterosexual individuals in Australia, 2002-2013: implications for susceptibility of different anatomical sites to genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, E P F; Lin, A C; Read, T R H; Bradshaw, C S; Chen, M Y; Fairley, C K

    2015-05-01

    There is little known regarding the transmissibility of human papillomavirus (HPV) between different sites in men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual individuals. We conducted a retrospective analysis investigating all new patients attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Australia between 2002 and 2013. We describe the prevalence and ratio of the first episode of anogenital warts in MSM and heterosexual males and females. The proportion of new MSM clients with anal and penile warts was 4·0% (362/8978) and 1·6% (141/8978), respectively; which gave an anal-to-penile wart ratio of 1:2·6. About 13·7% (1656/12112) of heterosexual males had penile warts and 10·0% (1121/11166) of females had vulval warts, which yielded a penile-to-vulval wart ratio of 1:0·7. Penile-anal transmission has a higher ratio than penile-vulval transmission, suggesting that the anal epithelium may be more susceptible to HPV infection than the vulval epithelium in females; these ratios are important in modelling the control of HPV in MSM.

  13. Moves to a Basic Income-Flat Tax System in Australia: Implications for the Distribution of Income and Supply of Labour

    OpenAIRE

    Rosanna Scutella

    2004-01-01

    Problems with work disincentives and poverty traps apparent in the Australian tax-transfer system have led to a renewed debate about the advantages of universal benefits relative to means-tested benefits. This paper examines the implications of moving to a system where benefits are universal and the marginal tax rate schedule is simplified to a constant rate, refered to as a basic income — flat tax system. The Melbourne Institute Tax Transfer Simulator(MITTS), a behavioural micro-simulation m...

  14. Constraints on the composition of ore fluids and implications for mineralising events at the Cleo gold deposit, Eastern Goldfields Province, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cleo gold deposit, 55 km south of Laverton in the Eastern Goldfields Province of Western Australia, is characterised by banded iron-formation (BIF)-hosted ore zones in the gently dipping Sunrise Shear Zone and high-grade vein-hosted ore in the Western Lodes. There is evidence that gold mineralisation in the Western Lodes (which occurred at ca 2655 Ma) post-dates the majority of displacement along the Sunrise Shear Zone, but it remains uncertain if the ore in both structures formed simultaneously or separately. Overall, the Pb, Nd, Sr, C, O and S isotopic compositions of ore-related minerals from both the Western Lodes and ore zones in the Sunrise Shear Zone are similar. Early low-salinity aqueous-carbonic fluids and late high-salinity fluids with similar characteristics are trapped in inclusions in quartz veins from both the Sunrise Shear Zone and the Western Lodes. The early CO2, CO2-H2O, and H2O-dominant inclusions are interpreted as being related to ore formation, and to have formed from a single low-salinity aqueous-carbonic fluid as a result of intermittent fluid immiscibility. Homogenisation temperatures indicate that these inclusions were trapped at approximately 280 deg C and at approximately 4 km depth, in the deeper epizonal range. Differences between the ore zones are detected in the trace-element composition of gold samples, with gold from the Sunrise Shear Zone enriched in Ni, Pb, Sn, Te and Zn, and depleted in As, Bi, Cd, Cu and Sb, relative to gold from the Western Lodes Although there are differences in gold composition between the Sunrise Shear Zone and Western Lodes, and hence the metal content of ore fluids may have varied slightly between the different ore zones, no other systematic fluid or solute differences are detected between the ore zones. Given the fact that the ore fluids in each zone have very similar bulk properties, the considerable differences in gold grade, sulfide mineral abundance, and ore textures between the two ore zones

  15. High-precision U-series dating of corals from Western Australia and implications for the timing and duration of the Last Interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, C. H.; Esat, T. M.; McCulloch, M. T.; Lambeck, K.

    1995-10-01

    U-series ages using methods of thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) are reported for Last Interglacial fossil reefs along the stable coastal margin of Western Australia. Thorium isotope ratios were measured with superior precision using methods of charge collection. High levels of precision in the measurement of both uranium and thorium isotopes has reduced the age uncertainty due to analytical errors, excluding the uncertainty in the decay constants, by a factor of four over the precisions reported by many earlier TIMS workers. Uncertainties in δ234U(T), determined from both 230Th/ 238U and 234U/ 238U, are also significantly smaller than previously reported, allowing samples which have undergone diagenetic exchange of uranium and thorium to be more easily identified. Strict criteria were adopted to screen the new Western Australian data. Reliable ages range from 127 to 122 ka. Published TIMS observations from other localities have been assessed using the same strict criteria. When these are combined with glacio-hydro isostatic sea-level models they indicate that the Last Interglacial period occurred from at least 130 to 117 ka. However, these age constraints are largely determined from single data points and need to be verified with additional ages before considering them to be robust estimates for the timing of onset and termination of the Last Interglacial. Globally, the main episode of reef growth appears to be confined to a narrow interval occurring from 127 to 122 ka, in direct agreement with the narrow range in ages obtained from the Western Australian sites. This may indicate that the Last Interglacial was of short duration, extending from 127 to 122 ka only. Alternatively, this interval may reflect a major reef-building event in the middle of a longer duration (130-117 ka) interglacial interval.

  16. Effects of wood bark and fertilizer amendment on trace element mobility in mine soils, Broken Hill, Australia: implications for mined land reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munksgaard, N C; Lottermoser, B G

    2010-01-01

    Soil amendments can immobilize metals in soils, reducing the risks of metal exposure and associated impacts to flora, fauna and human health. In this study, soil amendments were compared, based on "closed system" water extracts, for reducing metal mobility in metal-contaminated soil from the Broken Hill mining center, Australia. Phosphatefertilizer (bovine bone meal, superphosphate, triple superphosphate, potassium orthophosphate) and pine bark (Pinus radiata) were applied to two soils (BH1, BH2) contaminated with mining waste. Both soils had near neutral to alkaline pH values, were sulfide- or sulfate-rich, and contained metal and metalloid at concentrations that pose high environmental risks (e.g., Pb = 1.25 wt% and 0.55 wt%, Zn = 0.71 wt% and 0.47 wt% for BH1 and BH2, respectively). The addition of fertilizers and/or pine bark to both soil types increased water extractable metals and metalloids concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sb, Zn) compared with nonamended soils. One or more of the elements As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn increased significantly in extracts of a range of different soil+pine bark and soil+fertilizer+piner+pine bark tests in response to increased pine bark doses. By contrast, Fe and Sb concentrations in extracts did not change significantly with pine bark addition. Solution pH was decreased by phosphate fertilizers (except for bovine bone meal) and pine bark, and pine bark enhanced dissolved organic carbon. At least in the short-term, the application of phosphate fertilizers and pine bark proved to be an ineffective method for controlling metal and metalloid mobility in soils that contain admixtures of polymetallic, polymineralic mine wastes. PMID:21284303

  17. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in Australia: a case of a high-functioning and optimally treated cohort and implications for international neuroHIV research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysique, Lucette A; Heaton, Robert K; Kamminga, Jody; Lane, Tammy; Gates, Thomas M; Moore, Danielle M; Hubner, Emma; Carr, Andrew; Brew, Bruce J

    2014-06-01

    The Australian HIV-infected (HIV+) population is largely comprised of high-functioning men who have sex with men (MSM). Like other English-speaking countries, Australia mostly relies on US neuropsychological normative standards to detect and determine the prevalence of neurological disorders. Whether the US neuropsychological (NP) normative standards are appropriate in Australian HIV+ MSM has not been established. Ninety virally suppressed HIV+ and 49 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) men (respectively 86 and 85 % self-reported MSM; mean age 54 and 56 years, mean premorbid verbal IQ estimate 110 and 111) undertook standard NP testing. The raw neuropsychological data were transformed using the following: (1) US standards as uncorrected scaled scores and demographically corrected T scores (US norms); and (2) z scores (without demographic corrections) derived from Australian comparison group scaled scores (local norms). To determine HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder prevalence, we used a standard definition of impairment based upon a battery-wide summary score: the global deficit score (GDS). Impairment classification (GDS ≥ 0.5) based on the local norms was best at discriminating between the two groups (HIV- = 14.3 % vs. HIV+ = 53.3 %; p definition was significantly associated with age. Impairment classification based on the US norms yielded much lower impairment rate regardless of the HIV status (HIV- = 4.1 % vs. HIV+ = 14.7 %; p = 0.05), but was associated with historical AIDS, and not age. Both types of summary scores were associated with reduced independence in activities of daily living (p ≤ 0.03). Accurate neuropsychological classifications of high (or low) functioning individuals may need country-specific norms that correct for performance-based (e.g., reading) estimates of premorbid cognition in addition to the traditional demographic factors.

  18. Quantifying water requirements of riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia: Implications for the management of environmental flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Tanya M.; Colloff, Matthew J.; Davies, Micah; Koul, Vijay; Benyon, Richard G.; Nagler, Pamela L.

    2015-01-01

    Water resource development and drought have altered river flow regimes, increasing average flood return intervals across floodplains in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, causing health declines in riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests and woodlands. Environmental flow allocations helped to alleviate water stress during the recent Millennium Drought (1997–2010), however, quantification of the flood frequency required to support healthy E. camaldulensis communities is still needed. We quantified water requirements of E. camaldulensis for two years across a flood gradient (trees inundated at frequencies of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10 years) at Yanga National Park, New South Wales to help inform management decision-making and design of environmental flows. Sap flow, evaporative losses and soil moisture measurements were used to determine transpiration, evapotranspiration and plant-available soil water before and after flooding. A formula was developed using plant-available soil water post-flooding and average annual rainfall, to estimate maintenance time of soil water reserves in each flood frequency zone. Results indicated that soil water reserves could sustain 1:2 and 1:5 trees for 15 months and six years, respectively. Trees regulated their transpiration rates, allowing them to persist within their flood frequency zone, and showed reduction in active sapwood area and transpiration rates when flood frequencies exceeded 1:2 years. A leaf area index of 0.5 was identified as a potential threshold indicator of severe drought stress. Our results suggest environmental water managers may have greater flexibility to adaptively manage floodplains in order to sustain E. camaldulensis forests and woodlands than has been appreciated hitherto.

  19. Return migration from Australia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukomskyj, O; Richards, P

    1986-09-01

    "The study investigates the departure from Australia of former settlers who arrived during the 1980 calendar year. The 1980 settler arrival cohort [consists] of 75,167 visaed migrants.... The study has three main aims: (i) to analyse departures from Australia of the 1980 settler arrival cohort with a view to gauging the success of Australia's immigration program in retaining settlers; (ii) to examine the retention rates of settlers with respect to characteristics...including age, sex, marital status, country of last residence, and settler eligibility category; and (iii) to consider implications of the findings." Australia's present immigration policy is discussed, previous research on return migration from Australia is summarized, and a detailed analysis of the departure data is presented. "This study found that by August 1984, 12.4 per cent of non-refugee settlers who arrived in Australia during 1980 had departed permanently but that only 0.6 per cent of the 1980 refugee cohort had done so." These figures represent a decline in immigrant departure rates since the 1960s and early 1970s. Small differences in departure rates by place of birth, age, and marital status, which may have demographic consequences if sustained over time, are noted. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  20. OSL chronology of onshore cyclone deposits at Point Lefroy (Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia) - Implications for washover fan formation and regional cyclone activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Dominik; May, Simon Matthias; Shah-Hosseini, Majid; Leopold, Matthias; Callow, Nik; Engel, Max; Scheffers, Anja; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Although frequently occurring, little is known about the geological imprint of (pre)historical tropical cyclones (TCs) in Northwestern Australia. Large washover fans at Point Lefroy (Exmouth Gulf) provide unambiguous morphological evidence of flooding by TCs capable to overtop and breach the local coastal barrier. Based on ground penetrating radar, unmanned aerial vehicle survey techniques, as well as geomorphological, sedimentological and chronological investigations, this research aims at reconstructing the formation of the washover fans, and understanding their significance for recording past TC activity. The stratigraphy of the washover fans is characterized by multiple depositional units, which are separated by palaeosurfaces with initial pedogenesis. Combining the chronostratigraphical record of the different washover fans at Point Lefroy is assumed to reflect the regional TC magnitude-frequency pattern, reaching far beyond historical records. While reworking of calcareous faunal remains biases the application of radiocarbon dating, we carried out optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating in order to establish a robust chronology of TC-induced washover deposition. OSL dating was challenged by spatially heterogeneous dose rates within the poorly sorted mixture of quartz and coral fragments, by incomplete signal resetting, and by sediment mixing during and, most likely, after transportation. However, by successfully constraining the contribution of each of these factors - using a combination of single-grain quartz dating, quasi-continuous luminescence profiling, spatially resolved dose rate determination, and dose rate modelling - the final chronology gives insight into the evolution of the geo-archive and, ultimately, into the local to regional TC history. Based on up to three sediment profiles from each fan structure, two different washover fans were OSL dated. While contemporaneous deposition at both landforms suggest that the two geomorphological

  1. Provenance and structural constraints of the early Permian Nambucca Block (eastern Australia), and implications for the origin of the New England oroclines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaanan, Uri; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Li, Pengfei; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Wormald, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic southern New England Orogen of eastern Australia exhibits a remarkable omega-shaped orogenic curvature (orocline), but the geodynamic processes responsible for the formation of the orogenic curvatures (oroclines) are still unclear. Oroclinal bending took place during the early Permian, simultaneously with the development of rift-related sedimentary basins (Sydney, Gunnedah and Bowen basins), which bound the oroclines to the west. The Nambucca Block is part of another early Permian rift basin that is situated farther east, in the core of the oroclinal structure. We present new stratigraphic, structural and geochronological data from the Nambucca Block in an attempt to better understand its provenance, tectonic history and its role in the formation of the oroclines. Four phases of folding and associated structural fabrics are recognised in the Nambucca Block. 40Ar/39Ar age of metamorphic micas from the second deformational phase provides a minimum depositional age constraint at 275-265 Ma. This age overlaps with the timing of oroclinal bending, suggesting that the first two phases of deformation resulted from the same mechanism that formed the oroclines. Detrital zircon geochronology (U/Pb ICP-MS ages) of six samples from the Nambucca Block constrains the maximum depositional age of the sequence to 280 Ma. The sedimentary succession, though extremely polymictic, is unimodal in its sources, and is therefore interpreted to consist mainly of recycled detritus from a Devonian-Carboniferous accretionary complex. We propose a model for oroclinal bending involving three stages. The first stage, starting at about 293 Ma and including the deposition of the sequence of Nambucca (i.e. overlaps with the 280-265 Ma time constraint), was associated with formation of rift basins in an extensional backarc setting. This was followed by N-S contraction, which gave rise to second-order oroclinal structures. The third and final stage involved

  2. Clay vein and its implication for uranium exploration activity in the northern part of the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field, northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay veins have been found by uranium exploration drilling around the Black Rock uranium prospect in the northern part of the alligator Rivers Uranium Field (ARUF), northern Australia. The mineralogical and chemical features are described to clarify relations with uranium mineralization, because it is not accompanied by uranium mineralization. X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis for major elements indicate that the clay vein consists mainly of chlorite (clinochlore to ferroan clinochlore) and lesser mica clay mineral (t-1M dominant). The clay vein is compared with the clay alteration zone around the uranium deposits in ARUF in terms of mode of occurrence, mineral and chemical compositions. Mineral composition of the clay vein is only in accordance with that of the inner alteration halo of the clay alteration zone. It is, however, different from mineral composition of the outer alteration halo in terms of lack of Fe chlorite in the clay vein. Chemical composition of the clay vein is similar to that of the clay alteration zone, except for lack in the vein of high iron content which is observed in some samples of the alteration zone. As a whole, the feature of the clay vein corresponds to the inner alteration zone around the uranium deposit in ARUF. The mode of occurrence of the clay vein is very different from that of the clay alteration zone. Mode of occurrence, and mineral and chemical compositions of the clay vein resemble a chlorite vein in the Lower to Middle Proterozoic sandstone above the Jabiluka deposit, one of major uranium deposit in the ARUF. Because of the similarity between the clay and the chlorite veins, the clay vein is regarded as marginal facies of an alteration zone. The fluid that formed the clay vein is estimated to have been oxidized, because of the existence of hematite and ubiquitous Mg chlorite. This nature is in accordance with the mineralizing fluid that formed the inner alteration zone in the Nabarlek deposit. In conclusion, the vein

  3. Community Music in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective to the development of community music in Australia. Finding political support in Australia's progressive arts policies of the late 1970s, community music is discussed as embracing the principles of access and equity and supporting the development of musical skills in the context of social change and…

  4. Wine Tourism in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾真

    2015-01-01

    1.Introduction Wine tourism is now recognised as a growing subset of special interest tourism all over the world.It is an increasingly important tourism component for many wine producing regions(M.A.O’Neill&Palmer;,2004).Australia has recently become a large wine producing country.Therefore,wine tourism has emerged as a strong and growing area in Australia.The

  5. Macroeconomic Policy: Some International Lessons for Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Corden, W. Max

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews recent macroeconomic experience outside Australia, especially in the United States, the United Kingdom and continental Europe, and compares it with Australian experience. It discusses booms and recessions, inflation (especially the "credibility" issue), unemployment (cyclical and structural), and exchange rate policy. It also discusses implications for monetarism and rational expectations theories. Two conclusions are that the big remaining problem in Europe and in Australi...

  6. Education and Economic Growth: A Case Study of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sawami Matsushita; Abu Siddique; Margaret Giles

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to measure the contribution of education to growth in per capita real GDP in Australia over the period 1969-2003 using the growth accounting method. Also estimated is the contribution of total factor productivity to growth. Over the period, per capita real GDP in Australia increased by 1.9 percent per annum. Of this, about 31 percent was contributed by education. This finding has important implications for policy makers in Australia. For example, in order to promo...

  7. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  8. Why Study in Australia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁丽丽

    2014-01-01

    Going overseas to pursue further studies is even more generalized in recent years. Students are open to a variety of op-tions to decide which country to go and which university to choose. Why wouldn’t you want to study with some of the best minds in the world? Australia is a leading global education power, with world’s best educators and facilities. It also provides both local and international students with a variety of quality study options. This essay presents some of the important reasons why in-ternational students should study in Australia in regard to education quality, affordable fees, government support, multiple cultures and immigration policies.

  9. Healthcare in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    No single issue has dominated health practitioners' ethical debates in 2014 in Australia, but a controversial decision on gene patenting and the media focus on "Dr. Death," euthanasia campaigner Dr. Philip Nitschke, have given new life to these two familiar (and global) debates. Currently a dying with dignity bill, drafted by the Australian Green Party, is under examination. The Senate inquiry into the bill received more than 663 submissions, with 57% opposed and 43% in support of the bill, which has now been referred to a Senate committee. Will this be another of Australia's failed attempts to legalize euthanasia? The trial of Dr. Nitschke begins on November 10, 2014. PMID:27348826

  10. Classification in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, John

    Despite some inroads by the Library of Congress Classification and short-lived experimentation with Universal Decimal Classification and Bliss Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, with its ability in recent editions to be hospitable to local needs, remains the most widely used classification system in Australia. Although supplemented at…

  11. Australia in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kerry; Welch, Ian

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Australia's growth since European settlement and its development into a major world trader in industrial and high technology raw materials. Examines the country's expanding relations with New Zealand and other Pacific states which is the outgrowth of the realization that all will gain from greater international cooperation. (GEA)

  12. Immigrant Teachers in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock Collins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the features of contemporary society is the increasing global mobility of professionals. While the education industry is a key site of the demand for contemporary global professional migration, little attention has been given to the global circulation of education professionals. Over past decades, immigrant teachers have been an important component of skilled and professional immigration into Australia, there is no comprehensive contemporary national study of the experiences of immigrant teachers in Australia. This article aims to fill this gap and to answer questions about their decision to move to Australia, their experience with Australian Education Departments in getting appointed to a school, their experiences as teachers in the classroom and in their new Australian community. It draws on primary data sources - in the form of a survey of 269 immigrant teachers in schools in NSW, SA and WA conducted in 2008-9 - and secondary sources - in the form of the 2006 national census and Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants in Australia – to provide insights into immigrant teachers in Australian schools, adding also to our understanding of Australia’s contemporary immigration experience.

  13. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  14. My Trip To Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇

    2004-01-01

    During this winter holiday,I paid a visit to a foreign country, Austrilia.When people had a cold winter here,Ihad a hot summer there. Australia has many places to visit,just like the Olympic Village,the Opera House,

  15. Australia: a full house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, R

    1994-01-01

    Australia had a population of 17.6 million in 1991. In 1992, Australia's population grew at the rate of 1.06%, 0.8% due to natural increase and 0.26% from immigration. The recent Australian Bureau of Statistics Report estimates that it will grow to 18.9 million by the end of the century and 23.1 million by 2025, assuming fertility remains at current levels and net migration stabilizes at 70,000 per annum from the year 2000. The World Bank estimates that Australia's population will stabilize at 25 million some time in the future. Since Australia's politicians and economists fail to understand that the country already has a large enough population, no national population policy has been declared. The Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, responsible for all population issues, gives no thought to the long-term environmental consequences of the rapidly growing population and determines the annual migrant intake simply on the basis of the nation's economic needs, demands from new immigrants for admission of their next of kin, and humanitarian considerations with regard to refugees. Population growth in Australia needs to be checked as soon as possible. Reducing the annual migrant intake to below 50,000, Australia could achieve a stable population of approximately 23 million by 2040; the annual intake of 150,000 immigrants will grow the population to 37 million. The total fertility rate (TFR) has been below replacement level since 1976, but the population's skewed age distribution will cause it to continue to grow through natural increase at the current rate of approximately 0.8% per year for some time to come. Improving educational opportunities for women and ensuring that all have ready access to modern contraception could help produce a further decline in TFR. Moreover, education about contraception must be made a part of every school curriculum. Steps taken now may avert any future flood of millions of ecological refugees from Southeast Asia, particularly

  16. Nucleopolyhedrovirus Introduction in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick Buerger; Caroline Hauxwell; David Murray

    2007-01-01

    Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) has become an integral part of integrated pest management (IPM) in many Australian agricultural and horticultural crops. This is the culmination of years of work conducted by researchers at the Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (QDPI&F) and Ag Biotech Australia Pty Ltd. In the early 1970's researchers at QDPI&F identified and isolated a virus in Helicoverpa armigera populations in the field. This NPV was extensively studied and shown to be highly specific to Helicoverpa and Heliothis species. Further work showed that when used appropriately the virus could be used effectively to manage these insects in crops such as sorghum, cotton, chickpea and sweet corn. A similar virus was first commercially produced in the USA in the 1970's. This product, Elcar(R), was introduced into Australia in the late 1970's by Shell Chemicals with limited success. A major factor contributing to the poor adoption of Elcar was the concurrent enormous success of the synthetic pyrethroids. The importance of integrated pest management was probably also not widely accepted at that time. Gradual development of insect resistance to synthetic pyrethroids and other synthetic insecticides in Australia and the increased awareness of the importance of IPM meant that researchers once again turned their attentions to environmentally friendly pest management tools such NPV and beneficial insects. In the 1990's a company called Rhone-Poulenc registered an NPV for use in Australian sorghum, chickpea and cotton. This product, Gemstar(R), was imported from the USA. In 2000 Ag Biotech Australia established an in-vivo production facility in Australia to produce commercial volumes of a product similar to the imported product. This product was branded, ViVUS(R), and was first registered and sold commercially in Australia in 2003. The initial production of ViVUS used a virus identical to the American product but replicating it in an Australian Helicoverpa

  17. Pleistocene Paleoart of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene rock art is abundant in Australia, but has so far received only limited attention. Instead there has been a trend, begun over a century ago, to search for presumed depictions of extinct megafauna and the tracks of such species. All these notions have been discredited, however, and the current evidence suggests that figurative depiction was introduced only during the Holocene, never reaching Tasmania. Nevertheless, some Australian rock art has been attributed to the Pleistocene by direct dating methods, and its nature implies that a significant portion of the surviving corpus of rock art may also be of such age. In particular much of Australian cave art is of the Ice Age, or appears to be so, and any heavily weathered or patinated petroglyphs on particularly hard rocks are good candidates for Pleistocene antiquity. On the other hand, there is very limited evidence of mobiliary paleoart of such age in Australia.

  18. Melville Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  19. Australia; Background Material

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the developments in the Australian labor market during the 1990s. In 1994, a number of new labor market programs were launched, directed especially at the long-term unemployed, and a further step was taken in the evolutionary reform of the industrial relations system. The paper reviews developments in employment, wages, and productivity in Australia that formed the background to these policy initiatives. It also examines the conduct of fiscal policy at the Commonwealth an...

  20. Australia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1997-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper examines the role that government policy in Australia plays in influencing household saving, both directly through its own saving and the structure of the tax, social security and welfare systems, and indirectly through the influence of the policy environment on factors that affect saving such as economic growth. The determinants of household saving in a sample of 21 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries are also investigated, using ...

  1. Retirement Saving in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Garry Barrett; Yi-Ping Tseng

    2007-01-01

    Australia’s retirement income system has several distinctive features – most notably a policy of government mandated private saving and a means-tested Age Pension – which have gained increasing international attention. This paper provides an overview of the institutional features of the retirement income system in Australia, including details of the development and operation of the policy of forced retirement saving. The role of the different tiers of system in accounting for the income of th...

  2. Cash Use in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Eden Hatzvi; Jessica Meredith; Rose Kenney

    2014-01-01

    This article uses results from the 2013 Survey of Consumers’ Use of Payment Methods and regression analysis to examine trends in cash use in Australia. The results show that cash remained the most common form of payment, though its use relative to other payment methods has declined over recent years. Older participants were more likely to use cash than younger participants and all participants were more likely to use cash for low-value transactions relative to other payment methods. In additi...

  3. Immigrant Teachers in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Jock Collins; Carol Reid

    2012-01-01

    One of the features of contemporary society is the increasing global mobility of professionals. While the education industry is a key site of the demand for contemporary global professional migration, little attention has been given to the global circulation of education professionals. Over past decades, immigrant teachers have been an important component of skilled and professional immigration into Australia, there is no comprehensive contemporary national study of the experiences of immigra...

  4. Australia Online; Borderless University

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep ERDINC

    2002-01-01

    Around the world distance education is playing an important roll in the education sector. Many countries are in the process of developing and improving their distance education projects. One of the projects being online education has improved information delivery and development op International education. Distance education has been available in Australia for many years. More than 30 higher education institutions within the country now use the program. The purpose of the development of di...

  5. Australia's atomic conspiracy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author questions claims by the Newcastle University historian Wayne Reynolds in his book 'Australia's Bid for the Bomb', that the impetus behind the Snowy Mountains Scheme was to provide a secure source of power for the enrichment of uranium and production of heavy water so that Australia could produce its own atomic bombs. Reynolds also argued that the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) was set up so that Australia had a trained scientific workforce to produce plutonium for the bomb. While the book is well researched, Reynolds does not seem to understand the principles of basic science and engineering. After the Second World War, a manufacturing and industrial base with a skilled and trained workforce was needed so it could be converted to war or defence manufacturing when the need arose. This new manufacturing community would require electrical power to sustain it. Hydroelectricity and atomic energy could help provide these needs. Even though war was still raging, Prime Minister John Curtin looked ahead and set up a Department of Post-War Reconstruction. It was through this department that the Snowy Mountains Scheme would be established. Curtin did not live to see this. He died in 1945 but his successor, Ben Chifley, continued the vision. The author believes, an understanding of the science behind these developments and an appreciation of how how humans interact with each others when it comes to getting something they want is likely to give a more balanced view of the past

  6. Australia's energy profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE)'s biennial fuel and electricity survey provides a comprehensive database with which is possible to examine recent trends and developments in Australia's energy market. Some key development are outlined in this article. While energy consumption in Australia has been increasing steadily since 1973-74, substantial changes have occurred 'behind the scenes' in terms of the states and sectors in which energy is consumed and the overall fuel mix. Historically, the south-eastern states of New South Wales and Victoria have accounted for the largest shares of total energy consumption In recent years, however, the dominance of New South Wales and Victoria (and particularly New South Wales) has come under pressure from the states of Queensland. Western Australia, and to a lesser extent, the Northern Territory. Each of these states has experienced rapid growth in energy consumption, due mainly to a number of strongly growing energy intensive industries, particularly in the mining and minerals processing sectors. High economic and population growth over this period were also important factors. An increase in the share of natural gas- and a corresponding decline in the share of crude oil - is the most evident change to have occurred in the fuel mix since 1973-1974. However, since 1993, the trend has changed, the share of coal (and particularly brown coal) increased strongly, making it the primary fuel source for thermal electricity generation. This recent shift has been driven by developments in Queensland and Victoria

  7. Electromagnetic induction in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, F. E. M.

    Electromagnetic induction at the terrestrial surface is a general and ubiquitous process. This note, which covers research on the subject in Australia, reflects the writer's own interest and refers particularly to induction by natural source fields in the period range of 1 minute to 1 day.Such source fields arise external to Earth, in the ionosphere and beyond, in the magnetosphere. The process of electromagnetic induction by these fields involves the flow through Earth of tens of thousands of amperes, over scale lengths of thousands of kilometers.

  8. Experiencias en Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pérez Fernández

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Décadas de uso inadecuado de los recursos naturales en Australia han llevado a la extinción de numerosas especies autóctonas. Aprendiendo de sus propios errores, se han inicido recientemente diferentes proyectos de conservación en los que participan diversos agentes interesados. La Región de los Central Ranges, en el Desierto de Gibson, pertenece al pueblo aborigen Ngaanyatjarra. En los años 90 se llevó a cabo una campaña de recolección de organismos, patrocinada por el Museo de Western Australia y el Departamento de Conservación Ambiental (DEC, en la que participaron miembros de la comunidad Ngaanyatjarra, conocedores y cuidadores del territorio. El resultado científico se tradujo en la identificación de dos nuevas especies, así como numerosas nuevas citas de plantas y animales para el territorio. La minería es una de las actividades más impactantes en Australia, pero la concienciación social ha llevado a que las compañías desarrollen importantes campañas de protección de especies. El mulgara (Dasycercus cristicaula ocupaba zonas que hoy en día se dedican a la minería, y de las que prácticamente ha desaparecido. Un programa de investigación financiado por la empresa Resolute Resources y dirigido por el Departamento de Conservación y Manejo del Territorio (CALM ha permitido identificar poblaciones de este marsupial carnívoro y diseñar un programa de manejo cuyo objetivo es evitar actuaciones incompatibles con su actividad biológica. El resultado más relevante en ambas iniciativas ha sido la colaboración entre diferentes agentes implicados, con intercambio de conocimientos y experiencias. Especialmente importante ha sido la posibilidad de diseñar planes de manejo y actuación sobre el territorio, orientados a la preservación de valores naturales y culturales antiguos.

  9. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  10. Warragamba. Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri, B.

    1959-02-01

    Full Text Available El pantano de Warragamba, cuyo objeto es el de producir energía hidroeléctrica en su primera fase de explotación y solamente agua potable cuando las necesidades de ésta así lo requieran, se haya situado en las proximidades de Sydney (Australia. Su extensa cuenca está constituida por una serie de ríos en cuyas cabeceras se han construido diques de retención, que no solamente almacenan grandes cantidades de agua, sino que sirven parcialmente para la regularización de caudales, función de gran interés en esta zona donde las avenidas, seguidas de extensas inundaciones, se hacen sentir con relativa frecuencia.

  11. Comparison and Implication of Management of General Practice in China and Australia%中国和澳大利亚全科医学管理的比较与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一明; 张志玲; 王溯; 夏俊杰; Shane Thomas; 杨辉

    2012-01-01

    After studying and investigating for more than two months in Australia, we draw some differences and similarities on management of general practice in China and Australia in nine aspects, including the role of government, the role of associations, civil society participation, the quality management of general practice service, hospital function, primary health care, gatekeeper - general practitioners, medical and pharmaceutical services and medical insurance system. This study may provide some new ideas and measures for the development of general practice in China.%通过在澳大利亚为期两个月的全科医学实地学习和考察,本研究从政府的作用、行会的作用、公民社会参与的作用、全科医学服务质量的管理、医院功能的设置、初级保健的服务设置、全科医生守门人、医疗服务和药品服务的关系、医疗保险体制等九个方面比较分析了中国和澳大利亚全科医学管理上的异同,并阐述了获得的启示,为我国全科医学发展提出新的理念方法 和措施,以期发挥借鉴和参考作用.

  12. Asian student migration to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12291796

  13. Sustainability: Australia at the crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodirsky, Benjamin L.; Popp, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    A modelling study argues that comprehensive policy change could limit Australia's environmental pollution while maintaining a materials-intensive path to economic growth. But other paths are worth considering. See Article p.49

  14. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  15. Public Sector Governance in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Meredith; Halligan, John; Horrigan, Bryan; Nicoll, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Australia lacks a scholarly book that covers recent developments in public sector governance in Australia and blends cross-disciplinary perspectives from law, management, public administration and public policy. The primary reason for writing this book is to fill the gap in the treatment of this subject, and to provide insights from empirical evidence and current practice. The book provides the first comprehensive theoretical and empirical work on governance in the Commonwealth public sec...

  16. Slovene migrant literature in Australia:

    OpenAIRE

    Maver, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This article on the literary creativity of Slovene migrants in Australia after the Second World War, including the most recent publications, discusses only the most artistically accomplished authors and addresses those works that have received the most enthusiastic reception by the critics and readers alike. Of course, those that are not mentioned are also important to the preservation of Slovene culture and identity among the Slovene migrants in Australia from a documentray, historical, or e...

  17. Commercial Higher Education in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin George Toma

    2005-01-01

    The education system in Australia represents an exemplification of the anglo-saxon education pattern. The system has three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. After having graduated 13 years of primary and secondary school one can attend the tertiary level. Australia’s tertiary education sector comprises higher education and vocational education and training (VET). The first schools in Australia were set up by private individuals and Church organisations. The first Australian university ...

  18. Providing and financing aged care in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ergas H; Paolucci F.

    2011-01-01

    Henry Ergas1,2, Francesco Paolucci31University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia; 2Deloitte Australia, Brindabella Business Park, Canberra Airport, ACT, Australia; 3Australian Centre for Economic Research on Health, The Australian National University, Acton, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: This article focuses on the provision and financing of aged care in Australia. Demand for aged care will increase substantially as a result of population aging, with the number of Australians aged...

  19. Neutron scattering in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains

  20. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  1. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nishath K Ganguli; Ivan R Kennedy

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated.

  2. Assessment of Spatial-Temporal Expansion of Built-up and Residential-Commercial Dwellings with Some Economic Implications: A Case Study in the Lower Hunter of Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramita Manandhar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Built-up areas have been expanding throughout the world. Monitoring and prediction of the build-up is not only important for the economic development but also acts as sentinels of environmental decline important for ecologically sustainable development of a region. The aim of this paper is to model the growth of built-up and residential-commercial dwellings over the recent past and thus predict the near future growth for a popular tourist destination of the Lower Hunter of New South Wales, Australia. The land use and land cover change analysis, based on classification of Landsat imageries from 1985 to 2005 at a 5-yearly interval, indicates that built-up areas increased steadily; it was 2.0% of the total landscape in 1985 but increased to 4.2% by the year 2005. If this trend continues, the built-up area will have grown to over 6.5% by 2025—which is equivalent to growth of over 325% from the 1985 base. In order to further evaluate the residential and commercial growth, orthorectified aerial photographs of nearby periods of 1985, 1995 and 2005 were utilized to manually delineate residential/commercial dwellings, and thereby dwelling densities were derived. The results indicate that the mean dwelling density has more than doubled within a decade.

  3. The nuclear industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of the development of the nuclear industry in Australia is essentially the history of uranium mining. Australia is a significant exporter of uranium concentrate yellowcake, but no other nuclear power or fuel cycle activity exists on a commercial scale. Industrial radiation processing and the production of radioisotopes and radio-pharmaceuticals are the only other endeavors. The uranium mining in early years and the second discovery period, the policy formulation in 1970s and the recent policy development are described. Australia's low cost reserve has risen to 474,000 t U, and in 1984, three mines produced around 4,400 t U as yellowcake. Once the Jervis Bay nuclear power plant with 500 MWe capacity was planned, but the project was postponed indefinitely. The Uranium Enrichment Group of Australia planned to build an enrichment plant as a joint venture with URENCO Ltd., but also this plan was interrupted. The lack of expansion into nuclear power and fuel cycle activities has been due to favorable fossil fuel resources and their distribution, population density and distribution, social factors and government policy in Australia. (Kako, I.)

  4. Australia's North West Shelf Venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North West Shelf Venture is based in Karratha, 1500 km north of Perth in Western Australia. At a cost of $A12bn, it is the biggest and one of the most important natural resource developments in Australia. Originally constructed in 1984 to supply gas to the West Australian domestic and industrial market, the Venture is now the third-largest LNG exporter in the Asia-Pacific region, generating more than $A1.5bn a year in export income. The Venture supplies about 15 percent of Japan's LNG demand, or 7.5 million tonnes a year, to eight Japanese power and gas utilities under 20-year contracts. In addition, 'spot' sales have been made to Spain, South Korea, Turkey and the United States. The Venture also supplies more than 70 percent of Western Australia's domestic gas requirements and exports LPG, condensate and crude oil to global markets

  5. Australia's uranium policy: an examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining and export of Australian Uranium poses problems for the safety of the world that any responsible government is bound to consider. The following note lists the major problems, attempts to assess their importance, and to suggest what lines may be relevant to Australia for their solution. These problems were examined because of the concern about the appropriateness of attempting to fulfill projected world energy needs by any means; and their fulfillment, by using nuclear fuels carries special problems of biological, social and political hazards. Any development of Australia's uranium resources should be considered in this light. (author)

  6. Remembering the Battle for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rechniewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available For the last two years, Australia has commemorated, on the first Wednesday in September, the ‘Battle for Australia Day’, to mark the role of Australian forces fighting the Japanese in the Pacific in WWII. The aim of this article is to identify the agents involved in the campaign for the gazetting of this day and the justifications advanced; to trace the conflicting narratives and political and historical controversies surrounding the notion of a ‘Battle for Australia’; and to outline the shifts in domestic and international politics and generational change that provide the context for the inauguration of this day.

  7. Contextualising Multilingualism in Australia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper will begin by looking at globalisation, education and transnationalism in the context of Australia's post-war immigration history leading to a brief examination of the international literature surrounding second and third generation immigration. A brief review of international educational trends in English language teaching in recent…

  8. Serious Incident Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ike; Thorley-Smith, Sara

    2007-01-01

    As part of its efforts to ensure school safety, the government of New South Wales, Australia, has developed simulation exercises to better prepare principals to manage serious incidents, in collaboration with police. This article describes two initiatives implemented across NSW. The exercises provide principals in both secondary and primary…

  9. Afrikaans Language Maintenance in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoss, Aniko; Starks, Donna; van Rensburg, Henriette Janse

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the political climate in the home country have resulted in the emigration of South Africans to English speaking countries such as Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the scale of movement of the South African population, language maintenance in these diasporic contexts has received little consideration. This paper…

  10. Migration of nurses in Australia: where and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohr, Se Ok; Parker, Vicki; Jeong, Sarah; Joyce, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The Australian health care workforce has benefited from an increasing migration of nurses over the past decades. The nursing profession is the largest single health profession, making up over half of the Australian health care workforce. Migration ofnurses into the Australian nursing workforce impacts significantly on the size ofthe workforce and the capacity to provide health care to the Australian multicultural community. Migration of nurses plays an important role in providing a solution to the ongoing challenges of workforce attraction and retention, hence an understanding of the factors contributing to nurse migration is important. This paper will critically analyse factors reported to impact on migration of nurses to Australia, in particular in relation to: (1) globalisation; (2) Australian society and nursing workforce; and (3) personal reasons. The current and potential implications of nurse migration are not limited to the Australian health care workforce, but also extend to political, socioeconomic and other aspects in Australia. PMID:21133293

  11. Regionalizing Immigration, Health and Inequality: Iraqi Refugees in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Manderson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian immigrants and refugees face multiple adjustment tasks and post-settlement support services concentrated in metropolitan areas play an important role. As part of an ongoing commitment, the Australian Government has increasingly supported resettlement in rural and regional areas of the country. Drawing on the experience of Iraqi migrants in Victoria, Australia, we examine some of the conditions that characterize regional resettlement and raise key questions for public health policy. Structural vulnerabilities and discriminations impact upon physical, mental and social wellbeing, leading to further exclusion, with negative long-term implications. The discussion throws light on the issues that migrants and refugees may encounter in other parts within Australia, but are also germane in many countries and highlight the resulting complexity for policy-making.

  12. Youth Studies Australia (1998-2007): A Review and Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Brian Hemmings analysed 252 articles published in Youth Studies Australia during the period 1998-2007. He classified them into 15 categories, and considered characteristics of the contributors and the type of submission and the approach/framework used. Hemmings concludes by discussing the implications of the findings of the various analyses for…

  13. Handing down the Farm? The Increasing Uncertainty of Irrigated Farm Succession in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, S.; Bjornlund, H.; Zuo, A.; Edwards, J.

    2012-01-01

    Farming is still primarily a family concern in Australia. Having a farm successor in place is important as it is associated with the likelihood of the current farmer adapting to external conditions and hence may have long-term implications for the structure and profitability of agriculture. We used current and historical surveys across a number of…

  14. Small Business Tenant Legislation in Australia: Does it Provide a Solution to Part of the UK Lease Reform Debate?

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the commercial leases policy issue of how to deal with small business tenants. The UK has adopted a voluntary solution to commercial lease reform by using Codes of Practice which is in contrast to the legislative approach adopted by Australia to attempt to solve its perceived problems with small business retail tenancies. The major aim of the research was to examine the perceptions of the effectiveness of the legislation in Australia and discuss any implications for the U...

  15. Slovene migrant literature in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article on the literary creativity of Slovene rnigrants in Australia after the Second World War, including the most recent publications, discusses only the most artistically accomplished auth­ ors and addresses those works that have received the most enthusiastic reception by the critics and readers alike. Of course, those who are not mentioned are also important to the preservation of Slovene culture and identity among the Slovene migrants in Australia from a documentary, histori­ cal,or ethnological points of view. However, the genresfeatured here include the explicitly literary, the semi-literary fictionalized biography, the memoir and documentary fiction, and the literary journalistic text - all those fields and genres that nowadays straddle the division line between 'high' literature and so-called 'creative fiction'.

  16. Australia; Basel II Implementation Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    The key findings of Australia’s BASEL II implementation assessment are presented. The Australian Prudential Regulation Authority (APRA) allocated sufficient resources, including highly skilled staff, prior to the Basel II start date, and the outcome has been a robust and high-quality implementation that has built upon and substantially strengthened the risk-management capabilities of major banks. The quality of leadership and commitment by all involved has been instrumental in the success o...

  17. Australia and the Indonesian Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Sah-Hadiyatan Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Immediately after World War II, the Indonesian nationalists declared the independence of Indonesia and staunchly opposed the return of the Dutch to the Netherlands East Indies. The Australian Labor government took the position to support the Indonesian nationalist instead of the Dutch. This position was taken based on the rights of self-government for the dependent peoples enshrined in the United Nations Charter and championed by Australia. Besides Australia’s idealism on the colonial issue, ...

  18. Evolving telehealth reimbursement in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursell, S-E; Zang, S; Keech, A C; Jenkins, A J

    2016-08-01

    Video-based consultation is the only telehealth service reimbursed by the Medicare Benefits Schedule in Australia, but the uptake of telehealth is still low and inconsistent. There is a clear need for the development of appropriate medical evidence to support implementation of telehealth services. With the ubiquitous use of mobile phones, mobile health becomes important in facilitating health services and impacting clinical outcomes anywhere. PMID:27553999

  19. Regional Economic Disparities in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Ramakrishnan; Martin D. Cerisola

    2004-01-01

    Australia's remarkable economic performance during the 1990s has not resulted in a significant convergence of real per capita income, output, and employment levels across the country's states and territories. This paper explores the role of certain economic rigidities that may have contributed to the lack of convergence, including rigidities in labor markets and in the structure of federal government transfers to households and subnational governments. The analysis suggests that the wage awar...

  20. Radiological terrorism and Australia's response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A terrorist attack in Australia involving dispersal of radioactive material is different from conventional terrorist attacks involving explosives. The trauma experienced by victims during an explosive incident includes cuts, broken limbs, burns and shock. When an explosive device involving radioactive materials is involved, there are a number of additional characteristics including the contamination of victims and the surrounding area and the potential requirement for ongoing monitoring and decontamination. Response actions may require additional complex emergency response measures including immediate protective actions to protect those potentially exposed to contamination, mass casualty care, and public and mental health. There are concerns that terrorist organizations are showing increasing interest in acquiring radiological material that could be used with explosive. A dirty bomb or technically known as a radiological dispersal device (RDD) is a device designed to spread radioactive contamination over a wide area and pose a health and safety threat to those within the contaminated area. The radioactive material could be in the form of a large chunk of material, fine powder, a liquid mist, or a gas. The material may also be spread in other ways, such as by simply emptying a container over the desired area. As RDD's do not require large amounts of explosives, there is unlikely to be a large numbers of casualties, however the areas contaminated by the radiological material may cause immediate and long term health risks to those exposed. An RDD is a weapon of Mass Disruption rather than destruction. While the likelihood of RDD's being employed by terrorist in Australia is still considered remote, Australia's emergency response organizations are developing plans to ensure a rapid and comprehensive response occurs should such an event occur in this country, The presentation will outline Australia's response arrangements at the local/state level and the type of federal

  1. Private rental housing in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is in five parts. In section 1, the significance of private rental housing in Australia is outlined, and contemporary Australian issues are related to overseas developments and local concerns during the 1960s and 1970s. In section 2, some problems involved in defining the private rental sector are examined, the focus being on different types of landlords. In section 3, trends, issues, and problems are discussed, this involving a detailed examination both of the extent to which avai...

  2. Karst and agriculture in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillieson David

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the development and degradation of karst lands in Australia has occurred in the last two centuries since European settlement. Recent prolonged El Nino events add further climatic uncertainty and place real constraints on sustainable agriculture. The lower southeast of South Australia is perhaps the one area in Australia where karst, and particularly karst hydrology, impinge on the daily lives of the community in that pollution and overexploitation of the aquifer are readily apparent to the local population. Effluent from intensive dairy farms, piggeries and cheese factories enters the karst and has caused concern over pollution of water supplies. Human impacts on the Mole Creek karst of Tasmania have been well documented. The principal recent impacts on the karst arc associated with land clearance for farmland, forest cutting for timber, road building, refuse disposal and associated hydrological change. There is similar evidence of agricultural impacts un karst in central New South Wales, with clear evidence of vegetation clearance and soil stripping on the limestones at Wellington, Orange and Molong.

  3. Dynamic spatiotemporal trends of imported dengue fever in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Yakob, Laith; Devine, Gregor; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Fu, Shiu-Yun; Hu, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) epidemics in Australia are caused by infected international travellers and confined to Northern Queensland where competent vectors exist. Recent analyses suggest that global trade and climate change could lead to the re-establishment of Ae. aegypti across the country and promote the spread of dengue nationally. This study aimed to describe the dynamic spatiotemporal trends of imported DF cases and their origins, identify the current and potential future high-risk regions and locate areas that might be at particular risk of dengue transmission should competent mosquito vectors expand their range. Our results showed that the geographical distribution of imported DF cases has significantly expanded in mainland Australia over the past decade. In recent years, the geographical distribution of source countries of DF has expanded from the Pacific region and Asia to include Africa and the Americas. Australia is now exposed to dengue importations from all of the regions involved in the current global pandemic. The public health implications of a range expansion of dengue mosquito vectors are severe. Enhanced mosquito surveillance in those areas that have high imported cases is called for to reduce emerging threats from this globally expanding pathogen. PMID:27460696

  4. COMMERCIAL SURROGACY: WHAT ROLE FOR LAW IN AUSTRALIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifris, Ronli; Ludlow, Karinne; Sifris, Adiva

    2015-12-01

    This editorial begins by illuminating current conversations regarding the regulation of commercial surrogacy in Australia. It defines "commercial surrogacy" and explains the interaction between changes in social attitudes and changes to the law before setting out the current Australian law and practice in this area. An examination of current domestic law and practice reveals that surrogacy legislation in Australia is mired in inconsistencies and a lack of uniformity but that the one key common element is the prohibition of commercial surrogacy. The inability of couples to access commercial surrogacy within Australia has led to offshore reproductive tourism and unpredictable, contradictory decision-making as the Family Court attempts to apply legislation which was never intended to apply in this context. The editorial then turns to consider the international arena, discussing the approach of the Hague Conference on Private International Law before delving into a human rights analysis of commercial surrogacy arrangements. The adoption of a rights-based approach requires an analysis of this vexed issue from the perspective of the child, surrogate and intending parents. While questions surrounding the human rights implications of legalising commercial surrogacy continue to be the subject of passionate debate, the authors believe that the human rights of all parties are best protected through appropriate regulation rather than absolute prohibition.

  5. COMMERCIAL SURROGACY: WHAT ROLE FOR LAW IN AUSTRALIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifris, Ronli; Ludlow, Karinne; Sifris, Adiva

    2015-12-01

    This editorial begins by illuminating current conversations regarding the regulation of commercial surrogacy in Australia. It defines "commercial surrogacy" and explains the interaction between changes in social attitudes and changes to the law before setting out the current Australian law and practice in this area. An examination of current domestic law and practice reveals that surrogacy legislation in Australia is mired in inconsistencies and a lack of uniformity but that the one key common element is the prohibition of commercial surrogacy. The inability of couples to access commercial surrogacy within Australia has led to offshore reproductive tourism and unpredictable, contradictory decision-making as the Family Court attempts to apply legislation which was never intended to apply in this context. The editorial then turns to consider the international arena, discussing the approach of the Hague Conference on Private International Law before delving into a human rights analysis of commercial surrogacy arrangements. The adoption of a rights-based approach requires an analysis of this vexed issue from the perspective of the child, surrogate and intending parents. While questions surrounding the human rights implications of legalising commercial surrogacy continue to be the subject of passionate debate, the authors believe that the human rights of all parties are best protected through appropriate regulation rather than absolute prohibition. PMID:26939494

  6. Dynamic spatiotemporal trends of imported dengue fever in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Yakob, Laith; Devine, Gregor; Frentiu, Francesca D; Fu, Shiu-Yun; Hu, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) epidemics in Australia are caused by infected international travellers and confined to Northern Queensland where competent vectors exist. Recent analyses suggest that global trade and climate change could lead to the re-establishment of Ae. aegypti across the country and promote the spread of dengue nationally. This study aimed to describe the dynamic spatiotemporal trends of imported DF cases and their origins, identify the current and potential future high-risk regions and locate areas that might be at particular risk of dengue transmission should competent mosquito vectors expand their range. Our results showed that the geographical distribution of imported DF cases has significantly expanded in mainland Australia over the past decade. In recent years, the geographical distribution of source countries of DF has expanded from the Pacific region and Asia to include Africa and the Americas. Australia is now exposed to dengue importations from all of the regions involved in the current global pandemic. The public health implications of a range expansion of dengue mosquito vectors are severe. Enhanced mosquito surveillance in those areas that have high imported cases is called for to reduce emerging threats from this globally expanding pathogen. PMID:27460696

  7. Indigenous community-based fisheries in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jennifer; Hill, Greg

    2007-12-01

    The commercial sea cucumber species known as Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) occurs intertidally and subtidally in the Northern Territory of Australia, on or adjacent to Aboriginal land. A 4-yr program of community-based fisheries research with Aboriginal Australians was implemented to assess the viability of indigenous Australians' involvement in the wild-stock fishery. The research involved extensive and intensive indigenous participation, unusual in Australian biophysical sciences research, during field survey and habitat mapping, complemented by commercial catch data modelling and discussion of its implications. Field surveys produced Sandfish distribution and site-specific density, and revealed some areas that were not commercially fished. Catch data modelling results suggested that no additional effort could be sustained, however commercial fishers increased their effort, expanding their operations into the newly mapped areas. These actions effectively precluded indigenous peoples' aspirations of entry into the commercial fishery. The efficacy and outcomes of participatory program design with indigenous Australians need critique in the absence of the political will and statutory backing to provide equitable access to resources. PMID:17175093

  8. A review of severe thunderstorms in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John T.; Allen, Edwina R.

    2016-09-01

    Severe thunderstorms are a common occurrence in Australia and have been documented since the first European settlement in 1788. These events are characterized by large damaging hail in excess of 2 cm, convective wind gusts greater than 90 km h- 1 and tornadoes, and contribute a quarter of all natural hazard-related losses in the country. This impact has lead to a growing body of research and insight into these events. In this article, the state of knowledge regarding their incidence, distribution, and the resulting hail, tornado, convective wind, and lightning risk will be reviewed. Applying this assessment of knowledge, the implications for forecasting, the warning process, and how these events may respond to climate change and variability will also be discussed. Based on this review, ongoing work in the field is outlined, and several potential avenues for future research and exploration are suggested. Most notably, the need for improved observational or proxy climatologies, the forecasting guidelines for tornadoes, and the need for a greater understanding of how severe thunderstorms respond to climate variability are highlighted.

  9. Dating fluvial archives of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Daniela; Cohen, Tim; Reinfelds, Ivars; Jacobs, Zenobia; Shulmeister, James

    2016-04-01

    The Riverine Plain of Southeastern Australia is characterized by a multiplicity of relict river channels. Compared to the modern drainage system the most prominent of those distinct features are defined by large bankfull channel widths, large meander wavelengths and coarse sediment loads. Such morphological differences provide evidence for regimes of higher discharge, stemming from significant changes in runoff volumes, flood-frequency regimes and sediment supply. An existing geochronology for some of these channels is based on multi-grain thermoluminescence (Murrumbidgee River; Page et al., 1996) or radio-carbon dating (Goulburn River; Bowler, 1978) and indicates enhanced fluvial activity between 30 to 13 ka. The absence of exact Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ± 3 ka) ages of the Murrumbidgee palaeochannels was interpreted to indicate decreased fluvial activity during the peak of the LGM but was not inferred for the nearby Goulburn River. Recent developments in optical dating, especially measurements of individual grains of quartz, allow for an examination of these previous findings. Key sites along the Murrumbidgee and Goulburn Rivers have been revisited and new sites of the adjacent Murray River have been investigated. A revised, high-resolution geochronology based on single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating is used to examine the precise occurrence of those massive channels and their implications for the Southern Hemisphere LGM. References: Page, K., Nanson, G., Price, D. (1996). Chronology of Murrumbidgee River palaeochannels on the Riverine Plain, southeastern Australia. Journal of Quaternary Science 11(4): 311-326. Bowler, J. (1978). Quaternary Climate and Tectonics in the Evolution of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia. In: Davies, J. & Williams, M. (Editors). Landform Evolution in Australia, Australian National University Press: Canberra. p. 70-112.

  10. Immigration and unemployment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokhas, K

    1994-01-01

    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12289763

  11. [Mental health services in Australia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio

  12. Geoethics: a perspective from Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ian B. Lambert

    2012-01-01

    This short article is based on the introductory remarks I made in the Geoethics symposium at Geoitalia 2011. I was pleased to be invited to provide a brief address at this meeting because it gave me the opportunity to promote the 34th International Geological Congress (IGC) that will to be held in Brisbane, Australia, on August 5-10, 2012, and which will have a strong geoethics symposium. My succinct remarks reflect my experience over many years in provision of technical information and advic...

  13. [Mental health services in Australia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio

  14. Aquaponics : Practical thesis in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Kopsa, Piia

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is about building an aquaponics system to an Australian farm. This thesis begins by introducing what aquaponics is, and continues by designing and building an aquaponics system to a farm in Australia. One of the goals is to learn more about aquaponics that’s a growing idea all around the world and raise the farm’s self-sustainability level. Information for the thesis has been gathered from several books, internet sources, followed by visits and inter-views from users of existing a...

  15. Immigration and unemployment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokhas, K

    1994-01-01

    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  16. Uranium production economics in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review of the economics of production of uranium in Australia provides a detailed description of eleven important uranium deposits including capital and production costs estimates and supply curves. For each mine a detailed assessment has been made of its potential production capacity to the year 2000. Socio-economic factors that play an all-too-important role in the Australian uranium industry are extensively reviewed to provide an insight into the factors affecting Australia's ability to supply. The study is based on a detailed computer-based economic engineering model where all major costs such as labor, consumables and capital recovery charges are analyzed for each mine, and levellised break-even prices determined. It is argued that at the present low market prices, the three on-going operations are profitable, and at least three other deposits could be brought to viable production, given the necessary Government approval. Several other deposits appear to be marginal at the set Australian export floor price of US$26 per pound. Annual production could be raised from about 6,000 tonnes of U3O8 to 16,000 tonnes by the turn of century, with the development of three additional deposits. It is concluded that, if Australian producers were allowed to compete freely on the international market, annual production would pass the 10,000 tonne/annum mark between 1995 and 2000. 35 figs., 38 tabs., 81 refs

  17. Neutron scattering science in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Robert [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia)

    1999-10-01

    Neutron scattering science in Australia is making an impact on a number of fields in the scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a wide range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans are in progress to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor to offer the most advanced neutron scattering facilities. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. (author)

  18. Vehicle crashworthiness ratings in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M; Mach, T; Neiger, D; Graham, A; Ramsay, R; Pappas, M; Haley, J

    1994-08-01

    The paper reviews the published vehicle safety ratings based on mass crash data from the United States, Sweden, and Great Britain. It then describes the development of vehicle crashworthiness ratings based on injury compensation claims and police accident reports from Victoria and New South Wales, the two most populous states in Australia. Crashworthiness was measured by a combination of injury severity (of injured drivers) and injury risk (of drivers involved in crashes). Injury severity was based on 22,600 drivers injured in crashes in the two states. Injury risk was based on 70,900 drivers in New South Wales involved in crashes after which a vehicle was towed away. Injury risk measured in this way was compared with the "relative injury risk" of particular model cars involved in two car crashes in Victoria (where essentially only casualty crashes are reported), which was based on the method developed by Folksam Insurance in Sweden from Evans' double-pair comparison method. The results include crashworthiness ratings for the makes and models crashing in Australia in sufficient numbers to measure their crash performance adequately. The ratings were normalised for the driver sex and speed limit at the crash location, the two factors found to be strongly related to injury risk and/or severity and to vary substantially across makes and models of Australian crash-involved cars. This allows differences in crashworthiness of individual models to be seen, uncontaminated by major crash exposure differences. PMID:7916859

  19. Resource rent tax in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Since July 1, 1984, new (greenfield) offshore petroleum projects lying beyond the territorial sea (thus under federal control) have been subject to a Commonwealth resource rent tax (CRRT). Rules are to be laid down for calculating the economic rent to be attributed to production of any petroleum-crude oil, condensate, natural gas, LPG, or ethane. This rent is the tax base, and it is to be taxed at a rate of 40%. The first section of this paper briefly summarizes the current situation in Australia. This account is based chiefly on a series of public discussion papers (Australia, 1983, 1984a, 1984b) issued by the Commonwealth government before introducing the new tax. Then examined are certain limitations that apply to any tax system designed to appropriate realized economic rent. The following section focuses on several problems specifically associated with the CRRT that must be resolved if this approach to taxing mineral revenues is to be widely copied. In conclusion, the author reviews major remaining issues in the CRRT discussion on both the theoretical and applied levels, and return to the question of why rent-based taxes have not been more widely adopted. 18 references.

  20. Historical linguistics in Australia: trees, networks and their implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire

    2010-12-12

    This paper presents an overview of the current state of historical linguistics in Australian languages. Australian languages have been important in theoretical debates about the nature of language change and the possibilities for reconstruction and classification in areas of intensive diffusion. Here are summarized the most important outstanding questions for Australian linguistic prehistory; I also present a case study of the Karnic subgroup of Pama-Nyungan, which illustrates the problems for classification in Australian languages and potential approaches using phylogenetic methods.

  1. Education Policies: Potential Impacts and Implications in Australia and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Australian education is delivered through government and independent systems. This article discusses how education policies on gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and queer students in these different sectors have affected school climates. It describes how previously published policy analysis and survey data on Australian gay, lesbian,…

  2. Examining the Creative Arts Doctorate in Australia: Implications for Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jen; Brien, Donna Lee

    2015-01-01

    One of the significant roles performed by the higher degree research (HDR) supervisor is to assist students to prepare their dissertations for examination. At a time when there is increasing interest in how the academy manages the transition of creative arts HDR candidates from apprentice to peer, there is also concern about the processes,…

  3. Policy and Indigenous Languages in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The use of Indigenous languages has been declining over the period of non-Aboriginal settlement in Australia as a result of repressive policies, both explicit and implicit. The National Policy on Languages (Lo Bianco, 1987) was the high point of language policy in Australia, given its national scope and status and its attempt to encompass all…

  4. Imported Case of Poliomyelitis, Melbourne, Australia, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Stewardson, Andrew J.; Roberts, Jason A; Beckett, Carolyn L.; Prime, Hayden T.; Loh, Poh-Sien; Thorley, Bruce R.; Daffy, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Wild poliovirus–associated paralytic poliomyelitis has not been reported in Australia since 1977. We report type 1 wild poliovirus infection in a man who had traveled from Pakistan to Australia in 2007. Poliomyelitis should be considered for patients with acute flaccid paralysis or unexplained fever who have been to poliomyelitis-endemic countries.

  5. Uranium exploration and mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium minerals were discovered in Australia in the years 1850 to 1900 already, but most of them were not recognised as such. It was not until 1894 that the first significant uranium find was made in Carcoar, west of Sydney. At that time, the uranium output of the world, which only amounted to a few hundred cwts, was for the most part obtained from mining areas close to the border between Saxony and Bohemia. In South Australia, uranium ore was mined experimentally for the production of radium at Radium Hill from 1906 onwards and at Mt. Painter from 1910 onwards. It was not until World War II, however, that uranium gained importance as a valuable raw material that could also be used for military purposes. The second phase of uranium mining in Australia commenced in 1944. Within ten years Australia's presumed uranium potential was confirmed by extensive exploration. The development of uranium mining in Australia is described in the present paper. (orig.)

  6. Providing and financing aged care in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergas H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Henry Ergas1,2, Francesco Paolucci31University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia; 2Deloitte Australia, Brindabella Business Park, Canberra Airport, ACT, Australia; 3Australian Centre for Economic Research on Health, The Australian National University, Acton, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: This article focuses on the provision and financing of aged care in Australia. Demand for aged care will increase substantially as a result of population aging, with the number of Australians aged 85 and over projected to increase from 400,000 in 2010 to over 1.8 million in 2051. Meeting this demand will greatly strain the current system, and makes it important to exploit opportunities for increased efficiency. A move to greater beneficiary co-payments is also likely, though its extent may depend on whether aged care insurance and other forms of pre-payment can develop.Keywords: aged care, long-term care, sustainability, residential care, community care

  7. Psittacid herpesvirus 3 infection in the eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, M; Gabor, L J; Peacock, L; Srivastava, M; Rosenwax, A; Phalen, D

    2013-11-01

    Psittacid herpesvirus 3 (PsHV-3) has recently been implicated as the cause of a severe respiratory disease in Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii) in the United States. In this report, the clinical manifestations and gross and microscopic lesions of PsHV-3 infection in 2 eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus) in Australia are described. The presence of a PsHV-3 infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of PsHV-3 DNA using degenerate and PsHV-3 primers. Electron microscopy of infected cells demonstrated the assembly of herpesvirus virions as well as intranuclear tubular structures. The detection of PsHV-3 in Australia in 2 eclectus parrots broadens the list of known affected species and confirms the presence of this virus in Australia. PMID:23697483

  8. The abortion debate in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Christine Margaret

    2006-09-01

    I recently watched a fascinating documentary about the crusade of Dr Bertram Wainer in the 1960s to bring the practice of illegal abortion in Victoria to an end. It documented the profound horror of the backyard abortion that so often ended in infection, sterility or death, and served as a potent reminder of a practice to which we must never return. Of course that cant happen again, abortion is legal now, isnt it? In Victoria in 1969 a Supreme Court judge ruled that an abortion is not unlawful if a doctor believed that: the abortion is necessary to preserve the woman from serious danger to her life or physical or mental health (Menhennit ruling). In Australia today however, abortion law remains conditional, unclear and inconsistent and, except in the ACT, is still part of criminal statutes. PMID:16969440

  9. Geoethics: a perspective from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian B. Lambert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This short article is based on the introductory remarks I made in the Geoethics symposium at Geoitalia 2011. I was pleased to be invited to provide a brief address at this meeting because it gave me the opportunity to promote the 34th International Geological Congress (IGC that will to be held in Brisbane, Australia, on August 5-10, 2012, and which will have a strong geoethics symposium. My succinct remarks reflect my experience over many years in provision of technical information and advice in support of Australian government decisions and policies on mining, energy and groundwater - all of which have core geoscientific elements. Further, they reflect the situation in a new world country with a strong economy dominated by mining, which differs in many ways from the countries where the field of geoethics has been nurtured and grown. They also outline a dilemma relating to mining in a developing country.

  10. Royal Commissions into Policing: Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Beckley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Royal Commissions and Inquiries have investigated every police force in Australia in relation to their integrity, accountability and effectiveness—a factor of major importance to every citizen in maintaining their freedom, safety and security. The crucial question this paper poses is whether such tribunals are effective or otherwise in terms of the benefits and outcomes accrued from their findings. The paper is in the form of a critical discussion which investigates and analyses the Inquiries using the method of desk research of official documents over the last 50 years from which it identifies common findings and recommendations contained in the official discourse. The research concludes that lessons have not been learned in relation to policing operations, accountability and integrity in a number of cases and highlights a variety of adverse issues that persist into current policing practice.

  11. Agricultural Innovation System In Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudath Arumapperuma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to document agricultural innovation systems (AIS in Australia. We identified eleven broad categories (actors in terms of their activities, namely: policy, education, finance and credit, marketing, input supply, research, extension and information, logistics, processing and storage, farmers and farm organisations and consumers. Survey results reveal that 11 kinds of innovation-related activities of research and education organisations with corresponding percentage weight are directly involved in innovation diffusion. Twelve pre-identified goals of innovation related activities of the above organisations surveyed with their corresponding percentage weight have also been revealed. The study reveals that the majority of funding (more than 80% for innovation activities comes from the Federal Government and funding bodies. Finally survey results indicate that the main constrains/incentives are other issues such as funding, lack of qualified staff, equipment, environmental and Government policy issues etc.

  12. Australia's TERN: Advancing Ecosystem Data Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinn, S. R.; Christensen, R.; Guru, S.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, there is a consistent movement towards more open, collaborative and transparent science, where the publication and citation of data is considered standard practice. Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) is a national research infrastructure investment designed to support the ecosystem science community through all stages of the data lifecycle. TERN has developed and implemented a comprehensive network of ';hard' and ';soft' infrastructure that enables Australia's ecosystem scientists to collect, publish, store, share, discover and re-use data in ways not previously possible. The aim of this poster is to demonstrate how TERN has successfully delivered infrastructure that is enabling a significant cultural and practical shift in Australia's ecosystem science community towards consistent approaches for data collection, meta-data, data licensing, and data publishing. TERN enables multiple disciplines, within the ecosystem sciences to more effectively and efficiently collect, store and publish their data. A critical part of TERN's approach has been to build on existing data collection activities, networks and skilled people to enable further coordination and collaboration to build each data collection facility and coordinate data publishing. Data collection in TERN is through discipline based facilities, covering long term collection of: (1) systematic plot based measurements of vegetation structure, composition and faunal biodiversity; (2) instrumented towers making systematic measurements of solar, water and gas fluxes; and (3) satellite and airborne maps of biophysical properties of vegetation, soils and the atmosphere. Several other facilities collect and integrate environmental data to produce national products for fauna and vegetation surveys, soils and coastal data, as well as integrated or synthesised products for modelling applications. Data management, publishing and sharing in TERN are implemented through a tailored data

  13. Education and the External Affairs Power: Implications for the Governance of Australian Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, I.K. F.

    1983-01-01

    The arguments of the justices and the implications of the High Court of Australia decision in the 1982 Koowarta case for the governance of schooling in the Australian federal system--given the international convention to which Australia is a signatory--are explored. (Author/MLW)

  14. Transforming Australia's HIV prevention and treatment efforts to achieve an AIDS-free generation: the United Nations Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS and the Melbourne Declaration 'Action on HIV'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Bill

    2014-07-01

    This paper discusses Australia's response to the 2011 United Nations Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS in the context of recent ground-breaking advances in HIV prevention and treatment. Australia's progress in responding to these developments is examined and compared with that of eight other countries in Asia and the Pacific. The implications of the 2012 Melbourne Declaration 'Action on HIV' is also discussed as a vehicle for generating advocacy to revolutionise Australia's HIV response and to urge Australia's leadership in achieving an 'AIDS-free generation'.

  15. Coral reproduction in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, James; Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia's remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of the

  16. Choices Which Change Life Satisfaction: Similar Results for Australia, Britain and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Headey, B.; Muffels, R.J.A.; Wagner, G.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from national socio-economic panel surveys in Australia, Britain and Germany, this paper analyzes the effects of individual preferences and choices on subjective well-being (SWB). It is shown that, in all three countries, preferences and choices relating to life goals/values, partner's personality, hours of work, social participation and healthy lifestyle have substantial and similar effects on life satisfaction. The results have negative implications for a widely accepted theory o...

  17. I don't think general practice should be the front line: Experiences of general practitioners working with refugees in South Australia

    OpenAIRE

    David R. Johnson; Ziersch, Anna M; Burgess, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Many refugees arrive in Australia with complex health needs. In South Australia (SA), providing initial health care to refugees is the responsibility of General Practitioners (GPs) in private practice. Their capacity to perform this work effectively for current newly arrived refugees is uncertain. The aim of this study was to document the challenges faced by GPs in private practice in SA when providing initial care to refugees and to discuss the implications of this for policy re...

  18. Breaking the Bottleneck of Behaviour Change:Experience of Australia's Good Life Club and Implication for Chinese Community Health Services%突破行为改变的瓶颈——澳大利亚的美好生活俱乐部及其对中国社区卫生服务的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shane Thomas; Colette Browning; 杨辉; 张拓红; 李志新

    2009-01-01

    .However,for most patients especially adult and elders,changing behaviour is enormous difficulty,although they have been well educated in patient education program.The Good Life Club was one of several chronic illness self-management programs funded by the Australia Government under the national Sharing Health Care initiative.It used clinical coaches to help patients effectively change their behaviours and better manage their diabetes.Many health services in Australia now routinely use this approach in chronic illness management.The key participants in the Good Life Club were patients with diabetes living in the east of Melbourne and were from Australian and Chinese backgrounds.The Club was a partnership between the Whitehorse Division of General Practice and various community health centres and private doctors.Monash University and Australian Psychological Society provided expert technical support to the Club.The Good Life Club used stages of change in the program design.Health coaches helped patients in motivational interviewing,a psychological technique that has been used internationally in managing people with chronic illness.The Club was closely monitored in order to validate effects of coaching.The participants demonstrated significant sustained positive changes in quality of life,and demonstrated a sustained involvement in walking exercise over the program and improved their management of blood sugar levels,and monitoring of diabetes symptoms.This article discusses logic and design of the Good Life Club and explores opportunity and implication for China′s community.

  19. Pycnogonida from south-eastern Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    Twenty species of Pycnogonida are recorded from shallow waters of the Australian states of Victoria and South Australia. Eight of these are new to science : Ammothea (Lecythorhynchus) ovatoides, Achelia transfugoides, Nymphon dubitabile, N. conirostrum, Pallenoides stylirostrum, Stylopallene longica

  20. Australia and the new reusable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalker, R. J.

    The new generation of reusable launch vehicles represented by ESA's Hermes and HOTOL, NASA's National Aerospace Plane, and the DFVLR's Saenger, promises to radically alter the economic basis of space flight by allowing such operations as the on-orbit servicing of satellites. Attention is presently drawn to the opportunities that arise for Australia's aerospace industry from the availability in Australia of two wind tunnel facilities capable of furnishing the requisite hypersonic aerothermodynamics testing capabilities for these vehicles' development.

  1. The Creeping Blight of Islamophobia in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Briskman

    2015-01-01

    In the latter months of 2014, following events in faraway Iraq and Syria, Australia responded forcefully at home. The manufactured fear of a terrorist attack resulted in police raids, increased counter-terrorism legislation and scare campaigns to alert the public to 'threat'. Although Islamophobia rose in Australia after 2001 it has been latent in recent years. It is on the rise again with collateral damage from government measures including verbal and physical attacks on Australian Muslims. ...

  2. The History of Oyster Farming in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Nell, John A.

    2001-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians consumed oysters before settlement by Europeans as shown by the large number of kitchen middens along Australia's coast. Flat oysters, Ostrea angasi, were consumed in southeastern Australia, whereas both flat and Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata, are found in kitchen middens in southern New South Wales (NSW), but only Sydney rock oysters are found in northern NSW and southern Queensland. Oyster fisheries began with the exploitation of dredge beds, for the use...

  3. Labour Market Outcomes in Regional Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Cunningham; Kathryn Davis

    2011-01-01

    Labour market outcomes in regional areas of Australia have followed broadly similar trends to those in capital cities over the past two decades. The range of unemployment rates across the regions narrowed through the 2000s, as the benefits of economic growth were spread broadly across the country. Nonetheless, there are still some notable differences between labour market outcomes in certain regions, partly reflecting the variation in industry structure across regional areas of Australia.

  4. Industrial Radiography Safety in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    cumbersome and often exceeds the prescribed OH and S single person lifting limits. The role of industrial radiography has expanded to inspect not only welds and castings, so that it now includes inspection of assembled and processed goods ranging from automotive air-bags to canned food. It is also used in security systems at airports and other facilities. Almost all these applications use cabinet systems which are rarely the subject of serious radiation incidents or accidents. Gamma ray inspection no longer uses radium. The most common radio-isotopes in use now are Cobalt 60 and Iridium 192. Their freedom from the need for an electrical power supply; their high radiation energy and the ability to place a source in positions of limited physical access, ensures the ongoing attraction of the method. The useful activity ranges of typical sources vary according to their application and the effect on total inspection costs. Common source activities in Australia range between 185 and 370 GBq for Cobalt 60; and between 1500 and 3700 GBq for Iridium 192. Outside Australia however there are recent reports of routine industrial radiography using more than 5500 GBq of Iridium 192. Thus it can be appreciated that any radiation accidents involving these high activity sources have the potential for significant radiation doses. Personal Dose Data: ARPANSA and its predecessor, the Australian Radiation Laboratory, has been providing a personal radiation monitoring service for some time, and releases a summary report every few years (ARPANSA/TR 139, ARL/TR 121, ARL/TR 107). The selected data shown in Table 2 indicate a downward trend in occupational doses received by industrial radiographers working in open site situations, which are potentially the most hazardous. This trend is encouraging, especially when the number of industrial radiographers is increasing. A comparison of the ARPANSA data indicate that whilst the average Australian industrial radiographer's annual dose is higher than the

  5. Nuclear regulation in Australia - future possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.; Bardsley, J. [Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Australian Safeguards Office

    1997-12-31

    Australia`s current nuclear regulatory arrangements reflect two major factors: that we are a federation, with a constitutional division of powers between the Commonwealth and the States, and that we have no nuclear industry, other than uranium mining. Australia`s only nuclear facilities are operated by a Commonwealth instrumentality, ANSTO. Current Commonwealth regulatory arrangements are a response to international treaty commitments -principally the NPT (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons) -and to the commencement of commercial uranium mining and export in the late 1970`s. Although at present no nuclear industry activities, other than mining, are in prospect, this might not always be the case, and with the establishment of ARPANSA (the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency) it is timely to give some thought to regulatory arrangements which might be appropriate to Australia`s future circumstances. This paper will discuss the regulation activities relating to the nuclear fuel cycle , i e activities involved with the production and use of nuclear materials (uranium, thorium and plutonium) for the generation of energy through nuclear fission.

  6. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  7. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 7: Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Helen; And Others

    The report on the status of Japanese language teaching in Australia gives a broad view of Japanese study and discusses current educational issues in some detail. An introductory chapter offers a brief overview of the history, objectives, and issues of Japanese language instruction in Australia. The second chapter details features of instructional…

  8. The renewable energy market in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia is committed to an 8 per cent reduction in its emissions of greenhouse gases above 1990 levels as a result of the Kyoto Protocol for the period 2008-2012. At present, the emissions stand at 17.4 per cent above 1990 levels. Total electrical power in Australia resulting from renewable energy is in the order of 10.5 per cent. A mandatory renewable energy target of 9500 gigawatt hour (GWh) of extra renewable energy is to be produced annually by 2010, under the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act. An emissions trading system has been implemented, involving one renewable energy certificate (REC) created for each megawatt hour of renewable energy generated. A significant expansion of the demand for renewable energy is expected in Australia over the next ten years, according to the Australian Greenhouse Office. Increased opportunities for local and international firms operating in the field of renewable energy are being created by the Australian government through initiatives such as the Renewable Energy Commercialization Program, and the Renewable Remote Power Generation Program. Solar, biomass, and wind power are comprised in the wealth of renewable energy resources in Australia. The market remains largely undeveloped. Firms from the United States and the European Union are the leading exporters of renewable energy technology to Australia. Public utilities and independent power producers having entered the deregulated electricity market are the consumers of renewable energy technology and services. A country with minimal duties in most cases, Australia has much in common with Canada, including similar regulatory and legal systems. Australia applies a 10 per cent goods and services tax, which would apply to Canadian exports. It was advised to consult the Australian Customs Service for additional information concerning duties that might be applicable to the renewable energy industry. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Commercialisation of science in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and the business proposition have merit - government assistance (e.g. BIF, R and D Start, STI funding) and some type of relationship with Big Pharma/Big Biotech provide assurances. In the life sciences, durable and strong IP is critical. This presentation will focus on choice of commercialisation strategy (i.e. licensing vs. start up vs. joint venture etc); the hazards of 'expropriation' for the small end of town; little c versus big C commercialisation; creating value in the biopharmaceutical sector; and persistent restraints to innovation in Australia

  10. Science Engagement and Literacy: A retrospective analysis for students in Canada and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Colette Oliver, Mary; McConney, Andrew; Schibeci, Renato; Maor, Dorit

    2014-07-01

    Given international concerns about students' pursuit (or more correctly, non-pursuit) of courses and careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, this study is about achieving a better understanding of factors related to high school students' engagement in science. The study builds on previous secondary analyses of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) datasets for New Zealand and Australia. For the current study, we compared patterns of science engagement and science literacy for male and female students in Canada and Australia. The study's secondary analysis revealed that for all PISA measures included under the conceptual umbrella of engagement in science (i.e. interest, enjoyment, valuing, self-efficacy, self-concept and motivation), 15-year-old students in Australia lagged their Canadian counterparts to varying, albeit modest, degrees. Our retrospective analysis further shows, however, that gender equity in science engagement and science literacy is evident in both Canadian and Australian contexts. Additionally, and consistent with our previous findings for indigenous and non-indigenous students in New Zealand and Australia, we found that for male and female students in both countries, the factor most strongly associated with variations in engagement in science was the extent to which students participate in science activities outside of school. In contrast, and again for both Canadian and Australian students, the factors most strongly associated with science literacy were students' socioeconomic backgrounds, and the amount of formal time spent doing science. The implications of these results for science educators and researchers are discussed.

  11. Climate change, aeroallergens, natural particulates, and human health in Australia: state of the science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Paul John; Bennett, Charmian Margaret

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this article is to systematically review and assess what is known about the impacts of climate change on aeroallergens and other naturally derived particulates, and the associated human health impacts, and to examine responses to these in Australia, focusing on adaptation. Prior research was searched using several general and discipline-specific research databases. The review concludes that whereas there is little original research on the impacts of climate change on aeroallergens and other naturally derived particulates in Australia, or the human health consequences of these, research from overseas suggests that these impacts may be adverse and of considerable magnitude. More research is required to assess the impacts of climate change on these airborne particles and associated diseases in Australia and other parts of the Asia-Pacific. There are important policy implications of this review. There is a need for enhanced monitoring of the atmospheric environment and associated health conditions in Australia. Education about climate change and human health in general, and air quality and related diseases specifically, is required for the community, health professionals, and others. Improvements are needed in the preparedness of infrastructure, such as health care facilities and early warning systems, particularly for aeroallergens, and all of these adaptive policy responses require further research.

  12. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND GREEN TRANSPORT IN AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURAT SARI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is one of the main restrictions of sustainable development. We examine whether or not freight transport is sensitive of the environment in Australia, particularly in the state of Victoria. Because, freight transports is one of the significant factors of environmental pollution. In the study we discuss the decision taken by the government of Victoria; and what kind of measurement is applied by the government. We also discuss which policy should be followed to achieve green transportation. The aim of the study is to determine the effects of environmental measurement on growing of the transport sector. The economics of Australia has a structure growing fast, in order to parallel the increasing growth of the transport sector. It tries to apply Kyoto protocol to the transport sector. In conclusion, the environmental pollution and CO2 emissions decrease in Australia although the transport sector grows day by day.

  13. Institutional impediments to population policy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnicoll, G

    1995-11-01

    Despite having almost the highest rate of population growth among OECD countries, Australia has no explicit population policy. The potential elements of such a policy, especially with regard to immigration, family, and environment, are deeply entrenched in separate political domains and responsive to separate clusters of interests. Vague, demographically ill-informed, and mutually inconsistent views of a desired population size or trajectory for Australia co-exist, with no arena for any systematic engagement and considered debate among them. Parallels to the case of Australia can be drawn with Canada and the US. Population policy may well be one of the issues that modern liberal democracies find particularly difficult to manage. There are, however, also specific historical circumstances which led to the outcome and perpetuate the situation. Population processes and the institution of citizenship, and contested policy domains are discussed. PMID:12321981

  14. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, D A; Buttery, R G

    1992-08-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) presents with sudden onset of visual loss mainly in young adult males. LHON is not uncommon in Australia, accounting for 2% of invalid blind pensions. We have identified 20 unrelated families carrying mitochondrial DNA mutations associated with LHON and 135 of 291 individuals with documented LHON are currently alive in Australia. The mean age of onset of visual loss for males was 26 years and for females 27 years, with a range from six to 65 years. The mean risk of visual loss was 20% for males and 4% for females. There are over 1750 male and female carriers living in Australia who have not yet lost vision; 600 carriers are under 24 years of age. The expected number of new cases of blindness from LHON is three to four per year. PMID:1449769

  15. 威尔金斯(Wilkins,Maurice Hugh Frederick,1916-2004)新西兰-英国物理学家(Physicist,New Zealand-England)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    威尔金斯是一位医生的儿子,6岁时移居英国,1940年在伯明翰大学获得博士学位。薛定谔所著的有关生命本性的一本书伎他对生物学发生兴趣劳厄和布拉格父子早就指出,X射线可被晶体中规则排布的原子衍射;由衍射图形可推断出晶体中原子的排列。这个方法同样也可以用于由化学单元重复排列所组成的大纤维分子,当然在具体方式上要复杂得多。纤维分子通常是由化学单元重复组成。

  16. Australia's uranium - greenhouse friendly fuel for an energy hungry world: a case study into the strategic importance of Australia's uranium resources for the inquiry into developing Australia's non-fossil fuel energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The terms of reference for the case study were to inquire into and report on the strategic importance of Australia's uranium resources. The Committee was asked to give particular attention to the: global demand for Australia's uranium resources and associated supply issues; potential implications for global greenhouse emission reductions from the further development and export of Australia's uranium resources; and the current regulatory environment of the uranium mining sector. The Committee indicated in its letters inviting submissions that it would also welcome comments in relation to six additional issues, relating to: whole of life cycle waste management; adequacy of social impact assessment, consultation and approval processes with traditional owners; health risks to workers and to the public from exposure to radiation; adequacy of regulation of uranium mining by the Commonwealth; the extent of federal subsidies and other mechanisms to facilitate uranium mining; and the effectiveness of safeguards regimes in addressing proliferation. These matters are addressed in the Committee's report, which consists of 12 chapters. The contents, findings and recommendations of each chapter are summarised as follows. The Committee's conclusions and recommendations are also summarised in a key messages section at the beginning of each chapter and in the conclusions section at the end of each chapter

  17. Recommendations for an energy policy for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the next few years, Australia must modify its dependence on natural oil and place greater reliance on other fossil fuels and renewable energy sources. The recommendations contained in this report are the result of two years of study, and the long term energy prospects for Australia and energy resource policies for coal, liquid fuels, nuclear energy, solar energy and natural gas are considered in detail. Energy conservation policies and the identification of areas where energy research, development and demonstration need to be undertaken are also covered. (J.R.)

  18. The Creeping Blight of Islamophobia in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Briskman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the latter months of 2014, following events in faraway Iraq and Syria, Australia responded forcefully at home. The manufactured fear of a terrorist attack resulted in police raids, increased counter-terrorism legislation and scare campaigns to alert the public to 'threat'. Although Islamophobia rose in Australia after 2001 it has been latent in recent years. It is on the rise again with collateral damage from government measures including verbal and physical attacks on Australian Muslims. Vitriol is also directed at asylum seekers and refugees. Media, government and community discourses converge to promote Islam as dangerous and deviant.

  19. UV/EB curing in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in LTV/EB curing is reviewed in Australia. Generally the technology is used by those industries where curing is well developed in Europe and North America, however the scale is an order of magnitude lower due to the smaller market size. The Asian economic crisis does not appear to have affected expansion of the technology in Australia. EB continues to be successfully used in the packaging and foam fields whilst in UV, security devices, particularly banknotes are steadily expanding especially in export markets have been studied

  20. Australia China Friendship Society Supports Beijing Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tom Loy

    2008-01-01

    <正>Editor’s note: The following is the full text of a letter CPAFFC Vice President Li Xiaolin received on May 5 from Australia: Dear Madam Li Xiaolin, As the national body representing friendship between Australia and China, we confirm our strongest support for the Olympic Torch Relay and Beijing’s hosting of the Olympic Games. Considering the difficulties that have been occurring and controversial media coverage we believe that China has set a good example. The Torch Relay has been a success in its own right and we are confident that the Olympic Games will be successful.

  1. Status of Women In Physics in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, C. P.

    2009-04-01

    The status of women in physics is Australia has remained mostly steady until recently, with the appointment of several eminent women in major government of public roles. Australia seems to maintain the same gender ratio for those studying and working in physics. There is no overall coordination of programs to assist women into the workplace but there is generally goodwill. Success in attracting and retaining women in the physics workforce appears to depend on the local culture, initiatives, and attitude of the most senior person in the organization.

  2. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  3. “Water Poverty” in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Background Coleridge’s well known words from the Ancient Mariner, ‘Water, water, everywhere/ nor any drop to drink’ have strong resonances for Australia which is an island country and, by definition, surrounded by undrinkable sea water. The bulk of Australia’s population is huddled into a belt of arable land on the coastal perimeter of the nation, while its vast dry inland area remains only sparsely populated. Australia is, on many indicators, a rich island. It is highly industrialised. It ru...

  4. An ice core derived 1013-year catchment scale annual rainfall reconstruction in subtropical eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, C. R.; Vance, T. R.; Roberts, J.; Kiem, A. S.; Curran, M. A. J.; Moy, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Paleoclimate research indicates that the instrumental climate record (~100 years in Australia) does not cover the full range of hydroclimatic variability possible. To better understand the implications of this for catchment-scale water resources management, an annual rainfall reconstruction is produced for the Williams River catchment in coastal eastern Australia. No high resolution palaeoclimate proxies are located in the region and so a teleconnection between summer sea salt deposition recorded in ice cores from East Antarctica and rainfall variability in eastern Australia was exploited to reconstruct 1013 years of rainfall (AD 1000-2012). The reconstruction shows that significantly longer and more frequent wet and dry periods were experienced in the preinstrumental compared to the instrumental period. This suggests that existing drought and flood risk assessments underestimate the true risks due to the reliance on data and statistics obtained from only the instrumental record. This raises questions about the robustness of existing water security and flood protection measures and has serious implications for water resources management, infrastructure design, and catchment planning. The method used in this proof of concept study is transferable and enables similar insights into the true risk of flood/drought to be gained for other locations that are teleconnected to East Antarctica. This will lead to improved understanding and ability to deal with the impacts of multidecadal to centennial hydroclimatic variability.

  5. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  6. CPAFFC Delegation Attends Annual Conference Of Australia Sister Cities Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Australia Sister Cities Association(ASCA),the CPAFFC delegation visited Australia and attended the Annual Conference of ASCA in Devonport of Tasmania State from November 11 to 22,2006.

  7. A Case of Language Revitalisation in "Settled" Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Presents a case of language revitalisation in "settled" Australia, considers the nature of the language ecology in indigenous Australia, and advances some of the reasons for the success of this case of language revitalization. (Author/VWL)

  8. 76 FR 65988 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... importation of fresh mangoes from Australia into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, the... the United States. The national plant protection organization (NPPO) of Australia has requested that... from Australia to be imported into the continental United States. As part of our evaluation...

  9. 76 FR 81401 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... shipments of litchi fruit from Australia into the continental United States, except Florida. As a condition... into the continental United States. As part of our evaluation of Australia's request, we prepared a... litchi fruit with up to 5 millimeters of stem into the continental United States from Australia....

  10. Internationalization in Australia and Canada: Lessons for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the internationalization of postsecondary education in Australia and Canada. The author discusses the contextual similarities and differences between the two countries, the shifting rationale "from aid to trade" behind Australia's internationalization attempts and some of the reasons for Australia's success.…

  11. Library Development: Australia. IATUL Proceedings Vol. 15, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjallbrant, Nancy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the IATUL (International Association of Technological University Libraries) Proceedings focuses on developments in Australian libraries. The first article, "University Librarianship in Australia" (D. H. Borchardt), reviews the growth of librarianship in Australia and examines some current issues. "Information Retrieval in Australia"…

  12. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  13. 77 FR 35353 - Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia AGENCY: International Trade... Biotech Life Sciences trade mission to Australia, October 29-November 2, 2012. The mission to Australia is... prominent biotech organizations, government meetings, and briefings and receptions during the...

  14. Next Target: To Plant Cotton in Australia%Next Target: To Plant Cotton in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China textile enterprises turn their sight to the largest and the best cotton farm in Australia for the use of local resource advantages, including perfect dams, low cost planting conditions, and high quality cotton.

  15. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P

    2001-12-01

    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities.

  16. Lantern Festival —— Canberra, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carol Keil

    2009-01-01

    <正>Each year, for the last 21 years, the ACT Branch of the Australia China Friendship Society has celebrated the Lantern Festival on the shores of Lake Burley Griffin. In preparation for the Festival we hold a lantern-making workshop for the general public

  17. Physiotherapy in Critical Care in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Berney, Susan; Haines, Kimberley; Denehy, Linda

    2012-01-01

    A physiotherapist is part of the multidisciplinary team in most intensive care units in Australia. Physiotherapists are primary contact practitioners and use a comprehensive multisystem assessment that includes the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems to formulate individualized treatment plans. The traditional focus of treatment has been the respiratory management of both intubated and spontaneously breathing patients. However, the emerging evidence of the l...

  18. Radiation doses from computed tomography in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent surveys in various countries have shown that computed tomography (CT) is a significant and growing contributor to the radiation dose from diagnostic radiology. Australia, with 332 CT scanners (18 per million people), is well endowed with CT equipment compared to European countries (6 to 13 per million people). Only Japan, with 8500 units (78 per million people), has a significantly higher proportion of CT scanners. In view of this, a survey of CT facilities, frequency of examinations, techniques and patient doses has been performed in Australia. It is estimated that there are 1 million CT examinations in Australia each year, resulting in a collective effective dose of 7000 Sv and a per caput dose of 0.39 mSv. This per caput dose is much larger than found in earlier studies in the UK and New Zealand but is less than 0.48 mSv in Japan. Using the ICRP risk factors, radiation doses from CT could be inducing about 280 fatal cancers per year in Australia. CT is therefore a significant, if not the major, single contributor to radiation doses and possible risk from diagnostic radiology. (authors)

  19. Analysis on the Emotions in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng-zhen

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing familial affection between Sarah and Nullah across race, love between Sarah and Drover across caste, friend⁃ship between Sarah and King George across caste and race, this paper attempts to help audience comprehend the theme of the movie Austrlia and construct a new equal harmonious diversified Australia.

  20. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana

    2010-01-01

    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

  1. The Teaching of Japanese in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Helen E.

    1992-01-01

    The article surveys the development of Japanese language courses in Australia, noting a variety of factors contribute to the growth and recent intensification of interest in the subject. It examines problems within Japanese language teaching and discusses further innovative course development, differentiation of needs, employer perceptions, and…

  2. Uranium mining in Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compared the impact of taxation on the economic viability and competitive position of uranium mining in Canada and Australia. The evaluation is based on four types of uranium deposit and four hypothetical project models. The deposits are assumed to have been discovered and delineated, and are awaiting a mine development decision. The models, initially appraised on a before-tax basis, are then subjected to taxation in each of six jurisdictions. Several taxation criteria are assessed in each case, including after-tax measures of investment incentive, discounted tax revenues, effective tax rates, intergovernmental tax shares, and comparative tax levels. The impact of taxation is shown to be both high and variable. The taxation systems in Saskatchewan and Australia's Northern Territory generate the most government revenue and provide the lowest incentive for investment. Canada's Northwest Territories and Ontario provide the best investment incentive and collect the least amount of taxes. South Australia and Western Australia tend to be positioned between these extremes. The study demonstrates that only the very best uranium mining projects have a chance of being developed under current market conditions, and even these can be rendered uneconomic by excessive taxation regimes. It follows that exceptionally good quality targets will have to be identified to provide the economic justification for uranium exploration. These realities will likely restrict uranium exploration and development activities for some time, not an unexpected response to a market situation where low prices have been caused largely by excess supply. (L.L.)

  3. Perception of Innovative Crop Insurance in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Molnar, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, extreme climate risks cause stakeholders in food supply chains to search for new risk management tools. In Australia, recently so-called crop yield simulation insurance has been introduced based on an integrated agrometeorological simulation model. Current uptake is relatively low, possib

  4. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P

    2001-12-01

    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities. PMID:11929136

  5. Public Engagement and Nanotechnology in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    Upstream engagement is commonly regarded as necessary for the smooth implementation of new technologies, particularly when there is an impact on health. Is the healthcare context in Australia geared toward such public engagement? There are established engagement practices for issues of healthcare resourcing, for example; however, the situation becomes more complex with the introduction of a new technology such as nanomedicine. PMID:27348837

  6. Tertiary Education in Australia: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Edward Wilfrid; Berends, Willem

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the foundation and development of universities in Australia and New Zealand and demonstrates how these universities were established on a secular basis. Educators from other continents with a mainly Christian history are often surprised that there is so little evidence of Christian input into the university sector in…

  7. International Higher Education in Australia: Unplanned Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid

    2011-01-01

    International education is the third largest export industry in Australia and is worth almost A$20 billion. The last ten years have witnessed significant growth in both onshore and offshore enrolments of international students in Australian universities. The offshore component of all Australian universities has been subject to scrutiny by the…

  8. Training for rural practice in Australia 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickner, J M

    1991-01-21

    There is a shortage of general practitioners in rural Australia. Several recent State and federal government reports have highlighted the difficulties of rural practice. One of the reasons commonly cited for the shortage of country doctors is the lack of appropriate training in Australia's medical schools and the Family Medicine Programme. This survey of the heads of departments of community medicine/general practice of Australia's 10 medical schools and of the State directors of the Family Medicine Programme documents the present efforts to train doctors for rural general practice. A 100% response was achieved. The responses indicate much interest and effort from the Family Medicine Programme in developing rural training schemes. Though the community medicine/general practice departments demonstrate considerable interest and innovation, they are hampered by lack of resources and negative attitudes of some specialist colleagues. Overall, the main impediments are: lack of "affirmative action" admissions policies to recruit rural students; insufficient curricular time for teaching the principles of general practice; students' lack of confidence in the procedural aspects of rural practice; lack of appropriate training posts in anaesthetics; lack of appropriate general practice training posts at regional hospitals; and lack of financial resources. Some suggestions are given to improve training for rural practice in Australia. PMID:1986187

  9. Deutsch in Australien (German in Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelt, Hans-Peter

    1975-01-01

    German studies have expanded in the last 25 years in Australia. In 1974 the Goethe Institute conducted developmental conferences for German teachers, in cooperation with Australian universities and school authorities. Twelve universities have fully developed Germanistic Institutes. The Australian government has subsidized increasing numbers of…

  10. Legislation analysis on reducing GHG in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqi Mao; Li Chen

    2014-01-01

    ‘Greenhouse Effect’ derived from human activities has caused many concerns. This dissertation mainly analysis existing GHG reduction regulations in Australia, the relationship between those regulations, and the effectiveness of the regulatory framework to see whether the CPR Scheme and other complementary strategies can effectively improve the regulatory outcomes, namely reduces GHG emissions.

  11. Tertiary Education and Training in Australia, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing data from the National VET Provider Collection and the Higher Education Statistics Collection, this publication provides a summary of participation in tertiary education and training in Australia. It covers participation in Australian Qualifications Framework certificate I qualifications through to doctorates by research, as well as…

  12. The United Kingdom and Australia: new titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, David

    1988-01-01

    In 1987, a number of significant publications reflected the upsurge of interest in medical ethics in Britain and Australia. Topics considered in these reports and journals include the teaching of medical ethics in medical schools, infertility treatment, surrogacy contracts, euthanasia, human embryo research, and moral issues related to AIDS. PMID:11650804

  13. Australia modifies resource rent, uranium mining policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-04-01

    Current Australian government business and economic policies as they affect the mining industry are discussed. The distribution of constitutional and taxing powers in Australia between state and commonwealth governments and possible inappropriate taxes and other policies can have an adverse effect on resource development. The effects of these policies on both coal and uranium mining are discussed.

  14. Academic Salaries in Australia, 1967 to 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    1989-01-01

    Trends in college faculty salaries in Australia since 1967 are examined, in real terms, for several academic ranks and in comparison with salaries of scientists, senior public service administrators and managers, and public service engineers. Faculty salary losses since a 1973 high are substantial, both over time and in comparison with other…

  15. Our impressions of Australia and New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Everyone has his or her own impressions of a place after a visit. Different people have different views because of different cultures. The following story contains some Chinese people’s impressions of Australia and New Zealand after their return.

  16. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  17. The Adult Educator in Multicultural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassby, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Australian Commissioner for Community Relations describes and criticizes the Australian traditional ethnocentrism and xenophobia, pointing out that Australia is and always has been a multicultural society. He emphasizes the need for wide changes in education and notes the potential of lifelong and adult community education. (MF)

  18. Radiation doses from computed tomography in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J.E.M.; Tingey, D.R.C

    1997-11-01

    Recent surveys in various countries have shown that computed tomography (CT) is a significant and growing contributor to the radiation dose from diagnostic radiology. Australia, with 332 CT scanners (18 per million people), is well endowed with CT equipment compared to European countries (6 to 13 per million people). Only Japan, with 8500 units (78 per million people), has a significantly higher proportion of CT scanners. In view of this, a survey of CT facilities, frequency of examinations, techniques and patient doses has been performed in Australia. It is estimated that there are 1 million CT examinations in Australia each year, resulting in a collective effective dose of 7000 Sv and a per caput dose of 0.39 mSv. This per caput dose is much larger than found in earlier studies in the UK and New Zealand but is less than 0.48 mSv in Japan. Using the ICRP risk factors, radiation doses from CT could be inducing about 280 fatal cancers per year in Australia. CT is therefore a significant, if not the major, single contributor to radiation doses and possible risk from diagnostic radiology. (authors) 28 refs., 11 tabs., 10 figs.

  19. Food Literacy at Secondary Schools in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…

  20. Gender Inclusive Policy Developments in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Evelyn

    2002-01-01

    Traces two chronologies of gender-inclusive policy development in Australia's national and state education-policy arenas to demonstrate, from a feminist perspective, their limited applicability at the school level. Argues that more transformative conceptions of gender inclusiveness evident in the feminist academy be promoted in policy. (Contains…

  1. Changing Patterns of Teacher Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspland, Tania

    2006-01-01

    This paper is designed to portray the historical development of teacher education in Australia. The paper is presented in three parts, each of which represents a "turn" in the evolution of teacher education. The first details the historical development of teacher education prior to the establishment of the first teachers college in…

  2. Evidence for host-associated clones of grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrie, A M; van Heeswijck, R; Hoffmann, A A

    2003-06-01

    Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch, is an important pest of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) (Vitaceae). Using microsatellite DNA markers it was demonstrated strong associations can exist between D. vitifoliae asexual lineages and vine host type within a vineyard. Also, in excised root bioassays, D. vitifoliae collected from three regions where different genotypic classes predominated showed host-specific differences in life table parameters of reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of increase. Lastly, comparisons of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences revealed that D. vitifoliae in Australia have paraphyletic origins and fall into two clades partially related to vine host usage. These findings indicate introduction of separate lineages of D. vitifoliae which have close host associations and as such, have important implications for management of this pest in Australia. PMID:12762861

  3. An Empirical Investigation of Trade Flows Between Australia and its Major Trading Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Belicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces Net Export (NX models to examine the determinants of the trade flows between Australia and eight selected trading partner (TP countries (China, France, Germany, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States of America in four selected Trade Deficit (TD categories (Pharmaceutical Products; Nuclear Reactors, Boilers, Machinery and Mechanical Appliances; Electrical Machinery and Equipment; Sound Recorders and Producers, and Vehicles Other Than Railway or Tramway Rolling-Stock. A total of 29 NX models are estimated, which are based on both the monetary and Quantity (QTY values. Findings in this study suggest that macroeconomic variables such as money supply, interest rates and savings rates have no-significant effect in the determination of the NX levels in the selected categories. This highlights that monetary policy cannot influence the NX levels in the selected TD categories in Australia. This study also identifies some policy implications which arise from this paper.

  4. Investigating genetic discrimination in Australia: opportunities and challenges in the early stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sandra D; Otlowski, Margaret F; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine K; Treloar, Susan A; Stranger, Mark; Chenoweth, Kellie

    2004-08-01

    Genetic discrimination, defined as the differential treatment of individuals or their relatives on the basis of actual or presumed genetic differences, is an emerging issue of interest in academic, clinical, social and legal contexts. While its potential significance has been discussed widely, verified empirical data are scarce. Genetic discrimination is a complex phenomenon to describe and investigate, as evidenced by the recent Australian Law Reform Commission inquiry in Australia. The authors research project, which commenced in 2002, aims to document the multiple perspectives and experiences regarding genetic discrimination in Australia and inform future policy development and law reform. Data are being collected from consumers, employers, insurers and the legal system. Attempted verification of alleged accounts of genetic discrimination will be a novel feature of the research. This paper overviews the early stages of the research, including conceptual challenges and their methodological implications. PMID:15460616

  5. Social acceptance of wind energy development and planning in rural communities of Australia: A consumer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social acceptance is necessary for widespread adoption of new renewable energy technologies. A lack of social acceptance by local community residents is a barrier to increasing the renewable energy mix and targets in Australia. This study empirically evaluated predictor importance of key constructs of social acceptance, using responses from a sample of 226 survey respondents in Australia. Regression analysis suggest that ‘Concerns with wind turbines’ was the predictor most strongly correlated with Social Acceptance, followed by ‘Annoyance with wind turbines’, and then ‘Consultation with stakeholders’. Implications of the study and recommendations for consideration by various interest groups (such as policy makers, and potential entrepreneurs) are discussed. This research contributes to theory building rather than theory testing of social acceptance of wind energy development

  6. Closing the gap in nursing education:Comparing nursing registration systems in Australia and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carol Chunfeng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To provide a better understanding of how the nursing registration process in China compares to that of Australia and to identify common features and potential barriers that may affect or facilitate the development of China's ever-demanding need for healthcare and nursing education. Background: Chinese nursing graduates are increasingly being used to augment the shortage of nurses in other countries, including Australia. However, China is desperately in need of strategies to cope with its current challenges in healthcare and nursing education. There is little discussion concerning the differences in nursing registration systems between countries, such as China and Australia. It is unknown how the differences and potential similarities of nursing registration systems in these two countries contribute to or impede nurses' training in China; or the potential for these Australia trained Chinese nursing returnees to cope with the challenges China is facing. Evaluation: Using Bereday's four steps comparison method, this paper will describe, explain, compare, and contrast the nursing registration systems of Australia and China. Key issues: Differences were found in the qualification requirements for:(1) initial registration, (2) levels of registration, (3) continuing professional development, (4) requirements of the registration renewal process, and (5) whether each country has a national nursing registration system. These factors may affect nursing education and healthcare development in China. Conclusions: Although differences in the nursing registration process between Australia and China were identified, the insights gained from this study support the development of strategies to help with China's ever-demanding need for nursing education and healthcare development, thereby alleviating its nursing shortage. Implications for nursing management: The implications of globalization of nursing education, research, and clinical practice, coupled with the nursing shortage

  7. Recent developments in Australia's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is produced at two mining/milling operations in Australia - Ranger in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, and Olympic Dam in South Australia. In 1996, Ranger produced 4138 tonnes (t) U3O8 from stockpiled ore mined from Ranger No. 1 Orebody. The capacity of the Ranger mill is being expanded to 5000 tonnes per annum (tpa) U3O8 to coincide with the commencement of mining from No. 3 Orebody in mid-1997. The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold-silver deposit is the world's largest deposit of low cost uranium. The operation currently has an annual production of 85,000 t copper, 1700 t U3O8 and associated gold and silver. WMC Ltd proposes to expand annual production to 200 000 t copper and approximately 4600 t U3O8 by end of 1999. The environmental impact of the expansion is being assessed jointly by both Commonwealth and South Australian Governments. A draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was released in May. Since its election in March 1996, the Liberal/National Party Coalition Government has made a number of changes to the Commonwealth Government's policies relating to uranium mining, including removal of the former Government's 'three mines' policy, and relaxation of the guidelines for foreign investment in Australian uranium mines. These changes, together with an improved outlook for the uranium market, have resulted in proposals to develop new mines at Jabiluka (Northern Territory), Kintyre (Western Australia) and Beverley (South Australia). Energy Resources of Australia Ltd proposes to develop an underground mine at Jabiluka with the ore to be processed at Ranger mill. Initial production will be 1800 tpa U3O8 which will increase to 4000 tpa U3O8 by the 14th year. The draft EIS was released for public comment in October 1996, and the final EIS is to be released in June 1997. Canning Resources Ltd proposes to mine the Kintyre deposit by open cut methods commencing in 1999 with an annual production of 1200 tpa U3O8. Heathgate Pty. Ltd

  8. Three Potential Sources of Microfungi in a Treated Municipal Water Supply System in Sub-Tropical Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Rob H. Reed; Larelle D. Fabbro; Sammon, Noel B.; Harrower, Keith M.

    2011-01-01

    Some microfungi are known to be opportunistic human pathogens, and there is a body of scientific opinion that one of their routes of infection may be water aerosols. Others have been implicated as causative agents of odours and off-tastes in drinking water. This study was undertaken to investigate three potential sources of microfungi in a treated, oligotrophic municipal water supply system in sub-tropical Australia. Formation of the microfungal component of developing biofilm on hard surface...

  9. The Transmission of Chinese Medicine in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Garvey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores some of the issues concerning the transmission of Chinese medicine in Australia, its practitioner training and the future of Chinese medicine as a distinct medical discipline in the Australian context. In China over the last century Chinese medicine was overhauled in order to align it with the biomedical perspective prevalent in the West. These changes, in turn, had important consequences for the transmission of CM in Australia and the West. But while the biomedicalisation of CM has offered the path of least resistance, it has also lead to unworkable simplifications and methodological failures. The paper thus argues for a renewed access to the tradition’s primary sources in order to ally the distinctive features and methods of traditional practice with biomedicine, as an alternative to an outright integration into biomedical practice.

  10. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  11. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259

  12. Overseas Students in Australia: Costs and Revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Creedy, John; Johnson, David; Baker, Meredith

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the use of a university cost function to examine the costs and revenues of overseas students in Australia and to estimate the unobservable cost of providing education for only domestic students. The total costs (over all universities) of overseas students are found to be sensitive to variations in the cost function. The sensitivity of the specification of the cost function, particularly in terms of its nonlinearity, is examined. The paper also discusses the use of simple ...

  13. Perceptions of job security in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Borland

    2002-01-01

    This study examines workers' perceptions of job security in Australia between August 1999 and May 2002. It uses a new quarterly survey that asks probabilistic questions on the likelihood of involuntary job loss, and of finding a similar job if involuntary job loss occurs. Workers' perceptions of job security are shown to display significant variation by gender, age, education, and recent job mobility, to vary pro-cyclically with business cycle conditions, and to have decreased significantly f...

  14. Additional Forms of Employee Representation in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Gollan, Paul; Markey, Ray; Ross, Iain

    2001-01-01

    Additional forms of employee representation (AFER) may be defined as any representative mechanism which exists alongside or instead of trade unions, which historically have been the most common form of employee representation in Australia. Little is known about how AFER are composed, their independence from managerial influence, the 'representativeness' of such bodies, and their accountability. In addition, little has been documented about the impact of such structures on either the manageria...

  15. Lepromatous leprosy: A rare presentation in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Barkla; Sunny Modi

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy (Hansen’s disease) is caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae. It is an infectious, chronic granulomatous disease transmitted through close contact. The latest current data shows that in 2010, eleven new cases of leprosy were reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia. We report the case of a patient with untreated chronic lepromatous leprosy diagnosed in Queensland, 2012. Delay in diagnosis may have been due to the rarity ...

  16. Lepromatous leprosy: A rare presentation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Barkla

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy (Hansen’s disease is caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae. It is an infectious, chronic granulomatous disease transmitted through close contact. The latest current data shows that in 2010, eleven new cases of leprosy were reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia. We report the case of a patient with untreated chronic lepromatous leprosy diagnosed in Queensland, 2012. Delay in diagnosis may have been due to the rarity of this condition.

  17. Contemporary racism and Islamaphobia in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Kevin M.; Klocker, Natascha; Salabay, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Contemporary anti-Muslim sentiment in Australia is reproduced through a racialization that includes well rehearsed stereotypes of Islam, perceptions of threat and inferiority, as well as fantasies that the Other (in this case Australian Muslims) do not belong, or are absent. These are not old or colour-based racisms, but they do manifest certain characteristics that allow us to conceive a racialization process in relation to Muslims. Three sets of findings show how constru...

  18. Australia, Give You Endless Possibilities as Imagination…

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      It's a place where the light changes everything. From the friendly attitude of its people, to the breathtaking blue of its skies and glistening gold of its sandy beaches. A place unlike any other, with animals and scenery you'll find nowhere else on earth and an unmatched diversity of fiavours, scents and sights. It is Australia, where the possibilities are only as endless as your imagination.……

  19. Australia, Give You Endless Possibilities as Imagination…

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It's a place where the light changes everything. From the friendly attitude of its people, to the breathtaking blue of its skies and glistening gold of its sandy beaches. A place unlike any other, with animals and scenery you'll find nowhere else on earth and an unmatched diversity of fiavours, scents and sights. It is Australia, where the possibilities are only as endless as your imagination.

  20. GEOMAGNETIC ANOMALY FIELD VECTOR OFF WESTERN AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    ノギ, ヨシフミ; エグチ, ヨシアキ; セアマ, ノブカズ; イセザキ, ノブヒロ; Yoshifumi, NOGI; Yoshiaki, EGUCHI; Nobukazu, SEAMA; Nobuhiro, ISEZAKI

    1993-01-01

    Vector data of the geomagnetic anomaly field were obtained during the 32nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-32) off Western Australia. The strikes of the magnetic boundaries at their position were derived from vector data of the geomagnetic anomaly field. These strikes were interpreted as the directions of magnetic anomaly lineations originated either by seafloor spreading (seafloor spreading anomaly) or by morphological structures (structural magnetic anomaly). Some strikes of st...

  1. The Implementation of Monetary Policy in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ric Battellino; John Broadbent; Philip Lowe

    1997-01-01

    In January 1990, the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) began announcing and explaining changes in the target cash rate. This has increased public understanding of monetary policy and, by increasing the attention given to changes in interest rates, has affected the way in which changes in policy are transmitted to the economy. In addition, the discipline of having to announce and explain changes in the target cash rate to the public has led to a clearer focus on the objectives of monetary policy...

  2. Increasing trends of herpes zoster in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina MacIntyre

    Full Text Available Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation.Australian data on general practice (GP encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013 were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period.All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods. Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time.The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly.

  3. General practice education in Australia. Current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmberg, Joachim; Heard, Sam

    2004-05-01

    General practice education is rapidly changing. Medical students now have exposure to general practice at most year levels, vocational training has been opened to competition, and continuing professional development is a mandatory requirement for maintenance of Health Insurance Commission recognition, and increasingly for state registration. This article outlines the foundations for, and challenge to, building a framework for quality general practice education in Australia. PMID:15227866

  4. Should Australia Export its Native Birds?

    OpenAIRE

    Kingwell, Ross S.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial export from Australia of native birds, wild or captive bred, is prohibited. This paper firstly describes the current legislation and regulations that restrict the export of native birds and discusses why governments have adopted such a regulatory approach to bird species preservation. Secondly, the paper reviews the debate concerning the export ban, pointing out strengths and weaknesses in arguments and indicating the important role of CITES. Lastly, the paper outlines a new case f...

  5. Australia's experience with the variable deposit requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Australian Treasury

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the implementation of the Variable Deposit Requirement (VDR) capital control scheme in Australia in the 1970s. It notes that while capital controls can play a role in certain circumstances, they should not be used as a substitute for addressing underlying policy needs or financial sector reforms of an economy. The scheme was short-term in nature, and depended on subjective judgements about what level of capital inflow was appropriate at the time, and was unrelated to lon...

  6. Perception of Innovative Crop Insurance in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Molnar, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, extreme climate risks cause stakeholders in food supply chains to search for new risk management tools. In Australia, recently so‐called crop yield simulation insurance has been introduced based on an integrated agrometeorological simulation model. Current uptake is relatively low, possibly because Australian farmers perceive commodity price risk as more important than climate risk. Also, they perceive risk management tools such as water management and diversification as more impor...

  7. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contam...

  8. A new species of Canalisporium from Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, TK; Hyde, KD

    2000-01-01

    Canalisporium variabile sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on several specimens from submerged wood and decaying palm rachis in Australia. It is most similar to C. pallidurn in having pale conidia with clearly visible septa and canals, but they are two distinct species. In C. pallidurn, conidia are more stable in shape, size and septation, with mostly a single column of vertical septa. In C. vam'abile, however, conidia are more variable in morphology, with mostly two columns of verti...

  9. Asian immigrant settlement and adjustment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, S; Kee, P; Dang, T; Shu, J

    1994-01-01

    "This article provides a broad assessment of the settlement and adjustment of people born in the many countries of Asia who are resident in Australia, based on recently available data from the 1991 Census of Population and Housing. It examines some indicators of economic adjustment such as performance in the labor market, and some indicators of social adjustment, such as acquisition of English language proficiency." PMID:12289777

  10. The Immigrant Housing Market: Analyses for Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Chua; Paul W. Miller

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the immigrant adjustment process in Australia from the perspective of the housing market. It shows that immigrant “catch-up” to the native born in the housing market is much more rapid than in the labour market. A decomposition of the estimated coefficients of a logit model of tenure choice is developed that gives formal recognition to the immigrant adjustment process. The results from this decomposition demonstrate the importance of taking account of immigrant adjustment ...

  11. Gun Control in Australia: A Criminological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rick Sarre

    2015-01-01

    In recent months there has been an upsurge in contributions to the popular press from social commentators insisting that guns make our nation safer. This essay questions these assertions. The paper provides evidence to support a contrary affirmation: that is, in order to have a reduction in gun violence, there needs to be a reduction in the number of guns generally, and a continuation of the legal controls that currently shape firearms policy in Australia.

  12. Best practice fox management in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, G.; McLeod, L.

    2011-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) impact on populations of many prey species in Australia, and so are the targets of widespread management programs. In this study we monitored fox management programs already operating across 4.5 million hectares of regional New South Wales (NSW) to compare the impact of varying fox baiting effort on the survival of lambs as a major prey species. The spatial coverage and frequency of fox baiting were both correlated with lamb survival. Lamb survival was higher in area...

  13. The Growth Effects of Education in Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Paradiso, Antonio; Kumar, Saten; Rao, B. Bhaskara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the growth effects of human capital with country-specific time series data for Australia. Previous empirical studies, based on international data, have been inconclusive, in terms of the extent of the contribution of human capital to growth. We extend the Solow (1956) growth model by using educational attainment as a measure of human capital, as developed by Barro and Lee (2010). The extended Solow (1956) model performs well after allowing for the presence of structu...

  14. Gun Control in Australia: A Criminological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Sarre

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent months there has been an upsurge in contributions to the popular press from social commentators insisting that guns make our nation safer. This essay questions these assertions. The paper provides evidence to support a contrary affirmation: that is, in order to have a reduction in gun violence, there needs to be a reduction in the number of guns generally, and a continuation of the legal controls that currently shape firearms policy in Australia.

  15. The regulation of herbal medicines in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complementary medicines, including herbal medicines in Australia are regulated under therapeutics goods legislation. Based on risk, Australia has developed a two tiered approach to the regulation of therapeutic goods. Listed medicines are considered to be of lower risk than Registered medicines. Most, but not all, complementary medicines are Listed medicines. Managing the risk associated with therapeutic goods, including complementary medicines, is exerted through the processes of licensing of manufacturers; pre-market assessment of products; and post-market regulatory activity. Herbal medicines may be associated with low or high risk depending on the toxicity of ingredients, proposed dosage, appropriateness of the indications and claims for self-diagnosis and management and the potential for adverse reactions. Registered medicines are individually evaluated for safety, quality and efficacy before they are released onto the market. Listed medicines are individually assessed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration for compliance with legislation, they are not evaluated before release. They may only be formulated from ingredients that have undergone pre-market evaluation for safety and quality and are considered low risk. Listed complementary medicines may only carry indications and claims for the symptomatic relief of non-serious conditions, health maintenance, health enhancement and risk reduction. An important feature of risk management in Australia is that early market access for low risk complementary medicines is supported by appropriate post-market regulatory activity

  16. Symptomotology and Racial Politics in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Buchanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jindabyne (a movie directed by Ray Lawrence, 2006 begins with the murder of a young aboriginal woman, but its real focus is the way people respond to this murder. In doing so, it tells several interesting truths about race relations in Australia today. I want to suggest that Jindabyne can usefully be read as a national allegory (in Jameson’s sense of the word. It maps or diagrams the cultural and political tropes of the present moment in history. My basic hypothesis is that it cannot be a coincidence that Jindabyne should give such prominence to the cultural problematic of the apology at this particular juncture in Australia’s history. Although this aspect of the film is scarcely mentioned in any of the reviews that accompanied the film’s premier, it strikes me that the timing is symptomatic: it is a topic that as Deleuze once said about difference was very much in the air. Produced only two years before the official national apology the Prime Minister of Australia Kevin Rudd made to the Indigenous peoples of Australia on February 13, 2008, Jindabyne responds to a complex assemblage of cultural problematics that have been on the national political agenda ever since the release in 1995 of Bringing Them Home, the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission’s report on its national inquiry into the so-called “Stolen Generation”.

  17. Cannabis policy in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, S

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes and compares current developments in policies to deal with cannabis in Australia and New Zealand. Both countries are bound by international conventions to control cannabis and in each case cannabis use, possession, cultivation and supply is illegal. In both countries almost all the supply is grown locally and patterns of use and health concerns appear to be similar. Strategies used to deal with cannabis include: demand reduction through enforcement of legislation, drug education and treatment; supply reduction through enforcement of legislation and crop recovery operations; and harm reduction through diversion of some offenders from the courts system, lenient enforcement policies for users and, in Australia, the formal decriminalization of cannabis use in two states/territories and de facto decriminalization in another. Australia has had a co-ordinated national drugs policy with a stated harm reduction focus for over a decade, while in New Zealand efforts to co-ordinate policy have been delayed by ongoing debates about cannabis's harm potential and what constitutes an appropriate approach. However, a national drugs policy with a professed harm reduction focus is currently being finalized. Despite these developments, government cut-backs and international and local prohibitionist influences on policy in both countries suggest that a harm reduction model may not necessarily be secure. PMID:16203457

  18. Media and Australia's replacement reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1997, the Commonwealth Government of Australia announced a proposal to build a replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights in Sydney. Extensive public consultation, parliamentary debate and independent reports were prepared to ensure that the new facility would meet strict international requirements, national safety and environmental standards, and performance specifications servicing the needs of Australia - for decades to come. On 6 June 2000, Argentine company INVAP SE was announced as the preferred tenderer. In July 2000 contracts were signed between INVAP and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation for the construction the replacement reactor, due to be completed in 2005. In order to retain a strong local presence, INVAP undertook a joint venture with two of Australia's foremost heavy construction businesses. Briefly the new research reactor will be a replacement for the ageing Australian Reactor (HIFAR). Nuclear science and technology, in Australia, is no stranger to media controversy and misinformation. Understandably the announcement of a preferred tenderer followed by the signing of contracts, attracted significant national and international media attention. However in the minds of the media, the issue is far from resolved and is now a constant 'news story' in the Australian media. Baseless media stories have made claims that the project will cost double the original estimates; question the credibility of the contractors; and raise issues of international security. The project is currently linked with Australia's requirements for long term nuclear waste management and there has been an attempt to bring national Indigenous People's issues into play. Some of these issues have been profiled in the press internationally. So, just to set the record straight and give you an appropriate impression of what's 'really happening' I would like to highlight a few issues, how ANSTO dealt with these, and what was finally reported

  19. Risk of Buruli ulcer and detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans in mosquitoes in southeastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline J Lavender

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is a destructive skin condition caused by infection with the environmental bacterium, Mycobacterium ulcerans. The mode of transmission of M. ulcerans is not completely understood, but several studies have explored the role of biting insects. In this study, we tested for an association between the detection of M. ulcerans in mosquitoes and the risk of BU disease in humans in an endemic area of southeastern Australia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult mosquitoes were trapped in seven towns on the Bellarine Peninsula in Victoria, Australia, from December 2004 to December 2009 and screened for M. ulcerans by real-time PCR. The number of laboratory-confirmed cases of BU in permanent residents of these towns diagnosed during the same period was tallied to determine the average cumulative incidence of BU in each location. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r was calculated for the proportion of M. ulcerans-positive mosquitoes per town correlated with the incidence of BU per town. We found a strong dose-response relationship between the detection of M. ulcerans in mosquitoes and the risk of human disease (r, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99; p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study strengthen the hypothesis that mosquitoes are involved in the transmission of M. ulcerans in southeastern Australia. This has implications for the development of intervention strategies to control and prevent BU.

  20. The New Zealand experience of varroa invasion highlights research opportunities for Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Jay M; Barratt, Barbara I P; Lord, Janice M; Mercer, Alison R; Dickinson, Katharine J M

    2015-11-01

    The Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is implicated as a major disease factor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations worldwide. Honey bees are extensively relied upon for pollination services, and in countries such as New Zealand and Australia where honey bees have been introduced specifically for commercial pollinator services, the economic effects of any decline in honey bee numbers are predicted to be profound. V. destructor established in New Zealand in 2000 but as yet, Australia remains Varroa-free. Here we analyze the history of V. destructor invasion and spread in New Zealand and discuss the likely long-term impacts. When the mite was discovered in New Zealand, it was considered too well established for eradication to be feasible. Despite control efforts, V. destructor has since spread throughout the country. Today, assessing the impacts of the arrival of V. destructor in this country is compromised by a paucity of data on pollinator communities as they existed prior to invasion. Australia's Varroa-free status provides a rare and likely brief window of opportunity for the global bee research community to gain understanding of honey bee-native pollinator community dynamics prior to Varroa invasion. PMID:26133152

  1. The New Zealand experience of varroa invasion highlights research opportunities for Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Jay M; Barratt, Barbara I P; Lord, Janice M; Mercer, Alison R; Dickinson, Katharine J M

    2015-11-01

    The Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is implicated as a major disease factor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations worldwide. Honey bees are extensively relied upon for pollination services, and in countries such as New Zealand and Australia where honey bees have been introduced specifically for commercial pollinator services, the economic effects of any decline in honey bee numbers are predicted to be profound. V. destructor established in New Zealand in 2000 but as yet, Australia remains Varroa-free. Here we analyze the history of V. destructor invasion and spread in New Zealand and discuss the likely long-term impacts. When the mite was discovered in New Zealand, it was considered too well established for eradication to be feasible. Despite control efforts, V. destructor has since spread throughout the country. Today, assessing the impacts of the arrival of V. destructor in this country is compromised by a paucity of data on pollinator communities as they existed prior to invasion. Australia's Varroa-free status provides a rare and likely brief window of opportunity for the global bee research community to gain understanding of honey bee-native pollinator community dynamics prior to Varroa invasion.

  2. Australia announces plans for expanded marine reserve network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-06-01

    Australia announces plans for expanded marine reserve network The Australian government has announced plans to increase the nation's network of marine reserves from 27 to 60, bringing the total size of the network to 3.1 million square kilometers, Australia's environment minister Tony Burke said on 14 June. The expansion, which would place more than one third of Australia's waters under protection, requires a 60-day consultation before it can become law.

  3. Climate Change, Mining and Traditional Indigenous Knowledge in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Birch

    2016-01-01

    Australia, in common with nations globally, faces an immediate and future environmental and economic challenge as an outcome of climate change. Indigenous communities in Australia, some who live a precarious economic and social existence, are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Impacts are already being experienced through dramatic weather events such as floods and bushfires. Other, more gradual changes, such as rising sea levels in the north of Australia, will have long-term negative ...

  4. Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    The ANZDATA Registry includes all patients treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT) throughout Australia and New Zealand. Funding is predominantly from government sources, together with the non-government organization Kidney Health Australia. Registry operations are overseen by an Executive committee, and a Steering Committee with wide representation. Data is collected from renal units throughout Australia and New Zealand on a regular basis, and forwarded to the Registry. Areas covered in...

  5. Gamete and Embryo Donation and Surrogacy in Australia:The Social Context and Regulatory Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hammarberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The social and legal acceptability of third-party reproduction varies around the world. In Australia,gamete and embryo donation and surrogacy are permitted within the regulatory framework setout by federal and state governments. The aim of this paper is to describe the social context andregulatory framework for third-party reproduction in Australia.This is a review of current laws and regulations related to third-party reproduction in Australia.Although subtle between-state differences exist, third-party reproduction is by and large a sociallyacceptable and legally permissible way to form a family throughout Australia. The overarchingprinciples that govern the practice of third-party reproduction are altruism; the right of donorconceivedpeople to be informed of their biological origins; and the provision of comprehensivecounselling about the social, psychological, physical, ethical, financial and legal implications ofthird-party reproduction to those considering donating or receiving gametes or embryos and enteringsurrogacy arrangements. These principles ensure that donors are not motivated by financial gain,donor offspring can identify and meet with the person or persons who donated gametes or embryos,and prospective donors and recipients are aware of and have carefully considered the potentialconsequences of third-party reproduction.Australian state laws and federal guidelines prohibit commercial and anonymous third-partyreproduction; mandate counselling of all parties involved in gamete and embryo donationand surrogacy arrangements; and require clinics to keep records with identifying and nonidentifyinginformation about the donor/s to allow donor-conceived offspring to trace theirbiological origins.

  6. Wetland Preservation in Australia: The Administrative and Policital Threats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Yaolin Wang

    2008-01-01

    The wetlands in Australia are of great physical, chemical and biological variety due to the continent's age, geological history and climate. The traditional physical and biological threats remain as the main challenges for wetland preservation in Australia. However, it has been increasingly recognized that the immediate survival of wetlands are being affected by more subtle threats, such as administrative and political threats. This paper identifies these non-physical threats and discusses how and why they have become the major barriers for sustainable wetland preservation in Australia. Finally, this paper calls for more practical policies and solutions to be implemented for sustainable wetland preservation in Australia.

  7. Tay-Sachs disease: current perspectives from Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lew RM; Burnett L; Proos AL; Delatycki MB

    2015-01-01

    Raelia M Lew,1,7 Leslie Burnett,2,3,4 Anné L Proos,2 Martin B Delatycki5,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, QEII Research Institute for Mothers and Infants, The University of Sydney, Australia; 2NSW Health Pathology North, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, Australia; 3SEALS, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia; 4Sydney Medical School-Northern, Royal North Shore Hospital E25, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 5Department of Clinical Genetics...

  8. Paediatric CT imaging trends in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The use of CT has rapidly increased since its introduction. Although an important medical tool for diagnosis and treatment, CT is rec ognised as being among the highest contributors to population radiation exposure. As the risks associated with exposure are higher for children than for adults, this study assessed the impact of paediatric CT in Australia by analysing imaging trends. CT imaging trends were derived from Medicare data. Comparable data from a dedicated paediatric hospital (Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne (RCH)) were analysed to determine the validity of utilising Medicare statistics in the younger age groups. The resulting trends reflect the situation for paediatric CT imaging in Australia. In 2009, 2.1 million CT services were billed to Medicare in Australia for children and adults. The average annual growth in the number of CT services provided since 1994 was 8.5%, compared with population growth of 1.4%. Comparison of RCH and Medicare data revealed that only one third of pae diatric CT imaging is captured by Medicare. Combining the data sets showed that over the last 20 years, there has been an average annual increase of 5.1% in the CT imaging rate for 0 to 18-year-olds. However, in recent years, growth in the imaging rate for 11 to 18-year-olds has slowed, while for 5 to 10-year-olds the imaging rate has declined. The significant growth in CT services is attributable to increased demand from the adult demographic. Conversely, increases in the imaging rate for paediatric patients have slowed overall. In fact, for some age groups the rate has fallen.

  9. Development of NORM Management in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia has had a long involvement with NORM, mainly because of mining and processing of mineral ores. Radium mining was carried out in the early 20th century. After 1949, there was a rapid expansion in uranium mining (particularly in the Northern Territory) and mineral sand mining. Australia is a Federation of the Commonwealth, six States and two Territories, which independently regulate within their jurisdiction. Early mineral extraction and processing operations were unregulated, resulting in the existence of a large number of legacy sites. Regulation of uranium mining started in the 1970s, and mineral sand mining after 1980. The regulations vary in detail between jurisdictions. Most other NORM situations are not regulated in any of the States or Territories. A major review of the Western Australian mineral sand industry in the 1980s led to considerable reductions in doses to workers. Remediation of many of the old uranium mine sites in the Northern Territory has been carried out over the last 15 years and is continuing. International awareness of NORM as a potential source of risk to workers, members of the public and the environment has increased significantly in recent years. After an extensive stakeholder consultation process and the development of a position paper summarizing the NORM situation in Australia, a Safety Guide was developed, to enhance awareness and provide general guidance on NORM management. The Safety Guide recommends a graded approach to NORM management, based on exclusion, exemption, clearance and regulation. It includes sections on general radiation protection principles, impact assessment, assessment of the need for regulation, development of a NORM management plan, and annexes on NORM management in the oil and gas, bauxite processing and phosphate industries, written by experts from the industries. These industries were chosen because of their experience with NORM management and the availability of good data. (author)

  10. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 6: Italian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biase, Bruno; And Others

    The status of the Italian language in Australia, particularly in the educational system at all levels, in Australian society in general, and in trade, technology, and tourism is discussed in this report. It begins with a description of the teaching of Italian in elementary, secondary, higher, adult/continuing, and teacher education. Trends are…

  11. Successful Swiss solar bicycles in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland

  12. Full Scale Explosive Tests in Woomera, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUPTA A; MENDIS P; LUMANTARNA R; NGO T

    2006-01-01

    Two large explosion trials (5 000 kg TNT and 500 kg ANFO) were conducted in Woomera,Australia in April/May 2006.Advance Protective Technologies for Engineering Structures (APTES) group tested 2 large single-storey concrete modules with individual components such as doors,windows and tiled panels.A description of the trial and details of various modules tested in these trials are presented in the paper.Numerical modelling and simulations are performed using computer programs,CONWEP,AIR3D and AUTODYN.A comparison of the pressure time histories obtained using these codes is made along with the concluding remarks.

  13. The Bank Lending Channel: Evidence from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how monetary policy changes flow through the banking sector in Australia. Drawing on data between 2004 and 2010, we divide banks into three groups according to their size, and examine the impact of that cash rate change on lending of different types of loans. We find the response of bank lending after a monetary policy change varies with the size of the bank as well as the types of loan. Smaller banks are more sensitive to policy rate changes, and household loans, government loans and intra-group loans are less responsive to monetary policy compared with financial and non-financial loans.

  14. An ice core derived 1013-year catchment-scale annual rainfall reconstruction in subtropical eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Carly R.; Vance, Tessa R.; Roberts, Jason L.; Kiem, Anthony S.; Curran, Mark A. J.; Moy, Andrew D.

    2016-05-01

    Paleoclimate research indicates that the Australian instrumental climate record (˜ 100 years) does not cover the full range of hydroclimatic variability that is possible. To better understand the implications of this on catchment-scale water resources management, a 1013-year (1000-2012 common era (CE)) annual rainfall reconstruction was produced for the Williams River catchment in coastal eastern Australia. No high-resolution paleoclimate proxies are located in the region and so a teleconnection between summer sea salt deposition recorded in ice cores from East Antarctica and rainfall variability in eastern Australia was exploited to reconstruct the catchment-scale rainfall record. The reconstruction shows that significantly longer and more frequent wet and dry periods were experienced in the preinstrumental compared to the instrumental period. This suggests that existing drought and flood risk assessments underestimate the true risks due to the reliance on data and statistics obtained from only the instrumental record. This raises questions about the robustness of existing water security and flood protection measures and has serious implications for water resources management, infrastructure design and catchment planning. The method used in this proof of concept study is transferable and enables similar insights into the true risk of flood/drought to be gained for other paleoclimate proxy poor regions for which suitable remote teleconnected proxies exist. This will lead to improved understanding and ability to deal with the impacts of multi-decadal to centennial hydroclimatic variability.

  15. A Research on Annual Budget Report at the Beginning of Fiscal Year in the Commonwealth of Australia and Its Implication for China%澳大利亚年初预算报告研究及其对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周美多; 金笑驰

    2013-01-01

      澳大利亚联邦政府具有较为完善的预算报告体系。其年初预算报告包括:预算陈词、预算一览、预算概述、预算战略和展望、预算措施、政府间财政关系、机构资源和拨款议案八个重要组成部分。这些预算文件具有全面性、结果导向、中期规划和亲和性的鲜明特征,为我国完善中央年初预算报告提供了有益的借鉴。此外,分阶段完成年初预算报告的具体性、全面性、全局性和规划性四个步骤的改革,将有助于提高我国的预算信息公开程度,从而“创造条件让人民监督、批评政府”。%  The Commonwealth of Australia has a consummate budget reporting system. One of the most important is the annual budget report at the beginning of the fiscal year including eight parts:budget speech, budget at glance, budget overview, budget strategy and outlook, budget measures, Australia’s federal relations, agency resourcing, and appropriation bills. These budget papers are comprehensive, result-oriented, medium term planning, and reader-friendly. They provide helpful experiences for China and we could promote open and transparent budget information by improving our annual budget report with four stages, which will create conditions for people to oversee and criticize the government.

  16. Donor research in australia: challenges and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

    2014-07-01

    Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  17. Private health insurance and regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokuge, Buddhima; Denniss, Richard; Faunce, Thomas A

    2005-03-21

    Since 1996, an increasing proportion of federal government expenditure has been directed into Australia's healthcare system via private health insurance (PHI) subsidies, in preference to Medicare and the direct funding of public health services. A central rationale for this policy shift is to increase the use of private hospital services and thereby reduce pressure on public inpatient facilities. However, the impact of this reform process on regional Australia has not been addressed. An analysis of previously unpublished Australian Bureau of Statistics data shows that regional Australians have substantially lower levels of private health fund membership. As a result, regional areas appear to be receiving substantially less federal government health funding, compared with cities, than if these funds were allocated on a per-capita basis. We postulate that the lower level of membership in regional areas is mainly due to the limited availability of private inpatient facilities, making PHI less attractive to rural Australians. We conclude that PHI as a vehicle for mainstream federal health financing has potential structural failures that disadvantage regional Australians.

  18. Private health insurance and regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokuge, Buddhima; Denniss, Richard; Faunce, Thomas A

    2005-03-21

    Since 1996, an increasing proportion of federal government expenditure has been directed into Australia's healthcare system via private health insurance (PHI) subsidies, in preference to Medicare and the direct funding of public health services. A central rationale for this policy shift is to increase the use of private hospital services and thereby reduce pressure on public inpatient facilities. However, the impact of this reform process on regional Australia has not been addressed. An analysis of previously unpublished Australian Bureau of Statistics data shows that regional Australians have substantially lower levels of private health fund membership. As a result, regional areas appear to be receiving substantially less federal government health funding, compared with cities, than if these funds were allocated on a per-capita basis. We postulate that the lower level of membership in regional areas is mainly due to the limited availability of private inpatient facilities, making PHI less attractive to rural Australians. We conclude that PHI as a vehicle for mainstream federal health financing has potential structural failures that disadvantage regional Australians. PMID:15777145

  19. Determinants of Business Exits in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The annually increasing firm exits have significant financial, legal and social impacts on productivity, employment and economic growth in Australia. However, evidence of the impacts of firm exits is sparse. This paper undertakes a first-ever study that empirically investigates the determinants and their impacts on firm churn. This paper is innovative to the literature in four aspects: (1 Local Region Areas (LGAs data, rarely available in other countries, has been used for the analysis; (2 using LGAs as the basic analytical unit is able to eliminate the heterogeneity problems encountered by other studies which are based on national and cross-national data; (3 panel data modelling techniques identify robust evidence; (4 systematic statistical tests guarantees the robustness of the results. The dataset, provided by Australia Bureau of Statistics, include 3462 observations of 577 Local Government Areas (LGAs during 2004-2009. The research identifies variables positively and negatively affecting the exits and finds that size matters in determining business exits. The last section concludes with a discussion of limitations and future research directions.

  20. Rediscovering university teaching hospitals for Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penington, David G

    2008-09-15

    Partnership between research and health services has a long history in other countries, but has been relatively recent in Australia, with several models arising in the 1960s and 1970s as research-based specialties developed. Since the implementation of Medibank, which became Medicare, Australian Health Care Agreements have been primarily crafted on the basis of transactional numbers, ignoring the need for links with teaching and research and the need to implement new developments. Education and research have been seen as the responsibility of the federal government, and hospitals are progressively less recognised or funded for these functions by the states. Australia's teaching hospitals are in danger of falling seriously behind those in other countries and losing their capacity to monitor quality, to innovate and to branch into new strategies in partnership with primary care services. We should look at initiatives in other countries such as the United Kingdom and Canada, which are making big strides in tackling similar issues. University hospitals hold the key, if appropriately linked with other services. The current Australian Health Care Agreements are on hold. A new agency is needed to support clinical and service-related research, with a new structure and track for federal government funding, and providing oversight of research and development, of clinical governance and quality of outcomes in health care, linked with new strategies for prevention and treatment. A component of the foreshadowed additional federal government funding for health should be sequestered to set up such an agency. PMID:18803539

  1. Australia's South African war 1899-19021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Wilcox

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Around twenty thousand Australians fought in the great war between the British empire and the republics of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. Those Australians constituted five in every thousand of their people, or three in every two hundred of their male workers. In South Africa they made up just one in every twenty-five soldiers in a British army of almost half a million.2 As these bald figures immediately suggest, Australia's contribution to the war was too small to be decisive, and its experience of the war involved too few of its people to make a powerful impact on its society, let alone wrench its history onto some different course. Still, that contribution and that experience were unprecedented for a people who had never before gone to war as a people, and deserve more attention - and more balanced, dispassionate, critical attention - than they've yet received from historians of the war, of Australia, and of the British empire.3 In this lecture I'll strive for such balance by outlining why and how Australians went to war in South Africa, what their soldiers did there, and the war's legacy for their country and their descendants today.

  2. Management of radio frequency radiation exposures in telecom Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telecom Australia is the largest non-military user of radio frequency radiation (RFR) in Australia and the management of risks to health from RFR exposure are discussed. The Australian RFR Exposure Standard forms that basis of risk assessment. Risk assessment and control procedures including the health surveillance of workers, other special occupational groups and members of the general public are outlined. (author)

  3. Harmonising and Matching IPR Holders at IP Australia

    OpenAIRE

    T’Mir D. Julius; Gaétan de Rassenfosse

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the methodology developed by the Melbourne Institute to: (i) harmonise holders of intellectual property rights (IPRs) at IP Australia (applications for patent, designs, trademarks and plant breeder’s rights); (ii) match Australian IPRs holders to the Australian business register; (iii) identify the ultimate owners within Australia; and (iv) identify which holders are small and medium size enterprises.

  4. Lessons from the Past: Education and Racism in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Myra

    2001-01-01

    The history of racism in Australia is inextricably linked with prevailing ideologies of rural Australia, supported strongly by educational discourses of deficit and disadvantage. A challenge for the Reconciliation Movement will be to make an effective contribution to the development of anti-racist and non-racist practices in rural schooling.…

  5. Learning from Successful Skills Development Systems: Lessons from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmel, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the main institutional features of Australia's TVET sector, focussing particularly on the qualifications framework, how it relates to the labour market, and the role of industry. It also looks briefly at two current policy challenges for Australia. Seeking lessons for other countries in the Asia Pacific region, it…

  6. Forty Years of Teacher Education in Australia: 1974-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I analyse the history of teacher education in Australia from 1974 to the current policy moment in which questions are increasingly being asked about the quality of teaching and teacher education. Teacher education is, and has been, a highly scrutinised domain in Australia. Since the 1970s, we have seen more than 100 reviews of…

  7. 78 FR 58154 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD56 Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are... shipments of litchi fruit from Australia into the continental United States, except Florida. As a...

  8. Music Australia and the Trove Transition: Consultation Forum

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Rose

    2010-01-01

    Stakeholders are invited to comment and provide feedback on discovery services for music in Australia, particularly in relation to the transition of 'Music Australia' service into the newly released 'Trove' search service. The content and discovery service features are explained in detail.

  9. The Evolution of Distance Education in Australia: Past, Present, Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiach, Stephen; Averbeck, Clemens; Cassidy, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Australia's large size and scattered population made it a prime location for the development of correspondence education in the 1920s, and the country is still in the forefront of distance education. This article is based on an extensive interview with Terry Evans, professor at Deakin University in Australia, who reflects on the history of…

  10. Australia in German Geography Textbooks for Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Berta

    2007-01-01

    German Geography textbooks are structured using the principle of "Systematic Geography based on a regional example" that is predominant in Germany. Compared to other macroregions such as Europe, North America, Africa, or Asia, however, Australia is presented less frequently in school textbooks. Those textbooks which deal with Australia do not…

  11. Australia's Adoption of Outcomes Based Education: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Australia's adoption of outcomes based education (OBE), sometimes known as Essential Learnings or outcomes and standards based education, has been at the centre of a good deal of public scrutiny and debate. In Western Australia, during 2006, the planned introduction of OBE into years 11 and 12 led to a strident and vocal media campaign, in part,…

  12. A New Era for Research Education in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Helene; Smith, Bradley; King, Max; Evans, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Use of the Australian research assessment exercise, Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) to influence the policy and practice of research education in Australia will undoubtedly have many consequences, some of them unintended and potentially deleterious. ERA is a retrospective measure of research quality; research education is prospective.…

  13. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les

    2000-01-01

    Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth...... in Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...

  14. Solar battery power supply: A reliable power supply system for nursing clinic in Australia`s remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A. [Monash Univ., Caulfield (Australia). Div. of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Design and performance investigation of a new solar-battery system to power health clinics in Australia`s remote and isolated areas is a research project being conducted in the Department. The objective of this paper is to present the solar-battery system and to discuss the design factors of the system.

  15. Area-wide management of fruit flies in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Commonwealth of Australia is comprised of six States and several Territories. Each State and Territory Government maintains quarantine activities for its borders under the guidance of the Commonwealth Government. These activities, with regard to fruit flies, include quarantine at airports and harbours, compliance with import and export regulations and monitoring for, and action against, incursions of exotic fruit fly pests. There are about eighty species of fruit fly that are native to Australia that infest mainly native fruit and vegetables but, of these, six are classed as pests of horticultural significance. The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) is by far the most destructive of these native Australian fruit fly species. Another, non-native species, now endemic to parts of Western Australia, which arrived in Australia in the 1890's, the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), is just as damaging and it, too, is a critical quarantine pest. The distribution of these flies in Australia is such that not all pest species inhabit the same region. Quarantine restrictions are placed by States and fruit fly free-areas within States due to pest fruit fly species that are not native there. For example the State of Tasmania, to the southeast of Australia, is classified as entirely free from pest fruit flies. Fruit fly host produce exported to Tasmania from the rest of Australia is either prohibited or allowed entry following various quarantine requirements such as an approved postharvest disinfestation treatment. The State of Western Australia is free from Queensland fruit fly, but the eastern States of New South Wales and Queensland are not. while the eastern states are free from Mediterranean fruit fly and Western Australia is not. Quarantine restrictions are in place on trade between eastern and western Australia. Mediterranean fruit fly is now endemic to parts of Western Australia and nowhere else in Australia. It is a most destructive pest

  16. World nuclear energy in relation to Australia's uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last 40 years nuclear energy has taken Its place as a major source of electricity worldwide. It now produces 17 per cent of the world's electricity and could conceivably produce a higher proportion, to displace some six billion tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per year. Concerns about global warming and environmental quality now underline the virtues of nuclear electricity among alternative sources of energy. Global electricity demand is rapidly increasing as a proportion of total energy usage. The proportion has doubled since 1960 and the demand is expected to increase at least 75 per cent between now and 2020. The source of this extra capacity, and the replacement of present capacity, raise questions with major resource and environmental implications. Today nuclear energy is a mature technology. Over 1200 nuclear reactors have been built and operated, some of these have been decommissioned, and among the 440 reactors in commercial operation the first advanced reactors are now entering service. Some 8000 reactor-years of operation have, with the sole exception of Chernobyl, shown nuclear energy to be extremely safe and reliable. High-level wastes are being managed properly and in different parts of the world two strategies are applied to this. Australia has a major role as a long-term supplier of uranium, since it holds almost 30 per cent of the world's reserves. This, along with an impending sellers' market for uranium, is making it an opportune time to develop new mines here. However, after several decades of concern about civil nuclear energy contributing to the arms race, we now have uranium liberated from nuclear weapons stockpiles being diluted for use in civil reactors, which will supplement ex-mine supply. The public acceptability of nuclear energy remains the critical factor in its future and hence in ours

  17. Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brümmer Franz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide

  18. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-03-25

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.

  19. Australia's changing natural gas and pipeline industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future is bright for continued development of Australia's natural gas pipeline infrastructure, as well as for privatization and private energy infrastructure growth. Gas demands are growing and the development of open access principles for all natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines heralds a much more market focused industry. Within the next few years gas-on-gas competition will apply to supply, pipelines, and retail marketing. No longer will operators be able to pass on high costs resulting from inefficiencies to their customers. This article describes the changing Australian gas industry, evaluates the drivers for change and looks at ways the industry is responding to new regulatory regimes and the development and use of new pipeline technology

  20. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  1. Aussat - A milestone in Australia's communication history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowland, W. L.

    1983-04-01

    The Australian national satellite system, Aussat, will commence operations in 1985 after launch of the two initial Aussat communications satellites. Australia is a member of Intelsat, which currently provides both international telephone links and television services to 50 Outback communities. The project was organized in study areas of satellite design and plans for the ground segment, major city earth stations, and minor earth stations. Aussat services will include low power DBS of radio and television, telephony, voice and data communications for minerals exploration and medical care, a school of the air, ATC links, emergency and disaster relief communications, data transfer, and voice conferencing.Initial configurations include Ku-band satellites launched by the Shuttle, with telemetry in the 12/14 GHz bands. The Aussat organization will be eventually transformed to 49 percent private ownership.

  2. Public policy in a multicultural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, J

    1987-03-01

    The debate on the consequences of large-scale immigration in the making of public policy began in 1968. Muliculturalism is for all Australians and any social policy designed for the benefit of one group in the population must have profound consequences on all people. 40% of the Australian population was born overseas or have at least 1 parent born overseas. Almost 1/4 of the population has ethnic roots in other than the Anglo-Celtic majority. The ideal of moral progress, greater equality, and improvement is the motive force in society. The presence of social heterogeneity--religious or ethnic--is linked with the issue of stability in a democratic system. There are 2 models of multiculturalism and corresponding public policy approaches. 1 model emphasizes the role of the political processes in Australian ethnic relations and sees ethnic structures (political, social, economic) as legitimate but separate interest groups, each having the exclusive responsibility for the realization of ethnic goals. The leading feature of this model is the structural fragmentation of Australian society into parallel segments of varying degrees of exclusiveness each with its own "ethnic" label. The 2nd model stresses the priority of the wholeness and welfare of the entire society. It assumes that a society based on satisfaction of individual needs through voluntary exchange is fertile ground for cultural enrichment. The goal is cohesion and unity in living together in Australia, seen as of central concern and consistent with the ideals of intercultural understanding and improved communication. The model assumes that the culture must be seen as a living, dynamic, changing, and interacting set of life patterns. The author prefers the 2nd model which stresses that the future vision of a multicultural Australia must be a shared one because only then can cultural diversity and national cohesion coexist within the 1 economic and political unit. PMID:12268819

  3. Tay-Sachs disease: current perspectives from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew RM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Raelia M Lew,1,7 Leslie Burnett,2,3,4 Anné L Proos,2 Martin B Delatycki5,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, QEII Research Institute for Mothers and Infants, The University of Sydney, Australia; 2NSW Health Pathology North, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, Australia; 3SEALS, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia; 4Sydney Medical School-Northern, Royal North Shore Hospital E25, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 5Department of Clinical Genetics, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia; 6Bruce Lefroy Centre for Genetic Health Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Australia; 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia Abstract: Tay-Sachs disease (TSD is a fatal, recessively inherited neurodegenerative condition of infancy and early childhood. Although rare in most other populations, the carrier frequency is one in 25 in Ashkenazi Jews. Australian high-school-based TSD preconception genetic screening programs aim to screen, educate, and optimize reproductive choice for participants. These programs have demonstrated high uptake, low psychological morbidity, and have been shown to result in fewer than expected Jewish TSD-affected births over 18 years of operation. The majority of Jewish individuals of reproductive age outside of the high school screening program setting in Australia have not accessed screening. Recent recommendations advocate supplementing the community high school screening programs with general practitioner- and obstetrician-led genetic screening of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals for TSD and other severe recessive diseases for which this group is at risk. Massively parallel DNA sequencing is expected to become the testing modality of choice over the coming years. Keywords: Tay-Sachs disease, genetic screening, Australia

  4. Exploring Themes in the Movie Australia on Culture Identity Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成珍

    2014-01-01

    Gathering the history and emotions of the nation of Australia, the movie Australia not only reflects Australians’exer-tion to construct an equal harmonious diversified new Australia but also incarnates Australian people ’s nisus to pursue the sense of belonging internally and seek international recognition externally. In order to expand the perspective of researching this movie and give enlightenment on constructing an equal harmonious diversified international community, based on culture identity theo-ries, this paper tries exploring the themes of this movie.

  5. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  6. Taxonomic consequences of cryptic speciation in the Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis complex in mainland southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Leo; Nyári, Árpád S; Andersen, Michael J

    2014-12-22

    The Golden Whistler (Aves: Passeriformes: Pachycephalidae) Pachycephala pectoralis sensu lato has long played a key role in the development of the theory of allopatric speciation (Mayr 1932a, b; Mayr 1942; Galbraith 1956). The P. pectoralis species complex formerly comprised 60-70 nominal subspecies and so had a distribution spanning the Indo-Pacific (Boles 2007). More recent taxonomic treatments consider the complex as multiple species-level taxa largely circumscribed by geography (Dickinson and Christidis 2014; Gill and Donsker 2014). In Australia, the endemic species P. pectoralis sensu stricto is sympatric with the closely related Mangrove Golden Whistler P. melanura. However, as the latter's English name suggests, P. melanura is closely tied to mangroves in Australia, southeast New Guinea, and islets in the Bismarck Archipelago. Diagnostic plumage traits separating the two species are subtle: males of P. melanura have more extensively black tails and a greyer upper surface to the remiges, and females are usually yellower ventrally. All Pachycephala species, especially those in the P. pectoralis-melanura species complex, have recently become the focus of DNA sequence-based studies (Jønsson et al. 2008, 2014; Andersen et al. 2014). Data from most populations have now been analysed phylogenetically to better understand relationships and thus the history of evolution and speciation processes within and between both species. This has also been used in studies of the group's historical biogeography to provide information as to the age of taxa and their spread across oceanic archipelagos and continents (Jønsson et al. 2014). Here we discuss the taxonomic implications of a result that has emerged consistently and independently in these studies, concerning the systematics of the southern Australian populations in south-eastern and south-western Australia, both of which have been ascribed to P. p. fuliginosa since Galbraith (1956), and we show that the name P

  7. Laws prohibiting peer distribution of injecting equipment in Australia: A critical analysis of their effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kari; Seear, Kate; Treloar, Carla

    2015-12-01

    The law is a key site for the production of meanings around the 'problem' of drugs in public discourse. In this article, we critically consider the material-discursive 'effects' of laws prohibiting peer distribution of needles and syringes in Australia. Taking the laws and regulations governing possession and distribution of injecting equipment in one jurisdiction (New South Wales, Australia) as a case study, we use Carol Bacchi's poststructuralist approach to policy analysis to critically consider the assumptions and presuppositions underpinning this legislative and regulatory framework, with a particular focus on examining the discursive, subjectification and lived effects of these laws. We argue that legislative prohibitions on the distribution of injecting equipment except by 'authorised persons' within 'approved programs' constitute people who inject drugs as irresponsible, irrational, and untrustworthy and re-inscribe a familiar stereotype of the drug 'addict'. These constructions of people who inject drugs fundamentally constrain how the provision of injecting equipment may be thought about in policy and practice. We suggest that prohibitions on the distribution of injecting equipment among peers may also have other, material, effects and may be counterproductive to various public health aims and objectives. However, the actions undertaken by some people who inject drugs to distribute equipment to their peers may disrupt and challenge these constructions, through a counter-discourse in which people who inject drugs are constituted as active agents with a vital role to play in blood-borne virus prevention in the community. Such activity continues to bring with it the risk of criminal prosecution, and so it remains a vexed issue. These insights have implications of relevance beyond Australia, particularly for other countries around the world that prohibit peer distribution, but also for other legislative practices with material-discursive effects in

  8. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  9. Generalized Geology of Australia and New Zealand (geo3cl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the generalized geologic age and rock type of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Australia...

  10. Hypocrealean fungi from a tropical rainforest in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a weeklong Mycoblitz in the Atherton Tablelands of Queensland, Australia, many hypocrealean fungi were collected. Preliminary identifications indicate that many of these specimens are part of the pantropical hypocrealean biota. Some of the common tropical species collected include: Bionectria...

  11. Financial Worldwide Crisis: The Anti-Counter Cycle of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao NEGREIROS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available If Australia has been subject to major influences by the United States and European countries, why is its economy healthier than their counter partners? What are the economic foundations that underline this anti-counter cycle of financial worldwide crisis from Australia? What are some of the lessons that countries from Europe that have not fared during the current financial worldwide crisis should learn from Australia? The purpose of this paper is to review the present Australian management system. Four changes are identified including embracement of corporate governance, a shift to adopt more R&D activities, a shift to adopt environmental sustainability practices and emerging corporate social responsibility. On the conclusions settings, a recap and recommendation on how Portugal, a member of the PIGS (Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain Southern European Countries club forgot to embrace directives that have been applied in Australia, to avoid the actual financial and identity crisis.

  12. Dioxins levels in Australia. Key findings of studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivory, A.; Mobbs, C. [Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    The Australian Government established the National Dioxins Program (NDP) in 2001 to improve knowledge about levels of dioxins in Australia. The program aims to determine levels, assess the risks to Australians and the environment, and to consider appropriate management actions. Starting in mid 2001and completed in 2004, the studies constituted the largest survey of dioxin levels ever undertaken in Australia. The findings will contribute to debate on how to deal with dioxins in Australia, as well as helping to meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which Australia ratified on 20 May 2004. These studies will also contribute to a better understanding about dioxins in the southern hemisphere. This paper provides a summary of the key findings of these studies and the risk assessments.

  13. Recent developments of acupuncture in Australia and the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Claire

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Almost one in ten Australians has received acupuncture treatment by acupuncturists and/or medical doctors in private clinics. The majority of Australian health insurance funds offer rebates for acupuncture. Statutory regulations for acupuncture have been implemented in the State of Victoria, Australia. Six acupuncture degree courses have been approved by the Chinese Medicine Registration Board of Victoria and/or accredited by the Australian Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine Association. Furthermore, a number of clinical trials of acupuncture on allergic rhinitis, pain and women's health were carried out in Australia. Recent developments of acupuncture in Australia indicate that through adequate and appropriate evaluation, acupuncture begins to integrate into mainstream health care in Australia.

  14. Business Cycle Synchronization Between Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a high degree of economic and financial integration between Australia and New Zealand with free trade agreements linking the capital and labor markets. Given a strong economic relationship, business-cycle transmission is expected to exist between the two countries. By analyzing the shock-transmission channels via trade, monetary policy, and exchange rates between Australia and New Zealand we can infer that if Australia and New Zealand trade less, have more similar monetary policy structure, or have less similar economic structures they would have stronger economy correlation. The results also show that the highly integrated banking system between Australia and New Zealand is an additional avenue for shock transmission between both countries.

  15. Population policies in developed countries: how do Australia's policies compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C

    1989-05-01

    Between 1980-1985, Australia experienced the highest population growth of any developed nation basically due to high levels of immigration. West Germany was the only nation to have negative growth rate. Yet Australia, like most developed nations, had a below replacement fertility rate. Nevertheless Australia's population is expected to increase by 3 million people by 2026, even if there is no immigration. Australia does not have a fertility directed population policy, yet the government does provide a family allowance (although it is lower than that of other developed nations), guarantees maternity and patenity leave (albeit mostly unpaid), and some child care facilities. Unlike other developed nations, however, Australia's government assistance to families has declined recently. In the early 1980s, the level of child poverty in Australia ranked higher than of Canada, West Germany, Norway, Switzerland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, but in ranked lower than that of the United States (US). The population policy in Australia is an immigraiton based policy. Even though almost all the developed nations have reached or will soon reach below replacement fertility and are faced with an aging population, only Austrlia, Canada, and the US do not have a clear policy to influence fertility and continue to not restrict immigration. Further, Australia's level of immigration is 3 times the rate/head of population than the US or Canada. A possible nondemographic solution to the aging population in developed nations is to increase pension coverage to full time and part time workers and to secure greater continuity of pension coverage to those workers who change jobs and to women who took time out from working to bear and/or care for children. PMID:12342441

  16. Eating the Asian Other? Pedagogies of Food Multiculturalism in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Rick Flowers; Elaine Swan

    2012-01-01

    Public pedagogies in tourism and education in Australia suggest that food is a medium through which we learn more about each other’s cultures: in other words food is a pedagogy of multiculturalism. Drawing on a white Anglo Australian man’s memories of food in different intercultural encounters, this paper prises open the concept of eating the Other. There has been trenchant critique of food multiculturalism and the consuming cosmopolitan in Australia (Hage 1997; Probyn 2004; Duruz 2010). Thus...

  17. Welfare Policy and Labour Supply of Immigrants in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Law

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of social security payments on the labour supply of recent immigrants to Australia after the policy change. This research uses the first wave of two sets of Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia (LSIA) data as treatment group and Survey of Income and Housing (SIH) as control group to analyse the short-term immigrant labour market outcomes before and after the policy change. Employing difference-in-differences estimators and propensity score matching...

  18. Yoga in Australia: Results of a national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Penman; Marc Cohen; Philip Stevens; Sue Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The therapeutic benefits of yoga and meditation are well documented, yet little is known about the practice of yoga in Australia or elsewhere, whether as a physical activity, a form of therapy, a spiritual path or a lifestyle. Materials and Methods: To investigate the practice of yoga in Australia, a national survey of yoga practitioners was conducted utilizing a comprehensive web-based questionnaire. Respondents were self-selecting to participate. A total of 3,892 responden...

  19. Distance Education in Australia : Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Mavis, Kelly

    1991-01-01

    Compared with most other countries, Distance Education in Australia has a long history, spanning most of this century and is now used at all levels of education from elementary school to postgraduate courses as well as in vocational and in-service training in business and industry. In this paper, which focuses mainly on Distance Education at the post-secondary level, the author first outlines the current pattern of provision in the light of Australia's geography, population distribution and t...

  20. The Wage Premium of Foreign Education: New Evidence from Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Gavin; Heaton, Christopher; Tani, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    We study whether Australian employers recognise immigrants' education acquired abroad, and if so how. Using data from the Longitudinal Surveys of Immigrants in Australia, we apply interval regression to model migrant hourly earnings. We find substantially higher returns from human capital obtained in Australia and other OECD countries compared with non-OECD countries. These results suggest that the transfer of human capital acquired abroad is mediated by the country in which it was acquired, ...

  1. Mining activity, income inequality and gender in regional Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Reeson, Andrew; Thomas G Measham; Hosking, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Mining activity has been a significant driver of export growth as well as income and employment in parts of regional Australia. However, while income growth is an economic benefit, the high incomes associated with the mining sector may also lead to greater inequality. This paper describes an empirical analysis of mining activity and income inequality in regional Australia. The Gini coefficient (a measure of inequality) for personal income is found to be significantly associated with levels of...

  2. Host-driven diversification of gall-inducing Acacia thrips and the aridification of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Thomas W

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects that feed on plants contribute greatly to the generation of biodiversity. Hypotheses explaining rate increases in phytophagous insect diversification and mechanisms driving speciation in such specialists remain vexing despite considerable attention. The proliferation of plant-feeding insects and their hosts are expected to broadly parallel one another where climate change over geological timescales imposes consequences for the diversification of flora and fauna via habitat modification. This work uses a phylogenetic approach to investigate the premise that the aridification of Australia, and subsequent expansion and modification of arid-adapted host flora, has implications for the diversification of insects that specialise on them. Results Likelihood ratio tests indicated the possibility of hard molecular polytomies within two co-radiating gall-inducing species complexes specialising on the same set of host species. Significant tree asymmetry is indicated at a branch adjacent to an inferred transition to a Plurinerves ancestral host species. Lineage by time diversification plots indicate gall-thrips that specialise on Plurinerves hosts differentially experienced an explosive period of speciation contemporaneous with climatic cycling during the Quaternary period. Chronological analyses indicated that the approximate age of origin of gall-inducing thrips on Acacia might be as recent as 10 million years ago during the Miocene, as truly arid landscapes first developed in Australia. Conclusion Host-plant diversification and spatial heterogeneity of hosts have increased the potential for specialisation, resource partitioning, and unoccupied ecological niche availability for gall-thrips on Australian Acacia.

  3. Investigation of Connectivity Thresholds Associated with Severe Degradation along a Rainfall Gradient in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saco, Patricia; Moreno-de las Heras, Mariano; Azadi, Samira; Keesstra, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    Dryland vegetation is very sensitive to climatic and anthropogenic pressures and prone to critical degradation thresholds which make rehabilitation efforts considerably difficult. In many dryland areas of Australia, the spatial structure of vegetation is tightly linked to overland flow redistribution through feedback mechanisms that are likely to exhibit this type of threshold behaviour. Disturbances can trigger erosion and substantial water losses by increasing landscape hydrological connectivity and damaging ecosystem function. In this study, we combine remote sensing observations with a modelling approach to analyse changes in ecosystem connectivity and the existence of threshold behaviour along a precipitation gradient in selected sites of the Mulga Lands Bioregion in Australia (250mm to 490mm annual average rainfall). Vegetation patterns are derived from high resolution remote sensing images, and Rainfall Use Efficiency estimated from precipitation data and MODIS vegetation indices for several plots across along this gradient. These data is used to model the evolution of landform and vegetation in order to analytically investigate the processes and possible triggering mechanisms for threshold behaviour. We find that disturbances can substantially increase the connectivity above a threshold that leads to severe degradation determined by loss of productivity and landscape functionality (e.g. rainwater use efficiency of the landscapes). However, both observations and modelling results suggest that sites with higher rainfall are more resilient to changes in surface connectivity, even if these changes are quite profound. The implications for ecosystem resilience and land management strategies are briefly discussed.

  4. Metal Criticality Determination for Australia, the US, and the Planet—Comparing 2008 and 2012 Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ciacci

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Episodic supply shortages of metals and unsettling predictions of potential supply constraints in the future have led to a series of recent criticality evaluations. This study applies a consistent criticality methodology to the United States, Australia, and to the global level for both 2008 and 2012. It is the first time that criticality assessments are presented for Australia, a country that contrasts with the United States in terms of its mineral deposits and metal use characteristics. We use the Yale criticality methodology, which measures Supply Risk (SR, Environmental Implications (EI, and Vulnerability to Supply Restriction (VSR to derive criticality assessments for five major metals (Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and for indium (In. We find only modest changes in SR between 2008 and 2012 at both country and global levels; these changes are due to revisions in resource estimates. At the country level, Australia’s VSR for Ni, Cu, and Zn is 23%–33% lower than that for the United States, largely because of Australia’s abundant domestic resources. At the global level, SR is much higher for In, Ni, Cu, and Zn than for Al and Fe as a consequence of SR’s longer time horizon and anticipated supply/demand constraints. The results emphasize the dynamic nature of criticality and its variance between countries and among metals.

  5. Potential Effects of the Loss of Native Grasses on Grassland Invertebrate Diversity in Southeastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Edgcumbe Clay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in area of the southeastern temperate grasslands of Australia since European settlement has been accompanied by degradation of remaining remnants by various factors, including the replacement of native plant species by introduced ones. There are suggestions that these replacements have had deleterious effects on the invertebrate grassland community, but there is little evidence to support these suggestions. In the eastern Adelaide Hills of South Australia, four grassland invertebrate sampling areas, in close proximity, were chosen to be as similar as possible except for the visible amount of native grass they contained. Sample areas were surveyed in four periods (summer, winter, spring, and a repeat summer using pitfall traps and sweep-netting. A vegetation cover survey was conducted in spring. Morphospecies richness and Fisher’s alpha were compared and showed significant differences between sample areas, mainly in the summer periods. Regression analyses between morphospecies richness and various features of the groundcover/surface showed a strong positive and logical association between native grass cover and morphospecies richness. Two other associations with richness were less strong and lacked a logical explanation. If the suggested direct effect of native grass cover on invertebrate diversity is true, it has serious implications for the conservation of invertebrate biodiversity.

  6. Regional Influences on Chinese Medicine Education: Comparing Australia and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Caragh; Chung, Vincent C H; Zhang, Anthony L; Adams, Jon

    2016-01-01

    High quality education programs are essential for preparing the next generation of Chinese medicine (CM) practitioners. Currently, training in CM occurs within differing health and education policy contexts. There has been little analysis of the factors influencing the form and status of CM education in different regions. Such a task is important for understanding how CM is evolving internationally and predicting future workforce characteristics. This paper compares the status of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong across a range of dimensions: historical and current positions in the national higher education system, regulatory context and relationship to the health system, and public and professional legitimacy. The analysis highlights the different ways in which CM education is developing in these settings, with Hong Kong providing somewhat greater access to clinical training opportunities for CM students. However, common trends and challenges shape CM education in both regions, including marginalisation from mainstream health professions, a small but established presence in universities, and an emphasis on biomedical research. Three factors stand out as significant for the evolution of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong and may have international implications: continuing biomedical dominance, increased competition between universities, and strengthened links with mainland China. PMID:27379170

  7. Perceptions of Water Pricing during a Drought: A Case Study from South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Martin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the perceptions of urban and regional water consumers in three areas of South Australia on the fairness of the water pricing system, the impact of increases in water pricing on households and pricing as a driver of water conservation. The study was conducted in 2009 during a time of severe drought and mandatory water restrictions. The results did not show a general aversion to all aspects of price increases but rather different sectors of the population were particularly resistant to different, specific aspects of water pricing. A state-wide water pricing policy in South Australia means that all consumers pay the same rate per volume of water consumed regardless of their location; yet in the regional study area, where it costs more for the service provider to supply the water, the respondents had stronger feelings that the price of water should be higher in places where it costs more to supply it. Generally, low income earners were less in favor of a block pricing system than higher income earners. The latter findings indicate a common lack of awareness around various aspects of water pricing. Some implications of the findings for water managers are outlined.

  8. HIV and dentistry in Australia: clinical and legal issues impacting on dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A T; Wheeler, E K; Cameron, S; Baker, D

    2012-09-01

    The number of people in Australia living with HIV is growing. This reflects a consistent rate of new HIV infections combined with an increased life expectancy of people with HIV. Dentists are ideally positioned to identify, manage and treat HIV-associated oral manifestations and have a responsibility to themselves and to their patients to be up-to-date with the evolving area of HIV and related issues. Those issues include medico-legal implications associated with HIV diagnosis and treatment. This article provides a review of the current clinical and medico-legal aspects of HIV in Australia. The oral manifestations of HIV can be divided into five categories: microbiological infections (fungal, bacterial and viral); oral neoplasms; neurological conditions; other oral conditions that may be associated with HIV infection; and oral conditions associated with HIV treatment. Current treatment options in the scope of general dental practice are outlined. Medico-legal issues related to the management of patients with HIV are explored, including rights of the patient regarding disclosure of HIV status; an algorithm for the management of a patient with signs or symptoms indicating possible HIV infection, including referral pathways; and an algorithm for dealing with patient management and referral issues. PMID:22924347

  9. How Muslim Students’ Knowledge of Christianity Is Related to Their Attitudes to Mainstream Australia and Australians: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe W. Ata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Outlined below are selected results of a 5-year long national survey which investigated the knowledge, values and attitudes of 430 Year 11 and 12 Muslim students in eight Muslim High schools towards the mainstream Australia and Australians society. The findings reflect a wide spectrum of responses with a strong implication that much work is needed to bring about an appropriate degree of adjustment. Providing awareness sessions to students and parents—both non-Muslims and Muslims—which address critical social, religious and cultural issues including stereotyping and inclusivity, is key.

  10. MEDICINAL CANNABIS LAW REFORM IN AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform. PMID:27323630

  11. Newborn bloodspot screening policy framework for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O'Leary

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of newborn bloodspot screening (NBS is to identify rare genetic and non-genetic conditions in children soon after birth in order to commence therapies that prevent the development of progressive, serious, and irreversible disabilities. Universal NBS programmes have been implemented in most countries, with minor adaptations to target conditions most relevant to the local healthcare environment. Aims In this article, we describe the initiatives of international and Australian governments to develop policies to address the expansion of NBS in their healthcare systems. Methods We have reviewed published public policies and literature to formulate recommendations based on clinical, social, legal, and ethical principles to inform a national governance and policy framework for Australia. Results Australian policy makers have been slow to develop a coordinated plan. While the experience from other governments can guide our national policy, there are specific areas that require further consideration by Australian health experts. Key reforms involve the separation of policy and operational activities, multidisciplinary decision-making and oversight by the Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council for policy direction. Conclusion A formal national policy framework will guide the coordination of NBS services that can adapt to the needs of Australian children and families.

  12. An Australia telescope survey for CMB anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, R; Ekers, R D; Sinclair, M; Silk, J

    2000-01-01

    We have surveyed six distinct `empty fields' using the Australia TelescopeCompact Array in an ultra-compact configuration with the aim of imaging, with ahigh brightness sensitivity, any arcmin-scale brightness-temperatureanisotropies in the background radio sky. The six well-separated regions wereobserved at a frequency of 8.7 GHz and the survey regions were limited by theATCA primary beams which have a full width at half maximum of 6 arcmin at thisfrequency; all fields were observed with a resolution of 2 arcmin and an rmsthermal noise of 24 microJy/beam. After subtracting foreground confusiondetected in higher resolution images of the fields, residual fluctuations inStokes I images are consistent with the expectations from thermal noise andweaker (unidentified) foreground sources; the Stokes Q and U images areconsistent with expectations from thermal noise. Within the sensitivity of our observations, we have no reason to believe thatthere are any Sunyaev-Zeldovich holes in the microwave sky surveyed. Assumi...

  13. Energy usage for cotton ginning in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, S.A. [MARA Univ. of Technology, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Applied Sciences; Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture; Chen, G.; Baillie, C.; Symes, T. [Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that evaluated the energy consumption of cotton gins used in Australia. The average electricity use is 52.3 kWh per bale. In practicality, the electricity consumption for different gins is correlated linearly with the bale numbers produced. The cost of electricity is therefore important in cotton ginning operations. The power factor in all the gins monitored in this study was greater than 0.85. The study showed that the use of gas dryers was highly influenced by the cotton moisture and regulated drying temperature. In general, electricity and gas consumption comprised 61 and 39 per cent of total energy use respectively. The study showed that 60.38 kg of carbon dioxide are emitted for ginning each bale of cotton. This paper described a newly developed method for monitoring the energy performance in cotton gins. Detailed monitoring and analysis carried out at 2 gin sites revealed that electricity consumption is not influenced much by changes in trash content in the module, degree of moisture and lint quality. However, the cotton variety influences the energy consumption. Cotton handling constituted nearly 50 per cent of the power used in both gins.

  14. Recent trends in cyclist fatalities in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufous, Soufiane; Olivier, Jake

    2016-08-01

    The study examines trends in bicycling fatalities reported to the Australian police between 1991 and 2013. Trends were estimated using Poisson regression modelling. Overall, cycling fatalities decreased by 1.9% annually between 1991 and 2013. However, while deaths following multivehicle crashes decreased at a rate of 2.9% per annum (95% CI -4.0% to -1.8%), deaths from single vehicle crashes increased by 5.8% per annum (95% CI 4.1% to 7.5%). Over the study period, the average age of cyclists who died in single vehicle crashes (45.3 years, 95% CI 41.5 to 49.1) was significantly higher than cyclists who died in multivehicle crashes (36.2 years, 95% CI 34.7 to 37.7). The average age of deceased cyclists increased significantly for both types of crashes. The observed increase in single vehicle crashes need to be closely monitored in Australia and internationally. In-depth studies are needed to investigate the circumstances of fatal single bicycle crashes in order to develop appropriate countermeasures. PMID:26180104

  15. Physiotherapy in critical care in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Susan; Haines, Kimberley; Denehy, Linda

    2012-03-01

    A physiotherapist is part of the multidisciplinary team in most intensive care units in Australia. Physiotherapists are primary contact practitioners and use a comprehensive multisystem assessment that includes the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems to formulate individualized treatment plans. The traditional focus of treatment has been the respiratory management of both intubated and spontaneously breathing patients. However, the emerging evidence of the longstanding physical impairment suffered by survivors of intensive care has resulted in physiotherapists re-evaluating treatment priorities to include exercise rehabilitation as a part of standard clinical practice. The goals of respiratory physiotherapy management are to promote secretion clearance, maintain or recruit lung volume, optimize oxygenation, and prevent respiratory complications in both the intubated and spontaneously breathing patient. In the intubated patient, physiotherapists commonly employ manual and ventilator hyperinflation and positioning as treatment techniques whilst in the spontaneously breathing patients there is an emphasis on mobilization. Physiotherapists predominantly use functional activities for the rehabilitation of the critically ill patient in intensive care. While variability exists between states and centers, Australian physiotherapists actively treat critically ill patients targeting interventions based upon research evidence and individualized assessment. A trend toward more emphasis on exercise rehabilitation over respiratory management is evident. PMID:22807651

  16. Serving rural Australia with reproductive health expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, T; Kovacs, G T; Kinfu, Y

    2001-10-01

    This study aimed to review the use of reproductive health services in Family Planning clinics by women from rural (non-metropolitan) Australia through a retrospective analysis of data collected at clinics of seven state/territory Family Planning Organisations (FPO). From a total of 146 157 client visits to FPO clinics between July 1998 and June 1999, 42 497 (29.1%) were by clients who lived outside metropolitan areas. Some 97% of clients were women. Our results show the use of reproductive health services by women from rural areas was different from the services used by women from metropolitan areas. There were fewer male clients, more women over 40 years of age, and fewer clients from a non-English speaking background. More of the attendees had pension cards and fewer were privately insured. We concluded there is considerable demand for reproductive health services among the rural population and reproductive health care needs to be expanded to reach rural women. PMID:11736848

  17. Geotechnical considerations in mine backfilling in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Sivakugan; R.M. Rankine; K.J. Rankine; K.S. Rankine [James Cook University, Townsville, Qld. (Australia). School of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Mine backfilling can play a significant role in the overall operation of a mine operation. In the Australian mining industry, where safety is a prime consideration, hydraulic systems are the most common backfills deployed. Many accidents reported at hydraulic fill mines worldwide have mainly been attributed to a lack of understanding of their behaviour and barricade bricks. There are two basic types of backfilling strategies. The first, uncemented backfilling, does not make use of binding agents such as cement, and their characteristics can be studied using soil mechanics theories. A typical example of uncemented backfilling is the use of hydraulic fills that are placed in the form of slurry into the underground voids. The second category, cemented backfilling, makes use of a small percentage of binder such as Portland cement or a blend of Portland cement with another pozzolan such as fly ash, gypsum or blast furnace slag. This paper describes the findings from an extensive laboratory test programme carried out in Australia on more than 20 different hydraulic fills and several barricade bricks. A limited description of paste backfills is also provided, and the usefulness of numerical modelling as an investigative tool is highlighted. 21 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Integrated primary health care in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawaine Powell Davies

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Description of policy: Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Discussion: Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.

  19. Characterising Emissions from Australia's Black Saturday Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton-Walsh, C.; Young, E.; Emmons, L. K.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Stevens, L.

    2009-12-01

    The “Black Saturday” fires were a set of devastating bushfires that burned across the Australian state of Victoria on Saturday the 7th of February 2009 killing 173 people. The fires continued into March when rain and cooler conditions allowed the fires to be extinguished. Smoke plumes from the Black Saturday fires were transported south eastwards eluding local ground-based remote sensing FTIR spectrometers, but were captured by a number of satellite-based sensors. OMI UV-aerosol index data show that smoke from the first intense fires separated from subsequent plumes and was transported to the north of New Zealand where it stayed for over a week before moving west across northern Australia and dissipating over the Indian Ocean in early March. Here we present an analysis of the emissions from the Black Saturday fires including total emissions estimates for a number of trace gases and a study of the aging of the smoke emitted from the first days of the fires.

  20. Radiation doses from mammography in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1989-90 the Australian Radiation Laboratory conducted a postal survey of at least 90% of the mammographic facilities in Australia. The primary aim of the survey was to measure the mean glandular dose (MGD) and the X-ray beam half value layer (HVL) for a typical mammograph. The MGD and HVL were measured with a specially designed tissue equivalent monitor. In all, 258 mammographic centres were surveyed. It was found that for centres using film-screen imaging, the average mean glandular dose was 1.83 mGy for centres using grids and 0.84 mGy for centres not using grids. In addition to the MGD and HVL, comprehensive statistical information was collected and data is presented on the types of equipment and techniques used, the number and age of patients and demographic distribution of centres. Results indicate that the use of a grid is the major factor determining dose and several other factors appear to have minor effects. In view of the distribution of MGD, it is recommended that the mean glandular dose per image, for a 5 cm compressed breast thickness, should not exceed 2.0 mGy when a grid is used and 1.0 mGy without a grid. 63 refs., 11 tabs., 15 figs

  1. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Gallagher, Stephen J; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  2. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela

    2016-10-01

    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland.

  3. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela

    2016-10-01

    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland. PMID:27353372

  4. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Park

    Full Text Available Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria, in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  5. Geographic Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metropolitan Centres in France and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Paquet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how health outcomes are spatially distributed represents a first step in investigating the scale and nature of environmental influences on health and has important implications for statistical power and analytic efficiency. Using Australian and French cohort data, this study aimed to describe and compare the extent of geographic variation, and the implications for analytic efficiency, across geographic units, countries and a range of cardiometabolic parameters (Body Mass Index (BMI waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, HbA1c. Geographic clustering was assessed using Intra-Class Correlation (ICC coefficients in biomedical cohorts from Adelaide (Australia, n = 3893 and Paris (France, n = 6430 for eight geographic administrative units. The median ICC was 0.01 suggesting 1% of risk factor variance attributable to variation between geographic units. Clustering differed by cardiometabolic parameters, administrative units and countries and was greatest for BMI and resting heart rate in the French sample, HbA1c in the Australian sample, and for smaller geographic units. Analytic inefficiency due to clustering was greatest for geographic units in which participants were nested in fewer, larger geographic units. Differences observed in geographic clustering across risk factors have implications for choice of geographic unit in sampling and analysis, and highlight potential cross-country differences in the distribution, or role, of environmental features related to cardiometabolic health.

  6. A Discourse of "Abnormality": Exploring Discussions of People Living in Australia With Deafness or Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferndale, Danielle; Munro, Louise; Watson, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a social constructionist framework, the authors conducted a synthetic discourse analysis to explore how people living in Australia with deafness construct their experience of deafness. An online forum facilitated access and communication between the lead author and 24 widely dispersed and linguistically diverse forum contributors. The authors discuss the productive and restrictive effects of the emergent discourse of deafness as abnormal and the rhetorical strategies mobilized in people's accounts: fitting in, acceptance as permission to be different, and the need to prove normality. Using these strategies was productive in that the forum respondents were enabled to reposition deafness as a positive, socially valued identity position. However, the need to manage deafness was reproduced as an individual concern, disallowing any exploration of how deafness could be reconstructed as socially valued. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of the deafness as abnormal discourse.

  7. The Influence of Human Values on Holiday Destination Choice in Australia and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Raquel Pérez-Nebra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Allen and Ng (1999a proposed a conceptual framework of how consumers’ choice of services may be influenced by the human values that they endorse. The aim of this study is to observe which implications cultural differences had on holiday destination choice. The sample consisted of 793 participants (52% Brazilians, 48% Australians; 51% Male; average age = 25y; Education 52% High School, who answered a questionnaire containing: the vertical-horizontal individualism-collectivism Values Scale, the Meaning and Judgment Scale, a Holiday Destination Measure, a Consumption Behavior Measure, and demographics page. The main effect of the country on cultural patterns between Brazil and Australia was observed. The individualist Australians preferred a piecemeal judgment and placed more importance on tangible attributes. Brazilians, who scored higher on collectivism, used affective judgment more. These and other results are discussed in terms of the validity of the model for individuals who endorse cultural values other than individualism.

  8. Towards understanding hydroclimatic change in Victoria, Australia – preliminary insights into the "Big Dry"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kiem

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s the majority of Victoria, Australia, has experienced severe drought conditions (i.e. the "Big Dry" characterized by streamflow that is the lowest in approximately 80 years of record. While decreases in annual and seasonal rainfall totals have also been observed, this alone does not seem to explain the observed reduction in flow. In this study, we investigate the large-scale climate drivers for Victoria and demonstrate how these modulate the regional scale synoptic patterns, which in turn alter the way seasonal rainfall totals are compiled and the amount of runoff per unit rainfall that is produced. The hydrological implications are significant and illustrate the need for robust hydrological modelling, that takes into account insights into physical mechanisms that drive regional hydroclimatology, in order to properly understand and quantify the impacts of climate change (natural and/or anthropogenic on water resources.

  9. Towards understanding hydroclimatic change in Victoria, Australia – why was the last decade so dry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Verdon-Kidd

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s Victoria, located in southeast Australia, has experienced severe drought conditions characterized by streamflow that is the lowest on record in many areas. While severe decreases in annual and seasonal rainfall totals have also been observed, this alone does not seem to explain the observed reduction in flow. In this study, we investigate the large-scale climate drivers for Victoria and demonstrate how these modulate the regional scale synoptic patterns, which in turn alter the way seasonal rainfall totals are compiled and the amount of runoff per unit rainfall that is produced. The hydrological implications are significant and illustrate the need for robust hydrological modelling, which takes into account insights into physical mechanisms that drive regional hydroclimatology, in order to properly understand and quantify the impacts of climate change (natural and/or anthropogenic on water resources.

  10. Getting stuck in the blues: persistence of mental health problems in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, John; Schurer, Stefanie

    2013-09-01

    Do episodes of mental health (MH) problems cause future MH problems, and if yes, how strong are these dynamics? We quantify the degree of persistence in MH problems using nationally representative, longitudinal data from Australia and system generalized method of moments (GMM), and correlated random effects approaches are applied to separate true from spurious state dependence. Our results suggest only a moderate degree of persistence in MH problems when assuming that persistence is constant across the MH distribution once individual-specific heterogeneity is accounted for. However, individuals who fell once below a threshold that indicates an episode of depression are up to five times more likely to experience such a low score again a year later, indicating a strong element of state dependence in depression. Low income is a strong risk factor in state dependence for both men and women, which has important policy implications.

  11. Truth hurts--hard lessons from Australia's largest mass casualty exercise with contaminated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicholas A; Caldicott, David G E; Eliseo, Tony; Pearce, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    In response to the increasing threat of a mass casualty incident involving chemical, biological or radiological agents, and concern over the preparedness of our hospital system to cope with patients from such an incident, we conducted the largest hospital-based field exercise involving contaminated patients that has been held in Australia. In the present paper, we outline the background to, and methodology of, Exercise Supreme Truth, and the efforts made to increase its realism. We focus our discussion on three issues highlighted by the exercise, which we believe have enormous implications for the development of hospital chemical, biological or radiological plans and the likelihood of their success--hospital security, crowd control and decontamination.

  12. Serological evidence of Coxiella burnetii exposure in native marsupials and introduced animals in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A; Goullet, M; Mitchell, J; Ketheesan, N; Govan, B

    2012-07-01

    The state of Queensland has the highest incidence of Q fever in Australia. In recent years, there has been an increase in human cases where no contacts with the typical reservoir animals or occupations were reported. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian native animals and introduced animals in northern and southeastern Queensland. Australian native marsupials sampled included the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and common northern bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus). Introduced species sampled included dingoes (Canis lupus dingo), cats (Felis catus), foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and pigs (Sus scrofa). Serum samples were tested by ELISA for both phase II and phase I antigens of the organism using an Australian isolate. The serological evidence of C. burnetii infection demonstrated in these species has public health implications due to their increasing movement into residential areas in regional Queensland. This study is the first known investigation of C. burnetii seroprevalence in these species in northern Queensland. PMID:21892986

  13. Palaeozoic Palaeomagnetism of South-Eastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Vérard, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The drift history of Gondwana following the break-up of Rodinia (or perhaps Pannotia) to the amalgamation into Pangaea has great implications in many disciplines in Earth sciences, but remains largely unknown. Among the apparent polar wander (APW) paths published for Gondwana in the last few decades, large discrepancies exist (sometimes up to thousands of kilometres). The mid Palaeozoic segment of the APW path is particularly problematic, and two primary schools of thought arise. Some authors...

  14. Horizontal inequities in Australia?s mixed public/private health care system, CHERE Working Paper 2006/13,

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy van Doorslaer; Philip Clarke; Elizabeth Savage; Jane Hall

    2006-01-01

    Recent OECD country comparative evidence suggests that Australia?s mixed public-private health system does a good job in ensuring high and fairly equal access to doctor, hospital and dental care services. This paper provides some further analysis of the same data from the Australian National Health Survey for 2001 to see to what extent the general finding of horizontal equity remains when the full potential of the data is realized. We extend the common core cross-country comparative analysis ...

  15. 'Newness-struggle-success' continuum: a qualitative examination of the cultural adaptation process experienced by overseas-qualified dentists in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Madhan; Brennan, David S; Spencer, A John; Short, Stephanie D

    2016-04-01

    country for overseas-qualified dentists. Migrant dentists arrive from contrasting social and cultural backgrounds, and these contrasts can be somewhat more pronounced in dentists from developing countries. To date, there is no evidence available regarding the cultural adaptation process of overseas-qualified dentists in Australia or elsewhere. What does this paper add? This study provides evidence to support the argument that the cultural adaptation process of overseas-qualified dentists in Australia can be viewed as a continuum state, where the individual learns to adapt to the people, language and lifestyle in Australia. The ongoing role of family and friends is primary to a successful transition process. Our research also identifies the positive role played by community and organisational structures, such as universities and public sector employment schemes. What are the implications for practitioners? A potential implication for policy makers is to focus on the positive roles played by organisational structures, particularly universities and the public sector. This can inform more supportive migration policy, as well as strengthen the role these organisations play in providing support for overseas-qualified dentists, thus enabling them to integrate more successfully into Australia's health care system, economy and society. PMID:26235492

  16. Investigation of Borrelia burgdorferi genotypes in Australia obtained from erythema migrans tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayne PJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Peter J Mayne International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA The author is a member of the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADSBackground: Lyme disease (LD is an emerging infectious disease in Australia. There has been controversy regarding endemic lyme disease in the country for over 20 years. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss and sensu lato (Bbsl are closely related spirochetal species that are the causative agents of LD in humans. Clinical transmission of this tick-borne disease is marked by a characteristic rash known as erythema migrans (EM. This study employed molecular techniques to demonstrate the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease isolated from EM biopsies of patients in Australia and then investigate their genetic diversity.Methods: Four patients who presented to the author's practice over a one-year period from mid 2010 to mid 2011 returned positive results on central tissue biopsy of EM lesions using polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. The findings were confirmed by DNA sequencing, and basic local alignment search tool (BLAST analysis was then used to genetically characterize the causative organisms.Results: Three isolates were identified as Bbss that lay genotypically between strains B31 and ZS7 and were then characterized as strain 64b. One of the three isolates though may have similarity to B. bissettii a Bbsl. The fourth isolate was more appropriately placed in the sensu lato group and appeared to be similar, but not identical to, a B. valaisiana-type isolate. In this study, a central biopsy taken within 6 days of infection was used instead of conventional sampling at the leading edge, and the merits of this are discussed.Conclusion: These patients acquired infection in Australia, further proving endemic LD on the continent. Central biopsy site of EM is a useful tool for PCR evaluation. BLAST searches suggest a genetic diversity of B. burgdorferi, which has implications

  17. Carbonate hosted gold deposit in Tasmania, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This study uses elemental and isotopic composition of carbonates associated with gold from Henty and Beaconsfield in Tasmania, Australia, to illustrate source of gold-bearing fluids, salinity, temperature and dissolution and reprecipitation of carbonate. The Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are located in northern and western Tasmania respectively. Gold mineralisation in Beaconsfield occurs within the quartz-carbonate Tasmania Reef (Lower to Middle Palaeozoic sequence, Hills, 1998). The Henty gold mine is located at the base of the Cambrian Tyndall Group (volcano-sedimentary succession, White and McPhie, 1996) close to Henty Fault. Gold in carbonate samples from Henty ranges from 7.7 to 9360 ppm and in Beaconsfield ranges from 0.01 to 434 ppm. The amount of carbonate in samples from Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines varies from approximately 24 to 99.8%. Bivariate plot of Ca relative to total amounts of Mg, Fe and Mn illustrates that the major carbonate minerals at Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are magnesian ankerite and calcite. The difference in carbonate mineralogy, at Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines, is attributed to the composition of fluids responsible for carbonate alteration. Gold and magnesium in Beaconsfield ankerite are derived from the leaching of Cambrian ultramafic rocks during the Devonian by the passage of meteoric fluids through tectonically affected Ordovician carbonates (Rao and Adabi, 1999). The total concentration of Fe and Mn are low (0.5 to 2%) in Henty and high (1 to 17.5%) in Beaconsfield ankerite, possibly due to oxidising conditions at Henty and reducing conditions at Beaconsfield gold mines during gold mineralisation. Variation of Sr values between Beaconsfield ankerite and Henty calcite is related to dissolution of limestone that increase Sr concentrations in gold mineralising fluids. Na values in both Beaconsfield (20 to 1100 ppm) and Henty carbonates (25 to 1650 ppm) suggest low salinity fluids responsible for gold

  18. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  19. Equity of health care in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairson, D R; Hindson, P; Hauquitz, A

    1995-08-01

    This paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing and delivery in Australia and compares its performance with recent findings on systems in Europe and the United States. Vertical equity of finance is evaluated with income and payment concentration indices derived from published survey data on taxes and expenditure by income decile. Horizontal equity of health care delivery is assessed with standardized expenditure concentration coefficients for three measures of health status and four types of health services, derived from household survey data on health care utilization, health status, income and demographics. Health cover is available to the entire population. Results show the financing system is slightly progressive despite the fact that 30% of payment comes from private sources, which are regressive. The equity index compares favorably to many European countries and is much better than the U.S. which has a regressive financing system. The Australian system fares less well in terms of equity of health care delivery. Several features favor privately insured higher income persons in use of health care and this is reflected, for some health status measures and types of service, in inequity favoring the better off. This contrasts with inequity favoring the less well off in many European countries and the U.S. This analysis provides a benchmark for monitoring the equity of the Australian system and provides information on the equity of a mixed private and public financing system that covers the entire population. This is relevant to the U.S. which is moving in this direction by extending private cover to the uninsured and to European countries that are increasing private sector involvement in health care financing. PMID:7481941

  20. Prevalence of chronic conditions in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Harrison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence of chronic conditions among patients seeing a general practitioner (GP, patients attending general practice at least once in a year, and the Australian population. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A sub-study of the BEACH (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health program, a continuous national study of general practice activity conducted between July 2008 and May 2009. Each of 290 GPs provided data for about 30 consecutive patients (total 8,707 indicating diagnosed chronic conditions, using their knowledge of the patient, patient self-report, and patient's health record. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimates of prevalence of chronic conditions among patients surveyed, adjusted prevalence in patients who attended general practice at least once that year, and national population prevalence. RESULTS: Two-thirds (66.3% of patients surveyed had at least one chronic condition: most prevalent being hypertension (26.6%, hyperlipidaemia (18.5%, osteoarthritis (17.8%, depression (13.7%, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (11.6%, asthma (9.5% and Type 2 diabetes (8.3%. For patients who attended general practice at least once, we estimated 58.8% had at least one chronic condition. After further adjustment we estimated 50.8% of the Australian population had at least one chronic condition: hypertension (17.4%, hyperlipidaemia (12.7%, osteoarthritis (11.1%, depression (10.5% and asthma (8.0% being most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: This study used GPs to gather information from their knowledge, the patient, and health records, to provide prevalence estimates that overcome weaknesses of studies using patient self-report or health record audit alone. Our results facilitate examination of primary care resource use in management of chronic conditions and measurement of prevalence of multimorbidity in Australia.

  1. Australia's dengue risk driven by human adaptation to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel W Beebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reduced rainfall in southeast Australia has placed this region's urban and rural communities on escalating water restrictions, with anthropogenic climate change forecasts suggesting that this drying trend will continue. To mitigate the stress this may place on domestic water supply, governments have encouraged the installation of large domestic water tanks in towns and cities throughout this region. These prospective stable mosquito larval sites create the possibility of the reintroduction of Ae. aegypti from Queensland, where it remains endemic, back into New South Wales and other populated centres in Australia, along with the associated emerging and re-emerging dengue risk if the virus was to be introduced. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Having collated the known distribution of Ae. aegypti in Australia, we built distributional models using a genetic algorithm to project Ae. aegypti's distribution under today's climate and under climate change scenarios for 2030 and 2050 and compared the outputs to published theoretical temperature limits. Incongruence identified between the models and theoretical temperature limits highlighted the difficulty of using point occurrence data to study a species whose distribution is mediated more by human activity than by climate. Synthesis of this data with dengue transmission climate limits in Australia derived from historical dengue epidemics suggested that a proliferation of domestic water storage tanks in Australia could result in another range expansion of Ae. aegypti which would present a risk of dengue transmission in most major cities during their warm summer months. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the debate of the role climate change will play in the future range of dengue in Australia, we conclude that the increased risk of an Ae. aegypti range expansion in Australia would be due not directly to climate change but rather to human adaptation to the current and forecasted regional drying

  2. How should Australia regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ben; Willmott, Lindy

    2012-12-01

    This article invites consideration of how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It attempts to pose this question as neutrally as possible, acknowledging that both prohibition and legalisation of such conduct involve decisions about regulation. It begins by charting the wider field of law at the end of life, before considering the repeated, but ultimately unsuccessful, attempts at law reform in Australia. The situation in Australia is contrasted with permissive jurisdictions overseas where voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide are lawful. The authors consider the arguments for and against legalisation of such conduct along with the available empirical evidence as to what happens in practice both in Australia and overseas. The article concludes by outlining a framework for deliberating on how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It asks a threshold question of whether such conduct should be criminal acts (as they presently are), the answer to which then leads to a range of possible regulatory options. PMID:23431857

  3. Unequal Bargaining? Australia's Aviation Trade Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Russell

    2001-01-01

    International aviation trade bargaining is distinguished by its use of a formal process of bilateral bargaining based on the reciprocal exchange of rights by states. Australia-United States aviation trade relations are currently without rancour, but this has not always been the case and in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their formal bilateral aviation negotiations were a forum for a bitter conflict between two competing international aviation policies. In seeking to explain the bilateral aviation outcomes between Australia and the United States and how Australia has sought to improve upon these, analytical frameworks derived from international political economy were considered, along with the bilateral bargaining process itself. The paper adopts a modified neorealist model and concludes that to understand how Australia has sought to improve upon these aviation outcomes, neorealist assumptions that relative power capabilities determine outcomes must be qualified by reference to the formal bilateral bargaining process. In particular, Australia's use of this process and its application of certain bargaining tactics within that process remain critical to understanding bilateral outcomes.

  4. Developments in labour analgesia and their use in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, V A; Callaway, L; van Zundert, A A

    2015-07-01

    Since the introduction of chloroform for labour analgesia in 1847, different methods and medications have been used to relieve the pain of labour. The use of heavy sedative medication in the early 1900s was encouraged by enthusiastic doctors and by women empowered by the women's suffrage movement in America. Nitrous oxide by inhalation has been used in Australia since the 1950s and improved methods of administration have made this method of analgesia safe and practical. Caudal epidural analgesia and lumbar epidural analgesia were first made popular in America and by the 1970s these techniques were more widely available in Australia. In 1847, physicians and the public were unsure whether relieving labour pains was the 'right' thing to do. However, many medical and social changes have occurred thanks to the clinical connection between Australia and the United Kingdom and those first settlers to land on Australian shores. Thanks to this historical connection, in today's Australia there is no question that women should use analgesia as a pain relief if they wish. Currently, the majority of women worldwide use some form of analgesia during labour and different methods are widely available. This paper discusses the four milestones of the development of obstetric analgesia and how they were introduced into patient care in Australia. PMID:26126071

  5. The Historical Change of the Chinese Community in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施玥

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the author tries to give an account of the historical change of the Chinese community in Australia,hoping to sum up the basic pattern and structure of the Chinese community in Australia,as wel as the historical contributions the Chinese Australians has made to promote Sino-Australian friendship and the prosperity of the two countries. The paper can be divided into three parts. At the beginning,the author makes a brief introduction to the background of the formation of the Chinese community in Australia and the living condition of the Chinese Australians from 1848 to 1901. Later,the author explores the social state of the Chinese Australians under the White Australia Policy,with the intention to show the spirit of self-improvement of the Chinese. Then,at the end of the paper,the author points out the great contribution the Chinese Australians made not only for the motherland but for Australia,hoping to strengthen the cooperation and exchange.

  6. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. PMID:24638225

  7. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.

    2016-10-01

    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  8. Shining the light on the dark side of medical leadership - a qualitative study in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Erwin; Morris, Jennifer; Thomas, Laura; Bismark, Marie Magdaleen; Phelps, Grant; Dickinson, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Purpose The paper aims to explore the beliefs of doctors in leadership roles of the concept of "the dark side", using data collected from interviews carried out with 45 doctors in medical leadership roles across Australia. The paper looks at the beliefs from the perspectives of doctors who are already in leadership roles themselves; to identify potential barriers they might have encountered and to arrive at better-informed strategies to engage more doctors in the leadership of the Australian health system. The research question is: "What are the beliefs of medical leaders that form the key themes or dimensions of the negative perception of the 'dark side'?". Design/methodology/approach The paper analysed data from two similar qualitative studies examining medical leadership and engagement in Australia by the same author, in collaboration with other researchers, which used in-depth semi-structured interviews with 45 purposively sampled senior medical leaders in leadership roles across Australia in health services, private and public hospitals, professional associations and health departments. The data were analysed using deductive and inductive approaches through a coding framework based on the interview data and literature review, with all sections of coded data grouped into themes. Findings Medical leaders had four key beliefs about the "dark side" as perceived through the eyes of their own past clinical experience and/or their clinical colleagues. These four beliefs or dimensions of the negative perception colloquially known as "the dark side" are the belief that they lack both managerial and clinical credibility, they have confused identities, they may be in conflict with clinicians, their clinical colleagues lack insight into the complexities of medical leadership and, as a result, doctors are actively discouraged from making the transition from clinical practice to medical leadership roles in the first place. Research limitations/implications This research was

  9. Shining the light on the dark side of medical leadership - a qualitative study in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Erwin; Morris, Jennifer; Thomas, Laura; Bismark, Marie Magdaleen; Phelps, Grant; Dickinson, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Purpose The paper aims to explore the beliefs of doctors in leadership roles of the concept of "the dark side", using data collected from interviews carried out with 45 doctors in medical leadership roles across Australia. The paper looks at the beliefs from the perspectives of doctors who are already in leadership roles themselves; to identify potential barriers they might have encountered and to arrive at better-informed strategies to engage more doctors in the leadership of the Australian health system. The research question is: "What are the beliefs of medical leaders that form the key themes or dimensions of the negative perception of the 'dark side'?". Design/methodology/approach The paper analysed data from two similar qualitative studies examining medical leadership and engagement in Australia by the same author, in collaboration with other researchers, which used in-depth semi-structured interviews with 45 purposively sampled senior medical leaders in leadership roles across Australia in health services, private and public hospitals, professional associations and health departments. The data were analysed using deductive and inductive approaches through a coding framework based on the interview data and literature review, with all sections of coded data grouped into themes. Findings Medical leaders had four key beliefs about the "dark side" as perceived through the eyes of their own past clinical experience and/or their clinical colleagues. These four beliefs or dimensions of the negative perception colloquially known as "the dark side" are the belief that they lack both managerial and clinical credibility, they have confused identities, they may be in conflict with clinicians, their clinical colleagues lack insight into the complexities of medical leadership and, as a result, doctors are actively discouraged from making the transition from clinical practice to medical leadership roles in the first place. Research limitations/implications This research was

  10. Topographic relationships for design rainfalls over Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F.; Hutchinson, M. F.; The, C.; Beesley, C.; Green, J.

    2016-02-01

    Design rainfall statistics are the primary inputs used to assess flood risk across river catchments. These statistics normally take the form of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves that are derived from extreme value probability distributions fitted to observed daily, and sub-daily, rainfall data. The design rainfall relationships are often required for catchments where there are limited rainfall records, particularly catchments in remote areas with high topographic relief and hence some form of interpolation is required to provide estimates in these areas. This paper assesses the topographic dependence of rainfall extremes by using elevation-dependent thin plate smoothing splines to interpolate the mean annual maximum rainfall, for periods from one to seven days, across Australia. The analyses confirm the important impact of topography in explaining the spatial patterns of these extreme rainfall statistics. Continent-wide residual and cross validation statistics are used to demonstrate the 100-fold impact of elevation in relation to horizontal coordinates in explaining the spatial patterns, consistent with previous rainfall scaling studies and observational evidence. The impact of the complexity of the fitted spline surfaces, as defined by the number of knots, and the impact of applying variance stabilising transformations to the data, were also assessed. It was found that a relatively large number of 3570 knots, suitably chosen from 8619 gauge locations, was required to minimise the summary error statistics. Square root and log data transformations were found to deliver marginally superior continent-wide cross validation statistics, in comparison to applying no data transformation, but detailed assessments of residuals in complex high rainfall regions with high topographic relief showed that no data transformation gave superior performance in these regions. These results are consistent with the understanding that in areas with modest topographic relief, as

  11. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (βCanning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture

  12. Buddhism in Australia: An Emerging Field of Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Halafoff

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, Paul D. Numrich (2008 posed the question of whether contemporary scholarship on North American Buddhism constituted a distinct "field of study" and identified several factors that defined both academic disciplines and fields. This paper applies Numrich's criteria to the study of Buddhism in Australia, in its multiple and diverse forms, suggesting that it is an emerging field of study. While there has been an increase in historical, anthropological, and sociological scholarship in recent years, a comprehensive analysis of Buddhism in Australia, and particularly its impact on Australian life and culture, is yet to be conducted. This paper argues that such a study is both timely and necessary, given that Buddhism is the second largest religion in Australia, and we appear to be entering an "Asian century."

  13. Current issues on ageing in Japan: a comparison with Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Yoshiko; Wells, Yvonne

    2008-03-01

    Japan's demography has changed dramatically, and with it, Japanese society and the circumstances of older people. These changes include shifts in family roles and functions, employment and social relations. Traditionally, families provided financial, physical and psychological support to their parents in the same household. While the proportion of older Japanese who live with adult children is still high in comparison to the rate in Western developed countries, patterns of care in Japan are gradually shifting towards the Western model. Public pensions supply financial support and the Long-Term Care Insurance System (LCIS) provides substantial physical care for frail older people. This paper focuses on current issues for older people in Japan, and provides a brief comparison with the situation in Australia. Japan's LCIS provides a simpler and more consistent basis for funding long-term care than Australia's system. On the other hand, Australia's pension system is comparatively robust. PMID:18713209

  14. New developments on the uranium sector in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia is one of the richest countries as far as uranium is concerned. The Jabiluka deposit alone is considered to be the largest single uranium deposit of the Western world. The overall known assured uranium reserves in Australia amount to 465.000 tons U3O8 at cost ranges between 15 and 30 US Dollar per pound U3O8, i.e. approximately 21% of the known world reserves. Most of the Australien uranium ore is of relatively high grade and nearly all of it could be mined from open pit. At this stage Mary Kathleen in Queensland is the only producing uranium mine in Australia. The actual political attitude of the Australian government prevents the Australian uranium industry from beeing further developed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO

  15. Australia's southern margin: a product of oblique extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, J. B.; Stagg, H. M. J.

    1990-02-01

    Recently developed detachment models of continental margin formation interpret the southern margin of Australia to have formed when the lower-plate Australian margin was pulled out from beneath the upper-plate Antarctic margin. Data now available and summarised in this paper, point very strongly to a generally NW-SE direction of initial continental extension for the southern margin, in contrast to the widely held picture of simple N-S rifting. The evidence for this extension direction comes from the analysis of deep Seismic data acquired by the Bureau of Mineral Resources in 1986 in the central Great Australian Bight (GAB), the gravity field of the GAB, Seismic and magnetic basement structures in the Eyre Sub-basin, Polda Trough, Ceduna Depocentre and Duntroon Basin and from the analysis of the magnetic seafloor spreading anomalies produced during the slow first phase of drifting between Australia and Antarctica. Further, it is now believed that the formation of the southern margin of Australia can be described in terms of three phases of continental extension (El to E3) and two phases of drifting (D1 and D2). In summary, these phases were as follows. E1: approximately 300 km of Late Jurassic (?or older) to Early Cretaceous NW-SE-oriented extension in the GAB, with strike-slip motion in the nascent Otway Basin and along the Tasmanian margin. E2: 120 km of Early Cretaceous NNE-SSW-oriented extension which formed the basins of southeastern Australia (Otway, Bass, Gippsland) and which probably produced a structural overprinting in the GAB Basin. E3/D1: minor continental extension and the first 500 km of slow drift between Australia and Antarctica on an azimuth of 165°; wrenching on the Tasmanian margin. D2: 2600 km of fast drifting between Australia and Antarctica on a N-S azimuth.

  16. Towards a comprehensive uranium fuel management policy for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consideration of the problems inherent in the extraction and use of uranium fuels, in particular the long-term radiation hazard posed by wastes, leads to the recognition of several severe geological and social constraints that must govern any comprehensive management policy. In the light of these, and of the need to prevent diversion of nuclear material for the manufacture of weapons, the author outlines a comprehensive uranium fuel management policy for Australia. It is recommended that Australia's uranium should not be mined until the feasibility and cost of such a management policy have been assessed and compared with the added risks entailed in any less stringent management policy. (Author)

  17. High prevalence of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Jill M; O'Dea, Mark; Jackson, Bethany; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-15

    The present study describes the first report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats using morphology and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The PCR prevalence of T. vegrandis in bats was 81.8% (18/22). The high prevalence of T. vegrandis in the present study suggests that bats may play an important role in the epidemiology of T. vegrandis in Australia. T. vegrandis appears to be geographically dispersed, has a wide distribution in Australia and low levels of host specificity. PMID:26541211

  18. Assessment and Remediation of Lead Contamination in Esperance, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCafferty P. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of a lead contamination event that occurred over a period of time in and around Esperance, Western Australia. It also describes the scientific developments necessary to effect the large scale cleanup of lead contamination in the town. This work was possibly the largest environmental cleanup of its kind ever undertaken in Australia. The work undertaken involved characterisation and assessment of the extent of contamination, development of remediation techniques and validation procedures to ensure that that this cleaning had been successful.

  19. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 4. Mosquitoborne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Hurk, A F; Craig, S B; Tulsiani, Suhella;

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases continue to be a serious public-health concern in Australia. Endemic alphaviruses (including Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses) account for the majority of the arboviral notifications, while some flaviviruses (Murray Valley encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis and Kunjin...... the trends, threats and challenges that face the management of mosquito-borne disease in Australia. Topical mosquito-borne pathogens of biosecurity and public-health concern, and the potential impacts of environmental and global trends, are discussed. Finally, a short overview of the public-health response...

  20. Credential Changes and Education Earnings Premia in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Coelli; Roger Wilkins

    2008-01-01

    We find that post-school education earnings premia have remained strikingly stable over the 1981 to 2003-04 period in Australia. This stability is in sharp contrast to the rising college premium observed in the US. The observed stability in Australia may in part be due to changes in the credentials earned by individuals entering certain professional occupations during the 1980s and early 1990s, particularly for females. We provide an estimate of the potential effect of within-occupation crede...

  1. An Adoption Diffusion Model of RFID-Based Livestock Management System in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir; Quaddus, Mohammed

    Many countries, like Australia, have introduced a radio frequency identifi cation (RFID) based livestock identification and management system,which can be used for condition monitoring and fault prognosis during an outbreak situation. This paper examines the adoption process and its subsequent diffusion and extended usage of RFID in Australian livestock management practices, and proposes a research model. The model is primarily built on Rogers' innovation-diffusion theory and Oliver's expectation-confirmation theory, with some logical modifications. It posits that while adoption of RFID may be the result of legislative pressure, its further diffusion is an evaluative process, which is judged against "satisfaction" and "performance" derived from RFID systems. The implications of these and other related concepts are also discussed. Hypotheses are developed which can be tested via empirical study. The proposed model has both theoretical and practical implications. Although it is developed on the basis of the Australian livestock industry, it can be used in other countries and also in other applications with some industry-specific modifications.

  2. High resolution record of the Last Glacial Maximum in eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petherick, Lynda; Moss, Patrick; McGowan, Hamish

    2010-05-01

    time than traditionally accepted, and was not uniformly cool and dry. Alloway, B. V., D. J. Lowe, D. J. A. Barrell, R. M. Newnham, P. C. Almond, P. C. Augustinus, N. A. N. Bertler, L. Carter, N. J. Litchfield, M. S. McGlone, J. Shulmeister, M. J. Vandergoes, P. W. Williams and N.-I. members (2007). Towards a climate event stratigraphy for New Zealand over the past 30 000 years (NZ-INTIMATE project). Journal of Quaternary Science 22(1): 9-35. Denton, G. H., T. V. Lowell, C. J. Heusser, C. Schluchter, B. G. Andersen, L. E. Heusser, P. I. Moreno and D. R. Marchant (1999). Geomorrphology, stratigraphy, and radiocarbon chronology of Llanquihe Drift in the area of the Southern Lake District, Seno Reloncavi, and Isal Grande de Chiloe, Chile. Geografiska Annaler 81A: 167-229. EPICA (2006). One-to-one coupling of glacial climate variability in Greenland and Antarctica. Nature 444: 195-198. Kershaw, A. P., G. M. McKenzie, N. Porch, R. G. Roberts, J. Brown, H. Heijnis, M. L. Orr, G. Jacobsen and P. R. Newall (2007). A high-resolution record of vegetation and climate through the last glacial cycles from Caledonia Fen, southeastern highlands of Australia. Journal of Quaternary Science 22(5): 481-500. Newnham, R. M., D. J. Lowe, T. Giles and B. V. Alloway (2007). Vegetation and climate of Auckland, New Zealand, since ca. 32 000 cal. yr ago: support for an extended LGM Journal of Quaternary Science 22(5): 517-534. Petherick, L. M., H. A. McGowan and P. T. Moss (2008). Climate variability during the Last Glacial Maximum in eastern Australia: Evidence of two stadials? Journal of Quaternary Science 23(8): 787-802. Röthlisberger, R., R. Mulvaney, E. W. Wolff, M. A. Hutterli, M. Bigler, S. Sommer and J. Jouzel (2002). Dust and sea salt variability in central East Antarctica (Dome C) over the last 45 kyr and its implications for southern high latitude climate. Geophysical Research Letters 29(20): Art # 1963. Smith, M. A. (2009). Late Quaternary landscapes in Central Australia: sedimentary

  3. Descriptions of five new species of Haplostylus (Mysidaceae crustacea) from South West Australia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.

    (Bacescu and Udrescu, 1982), H. robusta from South West Australia (Panampunnayii, 1989), from Broken Bay, New South Wales (Dakin and Colefax, 1940) and from Bass strait (Fenton, 1990), H. uderescu from Central Eastern Australia (Greenwood et al., 1991), H...

  4. Media awards for responsible reporting of suicide: Experiences from Australia, Belgium and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dare, Andrew J; Andriessen, Karl Am; Nordentoft, Merete;

    2011-01-01

    Media awards to encourage responsible reporting of suicide have been introduced in several countries, including Australia, Belgium and Denmark.......Media awards to encourage responsible reporting of suicide have been introduced in several countries, including Australia, Belgium and Denmark....

  5. Embedding Data Stewardship in Geoscience Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrakova, I.; Fyfe, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ten years of technological innovation now enable vast amounts of data to be collected, managed, processed and shared. At the same time, organisations have witnessed government legislative and policy requirements for open access to public sector data, and a demand for flexibility in access to data by both machine-to-machine and human consumption. Geoscience Australia (GA) has adopted Data Stewardship as an organisation-wide initiative to improve the way we manage and share our data. The benefits to GA including: - Consolidated understanding of GA's data assets and their value to the Agency; - Recognition of the significant role of data custodianship and data management; - Well-defined governance, policies, standards, practices and accountabilities that promote the accessibility, quality and interoperability of GA's data; - Integration of disparate data sets into cohesive information products available online in real time and equally accessible to researchers, government, industry and the public. Although the theory behind data stewardship is well-defined and accepted and the benefits are generally well-understood, practical implementation requires an organisation to prepare for a long-term commitment of resources, both financial and human. Fundamentally this involves: 1. Raising awareness in the organisation of the need for data stewardship and the challenges this entails; 2. Establishing a data stewardship framework including a data governance office to set policy and drive organisational change; and 3. Embedding the functions and a culture of data stewardship into business as usual operations. GA holds a vast amount of data ranging from petabytes of Big Data to significant quantities of relatively small ';long tail' geoscientific observations and measurements. Over the past four years, GA has undertaken strategic activities that prepare us for Data Stewardship: - Organisation-wide audits of GA's data holdings and identification of custodians for each dataset

  6. Maintaining an Effective Research Environment in Australia. Submission to IP Australia Patents Law Reform Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    It is widely stated that a purpose of patent law is to encourage inventors to innovate and to disclose their inventions for the benefit of society. In return for this disclosure they receive a limited exploitation monopoly defined essentially by commercial pursuits. A necessary implication of the requirement of disclosure is that knowledge…

  7. Correlates of recent declines of rodents in northern and southern Australia : habitat structure is critical

    OpenAIRE

    Lawes, Michael J.; Fisher, Diana O; Johnson, Chris N.; Blomberg, Simon P.; Anke S K Frank; Fritz, Susanne A.; Hamish McCallum; Jeremy VanDerWal; Brett N Abbott; Sarah Legge; Mike Letnic; Thomas, Colette R.; Nikki Thurgate; Alaric Fisher; Gordon, Iain J.

    2015-01-01

    Australia has experienced dramatic declines and extinctions of its native rodent species over the last 200 years, particularly in southern Australia. In the tropical savanna of northern Australia significant declines have occurred only in recent decades. The later onset of these declines suggests that the causes may differ from earlier declines in the south. We examine potential regional effects (northern versus southern Australia) on biological and ecological correlates of range decline in A...

  8. Pinkwashing the Past: Gay Rights, Military History and the Sidelining of Protest in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Drehel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the implications of the militarisation of Australian history and the dilemmas of increasing public support for same-sex marriage in Australia at a time of renewed assaults on Indigenous rights, austerity measures and the silencing of dissent. The paper analyses the celebratory rhetoric which increasingly typifies both marriage equality campaigns and the commemoration of Australia’s First World War or ‘Anzac’ history in popular media and public debate. Against the confluence between ongoing debates on same-sex marriage and the ‘Anzac myth’, I highlight four key challenges: the silencing of dissent; forgetting of the Frontier Wars; untold stories of civil society achievements; and the normalising of same-sex rights. I argue that professed support for a liberal version of ‘gay rights’ exemplified by same-sex marriage, set against a militarized version of Australian history, glosses over past and ongoing injustices. A militarized version of history underpins a nationalism that misrepresents credit for advances in rights recognition, sidelining public representations of Indigenous sovereignties and the contributions of civil society, protest and social justice campaigning to the recognition and maintenance of civil and political rights. As a result, the transformative claims of Land Rights and Treaty, critiques of war, and queer politics, are contained. Este artículo explora las implicaciones de la militarización de la historia de Australia y los dilemas del creciente apoyo público al matrimonio entre parejas del mismo sexo en Australia, en una época de ataques renovados a los derechos de los indígenas, medidas de austeridad y silenciamiento de las discrepancias. El artículo analiza la retórica de celebración en los medios populares y el debate público que cada vez más acompaña tanto las campañas de igualdad matrimonial como la conmemoración de la historia de Australia en la primera guerra mundial o

  9. Senate Inquiry into the Role of Libraries in the Online Environment: Submission from Public Libraries Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Library Journal, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This submission represents the views of a newly formed organisation known as Public Libraries Australia. Formed to aggregate the political, service and infrastructure capacity of Australia's 1510 (ABS June 2000) public libraries, Public Libraries Australia will support and represent public libraries on a national basis. Networked across Australia…

  10. The Hidden Topography of Australia's Arts Nation: The Contribution of Universities to the Artistic Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    In "Arts Nation" 2015, the Australia Council documented the current landscape of artistic endeavour in Australia, acknowledging that there are still gaps that need to be filled to build a greater public understanding of the arts in Australia. The contribution of Australian universities to the arts is one such lacuna. This paper seeks to…

  11. The Crisis Discourse of a Wicked Policy Problem: Vocational Skills Training in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Rudd Labor government in Australia introduced significant changes to education policy for the nation. The "Skilling Australia's Future" (Rudd et al. "Skilling Australia for the future. Election 2007 policy document," 2007) policy was meant to redress a perceived failure by the previous Howard federal Liberal-National Coalition…

  12. Influences on meat consumption in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, E; Worsley, A

    2001-04-01

    In a study of influences on meat consumption, over 700 South Australians answered questions on frequency of meat consumption, beliefs about meat and nutrition, perceived difficulties with and benefits of vegetarian diets, personal values, number of vegetarian significant others, use in and trust of health/nutrition/food information sources, and demography. Perceived difficulties with vegetarian diets, the number of vegetarian significant others and beliefs about meat were important predictors of meat consumption. There were differences between men and women and members of different age groups, which should be taken into account when attempts are made to influence meat consumption. For example, health promotion campaigns that focus on whether or not meat is necessary in the diet may influence meat consumption, but would be most successful if directed predominantly at older people and men. In contrast, the meat consumption of women and younger people was strongly associated with more specific concerns about lack of iron and protein in the vegetarian diet. Some of the difficulties people find with vegetarian diets will also apply to plant-based diets generally, and such diets are becoming more widely acknowledged as providing health benefits. Therefore, the findings have important implications for public health. PMID:11237348

  13. "Educare" in Australia: Analysing Policy Mobility and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early childhood education and care has been an area of significant policy attention, public investment and private market activity in Australia over the past three decades. Australian educationists and policy-makers have looked to international examples for evidence, policy design and institutional models. However, this area is…

  14. Wind Power in Australia: Overcoming Technological and Institutional Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Gerard; Bunting, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, Australia had little installed wind capacity, although there had been many investigations into its potential during the preceding decades. Formerly, state-owned monopoly utilities showed only token interest in wind power and could dictate the terms of energy debates. This situation changed in the late 1990s: Installed wind capacity…

  15. Education, Markets and the Contradictions of Asia-Australia Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Don; Rizvi, Fazal

    1993-01-01

    The cultural politics of the export of educational services by Australia to Asia are examined, focusing on tension between the persistent economic development perspective and an emerging market ideology that sees education as a commodity. Issues of postcolonialism, globalization, educational traditions vs. market orientation, educational aid and…

  16. Multilingualism and Assimilationism in Australia's Literacy-Related Educational Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalley, Andrea C.; Guillemin, Diana; Eisenchlas, Susana A.

    2015-01-01

    Australia is a country of high linguistic diversity, with more than 300 languages spoken. Today, 19% of the population aged over 5 years speak a language other than English at home. Against this background, we examine government policies and prominent initiatives developed at national level in the past 30 years to address the challenge of offering…

  17. Individualism-Collectivism and Job Satisfaction between Malaysia and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordin, Fauziah; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: One of the main issues that many organizations will face in the coming years is the management of increasing diversity in the workforce. The purpose of this paper is to examine the levels of individualism and collectivism of managers in two different cultural environments, that is, Malaysia and Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data…

  18. Transition to School Practices: Comparisons from Iceland and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Perry, Bob; Dockett, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the result of collaboration among early childhood education researchers from different cultures on opposite sides of the globe. The project sought to identify what practitioners in both preschool and primary school settings in Iceland and Australia regarded as successful transition to school practices. Independently developed surveys…

  19. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  20. In Search of a Professional Identity: Counseling Psychology in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Linda G.

    1989-01-01

    This survey examined the professional identity of 114 counseling psychologists in Australia. Respondents rated the importance of activities to their present and ideal positions as counseling psychologists. Factor analysis of ratings showed that consultation and education, goal-directed counseling, depth psychotherapy, and program development and…

  1. Advertising Education in Australia: Looking Back to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Gayle F.; Waller, David; Patti, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In Australia, advertising is a $13 billion industry that needs a supply of suitably skilled employees. Over the years, advertising education has developed from vocational-based courses to degree courses across the country. This study uses diffusion theory and various secondary sources and interviews to observe the development of advertising…

  2. A Short History of Sedition Laws in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nette, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The Federal Government's "Anti-Terrorism Act 2005" updates the sedition offenses previously found in the Crimes Act 1914. The Act is the latest and most comprehensive--and controversial--of a long list of legislation to respond to what the Federal Government has claimed is the changed security situation facing Australia. This article provides a…

  3. Exploiting Patient Labour at Kew Cottages, Australia, 1887-1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Lee-Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the exploitation of patient labour at Kew Cottages, Australia's first purpose-built state institution for people with learning disabilities. Analysing historical evidence for the period 1887-1950 shows that unpaid patient labour contributed significantly to the economy of the Cottages and so to the government department of…

  4. Completing School in Australia: Trends in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    After a period of dramatic growth in secondary school completion in Australia, school retention rates are declining. Analysis of state, system, geographic, social, and gender patterns suggests that during the 1990s the downturn in completion rate has been uneven; some groups who had come to rely on schooling during the 1980s for future economic…

  5. The Economics of a Multicultural Australia: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, P. J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The growth of a multicultural Australia is generating debate on the economic effects of multiculturalism. This paper examines the extent to which competing claims can draw support from the literature and the extent to which economic issues arising from the growth of a multicultural Australian society have been identified and assessed.(30…

  6. TESOL and TESD in Remote Aboriginal Australia: The "True" Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadman, Kate; Brown, Jill

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognised that teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) and teaching English as a second dialect (TESD) in remote Indigenous Australia have a history of repeated failure of both policy and practice. National language testing has been been forcefully attacked by TESOL specialists, producing strong debate amongst…

  7. Enterprise Networking Web Sites and Organizational Communication in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Allee M.; Zhu, Yunxia; Hildebrandt, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to report initial findings about networking in organizational settings in Australia through the use of enterprise social software. According to Gray and Honick (2008), enterprise social software (also known as Enterprise 2.0) is a term describing social software used in businesses and enterprises. It includes such tools as…

  8. A new species of Euonymus (Celastraceae) from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1975-01-01

    Euonymus globularis, a new species from Queensland, is here described. It is the second species of Euonymus for Australia. It shows reticulate affinities with species belonging to different sections or series of this genus as well as with species of Brassiantha and Hedraianthera in the same family.

  9. Intertidal sediments and benthic animals of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, M.; Piersma, T.; Pearson, G.; Lavaleye, M.

    1999-01-01

    Roebuck Bay near Broome (NW Australia) is with itsextensive tidal flats one of the foremost internationallyimportant sites for shorebirds in the Asia-Pacificflyway system. It is home to 150,000 shorebirds (or‘waders’) in the nonbreeding season, which suggeststhat the intertidal flats of the bay have

  10. New Directions in Intercultural Early Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melinda; Petriwskyj, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Early education in Australia encompasses both early education and care (ECEC) and the early years of school. Educational approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity have varied not only by sector but also by jurisdiction based on distinct curriculum frameworks and policies. In Australian early education, provision for cultural and linguistic…

  11. Australia Won First Contract to Supply LPG to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ming

    2002-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corp.(CNOOC)declared on August 8, 2002 that Australia Liquefied Natural Gas Company (ALNG) affiliated to Woodside Petroleum Corporation has been accepted as the supplier of LNG (liquefied natural gas) for its LNG distribution station in Guangdong Province.

  12. OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Paulo; Donaldson, Graham; Herman, Joan; Shewbridge, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This report for Australia forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes. The purpose of the Review is to explore how systems of evaluation and assessment can be used to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The…

  13. Touching the Void: Arts Education Research in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Robyn; Anderson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article is an overview of arts education research in Australia. The authors argue that there is an urgent need for key arts organisations to form strategic partnerships with arts educators to provide stronger research in the area of arts education. This research base would enhance the ability of policymakers, arts administrators and arts…

  14. Delegation of Local Government Officials Visits Australia and New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Australian Sister Cities Association (ASCA), the CPAFFC sent a delegation of local government officials to Australia to attend its national conference and visited New Zealand on its way from July 31 to August 14.

  15. Deliberate introduction of the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, into Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, F

    2010-04-01

    The European rabbit was brought to Australia as a companion animal by early settlers. It sometimes escaped, but failed to survive in the Australian bush. In 1879 wild rabbits were deliberately sent to Victoria to provide game for wealthy settlers to shoot. They soon spread all over Australia, except in the tropics, and became Australia's major animal pest. After careful testing in Australian wildlife and in humans, control by myxoma virus was introduced at various sites between 1937 and 1950, spreading all over the Murray-Darling Basin in 1950. Within one year mutations in the virus had led to slightly less virulence, and these continued for the next 50 years. In the early 21st Century testing viruses obtained from wild rabbits showed that the majority of these viruses were more virulent than the virus used to initiate the epidemic. In 1995 another virus specific for European rabbits, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, escaped from areas in which field trials were being carried out and spread around Australia. It was more successful than myxomatosis for rabbit control in arid regions. PMID:20617651

  16. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…

  17. Education Research Australia: A Changing Ecology of Knowledge and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Terri; Bennett, Dawn; Bennett, Sue; Bobis, Janette; Chan, Philip; Harrison, Neil; Shore, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Processes of national research assessment, such as Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) are a type of audit technology that confronts and steers established institutional identities and traditions. This nexus between policy and practice drives boundary work that diffracts prevailing policy logics, organisational practices, and habits of…

  18. Teach for Australia (TFA): Can It Overcome Educational Disadvantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an alternative teacher certification pathway known as Teach for Australia (TFA) that is currently operating in the Australian state of Victoria. A discursive approach informed by critical theory is used in the paper to critically examine the specific case of TFA as an alternative teacher certification pathway charged with…

  19. The Perceived Importance of University Presence in Rural Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, R. John; van Breda, Marja

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated rural residents' perceived importance of university presence in rural, regional and remote Australia. The present data indicate that the presence of university in rural areas is perceived as highly important by both rural and urban citizens. Results indicate that rural residents perceive that there is a need for…

  20. Inclusive Education in Australia: Rhetoric, Reality and the Road Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joanna; Boyle, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education (IE) is a term that has been part of the educational discourse in Australia for almost two decades. While there is no overarching definition under which IE operates in that country, it is accepted that the meaning behind the term has shifted from being exclusively about students with a disability to now encompassing the…

  1. Environmental Knowledge and Beliefs among Grade 10 Students in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyers, Vivian George

    To develop environmental education in Australia, a survey of tenth-grade students was undertaken. Thirty knowledge items and ten belief items were constructed. A panel of environmentalists and educators identified best responses for the knowledge items, and a common reference point, preservation of homo sapiens, for the belief items, so a…

  2. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  3. Circuits of Memory: The War Memory Boom in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Stephens

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In some Australian academic circles in the 1980s it was believed that, as the numbers of soldiers of the world wars declined over time, so would attendances at war remembrance ceremonies on Anzac Day and interest in war commemoration in general. Contrary to expectation, however, there has been a steady rise in eagerness for war memory in Australia over the past three decades manifest in media interest and increasing attendance at Anzac Day services. Rather than dying out, ‘Anzac’ is being reinvented for new generations. Emerging from this phenomenon has been a concomitant rise in war memorial and commemorative landscape building across Australia fuelled by government funding (mostly federal and our relentless search for a national story. Many more memorial landscapes have been built in Western Australia over the past thirty years than at the end of either of the World Wars, a trend set to peak in 2014 with the Centenary of Anzac. This paper examines the origins and progress of this boom in memorial building in Western Australia and argues that these new memorial settings establish ‘circuits of memory’ which ultimately re-enchant and reinforce the Anzac renaissance.

  4. Integrating Farm Production and Natural Resource Management in Tasmania, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotching, W. E.; Sherriff, L.; Kilpatrick, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the social learning from a project aimed to increase the knowledge and capacity of a group of farmers in Tasmania, Australia, to reduce the impacts of intensive agriculture on soil health and waterways, and to optimise the efficient use of on-farm inputs. The plan-do-check-review cycle adopted in this project required the…

  5. The Economics of Tea and Coffee Consumption in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    M.A.B. Siddique

    1991-01-01

    Demand for non-alcoholic beverages (NAB) in Australia is analyzed for the period 1964-89, with the use of consumption theory. The study's findings, which generally support those of earlier studies, suggest that demand for NAB is price-inelastic. A comparison of income elasticities further suggest that tea is an inferior good, coffee a necessity, and softdrinks, a luxury.

  6. Soils Governance in Australia: challenges of cooperative federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Williams

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses soil governance in Australia and the challenges facing sustainable natural resource management within the context of a cooperative system of federation and a globalised market economy. With only 6 per cent of the Australian landmass considered arable, one would assume that protecting Australia’s valuable soil resource would be of national significance. However, Australia currently lacks nationally consistent policies and legal instruments to ensure that its soil is protected, maintained and enhanced for future generations. While recognising that soil governance is a broad discipline encompassing many areas of soil science and management, this discussion will only focus on the soil conservation aspects of sustainable ecosystems and sustainable food and fibre in Australia; it will not explore in depth issues of soil contamination and other pollution related areas. The paper discusses: the state of Australian soils and the managers of these resources; current soil governance in Australia (based on the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations definition; and a case study example of an Australian state approach to landuse conflict and the protection of agricultural lands. The paper highlights policies and institutional arrangements required for the protection of Australian soil and the very communities that are attempting to steward these resources for future generations.

  7. Australia looks to small hydro for greenhouse gas reductions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Apress release, issued by the government of the state of New South Wales (NSW) in Australia, says water releases from the state's dams could be used to provide renewable, pollution-free electricity,as well as eliminate the production of more than 260,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide each year.

  8. Children's Library Services for Multicultural Societies in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayfield, Juliana

    Responding to the increasing cultural and ethnic diversity of Australia's population and to awakening interest in its indigenous minorities, this paper examines problems of acquisition and dissemination of children's literature to preserve the cultural heritage of minority groups. Appendices display population by age groups between 1954 and 1977,…

  9. The Economics Degree in Australia: Down but Not out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, David K.; Shanahan, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    Before 1980, strong demand existed in Australia for the economics degree. Since then, competition from programs in business and management has increased. Student preferences have shifted from university and secondary economics. Economics enrollments have declined in both sectors. The authors analyze these trends and assess economic education…

  10. Policy Reform: Testing Times for Teacher Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Knipe, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In Australia as well as elsewhere, initial teacher education has become centre stage to a political agenda that calls for global competitiveness in the knowledge economy. The common problem cited has been declining educational standards linked with the quality of teaching and teacher education. The avalanche of review and policy reform has exposed…

  11. Modelling the Balassa-Samuelson Effect in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorshed Chowdhury

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Balassa-Samuelson hypothesis in Australia using the ARDL cointegrationframework. Evidence was found of a significant long-run relationship between real exchange rate andAustralia-US productivity differential during the period of 1950-2003. The results indicate that a one per centincrease in labour productivity in Australia relative to the US will lead to 5.6 per cent appreciation in the realexchange rate of Australia. The estimated coefficient for the error correction term is -0.1983 and is highlysignificant, indicating that the deviation from the long term real exchange rate equilibrium path is correctedby nearly 20 per cent over the following year. The Author suspects that the elasticity coefficient is “overestimated”due to the exclusion of relevant explanatory variables in the analytical model. The real exchangerate movements are affected by real fundamentals and policy-induced shifts in its real fundamentals. Thefundamentals include the terms of trade, government expenditure, real interest rate differentials, net foreignliabilities among others along with labour productivity differential.

  12. Forecasting Housing Approvals in Australia: Do Forecasters Herd?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch; Rülke

    2012-01-01

    Price trends in housing markets may reflect herding of market participants. A natural question is whether such herding, to the extent that it occurred, reflects herding in forecasts of professional forecasters. Using more than 6,000 forecasts of housing approvals for Australia, we did not find...

  13. Volatility Spillovers from Australia's Major Trading Partners across the GFC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R.J. Powell (Robert); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper features an analysis of volatility spillover effects from Australia's major trading partners, namely, China, Japan, Korea and the United States, for a period running from 12th September 2002 to 9th September 2012. This captures the impact of the Global Financ

  14. Health and Physical Education in Australia: A Defining Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores contemporary Health and Physical Education (HPE) curriculum in Australia in the context of the ongoing development of a new national curriculum. Drawing on policy documents and academic commentaries it reviews and problematises the current position and prospective development of HPE in the Australian Curriculum, examining key…

  15. Research Update 2010: Outdoor Education Fatalities in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of an on-going project to examine outdoor education related deaths in Australia since 1960. It records 17 incidents not previously recorded in papers in this series (Brookes, 2003a, 2003b, 2004, 2007), in which 15 participants, two supervisors or teachers, and one member of the public died. Eleven of the incidents occurred since…

  16. Reflections on the Tertiary Education Sector in Australia. Conference Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmel, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The split between higher education and vocational education and training (VET) in Australia is not clean. This paper discusses a number of aspects of this tertiary education sector: the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF), which describes the qualifications offered by the three education sectors: schools, higher education and VET; student…

  17. The Bradley Review and Access to Higher Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, Bob; Edwards, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The "Review of Higher Education in Australia" (the Bradley Review) has recommended a massive expansion in the level of domestic training in Australian universities. This article examines the Report's rationale for rejecting the previous orthodoxy that there is no need for such expansion and, to the extent that there is, it would be better focussed…

  18. Sites of Contestation over Teacher Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Marie; Willis, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Teacher education in Australia is subject to a great deal of policy interest at both Federal and State levels; it is also part of education policy shifts for the whole university sector. This paper explores Australian teacher education policy in terms of its governance, focusing on three current "sites of contestation": university policy,…

  19. Delineating the Exmouth Mantle Plume (NW Australia) : Implications for the Origin of Volcanic Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrman, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Denudation and magmatism are distinct characteristics of Large Igneous Provinces, such as the Northwest Australian volcanic margin. Unfortunately, its temporal and spatial extent is poorly defined. Here, I present a simple isostatic model relating denudation to plume induced lithospheric thinning and underplating to delineate the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous Exmouth mantle plume. This upwelling was centered on a highly extended and subsided continental fragment known as the subsea Sonne/Sonja Ridge area and includes the Cuvier Margin (CM) and Cape Range Fracture Zone (CRFZ). The region is characterized by ~3 km denudation and ~ 500 m tectonic uplift, with erosion products acting as provenance for the Early Cretaceous Lower Barrow delta. Partial melting of the plume generated an underplate, characterized as a high velocity body (HVB) on seismic data. Denudation analysis indicates that only ~40 % of the HVB is melt related, with the effective underplate ~ 4 km thick at the plume centre, decreasing in the outer regions. Widespread plume induced convective lithospheric thinning set the boundary conditions for subsequent extension related magmatism and breakup in the Valanginian, as recorded by subsidence analysis of exploration wells. Hot plume derived material flowed to regions under extension, initiating additional magmatism now observed as SDRs (Seaward Dipping Reflectors series), initially thick magmatic crust, followed by normal ocean spreading in the Hauterivian. After initial upwelling, the thermal plume can be traced in a western direction as a hotspot to the Quokka Rise in the mid Cretaceous, before terminating after 35 - 50 Ma of activity. These findings suggest that most volcanic margins are generated by plume upwellings that are relatively passive features, with uplift consisting of a combination of plume induced convective lithospheric thinning and underplating. Melt migration and mantle heating subsequently lower stresses and facilitate breakup.

  20. Pre-Apprenticeships in Australia: Differing Orientations and Their Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom; Smith, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Little has been published in the Australian vocational education and training (VET) literature on the topic of pre-apprenticeships, which are a loose type of preparatory courses for apprenticeships available in some trades. Nevertheless, pre-apprenticeships have been in existence for several decades. With continuing concern over skill shortages in…

  1. GM food technology abroad and its implications for Australia and New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kym; Jackson, Lee Ann

    2004-01-01

    The potential economic benefits from agricultural biotechnology adoption by ANZ need to be weighed against any likely loss of market access abroad for crops that may contain genetically modified (GM) organisms. This paper uses the global GTAP model to estimate effects of other countries' GM policies without and with ANZ farmers adopting GM varieties of various grains and oilseeds. The benefits to ANZ from adopting GM crops under a variety of scenarios are positive even in the presence of the ...

  2. Strategic Renewal and Development Implications of Organisational Effectiveness Research in Higher Education in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysons, Art

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that organizational effectiveness research has made considerable progress in empirically deriving a systematic framework of theoretical and practical utility in Australian higher education. Offers a taxonomy based on the competing values framework and discusses use of inter-organizational comparisons and profiles for diagnosis in…

  3. Electronic Commerce publications and research in Australia: Implications of the Research Quality Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helana Scheepers

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Australian universities and academics will soon see a major change in the way research is reported and funded. It is expected that by 2008, according to the most recent timetable (Bishop 2006, the Research Quality Framework (RQF will be implemented. The result of the announcement has been an increased activity within universities focusing on the proposed criteria. The proposed RQF will seek to have research assessed according to quality and impact. Part of both quality and impact relates to where research is published. For academics it will be increasingly important to target high quality journals if the research is to be rated as high quality. The question this raises for Information Systems academics is where do we publish for maximum impact? The Information Systems (IS field is diverse with researchers working in many areas and a publication outlet for one area may not be relevant for another. One area where many Australian IS researchers have focused their research interest is the field of electronic commerce (e-commerce. The research reported in this paper identified the publication outlets that would be regarded as amongst the highest quality for researchers wishing to publish e-commerce research. The authors analysed e-commerce research papers by Australian researchers published in the period 2000 to 2005. The results describe where Australian researchers are publishing in this field. The paper also provides guidance to those working in the e-commerce field on which journals and conferences to target to ensure their work rates highly in terms of the RQF.

  4. Environmental implications of offshore oil and gas development in Australia. Part 5; Coastal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is emphasised that coastal facilities pertaining to petroleum exploration and production activities are of greater concern for potential deleterious environmental consequences than the offshore facilities. This is primarily because rates of dispersion and dilution of toxic wastes are generally lower in shallow coastal waters which are often subject to complex bathymetry, and more constricted water flows. The review found that the main processes (apart from oil spills) identified as having greatest potential environmental effect were: coastal discharges of produced water; sedimentation caused by dredging; spoil dumping; and pipe-laying activities. The review examines a wide range of marine environmental issues arising from the use of coastal-servicing facilities, including: practices and discharges during regular operation of coastal facilities; nature and extent of any environmental impact on the surrounding environment; and any deleterious effects stemming from these facilities. 194 refs., 13 tabs., 36 figs

  5. Environmental implications of offshore oil and gas development in Australia. Part 4; Production activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The broad conclusion to be drawn from this review is that, at present, there are unlikely to be significant environmental consequences arising from oil and gas production activities. After appropriate treatment of the discharges, the environmental impacts are not expected to be worse than those associated with urban developments. The review found that the main processes (apart from oil spills) identified as having greatest potential environmental effect were: discharges causing physico-chemical or toxic effects, as well as physical effects or disruption of the environment. The discharges may include: drill fluids/muds/cuttings (covered in the drilling activities review), produced water, deck drainage, sewage and domestic waste, cooling water, produced sands ,chronic oil spills (covered in the oil spills review), platform and pipeline hydro-testing. The physical effects are related to: platform placement, pipeline placement, noise, lights/flares, aesthetics. The review presents a number of positive findings. Thus, high dilutions of effluent discharges are expected to occur at many of the sites and so any impact at these sites is expected to be small. Moreover, discharges are subject to the requirements of the Commonwealth Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act, 1967 as well as State Environment Protection Policies and in some cases the local Department of Minerals and Energy. Thus, the discharge licences for the facilities include a specification of the allowable concentrations of effluents. A range of shortcomings was also noted, including in the existing knowledge, in the specific understanding of the particular marine environments and with respect to limitations in the monitoring programs. 327 refs., 37 tabs., 88 figs

  6. Teaching in the "Performative" State: Implications for Teacher Appraisal in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    Teacher appraisal is viewed by bureaucrats as a means of effecting organisational change in schools. It is for this reason that educational policy leaders have turned to technical competency as a way of accounting for teachers' performance in classrooms. In other words, teachers' work is now subject to minute scrutiny by the observation of…

  7. Demand for meat quantitu and quality in Malaysia: Implications to Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, (John) Yeong-Sheng; Mohamed Arshad, Fatimah; SHAMSUDIN Mad Nasir; Mohamed, Zainalabidin; Radam, Alias

    2008-01-01

    As per capita income increases, consumers do not only demand for a greater quantity but also higher quality of food. The objective of this study is to examine the demand for meat quantity and quality in Malaysia. By using the Household Expenditure Survey 2004/05 data, expenditure, quantity, and quality expenditures are obtained via Engel curves analyses. The empirical results show that Malaysians are increasingly demanding for quality meat products. To be more specific, urban consumers are mo...

  8. Fate of Plutonium at a Former Nuclear Testing Site in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Shahin, Lida Mokhber; Howard, Daryl L; Collins, Richard N; Payne, Timothy E; Johansen, Mathew P

    2016-09-01

    A series of the British nuclear tests conducted on mainland Australia between 1953 and 1963 dispersed long-lived radioactivity and nuclear weapons debris including plutonium (Pu), the legacy of which is a long-lasting source of radioactive contamination to the surrounding biosphere. A reliable assessment of the environmental impact of Pu contaminants and their implications for human health requires an understanding of their physical/chemical characteristics at the molecular scale. In this study, we identify the chemical form of the Pu remaining in the local soils at the Taranaki site, one of the former nuclear testing sites at Maralinga, South Australia. We herein reveal direct spectroscopic evidence that the Pu legacy remaining at the site exists as particulates of Pu(IV) oxyhydroxide compounds, a very concentrated and low-soluble form of Pu, which will serve as ongoing radioactive sources far into the future. Gamma-ray spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence analysis on a collected Pu particle indicate that the Pu in the particle originated in the so-called "Minor trials" that involved the dispersal of weapon components by highly explosive chemicals, not in the nuclear explosion tests called "Major trials". A comprehensive analysis of the data acquired from X-ray fluorescence mapping (XFM), X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) suggests that the collected Pu particle forms a "core-shell" structure with the Pu(IV) oxyhydroxide core surrounded by an external layer containing Ca, Fe, and U, which further helps us to deduce a possible scenario of the physical/chemical transformation of the original Pu materials dispersed in the semiarid environment at Maralinga more than 50 years ago. These findings also highlight the importance of the comprehensive physical/chemical characterization of Pu contaminants for reliable environmental- and radiotoxicological assessment. PMID:27548999

  9. Accessing maternal and child health services in Melbourne, Australia: Reflections from refugee families and service providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs Elisha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Often new arrivals from refugee backgrounds have experienced poor health and limited access to healthcare services. The maternal and child health (MCH service in Victoria, Australia, is a joint local and state government operated, cost-free service available to all mothers of children aged 0–6 years. Although well-child healthcare visits are useful in identifying health issues early, there has been limited investigation in the use of these services for families from refugee backgrounds. This study aims to explore experiences of using MCH services, from the perspective of families from refugee backgrounds and service providers. Methods We used a qualitative study design informed by the socioecological model of health and a cultural competence approach. Two geographical areas of Melbourne were selected to invite participants. Seven focus groups were conducted with 87 mothers from Karen, Iraqi, Assyrian Chaldean, Lebanese, South Sudanese and Bhutanese backgrounds, who had lived an average of 4.7 years in Australia (range one month-18 years. Participants had a total of 249 children, of these 150 were born in Australia. Four focus groups and five interviews were conducted with MCH nurses, other healthcare providers and bicultural workers. Results Four themes were identified: facilitating access to MCH services; promoting continued engagement with the MCH service; language challenges; and what is working well and could be done better. Several processes were identified that facilitated initial access to the MCH service but there were implications for continued use of the service. The MCH service was not formally notified of new parents arriving with young children. Pre-arranged group appointments by MCH nurses for parents who attended playgroups worked well to increase ongoing service engagement. Barriers for parents in using MCH services included access to transportation, lack of confidence in speaking English and making

  10. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Willow; Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Schlosser, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  11. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willow Hallgren

    Full Text Available Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  12. Numerical simulation of the October 2002 dust event in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yaping; Leys, John F.; McTainsh, Grant H.; Tews, Kenn

    2007-04-01

    In comparison to the major dust sources in the Northern Hemisphere, Australia is a relatively minor contributor to the global dust budget. However, severe dust storms do occur in Australia, especially in drought years. In this study, we simulate the 22-23 October 2002 dust storm using an integrated dust model, which is probably the most severe dust storm in Australia in at least the past 40 years. The model results are compared with synoptic visibility data and satellite images and for several stations, with high-volume sampler measurements. The model simulations are then used to estimate dust load, emission, and deposition, both for over the continent and for over the ocean. The main dust sources and sinks are identified. Dust sources include the desert areas in northern South Australia, the grazing lands in western New South Wales (NSW), and the farm lands in NSW, Victoria, and Western Australia, as well as areas in Queensland and Northern Territory. The desert areas appear to be the strongest source. The maximum dust emission is around 2000 μg m-2 s-1, and the maximum net dust emission is around 500 μg m-2 s-1. The total amount of dust eroded from the Australian continent during this dust event is around 95.8 Mt, of which 93.67 Mt is deposited on the continent and 2.13 Mt in the ocean. The maximum total dust load over the simulation domain is around 5 Mt. The magnitude of this Australian dust storm corresponds to a northeast Asian dust storm of moderate size.

  13. An Enterprising Approach to Regional Growth: Implications for Policy and the Role of VET--Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlick, Steve; Taylor, Michael; Plummer, Paul

    2007-01-01

    "An Enterprising Approach to Regional Growth: Implications for Policy and the Role of Vocational Education and Training" explores patterns of regional economic growth in Australia over the period 1984 to 2002 with the aim of identifying the drivers of variation in regional growth; the research also aimed to identify regional opportunities and the…

  14. "Newstart" or "Stop-Start"? the Implications of Recent Welfare Reforms on Undergraduate Students Who Are Sole Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenette, Caroline; McDonald, Donna; Fowler, Jane L.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of recent income support payment changes for sole-parented families in Australia, and in particular, their capacity to access tertiary education. The government's program to reduce welfare benefit payments to sole-parented families already at high risk of economic disadvantage and social marginalization…

  15. Nursing implications for Hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurses working in Nuclear Medicine assist in Hepatic Artery Catheter (HAC) perfusion studies. This scan is not widely performed in Australia, the St George hospital for example performs approximately five per year. The purpose of this article is firstly to review the indications and rationale of HAC patency studies. Secondly, this article will stress the clinical implications for the Nuclear Medicine Nurse during this study. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of patient education during the procedure. A brief overview of hepatic anatomy and the radiopharmaceuticals administered during the scan is discussed. Finally, a step by step protocol is presented to show how the perfusion/ shunt study is performed. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  16. Rapid increase in pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis isolates, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Connie; Octavia, Sophie; Ricafort, Lawrence; Sintchenko, Vitali; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Wood, Nicholas; McIntyre, Peter; Marshall, Helen; Guiso, Nicole; Keil, Anthony D; Lawrence, Andrew; Robson, Jenny; Hogg, Geoff; Lan, Ruiting

    2014-04-01

    Acellular vaccines against Bordetella pertussis were introduced in Australia in 1997. By 2000, these vaccines had replaced whole-cell vaccines. During 2008-2012, a large outbreak of pertussis occurred. During this period, 30% (96/320) of B. pertussis isolates did not express the vaccine antigen pertactin (Prn). Multiple mechanisms of Prn inactivation were documented, including IS481 and IS1002 disruptions, a variation within a homopolymeric tract, and deletion of the prn gene. The mechanism of lack of expression of Prn in 16 (17%) isolates could not be determined at the sequence level. These findings suggest that B. pertussis not expressing Prn arose independently multiple times since 2008, rather than by expansion of a single Prn-negative clone. All but 1 isolate had ptxA1, prn2, and ptxP3, the alleles representative of currently circulating strains in Australia. This pattern is consistent with continuing evolution of B. pertussis in response to vaccine selection pressure.

  17. Current Behaviours and Attitudes Towards Texting While Driving in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Jannie Mia; Beasley, Keiran

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to understand the behaviour of texting and driving among the broader driving public in Australia and uncover whether attitudes are congruent with behaviours. Recent studies have generally been focussing on the behaviours of 18-24 year olds suggesting that the practice is mainly...... confined to people in this age bracket. Findings from an anonymous online survey show that the practice of texting and driving is widespread in Australia and not just confined to the younger demographic. Additionally, evidence suggests smart phone users are more likely to engage in texting while driving....... The paper also reveals that a majority of people continue to text and drive despite having strong views on the dangers associated with the practice....

  18. An Impact Crater in Palm Valley, Central Australia?

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W; O'Neill, Craig; Britton, Tui R

    2012-01-01

    We explore the origin of a ~280 m wide, heavily eroded circular depression in Palm Valley, Northern Territory, Australia using gravity, morphological, and mineralogical data collected from a field survey in September 2009. From the analysis of the survey, we debate probable formation processes, namely erosion and impact, as no evidence of volcanism is found in the region or reported in the literature. We argue that the depression was not formed by erosion and consider an impact origin, although we acknowledge that diagnostics required to identify it as such (e.g. meteorite fragments, shatter cones, shocked quartz) are lacking, leaving the formation process uncertain. We encourage further discussion of the depression's origin and stress a need to develop recognition criteria that can help identify small, ancient impact craters. We also encourage systematic searches for impact craters in Central Australia as it is probable that many more remain to be discovered.

  19. Correlates of welfare dependency among immigrants in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, S

    1994-01-01

    "This article investigates some of the factors that are associated with welfare dependency among immigrants in Australia. It examines the role of factors such as gender, age, migration category, birthplace, period of arrival and educational background in explaining immigrants' dependence on government pensions and benefits as their main source of income." The author finds that there are "significant differences in welfare dependency...by birthplace and migration category even after controlling for age, education and employment status. Immigrants from Vietnam, Lebanon and Turkey were more likely than others to be dependent on welfare. Refugees were also more likely than other immigrants to be dependent on welfare; however the effect of refugee status on welfare dependency diminished with duration of residence in Australia." PMID:12287279

  20. Forensic entomology: application, education and research in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadour, I R; Cook, D F; Fissioli, J N; Bailey, W J

    2001-08-15

    Forensic entomology as a science and a tool for investigation has had slow beginnings in Australia. A number of small animal decomposition trials have been recorded in the literature but mostly from an ecological rather than a forensic entomology perspective. In the last 20 years, a number of more forensically orientated field trials on small pigs and some fly developmental trials in the laboratory have been conducted but lack any replication. The following article was presented at an international seminar to detail the current research in forensic entomology, the applications of forensic entomology in scene of crime (SOC) and homicide investigations and the education of police and judiciary in the discipline of forensic entomology in Western Australia over the last 10 years.

  1. Research on medical applications of radioisotopes and radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) produces and distributes commercially in Australia and abroad a range of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for medical applications. The AAEC carries out research and development on new and improved processes and procucts is collaboration with medical specialists in hospitals and research workers in other organisations. Examples of these processes and products are: a gel generator for production of 99mTc; radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis of tumours and brain disease and therapy for arthritis; 64Cu for study of copper metabolism; and monoclonal antibodies for tumour diagnosis and therapy. New medical applications in Australia of neutron irradiation include the measurement of total body nitrogen and neutron capture in boron-labelled compounds in vivo for melanoma therapy. (author)

  2. The Evolution of Security Industry Regulation in Australia: A Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Prenzler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper charts the main changes in security industry regulation in Australia from the 1980s to the present time, and provides a critique of the regulatory framework and the change process. Change has largely been driven by recurring conduct scandals, with governments obliged to introduce increasingly more stringent integrity checks and competency standards in an attempt to diminish widespread concerns about the industry. Despite the lack of strategic planning, a significant learning process is evident and a clear model of best practice has emerged. Recent enquiries show that Australia still does not have an optimal system for managing the industry but change has been in the right direction, with scope for fine-tuning to ensure more responsive and effective regulation.

  3. CPAFFC Publicity Group Visits Australia and New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaHairong

    2004-01-01

    Invited by the Australia-China Friendship Society and the New Zealand-China Friendship Society, a 4-member CPAFFC publicity group visited Australia and New Zealand from September 14 to 27, 2003. The Group, consisting of Li Shantung, director general of the Research Department of Development Strategy and Regional Economy under the Development Research Centre of the State Council, Wang Qiliang, former Chinese ambassador to Portugal and Denmark, and two CPAFFC staffers, visited Sydney, Melbourne,Adelaide, Brisbane, Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch. They introduced to the Australian and New Zealand public China's achievements in economic development and social progress since reform and opening up, answered questions and made friends extensively. The visit has enhanced mutual understanding and friendship.

  4. Coming in from the interprofessional cold in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nick

    2007-08-01

    In Australia, implementation of interprofessional education (IPE) has been slow compared with peer countries. One cause is an apparent uncertainty about where and how to situate IPE at policy levels. Without a clear articulation of related needs, vision and purpose, IPE has largely remained isolated from the strategic planning and funding cycles necessary for implementation as "core business" across various sectors, systems and levels. This paper draws on international developments and research to emphasise the need to complement innovative IPE practice with supporting policy, specifically to optimise the quality of future health care delivery. Major forces for change are identified, as well as some residual barriers and possible strategies to bring IPE "in from the policy cold" in Australia. PMID:17669054

  5. HEALTH COVER, THE CASE OF MARTIN AND CAROLINA IN AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E KORSTANJE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research examines, from a qualitative perspective, some public opinion related to issues associated with the management of a tensed situation. In that process, it identifies some of the subtle differences in the Anglo-Latino cultural expectations. Martin, an Argentine tourist, contracted the Gullien-Barre syndrome in Australia, while enjoying his honeymoon vacation on a Tasmanian island with his partner Carolina. With the passing of days, Martin lost his mobility and was finally hospitalized in emergency. Doctors induced Martin into a coma temporarily because his muscles were paralyzed by the action of the virus. Health costs were more expensive than the family could absorb in Australia. The family had to request the intervention of the Argentine embassy and chancellery for help. In other words, this incident contrasts two world views: hospitality as the institution that historically developed to care and protect travelers versus hospitality as the commercial practice of exploitation.

  6. Buddhism in Australia: An Emerging Field of Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Halafoff; Ruth Fitzpatrick; Kim Lam

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, Paul D. Numrich (2008) posed the question of whether contemporary scholarship on North American Buddhism constituted a distinct "field of study" and identified several factors that defined both academic disciplines and fields. This paper applies Numrich's criteria to the study of Buddhism in Australia, in its multiple and diverse forms, suggesting that it is an emerging field of study. While there has been an increase in historical, anthropological, and sociological scholarship in re...

  7. Conceptualization and Construction of a People: Enacted Macedonianness in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Colakova VELJANOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary literature widely agrees that the emic quality of distinctness of a people, in the form of a nation and/or ethnicity, is socially constructed as oppose to the descent essentialist approach rendering belonging to a people as an “immovable fact”. Nevertheless, despite the said agreement, there is paucity in literature exploring the ways in which the emic quality of distinctness of a people is constructed. The proponents of the performance/practice theory of ethnicity/ nation[alism] (Bentley 1987, 1991, Eriksen 1991, 1992, Dunn 2005, 2009 find that performance/practice is at the core of ethno-distinct collective formation. Inquiring into the dynamics of feeling and identifying as Macedonian in Australia, this paper presents the findings from the Australia-wide study conducted on ethno-Macedonians during 2006-2008. During this period five focus groups were conducted with a total number of 38 (N=38 participants and 817 (N=817 ethno-Macedonians were surveyed. The findings provided support and a further empirical ground for the proponents of the performance/practice theory of ethnicity/ nation[alism] by identifying six performance ethno-identity attributes (communal activity, Macedonian cuisine, Macedonian music, Macedonian Orthodoxy, Macedonian language, and respect and following of Macedonian traditions and three non-performance (history, place of birth, and ancestry of core relevance to Macedonianness in Australia. The findings also indicated that the affective and symbolic differentiation of material culture and performance as Macedonian has its roots in the shared habitus by ethno-Macedonians in Australia.

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries: Australia 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-16

    The report reviews Australia's energy policies and makes recommendations to the government on future policy development. The IEA commends the efficiency and security of the Australian energy market but recommends that the country will have to substantially alter future energy supply and/or demand behaviour if it wants to moderate emission levels and work within any future global climate change mitigation programme. 23 figs., 27 tabs., 3 annexes.

  9. Corporate Regulation and Corporate Governance of Small Businesses in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Kumudini Heenetigala; Anona Armstrong; Andrew Clarke

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of small business owner /managers and CEOs of industry associations in relation to corporate regulation and corporate governance for small businesses in Australia. It is part of a larger project investigating regulation and small business governance supported by an Australian Research Council grant and COSBOA. A survey of the CEOs of small business associations and small business owner/managers investigated the corporate governance practices of small...

  10. Trends in the diagnosis of Rett syndrome in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Fehr, Stephanie; Bebbington, Ami; Nassar, Natasha; Downs, Jenny; Ronen, Gabriel M; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Modifications to diagnostic criteria and introduction of genetic testing have likely affected the pattern and timing of Rett syndrome diagnosis. The trends in incidence and prevalence of Rett syndrome in Australia were examined; the cumulative risk of a female being diagnosed determined; and the impact of changes to diagnostic criteria and availability of genetic testing on these frequencies investigated. The population-based Australian Rett Syndrome Database was used to identify a total of 3...

  11. Water Markets: Australia's Murray Darling Basin and the US Southwest

    OpenAIRE

    R. Quentin Grafton; Clay Landry; Gary D. Libecap; R. J. (Bob) O'Brien

    2009-01-01

    Fresh water supplies increasingly are under stress in many parts of the world due to rising populations, higher per capita incomes and corresponding consumption, greater environmental concerns, and the effects of climate change. Water rights and markets are part of the institutional menus for responding to these problems. We examine water markets in both Australia's MDB and the western US and their prospects for addressing water scarcity. The two regions share a number of important similariti...

  12. The 2005 Survey of Information Systems Research in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Pervan; Graeme Shanks

    2006-01-01

    As part of a study to investigate the state of Information Systems research in Australia, a survey of the heads of all IS discipline groups in Australian universities was conducted in mid 2005. The study revealed a wide range of topics researched (with rapid growth in Electronic Commerce and Knowledge Management), a range of foci, a balance between positivist and interpretivist research, survey was the most frequently used research method, and most research was directed at informing IS profes...

  13. Application of radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on production and use of radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy of diseases, development of nuclear medicine in Australia are reviewed. HIFAR operation for medicine purposes is noted; characteristics of the nuclear reactor HIFAR and new nuclear reactor under construction are performed. Australian market of radionuclides for medicine and prediction of their consumption are presented. Tendency for application of cyclotron radionuclides in medicine is demonstrated

  14. Public Capital, Congestion and Private Production in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Lei Song

    2002-01-01

    This paper is an empirical investigation into the impact of public capital on the private sector’s economic activity in Australia. In particular, it is assumed that the contribution of public capital to private factor productivity is subject to congestion. New data sets of capital stocks and private output are constructed for the Australian economy. By estimating flexible functional forms of private sector production functions with congestion in public capital services, the paper shows that p...

  15. Bicycle helmet promotion programs--Canada, Australia, and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-26

    The use of bicycle helmets substantially reduces the risk for serious head injuries during bicycle-related crashes. Despite this benefit, epidemiologic data indicate a worldwide low prevalence of helmet use. Strategies to increase the use of bicycle helmets in the United States and other countries include subsidies, legislation, and education. This report summarizes information regarding three strategies to increase bicycle helmet use and the impact of implementing these approaches in Canada (helmet subsidies), Australia (legislation), and the United States (education). PMID:8446097

  16. Selective immigration policy in Australia, Canada, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Antecol, Heather; Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Stephen J. Trejo

    2004-01-01

    We compare the selective immigration policies in Australia, Canada and the United States over the twentieth century and as they exist today. We then review existing information about the link between selective immigration policy and immigration outcomes in the three countries. The literature reviewed suggests that there does seem to be potential for selective immigration policy to affect immigrant outcomes by altering the skill levels of immigrants. Still, it is clear that other forces are at...

  17. Immigration and Status Exchange in Australia and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kate H.; Tienda, Marta; Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Sinning, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    The claim that marriage is a venue for status exchange of achieved traits, like education, and ascribed attributes, notably race and ethnic membership, has regained traction in the social stratification literature. Most studies that consider status exchanges ignore birthplace as a social boundary for status exchanges via couple formation. This paper evaluates the status exchange hypothesis for Australia and the United States, two Anglophone nations with long immigration traditions whose admis...

  18. Isolation of Zika Virus Imported from Tonga into Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Alyssa T.; Moore, Peter R.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; McMahon, Jamie L.; Harrower, Bruce J; Constantino, Tanya R; van den Hurk, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The globally emergent Zika virus (ZIKV) is a threat to Australia, given the number of imported cases from epidemic regions and the presence of competent mosquito vectors. We report the isolation of ZIKV from a female traveler who recently returned from Tonga to Brisbane, Queensland, Australia in 2016. Methods: A specific TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) assay was used to detect ZIKV in serum and urine samples. Conventional cell culture techniques and suckling mice were employed in an attempt to isolate ZIKV from serum and urine. Results: A ZIKV isolate (TS17-2016) was recovered from the serum sample after one passage in suckling mouse brains and harvested 11 days post inoculation. Phylogenetic analysis of complete envelope (E) gene sequences demonstrated TS17-2016 shared 99.9% nucleotide identity with other contemporary sequences from Tonga 2016, Brazil 2015 and French Polynesia 2013 within the Asian lineage. Discussion: This is the first known report of successful isolation of ZIKV from a human clinical sample in Australia and the first from a traveler from Tonga. This study highlights the potential difficulties in isolating ZIKV from acute clinical samples using conventional cell culture techniques, particularly in non-endemic countries like Australia where access to samples of sufficient viral load is limited. The successful isolation of TS17-2016 will be essential for continued investigations of ZIKV transmission and pathogenicity and will enable the advancement of new preventative control measures extremely relevant to the Australian and Pacific region. PMID:27679739

  19. Dividend Policy and Inflation In Australia: Results From Cointegration Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Basse

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between dividends and inflation in Australia by testing for cointegration between these two variables. The results of the tests indicate that inflation is contributing to dividend growth. This finding can be interpreted in different ways. Trying to follow a dividend policy which is perceived to be optimal Australian firms may, for example, believe that there is a desirable level of real dividend income to be paid out to their investors. A second possible i...

  20. A community development critique of compulsory income management in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Philip; Waugh, Jacinta; Flynn, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of compulsory income management – sometimes called welfare quarantining – for sub-groups of income security recipients within Australia has provoked considerable contention. This paper examines the specific introduction of the Place-Based trial in the rural Victorian region of Greater Shepparton from July 2012. Utilizing key community development principles, we critically analyse processes of implementation and evaluation, and argue that placebased income management has invol...