Amelung, B.; Nicholls, S.
This study assesses the impacts of projected climate change on Australia's tourism industry. Based on application of the Tourism Climatic Index, it investigates potential changes in climatic attractiveness for Australia's major destinations, and discusses implications for tourist flows and tourism
The work of the Goethe Institute in teaching German to foreigners and in fostering interest in German culture is described. The desirability of a change in attitude in Australia toward foreign language study is discussed. (RM)
In April this year, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources published a report outlining the dilemmas facing Japan's energy industry in the post-Kyoto environment with particular reference to the effect it would have on Australia's fuel exports. The following article is based on information in that report. In summary, the extent to which the Japanese government's current climate change response policy (the long term energy forecast) is realised will depend on a complex interaction of competing considerations: 1. whether, in the event of US non ratification, the government maintains its Kyoto commitment or opts for a partial step back from its 8% commitment (and the extent of that draw back); 2. in the event that it does maintain its Kyoto commitment: a) the extent to which it takes advantage of the flexible mechanism provisions to ease the abatement burden on the energy system; b) the level of success in securing additional nuclear power stations and higher load ratios from nuclear power; c) the degree to which renewable and recycling energy sources can be brought on line; d) the extent to which the Japanese people are willing to meet the costs of switching to new technology and changing lifestyles to conserve energy; e) the timing of new initiatives such as emissions trading; the extent to which Japanese industry is able to achieve very strict energy conservation targets; f) the extent to which Japan's economic recovery leads to increased electricity demand as well as g) the extent to which electricity deregulation reduces prices and promotes increased consumption
Bash, Frank N.
David Stanley Evans died on 14 November 2004 in Austin, Texas. He was a noted observational astronomer whose career was divided between South Africa and Texas. He also used the extensive historical collections at the University of Texas to write several books on the history of astronomy. He was born in Cardiff, Wales on 28 January 1916. David received his BA degree in mathematics in 1937 from Kings College, Cambridge. He became a PhD student at Cambridge Observatory in 1937, and was one of Sir Arthur Eddington's last surviving students. He received his PhD degree in 1941 with a dissertation entitled, "The Formation of the Balmer Series of Hydrogen in Stellar Atmospheres." He was a conscientious objector to war and, thus, spent the war years at Oxford working with physicist Kurt Mendelssohn on medical problems, involving cadavers, relating to the war. During these years, David was scientific editor of "Discovery", and he was editor of "The Observatory". David left England in 1946 in order to take up the position of Second Assistant at the Radcliffe Observatory, Pretoria, South Africa. He and H. Knox Shaw were the entire staff after R. O. Redman left, and they aluminized and installed the mirrors in the 74-inch telescope. His notable scientific contribution was to use lunar occultations to measure stellar angular diameters during the 1950s. He succeeded in determining the angular diameter of Antares and determined that Arcturus was not circular but had an elliptical shape. The elliptical shape was later shown to be an instrumental artifact, but the utility of using lunar occultations to measure stellar diameters and stellar multiplicity was conclusively demonstrated. T. Gold presented David's paper on lunar occultation angular diameters at the January 1953 meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society. For the rest of his life, David resented Gold's remarks, because he felt that he had been ridiculed. By 1953, David Evans was Chief Assistant at the Royal Observatory headquartered in Cape Town, South Africa. David had designed and built a Newtonian spectrograph for the 74-inch Radcliffe Telescope with which he measured the first southern galaxy redshifts. David and his family spent 1965-66 in Austin, Texas, where he was a National Science Foundation Senior Visiting Scientist at the University of Texas and McDonald Observatory. They moved permanently to Austin in 1968 and David became a Professor of Astronomy and Associate Director of McDonald Observatory at the University of Texas at Austin. At McDonald Observatory, R. E. Nather had devised a high-speed photometer capable of measuring millisecond time-scale changes in brightness and with Brian Warner, he invented "high-speed astronomy". This instrument caused Evans to revive his occultation program and, over the next twenty years, he produced the major part of the angular diameters of late-type stars with his students and collaborators. In addition, David and collaborators used the extensive collections of the University of Texas to write "Herschel at the Cape". David was also involved in observing the occultation of ? Sco by Jupiter in 1972 and in observing, during a solar eclipse in 1973, the gravitational deflections in the positions of stars whose light passes near to the Sun. The eclipse was observed from Mauritania, and the observations confirmed Einstein's prediction again. David Evans and his students studied late-type stars that have large star-spots and others that flare. In addition, they studied stars whose lunar occultation observations had revealed them to be double or even more than two stars. David Evans's major scientific contribution was an application of his stellar angular diameters to deduce the surface brightness of stars with the result that with suitable color indices one could use photometry to deduce the angular diameter of stars. This is applicable to stars which can never be occulted by the Moon, and its application to Cepheid variable stars has yielded their distances. This relation between angular diameters and a V-R color index is called the Barnes-Evans Relation. Tom Barnes gives most of the credit to Evans, but said that David insisted that the authors be listed in alphabetical order. This work was greeted with initial skepticism but it stimulated an enormous amount of interest and has been used to measure distances to 100 Cepheid variable stars in our galaxy. The method gives a distance to one of them, Delta Cephei, that agrees closely with recently measured parallaxes using HST. The Barnes-Evans method yields distances which are accurate to a few percent and is applicable to Cepheids in nearby galaxies. Before coming to Texas, David Evans had never given a large lecture course at a university, and his efforts met with mixed success especially in introductory classes for freshmen facing a "science requirement." David had considerably more success supervising PhD dissertations. He was supervisor for four. He was promoted to the position of Jack S. Josey Centennial Professor of Astronomy in 1984, which is the position he held until his retirement in 1986. He was awarded the Gill Medal of the Astronomical Society of South Africa in 1988. David Evans had a remarkable facility for language, especially English. He was an author of eight books including a 1966 edition of "Teach Yourself Astronomy", which was an introduction to astronomy and an inspiration to a number of currently active astronomers. He also loved history, especially of Southern Hemisphere astronomy but also of the McDonald Observatory. In fact, David continued to be very active after retirement and when he died he had completed a book (with Karen Winget) on the eclipse expedition to Mauritania, which is not yet printed.
Georgiades, Savvas Daniel
This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted.
Lim, Sern Chin; Allen, Roger C; Munro, Jane E; Akikusa, Jonathan D
Despite a move towards the provision of specialist training in Australia in settings that extend beyond the public hospital system, formal comparisons of case mix between public and private specialty clinics have rarely been performed. It is therefore unclear for many specialties how well training in one setting prepares trainees for practice in the other. This study aims to compare the case mix of paediatric rheumatology patients seen in public and private settings and the referral sources of patients in each. An audit of all new patients seen in the public and private paediatric rheumatology clinics on campus at Royal Children's Hospital between June 2009 and January 2011. Data related to demographics, primary diagnosis, referral source and location seen were abstracted and compared. Eight hundred and seventy-six new patients were seen during the period of interest. Of these, 429 patients (48.9%) were seen in private clinics. The commonest diagnostic categories for both type of clinics were non-inflammatory musculoskeletal pain/orthopaedic conditions (public 39.4%, private 33.6%) followed by juvenile idiopathic arthritis (public 16.6%, %, private 18.6%), other skin/soft tissue disorders (public 8.7%, private 9.6%) and pain syndromes (public 4.9%, private 11.4%). Patients with haematological and vasculitic disorders were predominantly seen in public clinics. The commonest source of referrals to both clinics was general practitioners (public 40.6%, private 53.1%). The case mix in private paediatric rheumatology clinics closely mirrors that of public clinics at our centre. Training in either setting would provide sufficient case-mix exposure to prepare trainees for practice in the other. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Australia's oil reserves and production have contributed significantly to national economic prosperity and growth since the first large scale discoveries in Bass Strait in the 1960s. As a finite, non-renewable resource, the reserves ultimately must decline. In 1988 the forecast was that Australia's oil production would begin to decline in the mid 1990s and then rapidly tail off by the late 1990s. With this in mind, AMEC Ministers agreed in 1988 that a Working Group should review the energy policy implications of the forecast decline in the production of petroleum. The Working Group's findings are presented in this booklet. Chapter 2 examines the outlook for demand for petroleum products in Australia until 2005. This Chapter is based on current Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) forecasts as well as savings in fuel demand that are potentially available from fuel efficiency and fuel switching measures. Chapter 3, which includes BMR's recently revised petroleum production forecasts, looks at the outlook for crude oil and condensate production, also to 2005. Chapter 4 discusses the range of government initiatives already in place to foster the efficient exploration and production of petroleum in Australia. This Chapter also examines the outlook for Australian alternative liquid fuels. Chapter 5, which is based on analysis by ABARE, broadly examines the possible macroeconomic implications of declining oil production for Australia while Chapter 6 examines the issue of energy security and in particular its relationship with oil self sufficiency. Finally, Chapter 7 identifies some energy policy considerations and recommendations arising out of the Working Group's analysis. 7 tabs, 3 figs
Benjamin L. ALLEN, Richard M. ENGEMAN, Lee R. ALLEN
Full Text Available The studies of Allen (2011 and Allen et al. (2011 recently examined the methodology underpinning claims that dingoes provide net benefits to biodiversity by suppressing foxes and cats. They found most studies to have design flaws and/or observational methods that preclude valid interpretations from the data, describing most of the current literature as ‘wild dogma’. In this short supplement, we briefly highlight the roles and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia. We discuss nomenclature, and the influence that unreliable science can have on policy and practice changes related to apex predator management [Current Zoology 57 (6: 737–740, 2011].
Betz, Regina; Owen, Anthony D.
This paper assesses the major implications for the National Electricity Market of the introduction of a domestic cap-and-trade carbon pollution reduction scheme in Australia. The electricity sector is the largest source of emissions in the Australian economy, and it is this sector, therefore, that will bear the brunt of the impact of the proposed scheme. The paper addresses core issues for the electricity market up to 2020 operating under the scheme. It focuses specifically on its impact on electricity prices and generation technology mix. These two variables have been assessed using a number of models, each applying different assumptions about key impact factors. In this paper we present a comparative summary of the results of the three highest-profile models and compare their assumptions in order to explain differences in projected outcomes. This comparison will give an indication of the likely range of impacts on the market of the current design of the scheme. (author)
Creegan, Reta; Duffield, Christine; Forrester, Kim
This article provides an overview of the extent of casualisation of the nursing workforce in Australia, focusing on the impact for those managing the system. The implications for nurse managers in particular are considerable in an industry where service demand is difficult to control and where individual nurses are thought to be increasingly choosing to work casually. While little is known of the reasons behind nurses exercising their preference for casual work arrangements, some reasons postulated include visa status (overseas trained nurses on holiday/working visas); permanent employees taking on additional shifts to increase their income levels; and those who elect to work under casual contracts for lifestyle reasons. Unknown is the demography of the casual nursing workforce, how these groups are distributed within the workforce, and how many contracts of employment they have across the health service--either through privately managed nursing agencies or hospital managed casual pools. A more detailed knowledge of the forces driving the decisions of this group is essential if health care organisations are to equip themselves to manage this changing workforce and maintain a standard of patient care that is acceptable to the community.
Brear, M.J.; Jeppesen, M.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Manzie, C.; Alpcan, T.; Dargaville, R.
This paper is the second of a two part study that considers least cost, greenhouse gas abatement pathways for an electricity system. Part 1 of this study formulated a model for determining these abatement pathways, and applied this model to Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market) for a single reference scenario. Part 2 of this study applies this model to different scenarios and considers the policy implications. These include cases where nuclear power generation and CCS (carbon capture and storage) are implemented in Australia, which is presently not the case, as well as a more detailed examination of how an extended, RPS (renewable portfolio standard) might perform. The effect of future fuel costs and different discount rates are also examined. Several results from this study are thought to be significant. Most importantly, this study suggests that Australia already has utility scale technologies, renewable and non-renewable resources, an electricity market design and an abatement policy that permit continued progress towards deep greenhouse gas abatement in its electricity sector. In particular, a RPS (renewable portfolio standard) appears to be close to optimal as a greenhouse gas abatement policy for Australia's electricity sector for at least the next 10–15 years. - Highlights: • Considers scenarios and policy implications for Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market). • An extended form of RPS (renewable portfolio standard) appears near optimal until roughly 2030. • For up to 80% abatement, the inclusion of nuclear achieves only marginal benefit by 2050. • CCS (Carbon capture and storage) does not appear competitive with current cost estimates.
Janske Reiling, MD, PhD
Discussion. This study shows that livers donated after circulatory death are an underused resource in Australia. Better use of these currently available organs would be a highly cost-effective way of reducing waiting list mortality in liver transplantation.
Balasubramanian, M; Spencer, A J; Short, S D; Watkins, K; Chrisopoulos, S; Brennan, D S
Migrants occupy a significant proportion of the dental workforce in Australia. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of job satisfaction of employed migrant dentists in Australia, and to examine the association between various migrant dentist characteristics and job satisfaction. All migrant dentists resident in Australia were surveyed using a five-point Likert scale that measured specific aspects of job, career and satisfaction with area and type of practice. A total of 1022 migrant dentists responded to this study; 974 (95.4%) were employed. Responses for all scales were skewed towards strongly agree (scores ≥4). The overall scale varied by age group, marital status, years since arrival to Australia and specialist qualification (chi-square, p satisfaction amongst older age groups. Dentists who migrated through the examination pathway (mainly from low- and middle-income countries) had a lower probability of being satisfied with the area and type of practice (OR = 0.71; 0.51-0.98), compared with direct-entry migrant dentists (from high-income countries). The high level of job satisfaction of migrant dentists reflects well on their work-related experiences in Australia. The study offers policy suggestions towards support for younger dentists and examination pathway migrants, so they have appropriate skills and standards to fit the Australian health care environment. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.
The Mound Springs of South Australia are unique groundwater discharge features of the Great Artesian Basin, a deep regigonal groundwater system that covers over one-fifth of the Australia continent. They are the principal sources of water in the arid and semi-arid inland heart of Australia, and have great ecological, scientific, anthropological and economic significance. Excessive development of the Great Artesian Basin over the past century by European activity has seen an overall decline in the flows from the mound springs, and recent development of the water supply borefields for the WMC Olympic Dam Operations copper-uranium mine in the midst of the most important spring groups has exacerbated this problem. A review of the history of the borefields, an analysis of the impacts on the mound springs, and future recommendations for protection of the springs is presented. (orig.)
Tan, Hao; Sun, Aijun; Lau, Henry
This study focuses on CO 2 emissions ‘embodied’ in the characteristic China–Australia bilateral trade, which refer to the CO 2 emissions due to the production of goods traded between the two countries. We perform an assessment of the CO 2 embodiment in the trade during the period between 2002 and 2010. We find that the scale effect has been a dominant effect contributing to an increase of CO 2 emissions embodied in the bilateral trade through the years; while the composition effect seems to be a major driver for reducing CO 2 embodiment in the exports of Australia to China. Based on an analysis of the difference between the amounts of actual CO 2 embodiment and those in a hypothetical ‘no-trade’ scenario, we estimate that the ‘net’ CO 2 emissions due to the bilateral trade declined from around 10 Mt of CO 2 emissions in 2002 to −10 Mt in 2010; that is, the bilateral trade contributed to a reduction of the global carbon emissions in the recent years. This finding suggests that the rapid growth of exports of carbon-intensive goods from Australia to China has helped in reducing carbon emissions globally because carbon intensity factors of those goods are much lower in Australia than those in China. - Highlights: • This research focuses on CO 2 emissions embodied in China–Australia trade. • Australia is mainly a resource provider while China exports manufacturing goods. • The scale effect is a dominant effect for increasing the CO 2 embodiments. • The composition effect is a major driver for reducing the CO 2 embodiments. • The trade contributed to a reduction of the global carbon emissions in 2010
Growing numbers of Malaysian students are going to Australia for overseas study. This paper begins with a discussion of Malaysia's New Economic Policy, whose provisions include a phasing out of English as the language of instruction in favor of Bahasa Malaya, the language of the indigenous Malay majority. This policy provides a background for the…
The renewed commitment to school autonomy reform in Australia is based on the view that it will drive up academic standards. There remains, however, little conclusive evidence to support this view. Simply instating the structural changes to bring about greater autonomy for schools within public education systems across the world has not led…
Ratbek Dzhumashev; Emin Gahramanov
In this paper we develop a stochastic endogenous growth model augmented with income tax evasion. Our model avoids some existing discrepancies between empirical evidence and theoretical predictions of traditional tax evasion models. Further, we show that: i) productive government expenditures play an important role in affecting economy's tax evasion rate; ii) the average marginal income tax rate in Australia come close to the optimal; and iii) the phenomenon of tax evasion is not an excuse for...
Pockett, Rosalie; Peate, Michelle; Hobbs, Kim; Dzidowska, Monika; L Bell, Melanie; Baylock, Brandi; Epstein, Irwin
To describe the demographics, professional characteristics, self-reported professional development needs and research involvement of oncology social workers in Australia and to describe perceived barriers to provision of quality psychosocial care. A cross-sectional online survey was administered to social workers working in the oncology field who were contacted through three professional organizations; the Australian Association of Social Workers, Oncology Social Work Australia and the Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research Group, the University of Sydney. A snowball recruitment method was adopted to maximize the sample size. Two thirds of respondents had over 10 years professional practice experience but with lesser experience in oncology settings. Twenty-eight percent had post-graduate qualifications. Professional development needs were reported as moderate or high by 68% of respondents. No association between professional needs and work setting was found. Years of experience in oncology practice and living in an urban area increased the likelihood of involvement in research. Barriers to psychosocial care included poor understandings of the social work role, time constraints and an inadequate number of social work positions. In this first Australian study of the social work oncology workforce, the results demonstrated active, well-qualified and experienced social workers providing frontline services to people with cancer and their caregivers in geographically diverse locations across Australia. Inadequate resources and a lack of integrated psychosocial care were identified as barriers to comprehensive cancer care. The need for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander social workers was identified as an urgent workforce priority. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Crone, A.J.; De Martini, P. M.; Machette, M.M.; Okumura, K.; Prescott, J.R.
Paleoseismic studies of two historically aseismic Quaternary faults in Australia confirm that cratonic faults in stable continental regions (SCR) typically have a long-term behavior characterized by episodes of activity separated by quiescent intervals of at least 10,000 and commonly 100,000 years or more. Studies of the approximately 30-km-long Roopena fault in South Australia and the approximately 30-km-long Hyden fault in Western Australia document multiple Quaternary surface-faulting events that are unevenly spaced in time. The episodic clustering of events on cratonic SCR faults may be related to temporal fluctuations of fault-zone fluid pore pressures in a volume of strained crust. The long-term slip rate on cratonic SCR faults is extremely low, so the geomorphic expression of many cratonic SCR faults is subtle, and scarps may be difficult to detect because they are poorly preserved. Both the Roopena and Hyden faults are in areas of limited or no significant seismicity; these and other faults that we have studied indicate that many potentially hazardous SCR faults cannot be recognized solely on the basis of instrumental data or historical earthquakes. Although cratonic SCR faults may appear to be nonhazardous because they have been historically aseismic, those that are favorably oriented for movement in the current stress field can and have produced unexpected damaging earthquakes. Paleoseismic studies of modern and prehistoric SCR faulting events provide the basis for understanding of the long-term behavior of these faults and ultimately contribute to better seismic-hazard assessments.
Leask, A.; Carlson, J.
Full text: The expansion of nuclear programs raises the issue of how to ensure this does not increase the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. The non-proliferation regime - based on the NPT and its verification mechanism, the IAEA safeguards system - has been developed to provide assurance that nuclear programs are exclusively peaceful. Although to date the non-proliferation regime has been remarkably successful, in recent years it has come under serious challenge. Nuclear proliferation is emerging as one of the major issues facing the international community. Addressing technical and institutional aspects of the non-proliferation regime - especially safeguards, but also complementary measures such as export controls, proliferation-resistant technology, and an international framework on sensitive technology - is important. But proliferation is a political problem, and ultimately the success of the non-proliferation regime depends on political resolve to uphold compliance, using incentives and if necessary sanctions. These issues are vitally important to Australia's future. Being a major uranium supplier has strengthened Australia's influence in non-proliferation and safeguards developments
Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J
This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry.
Sheldon, Heather A.; Florio, Brendan; Trefry, Michael G.; Reid, Lynn B.; Ricard, Ludovic P.; Ghori, K. Ameed R.
Convection of groundwater in aquifers can create areas of anomalously high temperature at shallow depths which could be exploited for geothermal energy. Temperature measurements in the Perth Basin (Western Australia) reveal thermal patterns that are consistent with convection in the Yarragadee Aquifer. This observation is supported by Rayleigh number calculations, which show that convection is possible within the range of aquifer thickness, geothermal gradient, salinity gradient and permeability encountered in the Yarragadee Aquifer, assuming that the aquifer can be treated as a homogeneous anisotropic layer. Numerical simulations of convection in a simplified model of the Yarragadee Aquifer show that: (1) the spacing of convective upwellings can be predicted from aquifer thickness and permeability anisotropy; (2) convective upwellings may be circular or elongate in plan view; (3) convective upwellings create significant temperature enhancements relative to the conductive profile; (4) convective flow rates are similar to regional groundwater flow rates; and (5) convection homogenises salinity within the aquifer. Further work is required to constrain the average horizontal and vertical permeability of the Yarragadee Aquifer, to assess the validity of treating the aquifer as a homogeneous anisotropic layer, and to determine the impact of realistic aquifer geometry and advection on convection.
Rossiter, A.G.; Ferguson, J.
It is argued that at the end of Archaean time the Australian continent was confined to the area now occupied by the Yilgarn, Pilbara, Gawler, and Musgrave Blocks, and the southern part of the Arunta Block. During the Early Proterozoic, sedimentary and volcanic rocks were laid down in an extensive depositional zone trending roughly east-west along the northern margin of the Archaean continent. Copper and gold mineralization, commonly showing stratigraphic control, is widespread in this belt. Following deformation and metamorphism of the Early Proterozoic rocks, felsic and mafic igneous activity, and accumulation of platform sediments on the newly stabilized crust, a predominantly north-south depositional zone developed along the eastern margin of the continent during the Middle Proterozoic. Lead and zinc assume much more importance in the mineral deposits of this belt. It is postulated that the present positions of rocks of the Pine Creek and Georgetown regions are due to horizontal displacements of several hundred kilometres along major fault zones. Apparent rifting of these blocks away from palaeo-continental margins may be related to the occurrence of uraniferous granitic rocks and uranium mineralization within them via a mantle plume mechanism. Although current data are limited, tectonic environments suggested for Proterozoic mafic igneous rocks of northern Australia by their geochemistry are compatible with the geological settings of these rocks and with the tectonic model put forward. (author)
Urban flooding is often used as an illustration of the potentially adverse effects of greenhouse-induced climate change on extreme events. There is however, a paucity of studies that convert climate scenarios into changes in flood damage. This account summarises the use of modelling techniques, for three flood prone urban catchments in south eastern Australia, to assess changes to urban flood losses for the 'most wet' and ,most dry' scenarios for the year 2070. The most wet scenario indicates that annual average flood damage could increase within the range of 2.5 to 10 times, under the most dry scenario flood regimes would be similar to those experienced at present. The socio-economic scenarios based on the changes to flood losses are used to consider policy responses. It is unlikely that many local government authorities will respond because of lack of interest and because of major changes to the climate scenarios proposed over the last decade. Any response is likely to be incremental and accord with the 'no regrets' and 'the precautionary principle'. 21 refs
Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh
Hibiscus tridactylites is a problematic broadleaf weed in many crops in Australia; however, very limited information is available on seed germination biology of Australian populations. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination and emergence of H. tridactylites. Germination was stimulated by seed scarification, suggesting the inhibition of germination in this species is mainly due to the hard seed coat. Germination was not affected by light conditions, suggesting that seeds of this species are not photoblastic. Germination was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (74%) and 35/25 °C (69%) than at 25/15 °C (63%). Moderate salinity and water stress did not inhibit germination of H. tridactylites. Seedling emergence of H. tridactylites was highest (57%) for the seeds buried at a 2 cm depth in the soil; 18% of seedlings emerged from seeds buried at 8 cm but no seedlings emerged below this depth. Soil inversion by tillage to bury weed seeds below their maximum depth of emergence could serve an important tool for managing H. tridactylites.
Davidson, P M; Elliott, D; Daly, J
Leadership in the clinical practice environment is important to ensure both optimal patient outcomes and successive generations of motivated and enthusiastic clinicians. The present paper seeks to define and describe clinical leadership and identify the facilitators and barriers to clinical leadership. We also describe strategies to develop clinical leaders in Australia. Key drivers to the development of nursing leaders are strategies that recognize and value clinical expertise. These include models of care that highlight the importance of the nursing role; evidence-based practice and measurement of clinical outcomes; strategies to empower clinicians and mechanisms to ensure participation in clinical decision-making. Significant barriers to clinical leadership are organizational structures that preclude nurses from clinical decision making; the national shortage of nurses; fiscal constraints; absence of well evaluated models of care and trends towards less skilled clinicians. Systematic, strategic initiatives are required to nurture and develop clinical leaders. These strategies need to be collegial collaborations between the academic and health care sectors in order to provide a united voice for advancing the nursing profession.
De Lurio, Jennifer L.; Frakes, L. A.
Glendonites, calcite pseudomorphs after the metastable mineral ikaite (CaCO 3 · 6H 2O), occur in the Late Aptian interval of the Bulldog Shale in the Eromanga Basin, Australia and in other Early Cretaceous basins at high paleolatitudes. Ikaite precipitation in the marine environment requires near-freezing temperatures (not higher than 4°C), high alkalinity, increased levels of orthophosphate, and high P CO2. The rapid and complete transformation of ikaite to calcite at temperatures between 5 and 8°C provides an upper limit on the oxygen isotopic composition of the pore waters: -2.6 ikaite precipitation. Data previously reported as 11 to 16°C (assuming δ w = 0.0‰SMOW) yield paleotemperatures ranging from -1 to 5°C, squarely in the range of ikaite stability. The low δ w indicates hyposaline conditions, most likely caused by mixing high latitude meteoric waters with seawater. The 18O depleted, low temperature waters suggest that the region was at least seasonally colder than previously accepted.
Full Text Available Marine reserves are becoming progressively more important as anthropogenic impacts continue to increase, but we have little baseline information for most marine environments. In this study, we focus on the Oceanic Shoals Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR in northern Australia, particularly the carbonate banks and terraces of the Sahul Shelf and Van Diemen Rise which have been designated a Key Ecological Feature (KEF. We use a species-level inventory compiled from three marine surveys to the CMR to address several questions relevant to marine management: 1 Are carbonate banks and other raised geomorphic features associated with biodiversity hotspots? 2 Can environmental (depth, substrate hardness, slope or biogeographic (east vs west variables help explain local and regional differences in community structure? 3 Do sponge communities differ among individual raised geomorphic features? Approximately 750 sponge specimens were collected in the Oceanic Shoals CMR and assigned to 348 species, of which only 18% included taxonomically described species. Between eastern and western areas of the CMR, there was no difference between sponge species richness or assemblages on raised geomorphic features. Among individual raised geomorphic features, sponge assemblages were significantly different, but species richness was not. Species richness showed no linear relationships with measured environmental factors, but sponge assemblages were weakly associated with several environmental variables including mean depth and mean backscatter (east and west and mean slope (east only. These patterns of sponge diversity are applied to support the future management and monitoring of this region, particularly noting the importance of spatial scale in biodiversity assessments and associated management strategies.
Przeslawski, Rachel; Alvarez, Belinda; Kool, Johnathan; Bridge, Tom; Caley, M. Julian; Nichol, Scott
Marine reserves are becoming progressively more important as anthropogenic impacts continue to increase, but we have little baseline information for most marine environments. In this study, we focus on the Oceanic Shoals Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) in northern Australia, particularly the carbonate banks and terraces of the Sahul Shelf and Van Diemen Rise which have been designated a Key Ecological Feature (KEF). We use a species-level inventory compiled from three marine surveys to the CMR to address several questions relevant to marine management: 1) Are carbonate banks and other raised geomorphic features associated with biodiversity hotspots? 2) Can environmental (depth, substrate hardness, slope) or biogeographic (east vs west) variables help explain local and regional differences in community structure? 3) Do sponge communities differ among individual raised geomorphic features? Approximately 750 sponge specimens were collected in the Oceanic Shoals CMR and assigned to 348 species, of which only 18% included taxonomically described species. Between eastern and western areas of the CMR, there was no difference between sponge species richness or assemblages on raised geomorphic features. Among individual raised geomorphic features, sponge assemblages were significantly different, but species richness was not. Species richness showed no linear relationships with measured environmental factors, but sponge assemblages were weakly associated with several environmental variables including mean depth and mean backscatter (east and west) and mean slope (east only). These patterns of sponge diversity are applied to support the future management and monitoring of this region, particularly noting the importance of spatial scale in biodiversity assessments and associated management strategies. PMID:26606745
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to explore how well Victorian pharmacists perceived they understood pharmacogenetics, their perceived capacity to counsel a patient about such testing, how they believed pharmacogenetics would impact upon their profession, and to investigate the ways in which Victorian pharmacists would like to be educated about pharmacogenetics.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was dispatched to 800 Victorian pharmacists. The participants were randomly selected and the survey was anonymous. The survey contained questions about where the pharmacists worked, the pharmacists’ perceived knowledge of pharmacogenetics, how well they believed they would be able to counsel patients about pharmacogenetic testing, how they thought pharmacists should be educated on the topic and how they believed pharmacogenetics would impact upon their profession.Results: 291 surveys were returned (36% response rate. Results suggest that Victorian pharmacists generally perceived they had a poor understanding of pharmacogenetics and that those who have more recently graduated from tertiary education had a better perceived understanding than those who have been in the workforce for longer. Most pharmacists indicated that they did not believe that they could counsel a patient adequately about the results of a pharmacogenetic test. Regarding education about pharmacogenetics, participants suggested that this would be best delivered during tertiary studies, and as seminars and workshops forming part of their continuing professional development. Although some pharmacists were unsure how pharmacogenetics would affect their profession, many believed it would have a major impact upon their role as a pharmacist and lead to improved patient care. Some concerns about the implementation of pharmacogenetics were noted, including economic and ethical issues.Conclusion: This study highlights the need for further research across the pharmacy profession in Australia on the
Anderson, Therese A; Hart, Graeme K; Kainer, Marion A
To quantify resource requirements (additional beds and ventilator capacity), for critical care services in the event of pandemic influenza. Cross-sectional survey about existing and potential critical care resources. Participants comprised 156 of the 176 Australasian (Australia and New Zealand) critical care units on the database of the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Research Centre for Critical Care Resources. The Meltzer, Cox and Fukuda model was adapted to map a range of influenza attack rate estimates for hospitalisation and episodes likely to require intensive care and to predict critical care admission rates and bed day requirements. Estimations of ventilation rates were based on those for community-acquired pneumonia. The estimated extra number of persons requiring hospitalisation ranged from 8,455 (10% attack rate) to 150,087 (45% attack rate). The estimated number of additional admissions to critical care units ranged from 423 (5% admission rate, 10% attack rate) to 37,522 (25% admission rate, 45% attack rate). The potential number of required intensive care bed days ranged from 846 bed days (2 day length of stay, 10% attack rate) to 375,220 bed days (10 day length of stay, 45% attack rate). The number of persons likely to require mechanical ventilation ranged from 106 (25% of projected critical care admissions, 10% attack rate) to 28,142 (75% of projected critical care admissions, 45% attack rate). An additional 1,195 emergency ventilator beds were identified in public sector and 248 in private sector hospitals. Cancellation of elective surgery could release a potential 76,402 intensive care bed days (per annum), but in the event of pandemic influenza, 31,150 bed days could be required over an 8- to 12-week period. Australasian critical care services would be overwhelmed in the event of pandemic influenza. More work is required in relation to modelling, contingency plans, and resource allocation.
Robert J. Stimson
The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) was a profound exogenous shock which has had profound impacts the performance of national economies and the regions within them. The differential outcomes are vast. In many parts of the world there is evidence of what is being referred to as the ‘two-speed’ economy - or even a ‘multi-speed’ - economy. This has implications for regional economic development theory in which, over the last two to three decades, there has been an increasing emphasis on endogenous...
Swan, J.M.; Neff, J.M.; Young, P.C.
It is widely recognised that uncontrolled discharge of petroleum products or other materials from offshore oil and gas exploration and production wells, and from associated industrial operations including treatment and service facilities that are required to be on or near the coast, can have direct and sometimes deleterious impacts on the marine environment. In mid-1992, the Australian Petroleum Exploration Association (APEA) commissioned five scientific reviews to examine the environmental implications of offshore petroleum developments in Australia. The reviews, carried out by an Independent Scientific Review Committee on behalf of the Australian Petroleum Exploration Association (APEA) and the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) deal with: (1) the preliminary geophysical exploration of the sea bed and underlying strata using seismic surveys, and especially the effects of bursts of underwater sound energy on biological communities; (2) the drilling of offshore wells, especially the disposal of drilling fluids and drill cuttings; (3) the production of oil and gas from proven wells, especially the disposal of large quantities of produced formation water (fossil water); (4) the construction and operation of coastal support facilities and associated activities which might have consequences for marine habitats; (5) oil spills associated with any of the above operations and especially the likely short- and long-term effects of an accidental oil spill on marine biota and on the aesthetic and commercial values of an impacted coastline. Comments on the findings are preceded by a brief summary of background information, relevant technologies and the main implications for the marine environment. Some suggestions are provided for possible future research, monitoring and environmental management. refs., figs., tabs
Taylor, Colman B; Curtis, Kate; Jan, Stephen; Newcombe, Mark
In NSW Australia, a formal trauma system including the use of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) has existed for over 20 years. Despite providing many advantages in NSW, HEMS patients are frequently over-triaged; leading to financial implications for major trauma centres that receive HEMS patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the financial implications of HEMS over-triage from the perspective of major trauma centres in NSW. The study sample included all trauma patients transported via HEMS to 12 major trauma centres in NSW during the period: 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2009. Clinical data were gathered from individual hospital trauma registries and merged with financial information obtained from casemix units at respective hospitals. HEMS over-triage was estimated based on the local definition of minor to moderate trauma (ISS≤12) and hospital length of stay of less than 24 hrs. The actual treatment costs were determined and compared to state-wide peer group averages to obtain estimates of potential funding discrepancies. A total of 707 patients transported by HEMS were identified, including 72% pre-hospital (PH; n=507) and 28% inter-hospital (IH; n=200) transports. Over-triage was estimated at 51% for PH patients and 29% for IH patients. Compared to PH patients, IH patients were more costly to treat on average (IH: $42,604; PH: $25,162), however PH patients were more costly overall ($12,329,618 [PH]; $8,265,152 [IH]). When comparing actual treatment costs to peer group averages we found potential funding discrepancies ranging between 4% and 32% across patient groups. Using a sensitivity analysis, the potential funding discrepancy increased with increasing levels of over-triage. HEMS patients are frequently over-triaged in NSW, leading to funding implications for major trauma centres. In general, HEMS patient treatment costs are higher than the peer group average and the potential funding discrepancy varies by injury severity and the type of
Dunlop, Jason E.; Horrigan, Nelli; McGregor, Glenn; Kefford, Ben J.; Choy, Satish; Prasad, Rajesh
Salinisation of freshwater has been identified as a serious environmental issue in Australia and around the world. Protective concentrations (trigger values) for salinity can be used to manage salinity impacts, though require locally relevant salinity tolerance information. 72-h acute salinity tolerance values were determined for 102 macroinvertebrates collected from 11 locations in four biologically distinct freshwater bio-regions in Northeast Australia and compared with sensitivities observed in Southeast Australia. The salinity tolerance of individual taxa was consistent across Northeast Australia and between Northeast and Southeast Australia. However, two distinct communities were identified in Northeast Australia using distributions of the acute tolerance values and a calculated index of salinity sensitivity. Salinity trigger values should therefore be representative of local or regionally relevant communities and may be adequately calculated using sensitivity values from throughout Eastern Australia. The results presented provide a basis for assessing salinity risk and determining trigger values for salinity in freshwater ecosystems at local and regional scales in Eastern Australia. - Salinity tolerance of macroinvertebrate communities vary in Eastern Australia hence water quality guidelines should be developed at a local or regional scale
Inacio, Maria C S; Graves, Stephen E; Pratt, Nicole L; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Nemes, Szilard
100,000; 95% PI, 402-717 per 100,000) compared with 2013 (IR = 437 per 100,000; 95% CI, 397-479 per 100,000) and the volume to increase by 142%. A large increase in the volume of arthroplasties is expected using a conservative projection model that accounts for past surgical trends and future population changes in Australia. These findings have international implications, as they show that using country- specific, conservative projection approaches, a substantial increase in the number of these procedures is expected. This increase in joint arthroplasty volume will require appropriate workforce planning, resource allocation, and budget planning so that demand can be met. Level II, economic and decision analysis.
Woods, Carl T; Keller, Brad S; McKeown, Ian; Robertson, Sam
Woods, CT, Keller, BS, McKeown, I, and Robertson, S. A comparison of athletic movement among talent-identified juniors from different football codes in Australia: implications for talent development. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2440-2445, 2016-This study aimed to compare the athletic movement skill of talent-identified (TID) junior Australian Rules football (ARF) and soccer players. The athletic movement skill of 17 TID junior ARF players (17.5-18.3 years) was compared against 17 TID junior soccer players (17.9-18.7 years). Players in both groups were members of an elite junior talent development program within their respective football codes. All players performed an athletic movement assessment that included an overhead squat, double lunge, single-leg Romanian deadlift (both movements performed on right and left legs), a push-up, and a chin-up. Each movement was scored across 3 essential assessment criteria using a 3-point scale. The total score for each movement (maximum of 9) and the overall total score (maximum of 63) were used as the criterion variables for analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of football code (2 levels) on the criterion variables, whereas a 1-way analysis of variance identified where differences occurred. A significant effect was noted, with the TID junior ARF players outscoring their soccer counterparts when performing the overhead squat and push-up. No other criterions significantly differed according to the main effect. Practitioners should be aware that specific sporting requirements may incur slight differences in athletic movement skill among TID juniors from different football codes. However, given the low athletic movement skill noted in both football codes, developmental coaches should address the underlying movement skill capabilities of juniors when prescribing physical training in both codes.
Hilbert, David W
Full text: Full text: Globally, forest clearing is often thought to be the greatest threat to biodiversity in the tropics, and rates of clearing are certainly highest there, particularly in tropical South-East Asia. Climate change in the tropics has been less studied in tropical regions than in temperate, boreal or arctic ecosystems. However, modelling studies in Australian rainforests indicate that climate change may be a particularly significant threat to the long-term preservation of the biodiversity of tropical, rainforest biodiversity. Our research has shown that global warming can have a particularly strong impact on the biodiversity of mountainous tropical regions, including the Wet Tropics of north-east Queensland. Here, the mountain tops and higher tablelands are relatively cool islands in a sea of warmer climates. These species-rich islands, mostly limited in their biodiversity by warm interglacial periods, are separated from each other by the warmer valleys and form a scattered archipelago of habitat for organisms that are unable to survive and reproduce in warmer climates. Many of the endemic Australian Wet Tropics species live only in these cooler regions. Similar situations occur throughout south-east Asia and in the highlands of the Neotropics. Unfortunately, these upland and highland areas represent the majority of biodiversity conservation areas because they are less suitable for clearing for agriculture. This presentation will summarise research about the potential impacts of climate change on the biodiversity in Australia's rainforests, the potential implications for tropical biodiversity in general and discuss the limitations of these projections and the need for further research that could reduce uncertainties and inform effective adaptation strategies
Treble, Pauline C.; Bradley, Chris; Wood, Anne; Baker, Andy; Jex, Catherine N.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Gagan, Michael K.; Cowley, Joan; Azcurra, Cecilia
We investigated the distinctive shallow sub-surface hydrology of the southwest Western Australia (SWWA) dune calcarenite using observed rainfall and rainfall δ18O; soil moisture, cave drip rate and dripwater δ18O over a six-year period: August 2005-March 2012. A lumped parameter hydrological model is developed to describe water fluxes and drip δ18O. Comparison of observed data and model output allow us to assess the critical non-climatic karst hydrological processes that modify the precipitation δ18O signal and discuss the implications for speleothem paleoclimate records from this cave and those with a similar karst setting. Our findings include evidence of multiple reservoirs, characterised by distinct δ18O values and recharge responses ('low' and 'high' flow sites). Dripwaters exhibit δ18O variations in wet versus dry years at low-flow sites receiving diffuse seepage from the epikarst with an attenuated isotopic composition that approximates mean rainfall. Recharge from high-magnitude rain events is stored in a secondary reservoir which is associated with high-flow dripwater that is 1‰ lower than our monitored low-flow sites (δ18O). One drip site is characterised by mixed-flow behaviour and exhibits a non-linear threshold response after the cessation of drainage from a secondary reservoir following a record dry year (2006). Additionally, our results yield a better understanding of the vadose zone hydrology and dripwater characteristics in Quaternary age dune limestones. We show that flow to our monitored sites is dominated by diffuse flow with inferred transit times of less than one year. Diffuse flow appears to follow vertical preferential paths through the limestone reflecting differences in permeability and deep recharge into the host rock.
Balasubramanian, Madhan; Spencer, A John; Short, Stephanie D; Watkins, Keith; Chrisopoulos, Sergio; Brennan, David S
Migrants comprise a growing proportion of the dental workforce in Australia. To date, research on migrant dentists is limited, raising policy questions regarding the motivations for migration, demographic profiles and work patterns. The purpose of this paper was to present findings from the first national survey of migrant dentists in Australia. All dentists with a primary dental qualification from an overseas institution and registered with the Australian Dental Association (n=1,872) or enrolled as a graduate student in any of the nine dental schools in Australia (n=105) were surveyed between January and May 2013. A total of 1,022 participants (response rate=54.5%) were classifiable into three migrant dentist groups: direct recognition (n=491); Australian Dental Council (ADC) (n=411); and alternative pathway (n=120). Overall, 41.8% of migrant dentists were female. More than half of the ADC group (54.1%) were from lower middle income countries. The most frequent motivation for migration according to the direct recognition group (21.1%) was 'adventure', whereas other groups migrated for 'better opportunity'. The majority of ADC respondents (65%) were under 45 years of age, and a larger proportion worked in the most disadvantaged areas (12.4%), compared with other groups. Gender, marital status, years since arrival in Australia and having children varied between the groups (chi square; Pmigrate to Australia for different reasons. The large proportion of the migrant dentist workforce sourced from lower middle income countries points towards deficiencies in oral health systems both for these countries and for Australia. The feminisation of the migrant dentist profile could in future affect dentist-practice activity patterns in Australia. Further research, especially on the settlement experiences of these dentists, can provide better insights into issues faced by these dentists, the nature of support that migrant dentists receive in Australia, the probable future
Balasubramanian, Madhan; Spencer, A John; Short, Stephanie D; Watkins, Keith; Chrisopoulos, Sergio; Brennan, David S
The migration of dentists is a major policy challenge facing both developing and developed countries. Dentists from over 120 countries migrate to Australia, and a large proportion are from developing countries. The aim of the study was to assess the life story experience (LSE) of migrant dentists in Australia, in order to address key policy challenges facing dentist migration. A national survey of all migrant dentists resident in Australia was conducted in 2013. Migrant experiences were assessed through a suite of LSE scales, developed through a qualitative-quantitative study. Respondents rated experiences using a five-point Likert scale. A total of 1022 migrant dentists responded to the survey (response rate = 54.5%). LSE1 (health system and general lifestyle concerns in home country), LSE2 (appreciation towards Australian way of life) and LSE3 (settlement concerns in Australia) scales varied by migrant dentist groups, sex, and years since arrival to Australia (chi-square, P international agenda to address dentist migration. Better integration of dentist migration with the mainstream health workforce governance is a viable and opportunistic way forward. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Dunford, Elizabeth K; Eyles, Helen; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Webster, Jacqui L; Neal, Bruce C
To define the effectiveness of recent efforts by the Australian Division of World Action on Salt and Health, and the Heart Foundation in New Zealand to reduce sodium levels in breads in Australia and New Zealand. Data on the sodium contents of packaged sliced bread products sold in Australian and New Zealand supermarkets were collected from the product labels of 157 breads in 2007 and 167 breads in 2010, and were compared overall, by bread type, by manufacturer, and between nations. Mean sodium values in bread and proportions of breads meeting the targets of 400 mg/100 g in Australia and 450 mg/100 g in New Zealand. Overall mean sodium content in bread in Australia was 434 mg/100 g in 2007 and 435 mg/100 g in 2010; corresponding values for New Zealand were 469 mg/100 g and 439 mg/100 g. The proportion of Australian breads meeting the national target increased from 29% in 2007 to 50% in 2010; the proportion of New Zealand breads meeting the national target increased from 49% in 2007 to 90% in 2010. There were clear differences between the results achieved by different companies. Voluntary efforts by non-governmental organisations have had some impact on sodium levels in bread, particularly in New Zealand. However, substantial room for further improvement remains. If additional reductions are not achieved under the current voluntary arrangements, legislated approaches may be required.
Hiruy, Kiros; Mwanri, Lillian
The ageing and frail migrants who are at the end of life are an increasing share of migrants living in Australia. However, within such populations, information about end-of-life experiences is limited, particularly among Africans. This article provides some insights into the sociocultural end-of-life experiences of Africans in Australia and their interaction with the health services in general and end-of-life care in particular. It provides points for discussion to consider an ethical framework that include Afro-communitarian ethical principles to enhance the capacity of current health services to provide culturally appropriate and ethical care. This article contributes to our knowledge regarding the provision of culturally appropriate and ethical care to African patients and their families by enabling the learning of health service providers to improve the competence of palliative care systems and professionals in Australia. Additionally, it initiates the discussion to highlight the importance of paying sufficient attention to a diverse range of factors including the migration history when providing palliative and hospice care for patients from African migrant populations.
This paper examines the future energy production and demand profiles for the Asia Pacific region and the global allocation of exploration capital made by major international petroleum companies. The implications of these factors for future government petroleum exploration policies within the region are considered, in particular the Australian and New Zealand situations, together with likely effects of such measures on the ability of exploration and production companies to raise capital. (Author)
Condon-Paoloni, Deanne; Yeatman, Heather R; Grigonis-Deane, Elizabeth
Health and related claims on food labels can support consumer education initiatives that encourage purchase of healthier foods. A new food Standard on Nutrition, Health and Related Claims became law in January 2013. Implementation will need careful monitoring and enforcement to ensure that claims are truthful and have meaning. The current study explored factors that may impact on environmental health officers' food labelling policy enforcement practices. The study used a mixed-methods approach, using two previously validated quantitative questionnaire instruments that provided measures of the level of control that the officers exercised over their work, as well as qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Local government; Australia. Thirty-seven officers in three Australian states participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews, as well as completing the quantitative questionnaires. Senior and junior officers, including field officers, participated in the study. The officers reported a high level of autonomy and control of their work, but also a heavy workload, dominated by concerns for public health and food safety, with limited time for monitoring food labels. Compliance of labels with proposed health claims regulations was not considered a priority. Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucracy was used to enhance understanding of officers' work practices. Competing priorities affect environmental health officers' monitoring and enforcement of regulations. Understanding officers' work practices and their perceptions of enforcement is important to increase effectiveness of policy implementation and hence its capacity to augment education initiatives to optimize health benefits.
Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Cheng, Chi-Wei; Zhuang, Xiao Yu; Ng, Ting Kin; Pan, Shu-Man; He, Xuesong; Poon, Ada
Using data of 200, 522, 572, and 287 Chinese from Australia, China, Hong Kong and Taiwan respectively, this study aimed at comparing the mental health literacy of Chinese people from different communities, and between Chinese communities and the Australian general public. The participants were asked questions that assessed their recognition of depression and schizophrenia. Compared with the Australians, much lower percentages of Chinese in the four Chinese communities could correctly identify depression and early schizophrenia. Commonalities in the preference for 'psychiatrist', 'psychologist', 'Chinese medical doctor', and 'Chinese traditional healer', a lack of knowledge of medications, and a higher likelihood of endorsement of traditional Chinese medicines were found among the four Chinese communities. Differences in the preference for 'general practitioner' and 'social worker', and a higher percentage of endorsement of herbal medicines were observed among the different Chinese communities. Cultural factors such as Chinese perceptions of mental illness, and socio-contextual factors such as differences in mental health care system in the four communities were offered to explain these commonalities and differences. Mental health promotion programmes for Chinese people may need to consider the above-mentioned cultural and socio-contextual factors so that specific promotion programmes can be developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Neira, Francisco J.; Lyle, Jeremy M.; Keane, John P.
The spawning habitat of Emmelichthys nitidus (Emmelichthyidae) in south-eastern Australia is described from vertical ichthyoplankton samples collected along the shelf region off eastern through to south-western Tasmania during peak spawning in October 2005-06. Surveys covered eastern waters in 2005 (38.8-43.5°S), and both eastern and southern waters in 2006 (40.5°S around to 43.5°S off the south-west). Eggs ( n = 10,393) and larvae ( n = 378) occurred along eastern Tasmania in both years but were rare along southern waters south and westwards of 43.5°S in 2006. Peak egg abundances (1950-2640 per m -2) were obtained off north-eastern Tasmania (40.5-41.5°S) between the shelf break and 2.5 nm inshore from the break. Eggs were up to 5-days old, while nearly 95% of larvae were at the early preflexion stage, i.e. close to newly emerged. Average abundances of aged eggs pooled across each survey declined steadily from day-1 to day-5 eggs both in 2005 (97-18) and 2006 (175-34). Moreover, day-1 egg abundances were significantly greater 2.5 nm at either side of the break, including at the break, than in waters ≥5 nm both inshore and offshore from the break. These results, complemented with egg and larval data obtained in shelf waters off New South Wales (NSW; 35.0-37.7°S) in October 2002-03, indicate that the main spawning area of E. nitidus in south-eastern Australia lies between 35.5°S off southern NSW and 43.5°S off south-eastern Tasmania, and that spawning activity declines abruptly south and westwards of 43.5°S around to the south-west coast. In addition, quotient analyses of day-1 egg abundances point to a preferred spawning habitat contained predominantly within a 5 nm corridor along the shelf break, where waters are 125-325 m deep and median temperatures 13.5-14.0 °C. Spawning off eastern Tasmania is timed with the productivity outburst typical of the region during the austral spring, and the temperature increase from the mixing between the southwards
Nidumolu, Uday; Crimp, Steven; Gobbett, David; Laing, Alison; Howden, Mark; Little, Stephen
The Murray dairy region produces approximately 1.85 billion litres of milk each year, representing about 20 % of Australia's total annual milk production. An ongoing production challenge in this region is the management of the impacts of heat stress during spring and summer. An increase in the frequency and severity of extreme temperature events due to climate change may result in additional heat stress and production losses. This paper assesses the changing nature of heat stress now, and into the future, using historical data and climate change projections for the region using the temperature humidity index (THI). Projected temperature and relative humidity changes from two global climate models (GCMs), CSIRO MK3.5 and CCR-MIROC-H, have been used to calculate THI values for 2025 and 2050, and summarized as mean occurrence of, and mean length of consecutive high heat stress periods. The future climate scenarios explored show that by 2025 an additional 12-15 days (compared to 1971 to 2000 baseline data) of moderate to severe heat stress are likely across much of the study region. By 2050, larger increases in severity and occurrence of heat stress are likely (i.e. an additional 31-42 moderate to severe heat stress days compared with baseline data). This increasing trend will have a negative impact on milk production among dairy cattle in the region. The results from this study provide useful insights on the trends in THI in the region. Dairy farmers and the dairy industry could use these results to devise and prioritise adaptation options to deal with projected increases in heat stress frequency and severity.
Torok, Michelle; Konings, Paul; Batterham, Philip J; Christensen, Helen
Rates of suicide appear to be increasing, indicating a critical need for more effective prevention initiatives. To increase the efficacy of future prevention initiatives, we examined the spatial distribution of suicide deaths and suicide attempts in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to identify where high incidence 'suicide clusters' were occurring. Such clusters represent candidate regions where intervention is critically needed, and likely to have the greatest impact, thus providing an evidence-base for the targeted prioritisation of resources. Analysis is based on official suicide mortality statistics for NSW, provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and hospital separations for non-fatal intentional self-harm, provided through the NSW Health Admitted Patient Data Collection at a Statistical Area 2 (SA2) geography. Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were applied to detect suicide clusters occurring between 2005 and 2013 (aggregated), for persons aged over 5 years. The final dataset contained 5466 mortality and 86,017 non-fatal intentional self-harm cases. In total, 25 Local Government Areas were identified as primary or secondary likely candidate regions for intervention. Together, these regions contained approximately 200 SA2 level suicide clusters, which represented 46% (n = 39,869) of hospital separations and 43% (n = 2330) of suicide deaths between 2005 and 2013. These clusters primarily converged on the Eastern coastal fringe of NSW. Crude rates of suicide deaths and intentional self-harm differed at the Local Government Areas (LGA) level in NSW. There was a tendency for primary suicide clusters to occur within metropolitan and coastal regions, rather than rural areas. The findings demonstrate the importance of taking geographical variation of suicidal behaviour into account, prior to development and implementation of prevention initiatives, so that such initiatives can target key problem areas where they are likely to have
Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M
Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters.
W. A. Timms
Full Text Available The magnitude and timing of deep drainage and salt leaching through clay soils is a critical issue for dryland agriculture in semi-arid regions (<500 mm yr−1 rainfall, potential evapotranspiration >2000 mm yr−1 such as parts of Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB. In this rare study, hydrogeological measurements and estimations of the historic water balance of crops grown on overlying Grey Vertosols were combined to estimate the contribution of deep drainage below crop roots to recharge and salinization of shallow groundwater. Soil sampling at two sites on the alluvial flood plain of the Lower Namoi catchment revealed significant peaks in chloride concentrations at 0.8–1.2 m depth under perennial vegetation and at 2.0–2.5 m depth under continuous cropping indicating deep drainage and salt leaching since conversion to cropping. Total salt loads of 91–229 t ha−1 NaCl equivalent were measured for perennial vegetation and cropping, with salinity to ≥ 10 m depth that was not detected by shallow soil surveys. Groundwater salinity varied spatially from 910 to 2430 mS m−1 at 21 to 37 m depth (N = 5, whereas deeper groundwater was less saline (290 mS m−1 with use restricted to livestock and rural domestic supplies in this area. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM software package predicted deep drainage of 3.3–9.5 mm yr−1 (0.7–2.1% rainfall based on site records of grain yields, rainfall, salt leaching and soil properties. Predicted deep drainage was highly episodic, dependent on rainfall and antecedent soil water content, and over a 39 yr period was restricted mainly to the record wet winter of 1998. During the study period, groundwater levels were unresponsive to major rainfall events (70 and 190 mm total, and most piezometers at about 18 m depth remained dry. In this area, at this time, recharge appears to be negligible due to low
Timms, W. A.; Young, R. R.; Huth, N.
The magnitude and timing of deep drainage and salt leaching through clay soils is a critical issue for dryland agriculture in semi-arid regions (2000 mm yr-1) such as parts of Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB). In this rare study, hydrogeological measurements and estimations of the historic water balance of crops grown on overlying Grey Vertosols were combined to estimate the contribution of deep drainage below crop roots to recharge and salinization of shallow groundwater. Soil sampling at two sites on the alluvial flood plain of the Lower Namoi catchment revealed significant peaks in chloride concentrations at 0.8-1.2 m depth under perennial vegetation and at 2.0-2.5 m depth under continuous cropping indicating deep drainage and salt leaching since conversion to cropping. Total salt loads of 91-229 t ha-1 NaCl equivalent were measured for perennial vegetation and cropping, with salinity to ≥ 10 m depth that was not detected by shallow soil surveys. Groundwater salinity varied spatially from 910 to 2430 mS m-1 at 21 to 37 m depth (N = 5), whereas deeper groundwater was less saline (290 mS m-1) with use restricted to livestock and rural domestic supplies in this area. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) software package predicted deep drainage of 3.3-9.5 mm yr-1 (0.7-2.1% rainfall) based on site records of grain yields, rainfall, salt leaching and soil properties. Predicted deep drainage was highly episodic, dependent on rainfall and antecedent soil water content, and over a 39 yr period was restricted mainly to the record wet winter of 1998. During the study period, groundwater levels were unresponsive to major rainfall events (70 and 190 mm total), and most piezometers at about 18 m depth remained dry. In this area, at this time, recharge appears to be negligible due to low rainfall and large potential evapotranspiration, transient hydrological conditions after changes in land use and a thick clay dominated vadose zone. This is in
Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Kong, Charlie
The ∼3430 Ma Strelley Pool Formation (SPF), Pilbara, Western Australia contains some of the most diverse microfossil evidence for early life on Earth. Here we report an assemblage of tephra (scoria, tubular pumice, plus vesicular and non-vesicular volcanic glass shards) from two stratigraphic levels in the SPF, including morphotypes that closely resemble previously described microfossils from this unit and elsewhere. Clasts of scoria are characterised by numerous spheroidal vesicles, with subordinate eye- and lens-shaped morphotypes, commonly lined with anatase (TiO2) and small amounts of organic material. Their diameters range from 5-180 μm with 80% in the 10-50 μm range. Fragments of tubular pumice are also lined with anatase + / - carbon and have tube diameters of 5-15 μm. Other volcanic ejecta particles include a multitude of sub-angular shard particles with or without vesicles, plus more rounded vase-shaped, eye-shaped, and hair-like morphologies; once again, most of these are coated by anatase + / - carbon and are several tens of micrometres in size. Many of the tephra fragments are now entirely silicified with no compositional difference between the former volcanic glass, the vesicle infill and the clast matrix. However, some examples retain a partial aluminosilicate composition, either as a vesicle infilling phase or as isolated lath-like grains within the formerly glassy groundmass. Isolated occurrences of some of these tephra morphotypes strongly resemble simple microbial morphologies including pairs and clusters of cells (cf. scoria), filamentous microbes (cf. tubular pumice) and larger sheaths/cysts (cf. sub-rounded glass shards). Furthermore, some tephra-containing clasts occur in a SPF sandstone unit that hosts previously described microfossils, while others are interbedded with chert layers from which microfossils have also been described. In light of our new volcanogenic data, we evaluate the robustness of previous microfossil evidence from the
Community attitudes research regarding genetic issues is important when contemplating the potential value and utilisation of predictive testing for common diseases in mainstream health services. This article aims to report population-based attitudes and discuss their relevance to integrating genetic services in primary health contexts. Men's and women's attitudes were investigated via population-based omnibus telephone survey in Queensland, Australia. Randomly selected adults (n = 1,230) with a mean age of 48.8 years were interviewed regarding perceptions of genetic determinants of health; benefits of genetic testing that predict 'certain' versus 'probable' future illness; and concern, if any, regarding potential misuse of genetic test information. Most (75%) respondents believed genetic factors significantly influenced health status; 85% regarded genetic testing positively although attitudes varied with age. Risk-based information was less valued than certainty-based information, but women valued risk information significantly more highly than men. Respondents reported 'concern' (44%) and 'no concern' (47%) regarding potential misuse of genetic information. This study contributes important population-based data as most research has involved selected individuals closely impacted by genetic disorders. While community attitudes were positive regarding genetic testing, genetic literacy is important to establish. The nature of gender differences regarding risk perception merits further study and has policy and service implications. Community concern about potential genetic discrimination must be addressed if health benefits of testing are to be maximised. Larger questions remain in scientific, policy, service delivery, and professional practice domains before predictive testing for common disorders is efficacious in mainstream health care. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
This book is a critical intervention into debates on Australia's cultural history. The book demonstrates the interconnectedness of themes commonly seen as separate discursive formations, and shows the fruitfulness of bringing a combined cultural studies and postcolonial approach to bear on a number...
The Australian Bureau of Census and Statistics reported on 27 August 1979 that Australia's total population was 14,376,400 at the end of the first quarter of 1979. Net immigration gain during the same period was 12,700. Natural increase was 32,100--births were 57,100 and deaths were 25,000. In January 1979, Australia introduced a new immigration scheme to improve methods of selecting immigrants. Points are awarded on the basis of personal qualities and employability; an applicant must score 60 out of 100. This scheme supersedes the earlier system under which immigrants were selected on the family reunion criterion and employability. Migrants from Britain and Ireland made up the bulk of the new comers, but their proportion has dropped from 50% in the mid-1960s to 30% in early 1979. In contrast, Asian immigrants have risen from 2% to 22% over the same period. Asian immigration began in the mid-1960s with the relaxation of the "White Australia" policy which barred non-European migrants, and increased when the ban was abolished by Prime Minister Gough Whitlam in 1973.
Feeney, Kynan T.; Whittle, Amanda J.; Altman, Shelley A.; Speers, David J.
A cluster of sporotrichosis cases occurred in the Busselton-Margaret River region of Western Australia from 2000 to 2003. Epidemiologic investigation and mycologic culture for Sporothrix schenckii implicated hay initially distributed through a commercial hay supplier as the source of the outbreak. Declining infection rates have occurred after various community measures were instigated. PMID:17953099
The book is a personal account by an insider who was deeply involved in the rise and fall of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC), and in particular in its efforts to bring Australia into the nuclear age. It reveals the thinking behind the Commission`s research programmes and major projects, such as the centrifuge enrichment program and Jervis Bay Nuclear Power project. It shows how politics, politicians and sensational journalism had disastrous effects on the AAEC, its programmes and aspirations. ills.
van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; Beck, H.E.; Crosbie, R.S.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Liu, Y.Y.; Podger, G.M.; Timbal, B.; Viney, N.R.
The "Millennium Drought" (2001-2009) can be described as the worst drought on record for southeast Australia. Adaptation to future severe droughts requires insight into the drivers of the drought and its impacts. These were analyzed using climate, water, economic, and remote sensing data combined
Anderson Strathclyde plc is becoming increasingly involved in supplying equipment for the coal industry in Australia. It now has 2 subsidiary companies based in Australia: Anderson Strathclyde Australia and A B Rea.
Finch, Caroline F; Mitchell, Rebecca; Boufous, Soufiane
Sport/leisure injuries are a population health issue in Australia. Over 2003-2004 to 2007-2008, the rate of sport/leisure injury NSW hospitalisations was 195.5/100,000 residents. Males and children/young people had consistently highest rates of hospitalisation. There was no significant decline in rates over this period and no change in the profiles of the types of sport/leisure injuries. The extent to which effective preventive programs have been developed and implemented needs to be determined as current programs do not seem to be impacting on hospitalisation rates. Medical/health promotion agencies and sports bodies need to jointly formulate and implement policies to reduce sport/leisure injuries. This is one of the most significant challenges facing sports medicine professionals today. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie
Dentistry in Australia has faced, and continues to face, significant workforce issues, in particular, a grossly distorted workforce distribution. In this study, an analysis of the consequences for the workforce that would occur under a series of reduced maldistribution scenarios is examined and reported. Three different scenarios were tested based on existing dental practice to population data at a national level. This study clearly highlights the very significant maldistribution of practices in Australia. However, more importantly, it highlights that to address this maldistribution requires something in the order of a tenfold increase in dental practice numbers (and the commensurate increase in workforce), which is not possible (or reasonable). As a nation, Australia has to look to other methods of achieving equity in access to good oral health. The application of modes of care delivery including, but not limited to visiting services needs to be examined and extended. Clearly, these new methodologies are going to rely on non-dental health professionals taking a far more significant role in leading oral health-care models as well as the expanded application of technology to bring unique skill bases to areas where these skilled individuals do not (and will not) reside. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.
Russell, Shaina; Sullivan, Caroline A; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J
Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%). Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%). Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet) and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters) continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the provisional
Full Text Available Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%. Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%. Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the
Haines, P.W.; Hand, M.; Sandiford, M.
The Palaeozoic Alice Springs Orogeny was a major intraplate tectonic event in central and northern Australia. The sedimentological, structural and isotopic effects of the Alice Springs Orogeny have been well documented in the northern Amadeus Basin and adjacent exhumed Arunta lnlier, although the full regional extent of the event, as well as lateral variations in timing and intensity are less well known. Because of the lack of regional isotopic data, we take a sedimentological approach towards constraining these parameters, compiling the location and age constraints of inferred synorogenic sedimentation across a number of central and northern Australian basins. Such deposits are recorded from the Amadeus, Ngalia, Georgina, Wiso, Eastern Officer and, possibly, Warburton Basins. Deposits are commonly located adjacent to areas of significant basement uplift related to north-south shortening. In addition, similar aged orogenic deposits occur in association with strike-slip tectonism in the Ord and southern Bonaparte Basins of northwest Australia. From a combination of sedimentological and isotopic evidence it appears that localised convergent deformation started in the Late Ordovician in the eastern Arunta lnlier and adjacent Amadeus Basin. Synorogenic style sedimentation becomes synchronously widespread in the late Early Devonian and in most areas the record terminates abruptly close to the end of the Devonian. A notable exception is the Ngalia Basin in which such sedimentation continued until the mid-Carboniferous. In the Ord and Bonaparte Basins there is evidence of two discrete pulses of transcurrent activity in the Late Devonian and Carboniferous. The sedimentological story contrasts with the isotopic record from the southern Arunta lnlier, which has generally been interpreted in terms of continuous convergent orogenic activity spanning most of the Devonian and Carboniferous, with a suggestion that rates of deformation increased in the mid-Carboniferous. Either
van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Beck, Hylke E.; Crosbie, Russell S.; de Jeu, Richard A. M.; Liu, Yi Y.; Podger, Geoff M.; Timbal, Bertrand; Viney, Neil R.
The "Millennium Drought" (2001-2009) can be described as the worst drought on record for southeast Australia. Adaptation to future severe droughts requires insight into the drivers of the drought and its impacts. These were analyzed using climate, water, economic, and remote sensing data combined with biophysical modeling. Prevailing El Niño conditions explained about two thirds of rainfall deficit in east Australia. Results for south Australia were inconclusive; a contribution from global climate change remains plausible but unproven. Natural processes changed the timing and magnitude of soil moisture, streamflow, and groundwater deficits by up to several years, and caused the amplification of rainfall declines in streamflow to be greater than in normal dry years. By design, river management avoided impacts on some categories of water users, but did so by exacerbating the impacts on annual irrigation agriculture and, in particular, river ecosystems. Relative rainfall reductions were amplified 1.5-1.7 times in dryland wheat yields, but the impact was offset by steady increases in cropping area and crop water use efficiency (perhaps partly due to CO2 fertilization). Impacts beyond the agricultural sector occurred (e.g., forestry, tourism, utilities) but were often diffuse and not well quantified. Key causative pathways from physical drought to the degradation of ecological, economic, and social health remain poorly understood and quantified. Combined with the multiple dimensions of multiyear droughts and the specter of climate change, this means future droughts may well break records in ever new ways and not necessarily be managed better than past ones.
McIvor, C.C.; Smith, T. J.
Existing paradigms suggest that mangrove leaf litter is processed primarily via the detrital pathway in forests in the Caribbean biogeographic realm whereas herbivorous crabs are relatively more important litter processors in the Indo-West Pacific. To test this hypothesis, we used pitfall traps to collect intertidal crabs to characterize the crab fauna in a mangrove estuary in southwest Florida. We also tethered mangrove leaves to determine if herbivorous crabs are major leaf consumers there. We compared the results with previously published data collected in an analogous manner from forests in northeastern Australia. The crab fauna in Rookery Bay, Florida, is dominated by carnivorous xanthid and deposit-feeding ocypodid crabs whereas that of the Murray River in northeastern Australia is dominated by herbivorous grapsid crabs. No leaves tethered at five sites in the forests in Southwest Florida were taken by crabs. This contrasts greatly with reported values of leaf removal by crabs in Australian forests of 28-79% of the leaves reaching the forest floor. These differences in the faunal assemblages and in the fate of marked or tethered leaves provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that leaf litter is in fact processed in fundamentally different ways in the two biogeographic realms.
Full Text Available Australia is one of the most abundant in biodiversity country of the global which located in Oceanian and became a signatory coun try of the Convention on Biodiversity, International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resource for Food and Agriculture, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. This country stipulated the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act(EPBC, 1999 and Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations, 2002. Queensland and the North Territory passed the Bio-discovery Act in 2004 and Biological Resource Act in 2006 separately. This paper firstly focus on current situation, characteristic of the legislation on ac cess and benefit-sharing to biological resource in the commonwealth and local place in Australia and then collected and analyzed the typical case of access and benefit-sharing in this country that could bring some experience to China in this field. The conclusion of this paper is that China should stipulated the specific legislation on access and benefit-sharing to biological genetic resource as like the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act(EPBC, 1999 and establish the rule of procedure related to the access and benefit-sharing as like the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations, 2002, Bio-discovery Act in 2004, Queensland and the Biological Resource Act in 2006, the North Territory.
Lottermoser, Bernd G.; Ashley, Paul M.
This study was conducted to determine the uptake of trace elements by the emergent wetland plant species Eleocharis equisetina at the historic Jumna tin processing plant, tropical Australia. The perennial emergent sedge was found growing in acid waters (pH 2.45) and metal-rich tailings (SnAsCuPbZn). E. equisetina displayed a pronounced acid tolerance and tendency to exclude environmentally significant elements (Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, La, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, Y, Zn) from its above-substrate biomass. This study demonstrates that geobotanical and biogeochemical examinations of wetland plants at abandoned mined lands of tropical areas can reveal pioneering, metal-excluding macrophytes. Such aquatic macrophytes are of potential use in the remediation of acid mine waters and sulfidic tailings and the reclamation of disturbed acid sulfate soils in subtropical and tropical regions. - Highlights: → In tropical Australia, Eleocharis equisetina grows in an acid mine tailings pond. → Eleocharis equisetina excludes environmentally significant elements from its biomass. → Inspections of equatorial mined lands can reveal metal-excluding aquatic macrophytes. → Such plants are of use in land and water remediation in tropical regions. - The metal-excluding aquatic macrophyte Eleocharis equisetina is of use in land and water remediation in tropical regions.
Lottermoser, Bernd G., E-mail: Bernd.Lottermoser@utas.edu.au [School of Earth Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 79, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Ashley, Paul M. [Earth Sciences, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351 (Australia)
This study was conducted to determine the uptake of trace elements by the emergent wetland plant species Eleocharis equisetina at the historic Jumna tin processing plant, tropical Australia. The perennial emergent sedge was found growing in acid waters (pH 2.45) and metal-rich tailings (SnAsCuPbZn). E. equisetina displayed a pronounced acid tolerance and tendency to exclude environmentally significant elements (Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, La, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, Y, Zn) from its above-substrate biomass. This study demonstrates that geobotanical and biogeochemical examinations of wetland plants at abandoned mined lands of tropical areas can reveal pioneering, metal-excluding macrophytes. Such aquatic macrophytes are of potential use in the remediation of acid mine waters and sulfidic tailings and the reclamation of disturbed acid sulfate soils in subtropical and tropical regions. - Highlights: > In tropical Australia, Eleocharis equisetina grows in an acid mine tailings pond. > Eleocharis equisetina excludes environmentally significant elements from its biomass. > Inspections of equatorial mined lands can reveal metal-excluding aquatic macrophytes. > Such plants are of use in land and water remediation in tropical regions. - The metal-excluding aquatic macrophyte Eleocharis equisetina is of use in land and water remediation in tropical regions.
Ockwell, David; Lovett, Jon C
Using Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia as a case study, this paper combines field sampling of woody vegetation with cost-benefit analysis to compare the social optimality of fire-assisted pastoralism with sustainable forestry. Carbon sequestration is estimated to be significantly higher in the absence of fire. Integration of carbon sequestration benefits for mitigating future costs of climate change into cost-benefit analysis demonstrates that sustainable forestry is a more socially optimal land use than fire-assisted pastoralism. Missing markets for carbon, however, imply that fire-assisted pastoralism will continue to be pursued in the absence of policy intervention. Creation of markets for carbon represents a policy solution that has the potential to drive land use away from fire-assisted pastoralism towards sustainable forestry and environmental conservation.
Neuhaus, Susan; Igras, Emma; Fosh, Beverley; Benson, Sarah
Flexible training options are sought by an increasing number of Australasian surgical trainees. Reasons include increased participation of women in the surgical workforce, postgraduate training and changing attitudes to family responsibilities. Despite endorsement of flexible training by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and Board in General Surgery, part-time (PT) training in General Surgery in Australia and New Zealand is not well established. A permanent 'stand-alone' PT training position was established at the Royal Adelaide Hospital in 2007 under the Surgical Education and Training Program. This position offered 12 months of General Surgical training on a 0.5 full-time (FT) equivalent basis with pro rata emergency and on-call commitments and was accredited for 6 months of General Surgical training. This paper reviews the PT training experience in South Australia. De-identified logbook data were obtained from the South Australian Regional Subcommittee of the Board in General Surgery with consent of each of the trainees. Totals of operative cases were compared against matched FT trainees working on the same unit. Overall, PT trainees achieved comparable operative caseloads compared with their FT colleagues. All trainees included in this review have subsequently passed the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Fellowship Examination in General Surgery and returned to FT workforce positions. This paper presents two validated models of PT training. Training, resource and regulatory requirements and individual and institutional barriers to flexible training are substantial. Successful PT models offer positive and beneficial training alternatives for General Surgical trainees and contribute to workforce flexibility. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Siebert, Uwe; Arvandi, Marjan; Gothe, Raffaella M; Bornschein, Bernhard; Eccleston, David; Walters, Darren L; Rankin, James; De Bruyne, Bernard; Fearon, William F; Pijls, Nico H; Harper, Richard
The international multicentre FAME Study (n=1,005) demonstrated significant health benefits for patients undergoing multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) guided by fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement compared with angiography guidance alone (ANGIO). We determined the cost-effectiveness and the public health/budget impact for Australia. We performed a prospective economic evaluation comparing FFR vs. ANGIO in patients with multivessel disease based on original patient-level FAME data. We used Australian utilities (EQ-5D) and costs to calculate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness adopting the societal perspective. The public health and budget impact from the payer's perspective was based on Australian PCI registries. Uncertainty was explored using deterministic sensitivity analyses and the bootstrap method (n=5,000 samples). The cost-effectiveness analysis showed that FFR was cost-saving and reduces costs by 1,776 AUD per patient during one year. Over a two-year time horizon, the public health impact ranged from 7.8 to 73.9 QALYs gained and the budget impact from 1.8 to 14.5 million AUD total cost savings. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that FFR was cost-saving over a wide range of assumptions. FFR-guided PCI in patients with multivessel coronary disease substantially reduces cardiac events, improves QALYs and is cost-saving in the Australian health care system. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stuckless, J S; Nkomo, I T [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA); Bunting, J A [Geological Survey of Western Australia, Perth
The Mount Boreas-type granite and spatially associated syenitic granitoid of Western Australia yield Pb-Pb ages of 2370 +- 100 Ma and 2760 +- 210 Ma, respectively. Th-Pb ages, although less precise, are concordant with these ages, and therefore the apparent ages are interpreted to be the crystallisation ages for these two units. U-Pb ages are variable and for the most part anomalously old, which suggests a Cainozoic uranium loss. However, this loss is generally small (3..mu..g/g); therefore, neither granitoid in its fresh state provides a good source for nearby calcrete-hosted uranium deposits. The possibility remains that the Mount Boreas-type granite that has been completely weathered during the Tertiary could have been a source for the calcrete-type uranium deposits in W.A. Although the Mount Boreas-type granite is highly fractionated, it does not bear a strong geochemical imprint of a sedimentary precursor. This feature contrasts it with apparently fresh granitoids from other parts of the world that have lost large amounts of uranium (approx. 20..mu..g/g) and are associated with large roll-type and other low temperature-type uranium deposits.
Full Text Available Australia is at risk from tsunamis and recent work has identified the need for models to assess the vulnerability of exposed coastal areas – a fundamental element of the risk management process. Outputs of vulnerability assessment can be used as a baseline for the generation of tsunami prevention and mitigation measures, including evacuation maps. Having noted that no evacuation maps exist for Manly, Sydney (an area recently subjected to high resolution building vulnerability assessment by Dall'Osso et al., 2009b, we use the results of the analysis by Dall'Osso et al. (2009b to "draft" tsunami evacuation maps that could be used by the local emergency service organisations. We then interviewed 500 permanent residents of Manly in order to gain a rapid assessment on their views about the potential usefulness of the draft evacuation maps we generated. Results of the survey indicate that residents think the maps are useful and understandable, and include insights that should be considered by local government planners and emergency risk management specialists during the development of official evacuation maps (and plans in the future.
Crilley, L.R.; Ayoko, G.A.; Mazaheri, M.; Morawska, L.
This comprehensive study aimed to determine the sources and driving factors of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations in ambient PM 2.5 in urban schools. Sampling was conducted outdoors at 25 schools in the Brisbane Metropolitan Area, Australia. Concentrations of primary and secondary OC were quantified using the EC tracer method, with secondary OC accounting for an average of 60%. Principal component analysis distinguished the contributing sources above the background and identified groups of schools with differing levels of primary and secondary carbonaceous aerosols. Overall, the results showed that vehicle emissions, local weather conditions and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) were the key factors influencing concentrations of carbonaceous component of PM 2.5 at these schools. These results provide insights into children's exposure to vehicle emissions and SOA at such urban schools. - Highlights: • We aimed to find the contributing sources to children's exposure at school. • Measured outdoor organic carbon and elemental carbon at 25 urban schools. • Schools varied in exposure to primary and secondary sources. • Secondary organic carbon the largest component of carbonaceous aerosols. • Vehicle emission levels at schools are primarily dependent on local traffic counts. - Key factors influencing concentrations of carbonaceous component of PM 2.5 at urban schools were found to be vehicle emissions, secondary organic aerosols and local weather conditions.
Guy, Rebecca; Wand, Handan; McManus, Hamish; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Woolley, Ian; Honda, Miwako; Read, Tim; Sirisanthana, Thira; Zhou, Julian; Carr, Andrew
Both antiretroviral treatment interruption (TI) and cessation have been strongly discouraged since 2006. We describe the incidence, duration, and risk factors for TI and loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) rates across 13 countries. All 4689 adults (76% men) in two large HIV cohorts in Australia and Asia commencing combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) to March 2010 were included. TI was defined by ART cessation >30 days, then recommencement, and loss to follow-up (LTFU) by no visit since 31 March 2009 and no record of death. Survival analysis and Poisson regression methods were used. With median follow-up of 4.4 years [interquartile range (IQR):2.1-6.5], TI incidence was 6.7 per 100 person years (PY) (95% CI:6.1-7.3) pre-2006, falling to 2.0 (95% CI:1.7-2.2) from 2006 (pfood restrictions (fasting or with food). In conclusion, since 2006, 7.8% of patients had significant time off treatment, which has the potential to compromise any 'test and treat' policy as during the interruption viral load will rebound and increase the risk of transmission.
The mining of uranium in Australia is criticised in relation to it's environmental impact, economics and effects on mine workers and Aborigines. A brief report is given on each of the operating and proposed uranium mines in Australia
Oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate concretions from the lower Cretaceous of Victoria, Australia: Implications for the evolution of meteoric waters on the Australian continent in a paleopolar environment
Oxygen isotopic data from carbonate cements in concretions have been used to infer the isotopic composition of meteoric fluids present at the time of concretion growth in terrestrial sediments that were deposited within the early Cretaceous South Polar Circle at 75-80 0 S. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions have been determined on over 135 samples of carbonate from 45 concretions taken from 24 localities (Aptian-Albian in age) in the terrestrial sedimentary basins associated with the Otway and Strzelecki groups, southeastern Australia. The carbonate cements include calcite having -26.4≤δ 13 C≤19.6 and 3.6≤δ 18 O≤29.6 or siderite having 17.6≤δ 18 O≤30.8. Calcite-cemented concretions are more abundant and are interpreted to represent early near-surface cementation events on the basis of textural evidence such as high (>30%) porosities at the time of cementation and mineralogical evidence such as the preferential preservation within concretions of labile detrital grains including plagioclase, pyroxene, and amphibole. The oxygen isotopic data indicate that meteoric fluids with very low δ 18 O, certainly less than -15per mille and probably on the order of -20per mille, were involved in the precipitation of the early calcites. The extremely low δ 18 O values of the fluids involved in the early diagenesis of both the Otway and Strzelecki groups suggest that the catchment area of the river system that carried sediments to these basins had a cold high-latitude climate (with mean annual temperatures less than 5 0 C and quite possibly below freezing). By analogy with the relationship between modern 18 O distribution of meteoric fluids and climate, these new data suggest that the early Cretaceous polar regions may not have been ice-free. (orig.)
Weiss, Benjamin P.; Maloof, Adam C.; Tailby, Nicholas; Ramezani, Jahandar; Fu, Roger R.; Hanus, Veronica; Trail, Dustin; Bruce Watson, E.; Harrison, T. Mark; Bowring, Samuel A.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Coe, Robert S.
It currently is unknown when Earth's dynamo magnetic field originated. Paleomagnetic studies indicate that a field with an intensity similar to that of the present day existed 3.5 billion years ago (Ga). Detrital zircon crystals found in the Jack Hills of Western Australia are some of the very few samples known to substantially predate this time. With crystallization ages ranging from 3.0-4.38 Ga, these zircons might preserve a record of the missing first billion years of Earth's magnetic field history. However, a key unknown is the age and origin of magnetization in the Jack Hills zircons. The identification of >3.9 Ga (i.e., Hadean) field records requires first establishing that the zircons have avoided remagnetization since being deposited in quartz-rich conglomerates at 2.65-3.05 Ga. To address this issue, we have conducted paleomagnetic conglomerate, baked contact, and fold tests in combination with U-Pb geochronology to establish the timing of the metamorphic and alteration events and the peak temperatures experienced by the zircon host rocks. These tests include the first conglomerate test directly on the Hadean-zircon bearing conglomerate at Erawandoo Hill. Although we observed little evidence for remagnetization by recent lightning strikes, we found that the Hadean zircon-bearing rocks and surrounding region have been pervasively remagnetized, with the final major overprinting likely due to thermal and/or aqueous effects from the emplacement of the Warakurna large igneous province at ∼1070 million years ago (Ma). Although localized regions of the Jack Hills might have escaped complete remagnetization, there currently is no robust evidence for pre-depositional (>3.0 Ga) magnetization in the Jack Hills detrital zircons.
Doody, Tanya M.; Colloff, Matthew J.; Davies, Micah; Koul, Vijay; Benyon, Richard G.; Nagler, Pamela L.
Water resource development and drought have altered river flow regimes, increasing average flood return intervals across floodplains in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, causing health declines in riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests and woodlands. Environmental flow allocations helped to alleviate water stress during the recent Millennium Drought (1997–2010), however, quantification of the flood frequency required to support healthy E. camaldulensis communities is still needed. We quantified water requirements of E. camaldulensis for two years across a flood gradient (trees inundated at frequencies of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10 years) at Yanga National Park, New South Wales to help inform management decision-making and design of environmental flows. Sap flow, evaporative losses and soil moisture measurements were used to determine transpiration, evapotranspiration and plant-available soil water before and after flooding. A formula was developed using plant-available soil water post-flooding and average annual rainfall, to estimate maintenance time of soil water reserves in each flood frequency zone. Results indicated that soil water reserves could sustain 1:2 and 1:5 trees for 15 months and six years, respectively. Trees regulated their transpiration rates, allowing them to persist within their flood frequency zone, and showed reduction in active sapwood area and transpiration rates when flood frequencies exceeded 1:2 years. A leaf area index of 0.5 was identified as a potential threshold indicator of severe drought stress. Our results suggest environmental water managers may have greater flexibility to adaptively manage floodplains in order to sustain E. camaldulensis forests and woodlands than has been appreciated hitherto.
Hubble, Thomas; De Carli, Elyssa; Airey, David; Breakfree 2012-2013, Scientific Parties MV
The peak of the recent prolonged 'Millennium Drought' (1997-2011) triggered an episode of widespread mass failure in the alluvial river-banks of the Lower Murray River in South Australia. Multi-beam surveying of the channel and submerged river-banks between Mannum and Murray Bridge and coring of the bank sediments has been undertaken in sections of the river where large bank failures threatened private housing or public infrastructure. This data demonstrates that the bank materials are soft, horizontally-layered muds and that translational, planar slab-slides have frequently occurred in permanently submerged portions of the Murray's river banks. Despite these riverine features being several orders of magnitude smaller than the translational submarine landslides of the continental margins, the submerged river-bank slides are strikingly similar in their morphology to their submarine equivalents. Intriguingly, the Murray River translational slide failure-surfaces are usually developed as river-floor-parallel features in a manner similar to many submarine landslides which present failure-surfaces that are developed on seafloor-parallel, bedding planes. In contrast however, the Murray's river-bank slides occur on steep slopes (>20o) and their failure surfaces must cut across the horizontal laminations and layering of the muds at a relative high angle which removes the possibility of a weak sediment layer being responsible for the occurrence of these failures. Modelling of the river-bank failures with classical soil mechanics methods and the measured physical properties of the river-bank materials indicates that the failures are probably a consequence of flood-flow scour removing the bank-slope toe in combination with pore-pressure effects related to river-level fluctuation (ie. drawdown). Nevertheless, the Murray's translational slab-slides provide a reliable example of slope-parallel planar failure in muds that does not require a stratigraphic weak layer to explain the
Barnes, Stephen J.
The Black Swan komatiite sequence, in the Eastern Goldfields province of the Archaean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia, is a body of dominantly olivine-rich cumulates with lesser volumes of spinifex textured rocks, interpreted as a section through an extensive komatiite lava flow field. The sequence hosts a number of nickel sulfide orebodies, including the Silver Swan massive shoot and the Cygnet and Black Swan disseminated orebodies. The massive sulfide orebodies of the Black Swan Succession are pervasively depleted in all platinum group elements (PGEs), particularly Pt and Pd, despite very high Ni contents. This depletion cannot be explained by R-factor variations, which would also require relatively low Ni tenors. The PGE depletion could be explained in part if the ores are enriched in a monosulfide solid solution (MSS) cumulate component, but requires some additional fractional segregation of sulfide melt upstream from the site of deposition. The Silver Swan orebody shows a remarkably consistent vertical zonation in PGE contents, particularly in Ir, Ru, Rh, Os, which increase systematically from very low levels at the stratigraphic base of the sulfide body to maxima corresponding roughly with the top of a lower layer of the orebody rich in silicate inclusions. Platinum shows the opposite trend, but is somewhat modified by remobilisation during talc carbonate alteration. A similar pattern is also observed in the adjacent White Swan orebody. This zonation is interpreted and modelled as the result of fractional crystallisation of MSS from the molten sulfide pool. The strong IPGE depletion towards the base of the orebody may be a consequence of sulfide liquid crystallisation in an inverted thermal gradient, between a thin rapidly cooling upper rind of komatiite lava and a hot substrate.
Larson, Silva; De Freitas, Debora M; Hicks, Christina C
Integrating people's values and perceptions into planning is essential for the successful management of natural resources. However, successful implementation of natural resources management decisions on the ground is a complex task, which requires a comprehensive understanding of a system's social and ecological linkages. This paper investigates the relationship between sense of place and people's attitudes towards their natural environment. Sense of place contributes towards shaping peoples' beliefs, values and commitments. Here, we set out to explore how these theoretical contributions can be operationalized for natural resources management planning in the Great Barrier Reef region of Australia. We hypothesise that the region's diverse range of natural resources, conservation values and management pressures might be reflected in people's attachment to place. To tests this proposition, variables capturing socio-demographics, personal wellbeing and a potential for sense of place were collected via mail-out survey of 372 residents of the region, and tested for relationships using multivariate regression and redundancy orientation analyses. Results indicate that place of residence within the region, involvement in community activities, country of birth and the length of time respondents lived in the region are important determinants of the values assigned to factors related to the natural environment. This type of information is readily available from National Census and thus could be incorporated into the planning of community engagement strategies early in the natural resources management planning process. A better understanding of the characteristics that allow sense of place meanings to develop can facilitate a better understanding of people's perceptions towards environmental and biodiversity issues. We suggest that the insights gained from this study can benefit environmental decision making and planning in the Great Barrier Reef region; and that sense of place
Cartwright, Ian; Gilfedder, Benjamin
Highlights: • Groundwater inflows in a chain-of-ponds river quantified. • Groundwater inflow vs. discharge relationship determined using Rn. • First long-term continuous Rn monitoring in a river indicates temporal changes to groundwater inflows. • Application to protection of groundwater-dependant ecosystems. - Abstract: Understanding groundwater inflows to rivers is important in managing connected groundwater and surface water systems and for protecting groundwater-dependant ecosystems. This study defines the distribution of gaining reaches and estimates groundwater inflows to a 62 km long section of Deep Creek (Maribyrnong catchment, Australia) using 222 Rn. During summer months, Deep Creek ceases to flow and comprises a chain of ponds that δ 18 O and δ 2 H values, major ion concentrations, and 222 Rn activities imply are groundwater fed. During the period where the river flows, the relative contribution of groundwater inflows to total river discharge ranges from ∼14% at high flow conditions to ∼100% at low flows. That the predicted groundwater inflows account for all of the increase in discharge at low flow conditions lends confidence to the mass balance calculations. Near-continuous 27 week 222 Rn monitoring at one location in the middle of the catchment confirms the inverse correlation between river discharge and relative groundwater inflows, and also implies that there are limited bank return flows. Variations in groundwater inflows are related to geology and topography. High groundwater inflows occur where the river is at the edge of its floodplain, adjacent to hills composed of basement rocks, or flowing through steep incised valleys. Understanding the distribution of groundwater inflows and quantifying the contribution of groundwater to Deep Creek is important for managing and protecting the surface water resources, which support the endangered Yarra pygmy perch
Clay veins have been found by uranium exploration drilling around the Black Rock uranium prospect in the northern part of the alligator Rivers Uranium Field (ARUF), northern Australia. The mineralogical and chemical features are described to clarify relations with uranium mineralization, because it is not accompanied by uranium mineralization. X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis for major elements indicate that the clay vein consists mainly of chlorite (clinochlore to ferroan clinochlore) and lesser mica clay mineral (t-1M dominant). The clay vein is compared with the clay alteration zone around the uranium deposits in ARUF in terms of mode of occurrence, mineral and chemical compositions. Mineral composition of the clay vein is only in accordance with that of the inner alteration halo of the clay alteration zone. It is, however, different from mineral composition of the outer alteration halo in terms of lack of Fe chlorite in the clay vein. Chemical composition of the clay vein is similar to that of the clay alteration zone, except for lack in the vein of high iron content which is observed in some samples of the alteration zone. As a whole, the feature of the clay vein corresponds to the inner alteration zone around the uranium deposit in ARUF. The mode of occurrence of the clay vein is very different from that of the clay alteration zone. Mode of occurrence, and mineral and chemical compositions of the clay vein resemble a chlorite vein in the Lower to Middle Proterozoic sandstone above the Jabiluka deposit, one of major uranium deposit in the ARUF. Because of the similarity between the clay and the chlorite veins, the clay vein is regarded as marginal facies of an alteration zone. The fluid that formed the clay vein is estimated to have been oxidized, because of the existence of hematite and ubiquitous Mg chlorite. This nature is in accordance with the mineralizing fluid that formed the inner alteration zone in the Nabarlek deposit. In conclusion, the vein
Cuevas-Cubria, C.; Schultz, A.; Petchey, R.; Beaini, F.; New, R.
Securing access to affordable, reliable and clean energy is one of the great challenges facing governments around the world. The Australian Government is committed to ensuring the security of Australia's domestic energy systems as a fundamental part of Australia's social and economic prosperity. Energy in Australia 2011 is a key reference for anyone with an interest in Australian energy issues. It provides a detailed overview of energy in Australia from production to consumption, and serves as a useful resource to inform industry, government and the community.
Barnes, Stephen J.; Hill, Robin E. T.; Evans, Noreen J.
absence of sulfide in the assimilant. Contamination signatures in spinifex-textured rocks may be a guide to Ni-sulfide mineralisation, but are not entirely reliable in the absence of other evidence. The widespread vesicularity of the sequence may be attributable to assimilated water rather than to primary mantle-derived volatiles, and cannot be taken as evidence for primary volatile-rich magmas. The characteristic signature of the Black Swan Succession is the presence of highly localised disseminated sulfide within a sequence showing more widespread evidence for crustal contamination and interaction with its immediate substrate. This has important implications for the applicability of trace element geochemistry in exploration for komatiite-hosted nickel deposits.
This paper presents a historical perspective to the development of community music in Australia. Finding political support in Australia's progressive arts policies of the late 1970s, community music is discussed as embracing the principles of access and equity and supporting the development of musical skills in the context of social change and…
Known uranium deposits and the companies involved in uranium mining and exploration in Australia are listed. The status of the development of the deposits is outlined and reasons for delays to mining are given
The history of uranium mining and milling in Australia is briefly outlined, particular attention being given to the development of Australia's only two operating mills, Nabarlek and Ranger, and its only operating mine, Ranger. The latter project is used to illustrate the prerequisites for development of the industry and the complex roles of the various parties involved in establishing a new mine: equity holders, customers, financiers, the securities industry, trade unions, and the public. The moves currently being taken to resolve the future of the industry in Australia, particularly the examination of issues relating to Australia's role in the nuclear fuel cycle being conducted by the Australian Science and Technology Council, preclude any firm conclusions being drawn, but the various options open to the government are reviewed and the record of Australian governments and unions and the attitude of the Australian public are described. (Author) (3 tabs., fig.)
Western world requirements for uranium based on increasing energy consumption and a changing energy mix, will warrant the development of Australia's resources. By 1985 Australian mines could be producing 9500 tonnes of uranium oxide yearly and by 1995 the export value from uranium could reach that from wool. In terms of benefit to the community the economic rewards are considerable but, in terms of providing energy to the world, Australias uranium is vital
In 1972 uranium producers from France, South Africa, Australia, Great Britain and Canada organized an international cartel to control the production and sale of uranium. The complicity of Australia in the manipulation of the market by and on behalf of C.R.A., Mary Kathleen Uranium, Pancontinental and Queensland Mines is discussed. The roles of both governments and companies and the antitrust implications of the cartel are considered
Le Minor, Jean-Marie
Théodore Vetter (Strasbourg, 1916, June 19th - 2004, July 8th) was qualified as a medical doctor in medicine in 1948 in Strasbourg, and then followed complementary courses in medical biology in Paris. He realized most of his career as an adviser for medical research in pharmaceutical industry. He presented an early talent for drawing and graphic arts, encouraged by Georges Ritleng (1875-1972), headmaster of the School of decorative arts in Strasbourg. One expression of the artistic gift of Th. Vetter consisted in design and making of ex-libris, field in which he acquired an international reputation. In total, he realized about two hundred ex-libris, mostly for physicians. Also attracted by the history of medicine, he became a member of the Société Française d'Histoire de la Médecine; he was general secretary from 1965 to 1970, then he became vice-president and president from 1976 to 1978. He was the author of about a hundred works concerning the history of medicine; all were characterized by a great rigour and by the direct use of original sources. Among his main works, his studies on the oculist Jacques Daviel (1693-1762), popularizer of the surgery of cataract, on the surgeon Claude Nicolas Le Cat (1700-1768), on the birth of pathology, a commented edition of the complete works of Hippocrates, translated by M.P.E. Littré (1801-1881), and numerous papers on the history of medicine in Strasbourg and Alsace.
Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.
Full text: After a twenty year pause in discussion of nuclear power in Australia, the public debate has resumed in this past year - partly in search for clean, non fossil fuel energy alternatives, and partly from the different political strategies in the lead up to this year's federal election. Although there is evidence of a revival of interest in the nuclear power globally, countries considering installing their first nuclear reactor confront formidable obstacles including community concerns and long lead times. This presentation will describe the Climate Change context which shapes political and corporate strategies, possible nuclear scenarios for Australia, solutions to the still long list of reservations, and likely milestones ahead. It concludes that if we are to decarbonise our economy, and continue on a path of improving standards of living and prosperity, then any strategy for adding the required base-load electricity generation capacity must consider nuclear power for Australia
Battey, G.C.; Hawkins, B.W.
As a result of exploration which recommenced in 1966 Australia's uranium reserves increased from 6,200 tonnes in 1967 to 227,000 tonnes uranium by June 1976. Most discoveries in the early 1950's were made by prospectors. The increase in reserves during the past decade is the result of exploration by companies utilising improved technology in areas selected as geologically favourable. These reserves were established at relatively low cost. In the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province the ''vein'' type deposits at Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra and Nabarlek contain 17% of the world's reserves. Most of these discoveries resulted from the investigation of airborne radiometric anomalies but cover over the prospective host rocks will necessitate the future use of costlier and more indirect exploration techniques. There was exploration for sandstone type uranium deposits in most of Australia's sedimentary basins. The greatest success was achieved in the Lake Frome Basin in South Australia. Other deposits were found in the Ngalia and Amadeus Basins in Central Australia and in the Westmoreland area, N.W. Queensland. A major uranium deposit was found in an unusual environment at Yeelirrie, Western Australia where carnotite occurs in a caliche and clay host which fills a shallow, ancient drainage channel. Although caliche occurrences are relatively widespread on the Precambrian shield no other economic deposit has been found. Recent discoveries in the Georgetown area of Queensland indicate the presence of another uranium province but it is too early to assess its potential. The ore occurs in clastic sediments at the base of a volcanic sequence overlying a Precambrian basement. Several companies which have established large uranium reserves have a number of additional attractive prospects. Exploration activity in Australia in 1975 was at a lower level than in previous years, but the potential for discovering further deposits is considered to be high
World Bank Group
Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Aust...
Britain and Australia have become locked in a battle of wills and wits over a nuclear legacy that is now more than 30 years old. At stake is the issue of who will pay to clean up a stretch of the central Australian outback where at least 23 kilograms of plutonium are buried in nuclear graveyards or scattered in fine particles on the ground. The plutonium was left there after a series of British nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s. The cost of cleaning it up today, and rendering the ground safe the the Aborigines who claim it as their tribal homeland, has been estimated at up to $158 million. Australia's minister for resources, Senator Gareth Evans, went to London in October 1986 to try to involve the British in the cleanup. But Britain is still taking the stand that it had discharged any obligations on this score long ago. This question is at the heart of controversy that began mounting in the late 1970s over the British nuclear tests. It was then that Aborigines and test veterans from Britain and Australia started alleging that they had been exposed to unduly high doses of radiation. Clearly, the nuclear tests, which began as a political exercise between Britain and Australia more than 30 years ago, seem destined to remain the source of much legal, diplomatic, and financial fallout between the two countries for a long time to come
Thomas, Jan; Muchatuta, Michelle; Wood, Leigh
This article investigates enrolment trends in mathematical sciences in Australian universities. Data has been difficult to extract and the coding for mathematical disciplines has made investigation challenging. We show that the number of mathematics major undergraduates in Australia is steadily declining though the number studying…
McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane
Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...
Arianna Cowling; Monica Howlett
The Reserve Bank aims to keep the quality of banknotes in circulation high to ensure that they meet the needs of the public and to make it more difficult for counterfeits to be passed or remain in circulation. This article discusses the quality of banknotes in Australia and Reserve Bank initiatives that have improved the quality of banknotes in recent years.
With the temporary storage of nuclear waste, constituted by HIFAR spent fuel, at Lucas Heights reaching full capacity by 1998, there is an urgent need for a technical, social and political solution. Some of the fundamental uncertainties in relation to nuclear waste disposal and hence the operation of a nuclear research reactor in Australia are presented
During the period 1954-71 in Australia approximately 9000 MT of U 3 O 8 was produced from five separate localities. Of this, 7000 MT was exported to the United Kingdom and United States and the balance stockpiled by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC). Australia's uranium ore reserves occur in eight deposits in three states and the Northern Territory. However, 83% of Australia's reserves are contained in four deposits in lower Proterozoic rocks in the East Alligator River region of the Northern Territory. The AAEC has calculated Australia's recoverable uranium reserves by eliminating estimated losses during the mining and milling of the ores. AAEC has estimated reasonably assured resources of 289,000 MT of uranium at a recovery cost of less than US$80 per kilogram uranium. The companies have collectively announced a larger ore reserve than the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. This difference is a result of the companies adopting different ore reserve categories. On August 25, 1977, the federal government announced that Australia would develop its uranium resources subject to stringent environmental controls, recognition of Aboriginal Land Rights, and international safeguards. Australian uranium production should gradually increase from 1981 onward, growing to 10,000 to 15,000 MT by 1985-86. Further increases in capacity may emerge during the second half of the 1980s when expansion plans are implemented. Exploration for uranium has not been intensive due to delays in developing the existing deposits. It is likely that present reserves can be substantially upgraded if more exploration is carried out. 6 figures, 3 tables
Coleman, T.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Karoly, D.; Lowe, I.; McMichael, T.; Mitchell, C.; Pearman, G.; Scaife, P.; Reynolds, A. (eds.)
The Australian Climate Group was convened in late 2003 by WWF Australia and the Insurance Australia Group (IAG) in response to the increasing need for action on climate change in Australia. This group proposes a set of solutions to lower the risk that climate change will reach a dangerous level.
Radiation measuring and control before Chernobyl: Continuous measurements of fallout in different parts of Australia, including the food producing areas, have been made since the mid 1950s. Levels have decreased rapidly since the cessation of atmospheric nuclear tests in the Southern Hemisphere in 1974 and in the Northern Hemisphere in 1980. Measurements of concentrations of radionuclides arising from fallout were made for the major groups of foods affected by the radioactive contaminants, starting in the 1950s and continuing until concentrations were so low that further effort in measurement was not warranted, i.e., less than 0.1 Bq/kg or 0.1 Bq/l. Changes in the concentrations of radionuclides in foods follow the same trends as the fallout levels. Based on the low levels of fallout measured in Australia since the 1950s, and taking into account the extremely low levels during the past decade, the concentrations of radionuclides arising from fallout in foods grown and processed in Australia are extremely small. Results from the fall-out from Chernobyl. Since the Chernobyl accident, measurements of the concentrations of 137 Cs in a variety of foodstuffs grown in Australia have been made, mainly for export purposes. A summary of the results of these measurements is given in Table 111 of Attachment 2. No 134 Cs has been detected, nor is it likely to be. By taking into account these measurements, the earlier measurements of foodstuffs, predictive modelling values and the very low levels of fall-out in deposit and in air, it is concluded that the concentrations of 137 Cs in all foodstuffs grown in Australia are extremely small. Accordingly, their consumption would result in no significant risk to the health of a population. With world atmospheric conditions being as they are, it will probably be 12 to 18 months before any fallout reaches Australia. Even if some fall-out does occur, it will be minimal and should not significantly increase our very low natural levels
Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen
The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.
Robert G. Bednarik
Full Text Available Pleistocene rock art is abundant in Australia, but has so far received only limited attention. Instead there has been a trend, begun over a century ago, to search for presumed depictions of extinct megafauna and the tracks of such species. All these notions have been discredited, however, and the current evidence suggests that figurative depiction was introduced only during the Holocene, never reaching Tasmania. Nevertheless, some Australian rock art has been attributed to the Pleistocene by direct dating methods, and its nature implies that a significant portion of the surviving corpus of rock art may also be of such age. In particular much of Australian cave art is of the Ice Age, or appears to be so, and any heavily weathered or patinated petroglyphs on particularly hard rocks are good candidates for Pleistocene antiquity. On the other hand, there is very limited evidence of mobiliary paleoart of such age in Australia.
Full text: Synchrotron radiation research in Australia is entering a new era with the commencement of the Australian synchrotron project, which will construct a 3 GeV third generation synchrotron facility at Monash University in Victoria. To date Australian scientists have used overseas facilities, primarily those managed by the Australian Synchrotron Research Program in Japan and the USA. A fast developing and maturing Australian synchrotron user program has developed around these overseas facilities. The field of synchrotron radiation and its importance to a wide range of research will be introduced and Australia's current involvement and facilities will be described. The current status and technical specifications of the Australian synchrotron will be presented. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc
The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de
Braithwaite, J; Hindle, D; Phelan, P D; Hanson, R
Casemix funding for hospitals with the use of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), which organise patients' conditions into similar clinical categories with similar costs, was introduced in Australia five years ago. It has been applied in different ways and to a greater or lesser extent in different Australian States. Only Victoria and South Australia have implemented casemix funding across all healthcare services. Attempts have been made to formally evaluate its impact, but they have not met the required scientific standards in controlling for confounding factors. Casemix funding remains a much-discussed issue. In this Debate, Braithwaite and Hindle take a contrary position, largely to stimulate policy debate; Phelan defends the casemix concept and advocates retaining its best features; and Hanson adds a plea for consumer input.
Flood, Michael Gaston; Flood, Michael; Flood, C.; Hamilton, Clive
One-third of the Australian population believe that 'homosexuality is immoral', and this belief is spread in distinct ways across the nation. Using data from a survey of nearly 25,000 Australians, we can 'map' homophobia in Australia. Homophobic attitudes are worst in country areas of Queensland and Tasmania. Men are far more likely than women to feel that homosexuality does not have moral legitimacy, and this gender gap in attitudes persists across age, socioeconomic, educational, and region...
The author questions claims by the Newcastle University historian Wayne Reynolds in his book 'Australia's Bid for the Bomb', that the impetus behind the Snowy Mountains Scheme was to provide a secure source of power for the enrichment of uranium and production of heavy water so that Australia could produce its own atomic bombs. Reynolds also argued that the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) was set up so that Australia had a trained scientific workforce to produce plutonium for the bomb. While the book is well researched, Reynolds does not seem to understand the principles of basic science and engineering. After the Second World War, a manufacturing and industrial base with a skilled and trained workforce was needed so it could be converted to war or defence manufacturing when the need arose. This new manufacturing community would require electrical power to sustain it. Hydroelectricity and atomic energy could help provide these needs. Even though war was still raging, Prime Minister John Curtin looked ahead and set up a Department of Post-War Reconstruction. It was through this department that the Snowy Mountains Scheme would be established. Curtin did not live to see this. He died in 1945 but his successor, Ben Chifley, continued the vision. The author believes, an understanding of the science behind these developments and an appreciation of how how humans interact with each others when it comes to getting something they want is likely to give a more balanced view of the past
Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE)'s biennial fuel and electricity survey provides a comprehensive database with which is possible to examine recent trends and developments in Australia's energy market. Some key development are outlined in this article. While energy consumption in Australia has been increasing steadily since 1973-74, substantial changes have occurred 'behind the scenes' in terms of the states and sectors in which energy is consumed and the overall fuel mix. Historically, the south-eastern states of New South Wales and Victoria have accounted for the largest shares of total energy consumption In recent years, however, the dominance of New South Wales and Victoria (and particularly New South Wales) has come under pressure from the states of Queensland. Western Australia, and to a lesser extent, the Northern Territory. Each of these states has experienced rapid growth in energy consumption, due mainly to a number of strongly growing energy intensive industries, particularly in the mining and minerals processing sectors. High economic and population growth over this period were also important factors. An increase in the share of natural gas- and a corresponding decline in the share of crude oil - is the most evident change to have occurred in the fuel mix since 1973-1974. However, since 1993, the trend has changed, the share of coal (and particularly brown coal) increased strongly, making it the primary fuel source for thermal electricity generation. This recent shift has been driven by developments in Queensland and Victoria
In this paper, I have positioned myself with Kean Birch and explored some of the political-economic actors/actants of policy suites implicated in the biotechnologies and bioeconomy. In particular, I have considered Australia's recent National Innovation and Science Agenda and allied documents and entities (that is, Innovation and Science…
A matter of increasing concern in Australian society is the absence of a Commonwealth Government policy on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The lack of University level teaching facilities in nuclear energy engineering is also perceived to be an issue of national importance which must be addressed. More and more Australians deeply regret the lack of informed realism and scientific integrity which goes into endless debates on the technical, environmental and societal aspects of nuclear energy. Within the Australian community such important issues as uranium mining in Kakadu National Park, research reactor operation at Lucas Heights, the establishment of an international nuclear waste repository in Western Australia or the domestic use of nuclear electricity generation to minimise Australia's greenhouse emissions are still being debated at the intellectual level of radio talkback programs. Decision making in such areas deserves the disciplines of appropriate tertiary education. The Australian community has a right to know the relative risks and the environmental impacts of various fuel cycles as well as the technical limitations, true costs and energy audits of the 'alternative' energy technologies. Presently the Commonwealth of Australia is without a single School of Nuclear Engineering operating at a University level. Such a situation is believed to be unprecedented amongst the developed countries of the world. It is viewed with a measure of incredulity by the academic, diplomatic and political communities of the 'developing' countries of East Asia and the Pacific Basin. Many of these have a massive investment in the growth of peaceful nuclear energy and nuclear science and technology within their borders. Copyright (1999) Australian Institute of Energy News
Jane Sneddon Little
According to Australia's Reserve Bank Act, the central bank's broad policy objectives include maintaining the stability of the currency, full employment, and the economic prosperity and welfare of the people of Australia. In 1993 the Reserve Bank of Australia adopted a specific, and thus transparent, inflation target as its operating objective; it aims to keep overall inflation between 2 percent and 3 percent on average over the business cycle.
Ephemeral Lake Carnegie, in Western Australia, fills with water only during periods of significant rainfall. In dry years, it is reduced to a muddy marsh. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 19, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch. This image is part of the ongoing Landsat Earth as Art series.
In Australia, public exposure to ionizing radiation above background is considered to be negligible. Average occupational exposures are about 0.5 millisievert per year, although there are some specialized industries and professions where they are much higher. The National Health and Medical Research Council has therefore adopted a position similar to that of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. For the moment, no revision of exposure limits is recommended, but users are remined of their responsibility to ensure that exposures are kept low, particularly in those workplaces where significant exposures take place
Mills, L J
In 1959 black coal production in Australia totalled some 21.9 million tonnes per annum, 70% of this being produced from underground mines in the coalfields of New South Wales. By 1980 output levels had increased by nearly 350% to 75.4 million tonnes per annum (54% of which was exported) compared with 5% some 20 years earlier. Because it is blessed with large reserves of coal and other forms of energy, it is inevitable that the Australian coal mining industry will be required to play a major role in the development of the international coal market through to the end of the present century. Experts now predict a need for the black coal output in Australia to be developed from its present level to a minimum of 293 million tonnes per annum by the year 2000. This paper examines the present circumstances in the Australian coal industry and attempts to outline the development which has to be undertaken in order to meet the needs of an energy hungry world.
Cameron, R J
The Year Book is the principal reference work produced by the Central Office of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). It provides a comprehensive and detailed statistical review of all aspects of the economy and social conditions of Australia. In addition, it contains descriptive matter dealing with Australia's history, geography, physiography, climate and meteorology, government, defence and repatriation services and international relations. The first Official Year Book was published in 1908. This is the sixty-ninth Year Book issued under the authority of the Commonwealth Government and follows a similar pattern to previous editions. However, chapters have been revised and new material has been added. Most of the statistics contained in this volume relate to the years ended June or December 1983 or 1984. More detailed, and in many cases more recent, statistics are available in other ABS publications. The more significant of these publications are listed at the end of the relevant chapters of the Year book; the ABS Catalogue of Publications (1101.0) lists all current publications of the ABS.
The book contains a number of articles which propose that Australia should not mine and export its uranium in order to influence the nuclear establishment against uncontrollable proliferation. Topics covered include: uranium mining in Australia, reactor safety, nuclear wastes, nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear theft and the politics of the nuclear industry.
Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe
In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and
Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with ...
Demand for nuclear skills in Australia has traditionally been met by recruitment but as the nuclear industry grows worldwide, such skills are in demand. This paper discusses he likely numbers of skilled people needed for a nuclear industry in Australia and what initiatives have been, or could be in, taken to address the needs
The emergence of Australian English as the national language is traced, and its relations with the Australian Aboriginal languages touched on. The greatest change in the language setting came with Australia's immigration policy in its post-World War II form. This resulted in the government's eventual recognition of Australia ...
Recent developments in the nuclear industry in Japan and Australia are briefly reviewed. Topics discussed include: the world energy situation; and nuclear power generation trends and completion the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan. Recent events that suggest possible policy changes in Australia are briefly discussed
Full Text Available El pantano de Warragamba, cuyo objeto es el de producir energía hidroeléctrica en su primera fase de explotación y solamente agua potable cuando las necesidades de ésta así lo requieran, se haya situado en las proximidades de Sydney (Australia. Su extensa cuenca está constituida por una serie de ríos en cuyas cabeceras se han construido diques de retención, que no solamente almacenan grandes cantidades de agua, sino que sirven parcialmente para la regularización de caudales, función de gran interés en esta zona donde las avenidas, seguidas de extensas inundaciones, se hacen sentir con relativa frecuencia.
The Report sets out the salient data relating to the establishment of a uranium processing centre at Redcliff in South Australia. It is conceived as a major development project for the Commonwealth, the South Australian Government and Australian Industry comprising the refining and enrichment of uranium produced from Australian mines. Using the data currently available in respect of markets, demand, technology and possible financial return from overseas sales, the project could be initiated immediately with hexafluoride production, followed rapidly in stages by enrichment production using the centrifuge process. A conceptual development plan is presented, involving a growth pattern that would be closely synchronised with the mining and production of yellowcake. The proposed development is presented in the form of an eight-and-half-year programme. Costs in this Report are based on 1975 values, unless otherwise stated. (Author)
Watson, F.; Couch, W.
Australians have watched the sky for tens of thousands of years. The nineteenth century saw the foundation of government observatories in capital cities such as Sydney and Melbourne. While early twentieth-century astronomy focused largely on solar physics, the advent of radio astronomy at the end of the Second World War enabled Australia to take a leading role in the new science, with particular emphasis on low-frequency studies. Today, the radio quietness of its outback interior provides an excellent location for the Australian core of the Square Kilometre Array. Australian optical astronomy has flourished since the 1960s, with the 3.9-metre Anglo-Australian Telescope becoming the principal national facility in 1974. Access to ESO’s facilities at the La Silla Paranal Observatory is warmly welcomed by all Australian astronomers.
Shu, J; Hawthorne, L
"This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt
Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.
de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy
This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains
Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)
Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.
This paper examines three acts of monumental incompetence which have all but destroyed Australia's once great potential to play a leading role in nuclear technology in South East Asia. Political chicanery and monumental technological and economic foresight, professional weakness and vacillation in the engineering community and the vicious pseudo scientific propaganda of most branches of the media, the teaching profession and sadly, even the politicisation of our churches, has all but destroyed a potential Australian ''sunrise industry''. Over the next forty years the population of planet Earth will approximately double. Unless Australians realise that their children and grand-children, and future generations of our neighbouring third world countries will require nuclear technology for an equitable and acceptable shared life-style, they will continue to allow taxpayers' money to be wasted on costly, technically unacceptable and environmentally undesirable attempts to develop ''alternative'' or ''renewable'' energy sources. These are neither alternative nor renewable but politically trendy. The tragedy of such projects is that their limited applicability and suitability for small scale energy production by wealthy users in limited geographical locations will only increase the need for base load energy supplies of the conventional type. Unless this is nuclear, planet Earth faces environmental despolation of monumental proportions. (J.P.N.)
Twining, John [Environmental Science Division, ANSTO, Menai (Australia)
Environmental research mainly carried out at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) related to nuclear activities in Australia such as uranium mining, transfer factor studies related to U- and Th-series radionuclides, dose assessment modelling, radiation monitoring, and nuclear waste repository, is outlined. Many aspects of radioecology, marine and freshwater geochemistry and radiochemical dating techniques; bioaccumulation including archival monitoring and kinetics, ground water studies, atmospheric issues including climate change and geomorphology are being studied with the help of a high neutron flux reactor, a cyclotron and a tandem accelerator as well as modern analytical equipment. Only a very small number of examples of radioactivity applications are presented: Microbiotic crusts covering up to 50% of the soil surface at Maralinga nuclear test site where more than 80% of the residual Am-241 was found to retain within the top 5 mm after 30 years. SIMS analysis of crocodile bones indicating that the only metal affected by U mining in Kakadu region was lead (Pb). In mineral sands such as zircon, U(VI) is more stable than U(IV) as evidenced by ion beam and SEM imaging and XANES analysis. Use of radioisotopes in atmospheric and climate studies, terrestrial studies particularly in dating techniques, and aquatic-continental and aquatic-ocean waters, and in biological studies such as biokinetics of copper metabolism in rainbow fishes living downstream of a mine are presented. (S. Ohno)
Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging
Alice M Neikirk
Full Text Available The ability of refugees to gain admission to Australia is increasingly based on perceptions of helplessness, suffering and ‘deservingness’. One consequence is that men in particular are marginalised following resettlement.
Awasthi, S P; Chandra, A
"The article examines the contemporary trends and future prospects of migration from India to Australia. The focus is on Indian Settlers and Temporary Entrants admitted to Australia for employment and Indian students admitted to Australia for higher studies. The volume of emigration for permanent residence during the early 1990s has made India one of the leading source countries of migration to Australia. A majority of Indians admitted as Settlers every year join the labor force. Recent data indicate that, among Indian Settlers, there is a preponderance of unsponsored Independent Skilled Migrants. Given the anticipated growth in the number of Indian students, the coming years are likely to witness a spurt in Skilled Temporary Workers from India." excerpt
This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.
Emily (Jintao Ma
Full Text Available China has become Australia’s most important source market and there are growing number of visitors participated in wine tourism. Using in-depth interviews, the study looked into Chinese tourists’ preferences, motivations and barriers to participate in wineries tours in Australia. The study enriched to literature on wine tourism. It offered practical implications for wineries and destinations to better understand and accommodate Chinese wine tourists’ needs and preferences.
Australia's uranium and nuclear policies have gone through several stages of development since the commercialisation of the industry. The early stages laid the foundations and built the superstructure of Australia's uranium development, export and safeguards policies. The uranium industry and other governments have understood the nature and operation of these policies. An important aim of this paper will be to explain the design and current construction stage of policies. This needs to be done against the background of broader industry developments. Within the past twelve months (1989/90) there have been dramatic changes, both within Australia and internationally, which have affected the uranium market. Internationally, we have seen the spot price indicators for uranium fall to an all time low. Within Australia, we have seen the removal of the fixed floor price requirement for the sale of Australia uranium. This was replaced by a requirement that contract prices reflect the market. This change in policy allowed the outcome of several major long-term contract renegotiations to be approved. It also allowed Australian producers to secure several new long-term contracts, despite the overall depressed state of the market. The 'three mines' policy remains in place although only two, Ranger in Northern Territory and Olympic Dare in Southern Australia are currently operating. The biggest unknown is the extent of future uranium demand. (author)
Nicol, Dianne; Critchley, Christine
Biobanks are essential tools for facilitating biomedical research, because they provide collections of human tissue linked with personal information. There is still little understanding of the underlying reasons why people participate in biobanking in the increasingly commercialised and internationalised biomedical research environment. This paper reports the results of an Australia-wide telephone survey. The paper analyses the types of obligations that members of the public may wish to see incorporated in biobank benefit sharing arrangements and the extent to which their views might be influenced by underlying norms of sharing behaviour. Latent class analysis of the dataset reveals three distinct classes of respondents. We link one of these with the norm of reciprocity, one with the norm of social responsibility. The third is not clearly linked with any one norm of sharing behaviour. The implications of these findings on biobank benefit sharing arrangements are discussed.
Phillips, D.; Fergusson, C.L.
mellange and intensely cleaved slate have been analysed and have 40 Ar/ 39 Ar integrated ages of 422 ± 2 Ma (K/Ar: 424 ± 5 Ma) and 415 ± 2 Ma (K/Ar: 400 ± 5 Ma). The general consistency of these results accompanied by microstructural observation indicating a low abundance of detrital mica, show that in these samples recoil and inheritance problems appear to be less important. Thus they provide a more reliable upper constraint on the timing the regional deformation on the south coast of New South Wales, i.e. younger than ca. 420 Ma, consistent with previously recognised regional structural constraints. Elsewhere in the Lachlan Fold Belt 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages on fine-grained slates have been used to provide concise constraints on the timing of deformation. The current results raise serious questions about the interpretation of these ages as representing on-going deformation and therefore tectonic models derived from these data should be treated with caution. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia
Regrowth of arsenate–sulfate efflorescences on processing plant walls at the Ottery arsenic–tin mine, New South Wales, Australia: Implications for arsenic mobility and remediation of mineral processing sites
Hebbard, Emily R.; Wilson, Siobhan A.; Jowitt, Simon M.; Tait, Alastair W.; Turvey, Connor C.; Wilson, Harriet L.
Processing equipment and buildings at derelict mine sites are commonly coated in metal- and metalloid-rich residues that can significantly contribute to acid and metalliferous drainage, potentially polluting soils and watercourses. Here, we describe arsenic-rich residues and efflorescences on processing buildings at the derelict Ottery As–Sn mine in New South Wales, Australia and use the resulting data to determine the mineral hosts for arsenic and their distribution at the site. X-ray diffraction (XRD), portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data are used to conduct mineralogical, geochemical and microstructural analysis of the efflorescences. Brickwork columns within As condenser buildings are coated primarily with gypsum (CaSO_4·2H_2O) and contain approximately 1–5 wt% As, but more sheltered columns are associated with efflorescences rich in arsenolite and claudetite (polymorphs of As_2O_3) and contain up to ∼70–80 wt% As. The efflorescences within the Ottery condensers commonly contain minor quartz (SiO_2), feldspars, and two uncharacterised phases, including a K-Al-As phase and a Ca-Na-K-Al-F-As phase that are likely similar to previously reported phases from an As processing site in Cornwall, UK. SEM imaging indicates that the weathering of mortar and bricks provides a source of cations for efflorescence formation, with grains of more resistant minerals (e.g., quartz) incorporated into the efflorescences. Arsenic does not appear to substitute significantly for S in gypsum but instead is generally hosted in (1) Al, Na, Ca and Fe-bearing arsenate minerals in weathered efflorescences and (2) in small grains of arsenolite in pore spaces within the brickwork, indicating that the bricks are a potentially long-lived source of As. The efflorescences on exposed columns at Ottery also regrow within 12 months after removal, releasing stored arsenic from the brickwork and causing a cyclical degradation of the buildings. Our
Crook, K.A.W.; Derborough, M.A.; Diesendorf, M.; Inall, E.K.; Peaslee, D.C.; Taylor, S.R.
The mining and export of Australian Uranium poses problems for the safety of the world that any responsible government is bound to consider. The following note lists the major problems, attempts to assess their importance, and to suggest what lines may be relevant to Australia for their solution. These problems were examined because of the concern about the appropriateness of attempting to fulfill projected world energy needs by any means; and their fulfillment, by using nuclear fuels carries special problems of biological, social and political hazards. Any development of Australia's uranium resources should be considered in this light. (author)
In this paper, I have positioned myself with Kean Birch and explored some of the political-economic actors/actants of policy suites implicated in the biotechnologies and bioeconomy. In particular, I have considered Australia's recent National Innovation and Science Agenda and allied documents and entities (that is, Innovation and Science Australia, the National Science Statement and the 2016 National Research Infrastructure Roadmap) as one of the National Innovation Strategies in place now in OECD countries and beyond. In overview, these policy suites utilise the same high knowledge creation/low translation and commericalisation arguments as elsewhere to press for particular ideologically based `improvements' to public science. Mapping the terrain of these entities has revealed the innovation, biotechnology and bioeconomy policy space to be inordinately complex and challenging to navigate. Reviewing Australia's position enables the type of comparative work that contributes to a closer understanding of the largely neoliberal global economic imperatives shaping contemporaneity. Moreover, while these policy suites attempt to constitute and circulate particular visions of science education, their complex nature mitigates against science teachers/educators grappling with their implications.
This paper discusses Australia's resources and the expansion of its steaming coal exports. The author reviews Australia's development of its natural gas resources and future prospects for exporting to the Pacific region
Ripley, M.I.; Horlock, K.W.
Australia has long been involved with and sympathetic to the goals of the RERTR program. This overview paper gives a brief introduction to RERTR-related activities in Australia since RERTR-2000. (author)
Gunn, Andrew; Mintrom, Michael
The implementation of the national Research Engagement and Impact Assessment in Australia provides a timely opportunity to review attempts to improve the non-academic impact of academic research. The impact agenda represents a new phase in academic research evaluation and funding, characterised by a heightened need to demonstrate a return on…
Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.
We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.
Full Text Available Humanitarian immigrants and refugees face multiple adjustment tasks and post-settlement support services concentrated in metropolitan areas play an important role. As part of an ongoing commitment, the Australian Government has increasingly supported resettlement in rural and regional areas of the country. Drawing on the experience of Iraqi migrants in Victoria, Australia, we examine some of the conditions that characterize regional resettlement and raise key questions for public health policy. Structural vulnerabilities and discriminations impact upon physical, mental and social wellbeing, leading to further exclusion, with negative long-term implications. The discussion throws light on the issues that migrants and refugees may encounter in other parts within Australia, but are also germane in many countries and highlight the resulting complexity for policy-making.
Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Hallgren, Willow
Wind and hydropower together constitute nearly 80% of the renewable capacity in Australia and their resources are collocated. We show that wind and hydro generation capacity factors covary negatively at the interannual time scales. Thus, the technology diversity mitigates the variability of renewable power generation at the interannual scales. The asynchrony of wind and hydropower resources is explained by the differential impact of the two modes of the El Ni˜no Southern Oscillation - canonical and Modoki - on the wind and hydro resources. Also, the Modoki El Ni˜no and the Modoki La Ni˜na phases have greater impact. The seasonal impact patterns corroborate these results. As the proportion of wind power increases in Australia's energy mix, this negative covariation has implications for storage capacity of excess wind generation at short time scales and for generation system adequacy at the longer time scales.
Between 1952 and 1958 Britain conducted five separate nuclear weapons trials in Australia. Australia had the uninhabited wide open spaces and the facilities which such tests need and Britain was able to use its special relationship with Australia to get agreement to conduct atomic tests in Australia and establish a permanent test site at Maralinga. Other non-nuclear tests were conducted between 1953-1963. The story of Britain's involvement in atomic weapons testing in Australia is told through its postal history. Both official and private covers are used to show how the postal communications were established and maintained throughout the test years. (UK)
Australia is re-launching its ambitions in liquefied natural gas (LNG) with the Greater Gorgon project of offshore exploitation of the natural gas reserves of the continental shelf of NW Australia. These reserves would represent 200 million tons of LNG which will be exported towards China and USA. The project will cost 11 billion dollars and will yield 2 billion dollars per year. It is managed by a consortium which groups together Chevron Corp. (50%), Shell (25%) and ExxonMobil (25%). Technip company is partner of the project. The China National Offshore Oil Corp (CNOOC) has announced its intention to become also partner of the project, and maybe Japan, South Korea and Taiwan will wish too. Short paper. (J.S.)
From February 13 to 28, 2009 I had the good fortune of visiting Australia, and touring urban forests in Sydney, Canberra, Brisbane, and Melbourne. My visits were only a day or two in each city, so in no case did I get an in-depth view of the urban forest resource or its management. The following observations are based on rather superficial field assessments and brief...
A terrorist attack in Australia involving dispersal of radioactive material is different from conventional terrorist attacks involving explosives. The trauma experienced by victims during an explosive incident includes cuts, broken limbs, burns and shock. When an explosive device involving radioactive materials is involved, there are a number of additional characteristics including the contamination of victims and the surrounding area and the potential requirement for ongoing monitoring and decontamination. Response actions may require additional complex emergency response measures including immediate protective actions to protect those potentially exposed to contamination, mass casualty care, and public and mental health. There are concerns that terrorist organizations are showing increasing interest in acquiring radiological material that could be used with explosive. A dirty bomb or technically known as a radiological dispersal device (RDD) is a device designed to spread radioactive contamination over a wide area and pose a health and safety threat to those within the contaminated area. The radioactive material could be in the form of a large chunk of material, fine powder, a liquid mist, or a gas. The material may also be spread in other ways, such as by simply emptying a container over the desired area. As RDD's do not require large amounts of explosives, there is unlikely to be a large numbers of casualties, however the areas contaminated by the radiological material may cause immediate and long term health risks to those exposed. An RDD is a weapon of Mass Disruption rather than destruction. While the likelihood of RDD's being employed by terrorist in Australia is still considered remote, Australia's emergency response organizations are developing plans to ensure a rapid and comprehensive response occurs should such an event occur in this country, The presentation will outline Australia's response arrangements at the local/state level and the type of federal
Wills, P A
Progress in food irradiation treatment of Australian commodities, such as meat, pepper, honey, fruit is described. Irradiation took place with /sup 60/Co gamma radiation while testing for radiation sensitivity of Staphyllococcus in meat, of Bacillus aureus in pepper, of Streptococcus plutin and Bacillus larvae in honey, and of the fruitfly Dacus tryoni infesting fruit. So far, two State Health Commissions in Australia have authorised irradiation of shrimps with their sale being restricted to the State authorising treatment.
This book tells how successive Australian governments pursued the elusive uranium dream. With Australian uranium committed to the West's atomic arsenals, Australia seemed set to become a nation powered by the atom. But by the mid-1950 the Australian government learnt that their expectations were premature, if not unrealistic. The background of the creation of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission is also given along with the examination of the uranium controversies of the 1970s and 1980s. 150 refs
Progress in food irradiation treatment of Australian commodities, such as meat, pepper, honey, fruit is described. Irradiation took place with 60 Co gamma radiation while testing for radiation sensitivity of Staphyllococcus in meat, of Bacillus aureus in pepper, of Streptococcus plutin and Bacillus larvae in honey, and of the fruitfly Dacus tryoni infesting fruit. Sofar, two State Health Commissions in Australia have authorised irradiation of shrimps with their sale being restricted to the State authorising treatment. (AJ) [de
Denley, Adam; Cherry, James
Patents directed to naturally occurring genetic material, such as DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and genes, in an isolated or purified form have been granted in Australia for many years. This review provides scientists with a summary of the gene patent debate from an Australian perspective and specifically reviews how the various levels of the legal system as they apply to patents—the Australian Patent Office, Australian courts, and Australian government—have dealt with the issue of whether genetic m...
Falk, Jim; Settle, Domenica
This paper considers energy policy in Australia in the context of its considerable energy resources, climate change and a recent change in government. It examines the possible paths that future energy use and policy in Australia could take, including published projections based largely on a 'business as usual' approach and projections based on a dramatic shift towards more efficient use of energy and renewable energy technologies. It also considers the various factors affecting future policy direction, including energy security, the advocacy in Australia for establishing nuclear electricity generation and other parts of the nuclear fuel-cycle, responses to climate change, and carbon sequestration. It concludes that while the Australian Government is currently reluctant to move away from a dependence on coal, and unlikely to adopt nuclear energy generation, a low-emissions future without waiting for the deployment of carbon capture and storage and without resorting to nuclear power is within reach. However, in the face of strong pressure from interest groups associated with energy intensive industry, making the necessary innovations will require further growth of community concern about climate change, and the development of greater understanding of the feasibility of employing low carbon-emissions options.
Renganathan, Sumathi; Kral, Inge
This paper examines the implication of language and education policies for the indigenous minority populations in two contrasting multicultural and multilingual post-colonial nations, Australia and Malaysia. By comparing and contrasting ethnolinguistic and educational policies in these two diverse nations, this paper explores how indigenous…
Stanwick, John; Circelli, Michelle; Lu, Tham
The loss of jobs in the automotive manufacturing industry, together with a more general decline of the manufacturing industry in Australia, has implications for the types of skills needed in the labour market. Both of these scenarios affect particular groups of people, such as displaced car workers, but within that category other groups such as…
This paper presents an overview of the current state of historical linguistics in Australian languages. Australian languages have been important in theoretical debates about the nature of language change and the possibilities for reconstruction and classification in areas of intensive diffusion. Here are summarized the most important outstanding questions for Australian linguistic prehistory; I also present a case study of the Karnic subgroup of Pama-Nyungan, which illustrates the problems for classification in Australian languages and potential approaches using phylogenetic methods.
Sifris, Ronli; Ludlow, Karinne; Sifris, Adiva
This editorial begins by illuminating current conversations regarding the regulation of commercial surrogacy in Australia. It defines "commercial surrogacy" and explains the interaction between changes in social attitudes and changes to the law before setting out the current Australian law and practice in this area. An examination of current domestic law and practice reveals that surrogacy legislation in Australia is mired in inconsistencies and a lack of uniformity but that the one key common element is the prohibition of commercial surrogacy. The inability of couples to access commercial surrogacy within Australia has led to offshore reproductive tourism and unpredictable, contradictory decision-making as the Family Court attempts to apply legislation which was never intended to apply in this context. The editorial then turns to consider the international arena, discussing the approach of the Hague Conference on Private International Law before delving into a human rights analysis of commercial surrogacy arrangements. The adoption of a rights-based approach requires an analysis of this vexed issue from the perspective of the child, surrogate and intending parents. While questions surrounding the human rights implications of legalising commercial surrogacy continue to be the subject of passionate debate, the authors believe that the human rights of all parties are best protected through appropriate regulation rather than absolute prohibition.
Francey, R.J.; Dick, A.L.; Derek, N.
This publication reports activities, program summaries and data from the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in Tasmania, during the calendar year 1993. These activities represent Australia's main contribution to the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (BAPMoN), part of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW). The report includes 5 research reports covering trace gas sampling, ozone and radon interdependence, analysis of atmospheric dimethylsulfide and carbon-disulfide, sampling of trace gas composition of the troposphere, and sulfur aerosol/CCN relationship in marine air. Summaries of program reports for the calendar year 1993 are also included. Tabs., figs., refs
Denley, Adam; Cherry, James
Patents directed to naturally occurring genetic material, such as DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and genes, in an isolated or purified form have been granted in Australia for many years. This review provides scientists with a summary of the gene patent debate from an Australian perspective and specifically reviews how the various levels of the legal system as they apply to patents-the Australian Patent Office, Australian courts, and Australian government-have dealt with the issue of whether genetic material is proper subject matter for a patent. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.
Le Gleuher, M.; Farhi, R.
The large dependence of Australia on the fossil fuels leads to an great emission of carbon dioxide. The Australia is thus the first greenhouse gases emitter per habitant, in the world. In spite of its sufficient fossil fuels reserves, the Australia increases its production of clean energies and the research programs in the domain of the new energies technology. After a presentation of the australia situation, the authors detail the government measures in favor of the new energy technologies and the situation of the hydroelectricity, the wind energy, the wave and tidal energy, the biomass, the biofuels, the solar energy, the ''clean'' coal, the hydrogen and the geothermal energy. (A.L.B.)
The applications of nuclear techniques in Australia was reviewed - the work has been to aid: mining and mineral sector, the manufacturing, chemical and petroleum industries, hydrology and sedimentology
Lambert, I.B.; McKay, A.D.
Australia's economic, demonstrated resources of uranium (U) at the end of 1996 amounted to 622,000 tonnes U, the largest of any country. Uranium is currently produced at two mining/milling operations in Australia - Ranger in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, and Olympic Dam in South Australia. Improved market conditions and recent changes to Government policies have encouraged Australian companies to commit to the expansion of existing operations and the development of new uranium mines. Australia's annual production is likely to increase from its present level of 6000 tonncs (t) U 3 O 8 to approximately 12 000 t U 3 O 8 by the year 2000. (author)
The rate of suicide amongst Australia's rural men is significantly higher than rural women, urban men or urban women. There are many explanations for this phenomenon including higher levels of social isolation, lower socio-economic circumstances and ready access to firearms. Another factor is the challenge of climate transformation for farmers. In recent times rural areas of Australia have been subject to intense climate change events including a significant drought that has lingered on for over a decade. Climate variability together with lower socio-economic conditions and reduced farm production has combined to produce insidious impacts on the health of rural men. This paper draws on research conducted over several years with rural men working on farms to argue that attention to the health and well-being of rural men requires an understanding not only of these factors but also of the cultural context, inequitable gender relations and a dominant form of masculine hegemony that lauds stoicism in the face of adversity. A failure to address these factors will limit the success of health and welfare programs for rural men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Knott, Robert [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia)
Neutron scattering science in Australia is making an impact on a number of fields in the scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a wide range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans are in progress to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor to offer the most advanced neutron scattering facilities. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. (author)
Sorentino, C.M.R.; Butler, R.D.; Thomas, C.M.; McIlveen, G.R.; Huxlin, M.E.
This review of the economics of production of uranium in Australia provides a detailed description of eleven important uranium deposits including capital and production costs estimates and supply curves. For each mine a detailed assessment has been made of its potential production capacity to the year 2000. Socio-economic factors that play an all-too-important role in the Australian uranium industry are extensively reviewed to provide an insight into the factors affecting Australia's ability to supply. The study is based on a detailed computer-based economic engineering model where all major costs such as labor, consumables and capital recovery charges are analyzed for each mine, and levellised break-even prices determined. It is argued that at the present low market prices, the three on-going operations are profitable, and at least three other deposits could be brought to viable production, given the necessary Government approval. Several other deposits appear to be marginal at the set Australian export floor price of US$26 per pound. Annual production could be raised from about 6,000 tonnes of U 3 O 8 to 16,000 tonnes by the turn of century, with the development of three additional deposits. It is concluded that, if Australian producers were allowed to compete freely on the international market, annual production would pass the 10,000 tonne/annum mark between 1995 and 2000. 35 figs., 38 tabs., 81 refs
Hoy, Ryan F; Brims, Fraser
Occupational exposures are an important determinant of respiratory health. International estimates note that about 15% of adult-onset asthma, 15% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 10-30% of lung cancer may be attributable to hazardous occupational exposures. One-quarter of working asthmatics either have had their asthma caused by work or adversely affected by workplace conditions. Recently, cases of historical occupational lung diseases have been noted to occur with new exposures, such as cases of silicosis in workers fabricating kitchen benchtops from artificial stone products. Identification of an occupational cause of a lung disease can be difficult and requires maintaining a high index of suspicion. When an occupational lung disease is identified, this may facilitate a cure and help to protect coworkers. Currently, very little information is collected regarding actual cases of occupational lung diseases in Australia. Most assumptions about many occupational lung diseases are based on extrapolation from overseas data. This lack of information is a major impediment to development of targeted interventions and timely identification of new hazardous exposures. All employers, governments and health care providers in Australia have a responsibility to ensure that the highest possible standards are in place to protect workers' respiratory health.
Neutron scattering science in Australia is making an impact on a number of fields in the scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a wide range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans are in progress to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor to offer the most advanced neutron scattering facilities. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. (author)
The Council considered that provided the balance between costs and markets was found to be acceptable, there was no valid reason against the Government proceeding with a study on the feasibility of, and perhaps participating in the establishment of a commercial uranium enrichment industry in Australia. Areas covered include technical expertise and industrial structure in Australia, environmental aspects and safeguards
Uranium minerals were discovered in Australia in the years 1850 to 1900 already, but most of them were not recognised as such. It was not until 1894 that the first significant uranium find was made in Carcoar, west of Sydney. At that time, the uranium output of the world, which only amounted to a few hundred cwts, was for the most part obtained from mining areas close to the border between Saxony and Bohemia. In South Australia, uranium ore was mined experimentally for the production of radium at Radium Hill from 1906 onwards and at Mt. Painter from 1910 onwards. It was not until World War II, however, that uranium gained importance as a valuable raw material that could also be used for military purposes. The second phase of uranium mining in Australia commenced in 1944. Within ten years Australia's presumed uranium potential was confirmed by extensive exploration. The development of uranium mining in Australia is described in the present paper. (orig.)
In 1992, the Australian Government commissioned a review into the need for a replacement research reactor. That review concluded that in about years, if certain conditions were met, the Government could make a decision in favour of a replacement reactor. A major milestone was achieved when, on 3 September 1997, the Australian Government announced the construction of a replacement research reactor at the site of Australia's existing research reactor HIFAR, subject to the satisfactory outcome of an environmental assessment process. The reactor will be have the dual purpose of providing a first class facility for neutron beam research as well as providing irradiation facilities for both medical isotope production and commercial irradiations. The project is scheduled for completion before the end of 2005. (author)
Godman, N.A.; Cousins, Jim; Hamilton, Archie.
The debate, which lasted about half an hour, is reported verbatin. It was prompted by the campaign by the Maralinga people of South Australia to have their traditional lands restored to them. Between 1953 and 1957 the United Kingdom government carried out of atomic tests and several hundred minor trials on the lands. A clean-up programme had taken place in 1967 but further decontamination was needed before the area is safe for traditional aboriginal life and culture. A small area will remain contaminated with plutonium for thousands of years. The cost and who would pay, the Australian or UK government was being negotiated. The UK government's position was that the site is remote, the health risk is slight and the clean-up operation of 1967 was acknowledged as satisfactory by the Australian government. (UK)
Hagger, Virginia; Trawley, Steven; Hendrieckx, Christel
and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success) Youth-Australia Study is the first large-scale, national survey of the impact of diabetes on the psychosocial outcomes of Australian adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents. METHODS/DESIGN: The survey was web-based to enable a large-scale, national...... from a relatively advantaged socioeconomic background. DISCUSSION: The online survey format was a successful and economical approach for engaging young people with type 1 diabetes and their parents. This rich quantitative and qualitative dataset focuses not only on diabetes management and healthcare...... and their parents. These will inform future research and support services to meet the needs of young Australians with type 1 diabetes and their families....
Paratz, Elizabeth D; Katz, Benny
In recent years, a phenomenon of "late effects of the Holocaust" has emerged, with impacts on the psychological and physical health of ageing Holocaust survivors. As Holocaust survivors age, they may experience heightened anxiety around normal processes of ageing, worsened post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive decline, and fear of the medical system. Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiometabolic disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, cancer, and sequelae of Nazi medical experiments. From existing medical literature on this topic, practical principles of management are derived to create a framework for sensitive medical management of Holocaust survivors in Australia. The issues discussed are also relevant to the wider geriatric refugee or prisoner-of-war experience.
Phinn, S. R.; Christensen, R.; Guru, S.
Globally, there is a consistent movement towards more open, collaborative and transparent science, where the publication and citation of data is considered standard practice. Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) is a national research infrastructure investment designed to support the ecosystem science community through all stages of the data lifecycle. TERN has developed and implemented a comprehensive network of ';hard' and ';soft' infrastructure that enables Australia's ecosystem scientists to collect, publish, store, share, discover and re-use data in ways not previously possible. The aim of this poster is to demonstrate how TERN has successfully delivered infrastructure that is enabling a significant cultural and practical shift in Australia's ecosystem science community towards consistent approaches for data collection, meta-data, data licensing, and data publishing. TERN enables multiple disciplines, within the ecosystem sciences to more effectively and efficiently collect, store and publish their data. A critical part of TERN's approach has been to build on existing data collection activities, networks and skilled people to enable further coordination and collaboration to build each data collection facility and coordinate data publishing. Data collection in TERN is through discipline based facilities, covering long term collection of: (1) systematic plot based measurements of vegetation structure, composition and faunal biodiversity; (2) instrumented towers making systematic measurements of solar, water and gas fluxes; and (3) satellite and airborne maps of biophysical properties of vegetation, soils and the atmosphere. Several other facilities collect and integrate environmental data to produce national products for fauna and vegetation surveys, soils and coastal data, as well as integrated or synthesised products for modelling applications. Data management, publishing and sharing in TERN are implemented through a tailored data
Gabor, M; Gabor, L J; Peacock, L; Srivastava, M; Rosenwax, A; Phalen, D
Psittacid herpesvirus 3 (PsHV-3) has recently been implicated as the cause of a severe respiratory disease in Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii) in the United States. In this report, the clinical manifestations and gross and microscopic lesions of PsHV-3 infection in 2 eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus) in Australia are described. The presence of a PsHV-3 infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of PsHV-3 DNA using degenerate and PsHV-3 primers. Electron microscopy of infected cells demonstrated the assembly of herpesvirus virions as well as intranuclear tubular structures. The detection of PsHV-3 in Australia in 2 eclectus parrots broadens the list of known affected species and confirms the presence of this virus in Australia.
Full Text Available Buddhists started arriving in Australia in large numbers during the mid-1800s, and the first Buddhist societies and centres began to be formed in the mid-late 1900s. This paper examines the role of women in bringing Buddhism to and establishing it in Australia. Women have featured prominently in a small amount of scholarship, including Paul Croucher’s (1989 Buddhism in Australia: 1848–1988 and Cristina Rocha and Michelle Barker’s (eds. 2011 edited volume on Buddhism in Australia: Traditions in Change. This paper draws on these sources, but primarily on more recent digital oral histories of prominent Buddhist women and men in Australia, recorded as part of the first stage of the Buddhist Life Stories of Australia project in 2014–2015. These first-hand accounts bring the early female pioneers of Buddhism in Australia to life and provide a rich re-telling of this history with emphasis on women’s contributions to it. We also argue that these women’s experiences can best be understood through a framework of ‘ultramodern Buddhism,’ built upon theories of modern and post-modern Buddhism, as many of these women were trailblazers bridging dualisms of tradition and modernity, Asia and the West, and adhering to both feminist and Buddhist principles.
HIFAR, Australia's major research reactor was commissioned in 1958 to test materials for an envisaged indigenous nuclear power industry. HIFAR is a Dido type reactor which is operated at 10 MW. With the decision in the early 1970's not to proceed to nuclear power, HIFAR was adapted to other uses and has served Australia well as a base for national nuclear competence; as a national facility for neutron scattering/beam research; as a source of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and treatment; and as a source of export revenue from the neutron transmutation doping of silicon for the semiconductor industry. However, all of HIFAR's capabilities are becoming less than optimum by world and regional standards. Neutron beam facilities have been overtaken on the world scene by research reactors with increased neutron fluxes, cold sources, and improved beams and neutron guides. Radioisotope production capabilities, while adequate to meet Australia's needs, cannot be easily expanded to tap the growing world market in radiopharmaceuticals. Similarly, neutron transmutation doped silicon production, and export income from it, is limited at a time when the world market for this material is expanding. ANSTO has therefore embarked on a program to replace HIFAR with a new multi-purpose national facility for nuclear research and technology in the form of a reactor: a) for neutron beam research, - with a peak thermal flux of the order of three times higher than that from HIFAR, - with a cold neutron source, guides and beam hall, b) that has radioisotope production facilities that are as good as, or better than, those in HIFAR, c) that maximizes the potential for commercial irradiations to offset facility operating costs, d) that maximizes flexibility to accommodate variations in user requirements during the life of the facility. ANSTO's case for the new research reactor received significant support earlier this month with the tabling in Parliament of a report by the Australian Science
Bartlett, Albert A.
This paper examines the implications of statements by Australia's Minister of Resources that Australia's exports of coal are growing rapidly and that Australia's coal will last '110 years at current rates of production.' If one assumes that coal production P(t), follows a Gaussian curve (similar to a Hubbert curve) one can construct a family of Gaussian curves showing possible future paths of P(t) which are consistent with the cited '110 years.' Each curve reaches a maximum after which P(t) declines toward zero. Knowledge of the present value of dP/dt allows one member of the family to be identified as the most probable future path of P(t). Families of curves and tabular data are presented for resource quantities that would last 50, 100 and 200 years 'at current rates of production.' If, instead, Australia's P(t) follows a declining exponential curve (exp(-kt)) with k = (1/110) per year, the stated quantity of coal will allow production to continue forever, with P(t) declining with a half life of 76 y. This and more rapidly declining exponential paths are the only paths that can be said to be sustainable. The envelope of the family of Gaussian curves divides the (P, t) plane into 'allowed' and 'forbidden' areas. The declining exponential curve divides the 'allowed' area into an upper area that is 'terminal' and a lower area that is 'sustainable.' These facts, coupled with Australia's expectations of rapid growth of its population, suggest that Australia's present resource policies are 'anti-sustainable' and that the people of Australia need to rethink their present policy of rapidly exporting their fossil fuels
cumbersome and often exceeds the prescribed OH and S single person lifting limits. The role of industrial radiography has expanded to inspect not only welds and castings, so that it now includes inspection of assembled and processed goods ranging from automotive air-bags to canned food. It is also used in security systems at airports and other facilities. Almost all these applications use cabinet systems which are rarely the subject of serious radiation incidents or accidents. Gamma ray inspection no longer uses radium. The most common radio-isotopes in use now are Cobalt 60 and Iridium 192. Their freedom from the need for an electrical power supply; their high radiation energy and the ability to place a source in positions of limited physical access, ensures the ongoing attraction of the method. The useful activity ranges of typical sources vary according to their application and the effect on total inspection costs. Common source activities in Australia range between 185 and 370 GBq for Cobalt 60; and between 1500 and 3700 GBq for Iridium 192. Outside Australia however there are recent reports of routine industrial radiography using more than 5500 GBq of Iridium 192. Thus it can be appreciated that any radiation accidents involving these high activity sources have the potential for significant radiation doses. Personal Dose Data: ARPANSA and its predecessor, the Australian Radiation Laboratory, has been providing a personal radiation monitoring service for some time, and releases a summary report every few years (ARPANSA/TR 139, ARL/TR 121, ARL/TR 107). The selected data shown in Table 2 indicate a downward trend in occupational doses received by industrial radiographers working in open site situations, which are potentially the most hazardous. This trend is encouraging, especially when the number of industrial radiographers is increasing. A comparison of the ARPANSA data indicate that whilst the average Australian industrial radiographer's annual dose is higher than the
This paper examines the scientific merit, clinical use and some historical aspects of the introduction and development of the positron emission tomography as a diagnostic technique in Australia. 4 refs
John van Kooy
Full Text Available The ‘Stepping Stones to Small Business’ programme in Australia is appreciated by participants but has shown that ‘entrepreneurship’ is a problematic concept in the context of women from refugee backgrounds.
This Research Paper is mainly concerned with the status and prospects for cogeneration in Australia. An introductory chapter reviews the fundamentals of cogeneration, covering both technical and institutional aspects. A range of technologies are employed in cogeneration: these technologies and their efficiency and environmental impact effects are discussed in Chapter 2. The economics of cogeneration are a major factor in the profitability of current and potential plants. Potential factors affecting cogeneration economics are discussed .The status of cogeneration in Australia is reviewed for each State and Territory, and includes a number of case studies of existing plants. Government (federal, state, territory) policies that have a significant impact on the attractiveness of cogeneration are reviewed. Finally, the future prospects for cogeneration in Australia, drawing on the preceding chapters and a review of estimated potentials for cogeneration in Australia are presented
Development of renewable energies in Australia is still in its infancy and will require active support by government, utilities and financing institutions to ensure a steady growth. Much has been done to increase the utilisation of renewable energies in the energy supply, but much still remains to be done, especially in the areas of promotion, demonstration, training and technology transfer. This process will lead to meeting the energy needs of the population in rural areas and to contributing to a suitable development of the region during the next century. Australia is endowed with a wealth of renewable energy resources that hold great promise for addressing a host of important environmental, employment and socioeconomic issues. Australia has a set of climate, geographic and other factors that provide favourable conditions for many specific renewable energy applications. The objectives of this paper is to look at the current situation of renewable energies in Australia, opportunities, constraints, current projects, available potential and future prospects. (Author)
The article represents a stern criticism of Australia's attitude to climate change. Its climate change policy is described as 'Neanderthal'. The Australian government is said to be strongly opposed to ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. The Government's policy appears to be driven by vested interests in fossil fuels. A list of eight flaws in Australia's 2% renewables target is given; the target is said to be far too small for a country with so much renewables potential. However, investment in the country's enormous wind power potential is increasing and targets are given; six reasons why Australia needs to invest in wind power are given. It is suggested that by the end of this decade, 10% of Australia's electricity could come from wind power - a web site address giving further details is given
Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; England, Matthew H.; McIntosh, Peter C.; Meyers, Gary A.; Pook, Michael J.; Risbey, James S.; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Taschetto, Andréa S.
Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called ``Big Dry''. The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show here that the ``Big Dry'' and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of Indian Ocean temperature conditions conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the ``Big Dry'', its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent higher temperatures.
Summers, Michael P; Verikios, George
over-servicing/over-charging align well with the original intention of the NDIS, and are likely to yield the best outcomes for consumers at the lowest costs. What is known about the topic? Government-funded programs are used extensively to purchase AT because it is a primary enabler for people of all ages with disabilities. Perceptions of unreasonably high prices for AT in Australia are resulting in the widespread adoption of bulk purchasing and related strategies by governments. What does this paper add? Carefully undertaken systematic price comparisons between Australia and comparable Organization For Economic Cooperation and Development countries indicate that, on average, Australian prices are lower than elsewhere when delivery to Australia is taken into account. It was also found that prices at brick-and-mortar shops, with all the services they provide to ensure the appropriateness of the products provided to meet the consumers' needs and goals, are substantially higher than Internet purchases in which the consumer bears all the risks and responsibilities for outcomes. What are the implications? Overuse of government bulk purchasing and similar arrangements will lead to less diversity in the available AT products, related services and retail outlets, resulting in less choice for consumers and higher risks of poor outcomes through less focus on matching consumers with the 'right' products for their needs and goals, and ultimately higher AT prices over time as competition is reduced to a few major suppliers.
In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra of Xu (1993) and further we prove that it is a regular Autometrized. Algebra. Further we remark that the binary operation → on lattice implicative algebra can never be associative. Key words: Implicative ...
Wright, Michael; Hall, Jane; van Gool, Kees; Haas, Marion
Australians can seek general practice care from multiple general practitioners (GPs) in multiple locations. This provides high levels of patient choice but may reduce continuity of care. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of attendance at multiple general practices in Australia, and identify patient characteristics associated with multiple practice attendances. A cross-sectional survey of 2477 Australian adults was conducted online in July 2013. Respondents reported whether they had attended more than one general practice in the past year, and whether they had a usual general practice and GP. Demographic information, health service use and practice characteristics were also obtained from the survey. Over one-quarter of the sample reported attending more than one practice in the previous year. Multiple practice attendance is less common with increasing age, and less likely for survey respondents from regional Australia, compared with respondents from metropolitan areas. Multiple practice attenders are just as likely as single practice attenders to have a usual GP. A significant proportion of general practice care is delivered away from usual practices. This may have implications for health policy, in terms of continuity and quality of primary care.
Lee, Ming-Chak; Bariol, Simon Virgil
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? There is very little contemporary data regarding stone management in Australia. This study assesses the impact of technological advances on stone management practises, and raises questions as to why there is an increasing rate of intervention for stone disease in Australia. Knowledge of management trends as demonstrated in this paper give individual surgeons a guideline for contemporary practise in this country. • To examine trends in the operative management of upper urinary tract stone disease in Australia over the past 15 years. • The Medicare Australia and Australian Institute of Health and Welfare databases were used to determine the annual number of renal colic presentations and procedural interventions undertaken for stone disease. • In Australia over the past 15 years, the annual number of procedural interventions for upper urinary tract stones has increased, primarily due to the rising number of endoscopic procedures performed. • During this period, shock wave lithotripsy numbers have remained steady whilst open and percutaneous procedures have been in decline. • The introduction of and subsequent preference for less invasive techniques has changed the management pathway of patients presenting with stone disease in Australia. • Further studies are necessary to determine whether this escalation in endoscopic procedures is due to an increase in the incidence of stone disease, earlier detection, a lower intervention threshold or a higher retreatment rate. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.
Wind and hydropower together constitute nearly 80% of the renewable capacity in Australia and their resources are collocated. We show that wind and hydro generation capacity factors covary negatively at the interannual time scales. Thus, the technology diversity mitigates the variability of renewable power generation at the interannual scales. The asynchrony of wind and hydropower resources is explained by the differential impact of the two modes of the El Ni˜no Southern Oscillation – canonical and Modoki – on the wind and hydro resources. Also, the Modoki El Ni˜no and the Modoki La Ni˜na phases have greater impact. The seasonal impact patterns corroborate these results. As the proportion of wind power increases in Australia’s energy mix, this negative covariation has implications for storage capacity of excess wind generation at short time scales and for generation system adequacy at the longer time scales.
McKinnon, Merryn; Howes, Johanna; Leach, Andrew; Prokop, Natasha
Scientists, science communicators and science journalists interact to deliver science news to the public. Yet the value of interactions between the groups in delivering high-quality science stories is poorly understood within Australia. A recent study in New Zealand on the perspectives of the three groups on the challenges facing science journalism is replicated here in the context of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. While all three groups perceived the quality of science journalism as generally high, the limitations of non-specialists and public relation materials were causes for concern. The results indicate that science communicators are considered to play a valuable role as facilitators of information flow to journalists and support for scientists. Future studies on the influence and implications of interactions between these three groups are required.
Gunturu, Udaya; Hallgren, Willow
Wind and hydropower together constitute nearly 80% of the renewable capacity in Australia and their resources are collocated. We show that wind and hydro generation capacity factors covary negatively at the interannual time scales. Thus, the technology diversity mitigates the variability of renewable power generation at the interannual scales. The asynchrony of wind and hydropower resources is explained by the differential impact of the two modes of the El Ni˜no Southern Oscillation – canonical and Modoki – on the wind and hydro resources. Also, the Modoki El Ni˜no and the Modoki La Ni˜na phases have greater impact. The seasonal impact patterns corroborate these results. As the proportion of wind power increases in Australia’s energy mix, this negative covariation has implications for storage capacity of excess wind generation at short time scales and for generation system adequacy at the longer time scales.
Hughes, Caitlin E; Chalmers, Jenny; Bright, David A; Matthew-Simmons, Francis; Sindicich, Natasha
Media attention to cocaine use and supply has increased following some of the largest cocaine seizures in Australia's history. Whether there has been an expansion in supply remains unclear. This paper examines the evidence behind assertions of increased supply in Australia and the scale and nature of any apparent increase, using proxy indicators of cocaine importation, distribution and use. Eight proxies of cocaine importation, distribution and use were adopted, including amount of importation, mode of importation and supply flows to Australia. Each proxy indicator was sourced using publicly available and Australia-wide data, including information on the total weight of border seizures, mode of detection and country of embarkation of individual seizures. Data permitting, trends were examined for up to a 12 year period (1997-1998 to 2009-2010). Since 2006-2007 there was evidence of increased cocaine importation, albeit less than between 1998-1999 and 2001-2002. There were further signs that the 2006-2007 expansion coincided with a diversification of trafficking routes to and through Australia (beyond the traditional site of entry-Sydney) and shifts in the geographic distribution of use. The congruity between indicators suggests that there has been a recent expansion in cocaine supply to and distribution within Australia, but that the more notable shift has concerned the nature of supply, with an apparent growth in importation and distribution beyond New South Wales. The diversification of cocaine supply routes may increase risks of market entrenchment and organised crime throughout Australia. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Australia is committed to an 8 per cent reduction in its emissions of greenhouse gases above 1990 levels as a result of the Kyoto Protocol for the period 2008-2012. At present, the emissions stand at 17.4 per cent above 1990 levels. Total electrical power in Australia resulting from renewable energy is in the order of 10.5 per cent. A mandatory renewable energy target of 9500 gigawatt hour (GWh) of extra renewable energy is to be produced annually by 2010, under the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act. An emissions trading system has been implemented, involving one renewable energy certificate (REC) created for each megawatt hour of renewable energy generated. A significant expansion of the demand for renewable energy is expected in Australia over the next ten years, according to the Australian Greenhouse Office. Increased opportunities for local and international firms operating in the field of renewable energy are being created by the Australian government through initiatives such as the Renewable Energy Commercialization Program, and the Renewable Remote Power Generation Program. Solar, biomass, and wind power are comprised in the wealth of renewable energy resources in Australia. The market remains largely undeveloped. Firms from the United States and the European Union are the leading exporters of renewable energy technology to Australia. Public utilities and independent power producers having entered the deregulated electricity market are the consumers of renewable energy technology and services. A country with minimal duties in most cases, Australia has much in common with Canada, including similar regulatory and legal systems. Australia applies a 10 per cent goods and services tax, which would apply to Canadian exports. It was advised to consult the Australian Customs Service for additional information concerning duties that might be applicable to the renewable energy industry. 28 refs., 3 tabs
and the business proposition have merit - government assistance (e.g. BIF, R and D Start, STI funding) and some type of relationship with Big Pharma/Big Biotech provide assurances. In the life sciences, durable and strong IP is critical. This presentation will focus on choice of commercialisation strategy (i.e. licensing vs. start up vs. joint venture etc); the hazards of 'expropriation' for the small end of town; little c versus big C commercialisation; creating value in the biopharmaceutical sector; and persistent restraints to innovation in Australia
HIFAR, a 10 MW tank type DIDO Class reactor has operated at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre for 43 years. HIFAR and the 10 kW Argonaut reactor 'Moata' which is in the Care and Maintenance phase of decommissioning are Australia's only nuclear reactors. The initial purpose for HIFAR was for materials testing to support a nuclear power program. Changing community attitude through the 1970's and a Government decision not to proceed with a planned nuclear power reactor resulted in a reduction of materials testing activities and a greater emphasis being placed on neutron beam research and the production of radioisotopes, particularly for medical purposes. HIFAR is not fully capable of satisfying the expected increase in demand for medical radiopharmaceuticals beyond the next 5 years and the radial configuration of the beam tubes severely restricts the scope and efficiency of neutron beam research. In 1997 the Australian Government decided that a replacement research reactor should be built by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation at Lucas Heights subject to favourable results of an Environmental Impact Study. The Ei identified no reasons on the grounds of safety, health, hazard or risk to prevent construction on the preferred site and it was decided in May 1999 that there were no environmental reasons why construction of the facility should not proceed. In recent years ANSTO has been reviewing the operation of HIFAR and observing international developments in reactor technology. Limitations in the flexibility and efficiency achievable in operation of a tank type reactor and the higher intrinsic safety sought in fundamental design resulted in an early decision that the replacement reactor must be a pool type having cleaner and higher intensity tangential neutron beams of wider energy range than those available from HIFAR. ANSTO has chosen to use it's own resources supported by specialised external knowledge and experience to identify
Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ
Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of
The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ANSTO) first became involved in the monitoring of radionuclides in the environment in 1955 when assessing the effects on the Australian population of the radioactive releases associated with the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. (At that time ARPANSA was known as the Commonwealth X-ray and Radium Laboratory). The United Kingdom had tested weapons in Australia in 1952 and 1953 and in August 1954 entered into an agreement with the Australian Government to establish a test range at Maralinga in South Australia. The government established a Maralinga Safety Committee and through this Committee ARPANSA became involved in the surveillance of radioactive fallout over Australia. The primary function of this surveillance was to ensure that the nuclear trials would not adversely effect the health of the Australian population. A program was established to reliably assess the deposition of radioactive fallout over Australia so that exposure to the population could be estimated. This task was performed in conjunction with the Bureau of Meteorology and the Department of Supply. Measurements were made on daily samples of fallout dawn from 10 centres throughout Australia. A low level radiochemical facility was established in 1961 for the measurement of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in environmental samples so that the long term distribution of fallout could be tracked. In the 1960s the program was extended to measure fresh fission products reaching Australia from atmospheric testing in other countries, usually originating from test sites in the northern hemisphere. The sampling program that was established was designed so that it could be rapidly expanded when a new testing program started. At this time a permanent fallout monitoring network was established around Australia using high volume air samplers capable of sampling up to 10000 m 3 per week. Approximately six stations have been operated at any one time but the
A national near-surface repository at a remote and arid location is proposed for the disposal of solid low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Australia. The repository will be designed to isolate the radioactive waste from the human environment under controlled conditions and for a period long enough for the radioactivity to decay to low levels. Compared to countries that have nuclear power programs, the amount of waste in Australia is relatively small. Nevertheless, the need for a national disposal facility for solid low-level radioactive and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes is widely recognised and the Federal Government is in the process of selecting a site for a national near-surface disposal facility for low and short-lived intermediate level wastes. Some near surface disposal facilities already exist in Australia, including tailings dams at uranium mines and the Mt Walton East Intractable Waste Disposal Facility in Western Australia which includes a near surface repository for low level wastes originating in Western Australia. 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs
Full Text Available Background: The 1970s and 1980s represent the early era of in vitro fertilization (IVF research. This article is a concise review of the early history of IVF, focusing on the contributions made by Australian pioneers.Objectives: To research the history of the early days of IVF in Australia.Search Strategy: ‘IVF history’ was used as a search criteria in PubMed.Selection criteria: We selected articles that were dealing with Australian research on IVF in 1970–1980s and were also statistically sound where applicable.Data collection and analysis: We collected, processed, and analyzed the data, and summed up two decades of IVF research in Australia.Main results: The first ideas about introducing IVF research in Australia started in 1970. Years of trials and hard work bore success and the first baby was born in 1980. IVF procedures then spread quickly across Australia.Conclusions: Australia was a leading force in the early days of IVF and with many innovative approaches contributed greatly to the development of IVF as we know it today.
Collignon, Peter J; Lum, Gary D; Robson, Jennifer Mb
There is no convincing evidence that classic Lyme disease occurs in Australia, nor is there evidence that the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is found in Australian animals or ticks. Lyme disease, however, can be acquired overseas but diagnosed in Australia; most people presenting with laboratory-confirmed Lyme disease in Australia were infected in Europe. Despite the lack of evidence that Lyme disease can be acquired in Australia, growing numbers of patients, their supporters, and some politicians demand diagnoses and treatment according to the protocols of the "chronic Lyme disease" school of thought. Antibiotic therapy for chronic "Lyme disease-like illness" can cause harm to both the individual (eg, cannula-related intravenous sepsis) and the broader community (increased antimicrobial resistance rates). Until there is strong evidence from well performed clinical studies that bacteria present in Australia cause a chronic debilitating illness that responds to prolonged antibiotics, treating patients with "Lyme disease-like illness" with prolonged antibiotic therapy is unjustified, and is likely to do much more harm than good.
Sebaratnam, Deshan F; Murrell, Dédée F
Dermatology is a relatively young discipline in Australia compared to other specialities within the medical fraternity. From its humble beginnings, the profession has evolved significantly over the decades and is now represented by the Australasian College of Dermatologists which is charged with training the next generation of dermatologists and advocating for and advancing the profession. The authors reviewed and describe the history of dermatology training and practice in Australia. Despite the progress in education, there are only 415 dermatologists serving a population of 23.3 million (1 per 58 000) and yet it has the highest incidence and prevalence of skin cancer in the world. The scope of clinical practice is wide in Australia, with clinicians well versed in medical and procedural dermatology. It is hoped that Australian dermatology will continue to bolster the dermatology profession globally. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.
The report covers the basic issues of the coming uranium era discussing the world supply and demand situation, the trend in uranium prices and the continuing move to nuclear power as the world's primary source of electrical energy. In Australia, unknowns such as future contract prices and quantities, production start dates, royalties and the outcome of the environmental inquiry create the speculative image of the uranium stocks. The first section of the report discusses the technical aspects of the nuclear industry but is necessarily brief because the real story is the world trend to nuclear power for economic and political reasons and the old story of supply and demand (discussed in section two). Within Australia some companies are better placed than others to benefit from the uranium era. Section three looks at prices and section four reviews the individual companies involved in the uranium industry in Australia. (author)
The report covers the basic issues of the coming uranium era discussing the world supply and demand situation, the trend in uranium prices and the continuing move to nuclear power as the world's primary source of electrical energy. In Australia, unknowns such as future contract prices and quantities, production start dates, royalties and the outcome of the environmental inquiry create the speculative image of the uranium stocks. The first section of the report discusses the technical aspects of the nuclear industry but is necessarily brief because the real story is the world trend to nuclear power for economic and political reasons and the old story of supply and demand (discussed in section two). Within Australia some companies are better placed than others to benefit from the uranium era. Section three looks at prices and section four reviews the individual companies involved in the uranium industry in Australia.
Johnson, Douglas F; Druce, Julian D; Chapman, Scott; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Wolf, Josh; Richards, Jack S; Korman, Tony; Birch, Chris; Richards, Michael J
We report eight recent cases of Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia. Patients presented with fevers, rigors, headaches, arthralgia, and rash. The current Indian Ocean epidemic and Italian outbreak have featured prominently on Internet infectious disease bulletins, and Chikungunya virus infection had been anticipated in travellers from the outbreak areas. Diagnosis was by a generic alphavirus reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with confirmatory sequencing. Prompt diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infections is of public health significance as the mosquito vectors for transmission exist in Australia. There is potential for this infection to spread in the largely naïve Australian population.
Woods, R.; Garnett, J.; Loo Teck Ng
Progress in LTV/EB curing is reviewed in Australia. Generally the technology is used by those industries where curing is well developed in Europe and North America, however the scale is an order of magnitude lower due to the smaller market size. The Asian economic crisis does not appear to have affected expansion of the technology in Australia. EB continues to be successfully used in the packaging and foam fields whilst in UV, security devices, particularly banknotes are steadily expanding especially in export markets have been studied
Foley, C. P.
The status of women in physics is Australia has remained mostly steady until recently, with the appointment of several eminent women in major government of public roles. Australia seems to maintain the same gender ratio for those studying and working in physics. There is no overall coordination of programs to assist women into the workplace but there is generally goodwill. Success in attracting and retaining women in the physics workforce appears to depend on the local culture, initiatives, and attitude of the most senior person in the organization.
Over the next few years, Australia must modify its dependence on natural oil and place greater reliance on other fossil fuels and renewable energy sources. The recommendations contained in this report are the result of two years of study, and the long term energy prospects for Australia and energy resource policies for coal, liquid fuels, nuclear energy, solar energy and natural gas are considered in detail. Energy conservation policies and the identification of areas where energy research, development and demonstration need to be undertaken are also covered. (J.R.)
Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.
Full Text Available In the latter months of 2014, following events in faraway Iraq and Syria, Australia responded forcefully at home. The manufactured fear of a terrorist attack resulted in police raids, increased counter-terrorism legislation and scare campaigns to alert the public to 'threat'. Although Islamophobia rose in Australia after 2001 it has been latent in recent years. It is on the rise again with collateral damage from government measures including verbal and physical attacks on Australian Muslims. Vitriol is also directed at asylum seekers and refugees. Media, government and community discourses converge to promote Islam as dangerous and deviant.
Myles, Nicholas; Large, Matthew; Myles, Hannah; Adams, Robert; Liu, Dennis; Galletly, Cherrie
There have been substantial changes in workforce and employment patterns in Australia over the past 50 years as a result of economic globalisation. This has resulted in substantial reduction in employment in the manufacturing industry often with large-scale job losses in concentrated sectors and communities. Large-scale job loss events receive significant community attention. To what extent these mass unemployment events contribute to increased psychological distress, mental illness and suicide in affected individuals warrants further consideration. Here we undertake a narrative review of published job loss literature. We discuss the impact that large-scale job loss events in the manufacturing sector may have on population mental health, with particular reference to contemporary trends in the Australian economy. We also provide a commentary on the expected outcomes of future job loss events in this context and the implications for Australian public mental health care services. Job loss due to plant closure results in a doubling of psychological distress that peaks 9 months following the unemployment event. The link between job loss and increased rates of mental illness and suicide is less clear. The threat of impending job loss and the social context in which job loss occurs has a significant bearing on psychological outcomes. The implications for Australian public mental health services are discussed.
Dale, Katie; Kirk, Martyn; Sinclair, Martha; Hall, Robert; Leder, Karin
To examine the frequency and circumstances of reported waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Australia. Examination of data reported to OzFoodNet between 2001 and 2007. During these seven years, 6,515 gastroenteritis outbreaks were reported to OzFoodNet, most of which were classified as being transmitted person-to-person or from an unknown source. Fifty-four (0.83%) outbreaks were classified as either 'waterborne' or 'suspected waterborne', of which 78% (42/54) were attributed to recreational water and 19% (10/54) to drinking water. Of the drinking water outbreaks, implicated pathogens were found on all but one occasion and included Salmonella sp. (five outbreaks), Campylobacter jejuni (three outbreaks) and Giardia (one outbreak). There have been few waterborne outbreaks detected in Australia, and most of those reported have been associated with recreational exposure. However, there are difficulties in identifying and categorising gastroenteritis outbreaks, as well as in obtaining microbiological and epidemiological evidence, which can result in misclassification or underestimation of water-associated events. Gastroenteritis surveillance data show that, among reported water-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks in Australia, recreational exposure is currently more common than a drinking water source. However, ongoing surveillance for waterborne outbreaks is important, especially as drought conditions may necessitate replacement of conventional drinking water supplies with alternative water sources, which could incur potential for new health risks. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.
Full Text Available In the last decade freight transport has gained further momentum in Australia, partly through significant demand growth at both domestic and international levels and partly as the result of Australia's long term need for infrastructure decision making. Amongst the freight task, non-bulk freight is the fastest growing freight task in Australia and is forecast to grow much faster than the rate of population growth and the average national GDP growth. However, rail's share in the non-bulk market has declined significantly in the last four decades. This study therefore provides an insight into the efficiency and operational management issues facing by the Australian non-bulk rail sector by focusing on three areas; the level of track compatibility and the relevant operational issues, the demographics of non-bulk freight in Australia and the current status of intermodal terminals in relation to rail connectivity and location. As the result, a more detailed understanding of the current shortages in the Australian non-bulk rail freight sector is achieved and managerial implications are provided.
Rajshekar, Mithun; Blizzard, Leigh; Julian, Roberta; Williams, Anne-Marie; Tennant, Marc; Forrest, Alex; Walsh, Laurence J; Wilson, Gary
To estimate the incidence of dog bite-related injuries requiring public sector hospitalisation in Australia during the period 2001-13. Summary data on public sector hospitalisations due to dog bite-related injuries with an ICD 10-AM W54.0 coding were sourced from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare for the study period 2001-2013. In Australia, on average, 2,061 persons were hospitalised each year for treatment for dog bite injuries at an annual rate of 12.39 (95%CI 12.25-12.53) per 100,000 during 2001-13. The highest annual rates of 25.95 (95%CI 25.16-26.72) and 18.42 (95%CI 17.75-19.07) per 100,000 were for age groups 0-4 and 5-9 years respectively. Rates of recorded events increased over the study period and reached 16.15 (95%CI 15.78-16.52) per 100,000 during 2011-13. Dog bites are a largely unrecognised and growing public health problem in Australia. Implications for public health: There is an increasing public sector burden of hospitalisations for injuries from dog bites in Australia. © 2017 Menzies Institute for Medical Research.
Beggs, Paul John; Bennett, Charmian Margaret
The objective of this article is to systematically review and assess what is known about the impacts of climate change on aeroallergens and other naturally derived particulates, and the associated human health impacts, and to examine responses to these in Australia, focusing on adaptation. Prior research was searched using several general and discipline-specific research databases. The review concludes that whereas there is little original research on the impacts of climate change on aeroallergens and other naturally derived particulates in Australia, or the human health consequences of these, research from overseas suggests that these impacts may be adverse and of considerable magnitude. More research is required to assess the impacts of climate change on these airborne particles and associated diseases in Australia and other parts of the Asia-Pacific. There are important policy implications of this review. There is a need for enhanced monitoring of the atmospheric environment and associated health conditions in Australia. Education about climate change and human health in general, and air quality and related diseases specifically, is required for the community, health professionals, and others. Improvements are needed in the preparedness of infrastructure, such as health care facilities and early warning systems, particularly for aeroallergens, and all of these adaptive policy responses require further research.
Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Habel, Lesley; De Bellis, Anita
The majority of Vietnamese Australians migrated to Australia as refugees to escape a war and this unique migration background may affect their ability to access and utilize healthcare services in Australia. Inability to utilize dementia services is associated with higher levels of caregiver burden, higher rates of morbidities and mortality and hospitalization. The aim of the study was to explore the perceived challenges of dementia care from Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret and describe the experiences of the participants. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with six Vietnamese family caregivers and a focus group with Vietnamese care workers using purposive sampling. Participants were recruited from a Vietnamese community care organization in South Australia. Five themes were identified from the data analysis namely: (1) a need for culturally and linguistically appropriate dementia education programs; (2) a willingness and unwillingness to seek help; (3) poor knowledge of health care service availability related to dementia; (4) the effect of language barrier in accessing services; and (5) the main sources of services utilized. The study revealed that Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers held different views on the association of stigma with dementia. Findings also revealed factors that impacted accessing and utilizing dementia services. These findings facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of Vietnamese family caregivers' needs and have implications for developing individualized support for family caregivers and for consumer-directed dementia services in Australia.
Full Text Available Rickettsiosis is a potentially fatal tick borne disease. It is caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria Rickettsia, which is transferred to humans through salivary excretions of ticks during the biting process. Globally, the incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing; as such, there is a need for a greater understanding of tick–host interactions to create more informed risk management strategies. Flinders Island spotted fever rickettsioses has been identified throughout Australia (Tasmania, South Australia, Queensland and Torres Strait Islands with possible identifications in Thailand, Sri Lanka and Italy. Flinders Island spotted fever is thought to be spread through tick bites and the reptile tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri has been implicated as a vector in this transmission. This study used qPCR to assay Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard hosts on mainland South Australia near where spotted fever cases have been identified. We report that, although we discovered Rickettsia in all tick samples, it was not Rickettsia honei. This study is the first to use PCR to positively identify Rickettsia from South Australian Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard hosts. These findings suggest that B. hydrosauri may be a vector of multiple Rickettsia spp. Also as all 41 tested B. hydrosauri ticks were positive for Rickettsia this indicates an extremely high prevalence within the studied area in South Australia.
Australia's uranium - greenhouse friendly fuel for an energy hungry world: a case study into the strategic importance of Australia's uranium resources for the inquiry into developing Australia's non-fossil fuel energy industry
The terms of reference for the case study were to inquire into and report on the strategic importance of Australia's uranium resources. The Committee was asked to give particular attention to the: global demand for Australia's uranium resources and associated supply issues; potential implications for global greenhouse emission reductions from the further development and export of Australia's uranium resources; and the current regulatory environment of the uranium mining sector. The Committee indicated in its letters inviting submissions that it would also welcome comments in relation to six additional issues, relating to: whole of life cycle waste management; adequacy of social impact assessment, consultation and approval processes with traditional owners; health risks to workers and to the public from exposure to radiation; adequacy of regulation of uranium mining by the Commonwealth; the extent of federal subsidies and other mechanisms to facilitate uranium mining; and the effectiveness of safeguards regimes in addressing proliferation. These matters are addressed in the Committee's report, which consists of 12 chapters. The contents, findings and recommendations of each chapter are summarised as follows. The Committee's conclusions and recommendations are also summarised in a key messages section at the beginning of each chapter and in the conclusions section at the end of each chapter.
Australia's uranium - greenhouse friendly fuel for an energy hungry world: a case study into the strategic importance of Australia's uranium resources for the inquiry into developing Australia's non-fossil fuel energy industry
The terms of reference for the case study were to inquire into and report on the strategic importance of Australia's uranium resources. The Committee was asked to give particular attention to the: global demand for Australia's uranium resources and associated supply issues; potential implications for global greenhouse emission reductions from the further development and export of Australia's uranium resources; and the current regulatory environment of the uranium mining sector. The Committee indicated in its letters inviting submissions that it would also welcome comments in relation to six additional issues, relating to: whole of life cycle waste management; adequacy of social impact assessment, consultation and approval processes with traditional owners; health risks to workers and to the public from exposure to radiation; adequacy of regulation of uranium mining by the Commonwealth; the extent of federal subsidies and other mechanisms to facilitate uranium mining; and the effectiveness of safeguards regimes in addressing proliferation. These matters are addressed in the Committee's report, which consists of 12 chapters. The contents, findings and recommendations of each chapter are summarised as follows. The Committee's conclusions and recommendations are also summarised in a key messages section at the beginning of each chapter and in the conclusions section at the end of each chapter
Sharwood, Lisa N; Adams, Susan; Blaszkow, Tracy; Eager, David
To quantify an apparent increase in indoor trampoline park related injuries in children and young people across Australia, and to understand the implications for current regulatory standards. Retrospective analyses of three state-based Injury Surveillance databases, identifying children and adolescents presenting to emergency departments between the years 2005 and 2017, who had sustained injuries during trampolining activity at an indoor trampoline park. Across the three datasets, 487 cases were identified. No cases were recorded prior to 2012, the year the first indoor trampoline park opened. At least half occurred among those aged 10-14 years. In Victoria, 58% were male, with 52% in Queensland and 60% in Western Australia being male, respectively. Hospital admission rates in these states were 15%, 11.7% and 14.5%, respectively. The most frequent injury types were dislocations, sprains and strains, followed by fractures, with some head and spinal injuries. Across several states in Australia, the incidence of indoor trampoline park related injuries is concerning, as these venues are increasing in number. Some injuries can be serious and result in lifelong disability for children or adolescents. Implications for public health: National safety standards that apply to indoor trampoline park operators are not currently mandatory; injury prevention efforts would be assisted if such standards were mandatory. © 2018 The Authors.
Stock, Jan H.
Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).
Team, Victoria; Markovic, Milica
Artificial tanning, defined as deliberate exposure to ultraviolet rays produced by artificial tanning devices, is a new and emerging public health issue in Australia and globally. Epidemiological research suggests that artificial tanning may contribute to the incidence of melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer as well as other health problems. Given that Australia has a high incidence of skin cancer, we have undertaken a study to explore how artificial tanning has been promoted to its users. The aim was to analyze the completeness and accuracy of information about artificial tanning. A content analysis of web sites of tanning salons and distributors of tanning equipment in Australia was conducted. A total of 22 web sites were analyzed. None of the solarium operators or distributors of equipment provided full information about the risks of artificial tanning. Fifty-nine percent of web advertisements had no information and 41% provided only partial information regarding the risks of artificial tanning. Pictures with the image of bronze-tanned bodies, predominantly women, were used by all web advertisers. In light of the success of sun-safety campaigns in Australia, the findings of future epidemiological research on the prevalence of artificial tanning and sociological and anthropological research on why people utilize artificial tanning should be a basis for developing effective targeted health promotion on the elimination of artificial tanning in the country.
Reifels, L.; Mills, K.; Dückers, M.L.A.; O'Donnell, M.L.
Aims. To examine the lifetime prevalence and risk of psychiatric disorders associated with natural and man-made disaster exposure in Australia. Methods. We utilised data from a nationally representative population survey (N = 8841) which were analysed through univariate and multivariate logistic
This publication contains annual and quarterly statistics of exploration for minerals in Australia. Part 1 sets out statistics of exploration for minerals and oil shale for which data are no longer available for separate publication. Part 2 gives details of petroleum exploration.
Upstream engagement is commonly regarded as necessary for the smooth implementation of new technologies, particularly when there is an impact on health. Is the healthcare context in Australia geared toward such public engagement? There are established engagement practices for issues of healthcare resourcing, for example; however, the situation becomes more complex with the introduction of a new technology such as nanomedicine.
Mackenzie, B.W.; Whillans, R.T.; Williams, R.M.; Doggett, M.D.
This study compared the impact of taxation on the economic viability and competitive position of uranium mining in Canada and Australia. The evaluation is based on four types of uranium deposit and four hypothetical project models. The deposits are assumed to have been discovered and delineated, and are awaiting a mine development decision. The models, initially appraised on a before-tax basis, are then subjected to taxation in each of six jurisdictions. Several taxation criteria are assessed in each case, including after-tax measures of investment incentive, discounted tax revenues, effective tax rates, intergovernmental tax shares, and comparative tax levels. The impact of taxation is shown to be both high and variable. The taxation systems in Saskatchewan and Australia's Northern Territory generate the most government revenue and provide the lowest incentive for investment. Canada's Northwest Territories and Ontario provide the best investment incentive and collect the least amount of taxes. South Australia and Western Australia tend to be positioned between these extremes. The study demonstrates that only the very best uranium mining projects have a chance of being developed under current market conditions, and even these can be rendered uneconomic by excessive taxation regimes. It follows that exceptionally good quality targets will have to be identified to provide the economic justification for uranium exploration. These realities will likely restrict uranium exploration and development activities for some time, not an unexpected response to a market situation where low prices have been caused largely by excess supply. (L.L.)
Current Australian government business and economic policies as they affect the mining industry are discussed. The distribution of constitutional and taxing powers in Australia between state and commonwealth governments and possible inappropriate taxes and other policies can have an adverse effect on resource development. The effects of these policies on both coal and uranium mining are discussed
Thomson, J.E.M.; Tingey, D.R.C.
Recent surveys in various countries have shown that computed tomography (CT) is a significant and growing contributor to the radiation dose from diagnostic radiology. Australia, with 332 CT scanners (18 per million people), is well endowed with CT equipment compared to European countries (6 to 13 per million people). Only Japan, with 8500 units (78 per million people), has a significantly higher proportion of CT scanners. In view of this, a survey of CT facilities, frequency of examinations, techniques and patient doses has been performed in Australia. It is estimated that there are 1 million CT examinations in Australia each year, resulting in a collective effective dose of 7000 Sv and a per caput dose of 0.39 mSv. This per caput dose is much larger than found in earlier studies in the UK and New Zealand but is less than 0.48 mSv in Japan. Using the ICRP risk factors, radiation doses from CT could be inducing about 280 fatal cancers per year in Australia. CT is therefore a significant, if not the major, single contributor to radiation doses and possible risk from diagnostic radiology. (authors)
Juswara, L.S.; Craven, L.A.
The Hibiscus panduriformis Burm.f. species complex in Australia is revised. Six species are recognised, of which one is the widespread H. panduriformis; one, H. austrinus, is based upon H. panduriformis var. australis; and four represent new species, H. apodus, H. calcicola, H. fluvialis, and H.
Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Molnar, T.A.
Worldwide, extreme climate risks cause stakeholders in food supply chains to search for new risk management tools. In Australia, recently so-called crop yield simulation insurance has been introduced based on an integrated agrometeorological simulation model. Current uptake is relatively low,
World Bank; International Finance Corporation
This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 thro...
World Bank Group
This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2017 is the 14th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing...
The recent A$4,746 million privatisation of the 2000MW Loy Yang A power station and the Loy Yang coal mine by the Victorian Government is Australia's largest privatisation and one of 1997's largest project financing deals. (author)
World Bank Group
This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Australia. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it....
Sadler, Elaine M.
Australian astronomy has a bright future, thanks largely to recent government investments in major new telescopes, instruments and research centres. There are some short-term challenges as Australia's focus continues to shift from the current (mainly) national facilities for radio and optical astronomy to new multinational and global facilities.
Kirkland, Peter D.; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah
Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog?s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses.
Garratt, J. R.; Hicks, B. B.
A brief summary is given of five main field experiments (or sets of expeditions) carried out in Australia in the last thirty years. The main objectives and results of each are described, and an indication is given of their impact on progress in our understanding of the planetary boundary layer (PBL).
Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid
International education is the third largest export industry in Australia and is worth almost A$20 billion. The last ten years have witnessed significant growth in both onshore and offshore enrolments of international students in Australian universities. The offshore component of all Australian universities has been subject to scrutiny by the…
Brown, Alex D.H.; Mentha, Ricky; Rowley, Kevin G.
groups comprising of members from primary Indigenous language groups in central Australia. First, focus group participants were asked to review and select a screening measure for adaptation. Bi-lingual experts then translated and back translated the language within the selected measure. Focus group...
As the international community moves inexorably towards a "smart" future, the position of Australia's non-urban areas in that future is less certain. The (re-elected) Australian federal government made a commitment to moving Australian cities forward as part of the international "smart city" movement. However, the effectiveness…
This agreement provides for the exchange of nuclear materials and equipment between Canada and Australia and specifies the safeguards and other protective measures that shall be employed to ensure the peaceful use of the nuclear technology shared between the two countries
Australia's support for the IAEA's safeguards program is described. Through a program of bilateral assistance to the Agency, Austrlia has developed and sponsored special programs of assistance to the IAEA's Safeguards over the period 1980 to 1986. The speech by the Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade, Mr Bill Hayden, to the IAEA Thirtieth Anniversary Conference in Vienna on 21 September 1987 is included
Severne, B C; Brooks, R R
A small shrub Hybanthus floribundus (Lindl.) F. Muell. Violaceae growing in Western Australia accumulates nickel and cobalt to a very high degree. Values of up to 23% nickel in leaf ash may represent the highest relative accumulation of a metal on record. The high accumulation of nickel poses interesting problems in plant physiology and plant biochemistry. 9 references, 2 figures, 1 table.
Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.
Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…
Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P
The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities.
A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages.
Bone and Tissue Banking has been undergoing a significant metamorphosis in Australia since the publication by Simonds et al in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1992. That paper dealt with the transmission of HIV-1 from a sero negative organ and tissue donor to seven unsuspecting recipients. Forty eight recipients all received material from that donor, and only 7 of them sero converted. Those 7 received tissue which had not been processed. The remaining 41 patients received processed tissue and did not sero converted. New emerging challenges have similarly been noted in the form of Hepatitis C, HIV-2 and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The Australian Orthopaedic Association has formed a National Bone and Tissue Banking Subcommittee, which in turn has produced a national guideline document. That Association aims to promote safety and efficiency in tissue banking, assist with the establishment of regional and institutional banks, maintain ongoing quality control programmes, and maintain a national register. Current testing protocol for donors and allograft segments will be explained. In addition, emphasis will be placed upon the need for a proper administrative structure within a bone and tissue blank, including the formation of a management board, listing of hierarchy and responsibility with positions, the maintenance of an up-to-date procedure manual, and a quality assurance programme. Internal safety audits are also mandatory. The paper will deal with the need for secondary sterilisation and outline both donor and recipient demographs throughout Australia. The Federal Department of Human Services and Health through its Therapeutic Goods Administration has recently published a Code of Good Manufacturing Practice. The implications of this code will be canvassed
Full Text Available Background. Smoking causes ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lung cancer killing 15,000 Australians every year. Despite extensive publicity of the harmful health effects of smoking, one in six Australian aged 15 years and over smoked daily representing 2.7 million active smokers. Objectives. The research aimed to comprehend how active university student smokers respond to different appeals employed in public service antismoking campaigns in Western Australia. Material and methods. The study examined the Quit Victoria 2006–2008 antismoking campaign using qualitative research method involving four in-depth focus group discussions with a total of twenty-four (N = 24 active male university student smokers in Western Australia between the age group of 18 to 24 years. Results . Male university students became active smokers because of the perceived image of ‘coolness,’ ‘macho,’ media influence and experimentation. Impact on sports performances predominantly encouraged respondents in attempting to quit smoking. Sixteen students (67% felt that graphic warning messages on cigarette packs had no effect on them due to desensitizing effects of repeated messages. Twenty-one participants (87.5% felt that health shock appeal was ineffective in making them quit. Emotional appeals like humor, fear, and health shock were most persuasive in advertising messages which would assist in smoking cessation. Therefore, antismoking campaigns with shock health appeals were ineffective in helping smokers to abdicate smoking. Results suggested employing emotional or combination of rational and emotional appeals in maximizing the effectiveness of antismoking advertisements. Conclusions . The study broadens the scope of devising effective antismoking campaigns and provide insightful implications for public health promoters as well as individualized care providers.
Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee
In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…
...), and (ii) The mangoes were inspected prior to export from Australia and found free of C. mangiferae, L.... APHIS-2011-0040] RIN 0579-AD52 Importation of Mangoes From Australia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... concerning the importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of fresh mangoes from Australia...
D'Souza, Clare; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.
Social acceptance is necessary for widespread adoption of new renewable energy technologies. A lack of social acceptance by local community residents is a barrier to increasing the renewable energy mix and targets in Australia. This study empirically evaluated predictor importance of key constructs of social acceptance, using responses from a sample of 226 survey respondents in Australia. Regression analysis suggest that ‘Concerns with wind turbines’ was the predictor most strongly correlated with Social Acceptance, followed by ‘Annoyance with wind turbines’, and then ‘Consultation with stakeholders’. Implications of the study and recommendations for consideration by various interest groups (such as policy makers, and potential entrepreneurs) are discussed. This research contributes to theory building rather than theory testing of social acceptance of wind energy development
Full Text Available This study introduces Net Export (NX models to examine the determinants of the trade flows between Australia and eight selected trading partner (TP countries (China, France, Germany, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States of America in four selected Trade Deficit (TD categories (Pharmaceutical Products; Nuclear Reactors, Boilers, Machinery and Mechanical Appliances; Electrical Machinery and Equipment; Sound Recorders and Producers, and Vehicles Other Than Railway or Tramway Rolling-Stock. A total of 29 NX models are estimated, which are based on both the monetary and Quantity (QTY values. Findings in this study suggest that macroeconomic variables such as money supply, interest rates and savings rates have no-significant effect in the determination of the NX levels in the selected categories. This highlights that monetary policy cannot influence the NX levels in the selected TD categories in Australia. This study also identifies some policy implications which arise from this paper.
Uranium is produced at two mining/milling operations in Australia - Ranger in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, and Olympic Dam in South Australia. In 1996, Ranger produced 4138 tonnes (t) U 3 O 8 from stockpiled ore mined from Ranger No. 1 Orebody. The capacity of the Ranger mill is being expanded to 5000 tonnes per annum (tpa) U 3 O 8 to coincide with the commencement of mining from No. 3 Orebody in mid-1997. The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold-silver deposit is the world's largest deposit of low cost uranium. The operation currently has an annual production of 85,000 t copper, 1700 t U 3 O 8 and associated gold and silver. WMC Ltd proposes to expand annual production to 200 000 t copper and approximately 4600 t U 3 O 8 by end of 1999. The environmental impact of the expansion is being assessed jointly by both Commonwealth and South Australian Governments. A draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was released in May. Since its election in March 1996, the Liberal/National Party Coalition Government has made a number of changes to the Commonwealth Government's policies relating to uranium mining, including removal of the former Government's 'three mines' policy, and relaxation of the guidelines for foreign investment in Australian uranium mines. These changes, together with an improved outlook for the uranium market, have resulted in proposals to develop new mines at Jabiluka (Northern Territory), Kintyre (Western Australia) and Beverley (South Australia). Energy Resources of Australia Ltd proposes to develop an underground mine at Jabiluka with the ore to be processed at Ranger mill. Initial production will be 1800 tpa U 3 O 8 which will increase to 4000 tpa U 3 O 8 by the 14th year. The draft EIS was released for public comment in October 1996, and the final EIS is to be released in June 1997. Canning Resources Ltd proposes to mine the Kintyre deposit by open cut methods commencing in 1999 with an annual production of 1200 tpa U 3 O 8
Central to the execution of ANSTO's objectives has been the operation since 1958 of the multipurpose HIFAR research reactor and related infrastructure. However, HIFAR's irradiation facilities, which are used for the provision of radiopharmaceuticals essential for nuclear medicine in Australia, have a limited capacity. The author stated that HIFAR's neutron beam facilities, which are needed by Australian scientists to undertake basic structural studies on a wide range of materials, are unable to provide the resolution and information required to keep Australia in the league of technologically advanced nations. The neutron flux and design limitations of older reactors such as HIFAR inhibit the upgrading of neutron beam facilities to modern standards. It is emphasised that while the cost of the new reactor is a vital issue, what is a prevailing importance is analyses of the cost-benefit and effectiveness of the new reactor, which will be undertaken by the Research Reactor Review. Some of these benefits are briefly outlined. ills
Early this year new Timor Gap Treaty arrangements were concluded between Australia and East Timor -with the blessing of Indonesia -and it was once again 'business as usual' in the Timor Sea. This was quickly confirmed in February when the US$1.4 billion (A$2.4 billion at current exchange rates) Stage 1 of the Bayu Undan Project was approved by the Timor Gap Zone of Co-operation Joint Authority. This meant the green light for the project, which involves the extraction and export of condensate (a light oil) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) from the Bayu Undan fields, 500 km north west of Darwin. The proposed development would involve a total investment of $5 billion in offshore and onshore gas production and processing facilities, pipelines, petrochemical facilities and other customer developments. Royalties from Bayu Undan will be shared equally between Australia and east Timor, thus providing significant revenue to underpin the economic development of East Timor
Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.
We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259
The Australian Anti-Dumping Authority (ADA0) has imposed dumping duties on imports of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin from seven countries and on certain expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads from Korea and Singapore. The decisions come at the end of two separate investigations begun earlier this year. In its first finding, the ADA concluded that there has been dumping of PVC resin from Canada, China, France, Japan, Norway, Saudi Arabia, and Thailand, which has caused and threatens to cause material injury to the domestic PVC industry. An eighth country, Romania, was found not to have been exporting PVC to Australia. The case is the second of its kind in Australia focusing on PVC. In December 1991 the ADA found in favor of local producer sin a dumping complaint against Argentina, Brazil, Hungary, Israel, Korea, Mexico, Poland, Singapore, Taiwan, and the US
Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.
Coster, Douglas J
Corneal transplantation is a triumph of modern ophthalmology. The possibility of corneal transplantation was first raised in 1797 but a century passed before Zirm achieved the first successful penetrating graft in 1905. Gibson reported the first corneal graft in Australia from Brisbane in 1940 and English established the first eye bank there a few years later. Corneal transplantation evolved steadily over the twentieth century. In the second half of the century, developments in microsurgery, including surgical materials such as monofilament nylon and strong topical steroid drops, accounted for improvements in outcomes. In 2013, approximately 1500 corneal transplants were done in Australia. Eye banking has evolved to cope with the rising demands for donor corneas. Australian corneal surgeons collaborated to establish and support the Australian Corneal Graft Registry in 1985. It follows the outcomes of their surgery and has become an important international resource for surgeons seeking further improvement with the procedure. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Full Text Available The paper explores some of the issues concerning the transmission of Chinese medicine in Australia, its practitioner training and the future of Chinese medicine as a distinct medical discipline in the Australian context. In China over the last century Chinese medicine was overhauled in order to align it with the biomedical perspective prevalent in the West. These changes, in turn, had important consequences for the transmission of CM in Australia and the West. But while the biomedicalisation of CM has offered the path of least resistance, it has also lead to unworkable simplifications and methodological failures. The paper thus argues for a renewed access to the tradition’s primary sources in order to ally the distinctive features and methods of traditional practice with biomedicine, as an alternative to an outright integration into biomedical practice.
Isdale, William; Savulescu, Julian
In 2008 the Australian Government introduced a national reform agenda to increase organ and tissue donation. Australia continues to perform poorly by international standards on measures of organ procurement, however. This paper outlines three proposals to improve donation rates and considers the empirical evidence available for each. A number of ethical objections frequently given to resist such proposals are also addressed. Firstly, it is recommended that Australia implement an 'opt-out' system of organ donation. Secondly, the existing veto rules should be changed to better protect the wishes of those who wish to donate. Finally, a numer of incentives should be offered to increase donation rates; these could include incentives of financial value, but also non-financial incentives such as prioritisation for the receipt of organs for previous donors.
Zimin, S.; Cross, R.C.
The new status of the H-INF Heliac Stellaralor as a National Facility and the signed international Implementing Agreement on 'Collaboration in the Development of the Stellarator Concept' represents a significant encouragement for further fusion research in Australia. In this report the future of fusion research in Australia is discussed with special attention being paid to the importance of Stellarator power plant studies and in particular stellarator fusion neutronics. The main differences between tokamak and stellarator neutronics analyses are identified, namely the neutron wall loading, geometrical modelling and total heating in in-vessel reactor components including toroidal field (TF) coils. Due to the more complicated nature of stellarator neutronics analyses, simplified approaches to fusion neutronics already developed for tokamaks are expected to be even more important and widely used for designing a Conceptual Stellarator Power Plant
Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.
Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.
Champion de Crespigny, R.J. [Normandy Mining Ltd., Adelaide (Australia)
Australia has been a leader in global mineral exploration expenditure since 1993. It is a country with an outstanding exploration record, vast tracts of land, and minimal exploration with great datasets. It is also one of the world's most stable governments where projects are easily developed with world class technology and people. Although Australian exploration has been successful, trends must be carefully observed to see if the cycle may turn. The best success rate has been for gold. Between 1970 and 2000, 136 discoveries were made, including 7 significant deposits with greater than 12 m ozs reserves operating or under construction. There are 11 advanced projects with potential for more than 40 m ozs. Other successful exploration ventures in Australia have been in the mineral sands, nickel, base metals, copper and diamonds, each against difficult commodity prices. Australia is cost competitive with Africa, Asia, Latin America, Canada and the United States. It was noted that large areas of Australia still remain unexplored, with the Central Australian Proterozoic area holding more than 5,000,000 square km of prospective terrains. The paper highlighted the Lake Mackay Project, the Yilgarn Craton, exploration drilling in the Yandal region, and the mineral potential in the Westside and Barton areas. From 1995 to 2001, nine new gold mines have been successfully commissioned at a cost of half the world average. The advantages include an excellent infrastructure in camps, world class support in construction, and a favourable Australian dollar and tax regime. The paper also described major projects commissioned between 1996 and 2000 for base metals (lead, zinc, silver and copper), nickel, aluminium and magnesium. 15 figs.
Kiely, Patricia M; Cappuccio, Skye; McIntyre, Ellen
This paper presents results from the inaugural Scope of Practice Survey of Optometry Australia members conducted in October 2015. The survey gathered information related to confidence in detecting and diagnosing key ocular conditions, grading diabetic retinopathy, prescribing scheduled medicines, access to equipment, confidence using equipment, incidence of patients requiring therapeutic management, referral practices and services provided. The survey was developed, piloted, modified and administered to members of Optometry Australia (excluding student and retired members), who had a current email address. Results were collated and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Of the 587 optometrists in clinical practice who responded, 254 (43 per cent) had therapeutic endorsement of registration. The majority of respondents practised in a major city or surrounding suburbs (63 per cent). Independent practice was the most frequently cited practice type (58 per cent). The estimated average number of patients seen in a week was 48; there was a steady decrease in the number of patients per week with increasing age, from 53 for optometrists in their 20s to 27 for optometrists aged over 70. There was very high confidence (over 93 per cent) in ability to grade diabetic retinopathy and diagnose a range of ocular conditions. Confidence in performance of more advanced techniques was higher for endorsed than non-endorsed optometrists. Approximately 12 per cent of patients required a Schedule 4 therapeutic prescription. The most frequently recommended over-the-counter medications were for dry eye for both endorsed and non-endorsed optometrists. The most frequently prescribed Schedule 4 medications were anti-inflammatories. The most challenging conditions to prescribe for were glaucoma, microbial keratitis and uveitis. Approximately one in six therapeutically endorsed optometrists reported unexpected side effects of medications they had prescribed. Information from the survey will guide
ANDREW GREGORY RUSH
This thesis focuses on the relationship between life satisfaction and a range of social, health, economic and demographic indicators. The data used in this study was collected from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Results showed variables such as job satisfaction, marital status, as well as indicators of health and communication participation, to be associated with higher satisfaction rates. By contrast, education, income, and number of children were unre...
We live in the information age. Statistical thinking is a life skill that all Australian children should have. The Statistical Society of Australia (SSAI) and the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) have been working on a strategy to ensure Australian school children acquire a sufficient understanding and appreciation of how data can be acquired and used so they can make informed judgements in their daily lives, as children and then as adults. There is another motive for our work i...
Barkla, Sally; Modi, Sunny
Leprosy (Hansen's disease) is caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae. It is an infectious, chronic granulomatous disease transmitted through close contact. The latest current data shows that in 2010, eleven new cases of leprosy were reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia. We report the case of a patient with untreated chronic lepromatous leprosy diagnosed in Queensland, 2012. Delay in diagnosis may have been due to the rarity of this condition.
Full Text Available Leprosy (Hansen’s disease is caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae. It is an infectious, chronic granulomatous disease transmitted through close contact. The latest current data shows that in 2010, eleven new cases of leprosy were reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia. We report the case of a patient with untreated chronic lepromatous leprosy diagnosed in Queensland, 2012. Delay in diagnosis may have been due to the rarity of this condition.
Sally Barkla; Sunny Modi
Leprosy (Hansen’s disease) is caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae. It is an infectious, chronic granulomatous disease transmitted through close contact. The latest current data shows that in 2010, eleven new cases of leprosy were reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia. We report the case of a patient with untreated chronic lepromatous leprosy diagnosed in Queensland, 2012. Delay in diagnosis may have been due to the rarity ...
Smith, Elizabeth; Whitelaw, John
Does the United States have a 51st state called Australia? A superficial look at the artificial intelligence (AI) research being done here could give that impression. A look beneath the surface, though, indicates some fundamental differences and reveals a dynamic and rapidly expanding AI community. General awareness of the Australian AI research community has been growing slowly for some time. AI was once considered a bit esoteric -- the domain of an almost lunatic fringe- but the large gover...
Hassan, Salleh; Christopher, Theo
Key words: Australia; Accounting standard; Efﬁcient contracting; Lease accounting; Signalling The objective of this study is to examine the economic factors motivating Australian listed lessee ﬁrms to adopt capitalization of ﬁnance leases policy from 1985 to 1987 as permitted by the transitional provision of AAS 17. Capitalization is considered as the preferred accounting policy for ﬁnance leases compared to footnote disclosure. Adopting a joint efﬁcient contracting and quality signaling pers...
Tizi, Stephanie; Nixon, Rosemary L
Patch testing (PT) is essential for making the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). However, the extent of PT undertaken by Australian dermatologists is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the rate and type of PT in Australia, the perceived obstacles to PT, and to explore the exposure to PT in dermatology training. Data were collected on private PT (analysing Medicare item numbers) and public hospital-based PT (estimated via verbal reports). An online survey on PT was sent to Fellows of the Australasian College of Dermatologists. It was found that total PT numbers, combining Medicare item number and public hospital data, were below the suggested optimum in all states and in Australia overall. Of the 173 respondents to the survey, 61% reported they patch tested and 78% reported they referred for PT. TrueTest was the most commonly used PT system, although it is known to be inadequate. Dermatologists who PT as registrars were significantly more likely to PT as consultants (P value = 0.0029). Cost, expertise required and staffing were considered major obstacles to performing PT. Accessibility and cost to the patient were common obstacles to referral. The combination of suboptimal PT rates and inadequate PT means that patients are missing out on being diagnosed with ACD in Australia. Increasing the exposure of registrars to PT, supporting specialised centres, the development of the Australian Baseline Series and the Contact Allergen Bank will, it is hoped, improve the rates of comprehensive PT in Australia. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Full Text Available Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation.Australian data on general practice (GP encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013 were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period.All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods. Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time.The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly.
Sly, J Leith; Moore, Sophie E; Gore, Fiona; Brune, Marie Noel; Neira, Maria; Jagals, Paul; Sly, Peter D
Adverse environmental exposures in early life increase the risk of chronic disease but do not attract the attention nor receive the public health priority warranted. A safe and healthy environment is essential for children's health and development, yet absent in many countries. A framework that aids in understanding the link between environmental exposures and adverse health outcomes are environmental health indicators-numerical estimates of hazards and outcomes that can be applied at a population level. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a set of children's environmental health indicators (CEHI) for physical injuries, insect-borne disease, diarrheal diseases, perinatal diseases, and respiratory diseases; however, uptake of steps necessary to apply these indicators across the WHO regions has been incomplete. A first indication of such uptake is the management of data required to measure CEHI. The present study was undertaken to determine whether Australia has accurate up-to-date, publicly available, and readily accessible data on each CEHI for indigenous and nonindigenous Australian children. Data were not readily accessible for many of the exposure indicators, and much of the available data were not child specific or were only available for Australia's indigenous population. Readily accessible data were available for all but one of the outcome indicators and generally for both indigenous and nonindigenous children. Although Australia regularly collects data on key national indicators of child health, development, and well-being in several domains mostly thought to be of more relevance to Australians and Australian policy makers, these differ substantially from the WHO CEHI. The present study suggests that the majority of these WHO exposure and outcome indicators are relevant and important for monitoring Australian children's environmental health and establishing public health interventions at a local and national level and collection of appropriate
Full Text Available Mining in Australia has traditionally delivered a strong development multiplier for regional communities where most mines are based. This relationship has weakened in recent decades as a result of the introduction of mobile workforces - typically known as fly in, fly out. Political parties have responded with policies known as ‘royalties for regions’, though in designing them they overlooked long established Indigenous arrangements for sharing benefits with areas affected directly by mining.
Mason, G.C.; Lokan, K.H.
Australia is revising its existing recommendations concerning radiation protection in the light of guidance from the International Commission on Radiological Protection's Publication 60 and the International Atomic Energy Agency's revision of its Basic Safety Standards. The paper discusses the major refinements of the ICRP's recommendations and the additional guidance on its practical implementation offered by the IAEA's new Basic Safety Standards. Following public comment, the revised Australian recommendations are expected to be adopted by the end of 1994. 15 refs
The development of new energy technologies worldwide is a result of the depletion of fossil fuel and non-renewable resources and of the collective awareness about the potential consequences of the greenhouse effect. The strong dependence of Australia with respect to fossil fuels is a consequence of its abundant resources (mainly coal) but leads to important CO 2 emissions. Australia is thus the first emitter of greenhouse gases per habitant in the world and its contribution to global emissions is of 1.6% for only 0.3% of the world population. Fortunately, despite fossil fuel reserves amply sufficient with respect to the needs, the production of clean energy is developing in Australia and research programs have been implemented for the exploration of new energy generation technologies: wind turbines for weak winds, hybrid wind-diesel power systems, oscillating wave column (OWC) power generation systems, bio-energetic cultivation techniques (combined production of eucalyptus oil, of activated charcoal, and of electricity with soil desalination), photovoltaic power generation, EnviroMission project of giant solar tower, research on hydrogen production techniques (solar thermal conversion of natural gas, water electrolysis with photo-electrodes), fuel cells for domestic cogeneration, hot dry rock geothermal systems. (J.S.)
Full Text Available The Asian immigration debate has become one of the most contentious topics of debate in Australia. Little about the debate is new and most of the arguments, both in favour and against, begin with demographic considerations, then move on to the economic consequences of immigration and the social and cultural ramifications. Delving deeper into the debate, one will realize that there is an underlying assumption of the economic theory of laissez-faire, which is the driving force of the debate. The new realities of global electronic commerce with laissez-faire economic theory have been transposed onto Australia's immigration policy. The government welcomes the "elite" of the knowledge workers because they are the real generators of wealth. However, the government is also aware that maximizing its benefit out of these immigrants, it must minimize the costs associated with them, such as maintenance cost of their sponsored parents. The analysis, while dispelling the myth of increasing immigration costs, confirmed the urgent need to shift the focus of societal pluralism from an economic one that is rooted in competition and self-interest individualism, to pluralism that is rooted in social organization. This is where society is seen as cooperative units rather than of competing units, that is Asians and non-Asians contributing to Australia as a cooperative group of people. The government promotion of division in society with its archaic politics to instill the 'metic' status for new immigrants may prove detrimental to its effort to attract elite wealth generator migrants.
Cahill, Jennifer L; Williams, Jason D; Matheson, Melanie C; Palmer, Amanda M; Burgess, John A; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Nixon, Rosemary L
To describe the characteristics of patients with occupational skin disease (OSD) in a tertiary referral clinic in Victoria, Australia. A retrospective review was conducted of records from patients seen at the Occupational Dermatology Clinic in Melbourne, Australia between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2010. Of the 2894 people assessed in the clinic during the 18-year period, 44% were women and 56% were men. In all, 2177 (75%) were diagnosed with occupational skin disease (OSD). Of the patients with a work-related skin condition, 45% (n = 979) were considered to be atopic. The most common diagnosis in those with OSD was irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) (44%), followed by allergic contact dermatitis (33%) and endogenous eczema (11%). Women were significantly more likely to have soaps and detergents (P Occupational groups with the highest incidence of OSD were the hair and beauty professions (70 per 100 000), followed by machine and plant operators (38 per 100 000) and health-care workers (21 per 100 000). We confirm the importance of occupational contact dermatitis as the most common cause of OSD, with ICD being the most common diagnosis. There are differences in the causes of ICD between our group of male and female workers. For the first time in Australia, rates of OSD in certain industries have been calculated. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date assessment of observed climate change over Australia, the likely causes, and projections of future changes to Australia's climate. It also provides information on how to apply the projections in impact studies and in risk assessments. The two main strategies for managing climate risk are mitigation (net reductions in greenhouse gas emissions) to slow climate change and adaptation to climate impacts that are unavoidable. A number of major advances have been made since the last report on climate change projections in Australia (CSIRO 2001) including: a much larger number of climate and ocean variables are projected (21 and 6 respectively); a much larger number (23) of climate models are used; the provision of probabilistic information on some of the projections, including the probability of exceeding the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles; greater emphasis on projections from models that are better able to simulate observed Australian climate; a detailed assessment of observed changes in Australian climate and likely causes; and information on risk assessment, to provide guidance for using climate projections in impact studies
Briggs, David R.
Complementary medicines, including herbal medicines in Australia are regulated under therapeutics goods legislation. Based on risk, Australia has developed a two tiered approach to the regulation of therapeutic goods. Listed medicines are considered to be of lower risk than Registered medicines. Most, but not all, complementary medicines are Listed medicines. Managing the risk associated with therapeutic goods, including complementary medicines, is exerted through the processes of licensing of manufacturers; pre-market assessment of products; and post-market regulatory activity. Herbal medicines may be associated with low or high risk depending on the toxicity of ingredients, proposed dosage, appropriateness of the indications and claims for self-diagnosis and management and the potential for adverse reactions. Registered medicines are individually evaluated for safety, quality and efficacy before they are released onto the market. Listed medicines are individually assessed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration for compliance with legislation, they are not evaluated before release. They may only be formulated from ingredients that have undergone pre-market evaluation for safety and quality and are considered low risk. Listed complementary medicines may only carry indications and claims for the symptomatic relief of non-serious conditions, health maintenance, health enhancement and risk reduction. An important feature of risk management in Australia is that early market access for low risk complementary medicines is supported by appropriate post-market regulatory activity
Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C; Muller, Craig; Sousa, Vitor C; Lao, Oscar; Alves, Isabel; Bergström, Anders; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Crawford, Jacob E; Heupink, Tim H; Macholdt, Enrico; Peischl, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; Schiffels, Stephan; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L; Albrechtsen, Anders; Barbieri, Chiara; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Eriksson, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Moltke, Ida; Pugach, Irina; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Levkivskyi, Ivan P; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Ni, Shengyu; Racimo, Fernando; Sikora, Martin; Xue, Yali; Aghakhanian, Farhang A; Brucato, Nicolas; Brunak, Søren; Campos, Paula F; Clark, Warren; Ellingvåg, Sturla; Fourmile, Gudjugudju; Gerbault, Pascale; Injie, Darren; Koki, George; Leavesley, Matthew; Logan, Betty; Lynch, Aubrey; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; McAllister, Peter J; Mentzer, Alexander J; Metspalu, Mait; Migliano, Andrea B; Murgha, Les; Phipps, Maude E; Pomat, William; Reynolds, Doc; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Siba, Peter; Thomas, Mark G; Wales, Thomas; Wall, Colleen Ma'run; Oppenheimer, Stephen J; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard; Dortch, Joe; Manica, Andrea; Schierup, Mikkel H; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Bowern, Claire; Wall, Jeffrey D; Mailund, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Nielsen, Rasmus; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Excoffier, Laurent; Lambert, David M; Willerslev, Eske
The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ~10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert.
The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved
Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C.; Muller, Craig; Sousa, Vitor C.; Lao, Oscar; Alves, Isabel; Bergströ m, Anders; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y.; Crawford, Jacob E.; Heupink, Tim H.; Macholdt, Enrico; Peischl, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; Schiffels, Stephan; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L.; Albrechtsen, Anders; Barbieri, Chiara; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Eriksson, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Moltke, Ida; Pugach, Irina; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.; Levkivskyi, Ivan P.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Ví ctor; Ni, Shengyu; Racimo, Fernando; Sikora, Martin; Xue, Yali; Aghakhanian, Farhang A.; Brucato, Nicolas; Brunak, Sø ren; Campos, Paula F.; Clark, Warren; Ellingvå g, Sturla; Fourmile, Gudjugudju; Gerbault, Pascale; Injie, Darren; Koki, George; Leavesley, Matthew; Logan, Betty; Lynch, Aubrey; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; McAllister, Peter J.; Mentzer, Alexander J.; Metspalu, Mait; Migliano, Andrea B.; Murgha, Les; Phipps, Maude E.; Pomat, William; Reynolds, Doc; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Siba, Peter; Thomas, Mark G.; Wales, Thomas; Wall, Colleen Ma’ run; Oppenheimer, Stephen J.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard; Dortch, Joe; Manica, Andrea; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Foley, Robert A.; Lahr, Marta Mirazó n; Bowern, Claire; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Mailund, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Nielsen, Rasmus; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Excoffier, Laurent; Lambert, David M.; Willerslev, Eske
The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved
Carlson, J.; Bardsley, J.
Australia's current nuclear regulatory arrangements reflect two major factors: that we are a federation, with a constitutional division of powers between the Commonwealth and the States, and that we have no nuclear industry, other than uranium mining. Australia's only nuclear facilities are operated by a Commonwealth instrumentality, ANSTO. Current Commonwealth regulatory arrangements are a response to international treaty commitments -principally the NPT (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons) -and to the commencement of commercial uranium mining and export in the late 1970's. Although at present no nuclear industry activities, other than mining, are in prospect, this might not always be the case, and with the establishment of ARPANSA (the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency) it is timely to give some thought to regulatory arrangements which might be appropriate to Australia's future circumstances. This paper will discuss the regulation activities relating to the nuclear fuel cycle , i e activities involved with the production and use of nuclear materials (uranium, thorium and plutonium) for the generation of energy through nuclear fission
This paper describes the development and practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia. Clinical Neuropsychology has shown rapid growth in Australia over the past three decades. Comprehensive and specialized training programs are producing high quality graduates who are employed in a broad range of settings or private practice. Australia now has a substantial number of clinical neuropsychologists with specialist training. Whilst the majority of Australian clinical neuropsychologists still undertake assessment predominantly, there are growing opportunities for clinical neuropsychologists in rehabilitation and in a broad range of research contexts. Cultural issues relating to the assessment of Indigenous Australians and immigrants from many countries present significant challenges. Some major contributions have been made in the realms of test development and validation across various age groups. Australian clinical neuropsychologists are also contributing significantly to research in the fields of traumatic brain injury, aging and dementias, epilepsy, memory assessment, rehabilitation, substance abuse, and other psychiatric disorders. Expansion of roles of clinical neuropsychologists, in domains such as rehabilitation and research is seen as essential to underpin continuing growth of employment opportunities for the profession.
Thomson, J.E.M.; Tingey, D.R.C.
Recent surveys in the UK and New Zealand have shown that although the number of CT examinations small compared to conventional Radiology, CT contributes about 20% to the overall dose from diagnostic radiology. In view of these findings and the rapid increase in the number of CT facilities in recent years, a survey of the number of facilities, frequency of examination, techniques and patient doses has been performed. Australia, with 329 units is well endowed with CT equipment compared to European Countries and New Zealand. For many examinations a wide range was found in the number of slices and slice widths used and this led to a large spread in the corresponding doses. Assuming the practices of the non-responders are statistically similar to those who responded, some preliminary estimates of population doses can be made. There could be as many as 1.1 million CT examinations each year in Australia resulting in a per capur effectie dose of 0.36 mSv. Although the results of this survey are still subject to some refinement, they indicate that CT is a major, and possibly the dominant, contributor to doses from diagnostic radiology in Australia. (author)
Hall, Richard; Bretherton, Tanya; Buchanan, John
A study investigated implications of the increase in non-standard forms of employment (casual work, working through labor-hire companies, and work that is outsourced) for vocational education and training (VET) in Australia. Data sources were published statistics on growth of non-standard work; research on reasons for the growth and the business…
Dallat, Clare; Goode, Natassia; Salmon, Paul M.
Inadequate risk assessment has been implicated as a contributory factor in the deaths and injuries of participants on led outdoor activity (LOA) programmes in both Australia and overseas. The identification and assessment of risks is a required component of LOA programmes, and multiple risk assessment methods and techniques are available to the…
After prolonged negotiations, Australian suppliers and Japanese buyers have reached agreement on the benchmark thermal coal prices for the Japanese financial year 2000 (April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001). The benchmark price as negotiated with the Chubu and Tohoku power utilities is about US$1.20 down on last year's price of $29.95. The actual price change to each supplier varies slightly depending on the calorific value of each product as calculated against a benchmark value of 6700kcal/kg on a gross air-dried basis. It is strange, but the Australians and Japanese both have some reason to crow about the outcome of the negotiation. In US dollar terms, compared with April 1, 1999, the suppliers have secured a price rise from A$45.39 to A$47.97; while the Japanese can point to having achieved a price reduction from Y3551/t to Y3162/t. The joys of exchange rate fluctuations. The result can only be seen as a good one for Australia, especially as it is alleged that one of the Australian suppliers opened negotiations by putting a US$1 price reduction on the table. It is worth noting that the significance of the benchmark coal price is waning, with the annual negotiations in Japan covering only 14Mt of a total seaborne trade of some 450Mt. Consequently, few tonnes are marketed at the benchmark price and Australia finds itself in fierce competition with suppliers from Indonesia, China and Russia for huge, short-term tenders at FOB prices. Recent winning Australian bids have been barely over US$20/t FOBT ex east coast Australia-nearly 30% below the new US$28.75 benchmark price. Finally, on the negotiating table will come the settlements for the semi coking coals. This is where Australia should hold the trump card. Japan simply cannot replace, from other countries, the near 30Mt of high quality coal it purchases each year from Australia. But already the whiff of a US$1.45-US$1.50 price reduction hangs in the air. Copyright (2000) Australian Journal of Mining
Founded in 1992, Women in Nuclear Global (WiN Global) is a worldwide organisation that supports and encourages women working in nuclear and radiation applications. Membership of WiN is made up of chapters and individuals from over 105 countries and various international organisations. As of August 2015, WiN has approximately 25 000 members in total, some of which are men. WiN Australia Inc. (a chapter of WiN Global) was formally founded in 2005 and has grown to approximately 160 members, with two affiliate members from New Zealand. Members work in a variety of fields including research, policy, defence, meteorology, reactor engineering and maintenance, reactor operations, medical physics, law, supporting roles, nuclear medicine and medical physics, mining, academia and safeguards. The objectives of WiN Global and WiN Australia can broadly be summarised as: 1) to increase awareness and information in the public, especially amongst women and the younger generations, about the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, science and technology 2) facilitate networking between individuals, chapters and with other nuclear organisations 3) to support women working in nuclear energy, science and technology 4 )to hold an annual conference and mentor the younger generations of nuclear professionals. The 2015 WiN Annual Global Conference was held in Vienna and attracted over 450 participants from 50 countries, which highlights the remarkable success of Women in Nuclear. Notable activities carried out by WiN Australia over recent years include hosting the 2014 WiN Annual Global Conference in Sydney: securing a WiN Global Executive position for Oceania: participation in workshops, panels and conferences: ongoing leadership of two important WiN Global working groups: and transition to an incorporated Association. A new WiN Australia Executive Committee was elected in September 2015. Future plans for WiN Australia focus on increased engagement and networking with think tanks, nuclear. and
In September 1997, the Commonwealth Government of Australia announced a proposal to build a replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights in Sydney. Extensive public consultation, parliamentary debate and independent reports were prepared to ensure that the new facility would meet strict international requirements, national safety and environmental standards, and performance specifications servicing the needs of Australia - for decades to come. On 6 June 2000, Argentine company INVAP SE was announced as the preferred tenderer. In July 2000 contracts were signed between INVAP and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation for the construction the replacement reactor, due to be completed in 2005. In order to retain a strong local presence, INVAP undertook a joint venture with two of Australia's foremost heavy construction businesses. Briefly the new research reactor will be a replacement for the ageing Australian Reactor (HIFAR). Nuclear science and technology, in Australia, is no stranger to media controversy and misinformation. Understandably the announcement of a preferred tenderer followed by the signing of contracts, attracted significant national and international media attention. However in the minds of the media, the issue is far from resolved and is now a constant 'news story' in the Australian media. Baseless media stories have made claims that the project will cost double the original estimates; question the credibility of the contractors; and raise issues of international security. The project is currently linked with Australia's requirements for long term nuclear waste management and there has been an attempt to bring national Indigenous People's issues into play. Some of these issues have been profiled in the press internationally. So, just to set the record straight and give you an appropriate impression of what's 'really happening' I would like to highlight a few issues, how ANSTO dealt with these, and what was finally reported
Silberstein, R. P.; Aryal, S. K.; Durrant, J.; Pearcey, M.; Braccia, M.; Charles, S. P.; Boniecka, L.; Hodgson, G. A.; Bari, M. A.; Viney, N. R.; McFarlane, D. J.
SummaryThis paper presents the results of computer simulations of runoff from 13 major fresh and brackish river basins in south-western Australia (SWA) under climate projections obtained from 15 GCMs with three future global warming scenarios equivalent to global temperature rises of 0.7 °C, 1.0 °C and 1.3 °C by 2030. The objective was to apply an efficient methodology, consistent across a large region, to examine the implications of the best available projections in climate trends for future surface water resources. An ensemble of rainfall-runoff models was calibrated on stream flow data from 1975 to 2007 from 106 gauged catchments distributed throughout the basins of the study area. The sensitivity of runoff to projected changes in mean annual rainfall is examined using the climate 'elasticity' concept. Averaged across the study area, all 15 GCMs project declines in rainfall under all global warming scenarios with a median decline of 8% resulting in a median decline in runoff of 25%. Such uniformity in projections from GCMs is unusual. Over SWA the average annual runoff under the 5th wettest and 5th driest of the 45 projections of the 2030 climate declines by 10 and 42%, respectively. Under the 5th driest projection the runoff decline ranges from 53% in the northern region to 40% in the southern region. Strong regional variations in climate sensitivity are found with the proportional decline in runoff greatest in the northern region and the greatest volumetric declines in the wetter basins in the south. Since the mid 1970s stream flows into the major water supply reservoirs in SWA have declined by more than 50% following a 16% rainfall reduction. This has already had major implications for water resources planning and for the preservation of aquatic and riparian ecosystems in the region. Our results indicate that this reduction in runoff is likely to continue if future climate projections eventuate.
Cooper, M.B.; Ralph, B.J.; Wilks, M.J.
The levels of naturally-occurring radioactive elements in bottled mineral water, commercially available in Australia, have been assessed. The survey concentrated upon 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb, radionuclides which have a high toxicity in drinking water. Detectable levels of 226 Ra were found to range from 0.02Bq/1 to 0.32Bq/1 in locally-bottled water and from 0.02Bq/1 to 0.44Bq/1 in imported brands. 210 Pb levels were found to be generally very low ( 228 Ra content of bottled water will have a similar distribution to that of 226 Ra. Concentrations of 228 Ra in excess of 0.7Bq/1 were measured in a number of samples. The radiological health implications of the consumption of bottled mineral water are discussed with reference to existing drinking water standards and also in terms of radiation exposure and the increased risk to health. It was concluded that, although some brands of water contain radioactivity in excess of the drinking-water limits recommended by Australian and overseas authorities, the annual radiation dose to an individual will be below the dose-equivalent limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for life-long exposure. The increased risk of radiation-induced fatal disease due to the consumption of bottled mineral water is estimated to be less than 10 -5 and is therefore negligible
Ardern, Clare L; Pizzari, Tania; Wollin, Martin R; Webster, Kate E
The aim of this study was to describe the isokinetic thigh muscle strength profile of professional male football players in Australia. Concentric (60° and 240°·s(-1)) and eccentric (30° and 120°·s(-1)) hamstrings and quadriceps isokinetic strength was measured with a HUMAC NORM dynamometer. The primary variables were bilateral concentric and eccentric hamstring and quadriceps peak torque ratios, concentric hamstring-quadriceps peak torque ratios, and mixed ratios (eccentric hamstring 30°·s(-1) ÷ concentric quadriceps 240°·s(-1)). Hamstring strength imbalance was defined as deficits in any 2 of: bilateral concentric hamstring peak torque ratio imbalance. Athletes with strength imbalance had significantly reduced concentric and eccentric bilateral hamstring peak torque ratios at all angular velocities tested; and reduced eccentric quadriceps peak torque (30°·s(-1)) in their stance leg, compared with those without strength imbalance. Approximately, 1 in 4 players had preseason hamstring strength imbalance; and all strength deficits were observed in the stance leg. Concentric and eccentric hamstrings strength imbalance may impact in-season football performance and could have implications for the future risk of injury.
Baird, M; Litwin, A S
Despite the continued increase in female participation rates, Australia remains one of only two developed nations in the world without a paid maternity leave scheme. While research interest and public policy debate about paid maternity leave entitlements continues, little is known about the actual utilization of the 52 weeks unpaid parental leave that is currently available to all employees. Moreover, research and policy debate on the availability and provision of paid paternity leave has only just begun. This paper argues that, given the gendered nature of employee entitlements, it is time to re-evaluate all aspects of parental leave policy in Australia. Using unique data from a national survey of Australian employees, the paper provides a statistical analysis of the use of unpaid parental leave and the availability of paid maternity leave. The paper models the availability of paid maternity leave to Australian employees as a function of demographic and organizational characteristics, including annual income, union status, and establishment size. A parallel analysis of the likelihood that an individual has used the unpaid parental leave provision is also provided. The results show that the existing unpaid parental leave provision is rarely used and that the current availability of paid maternity leave is inequitable. The paper discusses the conceptual and policy implications of these results and concludes that a re-thinking of parental leave policy in Australia is essential if gender inequities at work and in society are to be addressed.
Tinker, Rick; Orr, Blake; Grzechnik, Marcus; Hoffmann, Emmy; Saey, Paul; Solomon, Stephen
The origin of a series of atmospheric radioxenon events detected at the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System site in Melbourne, Australia, between November 2008 and February 2009 was investigated. Backward tracking analyses indicated that the events were consistent with releases associated with hot commission testing of the Australian Nuclear Science Technology Organisation (ANSTO) radiopharmaceutical production facility in Sydney, Australia. Forward dispersion analyses were used to estimate release magnitudes and transport times. The estimated 133 Xe release magnitude of the largest event (between 0.2 and 34 TBq over a 2 d window), was in close agreement with the stack emission releases estimated by the facility for this time period (between 0.5 and 2 TBq). Modelling of irradiation conditions and theoretical radioxenon emission rates were undertaken and provided further evidence that the Melbourne detections originated from this radiopharmaceutical production facility. These findings do not have public health implications. This is the first comprehensive study of atmospheric radioxenon measurements and releases in Australia.
Hoang, Khanh; Reich, Sudrishti
This article examines the intertwining of migration law and criminal law - termed 'crimmigration' by scholars - in Australia and the United States of America, and its implications for non-citizens who engage in criminal conduct. Our comparison of the two systems demonstrates that the laws and policies in both jurisdictions are similar to a significant degree. Both have strong exclusionary policies characterised by sweeping visa cancellation/removal powers, a heavy focus on enforcement, and limited review rights. In Australia, legislative amendments in 2014 have given the executive greater powers to cancel visas and remove non-citizens on character grounds as a means of ensuring national security and public safety. This has coincided with a new law enforcement body created within the Australian Department of Immigration. These changes reflect a repurposing of migration law as a tool for managing criminal threats based on the concept of 'risk management'. Drawing on the experience of the United States - where such a 'risk management' approach is entrenched - we query the utility of this shift and highlight the potential pitfalls of pursuing such a policy for Australia.
van der Kaars, Sander; Miller, Gifford H.; Turney, Chris S. M.; Cook, Ellyn J.; Nürnberg, Dirk; Schönfeld, Joachim; Kershaw, A. Peter; Lehman, Scott J.
Environmental histories that span the last full glacial cycle and are representative of regional change in Australia are scarce, hampering assessment of environmental change preceding and concurrent with human dispersal on the continent ca. 47,000 years ago. Here we present a continuous 150,000-year record offshore south-western Australia and identify the timing of two critical late Pleistocene events: wide-scale ecosystem change and regional megafaunal population collapse. We establish that substantial changes in vegetation and fire regime occurred ∼70,000 years ago under a climate much drier than today. We record high levels of the dung fungus Sporormiella, a proxy for herbivore biomass, from 150,000 to 45,000 years ago, then a marked decline indicating megafaunal population collapse, from 45,000 to 43,100 years ago, placing the extinctions within 4,000 years of human dispersal across Australia. These findings rule out climate change, and implicate humans, as the primary extinction cause. PMID:28106043
Lin, Hui-bin; Lin, Jian-qun; Lu, Ning; Lin, Jian-qiang
To study the estimate method of C. chinensis and C. australia. HPLC was used to determine the contents of four kinds of flavones of C. chinensis and C. australia growing on different hosts. C. chinensis and C. australia growing on different hosts both had hyperoside, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. The content range of hyperoside was 2.790-6.502 mg/g and was higher than other flavones. The content ranges of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were 0.025-0.176 mg/g, 0.001-0.213 mg/g and 0.001-0.077 mg/g, respectively. The contents of hyperoside and quercetin are higher in C. chineasis than in C. australia. The contents of kaempferol and isorhamnetin are lower in C. chinensis than in C. australia. The hosts influence flavones content of C. chinensis and C. australia.
Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E
Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Downard, K.M.; de Laeter, J.R. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)
An interest in mass spectrometry in Australia can be traced back to the 1920s with an early correspondence with Francis Aston who first visited these shores a decade earlier. The region has a rich tradition in both the development of the field and its application, from early measurements of ionization and appearance potentials by Jim Morrison at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) around 1950 to the design and construction of instrumentation including the first use of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for tandem mass spectrometry, the first suite of programs to simulate ion optics (SIMION), the development of early TOF/TOF instruments and orthogonal acceleration and the local design and construction of several generations of a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) instrument. Mass spectrometry has been exploited in the study and characterization of the constituents of this nation's unique flora and fauna from Australian apples, honey, tea plant and eucalyptus oil, snake, spider, fish and frog venoms, coal, oil, sediments and shale, environmental studies of groundwater to geochronological dating of limestone and granite, other terrestrial and meteoritic rocks and coral from the Great Barrier Reef. This article traces the history of mass spectrometry in its many guises and applications in the island continent of Australia. It focuses on contributions of scientists who played a major role in the early establishment of mass spectrometry in Australia. In general, those who are presently active in the field, and whose histories are incomplete, have been mentioned at best only briefly despite their important contributions to the field.
The author examines the complex relationships between energy use, employment opportunities, and economic growth as they apply to the Australian economy and concludes that state and federal governments should collaborate to analyze the employment impacts of the various energy strategies. He sees the need for changes in the political and economic environment as well as in the way energy is used before Australia can return to full employment. While low or zero energy growth policies would not, by themselves, solve the unemployment problem, most new jobs have been created in the labor-intensive service industries. 25 references. (DCK)
Maritime transportation of spent fuels from Australia to France fits into the contract between COGEMA and ANSTO, signed in 1999. This document proposes nine information cards in this domain: HIFAR a key tool of the nuclear, scientific and technological australian program; a presentation of the ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization; the HIFAR spent fuel management problem; the COGEMA expertise in favor of the research reactor spent fuel; the spent fuel reprocessing at La Hague; the transports management; the transport safety (2 cards); the regulatory framework of the transports. (A.L.B.)
It has long been a basic tenet of the common law that there can be no property interest in human bodies or body parts. However, exceptions to the rule have been recognised from the mid-19th century and developed over time. In the early 21st century, there have been interesting developments in the common law of Australia and England, with Australian Supreme Court judges and the English Court of Appeal casting aside existing exceptions, and finding property rights in human body parts, including gametes, by relying instead on a "rational" and "logical" basis to identify property interests in human body parts.
The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland
Full Text Available This study explores how monetary policy changes flow through the banking sector in Australia. Drawing on data between 2004 and 2010, we divide banks into three groups according to their size, and examine the impact of that cash rate change on lending of different types of loans. We find the response of bank lending after a monetary policy change varies with the size of the bank as well as the types of loan. Smaller banks are more sensitive to policy rate changes, and household loans, government loans and intra-group loans are less responsive to monetary policy compared with financial and non-financial loans.
The Australian synchrotron is being built at Monash University near Melbourne. The 3 GeV machine is well-suited to the mid X-ray region and will have nine beamlines in its initial phase. The high level of biomedical research in Australia has led to the demand for a beamline capable of supporting medical research in both imaging and therapy. The design features for a versatile imaging and hard X-ray beamline capable of operating in the energy range 10-120 keV are outlined here together with a short review of some of the science that is envisaged
Australia both through the auspices of the IAEA and from Government Aid Grants has contributed to the improvement of radiation protection throughout the Asia/Pacific region. The assistance has been in the form of training and improvement to radiation protection infrastructures. The presentation describes the objectives, scope and diversity of the radiation protection infrastructure program and the benefits to the large number of persons included in the program. An outline of the current IAEA program is also discussed together with an explanation of how the program will assist national regulators in the education of radiation workers, in hazardous operations such as industrial radiography
Petering, Jenny; Cowin, Prue
The potential therapeutic applications of stem cells are unlimited. However, the ongoing political and social debate surrounding the intellectual property and patenting considerations of stem cell research has led to the implementation of strict legislative regulations. In Australia the patent landscape surrounding stem cells has evolved considerably over the past 20 years. The Australian Patents Act 1990 includes a specific exclusion to the patentability of human beings and of biological processes for their generation. However, this exclusion has received no judicial consideration to date, and so its scope and potential impact on stem cell patents is unclear. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.
Hammarberg, Karin; Johnson, Louise; Petrillo, Tracey
The social and legal acceptability of third-party reproduction varies around the world. In Australia, gamete and embryo donation and surrogacy are permitted within the regulatory framework set out by federal and state governments. The aim of this paper is to describe the social context and regulatory framework for third-party reproduction in Australia. This is a review of current laws and regulations related to third-party reproduction in Australia. Although subtle between-state differences exist, third-party reproduction is by and large a socially acceptable and legally permissible way to form a family throughout Australia. The overarching principles that govern the practice of third-party reproduction are altruism; the right of donorconceived people to be informed of their biological origins; and the provision of comprehensive counselling about the social, psychological, physical, ethical, financial and legal implications of third-party reproduction to those considering donating or receiving gametes or embryos and entering surrogacy arrangements. These principles ensure that donors are not motivated by financial gain, donor offspring can identify and meet with the person or persons who donated gametes or embryos, and prospective donors and recipients are aware of and have carefully considered the potential consequences of third-party reproduction. Australian state laws and federal guidelines prohibit commercial and anonymous third-party reproduction; mandate counselling of all parties involved in gamete and embryo donation and surrogacy arrangements; and require clinics to keep records with identifying and non- identifying information about the donor/s to allow donor-conceived offspring to trace their biological origins. PMID:24851179
Full Text Available The social and legal acceptability of third-party reproduction varies around the world. In Australia,gamete and embryo donation and surrogacy are permitted within the regulatory framework setout by federal and state governments. The aim of this paper is to describe the social context andregulatory framework for third-party reproduction in Australia.This is a review of current laws and regulations related to third-party reproduction in Australia.Although subtle between-state differences exist, third-party reproduction is by and large a sociallyacceptable and legally permissible way to form a family throughout Australia. The overarchingprinciples that govern the practice of third-party reproduction are altruism; the right of donorconceivedpeople to be informed of their biological origins; and the provision of comprehensivecounselling about the social, psychological, physical, ethical, financial and legal implications ofthird-party reproduction to those considering donating or receiving gametes or embryos and enteringsurrogacy arrangements. These principles ensure that donors are not motivated by financial gain,donor offspring can identify and meet with the person or persons who donated gametes or embryos,and prospective donors and recipients are aware of and have carefully considered the potentialconsequences of third-party reproduction.Australian state laws and federal guidelines prohibit commercial and anonymous third-partyreproduction; mandate counselling of all parties involved in gamete and embryo donationand surrogacy arrangements; and require clinics to keep records with identifying and nonidentifyinginformation about the donor/s to allow donor-conceived offspring to trace theirbiological origins.
Armstrong, Andrew Richard; Thomas, Anna; Abbott, Max
Gambling-related harm results primarily from financial losses. Internationally Australia continues to rank as the largest spending nation per capita on gambling products. This would suggest that Australian gamblers are at disproportionately high risk of harm despite almost two decades of industry scrutiny and regulation, and investment in research, treatment and education programs. However, declines in participation rates, per capita expenditure, household expenditure, national disposable income spent on gambling and problem gambling rates have been cited as evidence that fewer people are gambling, that gamblers are spending less, and that gambling safety in Australia has improved. The current study investigated these propositions using national population and accounts data, and statistics from Australia's two population-representative gambling surveys conducted in 1997-1998 and 2010-2011. Despite a falling participation rate the study found no real change in the number of people gambling overall, and increasing numbers consuming casino table games, race wagering and sports betting. Further found were increases rather than decreases in average gambler expenditure, overall, and across most products, particularly electronic gaming machines (EGMs). Potentially risky levels of average expenditure were observed in both periods, overall and for race wagering, casino table gaming, and EGMs. Changes in the proportion of income spent on gambling suggest risks declined overall and for race wagering and casino table gaming, but increased for EGMs. Finally, while problem gambling statistics were not comparable between periods, the study found double the number of moderate risk gamblers previously estimated for 2010-2011 amongst the 2 million Australians found to have experienced one or more gambling-related problems. The findings have implications for public health policy and resourcing, and the way in which prevalence and expenditure statistics have been interpreted by
Hammarberg, Karin; Johnson, Louise; Petrillo, Tracey
The social and legal acceptability of third-party reproduction varies around the world. In Australia, gamete and embryo donation and surrogacy are permitted within the regulatory framework set out by federal and state governments. The aim of this paper is to describe the social context and regulatory framework for third-party reproduction in Australia. This is a review of current laws and regulations related to third-party reproduction in Australia. Although subtle between-state differences exist, third-party reproduction is by and large a socially acceptable and legally permissible way to form a family throughout Australia. The overarching principles that govern the practice of third-party reproduction are altruism; the right of donorconceived people to be informed of their biological origins; and the provision of comprehensive counselling about the social, psychological, physical, ethical, financial and legal implications of third-party reproduction to those considering donating or receiving gametes or embryos and entering surrogacy arrangements. These principles ensure that donors are not motivated by financial gain, donor offspring can identify and meet with the person or persons who donated gametes or embryos, and prospective donors and recipients are aware of and have carefully considered the potential consequences of third-party reproduction. Australian state laws and federal guidelines prohibit commercial and anonymous third-party reproduction; mandate counselling of all parties involved in gamete and embryo donation and surrogacy arrangements; and require clinics to keep records with identifying and non- identifying information about the donor/s to allow donor-conceived offspring to trace their biological origins.
Cosmetic surgery is increasing in popularity in Australia and New Zealand, as it is across other Western countries. However, there is no systematic mechanism for gathering data about cosmetic surgery, nor about the outcomes of that surgery. This column argues that the business of cosmetic surgery in Australia has questionable marketing standards, is conducted with little scrutiny or accountability and offers patients imperfect knowledge about cosmetic procedures. It also argues that while medical practitioners debate among themselves over who should carry out cosmetic procedures, little attention has been paid to questionable advertising in the industry and even less to highlighting the real risks of undergoing cosmetic surgery. While consumers are led to believe that cosmetic surgery is accessible, affordable and safe, they are sheltered from the reality of invasive and risky surgery and from the ability to clearly discern that all cosmetic procedures carry risk. While doctors continue to undertake advertising and engage in a territorial war, they fail to address the really important issues in cosmetic surgery. These are: providing real evidence about what happens in the industry, developing stringent regulations under which the industry should operate and ensuring that all patients considering cosmetic surgery are fully informed as to the risks of that surgery.
Over the last 50 years Australia has generally maintained adequate energy supplies to its population in an increasingly efficient and sustainable manner It has also been able to help sustain other economies in supplying energy resources of coal, gas and uranium. This provides 20% of Australia's export income, contributing to the quality of life experienced by Australians.Presently the reserve margin in the electricity power system is adequate and, with the exception of oil, ample local energy resources are available. Over the same period the doubling in energy generation efficiency has matched the population growth in NSW The same contributions by technology and population can be expected over the next 50 years. The growth in demand has however increased by a factor of about five.Sensible demand management could reduce this to a more acceptable figure over the next 50 years as shown in two possible scenarios. This, coupled with ongoing energy exports will help sustain the quality of life in this economy
Full Text Available Suicide is the leading cause of death among Australians between 15 and 24 years of age. This study seeks to estimate the economic cost of youth suicide (15–24 years old for Australia using 2014 as a reference year. The main outcome measure is monetized burden of youth suicide. Costs, in 2014 AU$, are measured and valued as direct costs, such as coronial inquiry, police, ambulance, and funeral expenses; indirect costs, such as lost economic productivity; and intangible costs, such as bereavement. In 2014, 307 young Australians lost their lives to suicide (82 females and 225 males. The average age at time of death was 20.4 years, representing an average loss of 62 years of life and close to 46 years of productive capacity. The average cost per youth suicide is valued at $2,884,426, including $9721 in direct costs, $2,788,245 as the value of lost productivity, and $86,460 as the cost of bereavement. The total economic loss of youth suicide in Australia is estimated at $22 billion a year (equivalent to US$ 17 billion, ranging from $20 to $25 billion. These findings can assist decision-makers understand the magnitude of adverse outcomes associated with youth suicide and the potential benefits to be achieved by investing in effective suicide prevention strategies.
Full Text Available The intelligence leaks from Edward Snowden in 2013 unveiled the sophistication and extent of data collection by the United States’ National Security Agency and major global digital firms prompting domestic and international debates about the balance between security and privacy, openness and enclosure, accountability and secrecy. It is difficult not to see a clear connection with the Snowden leaks in the sharp acceleration of new national security legislations in Australia, a long term member of the Five Eyes Alliance. In October 2015, the Australian federal government passed controversial laws that require telecommunications companies to retain the metadata of their customers for a period of two years. The new acts pose serious threats for the profession of journalism as they enable government agencies to easily identify and pursue journalists’ sources. Bulk data collections of this type of information deter future whistleblowers from approaching journalists, making the performance of the latter’s democratic role a challenge. After situating this debate within the scholarly literature at the intersection between surveillance studies and communication studies, this article discusses the political context in which journalists are operating and working in Australia; assesses how metadata laws have affected journalism practices and addresses the possibility for resistance.
The last five years have seen rapid developments in uranium solution mining in Australia, with one deposit brought into production (Beverley, 1,000 tpa U 3 O 8 ) and another close to receiving development approval (Honeymoon, 500 expanding to 1,000 tpa U 3 O 8 proposed). The deposits were discovered during extensive exploration of the Frome Basin in South Australia in the early 1970s and were mothballed from 1983 to 1996 due to Government policies. Uranium mineralisation at Beverley, Honeymoon and other related prospects is hosted in unconsolidated coarse grained quartz sands which are sealed in buried palaeovalleys. Both projects have successfully trialled acid leaching methods and have confirmed high permeability and confinement of the target sands. At Beverley an ion exchange process has been adopted, whereas at Honeymoon solvent extraction has been trialled and is proposed for future production Australian production economics compare favourably with US counterparts and are likely to be within the lower quartile of world costs
Last month, the Federal government announced that millions of dollars were to be spent cleaning up Antarctica, for which Australia has special responsibilities. Australia's largesse is especially interesting in a world context. Antarctica, by international agreement, is free of any industrial development - mining, storage of wastes, or any other profit-making activity that would disturb the environment (tourism is allowed under increasingly controlled conditions). The importance of the more or less pristine frigid environment lies in the wide range of scientific research that is carried out there. Sophisticated techniques to improve environmental quality are evidently in the early development stage. That cold-loving organisms can thrive in frozen ground in Antarctica and the Arctic was a discovery so unexpected that few people could grasp its importance. Only later was it found that these bugs can eat up contaminants - and the discovery assumed enormous practical significance. Little is known about how to clean up contamination in freezing soils even though there is a pressing need to solve the growing problem with military, industrial and nuclear waste in the Northern Hemisphere
Full Text Available Alcohol has been consumed in Australia since European settlement in 1788. In 1998, approximately 60 % of Australians consumed an alcoholic beverage at least once per week. The effects of alcohol on the human body are dose dependent, where the harmful effects of alcohol are generally observed only when alcohol consumption exceeds moderate consumption levels of 30 to 40 g of alcohol per day. The discovery that a J-shaped curve described the relationship between level of alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease was, however, only made in 1990_cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the western world. Thus prior to 1990, Australian public health policy focused primarily on the harmful effects of alcohol consumption and the health benefits of a moderate level of alcohol consumption have only recently been recognized in public policy. This paper chronicles changes in Australian Federal government policy on alcohol since the initial draft National health policy on alcohol in Australia was presented to the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy in 1987 to the National Drug Strategic plan for action 2001 to 2003-2004 which was launched in July last year
Faunce, Thomas A; Lexchin, Joel
'Evergreening' is not a formal concept of patent law. It is best understood as a social idea used to refer to the myriad ways in which pharmaceutical patent owners utilise the law and related regulatory processes to extend their high rent-earning intellectual monopoly privileges, particularly over highly profitable (either in total sales volume or price per unit) 'blockbuster' drugs. Thus, while the courts are an instrument frequently used by pharmaceutical brand name manufacturers to prolong their patent royalties, 'evergreening' is rarely mentioned explicitly by judges in patent protection cases. The term usually refers to threats made to competitors about a brand-name manufacturer's tactical use of pharmaceutical patents (including over uses, delivery systems and even packaging), not to extension of any particular patent over an active product ingredient. This article focuses in particular on the 'evergreening' potential of so-called 'linkage' provisions, imposed on the regulatory (safety, quality and efficacy) approval systems for generic pharmaceuticals of Canada and Australia, by specific articles in trade agreements with the US. These 'linkage' provisions have also recently appeared in the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement (KORUSFTA). They require such drug regulators to facilitate notification of, or even prevent, any potential patent infringement by a generic pharmaceutical manufacturer. This article explores the regulatory lessons to be learnt from Canada's and Australia's shared experience in terms of minimizing potential adverse impacts of such 'linkage evergreening' provisions on drug costs and thereby potentially on citizen's access to affordable, essential medicines. PMID:17543113
Kinchin, Irina; Doran, Christopher M
Suicide is the leading cause of death among Australians between 15 and 24 years of age. This study seeks to estimate the economic cost of youth suicide (15–24 years old) for Australia using 2014 as a reference year. The main outcome measure is monetized burden of youth suicide. Costs, in 2014 AU$, are measured and valued as direct costs, such as coronial inquiry, police, ambulance, and funeral expenses; indirect costs, such as lost economic productivity; and intangible costs, such as bereavement. In 2014, 307 young Australians lost their lives to suicide (82 females and 225 males). The average age at time of death was 20.4 years, representing an average loss of 62 years of life and close to 46 years of productive capacity. The average cost per youth suicide is valued at $2,884,426, including $9721 in direct costs, $2,788,245 as the value of lost productivity, and $86,460 as the cost of bereavement. The total economic loss of youth suicide in Australia is estimated at $22 billion a year (equivalent to US$ 17 billion), ranging from $20 to $25 billion. These findings can assist decision-makers understand the magnitude of adverse outcomes associated with youth suicide and the potential benefits to be achieved by investing in effective suicide prevention strategies.
Amber C McKinley
Full Text Available Using National Homicide Monitoring Program data from 1989 to 2012, this study examined the temporal aspects of child homicide in Australia. It was hypothesised that there would be daily and weekly variation in the occurrence of child homicide, with peaks in the late afternoon, evening, and early hours of the morning and on Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. It was also hypothesised that the number of child homicides would be evenly distributed across seasons. The sample consisted of 916 children (aged 0– 17 killed in 802 homicide incidents in Australia between 1989 to 2012. Data relating to time of day, and day of the week, were analysed using a chi-square test, followed with calculations of incidence ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Data relating to season of the year were examined descriptively, due to uncontrollable factors preventing significance testing. Results partially supported the hypotheses. There was daily and weekly variation in the occurrence of child homicide, with peaks in the evening hours and on Saturdays; however, no peaks were observed on Fridays and Sundays. Additionally, the hypothesis that child homicides peak in the late afternoon and early hours of the morning was unable to be accepted or rejected due to grouping issues. The study also found slight seasonal variation in the occurrence of child homicide, with a slight peak in spring; however, whether this peak is significant is unknown.
Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin
As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.
Tapp, Robyn J; Svoboda, Jean; Fredericks, Bronwyn; Jackson, A Jonathan; Taylor, Hugh R
This review assessed the effectiveness of diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening programs, using retinal photography in Australian urban and rural settings, and considered implications for public health strategy and policy. An electronic search of MEDLINE, PubMed, and Embase for studies published between 1 January 1996 and the 30 June 2013 was undertaken. Key search terms were "diabetic retinopathy," "screening," "retinal photography" and "Australia." Twelve peer-reviewed publications were identified. The 14 DR screening programs identified from the 12 publications were successfully undertaken in urban, rural and remote communities across Australia. Locations included a pathology collection center, and Indigenous primary health care and Aboriginal community controlled organizations. Each intervention using retinal photography was highly effective at increasing the number of people who underwent screening for DR. The review identified that prior to commencement of the screening programs a median of 48% (range 16-85%) of those screened had not undergone a retinal examination within the recommended time frame (every year for Indigenous people and every 2 years for non-Indigenous people in Australia). A median of 16% (range 0-45%) of study participants had evidence of DR. This review has shown there have been many pilot and demonstration projects in rural and urban Australia that confirm the effectiveness of retinal photography-based screening for DR.
Marsh, Helene; Smith, Bradley; King, Max; Evans, Terry
Use of the Australian research assessment exercise, Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) to influence the policy and practice of research education in Australia will undoubtedly have many consequences, some of them unintended and potentially deleterious. ERA is a retrospective measure of research quality; research education is prospective.…
Angus J. Carnegie
This paper reviews the history and management of Sirex noctilio in Australia, including information from previous reviews as well as more recent data. The sirex wood wasp, Sirex noctilio, is one of the most important insect pests of Pinus radiata in Australia. Native to Europe, North Africa and Turkey, S...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to... Commercial Service (CS) is organizing a Biotech Life Sciences trade mission to Australia, October 29-November.... biotechnology and life science firms. The goals of the trade mission to Australia are to (1) increase U.S...
Full Text Available By any measure, 2009 was a big year for news in India. And yet the safety of Indian students in Australia ranked among the major news events in India that year. The India-Australia Poll 2013 found 65 per cent of respondents believed the Indian media had accurately reported the problems faced by Indian students in Australia in 2009-10. That implies two-thirds of Indians accepted the Indian media’s mostly negative depictions of Australia. Those who believed the media reporting about Australia had been accurate were more likely to be from large cities, be tertiary educated and have relatively high-incomes. The poll found 62 per cent of respondents thought Australia was a dangerous place for Indian students and that 61 per cent believed attacks on Indian students were motivated by racism. The results suggest negative perceptions about Australia created by the media’s portrayal of the student attacks linger in the Indian community. The timing of the initial attacks, and the imagery associated with them, helped attract and sustain media attention on the issue. The diplomatic tensions created by the crisis highlighted the growing influence of the broadcast media on India’s foreign relations. But the episode also exposed a deep lack of understanding about India in Australia. Governments were slow to comprehend how much damage media coverage of student attacks could do to Australia’s reputation in India.
Australia's system of school funding is notoriously complex and difficult to understand. This article shines some light on this issue by describing clearly the processes of school funding that currently exist in Australia. It describes the steps taken by federal and state governments to provide over $30 billion each year to government and…
Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael
Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)
T’Mir D. Julius; Gaétan de Rassenfosse
This document describes the methodology developed by the Melbourne Institute to: (i) harmonise holders of intellectual property rights (IPRs) at IP Australia (applications for patent, designs, trademarks and plant breeder’s rights); (ii) match Australian IPRs holders to the Australian business register; (iii) identify the ultimate owners within Australia; and (iv) identify which holders are small and medium size enterprises.
Everett, James E.; Armstrong, Robert W.
The Western Australia market for master's-level business administration education (MBA) is examined, particularly relating to the University of Western Australia. An overview of current Australian MBA market conditions is given; and the history, competitive environment, structure, admission policy, tuition, and student financial aid of the…
White, Ben; Willmott, Lindy
This article invites consideration of how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It attempts to pose this question as neutrally as possible, acknowledging that both prohibition and legalisation of such conduct involve decisions about regulation. It begins by charting the wider field of law at the end of life, before considering the repeated, but ultimately unsuccessful, attempts at law reform in Australia. The situation in Australia is contrasted with permissive jurisdictions overseas where voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide are lawful. The authors consider the arguments for and against legalisation of such conduct along with the available empirical evidence as to what happens in practice both in Australia and overseas. The article concludes by outlining a framework for deliberating on how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It asks a threshold question of whether such conduct should be criminal acts (as they presently are), the answer to which then leads to a range of possible regulatory options.
Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les
Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth...... in Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...
Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.
As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of 131 I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of 131 I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the 131 I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others
Holly N Woodward
Full Text Available Analysis of bone microstructure in ornithopod and theropod dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia, documents ontogenetic changes, providing insight into the dinosaurs' successful habitation of Cretaceous Antarctic environments. Woven-fibered bone tissue in the smallest specimens indicates rapid growth rates during early ontogeny. Later ontogeny is marked by parallel-fibered tissue, suggesting reduced growth rates approaching skeletal maturity. Bone microstructure similarities between the ornithopods and theropods, including the presence of LAGs in each group, suggest there is no osteohistologic evidence supporting the hypothesis that polar theropods hibernated seasonally. Results instead suggest high-latitude dinosaurs had growth trajectories similar to their lower-latitude relatives and thus, rapid early ontogenetic growth and the cyclical suspensions of growth inherent in the theropod and ornithopod lineages enabled them to successfully exploit polar regions.
Australia: National Radioactive Waste Management Act 2012 No. 29, 2012 (An Act to make provision in relation to the selection of a site for, and the establishment and operation of, a radioactive waste management facility, and for related purposes). Germany: Act on the Peaceful Utilisation of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards (Atomic Energy Act) of 23 December 1959, as amended and promulgated on 15 July 1985, last amendment by the Act of 8 November 2011. Sweden: The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority Regulatory Code issued on 20 October 2011, Published on 2 November 2011); The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's general advice on the application of the regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (issued on 20 October 2011)
Australia is the world's smallest, flattest, and (after Antarctica) driest continent, but at 7.7 million square kilometers (3.0 million square miles) it is also the sixth largest country. Its low average elevation (300 meters, or less than 1000 feet) is caused by its position near the center of a tectonic plate, where there are no volcanic or other geologic forces of the type that raise the topography of other continents. In fact Australia is the only continent without any current volcanic activity at all - the last eruption took place 1400 years ago at Mt. Gambier. The Australian continent is also one of the oldest land masses, with some of its erosion-exposed bedrock age dated at more than 3 billion years. More than one-fifth of the land area is desert, with more than two-thirds being classified as arid or semi-arid and unsuitable for settlement. The coldest regions are in the highlands and tablelands of Tasmania and the Australian Alps at the southeastern corner of the continent, location of Australia's highest point, Mt. Kosciusko (2228 meters, or 7310 feet.) Prominent features of Australia include the Lake Eyre basin, the darker green region visible in the center-right. At 16 meters (52 feet) below sea level this depression is one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world, covering more than 1.3 million square kilometers (500,000 square miles). The mountain range near the east coast is called the Great Dividing Range, forming a watershed between east and west flowing rivers. Erosion has created deep valleys, gorges and waterfalls in this range where rivers tumble over escarpments on their way to the sea. The crescent shaped uniform green region in the south, just left of center, is the Nullarbor Plain, a low-lying limestone plateau which is so flat that the Trans-Australian Railway runs through it in a straight line for more than 483 kilometers (300 miles). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of
Australia has been very much in the news recently, with ship queues at port terminals and storms hitting the Hunter Valley, flooding coal yards and rail links. In December 2006 a 'capacity balancing system' (CBS) introduced by Port Waratah Coal Services to solve queuing problems in Newcastle ports in mid-2004 was discontinued but then the queues started to grow again. A new CBS was introduced and was beginning to take effect when storms struck New South Wales. Port Dalrymple Coal Services has a queue management system but nevertheless there were 58 ships waiting in Dalrymple Bay and Hay Point in late June. A number of coal terminals are undergoing expansion in an attempt to solve the situation. 4 photos.
Farrell, Hazel; Murray, Shauna A.; Zammit, Anthony; Edwards, Alan W.
Between 2014 and 2016, five cases of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving twenty four individuals, were linked to Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) caught in the coastal waters of the state of New South Wales (NSW) on the east coast of Australia. Previously, documented cases of CFP in NSW were few, and primarily linked to fish imported from other regions. Since 2015, thirteen individuals were affected across four additional CFP cases in NSW, linked to fish imported from tropical locations. The apparent increase in CFP in NSW from locally sourced catch, combined with the risk of CFP from imported fish, has highlighted several considerations that should be incorporated into risk management strategies to minimize CFP exposure for seafood consumers. PMID:29135913
Full Text Available Between 2014 and 2016, five cases of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP, involving twenty four individuals, were linked to Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson caught in the coastal waters of the state of New South Wales (NSW on the east coast of Australia. Previously, documented cases of CFP in NSW were few, and primarily linked to fish imported from other regions. Since 2015, thirteen individuals were affected across four additional CFP cases in NSW, linked to fish imported from tropical locations. The apparent increase in CFP in NSW from locally sourced catch, combined with the risk of CFP from imported fish, has highlighted several considerations that should be incorporated into risk management strategies to minimize CFP exposure for seafood consumers.
Saunders, Margo; Peerson, Anita
The development of Australia's first national men's health policy provides an important opportunity for informed discussions of health and gender. It is therefore a concern that the stated policy appears to deliberately exclude hegemonic masculinity and other masculinities, despite evidence of their major influence on men's health-related values, beliefs, perspectives, attitudes, motivations and behaviour. We provide an evidence-based critique of the proposed approach to a national men's health policy which raises important questions about whether the new policy can achieve its aims if it fails to acknowledge 'masculinity' as a key factor in Australian men's health. The national men's health policy should be a means to encourage gender analysis in health. This will require recognition of the influence of hegemonic masculinity, and other masculinities, on men's health. Recognising the influence of 'masculinity' on men's health is not about 'blaming' men for 'behaving badly', but is crucial to the development of a robust, meaningful and comprehensive national men's health policy.
This paper reports that the $2 billion (Australian) Goodwyn field development project on Australia's Northwest Shelf is under way with installation of a 17,500 metric ton steel platform jacket. Northwest Shelf project operator Woodside Petroleum Pty. Ltd. and partners are continuing with an extensive exploration program in the Northwest Shelf area. The group expects to begin soon a wide ranging 3-D seismic survey over the WA-28-P license area and the Northwest Shelf production permits. The goal is to identify new and appraise existing oil and gas prospects in the region for an exploratory drilling campaign to begin in first half 1993. Finding more gas reserves would bode well for extending existing LNG contracts with Japan or competing for new markets in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan
The high quality of radioactive products and services, provided by the Commercial Products Unit of Australian Atomic Energy Agency for industrial and medical applications are discussed. The production program has changed from research driven to being market driven. The Commission in fact not only manufactures radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals but also acts as a Centralized Dispensing Service for over sea products. The advantages associated with centralize distribution are discussed. The delivery arrangements and the existed problems are explained. With the unique experience, assistance and advice are provided for many years now to Nuclear Energy Unit at PUSPATI via staff training programs and many visits by the Commission staff to assist in the commissioning of the facilities in which enables PUSPATI to provide Malaysia and surrounding neighbour countries (on a smaller scale) with the similar type of service that the Commission does within Australia. (A.J.)
Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.
As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, the distribution and uptake of 131 I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia were studied. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of 131 I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. The principal source of the 131 I was characterized; a general temporal correlation was found between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments enabled to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and the results are consistent with laboratory measurements, elsewhere. (author) 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs
Farrell, Hazel; Murray, Shauna A; Zammit, Anthony; Edwards, Alan W
Between 2014 and 2016, five cases of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving twenty four individuals, were linked to Spanish Mackerel ( Scomberomorus commerson ) caught in the coastal waters of the state of New South Wales (NSW) on the east coast of Australia. Previously, documented cases of CFP in NSW were few, and primarily linked to fish imported from other regions. Since 2015, thirteen individuals were affected across four additional CFP cases in NSW, linked to fish imported from tropical locations. The apparent increase in CFP in NSW from locally sourced catch, combined with the risk of CFP from imported fish, has highlighted several considerations that should be incorporated into risk management strategies to minimize CFP exposure for seafood consumers.
Woodward, Holly N; Rich, Thomas H; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Vickers-Rich, Patricia
Analysis of bone microstructure in ornithopod and theropod dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia, documents ontogenetic changes, providing insight into the dinosaurs' successful habitation of Cretaceous Antarctic environments. Woven-fibered bone tissue in the smallest specimens indicates rapid growth rates during early ontogeny. Later ontogeny is marked by parallel-fibered tissue, suggesting reduced growth rates approaching skeletal maturity. Bone microstructure similarities between the ornithopods and theropods, including the presence of LAGs in each group, suggest there is no osteohistologic evidence supporting the hypothesis that polar theropods hibernated seasonally. Results instead suggest high-latitude dinosaurs had growth trajectories similar to their lower-latitude relatives and thus, rapid early ontogenetic growth and the cyclical suspensions of growth inherent in the theropod and ornithopod lineages enabled them to successfully exploit polar regions.
Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.
As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.
The future is bright for continued development of Australia's natural gas pipeline infrastructure, as well as for privatization and private energy infrastructure growth. Gas demands are growing and the development of open access principles for all natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines heralds a much more market focused industry. Within the next few years gas-on-gas competition will apply to supply, pipelines, and retail marketing. No longer will operators be able to pass on high costs resulting from inefficiencies to their customers. This article describes the changing Australian gas industry, evaluates the drivers for change and looks at ways the industry is responding to new regulatory regimes and the development and use of new pipeline technology
Dean, Rebecca Elizabeth; Allanson, Susie
Currently in Australia anti-choice protesters' right to freedom of speech and freedom to protest is privileged over a woman's right to privacy and to access a health service safely, free from harassment, intimidation and obstruction. This article considers how this situation is played out daily at one Victorian abortion-providing clinic. The Fertility Control Clinic was thrown into the spotlight after the murder of its security guard by an anti-choice crusader in July 2001. Australian common law appears not to offer women protection from anti-choice protesters. By contrast, United States and Canadian "bubble" legislation sits comfortably with key constitutional rights. It would be a useful development if Australian governments passed legislation to ensure the rights, wellbeing and safety of Australian women accessing health services. Such legislation would be another step away from the misogynistic and androcentric values once central to our legislative framework.
One of the world's great sources of natural gas is promising immense opportunities for the development of feedstock for petrochemical industries. The lures for new players to Western Australia are world-class offshore natural gas fields that already supply major Australian and international customers, and close proximity to Asian markets. It produces a wide range of hydrocarbon products, ranging from more than 7.5 million tonnes of liquefied natural gas a year, to more than 50 million barrels of oil and condensate and 650,000 tonnes of liquefied petroleum gas a year and 4.5 bcm (500 million standard cubic feet) of piped natural gas for local markets per day. The development of this wide range of products began with establishment of the venture's first offshore gas and condensate production platform, then the biggest in the world, in the mid - 1980s
The Australian Government in late 2005 created a National Nano technology Taskforce that produced a paper, 'Options for a National Nano technology Strategy', in November last year. As an input to the National Nano technology Strategy Taskforce, in early 2006 the National Academies Forum was contracted by the Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources to produce a report Environmental, Social, Legal and Ethical Aspects of the Development of Nano technologies in Australia (which is available at www.naf.org.au/symposia). The report drew on the expertise of Fellows from the four academies in workshops in Melbourne and Sydney and from discussions with other experts, and expressed its outcomes as a set of opinions to assist in developing guidelines for a National Nano technology Strategy
Palesy, Debra; Jakimowicz, Samantha; Saunders, Carla; Lewis, Joanne
The home care sector comprises one of Australia's fastest growing workforces, yet few papers capture the overall landscape of Australian home care. This integrative review investigates home care with the aim of better understanding care recipients and their needs, funding, and regulation; care worker skills, tasks, demographics, employment conditions, and training needs. Over 2,700 pieces of literature were analyzed to inform this review. Results suggest sector fragmentation and a home care workforce who, although well-placed to improve outcomes for care recipients, are in need of better training and employment support. Suggestions for future research regarding Australian home care include studies that combine both aged and disability aspects of care, more research around care recipients, priority needs and strategies for addressing them, and how best to prepare home care workers for their roles.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a lack of investigation into the spatial distribution and clustering of suicide in Australia, where the population density is lower than many countries and varies dramatically among urban, rural and remote areas. This study aims to examine the spatial distribution of suicide at a Local Governmental Area (LGA level and identify the LGAs with a high relative risk of suicide in Queensland, Australia, using geographical information system (GIS techniques. Methods Data on suicide and demographic variables in each LGA between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. An age standardised mortality (ASM rate for suicide was calculated at the LGA level. GIS techniques were used to examine the geographical difference of suicide across different areas. Results Far north and north-eastern Queensland (i.e., Cook and Mornington Shires had the highest suicide incidence in both genders, while the south-western areas (i.e., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires had the lowest incidence in both genders. In different age groups (≤24 years, 25 to 44 years, 45 to 64 years, and ≥65 years, ASM rates of suicide varied with gender at the LGA level. Mornington and six other LGAs with low socioeconomic status in the upper Southeast had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. Conclusions There was a notable difference in ASM rates of suicide at the LGA level in Queensland. Some LGAs had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. The determinants of the geographical difference of suicide should be addressed in future research.
Bang, K.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)
Looking at the composition of energy resources import of Korea per each country, Australian-made import takes up 11.8% of total energy resources import. It possesses the highest import composition of 30.5% when petroleum sector is excluded. In the order of Korea`s mineral import per each country, Australia still keep the number one position every year though Korea keep promoting the diversification of import sources. In the mean time, reflecting on the treatment aspect of import country of Australia, when Korea`s energy, the import size of resources, import intensity of Australia`s primary raw material resources and international resources situation are considered, Korea is thought to receive less treatment from Australia as the second export country of Australia than Japan who is the number one export country of Australia, relatively. Though the increase ratio of Korean tourists in Australia is the highest for the past few years and international promotion effect shows big with the IMF financial support of Korea who faces sudden economic crisis recently as a momentum, sincere evaluation through in-depth analysis between Korea and Australia is still in the initial stage. The necessity to diagnosis the general political and economic structure of Australia more in detail emerges as trade volume between two countries keep growing, esp. in the import of energy and resources sectors, the number of visits between two countries keep increasing. Therefore, the purpose of this study lies mainly in the structure of the new Australian government, general macroeconomics structure and the understanding of energy industry-related status such as energy supply and demand, development status of energy, related laws, and government`s energy agencies, etc. 6 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide
Nicol, Dianne; Liddicoat, John
Health policy and law reform agencies lack a sound evidence base of the impacts of patents on innovation and access to healthcare to assist them in their deliberations. This paper reports the results of a survey of managers of Australian genetic testing laboratories that asked a series of questions relating to the tests they perform, whether they pay to access patented inventions and whether they have received notifications from patent holders about patents associated with particular tests. Some diagnostics facilities are exposed to patent costs, but they are all located in the private sector. No public hospitals reported paying licence fees or royalties beyond those included in the price of commercial test kits. Some respondents reported having received enforcement notices from patent holders, but almost all related to the widely known breast cancer-associated patents. Respondents were also asked for their views on the most effective mechanisms to protect their ability to provide genetic tests now and in the future. Going to the media, paying licence fees, ignoring patent rights and relying on the government to take action were widely seen as most effective. Litigation and applications for compulsory licences were seen as some of the least effective mechanisms. These results provide an evidence base for development of health policy and law reform. What is known about the topic? The impact of patents on the delivery of genetic testing services remains unclear in Australia. What does this paper add? The survey reported in this paper suggests that, aside from well-known enforcement actions relating to the breast cancer associated patents, there is little evidence that providers of genetic testing services are being exposed to aggressive patent-enforcement practices. What are the implications for practitioners? Although patent-enforcement actions may increase in the future, a range of strategies are available to providers of testing services to protect them against
The STREAM Initiative has been working with issues relating to livelihoods, policy and institutional development and communications throughout Asia-Pacific. Recently this has included work in India with indigenous communities supporting people to have a voice in policy making processes. There appear to be some parallels between this work and the objectives of Kimberley Aquaculture Aboriginal Corporation (KAAC) and also the Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry Australia (AFFA) Indigenous Aqua...
Hamilton, D G
The contributions of Australian doctors to the visual arts are being described in a series of six articles. Work from doctors in New South Wales and Victoria has been covered previously. Now activities in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia, Queensland and the Northern Territory are presented.
Comendador Frutos, L.; de Zeeuw, T..; Geeraert, P.
On 11 July 2017, ESO and the Australian government signed a ten-year Strategic Partnership arrangement giving Australian astronomers access to the La Silla Paranal facilities. The path towards this arrangement is briefly outlined and the details of the Partnership and its implications for both the Australian and ESO astronomical communities are summarised.
Full Text Available Raelia M Lew,1,7 Leslie Burnett,2,3,4 Anné L Proos,2 Martin B Delatycki5,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, QEII Research Institute for Mothers and Infants, The University of Sydney, Australia; 2NSW Health Pathology North, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, Australia; 3SEALS, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia; 4Sydney Medical School-Northern, Royal North Shore Hospital E25, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 5Department of Clinical Genetics, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia; 6Bruce Lefroy Centre for Genetic Health Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Australia; 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia Abstract: Tay-Sachs disease (TSD is a fatal, recessively inherited neurodegenerative condition of infancy and early childhood. Although rare in most other populations, the carrier frequency is one in 25 in Ashkenazi Jews. Australian high-school-based TSD preconception genetic screening programs aim to screen, educate, and optimize reproductive choice for participants. These programs have demonstrated high uptake, low psychological morbidity, and have been shown to result in fewer than expected Jewish TSD-affected births over 18 years of operation. The majority of Jewish individuals of reproductive age outside of the high school screening program setting in Australia have not accessed screening. Recent recommendations advocate supplementing the community high school screening programs with general practitioner- and obstetrician-led genetic screening of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals for TSD and other severe recessive diseases for which this group is at risk. Massively parallel DNA sequencing is expected to become the testing modality of choice over the coming years. Keywords: Tay-Sachs disease, genetic screening, Australia
Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. However, this low-lying lake attracts run-off from one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world. The drainage basin is very responsive to rainfall variations, and changes dramatically with Australia's inter-annual weather fluctuations. When Lake Eyre fills,as it did in 1989, it is temporarily Australia's largest lake, and becomes dense with birds, frogs and colorful plant life. The Lake responds to extended dry periods (often associated with El Nino events) by drying completely.These four images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer contrast the lake area at the start of the austral summers of 2000 and 2002. The top two panels portray the region as it appeared on December 9, 2000. Heavy rains in the first part of 2000 caused both the north and south sections of the lake to fill partially and the northern part of the lake still contained significant standing water by the time these data were acquired. The bottom panels were captured on November 29, 2002. Rainfall during 2002 was significantly below average ( http://www.bom.gov.au/ ), although showers occurring in the week before the image was acquired helped alleviate this condition slightly.The left-hand panels portray the area as it appeared to MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, and are false-color views comprised of data from the near-infrared, green and blue channels. Here, wet and/or moist surfaces appear blue-green, since water selectively absorbs longer wavelengths such as near-infrared. The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree forward, nadir and 60-degree backward-viewing cameras, displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In these multi-angle composites, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and indicate textural properties of the surface related to roughness and/or moisture content.Data from
Gerhardt, H [Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Zentrum fuer Innere Medizin
Among infectious diseases, hepatitis presents a great problem in all countries with a high medical standard. The number of Australia antigen-positive cases rises from year to year, due to the increase in drug-fixer hepatitis and blood transfusions. Highly sensitive and at the same time practicable methods are therefore required for the identification of Australia antigen carriers and their elimination as blood donors. The most sensitive of all currently used tests for the detection of Australia antigen is the 'solid phase' radioimmunoassay since it permits an objective and quantitative measurement of the antigen.
Tucker, Patrick S; Kingsley, Michael I; Morton, R Hugh; Scanlan, Aaron T; Dalbo, Vincent J
The aim of this investigation was to determine and compare current and projected expenditure associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), renal replacement therapy (RRT), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Australia. Data published by Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and World Bank were used to compare CKD-, RRT-, and CVD-related expenditure and prevalence rates. Prevalence and expenditure predictions were made using a linear regression model. Direct statistical comparisons of rates of annual increase utilised indicator variables in combined regressions. Statistical significance was set at P Australia's healthcare system, compared to CVD. Research focusing on novel preventative/therapeutic interventions is warranted.
Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram
This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.
Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina
Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products
Kayaalp, Pelin; Schwarz, Michael P; Stevens, Mark I
Hylaeus is the only globally distributed colletid bee genus, with subgeneric and species-level diversity highest in Australia. We used one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes to reconstruct a phylogeny using Bayesian analyses of this genus based on species from Australia, Asia, Africa, Europe, Hawai'i, the New World and New Zealand. Our results concord with a ca. 30Mya Hylaeus crown age inferred by earlier studies, and we show that Hylaeus originated in Australia. Our phylogeny indicates only two dispersal events out of Australia, both shortly after the initial diversification of extant taxa. One of these dispersals was into New Zealand with only a minor subsequent radiation, but the second dispersal out of Australia resulted in a world-wide distribution. This second dispersal and radiation event, combined with very extensive early radiation of Hyleaus in Australia, poses a conundrum: what kinds of biogeographical and ecological factors could simultaneously drive global dispersal, yet strongly constrain further successful migrations out of Australia when geographical barriers appear to be weak? We argue that for hylaeine bees movement into new niches and enemy-free spaces may have favoured initial dispersal events, but that subsequent dispersals would not have entailed the original benefits of new niche space. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pan, Jia-Yan; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Joubert, Lynette; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan
The purpose of the present study was to compare the predictive effects of acculturative stressor and meaning of life on negative affect in the process of acculturation between Chinese international students in Australia and Hong Kong. Four hundred mainland Chinese students studying at six universities in Hong Kong and 227 Chinese international students studying at the University of Melbourne in Australia completed a questionnaire that included measures of acculturative stressor, meaning of life, negative affect and demographic information. The Australian sample was found to have a higher level of acculturative stressor and negative affect than the Hong Kong sample. Acculturative stressor had a positive impact on negative affect in both samples, but the impact of different domains of acculturative stressor on negative affect varied between the two groups. Finally, meaning of life partially mediated the relationship between acculturative stressor and negative affect in the Hong Kong sample, but no such effect was found in the Australia sample. Acculturative stressor is a critical risk factor for negative affect in acculturation for Chinese international students in Australia and Hong Kong. Meaning of life acted as a protective factor that mitigated negative affect for mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong, but not for the Chinese international students in Australia. The theoretical and practical implications for resilience-based and meaning-oriented intervention for Chinese international students are discussed.
Ismail, S.A. [MARA Univ. of Technology, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Applied Sciences; Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture; Chen, G.; Baillie, C.; Symes, T. [Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture
This paper reported on a study that evaluated the energy consumption of cotton gins used in Australia. The average electricity use is 52.3 kWh per bale. In practicality, the electricity consumption for different gins is correlated linearly with the bale numbers produced. The cost of electricity is therefore important in cotton ginning operations. The power factor in all the gins monitored in this study was greater than 0.85. The study showed that the use of gas dryers was highly influenced by the cotton moisture and regulated drying temperature. In general, electricity and gas consumption comprised 61 and 39 per cent of total energy use respectively. The study showed that 60.38 kg of carbon dioxide are emitted for ginning each bale of cotton. This paper described a newly developed method for monitoring the energy performance in cotton gins. Detailed monitoring and analysis carried out at 2 gin sites revealed that electricity consumption is not influenced much by changes in trash content in the module, degree of moisture and lint quality. However, the cotton variety influences the energy consumption. Cotton handling constituted nearly 50 per cent of the power used in both gins.
Gawaine Powell Davies
Full Text Available Introduction: To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Description of policy: Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Discussion: Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.
Davies, Gawaine Powell; Perkins, David; McDonald, Julie; Williams, Anna
To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.
Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah
The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356
The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), with support from the Western Australian Government, has developed an online tool for marine scientists and managers to investigate the largescale patterns of spatial connectivity around Australia that are associated with ocean current transport (,Figure 1). This tool, referred to as the Australian Connectivity Interface, or Aus-ConnIe, is expected to find applications in areas such as tracer dispersion studies (see example by Ridgway and Condie (, larval dispersion and recruitment, and the development of scenarios and preliminary risk assessments for contaminant dispersion in the marine environment. After selecting a region of interest, users can investigate where material carried into that region comes from, or where material originating in that region goes to, over a range of timescales (weeks to months). These connectivity statistics are based on large numbers of particle trajctories (one million at any given time) estimated from satellite altimeter data, coastal tide-gauge data, and winds from meteorological models. Users can save the results in a variety of formats (CSV, Excel, or XML) and, as an option, may save their sessions by first registering.
Campbell, D G; Oakeshott, R D
The South Australian Bone Bank had expanded to meet an increased demand for allograft bone. During a 5 year period from 1988 to 1992, 2361 allografts were harvested from 2146 living donors and 30 cadaveric donors. The allografts were screened by contemporary banking techniques which include a social history, donor serum tests for HIV-1, HIV-2, hepatitis B and C, syphilis serology, graft microbiology and histology. Grafts were irradiated with 25 kGy. The majority of grafts were used for arthroplasty or spinal surgery and 99 were used for tumour reconstruction. Of the donated grafts 336 were rejected by the bank. One donor was HIV-positive and two had false positive screens. There were seven donors with positive serology for hepatitis B, eight for hepatitis C and nine for syphilis. Twenty-seven grafts had positive cultures. Bone transplantation is the most frequent non-haematogenous allograft in South Australia and probably nationally. The low incidence of infectious viral disease in the donor population combined with an aggressive discard policy has ensured relative safety of the grafts. The frequency of graft rejection was similar to other bone banks but the incidence of HIV was lower.
Hurlimann, Anna; Dolnicar, Sara
The media has been found to have an impact on public debate, public opinion, and public policy agendas. Public debate, and public opinion about water conservation and water supply management projects matter because they can influence specific outcomes. For example, public opinion can potentially lead to positive behaviour, like increased water conservation, or potentially negative behaviours such as public opposition to developments such as dams or water recycling plants, which may be necessary under changing climatic conditions. It is therefore critical to understand how the media reports on water-related topics. Results from a content analysis of 1253 newspaper articles published in Australia in 2008 indicate that water-related reports are characterised by lack of inclusion of views held by various stakeholders, a low level of support of statements with scientific evidence, a low level of impartiality in the sense of reporting on opposing views and a relatively high level of hedging, meaning that the author signals that there is some uncertainly about the reported information. In sum these tendencies could theoretically culminate to work against public engagement in water issues and undermine the public's understanding of and confidence in water management measures. Proactive measures of media management are recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alfred Walter Campbell (1868-1937) established the basic cytoarchitectonic structure of the human brain while he was working as a pathologist at the Rainhill Lunatic Asylum near Liverpool in the United Kingdom. He returned to Australia in 1905 and continued doing research while establishing a neurological practice. His research over the next 17 years focused on four topics: (a) localisation in the cerebellum, (b) the neuroses and psychoses in war, (c) localisation in the cerebral cortex of the gorilla, and (d) the causes and pathology of the mysterious Australian "X" Disease (later known as Murray Valley encephalitis). In this article, I elaborate on his research in these areas, which provided evidence (a) against Louis Bolk's thesis that variation in the size of the cerebellar cortex reflected variation in the amount of cortex controlling various groups of muscle, (b) against the view that the neuroses and psychoses in war were different from those in civilian life, (c) for a parcelation of the cortex of the gorilla brain that supported his earlier findings in the higher apes, and (d) on the cause and pathophysiology of Australian "X" disease. Much of this research was overlooked, but it remains of considerable value and historical significance.
Full Text Available Background The aim of newborn bloodspot screening (NBS is to identify rare genetic and non-genetic conditions in children soon after birth in order to commence therapies that prevent the development of progressive, serious, and irreversible disabilities. Universal NBS programmes have been implemented in most countries, with minor adaptations to target conditions most relevant to the local healthcare environment. Aims In this article, we describe the initiatives of international and Australian governments to develop policies to address the expansion of NBS in their healthcare systems. Methods We have reviewed published public policies and literature to formulate recommendations based on clinical, social, legal, and ethical principles to inform a national governance and policy framework for Australia. Results Australian policy makers have been slow to develop a coordinated plan. While the experience from other governments can guide our national policy, there are specific areas that require further consideration by Australian health experts. Key reforms involve the separation of policy and operational activities, multidisciplinary decision-making and oversight by the Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council for policy direction. Conclusion A formal national policy framework will guide the coordination of NBS services that can adapt to the needs of Australian children and families.
Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform.
With the creation of Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) the Australian approach to criticality safety was revisited. Consistency with international best practices is required by the Act that created ARPANSA and this was applied to practices in criticality safety adopted in other countries. This required extensive regulatory efforts both in auditing the major Australian Nuclear Operator, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), and assessing the existing in Australia criticality safety practices and implementing the required changes using the new legislative power of ARPANSA. The adopted regulatory approach is formulated through both the issued by ARPANSA licenses for nuclear installations (including reactors, fuel stores and radioactive waste stores) and the string of new regulatory documents, including the Regulatory Assessment Principles and the Regulatory Assessment Guidelines for criticality safety. The main features of the adopted regulation include the requirements of independent peer-review, ongoing refresher training coupled with annual accreditation and the reliance on the safe design rather than on an administrative control. (author)
Thomson, J.E.M.; Young, B.F.; Young, J.G.; Tingey, D.R.C.
During 1989-90 the Australian Radiation Laboratory conducted a postal survey of at least 90% of the mammographic facilities in Australia. The primary aim of the survey was to measure the mean glandular dose (MGD) and the X-ray beam half value layer (HVL) for a typical mammograph. The MGD and HVL were measured with a specially designed tissue equivalent monitor. In all, 258 mammographic centres were surveyed. It was found that for centres using film-screen imaging, the average mean glandular dose was 1.83 mGy for centres using grids and 0.84 mGy for centres not using grids. In addition to the MGD and HVL, comprehensive statistical information was collected and data is presented on the types of equipment and techniques used, the number and age of patients and demographic distribution of centres. Results indicate that the use of a grid is the major factor determining dose and several other factors appear to have minor effects. In view of the distribution of MGD, it is recommended that the mean glandular dose per image, for a 5 cm compressed breast thickness, should not exceed 2.0 mGy when a grid is used and 1.0 mGy without a grid. 63 refs., 11 tabs., 15 figs
In 1986 a study of radon levels in homes in Melbourne was made, using activated charcoal to adsorb the gas from indoor air. Cups containing 25g of activated charcoal were exposed for periods of nominally 7 days. The cups were sealed and the accumulated activity was measured by gamma counting. Cup activity was related to ambient radon concentration by calibrations done in the Australian Radiation Laboratory's radon reference chamber. This work was continued in Adelaide, South Australia (S.A.) between July and November 1986 using the same methods. Cups were exposed in their homes by 213 volunteers from the staff of the S.A. Institute of Technology and the S.A. Health Commission. The median concentration of radon in air was 10 Bq/m 3 , with 90% of values below 35 Bq/m 3 , and 100% below 75 Bq/m 3 . The lower bound of the distribution is poorly defined because of inadequate counting statistics. 4 refs., 6 figs
Macdonald, Wendy; Driscoll, Tim; Stuckey, Rwth; Oakman, Jodi
The focus of OHS in Australia is on workplace-based prevention rather than individual health care. Over the past decade, workers' compensation data have shown continuous improvement in work-related deaths, serious injuries and diseases. Injuries from work-related vehicle incidents are the leading cause of fatalities. There is a high incidence of on-road incidents in light vehicles; this problem is under-recognised, and better incidence data are required to support more effective interventions. Rates of many long-latency diseases such as cancers are underestimated, and again more reliable information is needed, particularly on work-related exposures to carcinogens. Disease-related deaths are largely confined to older workers. Musculoskeletal injuries and disorders are the most frequent and costly OHS problem, constituting a large majority of non-fatal injuries and diseases. There is growing recognition that their risk management should be more evidence based, integrating assessment and control of psychosocial and 'manual handling' hazards. A high rate of population ageing is increasing risk of chronic diseases, including musculoskeletal disorders, which is helping to raise awareness of the importance of protecting and promoting workforce health. Strategies to achieve this have been developed but implementation is at an early stage.
The Pangea proposal is disscused and considered relevant to Australia. A five-year research program by the company has identified Australia and Argentina as having the appropriate geological, economic and democratic credentials for such a deep repository, with Australia being favoured. A deep repository would be located where the geology has been stable for several hundred million years, so that there need not be total reliance on a robust engineered barrier system to keep the waste securely isolated for thousands of years. It would be a commercial undertaking and would have dedicated port and rail infrastructure. It would take spent fuel and other wastes from commercial reactors, and possibly also waste from weapons disposal programs. Clearly, while the primary ethical and legal principle is that each country is entirely responsible for its own waste, including nuclear waste (polluter pays etc), the big question is whether the concept of an international waste repository is acceptable ethically. Political and economic questions are secondary to this. By taking a fresh look at the reasons for the difficulties which have faced most national repository programs, and discarding the preconception that each country must develop its own disposal facilities, it is possible to define a class of simple, superior high isolation sites which may provide a multi-national basis for solving the nuclear waste disposal problem. The relatively small volumes of high-level wastes or spent fuel which arise from nuclear power production make shared repositories a feasible proposition. For small countries, the economies of scale which can be achieved make the concept attractive. For all countries, objective consideration of the relative merits of national and multi-national solutions is a prudent part of planning the management of long-lived radioactive wastes
Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, David; Adams, Peter J
Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp. on Christmas Island and to compare this with two different climatic regions of Western Australia (one island and one mainland). Kidney samples were collected from black rats (n = 68) and feral cats (n = 59) from Christmas Island, as well as feral cats from Dirk Hartog Island (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (n = 59). Molecular (PCR) screening detected pathogenic leptospires in 42.4% (95% confidence interval 29.6-55.9) of cats and 2.9% (0.4-10.2) of rats from Christmas Island. Sequencing of cat- and rat-positive samples from Christmas Island showed 100% similarity for Leptospira interrogans. Pathogenic leptospires were not detected in cats from Dirk Hartog Island or southwest Western Australia. These findings were consistent with previous reports of higher Leptospira spp. prevalence in tropical regions compared with arid and temperate regions. Despite the abundance of black rats on Christmas Island, feral cats appear to be the more important reservoir species for the persistence of pathogenic L. interrogans on the island. This research highlights the importance of disease surveillance and feral animal management to effectively control potential disease transmission.
Adams, Vanessa M.; Setterfield, Samantha A.
Financial mechanisms such as offsets are one strategy to abate greenhouse gas emissions, and the carbon market is expanding with a growing demand for offset products. However, in the case of carbon offsets, if the carbon is released due to intentional or unintentional reversal through environmental events such as fire, the financial liability to replace lost offsets will likely fall on the provider. This liability may have implications for future participation in programmes, but common strategies such as buffer pool and insurance products can be used to minimize this liability. In order for these strategies to be effective, an understanding of the spatial and temporal distributions of expected reversals is needed. We use the case study of savanna burning, an approved greenhouse gas abatement methodology under the Carbon Farming Initiative in Australia, to examine potential risks to carbon markets in northern Australia and quantify the financial risks. We focus our analysis on the threat of Andropogon gayanus (gamba grass) to savanna burning due to its documented impacts of increased fuel loads and altered fire regimes. We assess the spatial and financial extent to which gamba grass poses a risk to savanna burning programmes in northern Australia. We find that 75% of the eligible area for savanna burning is spatially coincident with the high suitability range for gamba grass. Our analysis demonstrates that the presence of gamba grass seriously impacts the financial viability of savanna burning projects. For example, in order to recuperate the annual costs of controlling 1 ha of gamba grass infestation, 290 ha of land must be enrolled in annual carbon abatement credits. Our results show an immediate need to contain gamba grass to its current extent to avoid future spread into large expanses of land, which are currently profitable for savanna burning.
Adams, Vanessa M; Setterfield, Samantha A
Financial mechanisms such as offsets are one strategy to abate greenhouse gas emissions, and the carbon market is expanding with a growing demand for offset products. However, in the case of carbon offsets, if the carbon is released due to intentional or unintentional reversal through environmental events such as fire, the financial liability to replace lost offsets will likely fall on the provider. This liability may have implications for future participation in programmes, but common strategies such as buffer pool and insurance products can be used to minimize this liability. In order for these strategies to be effective, an understanding of the spatial and temporal distributions of expected reversals is needed. We use the case study of savanna burning, an approved greenhouse gas abatement methodology under the Carbon Farming Initiative in Australia, to examine potential risks to carbon markets in northern Australia and quantify the financial risks. We focus our analysis on the threat of Andropogon gayanus (gamba grass) to savanna burning due to its documented impacts of increased fuel loads and altered fire regimes. We assess the spatial and financial extent to which gamba grass poses a risk to savanna burning programmes in northern Australia. We find that 75% of the eligible area for savanna burning is spatially coincident with the high suitability range for gamba grass. Our analysis demonstrates that the presence of gamba grass seriously impacts the financial viability of savanna burning projects. For example, in order to recuperate the annual costs of controlling 1 ha of gamba grass infestation, 290 ha of land must be enrolled in annual carbon abatement credits. Our results show an immediate need to contain gamba grass to its current extent to avoid future spread into large expanses of land, which are currently profitable for savanna burning. (letter)
The opportunities for uranium development in South Australia are discussed. The author outlines the likely development of three known uranium deposits, shows the world energy and uranium requirements and makes some observations on uranium enrichment
Kent, Anthony; Mercer, David
In June 2004, the Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard, released the long-awaited government blueprint for the favoured policy direction for the country's energy sector, Securing Australia's Energy Future. In part this document was a response to a review of the operation of Australia's mandatory renewable energy target (MRET), a regime that started in April 2001. MRET was put under detailed scrutiny from March 2003 onwards by a four-person panel (the Tambling Committee), appointed by the Howard coalition (conservative) government, that received 248 detailed submissions and finally released its findings to the public in January 2004. This paper presents an overview of (i) the range of opinions on MRET presented to the Tambling Inquiry; (ii) the recommendations of that Committee; (iii) the final judgement on MRET enunciated in Securing Australia's Energy Future; and (iv) the response of the States
Stoddart, C. W.; Stoddart, J. A.; Blakeway, D. R.
Most coral species off Australia's west coast spawn in the austral autumn (March-April), with a few species also spawning in the southern spring or early summer (November-December). This is the reverse timing to spawning recorded off Australia's east coast. Porites lutea, a gonochoric broadcast spawner that is common on Australia's west coast, is shown here to spawn in the months of November or December, as it does on Australia's east coast. Spawning occurred between 2 and 5 nights after full moon, with the majority of spawning activity on night 3. Gametes developed over three to four months with rapid development in the last two weeks before spawning. Zooxanthellae were typically observed in mature oocytes, only a week before spawning so their presence may provide a useful indicator of imminent spawning.
Examines how serious youth employment is in Australia as well as factors responsible for unemployment among these and other individuals (such as girls and young women). Also examines youth policies, focusing on educational and training concerns and issues. (JN)
Topper, Timothy Paul; Holmer, Lars E.; Skovsted, Christian B.
The morphology and organophosphatic shell structure of the paterinate brachiopod Askepasma is documented using new and previously collected specimens from the lower Cambrian of South Australia. Lack of adequately preserved material has seen the majority of paterinate specimens previously reported...... from South Australia referred to the genus Askepasma and treated under open nomenclature. Large collections of paterinates from the lower Cambrian Wilkawillina, Ajax, and Wirrapowie limestones in the Arrowie Basin, South Australia have prompted redescription of the type species Askepasma toddense...... and the erection of a new species, Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. currently represents the oldest known brachiopod from the lower Cambrian successions in South Australia with a FAD in pre-trilobitic (Terreneuvian, Cambrian Stage 2, lower Atdabanian) strata in the basal part...
Ivory, A.; Mobbs, C. [Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (Australia)
The Australian Government established the National Dioxins Program (NDP) in 2001 to improve knowledge about levels of dioxins in Australia. The program aims to determine levels, assess the risks to Australians and the environment, and to consider appropriate management actions. Starting in mid 2001and completed in 2004, the studies constituted the largest survey of dioxin levels ever undertaken in Australia. The findings will contribute to debate on how to deal with dioxins in Australia, as well as helping to meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which Australia ratified on 20 May 2004. These studies will also contribute to a better understanding about dioxins in the southern hemisphere. This paper provides a summary of the key findings of these studies and the risk assessments.
The history of the discovery of Australia's uranium deposits is reviewed. The exploration can be conveniently divided into three periods - pre-1944, when the only significant discoveries were made by prospectors in South Australia at Radium Hill and Mount Painter; 1944-1960 and post-1967. The second period saw uranium discoveries in the Northern Territory and Queensland, most of which were made by prospectors using hand-held geiger counters and rewarded by the Australian Government. Since 1967 new deposits have been found in the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia by companies using maps, airborne radiometric surveys and sophisticated equipment. The step from the discovery of Mary Kathleen by prospectors to finding Roxby Downs by a combination of geophysical methods, geological concepts and deep drilling was a very big one
Van der Heijden, J.J.
Facing issues with regulatory enforcement through municipal agencies, governments in Australia have reformed the enforcement of public building regulations. As a result, the private sector has been introduced in building regulatory enforcement regimes with differences amongst jurisdictions. In this
Full Text Available If Australia has been subject to major influences by the United States and European countries, why is its economy healthier than their counter partners? What are the economic foundations that underline this anti-counter cycle of financial worldwide crisis from Australia? What are some of the lessons that countries from Europe that have not fared during the current financial worldwide crisis should learn from Australia? The purpose of this paper is to review the present Australian management system. Four changes are identified including embracement of corporate governance, a shift to adopt more R&D activities, a shift to adopt environmental sustainability practices and emerging corporate social responsibility. On the conclusions settings, a recap and recommendation on how Portugal, a member of the PIGS (Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain Southern European Countries club forgot to embrace directives that have been applied in Australia, to avoid the actual financial and identity crisis.
During a weeklong Mycoblitz in the Atherton Tablelands of Queensland, Australia, many hypocrealean fungi were collected. Preliminary identifications indicate that many of these specimens are part of the pantropical hypocrealean biota. Some of the common tropical species collected include: Bionectria...
Cyril, Sheila; Polonsky, Michael; Green, Julie; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre
. However, no studies in Australia have assessed disadvantaged communities' readiness to engage in obesity prevention initiatives. What does this paper add? This paper addresses the current gap in the knowledge of disadvantaged communities' level of readiness to engage in childhood obesity prevention initiatives in Australia. The study also identified the key factors responsible for low readiness of disadvantaged communities to participate in current childhood obesity prevention services. By using the Community Readiness model this study shows the readiness levels specific to the various dimensions of the model; Understanding dimension-specific readiness allows us to identify strategies that are tailored to each dimension, as guided by the model. What are the implications for practitioners? With the increasing burden of childhood obesity on disadvantaged communities, policymakers and health practitioners are facing a crisis in obesity prevention and management. Almost every year, new interventions are being planned and implemented. However if the target communities are not ready to participate in the available interventions these efforts are futile. This study exposes the key factors responsible for low readiness to participate in current obesity prevention services by disadvantaged communities. Addressing these key factors and improving readiness before designing new interventions will improve the participation of disadvantaged communities in those interventions. The study findings ultimately have the potential of reducing obesity-related disparities in Australia.
Kiely, Patricia M; Slater, Jared
Competency standards for entry-level to the profession of optometry in Australia were first developed in 1993, revised in 1997 and 2000, and again in 2008, when therapeutic competency standards were introduced but differentiated from the entry-level competencies. Therapeutic competencies were an additional requirement for the purpose of endorsing optometric registration to allow prescription of medicines for conditions of the eye. Recent changes to educational and registration requirements mean that therapeutic competencies are now required at entry-level. To address this and to ensure the standards reflect current best practice, a full revision of the standards was undertaken. A steering committee oversaw the review of the standards, which involved a literature review, workshops with optometrists and broad consultation with stakeholders, including the Optometry Board of Australia, individual optometrists and employers of optometrists, to identify changes needed. Representatives of the profession from Australia and New Zealand and from academia in Australia were involved. A modified document based on the feedback received was circulated to the State Divisions and the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia. The updated standards reflect the state of entry to the optometric profession in 2014; competencies for prescribing of scheduled medicines are included, new material has been added, other areas have been modified. The updated entry-level competency standards were adopted on behalf of the profession by the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia in March 2014. Competency standards have been updated so that they continue to be current and useful for the profession, individual optometrists and Australian and New Zealand registration authorities for the purposes of accreditation of optometric programs and assessment of overseas-trained optometrists. This paper details the revision process and presents the 2014 version of
By the early 1980's if the current mining projects described are allowed to go on stream, Australia will be able to produce at least 10 900 tons of U$sub 3$O$sub 8$ annually from ores whose grade ranges from a low of 0.150% to a high of 2.300%. The Jabiluka Project of uranium mining is described, and plans for other mines are discussed in Queensland, South and Western Australia. 2 refs
M. D. R. Evans; Jonathan Kelley
This paper examines the sources of parental divorce in Australia using respondents' retrospective reports of parents' behaviour in the IsssA-Pool database, a pooled series of representative national samples of Australia conducted between 1984 and 2002 (N=19,601 valid cases for this analysis). We analyse the probability of divorce using logistic regression models. The results include a very large effect of time, with people reaching age 14 before the Family Law Act took effect being much less ...
Tulsiani, Suhella; Lau, C L; Graham, G C
Human leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance that causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing nations. In this review, the history, epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation and treatment of this disease, and its impact in Australia, are discus......Human leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance that causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing nations. In this review, the history, epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation and treatment of this disease, and its impact in Australia...
Carroll, Katherine E; Lenne, Brydan S; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Amir, Lisa H; Bredemeyer, Sandra; Hartmann, Ben; Jones, Rachel; Koorts, Pieter; McConachy, Helen; Mumford, Patricia; Polverino, Jan
Lactation and breast milk can hold great value and meaning for grieving mothers who have experienced a recent death of an infant. Donation to a human milk bank (HMB) as an alternative to discarding breast milk is one means of respecting the value of breast milk. There is little research, national policy discussion, or organizational representation in Australia on the subject of breast milk donation after infant death. On 29 November 2013 the Mercy Hospital for Women in Melbourne, Australia ho...
Christie, Andrew F.; Dent, Chris; McIntyre, Peter; Wilson, Lachlan; Studdert, David M.
Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by "evergreening" blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent...
Thomas Wulstan Christiansen
Full Text Available Abstract – This chapter focuses upon two contrasting features of the linguistic situation in Australia. On the one hand, together with nationhood, the past hundred or so years have seen the evolution of a distinct national variety of English in Australia recognizable also outside Australia. On the other, Australia, though a young nation, has been continuously inhabited by the various Aborigine and Torre Strait Islander communities for thousands of years. These have traditionally spoken a wide variety of different languages, some of which of great interest to linguists due to their peculiarity. Increasingly, although the use of Aborigine languages has until very recently been in steady decline, since the 1950s in particular, diverse ethnic groups speaking a variety of languages, both European and Asian, have settled in Australia. The National Policy on Languages (1987 formally directed Australia towards multilingualism and the teaching of English as a first and second language is promoted together with that of Aborigine and community languages. Consequently, Australia has been one of the first nations to try to capitalise on its own linguistic diversity, both as a means of strengthening links with the outside world and as a way of promoting a multiethnic and multicultural society at home. Australia presents then an interesting case study for those working with discourse in immigration domains who are concerned with the way that language policy (or the lack of one may effect social harmony and serve not only as an indicator of the way that migrants are received and treated, but also a catalyst in itself for greater mutual respect.
Newnam, Sharon; Goode, Natassia; Salmon, Paul; Stevenson, Mark
Road freight transport is considered to be one of the most dangerous industries in Australia, accounting for over 30% of all work fatalities. Whilst system reform (i.e., change to policy and practice) is needed, it is not clear what this reform should be, or what approaches should be used to drive it. This article argues that road freight transportation reform should be underpinned by a systems thinking approach. Efforts to understand crash causation should be focused beyond the driver and identify contributing factors at other levels with the road freight system. Accordingly, we present the findings from a study that examined whether Australian Coronial investigations into road freight crashes reflect support appropriate system reform. Content analysis was used to identify the contributing factors and interrelations implicated in the road freight crashes described in publicly available Australian Coroner's inquest reports from the last 10 years (2004-2014; n=21). The results found evidence to suggest that the Coronial inquests provide some understanding of the complex system of factors influencing road freight transportation crashes in Australia. However, there was a lack of evidence to suggest an understanding of system-based reform based on the identification of reductionist-focused recommendations. It is concluded that researchers and practitioners (ie., government and industry) need to work together to develop prevention efforts focused on system reforms. Systems thinking based data collection and analysis frameworks are urgently required to help develop this understanding in road freight transportation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jang, Haeyoung; Koo, Fung Kuen; Ke, Liang; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Fraser, David R; Seibel, Marcus J; Tseng, Marilyn; Mpofu, Elias; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye
In this qualitative study, researchers examined cultural and attitudinal factors that might be related to sun-exposure behaviors among East Asian women living in Australia. Researchers asked Chinese (n = 20) and Korean (n = 16) immigrant women who participated in a larger cross-sectional quantitative study of vitamin D blood levels to volunteer to participate in an in-depth interview in 2010. These women reported a number of cultural factors related to their attitudes and behaviors with regard to sun exposure. They expressed preference for fair skin, a tradition of covering skin when outdoors, and no sunbathing culture. They believed that fair skin was more beautiful than tanned skin. They reported that beauty was the reason for active avoidance of sunlight exposure. Although they reported knowledge of the need for sun avoidance due to skin cancer risk, few reported knowledge about the benefits of sun exposure for adequate vitamin D levels. These findings may provide some reasons for vitamin D deficiency previously reported in these populations. Thus, researchers recommend that these attitudes of excessive sun protection and limiting sun exposure be further investigated as they may have implications for planning and delivery of health promotion programs to this growing population of immigrants in Australia.
Ji, Fei; Evans, Jason Peter; Di Luca, Alejandro; Jiang, Ningbo; Olson, Roman; Fita, Lluis; Argüeso, Daniel; Chang, Lisa T.-C.; Scorgie, Yvonne; Riley, Matt
Air pollution has significant impacts on human health. Temperature inversions, especially near surface temperature inversions, can amplify air pollution by preventing convective movements and trapping pollutants close to the ground, thus decreasing air quality and increasing health issues. This effect of temperature inversions implies that trends in their frequency, strength and duration can have important implications for air quality. In this study, we evaluate the ability of three reanalysis-driven high-resolution regional climate model (RCM) simulations to represent near surface inversions at 9 sounding sites in southeast Australia. Then we use outputs of 12 historical and future RCM simulations (each with three time periods: 1990-2009, 2020-2039, and 2060-2079) from the NSW/ACT (New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory) Regional Climate Modelling (NARCliM) project to investigate changes in near surface temperature inversions. The results show that there is a substantial increase in the strength of near surface temperature inversions over southeast Australia which suggests that future inversions may intensify poor air quality events. Near surface inversions and their future changes have clear seasonal and diurnal variations. The largest differences between simulations are associated with the driving GCMs, suggesting that the large-scale circulation plays a dominant role in near surface inversion strengths.
Chung, Vincent C. H.; Zhang, Anthony L.; Adams, Jon
High quality education programs are essential for preparing the next generation of Chinese medicine (CM) practitioners. Currently, training in CM occurs within differing health and education policy contexts. There has been little analysis of the factors influencing the form and status of CM education in different regions. Such a task is important for understanding how CM is evolving internationally and predicting future workforce characteristics. This paper compares the status of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong across a range of dimensions: historical and current positions in the national higher education system, regulatory context and relationship to the health system, and public and professional legitimacy. The analysis highlights the different ways in which CM education is developing in these settings, with Hong Kong providing somewhat greater access to clinical training opportunities for CM students. However, common trends and challenges shape CM education in both regions, including marginalisation from mainstream health professions, a small but established presence in universities, and an emphasis on biomedical research. Three factors stand out as significant for the evolution of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong and may have international implications: continuing biomedical dominance, increased competition between universities, and strengthened links with mainland China. PMID:27379170
Lo, Meihan; Russell, Cherry
Family caregiving in East Asian cultures is traditionally based on the Confucian ethic of filial piety that mandates total, holistic care for elders. While research suggests changes in 'family care' are occurring in Asian countries themselves, remarkably little is known about immigrant Asian families in Australia. The study aimed to explore the experience of 'family care' among Chinese-speaking older people who have migrated to Australia in later life. In-depth interviews were conducted in Cantonese with a convenience sample of five cases, including six older Chinese and analysed inductively for dominant themes. Although no single model of 'family care' emerged, findings reveal significant departures from the norms of filial piety and an overall 'westernisation' of care practices, both in relation to what families actually do for their parents and what the older people themselves expect. Transformation of filial culture has implications for policy, service planning and professional practice. It cannot be assumed that elderly Chinese immigrants' needs are being met through traditional family structures.
Full Text Available This paper examines the perceptions of urban and regional water consumers in three areas of South Australia on the fairness of the water pricing system, the impact of increases in water pricing on households and pricing as a driver of water conservation. The study was conducted in 2009 during a time of severe drought and mandatory water restrictions. The results did not show a general aversion to all aspects of price increases but rather different sectors of the population were particularly resistant to different, specific aspects of water pricing. A state-wide water pricing policy in South Australia means that all consumers pay the same rate per volume of water consumed regardless of their location; yet in the regional study area, where it costs more for the service provider to supply the water, the respondents had stronger feelings that the price of water should be higher in places where it costs more to supply it. Generally, low income earners were less in favor of a block pricing system than higher income earners. The latter findings indicate a common lack of awareness around various aspects of water pricing. Some implications of the findings for water managers are outlined.
Full Text Available Circulatory diseases (CDs (including myocardial infarction, angina, stroke or hypertension are among the leading causes of death in the world. In this paper, we explore for the first time the impact of a specific aspect of organizational climate, Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC, on CDs. We used two waves of interview data from Australia, with an average lag of 5 years (excluding baseline CDs, final n = 1223. Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the prospective associations between PSC at baseline on incident CDs at follow-up. It was found that participants in low PSC environments were 59% more likely to develop new CD than those in high PSC environments. Logistic regression showed that high PSC at baseline predicts lower CD risk at follow-up (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.96–1.00 and this risk remained unchanged even after additional adjustment for known job design risk factors (effort reward imbalance and job strain. These results suggest that PSC is an independent risk factor for CDs in Australia. Beyond job design this study implicates organizational climate and prevailing management values regarding worker psychological health as the genesis of CDs.
Full Text Available Episodic supply shortages of metals and unsettling predictions of potential supply constraints in the future have led to a series of recent criticality evaluations. This study applies a consistent criticality methodology to the United States, Australia, and to the global level for both 2008 and 2012. It is the first time that criticality assessments are presented for Australia, a country that contrasts with the United States in terms of its mineral deposits and metal use characteristics. We use the Yale criticality methodology, which measures Supply Risk (SR, Environmental Implications (EI, and Vulnerability to Supply Restriction (VSR to derive criticality assessments for five major metals (Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and for indium (In. We find only modest changes in SR between 2008 and 2012 at both country and global levels; these changes are due to revisions in resource estimates. At the country level, Australia’s VSR for Ni, Cu, and Zn is 23%–33% lower than that for the United States, largely because of Australia’s abundant domestic resources. At the global level, SR is much higher for In, Ni, Cu, and Zn than for Al and Fe as a consequence of SR’s longer time horizon and anticipated supply/demand constraints. The results emphasize the dynamic nature of criticality and its variance between countries and among metals.
Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu
Background Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease is a common and wide-spread mosquito-borne disease in Australia. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease in Queensland, Australia using geographical information system (GIS) tools and geostatistical analysis. Methods/Principal Findings We calculated the incidence rates and standardised incidence rates of BFV disease. Moran's I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidences. Spatial dynamics of BFV disease was examined using semi-variogram analysis. Interpolation techniques were applied to visualise and display the spatial distribution of BFV disease in statistical local areas (SLAs) throughout Queensland. Mapping of BFV disease by SLAs reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time. Statistically significant differences in BFV incidence rates were identified among age groups (χ2 = 7587, df = 7327,pQueensland using GIS and geostatistics. The BFV transmission varied with age and gender, which may be due to exposure rates or behavioural risk factors. There are differences in the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease which may be related to local socio-ecological and environmental factors. These research findings may have implications in the BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland. PMID:22022430
Full Text Available High quality education programs are essential for preparing the next generation of Chinese medicine (CM practitioners. Currently, training in CM occurs within differing health and education policy contexts. There has been little analysis of the factors influencing the form and status of CM education in different regions. Such a task is important for understanding how CM is evolving internationally and predicting future workforce characteristics. This paper compares the status of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong across a range of dimensions: historical and current positions in the national higher education system, regulatory context and relationship to the health system, and public and professional legitimacy. The analysis highlights the different ways in which CM education is developing in these settings, with Hong Kong providing somewhat greater access to clinical training opportunities for CM students. However, common trends and challenges shape CM education in both regions, including marginalisation from mainstream health professions, a small but established presence in universities, and an emphasis on biomedical research. Three factors stand out as significant for the evolution of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong and may have international implications: continuing biomedical dominance, increased competition between universities, and strengthened links with mainland China.
Philip Taylor; Christopher Findlay
This paper reviews the implications of economic growth for food consumption in Asia, the East Asian supply responses and the determinants of Australian competitiveness in meeting Asian demand from production in Australia. Our special interests are to draw out some implications for Australia’s irrigated agriculture and for the organisation of the export business of that sector of the economy. A key question is the scope for increased exports of fresh rather than processed products. Sources of ...
McKay, A.; Lambert, I.; Miezitis, Y.
Australia has 654 000 tonnes uranium (U) in Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) recoverable at ≤US$40/kg U, which is the largest of all national resource estimates reported in this category. Australia also has the world's largest resources in RAR recoverable at ≤US$80/kg U, with 29% of world resources in this category. Other countries that have large resources in this category include Kazakhstan (19%), Canada (14%), South Africa (10%), Brazil (7%), Namibia (6%), Russian Federation (6%), and United States (5%). In 2000, the main developments in Australia's uranium mining industry were that production reached a record level of 8937 t U 3 O 8 (7579 t U), and commercial operations commenced at the new in situ leach operation at Beverley during November. Australia's total production for 2000 was 27% higher than for 1999. Uranium oxide was produced at the Olympic Dam (4500 t U 3 O 8 ), Ranger (4437 t U 3 O 8 ) and Beverley operations, although production from Beverley for the year was not reported. Australia's share of the world's annual uranium production has increased steadily from about 10.8% (3,712 tonnes U) in 1995 to 21.9% in 2000. Throughout this period Australia has maintained its position as the world's second-largest producer of uranium, behind Canada
Common, M. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies; Hamilton, C. [Australia Institute, Deakin, ACT (Australia)
Global warming is an international problem. Multilateral actions agreed to under international treaties would be the most effective means of limiting global carbon dioxide emissions. Each country, however, would have some discretion in deciding how best to meet its obligations. In this paper, a potentially important `unilateral` action on the part of Australia, a carbon tax, is examined. When combined with a package of other measures, it may be argued that carbon taxation might be a beneficial policy measure even though actions by Australia would have only a small impact on global emissions. While the arguments may be developed in the Australian context they are relevant to industrial countries more generally. After considering Australia`s current situation with respect the emissions and international greenhouse obligations, the advantages and disadvantages of a carbon tax are reviewed. Based on some modelling work on the effects of introducing a carbon tax in Australia, including projections of impacts on carbon emissions, economic growth and employment, it is concluded that, with appropriate use of carbon tax revenues, there is a prima facie case for the unilateral introduction of carbon taxation in Australia. (author). 7 tabs., refs.
The Constitution forming the Australian Commonwealth Government on 1 January 1901 provided that animal and animal products imported into and exported from Australia would be under the authority of the national government. By mutual agreement, the Quarantine Act 1908 provided for the states to continue the delivery of services under contract until 1995 when the Commonwealth took back full responsibility for quarantine services. In the 1940s, 50s and 60s there were world pandemics of livestock diseases and Australia ceased the import of many species. By the 1970s, the livestock industries sought relaxation of import restrictions to gain access to diversified genetic stock. By the use of new technologies, many species can now be imported into Australia through tight importation protocols. With the advent of the World Trade Organization and implementation of the Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement, Australia has developed a risk-based framework to support the development of import conditions for animals and animal products. Australia's 'Acceptable Level of Protection' has been set to provide a low likelihood of disease entry. Being an island continent, Australia can apply strong controls over imports and exports of all commodities and relatively few outbreaks of exotic animal diseases have occurred by breach of quarantine, but the outbreaks of rinderpest in 1923 and equine influenza in 2007 were notable exceptions. © 2011 The Author. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.
Gill-Atkinson, Liz; Vaughan, Cathy; Williams, Hennie
Background Australia's philanthropic sector is growing and could support efforts to improve sexual and reproductive health (SRH). However, philanthropy is often misunderstood in Australia and there is limited evidence of philanthropic support for SRH initiatives. We aimed to understand the barriers and facilitators to philanthropic funding of SRH initiatives in Australia. A qualitative approach was used and involved 13 in-depth interviews with professionals from the philanthropic sector, and from organisations and services involved in SRH. Barriers to organisations in seeking philanthropic funding for SRH activities included insufficient resources for writing grant applications and the small financial value of philanthropic grants. Facilitators to seeking philanthropic funding for SRH included a perception that government funding is shrinking and that philanthropic research grants are less competitive than government grants. Philanthropic participants identified that barriers to funding SRH include the sensitive nature of SRH and the perceived conservative nature of philanthropy. Facilitators identified by these participants in supporting SRH initiatives included networking and relationships between grant-makers and grant-seekers. All participants agreed that philanthropy does and could have a role in funding SRH in Australia. The findings of this research suggest that barriers to philanthropic funding for SRH in Australia exist for organisations attempting to access philanthropic funding. Philanthropic organisations could provide more financial support to Australian SRH service providers, as happens in countries such as the United States and United Kingdom. Addressing these barriers and promoting the facilitators could lead to increased awareness of SRH by Australia's philanthropic sector.
Jewell, M; Frère, C H; Harris-Shultz, K; Anderson, W F; Godwin, I D; Lambrides, C J
The distinction between native and introduced flora within isolated land masses presents unique challenges. The geological and colonisation history of Australia, the world's largest island, makes it a valuable system for studying species endemism, introduction, and phylogeny. Using this strategy we investigated Australian cosmopolitan grasses belonging to the genus Cynodon. While it is believed that seven species of Cynodon are present in Australia, no genetic analyses have investigated the origin, diversity and phylogenetic history of Cynodon within Australia. To address this gap, 147 samples (92 from across Australia and 55 representing global distribution) were sequenced for a total of 3336bp of chloroplast DNA spanning six genes. Data showed the presence of at least six putatively introduced Cynodon species (C. transvaalensis, C. incompletus, C. hirsutus, C. radiatus, C. plectostachyus and C. dactylon) in Australia and suggested multiple recent introductions. C. plectostachyus, a species often confused with C. nlemfuensis, was not previously considered to be present in Australia. Most significantly, we identified two common haplotypes that formed a monophyletic clade diverging from previously identified Cynodon species. We hypothesise that these two haplotypes may represent a previously undescribed species of Cynodon. We provide further evidence that two Australian native species, Brachyachne tenella and B. convergens belong in the genus Cynodon and, therefore, argue for the taxonomic revision of the genus Cynodon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abe W. Ata
Full Text Available Outlined below are selected results of a 5-year long national survey which investigated the knowledge, values and attitudes of 430 Year 11 and 12 Muslim students in eight Muslim High schools towards the mainstream Australia and Australians society. The findings reflect a wide spectrum of responses with a strong implication that much work is needed to bring about an appropriate degree of adjustment. Providing awareness sessions to students and parents—both non-Muslims and Muslims—which address critical social, religious and cultural issues including stereotyping and inclusivity, is key.
Ackland, M.C. [Southern Cross Resources Inc. Toowond, QLD (Australia)
The Honeymoon uranium deposit is one of several roll front uranium deposits in South Australia. It was discovered in 1971, the project developed in the 1970`s, and was ready for demonstration of the In Situ Leaching (ISL) production techniques by January 1983, when the project was stopped, despite it having met the environmental approvals to proceed, due to the Australian Labour Party`s `three mines policy`. From 1983 until March 1996 the project was mothballed. In late 1996 Southern Cross Resources Inc. (SCRI) reached agreement with Mount Isa Mining (MIM) to purchase its uranium interests in Honeymoon, Goulds Dam and EL 2310 whilst simultaneously acquiring Sedimentary Holdings NL`s interests in EL 2310. By April 1997 these interests were consolidated in SCRI`s wholly owned subsidiary, Southern Cross Resources Australia Ply Ltd which is the operating company. Activities are presently underway to rehabilitate the existing treatment plant and continue the program that was outlined in the approved 1981 Honeymoon Environmental Impact Statement. 2 tabs., 3 figs.
Roy, John; Schurer, Stefanie
Do episodes of mental health (MH) problems cause future MH problems, and if yes, how strong are these dynamics? We quantify the degree of persistence in MH problems using nationally representative, longitudinal data from Australia and system generalized method of moments (GMM), and correlated random effects approaches are applied to separate true from spurious state dependence. Our results suggest only a moderate degree of persistence in MH problems when assuming that persistence is constant across the MH distribution once individual-specific heterogeneity is accounted for. However, individuals who fell once below a threshold that indicates an episode of depression are up to five times more likely to experience such a low score again a year later, indicating a strong element of state dependence in depression. Low income is a strong risk factor in state dependence for both men and women, which has important policy implications. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
We wanted the best, but it turned out like always. Victor Chernomydrin) 1 According to literary legend, Shangri-La is an idyllic and harmonious place. Mental health is aspiring to its own Shangri-La in the shape of better integrated care. But do current reforms make integrated practice more or less likely? And what can be done to increase the chances of success? The aim of this article is to review the current state of mental health reforms in Australia now under way across Primary Health Networks, the National Disability Insurance Scheme, psychosocial support services and elsewhere. What are these changes and what are the implications for the future of integrated mental health care? Is Shangri-La just over the horizon, or have we embarked instead on a fool's errand?
Full Text Available We wanted the best, but it turned out like always. (Viktor Chernomyrdin1 According to literary legend, Shangri-La is an idyllic and harmonious place. Mental health is aspiring to its own Shangri-La in the shape of better integrated care. But do current reforms make integrated practice more or less likely? And what can be done to increase the chances of success? The aim of this article is to review the current state of mental health reforms in Australia now under way across Primary Health Networks, the National Disability Insurance Scheme, psychosocial support services and elsewhere. What are these changes and what are the implications for the future of integrated mental health care? Is Shangri-La just over the horizon, or have we embarked instead on a fool’s errand?
Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha
Thirteen sites in Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia were sampled three times over a period of 7 months and assessed for contamination by a range of heavy metals, primarily As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Hg. Fraction analysis, enrichment factors and Principal Components Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) analysis were conducted in order to identify the potential bioavailability of these elements of concern and their sources. Hg and Te were identified as the elements of highest enrichment in Deception Bay while marine sediments, shipping and antifouling agents were identified as the sources of the Weak Acid Extractable Metals (WE-M), with antifouling agents showing long residence time for mercury contamination. This has significant implications for the future of monitoring and regulation of heavy metal contamination within Deception Bay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boddington, Paula; Räisänen, Ulla
This paper discusses attempts to define health within a public policy arena and practical and conceptual difficulties that arise. An Australian Aboriginal definition of health is examined. Although there are certain difficulties of translation, this definition is prominent in current Australian health policy and discourse about health. The definition can be seen as broadly holistic in comparison to other holistic definitions such as that of the World Health Organization. The nature of this holism and its grounding within the context of Aboriginal Australia is discussed. In particular, its implications for the phenomenon of medicalization, which may be associated with a holistic notion of health, is critically explored, as is the link of notions of health to culture and the question of the possibility of a universal definition of health. The question of to what extent a definition of health is inspirational or operational is also raised.
Pearce, Alan; Pattiaratchi, Charitha
Although the dominant boundary current off Western Australia is the poleward-flowing Leeuwin Current, satellite imagery shows that there is a cool equatorward coastal countercurrent running close inshore in the extreme southwest during the summer months. This seasonal current has been named the Capes Current as it appears to be strongest between Cape Leeuwin (34°20'S) and Cape Naturaliste (33°30'S), and it is probably linked with the general northward shelf current which has been observed previously along most of the Western Australian coastline further north. Strong northwards wind stresses between November and March slow the Leeuwin Current (which moves offshore) and drive the Capes Current, and there may be localised upwelling as well (Gersbach et al., Continental Shelf Research, 1998). It has important implications for the salmon fishery as it may affect the migration of adult salmon around Cape Leeuwin at this time of year.
Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Petersen, Jacinta; Wynne, Georgie
In this article, we describe how teachers in the Australian school system are educated to teach science and the different qualifications that teachers need to enter the profession. The latest comparisons of Australian students in international science assessments have brought about various accountability measures to improve the quality of science teachers at all levels. We discuss the issues and implications of government initiatives in preservice and early career teacher education programs, such as the implementation of national science curriculum, the stricter entry requirements to teacher education programs, an alternative pathway to teaching and the measure of effectiveness of teacher education programs. The politicized discussion and initiatives to improve the quality of science teacher education in Australia are still unfolding as we write in 2014.
A. S. Kiem
Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s the majority of Victoria, Australia, has experienced severe drought conditions (i.e. the "Big Dry" characterized by streamflow that is the lowest in approximately 80 years of record. While decreases in annual and seasonal rainfall totals have also been observed, this alone does not seem to explain the observed reduction in flow. In this study, we investigate the large-scale climate drivers for Victoria and demonstrate how these modulate the regional scale synoptic patterns, which in turn alter the way seasonal rainfall totals are compiled and the amount of runoff per unit rainfall that is produced. The hydrological implications are significant and illustrate the need for robust hydrological modelling, that takes into account insights into physical mechanisms that drive regional hydroclimatology, in order to properly understand and quantify the impacts of climate change (natural and/or anthropogenic on water resources.
Full text: This study uses elemental and isotopic composition of carbonates associated with gold from Henty and Beaconsfield in Tasmania, Australia, to illustrate source of gold-bearing fluids, salinity, temperature and dissolution and reprecipitation of carbonate. The Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are located in northern and western Tasmania respectively. Gold mineralisation in Beaconsfield occurs within the quartz-carbonate Tasmania Reef (Lower to Middle Palaeozoic sequence, Hills, 1998). The Henty gold mine is located at the base of the Cambrian Tyndall Group (volcano-sedimentary succession, White and McPhie, 1996) close to Henty Fault. Gold in carbonate samples from Henty ranges from 7.7 to 9360 ppm and in Beaconsfield ranges from 0.01 to 434 ppm. The amount of carbonate in samples from Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines varies from approximately 24 to 99.8%. Bivariate plot of Ca relative to total amounts of Mg, Fe and Mn illustrates that the major carbonate minerals at Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are magnesian ankerite and calcite. The difference in carbonate mineralogy, at Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines, is attributed to the composition of fluids responsible for carbonate alteration. Gold and magnesium in Beaconsfield ankerite are derived from the leaching of Cambrian ultramafic rocks during the Devonian by the passage of meteoric fluids through tectonically affected Ordovician carbonates (Rao and Adabi, 1999). The total concentration of Fe and Mn are low (0.5 to 2%) in Henty and high (1 to 17.5%) in Beaconsfield ankerite, possibly due to oxidising conditions at Henty and reducing conditions at Beaconsfield gold mines during gold mineralisation. Variation of Sr values between Beaconsfield ankerite and Henty calcite is related to dissolution of limestone that increase Sr concentrations in gold mineralising fluids. Na values in both Beaconsfield (20 to 1100 ppm) and Henty carbonates (25 to 1650 ppm) suggest low salinity fluids responsible for gold
Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky
The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture. The discrepancy between estimates of lithospheric thickness derived from subsidence data for the western Canning Basin and those derived from shear wave tomography suggests that the latter technique currently is limited in its ability to resolve lithospheric thickness variations at horizontal half-wavelength scales of <300 km.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence of chronic conditions among patients seeing a general practitioner (GP, patients attending general practice at least once in a year, and the Australian population. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A sub-study of the BEACH (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health program, a continuous national study of general practice activity conducted between July 2008 and May 2009. Each of 290 GPs provided data for about 30 consecutive patients (total 8,707 indicating diagnosed chronic conditions, using their knowledge of the patient, patient self-report, and patient's health record. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimates of prevalence of chronic conditions among patients surveyed, adjusted prevalence in patients who attended general practice at least once that year, and national population prevalence. RESULTS: Two-thirds (66.3% of patients surveyed had at least one chronic condition: most prevalent being hypertension (26.6%, hyperlipidaemia (18.5%, osteoarthritis (17.8%, depression (13.7%, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (11.6%, asthma (9.5% and Type 2 diabetes (8.3%. For patients who attended general practice at least once, we estimated 58.8% had at least one chronic condition. After further adjustment we estimated 50.8% of the Australian population had at least one chronic condition: hypertension (17.4%, hyperlipidaemia (12.7%, osteoarthritis (11.1%, depression (10.5% and asthma (8.0% being most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: This study used GPs to gather information from their knowledge, the patient, and health records, to provide prevalence estimates that overcome weaknesses of studies using patient self-report or health record audit alone. Our results facilitate examination of primary care resource use in management of chronic conditions and measurement of prevalence of multimorbidity in Australia.
Airborne geophysical data sets provide important cost-effective information for resource exploration and land management. Improved techniques, developed recently, now enable high-resolution aeromagnetic and gamma-ray surveys to be used extensively by the resource industries to improve the cost effectiveness of exploration and by governments to encourage resource development and sustainable management of natural resources. Although airborne geophysical techniques have been used extensively and are now used almost routinely by mineral explorers, it is only in the last few years that governments have been involved as major players in the acquisition of data. The exploration industry pioneered the imaging of high-resolution airborne geophysical data sets in the early 1980s and, at the same time, the Northern Territory Government started a modest program of flying the Northern Territory, at 500 m flight-line spacing, to attract mineral exploration. After the start of the National Geoscience Mapping Accord in 1990, the then BMR and its State/Territory counterparts used the new high-resolution data as an essential ingredient to underpin mapping programs. These new data sets proved so valuable that, starting in 1992/93, the annual expenditure by the Commonwealth and States/Northern Territory increased from roughly $2 million per year to a massive $10 million per year. These investments by governments, although unlikely to be permanently sustainable, have been made to encourage and expand exploration activity by providing new high-quality data sets in industry at very low cost. There are now approximately 11 million line-km of airborne geophysical data available in databases held by the Commonwealth, States and Northern Territory. The results so far have seen a significant increase in exploration activity in States that have embarked on this course (e.g. South Australia and Victoria), and the information provided from these surveys is proving crucial to understanding the
Buchmueller, Thomas C; Johar, Meliyanni
Rising rates of obesity are a public health concern in every industrialized country. This study investigates the relationship between obesity and health care expenditure in Australia, where the rate of obesity has tripled in the last three decades. Now one in four Australians is considered obese, defined as having a body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) of 30 or over. The analysis is based on a random sample survey of over 240,000 adults aged 45 and over that is linked at the individual-level to comprehensive administrative health care claims for the period 2006-2009. This sub-population group has an obesity rate that is nearly 30% and is a major consumer of health services. Relative to the average annual health expenditures of those with normal weight, we find that the health expenditures of those with a BMI between 30 and 35 (obese type I) are 19% higher and expenditures of those with BMI greater than 35 (obese type II/III) are 51% higher. We find large and significant differences in all types of care: inpatient, emergency department, outpatient and prescription drugs. The obesity-related health expenditures are higher for obese type I women than men, but in the obese type II/III state, obesity-related expenditures are higher for men. When we stratify further by age groups, we find that obesity has the largest impact among men over age 75 and women aged 60-74 years old. In addition, we find that obesity impacts health expenditures not only through its link to chronic diseases, but also because it increases the cost of recovery from acute health shocks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####
Robinson, Maxine F; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Merlin, Tracy; Roughead, Elizabeth
Australia relies on managed entry agreements (MEAs) for many medicines added to the national Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). Previous studies of Australian MEAs examined public domain documents and were not able to provide a comprehensive assessment of the types and operation of MEAs. This study used government documents approved for release to examine the implementation and administration of MEAs implemented January 2012 to May 2016. We accessed documents for medicines with MEAs on the PBS between January 2012 and May 2016. Data were extracted on Anatomical Therapeutic Classification (ATC), type of MEA (financial, financial with outcomes, outcomes, and subcategories within each group), implementation and administration methods, source of MEA recommendation, and type of economic analysis. Of all medication indication pairs (MIPs) recommended for listing, one-third had MEAs implemented. Our study of eighty-seven MIPs had 170 MEAs in place. The Government's expert health technology assessment (HTA) committee recommended MEAs for 90 percent of the eighty-seven MIPs. A total of 81 percent of MEAs were simple financial agreements: the majority either discounts (32 percent) or reimbursement caps (43 percent). Outcome-based MEAs were least common (5 percent). Ninety-two percent of MEAs were implemented and operated through legal agreements. Approximately half of the MIPs were listed on the basis of accepted claims of cost-minimization. Forty-nine percent of medicines were in ATC L group. Advice from HTA evaluations strongly influences the implementation of ways to manage uncertainties while providing access to medicines. The government relied primarily on simple financial agreements for the managed entry of medicines for which there were perceived risks.
Venn, Danielle; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane
To investigate trends in five key aspects of Australian food practice which have been implicated in diet-related health risks, specifically energy intake. They are: the replacement of home-prepared foods by commercially prepared foods; consumer reliance on ultra-processed foods; de-structured dining; increased pace of eating; and a decline in commensal eating. Data were from repeated cross-sections from the national Household Expenditure and Time Use Surveys. Trends in food practice aspects were examined using indicators of food expenditure across different food groups and time spent eating and cooking, including where, when and with whom eating activities took place. Australia, 1989-2010. Nationally representative samples of Australian households. The share of the total food budget spent on food away from home rose steadily from 22·8 % in 1989 to 26·5 % in 2010, while spending on ultra-processed foods increased. The basic patterning of meals and the pace of eating changed little, although people spent more time eating alone and at restaurants. Cooking time declined considerably, particularly for women. These changes have occurred over the same time that obesity and diet-related, non-communicable diseases have increased rapidly in Australia. Some aspects are implicated more than others: particularly the shift from domestic cooking to use of pre-prepared and ultra-processed foods, a reduction in time spent in food preparation and cooking, as well as an upsurge in time and money devoted to eating away from home. These are all likely to operate through the higher energy content of commercially prepared, compared with unprocessed or lightly processed, foods.
Kwak, Mackenzie L
Historically, several tick taxonomists have reported Hyalomma aegyptium within Australia due to misidentifications. This has resulted in confusion relating to the occurrence of the genus Hyalomma within Australia. Based on the recent discovery of museum specimens of Hyalomma dromedarii, misidentified as H. aegyptium, the historical occurrence of H. dromedarii is reported for the first time within Australia, along with its apparent subsequent extinction. The introduction and naturalisation of foreign tick species into Australia is also reviewed.
Nicholls, Sarah; Hauck, Yvonne L; Bayes, Sarah; Butt, Janice
the option of labouring and/or birthing immersed in warm water has become widely available throughout hospitals in the United Kingdom and Europe over the last two decades. The practice, which also occurs in New Zealand and interstate in Australia, has until recently only been available in Western Australia for women birthing at home with a small publically funded Community Midwifery Program. Despite its popularity and acceptance elsewhere, birth in water has only recently become an option for women attending some public health services in Western Australia. The Clinical Guidelines developed for the local context that support water birth require that the midwives be confident and competent to care for these women. The issue of competency can be addressed with relative ease by maternity care providers; however confidence is rather more difficult to teach, foster and attain. Clinical confidence is an integral element of clinical judgement and promotes patient safety and comfort. For this reason confident midwives are an essential requirement to support the option of water birth in Western Australia. The aim of this study was to capture midwives' perceptions of becoming and being confident in conducting water birth in addition to factors perceived to inhibit and facilitate the development of that confidence. a modified grounded theory methodology with thematic analysis. four public maternity services offering the option of water birth in the Perth metropolitan area. registered midwives employed at one of the four publicly funded maternity services that offered the option of water birth between June 2011 and June 2013. Sixteen midwives were interviewed on a one to one basis. An additional 10 midwives participated in a focus group interview. three main categories emerged from the data analysis: what came before the journey, becoming confident - the journey and staying confident. Each contained between three and five subcategories. Together they depicted how midwives
Tew, Michelle; Dalziel, Kim M; Petrie, Dennis J; Clarke, Philip M
research purposes. The performance of states varies considerably, with WA and NSW the clear stand-out performers and limited outputs currently seen for the other Australian states and territories. What are the implications for practitioners? Given the significant investments made into data linkage, it is important to continue to evaluate and monitor the performance of the states in terms of translating this investment into outputs. Where the outputs do not match the investment, it is important to identify and overcome those barriers limiting the gains from this investment. More generally, there is a need to think about how we improve the effective and efficient use of data linkage investments in Australia.
Murphy, Nicholas P; Adams, Mark; Austin, Andrew D
The groundwater-dependent springs of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) in arid inland Australia represent a unique and threatened ecosystem. These incredibly isolated springs support a diverse array of endemic flora and fauna. One of the common faunal groups in the GAB springs is the freshwater amphipods of the family Chiltoniidae. The morphological conservatism and taxonomic uncertainty associated with these amphipods has ensured their true biodiversity, phylogeographical history and evolutionary affinities have remained unknown. We have used mitochondrial DNA and allozyme data to unravel a complicated history of isolation, extinction and dispersal among spring amphipod populations across the GAB. The results provide evidence for multiple independent colonizations in the GAB springs, particularly within the Lake Eyre group of springs. The inclusion of a group of Western Australian (WA) stygobitic amphipods from populations up to 1500 km away found surprising evidence for a shared evolutionary history between stygobitic and GAB spring amphipods. Approximate dating of the diversity found between major clades suggests the majority of lineages originated in the late Miocene, around the time of the aridification of inland Australia. The large number of independent lineages and the close connection between GAB spring and WA stygobitic amphipods suggest that a significantly rich amphipod fauna existed in the much wetter environment that once existed in inland Australia. The results also provide evidence for a gross underestimation of the species diversity within the springs, with 12 putative species identified, a conclusion with significant implications for the ongoing conservation of the GAB springs.
Whelan, Jillian; Love, Penny; Romanus, Anne; Pettman, Tahna; Bolton, Kristy; Smith, Erin; Gill, Tim; Coveney, John; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steve
Abstract Objective: Obesity is the single biggest public health threat to developed and developing economies. In concert with healthy public policy, multi-strategy, multi-level community-based initiatives appear promising in preventing obesity, with several countries trialling this approach. In Australia, multiple levels of government have funded and facilitated a range of community-based obesity prevention initiatives (CBI), heterogeneous in their funding, timing, target audience and structure. This paper aims to present a central repository of CBI operating in Australia during 2013, to facilitate knowledge exchange and shared opportunities for learning, and to guide professional development towards best practice for CBI practitioners. Methods: A comprehensive search of government, non-government and community websites was undertaken to identify CBI in Australia in 2013. This was supplemented with data drawn from available reports, personal communication and key informant interviews. The data was translated into an interactive map for use by preventive health practitioners and other parties. Results: We identified 259 CBI; with the majority (84%) having a dual focus on physical activity and healthy eating. Few initiatives, (n=37) adopted a four-pronged multi-strategy approach implementing policy, built environment, social marketing and/or partnership building. Conclusion: This comprehensive overview of Australian CBI has the potential to facilitate engagement and collaboration through knowledge exchange and information sharing amongst CBI practitioners, funders, communities and researchers. Implications: An enhanced understanding of current practice highlights areas of strengths and opportunities for improvement to maximise the impact of obesity prevention initiatives. PMID:25561083
Lambert, I.B.; McKay, A.; Miezitis, Y.
Full text: Full text: Australia's world-leading uranium endowment appears to result from the emplacement of uranium enriched felsic igneous rocks in three major periods during the geological evolution of the continent. Australia has over 27% of the world's total reasonably assured uranium resources (RAR) recoverable at < US$80/kgU (which approximates recent uranium spot prices). Olympic Dam is the largest known uranium deposit, containing approximately 19% of global RAR (and over 40% of global inferred resources) recoverable at < US$80/kg U; the uranium is present at low concentrations and the viability of its recovery is underpinned by co-production of copper and gold. Most of Australia's other identified resources are within Ranger, Jabiluka, Koongarra, Kintyre and Yeelirrie, the last four of which are not currently accessible for mining. In 2004, Australia's three operating uranium mines - Ranger, Olympic Dam, and Beverley -produced 22% of global production. Canada was the only country to produce more uranium (29%) and Kazakhstan (9%) ranked third. Considerably increased uranium production has been recently foreshadowed from Australia (through developing a large open pit at Olympic Dam), Canada (mainly through opening of the Cigar Lake mine), and Kazakhstan (developing several new in situ leach mines). These increases should go a long way towards satisfying demand from about 2010. Olympic Dam has sufficient resources to sustain such increased production over many decades. Thorium is expected to be used in some future generations of nuclear reactors. Australia also has major (but incompletely quantified) resources of this commodity, mainly in heavy mineral sands deposits and associated with alkaline igneous rocks. It is inevitable that the international community will be looking increasingly to Australia to sustain its vital role in providing fuels for future nuclear power generation, given its world-leading identified resources, considerable potential for new
Balasubramanian, Madhan; Brennan, David S; Spencer, A John; Short, Stephanie D
country for overseas-qualified dentists. Migrant dentists arrive from contrasting social and cultural backgrounds, and these contrasts can be somewhat more pronounced in dentists from developing countries. To date, there is no evidence available regarding the cultural adaptation process of overseas-qualified dentists in Australia or elsewhere. What does this paper add? This study provides evidence to support the argument that the cultural adaptation process of overseas-qualified dentists in Australia can be viewed as a continuum state, where the individual learns to adapt to the people, language and lifestyle in Australia. The ongoing role of family and friends is primary to a successful transition process. Our research also identifies the positive role played by community and organisational structures, such as universities and public sector employment schemes. What are the implications for practitioners? A potential implication for policy makers is to focus on the positive roles played by organisational structures, particularly universities and the public sector. This can inform more supportive migration policy, as well as strengthen the role these organisations play in providing support for overseas-qualified dentists, thus enabling them to integrate more successfully into Australia's health care system, economy and society.
Johnson, F.; Hutchinson, M. F.; The, C.; Beesley, C.; Green, J.
Design rainfall statistics are the primary inputs used to assess flood risk across river catchments. These statistics normally take the form of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves that are derived from extreme value probability distributions fitted to observed daily, and sub-daily, rainfall data. The design rainfall relationships are often required for catchments where there are limited rainfall records, particularly catchments in remote areas with high topographic relief and hence some form of interpolation is required to provide estimates in these areas. This paper assesses the topographic dependence of rainfall extremes by using elevation-dependent thin plate smoothing splines to interpolate the mean annual maximum rainfall, for periods from one to seven days, across Australia. The analyses confirm the important impact of topography in explaining the spatial patterns of these extreme rainfall statistics. Continent-wide residual and cross validation statistics are used to demonstrate the 100-fold impact of elevation in relation to horizontal coordinates in explaining the spatial patterns, consistent with previous rainfall scaling studies and observational evidence. The impact of the complexity of the fitted spline surfaces, as defined by the number of knots, and the impact of applying variance stabilising transformations to the data, were also assessed. It was found that a relatively large number of 3570 knots, suitably chosen from 8619 gauge locations, was required to minimise the summary error statistics. Square root and log data transformations were found to deliver marginally superior continent-wide cross validation statistics, in comparison to applying no data transformation, but detailed assessments of residuals in complex high rainfall regions with high topographic relief showed that no data transformation gave superior performance in these regions. These results are consistent with the understanding that in areas with modest topographic relief, as
Waggitt, P., E-mail: email@example.com [Darwin, NT (Australia)
Uranium has been mined in the Northern Territory of Australia more or less continuously since 1949. Most of these mines have been located on Aboriginal land, although in many cases Native Title has only been recently established and the rights of the Traditional Owners finally acknowledged. In earlier days consultation with the Traditional Owners was generally unheard of and few sites were rehabilitated when mining ceased. However, leading practice in modern mining, including uranium mining, requires that these two issues are paid particular attention, whether it be for development and operation of current mines or the remediation of legacy sites. The paper presents two brief case studies in relation to stakeholder engagement developed in the Alligator Rivers Region uranium field of Australia’s Northern Territory. The subject of the first case study, the South Alligator valley, was subject to intensive prospecting and exploration which resulted in the development of 13 small uranium mines between 1955 and 1964. The operations were abandoned and the area returned to being a cattle ranch. In 1987 the valley lay within an area that was incorporated into the World Heritage-listed Kakadu National Park. In 1996 the Gunlom Land Trust, an association of traditional owners, was granted native title to the area under the Commonwealth’s Northern Territory Land Rights Act (1976). The new owners immediately leased the land back to the Commonwealth Government for continued use as a National Park. A condition of that lease was that all former mine sites and associated workings would be rehabilitated by 2015. The paper describes the comprehensive consultation process involving all stakeholders that was developed for this programme; and goes on to describe the programme of remediation works to date and the situation as of 2009. The second case history deals with the consultation process developed by one Government agency as it works with Traditional Owners and other
Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom
training of general surgeons. What is known about the topic? A paper published in 1998 suggested that Australia's rural surgeons were soon to reach retirement age. However, there have been no published peer-reviewed papers on Australia's surgical workforce since then. More recent workforce statistics released from the RACS suggest that the rural workforce is in crisis. What does this paper add? This paper provides up-to-date whole-of-state information for WA, showing where surgical services are being provided and by whom, giving a precise geographical spread of the workforce. It shows the skill set and on-call rosters of these practitioners. What are the implications for practitioners? The present study provides geographical workforce data, which is important to health planners, the general public and surgeons considering where to practice. In particular, these data are relevant to trainees considering their rural training options.
Heine, Christian; Müller, R. Dietmar; Steinberger, Bernhard; DiCaprio, Lydia
It is well documented that the Cenozoic progressive flooding of Australia, contemporaneous with a eustatic sea level fall, requires a downward tilting of the Australian Plate towards the SE Asian subduction system. Previously, this large-scale, mantle-convection driven dynamic topography effect has been approximated by computing the time-dependent vertical shifts and tilts of a plane, but the observed subsidence and uplift anomalies indicate a more complex interplay between time-dependent mantle convection and plate motion. We combine plate kinematics with a global mantle backward-advection model based on shear-wave mantle tomography, paleogeographic data, eustatic sea level estimates and basin stratigraphy to reconstruct the Australian flooding history for the last 70 Myrs on a continental scale. We compute time-dependent dynamic surface topography and continental inundation of a digital elevation model adjusted for sediment accumulation. Our model reveals two evolving dynamic topography lows, over which the Australian plate has progressively moved. We interpret the southern low to be caused by sinking slab material with an origin along the eastern Gondwana subduction zone in the Cretaceous, whereas the northern low, which first straddles northern Australia in the Oligocene, is mainly attributable to material subducted north and northeast of Australia. Our model accounts for the Paleogene exposure of the Gulf of Carpentaria region at a time when sea level was much higher than today, and explains anomalous Late Tertiary subsidence on Australia's northern, western and southern margins. The resolution of our model, which excludes short-wavelength mantle density anomalies and is restricted to depths larger than 220 km, is not sufficient to model the two well recorded episodes of major transgressions in South Australia in the Eocene and Miocene. However, the overall, long-wavelength spatio-temporal pattern of Australia's inundation record is well captured by combining
Schmied, Virginia; Fowler, Cathrine; Rossiter, Chris; Homer, Caroline; Kruske, Sue
Australia has a system of universal child and family health (CFH) nursing services providing primary health services from birth to school entry. Herein, we report on the findings of the first national survey of CFH nurses, including the ages and circumstances of children and families seen by CFH nurses and the nature and frequency of the services provided by these nurses across Australia. A national survey of CFH nurses was conducted. In all, 1098 CFH nurses responded to the survey. Over 60% were engaged in delivering primary prevention services from a universal platform. Overall, 82.8% reported that their service made first contact with families within 2 weeks of birth, usually in the home (80.7%). The proportion of respondents providing regular support to families decreased as the child aged. Services were primarily health centre based, although 25% reported providing services in other locations (parks, preschools).The timing and location of first contact, the frequency of ongoing services and the composition of families seen by nurses varied across Australian jurisdictions. Nurses identified time constraints as the key barrier to the delivery of comprehensive services. CFH nurses play an important role in supporting families across Australia. The impact of differences in the CFH nursing provision across Australia requires further investigation. What is known about the topic? Countries that offer universal well child health services demonstrate better child health and developmental outcomes than countries that do not. Australian jurisdictions offer free, universal child and family health (CFH) nursing services from birth to school entry. What does this paper add? This paper provides nation-wide data on the nature of work undertaken by CFH nurses offering universal care. Across Australia, there are differences in the timing and location of first contact, the frequency of ongoing services and the range of families seen by nurses. What are the implications for
Crettenden, Ian F; McCarty, Maureen V; Fenech, Bethany J; Heywood, Troy; Taitz, Michelle C; Tudman, Sam
Australia's health workforce is facing significant challenges now and into the future. Health Workforce Australia (HWA) was established by the Council of Australian Governments as the national agency to progress health workforce reform to address the challenges of providing a skilled, innovative and flexible health workforce in Australia. HWA developed Australia's first major, long-term national workforce projections for doctors, nurses and midwives over a planning horizon to 2025 (called Health Workforce 2025; HW 2025), which provided a national platform for developing policies to help ensure Australia's health workforce meets the community's needs. A review of existing workforce planning methodologies, in concert with the project brief and an examination of data availability, identified that the best fit-for-purpose workforce planning methodology was the stock and flow model for estimating workforce supply and the utilisation method for estimating workforce demand. Scenario modelling was conducted to explore the implications of possible alternative futures, and to demonstrate the sensitivity of the model to various input parameters. Extensive consultation was conducted to test the methodology, data and assumptions used, and also influenced the scenarios selected for modelling. Additionally, a number of other key principles were adopted in developing HW 2025 to ensure the workforce projections were robust and able to be applied nationally. The findings from HW 2025 highlighted that a 'business as usual' approach to Australia's health workforce is not sustainable over the next 10 years, with a need for co-ordinated, long-term reforms by government, professions and the higher education and training sector for a sustainable and affordable health workforce. The main policy levers identified to achieve change were innovation and reform, immigration, training capacity and efficiency and workforce distribution. While HW 2025 has provided a national platform for health
International aviation trade bargaining is distinguished by its use of a formal process of bilateral bargaining based on the reciprocal exchange of rights by states. Australia-United States aviation trade relations are currently without rancour, but this has not always been the case and in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their formal bilateral aviation negotiations were a forum for a bitter conflict between two competing international aviation policies. In seeking to explain the bilateral aviation outcomes between Australia and the United States and how Australia has sought to improve upon these, analytical frameworks derived from international political economy were considered, along with the bilateral bargaining process itself. The paper adopts a modified neorealist model and concludes that to understand how Australia has sought to improve upon these aviation outcomes, neorealist assumptions that relative power capabilities determine outcomes must be qualified by reference to the formal bilateral bargaining process. In particular, Australia's use of this process and its application of certain bargaining tactics within that process remain critical to understanding bilateral outcomes.
Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn
The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available The history of ocean renewable energy developments in Australia is reviewed. A layperson’s description of the physical operating principle is given for the main classes of technology that have been tested in Australian waters. The Australian marine domain possesses among the world’s most energetic wave-energy resources, driven by powerful mid-latitude westerly winds. The northern coast of Western Australia has tidal ranges significant on a global scale, and some geographical features around the continent have local tidal resonances. The East Australian Current, one of the world’s major western boundary currents, runs along the eastern Australian seaboard, offering potential for ocean-current energy. Sea-water temperatures in the tropical north-east of Australia may permit ocean thermal energy conversion. While this abundance of resources makes Australia an ideal location for technology development, the population is highly concentrated in a few large cities, and transmission infrastructure has developed over a century to supply cities from traditional power plants. Several wave-power developments have resulted in demonstration of deployments in Australian waters, three of which have been grid connected. Trials of tidal devices have also occurred, while other classes of ocean renewable energy have not yet been trialled. The prospects for marine renewable energy in Australia are discussed including non-traditional applications such as coastal protection and energy export.
Yurchenko, Andrey A.; David, Victor A.; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn
The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). PMID:26647063
Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Bernaitis, Nijole; Ching, Chi Keong; Teo, Siew Chong; Chen, Liping; Badrick, Tony; Davey, Andrew K; Crilly, Julia; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra
Warfarin is widely used for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Variations in warfarin control, as measured by time in therapeutic range (TTR), have been reported across different regions and ethnicities, particularly between Western and Asian countries. However, there is limited data on comparative factors influencing warfarin control in Caucasian and Asian patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine warfarin control and potential factors influencing this in patients with NVAF in Australia and Singapore. Retrospective data was collected for patients receiving warfarin for January to June 2014 in Australia and Singapore. TTR was calculated for individuals with mean patient TTR used for analysis. Possible influential factors on TTR were analysed including age, gender, concurrent co-morbidities, and concurrent medication. The mean TTR was significantly higher in Australia (82%) than Singapore (58%). At both sites, chronic kidney disease significantly lowered this TTR. Further factors influencing control were anaemia and ageWarfarin control was significantly higher in Australia compared to Singapore, however chronic kidney disease reduced control at both sites. The different levels of control in these two countries, together with patient factors further reducing control may impact on anticoagulant choice in these countries with better outcomes from warfarin in Australia compared to Singapore. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loh, Erwin; Morris, Jennifer; Thomas, Laura; Bismark, Marie Magdaleen; Phelps, Grant; Dickinson, Helen
Purpose The paper aims to explore the beliefs of doctors in leadership roles of the concept of "the dark side", using data collected from interviews carried out with 45 doctors in medical leadership roles across Australia. The paper looks at the beliefs from the perspectives of doctors who are already in leadership roles themselves; to identify potential barriers they might have encountered and to arrive at better-informed strategies to engage more doctors in the leadership of the Australian health system. The research question is: "What are the beliefs of medical leaders that form the key themes or dimensions of the negative perception of the 'dark side'?". Design/methodology/approach The paper analysed data from two similar qualitative studies examining medical leadership and engagement in Australia by the same author, in collaboration with other researchers, which used in-depth semi-structured interviews with 45 purposively sampled senior medical leaders in leadership roles across Australia in health services, private and public hospitals, professional associations and health departments. The data were analysed using deductive and inductive approaches through a coding framework based on the interview data and literature review, with all sections of coded data grouped into themes. Findings Medical leaders had four key beliefs about the "dark side" as perceived through the eyes of their own past clinical experience and/or their clinical colleagues. These four beliefs or dimensions of the negative perception colloquially known as "the dark side" are the belief that they lack both managerial and clinical credibility, they have confused identities, they may be in conflict with clinicians, their clinical colleagues lack insight into the complexities of medical leadership and, as a result, doctors are actively discouraged from making the transition from clinical practice to medical leadership roles in the first place. Research limitations/implications This research was
Kuch, Ulrich; Keogh, J. Scott; Weigel, John; Smith, Laurie A.; Mebs, Dietrich
King brown snakes or mulga snakes (Pseudechis australis) are the largest and among the most dangerous and wide-ranging venomous snakes in Australia and New Guinea. They occur in diverse habitats, are important predators, and exhibit considerable morphological variation. We infer the relationships and historical biogeography of P. australis based on phylogenetic analysis of 1,249 base pairs from the mitochondrial cytochrome b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 and three adjacent tRNA genes using Bayesian, maximum-likelihood, and maximum-parsimony methods. All methods reveal deep phylogenetic structure with four strongly supported clades comprising snakes from New Guinea (I), localities all over Australia (II), the Kimberleys of Western Australia (III), and north-central Australia (IV), suggesting a much more ancient radiation than previously believed. This conclusion is robust to different molecular clock estimations indicating divergence in Pliocene or Late Miocene, after landbridge dispersal to New Guinea had occurred. While members of clades I, III and IV are medium-sized, slender snakes, those of clade II attain large sizes and a robust build, rendering them top predators in their ecosystems. Genetic differentiation within clade II is low and haplotype distribution largely incongruent with geography or colour morphs, suggesting Pleistocene dispersal and recent ecomorph evolution. Significant haplotype diversity exists in clades III and IV, implying that clade IV comprises two species. Members of clade II are broadly sympatric with members of both northern Australian clades. Thus, our data support the recognition of at least five species from within P. australis (auct.) under various criteria. We discuss biogeographical, ecological and medical implications of our findings.
Full Text Available We examined Sarcocystis spp. in giant snakes from the Indo-Australian Archipelago and Australia using a combination of morphological (size of sporocyst and molecular analyses. We amplified by PCR nuclear 18S rDNA from single sporocysts in order to detect mixed infections and unequivocally assign the retrieved sequences to the corresponding parasite stage. Sarcocystis infection was generally high across the study area, with 78 (68% of 115 examined pythons being infected by one or more Sarcocystis spp. Among 18 randomly chosen, sporocyst-positive samples (11 from Southeast Asia, 7 from Northern Australia the only Sarcocystis species detected in Southeast Asian snakes was S. singaporensis (in reticulated pythons, which was absent from all Australian samples. We distinguished three different Sarcocystis spp. in the Australian sample set; two were excreted by scrub pythons and one by the spotted python. The sequence of the latter is an undescribed species phylogenetically related to S. lacertae. Of the two Sarcocystis species found in scrub pythons, one showed an 18S rRNA gene sequence similar to S. zamani, which is described from Australia for the first time. The second sequence was identical/similar to that of S. nesbitti, a known human pathogen that was held responsible for outbreaks of disease among tourists in Malaysia. The potential presence of S. nesbitti in Australia challenges the current hypothesis of a snake-primate life cycle, and would have implications for human health in the region. Further molecular and biological characterizations are required to confirm species identity and determine whether or not the Australian isolate has the same zoonotic potential as its Malaysian counterpart. Finally, the absence of S. nesbitti in samples from reticulated pythons (which were reported to be definitive hosts, coupled with our phylogenetic analyses, suggest that alternative snake hosts may be responsible for transmitting this parasite in Malaysia.
Wassermann, Marion; Raisch, Lisa; Lyons, Jessica Ann; Natusch, Daniel James Deans; Richter, Sarah; Wirth, Mareike; Preeprem, Piyarat; Khoprasert, Yuvaluk; Ginting, Sulaiman; Mackenstedt, Ute; Jäkel, Thomas
We examined Sarcocystis spp. in giant snakes from the Indo-Australian Archipelago and Australia using a combination of morphological (size of sporocyst) and molecular analyses. We amplified by PCR nuclear 18S rDNA from single sporocysts in order to detect mixed infections and unequivocally assign the retrieved sequences to the corresponding parasite stage. Sarcocystis infection was generally high across the study area, with 78 (68%) of 115 examined pythons being infected by one or more Sarcocystis spp. Among 18 randomly chosen, sporocyst-positive samples (11 from Southeast Asia, 7 from Northern Australia) the only Sarcocystis species detected in Southeast Asian snakes was S. singaporensis (in reticulated pythons), which was absent from all Australian samples. We distinguished three different Sarcocystis spp. in the Australian sample set; two were excreted by scrub pythons and one by the spotted python. The sequence of the latter is an undescribed species phylogenetically related to S. lacertae. Of the two Sarcocystis species found in scrub pythons, one showed an 18S rRNA gene sequence similar to S. zamani, which is described from Australia for the first time. The second sequence was identical/similar to that of S. nesbitti, a known human pathogen that was held responsible for outbreaks of disease among tourists in Malaysia. The potential presence of S. nesbitti in Australia challenges the current hypothesis of a snake-primate life cycle, and would have implications for human health in the region. Further molecular and biological characterizations are required to confirm species identity and determine whether or not the Australian isolate has the same zoonotic potential as its Malaysian counterpart. Finally, the absence of S. nesbitti in samples from reticulated pythons (which were reported to be definitive hosts), coupled with our phylogenetic analyses, suggest that alternative snake hosts may be responsible for transmitting this parasite in Malaysia.
Bismark, Marie; Morris, Jennifer; Thomas, Laura; Loh, Erwin; Phelps, Grant; Dickinson, Helen
To elicit medical leaders' views on reasons and remedies for the under-representation of women in medical leadership roles. Qualitative study using semistructured interviews with medical practitioners who work in medical leadership roles. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Public hospitals, private healthcare providers, professional colleges and associations and government organisations in Australia. 30 medical practitioners who hold formal medical leadership roles. Despite dramatic increases in the entry of women into medicine in Australia, there remains a gross under-representation of women in formal, high-level medical leadership positions. The male-dominated nature of medical leadership in Australia was widely recognised by interviewees. A small number of interviewees viewed gender disparities in leadership roles as a 'natural' result of women's childrearing responsibilities. However, most interviewees believed that preventable gender-related barriers were impeding women's ability to achieve and thrive in medical leadership roles. Interviewees identified a range of potential barriers across three broad domains-perceptions of capability, capacity and credibility. As a counter to these, interviewees pointed to a range of benefits of women adopting these roles, and proposed a range of interventions that would support more women entering formal medical leadership roles. While women make up more than half of medical graduates in Australia today, significant barriers restrict their entry into formal medical leadership roles. These constraints have internalised, interpersonal and structural elements that can be addressed through a range of strategies for advancing the role of women in medical leadership. These findings have implications for individual medical practitioners and health services, as well as professional colleges and associations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use
Thompson, Kirrilly; Trigg, Joshua; Smith, Bradley
Few studies have examined the prevalence of animal ownership among populations likely to be at greater risk from disaster events within a bushfire context. To investigate the proportion of vulnerable community members keeping animals and the types of animals kept, as well as perceived risk of harm to pets, and their inclusion in bushfire survival planning. Statewide anonymous online survey in 2014 of adult South Australian animal owners threatened by bushfire in January 2014. Respondents were asked about animal ownership, their bushfire risk perception, and household survival planning. Descriptive statistics are presented for 5 groups considered likely to contribute to increased risk of harm for households: linguistically diverse, older adults, families with young children, physically frail, and self-identifying disabled, as well as individuals with mental health considerations. An opt-in purposively targeted sample of anonymous South Australians living in high fire-risk locations. Adult South Australian animal owners threatened or directly impacted by bushfire events, including individuals matching 1 of the 5 vulnerable groups. Self-reported details of animal ownership, perceived fire risk, survival planning, and vulnerability characteristics. Animal ownership was found to be more prevalent in these 5 populations than in the wider South Australian population. Perceived risk to pets was low to moderately low in these individuals. Variation was observed in the role of animals generally and pets specifically as motivators for preparing bushfire survival plans. Emergency services and associated agencies need to consider how the unique needs of vulnerable populations that keep animals, and their potential differences in risk perception, relate to their bushfire survival planning and preparedness requirements.
Full Text Available Australian universities and academics will soon see a major change in the way research is reported and funded. It is expected that by 2008, according to the most recent timetable (Bishop 2006, the Research Quality Framework (RQF will be implemented. The result of the announcement has been an increased activity within universities focusing on the proposed criteria. The proposed RQF will seek to have research assessed according to quality and impact. Part of both quality and impact relates to where research is published. For academics it will be increasingly important to target high quality journals if the research is to be rated as high quality. The question this raises for Information Systems academics is where do we publish for maximum impact? The Information Systems (IS field is diverse with researchers working in many areas and a publication outlet for one area may not be relevant for another. One area where many Australian IS researchers have focused their research interest is the field of electronic commerce (e-commerce. The research reported in this paper identified the publication outlets that would be regarded as amongst the highest quality for researchers wishing to publish e-commerce research. The authors analysed e-commerce research papers by Australian researchers published in the period 2000 to 2005. The results describe where Australian researchers are publishing in this field. The paper also provides guidance to those working in the e-commerce field on which journals and conferences to target to ensure their work rates highly in terms of the RQF.
The primary environmental concern from marine seismic surveys is the effect of the low frequency noise source on marine animals. A full spectrum of possible direct effects includes: lethal effects; pathological damage to hearing systems or other organs; behavioural changes, including repulsion from the source, startle and alarm responses and attraction to the source; and interference with the use of acoustic communication signals, or naturally produced cues used by marine animals. Indirect effects may also arise for some animals, such as changes in the abundance or behaviour of prey animals. This review defines the extent of these types of effect and elaborates on any influence with regard to the Australian marine fauna. Fauna groups discussed include plankton, invertebrates, turtles, fish, the little penguin and marine mammals such as: whales, sea lions, seals and dugong. 378 refs., 9 tabs., 16 figs
Hancock, Kirsten J.; Mitrou, Francis; Taylor, Catherine L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.
The risk factors associated with absenteeism are well known. However, children's exposure to combinations of risks and how these relate to absence patterns remains unclear. Understanding variations in risk profiles among persistently non-attending children will inform the development of absence interventions. Using a longitudinal sample of…
Volkman, J.K.; Revill, A.T.; Miller, G.J.; Connell, D.W.
The total amount of oil spilled in Commonwealth offshore waters from offshore oil exploration and production has been estimated by the Commonwealth Department of Primary Industry and Energy to be 440 barrels (70 000 litres) to the end of 1991. When more recent spills are added, plus spills from coastal waters under State jurisdiction, it is estimated that the total of oil spilled is about 600 barrels (95 000 litres). This estimate does not include hydrocarbon inputs from discharge of formation waters or drill cuttings. Most of these spills have been very small (less than 20 barrels) and in only a very few instances has any of the oil reached the shore. In most cases, it has been possible to allow the oil to degrade and disperse naturally. Given the small quantities spilled it is highly unlikely that these oil spills have caused significant environmental damage although it must be added that few follow up studies to assess this have been carried out. This review concludes that oil spills affect marine ecosystems generally in the same way as many other forms of marine pollutants even though the degree of persistence is less than with heavy metals for example. That is, the system is modified and destabilized and in severe cases it can shift to a reduced biological diversity characteristic of early successional or pioneer stages. Adverse effects range from the short term (days to months), to decades. Two phases and/or effects are usually observed: (i) the short-term mortality phase particularly affects biota at or near the air/sea interface and is attributed to physical coating, ingestion and inhalation of high concentrations of low-boiling aromatic hydrocarbons; and (ii) the longer term effects of the weathered oil being incorporated into the sediment where it inhibits the growth of seedlings and larger plants as well as affecting infauna and epifauna. 584 refs., 49 tabs., 43 figs
McCauley, R.D. [Australian Inst. of Marine Science, Townsville, QLD (Australia)
The primary environmental concern from marine seismic surveys is the effect of the low frequency noise source on marine animals. A full spectrum of possible direct effects includes: lethal effects; pathological damage to hearing systems or other organs; behavioural changes, including repulsion from the source, startle and alarm responses and attraction to the source; and interference with the use of acoustic communication signals, or naturally produced cues used by marine animals. Indirect effects may also arise for some animals, such as changes in the abundance or behaviour of prey animals. This review defines the extent of these types of effect and elaborates on any influence with regard to the Australian marine fauna. Fauna groups discussed include plankton, invertebrates, turtles, fish, the little penguin and marine mammals such as: whales, sea lions, seals and dugong. 378 refs., 9 tabs., 16 figs.
Full Text Available Within Australia’s federal system, responsibility for preventing, preparing for, responding to and recovering from natural disasters is shared between the three tiers of government. Intergovernmental policy and funding arrangements are premised on shared responsibility and aim to foster individual, business and community resilience. These arrangements underpin Australia’s international reputation for effectiveness in its management of natural disasters. The capacity of the diverse networks that comprise the disaster management system to coordinate and deliver in the preparedness and response phases of a disaster, and to provide relief in the immediate aftermath, has been developed over time and tested and refined through the experience of frequent, severe disaster events over recent decades. Less well developed is the system’s ability to support economic recovery in disaster-affected communities over the longer term. This paper presents case studies of regional communities affected by two of Australia’s most expensive and deadly natural disasters—the 2009 Victorian bushfires and the cyclones and floods that struck the state of Queensland in 2010–2011. It highlights significant gaps in policy and funding arrangements to support recovery and offers lessons for aligning recovery within a resilience framework.
Black, K.P.; Brand, G.W.; Hammond, L.S.; Mourtikas, S.; Grynberg, H.; Gwyther, D.; Wardrop, J.A.; Richardson, B.J.
The broad conclusion to be drawn from this review is that, at present, there are unlikely to be significant environmental consequences arising from oil and gas production activities. After appropriate treatment of the discharges, the environmental impacts are not expected to be worse than those associated with urban developments. The review found that the main processes (apart from oil spills) identified as having greatest potential environmental effect were: discharges causing physico-chemical or toxic effects, as well as physical effects or disruption of the environment. The discharges may include: drill fluids/muds/cuttings (covered in the drilling activities review), produced water, deck drainage, sewage and domestic waste, cooling water, produced sands ,chronic oil spills (covered in the oil spills review), platform and pipeline hydro-testing. The physical effects are related to: platform placement, pipeline placement, noise, lights/flares, aesthetics. The review presents a number of positive findings. Thus, high dilutions of effluent discharges are expected to occur at many of the sites and so any impact at these sites is expected to be small. Moreover, discharges are subject to the requirements of the Commonwealth Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act, 1967 as well as State Environment Protection Policies and in some cases the local Department of Minerals and Energy. Thus, the discharge licences for the facilities include a specification of the allowable concentrations of effluents. A range of shortcomings was also noted, including in the existing knowledge, in the specific understanding of the particular marine environments and with respect to limitations in the monitoring programs. 327 refs., 37 tabs., 88 figs
Black, K.P.; Brand, G.W.; Hammond, L.S.; Mourtikas, S.; Noyes-Fitzsimmons, R.L.; Smith, J.M.; Gwyther, D.; Richardson, B.J.
It is emphasised that coastal facilities pertaining to petroleum exploration and production activities are of greater concern for potential deleterious environmental consequences than the offshore facilities. This is primarily because rates of dispersion and dilution of toxic wastes are generally lower in shallow coastal waters which are often subject to complex bathymetry, and more constricted water flows. The review found that the main processes (apart from oil spills) identified as having greatest potential environmental effect were: coastal discharges of produced water; sedimentation caused by dredging; spoil dumping; and pipe-laying activities. The review examines a wide range of marine environmental issues arising from the use of coastal-servicing facilities, including: practices and discharges during regular operation of coastal facilities; nature and extent of any environmental impact on the surrounding environment; and any deleterious effects stemming from these facilities. 194 refs., 13 tabs., 36 figs
Anderson, Kym; Jackson, Lee Ann
The potential economic benefits from agricultural biotechnology adoption by ANZ need to be weighed against any likely loss of market access abroad for crops that may contain genetically modified (GM) organisms. This paper uses the global GTAP model to estimate effects of other countries' GM policies without and with ANZ farmers adopting GM varieties of various grains and oilseeds. The benefits to ANZ from adopting GM crops under a variety of scenarios are positive even in the presence of the ...
Suggests that organizational effectiveness research has made considerable progress in empirically deriving a systematic framework of theoretical and practical utility in Australian higher education. Offers a taxonomy based on the competing values framework and discusses use of inter-organizational comparisons and profiles for diagnosis in…
Teacher appraisal is viewed by bureaucrats as a means of effecting organisational change in schools. It is for this reason that educational policy leaders have turned to technical competency as a way of accounting for teachers' performance in classrooms. In other words, teachers' work is now subject to minute scrutiny by the observation of…
Mohamed Najib bin Tun Abdul Razak , "Towards Cooperative Security and Regional Stability, the Malaysian View." The Army and the Future. Ed. David Horner...repair and maintenance of warships on a commercial basis. See The Hon. Datuk Seri Mohamed Najib bin Tun Abdul Razak , 132. Times says that Jakarta...Cambridge University Press, 1965. The Hon. Datuk Seri Mohamed Najib bin Tun Abdul Razak . "Towards Cooperative Security and Regional Stability: The
This contribution outlines the socio-economic factors that played an all-too-important role in the development of the Australian uranium industry. Initially, uranium policy was determined by its strategic value and Australia's commitment to the nuclear deterrence philosophy. Later on, in a complete reversal, the morality of Australia's participation in the nuclear fuel cycle was intensely debated, and during the last few years, decisions have been based on political expediency. Thus the current government has an anti-uranium policy but allows restricted mining. It is concluded that the next few years will be crucial to the future of the uranium industry, when Australia could capture a significant proportion of the 1990's market. However, for this to happen, deregulation of the industry must occur allowing the lead times required by marketing and construction of new mines. 15 refs
Kessell, S.R.; Good, R.B.; Hopkins, A.J.M.
This paper describes the development and implementation of PREPLAN, A Pristine Environment Planning Language and Simulator, for two conservation areas in Australia, Kosciusko National Park (New South Wales) and Tutanning Nature Reserve (Western Australia). PREPLAN was derived from the North American gradient modeling systems and the Forest Planning Language and Simulator (FORPLAN), but includes unique characteristics not previously available. PREPLAN includes an integrated resource management data base, modules for predicting site-specific vegetation, fuels, animals, fire behavior, and fire effects, and an English language instruction set. PREPLAN was developed specifically to provide available information and understanding of ecosystems to managers in a readily accessible and usable form, and to provide the motivation to conduct additional required research projects. An evaluation of the system's advantages and limitations is presented, and the way the utilization of such systems is improving natural area decision making throughout Australia is discussed.
Kessell, Stephen R.; Good, Roger B.; Hopkins, Angas J. M.
This paper describes the development and implementation of PREPLAN, A Pristine Environment Planning Language and Simulator, for two conservation areas in Australia, Kosciusko National Park (New South Wales) and Tutanning Nature Reserve (Western Australia). PREPLAN was derived from the North American gradient modeling systems and the Forest Planning Language and Simulator (FORPLAN), but includes unique characteristics not previously available. PREPLAN includes an integrated resource management data base, modules for predicting site-specific vegetation, fuels, animals, fire behavior, and fire effects, and an English language instruction set. PREPLAN was developed specifically to provide available information and understanding of ecosystems to managers in a readily accessible and usable form, and to provide the motivation to conduct additional required research projects. An evaluation of the system's advantages and limitations is presented, and the way the utilization of such systems is improving natural area decision making throughout Australia is discussed.
Graul, H.; Hilger, W.
Australia is one of the richest countries as far as uranium is concerned. The Jabiluka deposit alone is considered to be the largest single uranium deposit of the Western world. The overall known assured uranium reserves in Australia amount to 465.000 tons U 3 O 8 at cost ranges between 15 and 30 US Dollar per pound U 3 O 8 , i.e. approximately 21% of the known world reserves. Most of the Australien uranium ore is of relatively high grade and nearly all of it could be mined from open pit. At this stage Mary Kathleen in Queensland is the only producing uranium mine in Australia. The actual political attitude of the Australian government prevents the Australian uranium industry from beeing further developed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de
Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010
It is widely stated that a purpose of patent law is to encourage inventors to innovate and to disclose their inventions for the benefit of society. In return for this disclosure they receive a limited exploitation monopoly defined essentially by commercial pursuits. A necessary implication of the requirement of disclosure is that knowledge…
Bastrakova, I.; Fyfe, S.
Ten years of technological innovation now enable vast amounts of data to be collected, managed, processed and shared. At the same time, organisations have witnessed government legislative and policy requirements for open access to public sector data, and a demand for flexibility in access to data by both machine-to-machine and human consumption. Geoscience Australia (GA) has adopted Data Stewardship as an organisation-wide initiative to improve the way we manage and share our data. The benefits to GA including: - Consolidated understanding of GA's data assets and their value to the Agency; - Recognition of the significant role of data custodianship and data management; - Well-defined governance, policies, standards, practices and accountabilities that promote the accessibility, quality and interoperability of GA's data; - Integration of disparate data sets into cohesive information products available online in real time and equally accessible to researchers, government, industry and the public. Although the theory behind data stewardship is well-defined and accepted and the benefits are generally well-understood, practical implementation requires an organisation to prepare for a long-term commitment of resources, both financial and human. Fundamentally this involves: 1. Raising awareness in the organisation of the need for data stewardship and the challenges this entails; 2. Establishing a data stewardship framework including a data governance office to set policy and drive organisational change; and 3. Embedding the functions and a culture of data stewardship into business as usual operations. GA holds a vast amount of data ranging from petabytes of Big Data to significant quantities of relatively small ';long tail' geoscientific observations and measurements. Over the past four years, GA has undertaken strategic activities that prepare us for Data Stewardship: - Organisation-wide audits of GA's data holdings and identification of custodians for each dataset
Loke, Tim W; Seyfi, Doruk; Sevfi, Doruk; Khadra, Mohamed
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Increased sun exposure and blood levels of vitamin D have been postulated to be protective against prostate cancer. This is controversial. We investigated the relationship between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation in non-urban Australia, and found a lower incidence in regions receiving more sunlight. In landmark ecological studies, prostate cancer mortality rates have been shown to be inversely related to ultraviolet radiation exposure. Investigators have hypothesised that ultraviolet radiation acts by increasing production of vitamin D, which inhibits prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, analyses of serum levels of vitamin D in men with prostate cancer have failed to support this hypothesis. This study has found an inverse correlation between solar radiation and prostate cancer incidence in Australia. Our population (previously unstudied) represents the third group to exhibit this correlation. Significantly, the demographics and climate of Australia differ markedly from those of previous studies conducted on men in the United Kingdom and the United States. • To ascertain if prostate cancer incidence rates correlate with solar radiation among non-urban populations of men in Australia. • Local government areas from each state and territory were selected using explicit criteria. Urban areas were excluded from analysis. • For each local government area, prostate cancer incidence rates and averaged long-term solar radiation were obtained. • The strength of the association between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation was determined. • Among 70 local government areas of Australia, age-standardized prostate cancer incidence rates for the period 1998-2007 correlated inversely with daily solar radiation averaged over the last two decades. • There exists an association between less solar radiation and higher prostate cancer incidence in Australia. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU
Full Text Available Acupuncture was introduced to Australia as early as in the 1880s, and is a form of complementary and alternative medicine in this country. In the past 2 decades since the 1990s, acupuncture has experienced a rapid growth. Today, nearly 4000 acupuncturists are registered with the Chinese Medicine Board of Australia. “Acupuncturist,” “Oriental medicine practitioner,” and “Chinese medicine practitioners” are protected titles for registered acupuncturists. A bachelor's degree of 4 years in related fields is the minimal requirement for registration in Australia. Three public universities and three major private colleges offer nine undergraduate and three postgraduate programs that are approved by the Chinese Medicine Board of Australia. Those three universities also offer Master-degree and Doctor of Philosophy programs. Acupuncture is well accepted by the Australians, with 10% having received this treatment and 80% general medical practitioners referring their patients to acupuncture service. All private health insurance schemes provide rebates to patients receiving acupuncture treatment, and third-party payment is also available in six of eight Australian states and territories. Research output in acupuncture has increased greatly since 2000. A majority of research focuses on acupuncture and Tai Chi as treatment modalities, and mainly investigates their mechanism of action, associated pain, and gynecological and respiratory conditions. The future direction of acupuncture in Australia is to introduce this medicine in hospitals and gain access to the medical benefit scheme so that acupuncture can be accessed by a wider community, in particular those who come from a disadvantaged background. In conclusion, improved education, regulation, and research of acupuncture in Australia put this country in a leading position among Western countries with respect to acupuncture services.
van den Hurk, A F; Craig, S B; Tulsiani, Suhella
Mosquito-borne diseases continue to be a serious public-health concern in Australia. Endemic alphaviruses (including Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses) account for the majority of the arboviral notifications, while some flaviviruses (Murray Valley encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis and Kunjin...... the trends, threats and challenges that face the management of mosquito-borne disease in Australia. Topical mosquito-borne pathogens of biosecurity and public-health concern, and the potential impacts of environmental and global trends, are discussed. Finally, a short overview of the public-health response...
Speight, J.; Conn, J.; Dunning, T.
can be the language used to refer to diabetes, its management and the person with diabetes. The way verbal and written language is used reflects and shapes people's thoughts, beliefs and behaviours. Language has the power to persuade, change or reinforce beliefs and stereotypes - for better or worse...... and countered. Diabetes Australia believes optimal communication increases the motivation, health and well-being of people with diabetes, and that careless or negative language can be de-motivating, is often inaccurate, and can be harmful. Diabetes Australia developed this position statement to encourage...
This presentation tracks the development of the therapeutic application of radiation in Australia. Within six months of Roentgen's discovery, the Crooke's x-ray tube and later a radium plaque was used in Australia for treatment, in particular by the dermatologists. By 1920s radiology was an established specialty. A series of conferences was held between 1930 and 1940 to discuss the provision of cancer treatment, the integration of research and particularly, the establishment of central registry. The author also paid tribute to a a series of scientific personalities for their contribution to the Australian radiation oncology. 22 refs., ills