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Sample records for ausleseprototyp mit gems

  1. Teststrahl Messungen mit dem DESY GridGEM Modul

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Felix Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Der International Linear Collider (ILC) ist ein geplanter Elektron-Positron Linearbeschleuniger. Mit einer Schwerpunktsenergie von 500 GeV ermöglicht der Beschleuniger Messungen des Standardmodells mit bisher unbekannter Präzision. Eines der beiden Detektorkonzepte für den ILC ist der International Large Detetcor (ILD). Dieser nutzt eine Zeitprojektionskammer (TPC für engl. Time Projection Chamber) als zentrale Spurkammer. Die herkömmliche Drahtauslese einer TPC kann die ambitionierten Ziele ...

  2. Graphics gems

    CERN Document Server

    Glassner, Andrew S

    1993-01-01

    ""The GRAPHICS GEMS Series"" was started in 1990 by Andrew Glassner. The vision and purpose of the Series was - and still is - to provide tips, techniques, and algorithms for graphics programmers. All of the gems are written by programmers who work in the field and are motivated by a common desire to share interesting ideas and tools with their colleagues. Each volume provides a new set of innovative solutions to a variety of programming problems.

  3. Graphics gems

    CERN Document Server

    Heckbert, Paul S

    1994-01-01

    Graphics Gems IV contains practical techniques for 2D and 3D modeling, animation, rendering, and image processing. The book presents articles on polygons and polyhedral; a mix of formulas, optimized algorithms, and tutorial information on the geometry of 2D, 3D, and n-D space; transformations; and parametric curves and surfaces. The text also includes articles on ray tracing; shading 3D models; and frame buffer techniques. Articles on image processing; algorithms for graphical layout; basic interpolation methods; and subroutine libraries for vector and matrix algebra are also demonstrated. Com

  4. GPU Computing Gems Emerald Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Wen-mei W

    2011-01-01

    ".the perfect companion to Programming Massively Parallel Processors by Hwu & Kirk." -Nicolas Pinto, Research Scientist at Harvard & MIT, NVIDIA Fellow 2009-2010 Graphics processing units (GPUs) can do much more than render graphics. Scientists and researchers increasingly look to GPUs to improve the efficiency and performance of computationally-intensive experiments across a range of disciplines. GPU Computing Gems: Emerald Edition brings their techniques to you, showcasing GPU-based solutions including: Black hole simulations with CUDA GPU-accelerated computation and interactive display of

  5. Gas amplification properties of GEM foils; Gasverstaerkungseigenschaften von GEM-Folien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Jeannine

    2009-01-15

    procedure were developed and a laser-measurement arrangement for the measurement of GEM surface profiles designed and tested. The Planeness of framed GEM foils was determined, whereby height differences up to 1 mm resulted. [German] Im Rahmen des Detektorkonzeptes International Linear Detector fuer das kuenftige Beschleunigerprojekt International Linear Collider, an dem Elektronen und Positronen bei Schwerpunktsenergien von 500 GeV zur Kollision gebracht werden, soll eine Zeit-Projektions-Kammer als zentrale Spurkammer eingesetzt werden. Mit der Verwendung einer derartigen Kammer als Spurdetektor ist eine dreidimensionale Rekonstruktion der Spurpunkte moeglich. Durchfliegt ein Teilchen das Gasvolumen innerhalb der Kammer, ionisiert es einzelne Gasatome und die entstandenen Elektronen bewegen sich nach der Verstaerkung in der GEM-Anordnung (engl. Gas Electron Multiplier) zur Anode, so dass eine zweidimensionale Projektion der Teilchenspur moeglich ist. Die dritte Dimension wird aus der Driftzeit der Elektronen errechnet. Die Vorteile dieses Auslesesystems bestehen darin, dass eine bessere Ortsaufloesung als mit einer Vieldraht-Proportional-Kammer erreicht wird und die rueckdriftenden Ionen stark unterdrueckt werden koennen. Ziel dieser Arbeit sind Untersuchungen fuer ein GEM-Modul, das in einem grossen TPCPrototypen genutzt werden soll. Hinsichtlich verschiedener Anforderungen gilt es unterschiedliche GEMs zu vergleichen, um eine optimale Auswahl treffen zu koennen. In einem am DESY vorhandenen kleinen Prototypen wurden Messungen zur Erfassung von GEM-beschreibenden Parametern durchgefuehrt. Die Inbetriebnahme der Test-TPC war Bestandteil dieser Arbeit. Es wurden Spuren durch eine radioaktive Quelle erzeugt, mit deren Hilfe die Gasverstaerkung bestimmt wurde. Mit dem Messaufbau wurden verschiedenartige Gasverstaerkerfolien hinsichtlich ihrer Verstaerkungseigenschaften und ihres Energieaufloesungsvermoegens verglichen und systematisch studiert. Es wurden fuenf

  6. Not Your Ordinary GEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding from NASA's Stennis Space Center, Geophex devised a new design for broadband electromagnetic sensors. Geophex developed a patented sensing technology, capable not only of coastal monitoring, but also a variety of other functions, including environmental pollution characterization, groundwater contamination detection, archaeological study, and mineral detection. The new technology is offered in several of the company's products the GEM-2, GEM-2A, and the GEM-3. The Geophex products consist of two primary electromagnetic coils, which are stimulated by alternating currents that generate a magnetic field in the object targeted for investigation. GEM-2 is a handheld, lightweight, programmable, digital device. GEM-2A is an airborne version of the sensor. Suspended from a helicopter, the GEM-2A is used to search for mineral deposits and to survey large tracts of land. The GEM-3 is capable of detecting buried landmines and other active munitions. GEM-3 identifies landmines by their brand names. Because each landmine has its own unique electromagnetic response to the broad frequency band emitted by the GEM-3, bomb identification and disposal strategies are made easier.

  7. Making spherical GEMs

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Serge Duarte; Villa, Marco; Alfonsi, Matteo; Brock, Ian; Croci, Gabriele; David, Eric; Oliveira, Rui; Ropelewski, Leszek; van Stenis, Miranda; Taureg, Hans

    2009-01-01

    We developed a method to make GEM foils with a spherical geometry. Tests of this procedure and with the resulting spherical GEMs are presented. Together with a spherical drift electrode, a spherical conversion gap for x-rays can be formed. This would eliminate the parallax error in an x-ray diffraction setup, which limits the spatial resolution at wide diffraction angles. The method is inexpensive and flexible towards possible changes in the design. We show advanced plans to make a prototype ...

  8. Impact of GEM foil hole geometry on GEM detector gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadzhinova, A.; Nolvi, A.; Veenhof, R.; Tuominen, E.; Hæggström, E.; Kassamakov, I.

    2015-12-01

    Detailed 3D imaging of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foil hole geometry was realized. Scanning White Light Interferometry was used to examine six topological parameters of GEM foil holes from both sides of the foil. To study the effect of the hole geometry on detector gain, the ANSYS and Garfield ++ software were employed to simulate the GEM detector gain on the basis of SWLI data. In particular, the effective gain in a GEM foil with equally shaped holes was studied. The real GEM foil holes exhibited a 4% lower effective gain and 6% more electrons produced near the exit electrode of the GEM foil than the design anticipated. Our results indicate that the GEM foil hole geometry affects the gain performance of GEM detectors.

  9. GEM Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-31

    The GEM collaboration was formed in June 1991 to develop a major detector for the SSC. The primary physics objectives of GEM are those central to the motivation for the SSC, to study high p{sub T} physics - exemplified by the search for Higgs bosons - and to search for new physics beyond the standard model. The authors present in this Technical Design Report (TDR) a detector with broad capabilities for the discovery and subsequent study of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass and flavor, and other physics requiring precise measurements of gammas, electrons, and muons - hence the name, GEM. In addition, as a design goal, they have taken care to provide the robustness needed to do the physics that requires high luminosity. Finally, good coverage and hermeticity allow the detection of missing transverse energy, E{sub T}. The GEM design emphasizes clean identification and high resolution measurement of the primary physics signatures for high p{sub T} physics. The approach is to make precise energy measurements that maximize the sensitivity to rare narrow resonances, to detect the elementary interaction products (quarks, leptons, and photons), and to build in the features required to reduce backgrounds.

  10. GEM Technical Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GEM collaboration was formed in June 1991 to develop a major detector for the SSC. The primary physics objectives of GEM are those central to the motivation for the SSC, to study high pT physics - exemplified by the search for Higgs bosons - and to search for new physics beyond the standard model. The authors present in this Technical Design Report (TDR) a detector with broad capabilities for the discovery and subsequent study of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass and flavor, and other physics requiring precise measurements of gammas, electrons, and muons - hence the name, GEM. In addition, as a design goal, they have taken care to provide the robustness needed to do the physics that requires high luminosity. Finally, good coverage and hermeticity allow the detection of missing transverse energy, ET. The GEM design emphasizes clean identification and high resolution measurement of the primary physics signatures for high pT physics. The approach is to make precise energy measurements that maximize the sensitivity to rare narrow resonances, to detect the elementary interaction products (quarks, leptons, and photons), and to build in the features required to reduce backgrounds

  11. Mit kokkeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlersen, Søren; Lorang, Louisa

    MIT kokkeri er resultatet af et samarbejde mellem Komiteen for Sundhedsoplysning, Institut for Uddannelse og Pædagogik/Aarhus Universitet og Haver til Maver. Projektet støttes af Nordea-fonden. Bag kogebogens mange opskrifter står en række erfarne madeksperter bestående af Søren Ejlersen, Louisa ...

  12. Graphics gems V (Macintosh version)

    CERN Document Server

    Paeth, Alan W

    1995-01-01

    Graphics Gems V is the newest volume in The Graphics Gems Series. It is intended to provide the graphics community with a set of practical tools for implementing new ideas and techniques, and to offer working solutions to real programming problems. These tools are written by a wide variety of graphics programmers from industry, academia, and research. The books in the series have become essential, time-saving tools for many programmers.Latest collection of graphics tips in The Graphics Gems Series written by the leading programmers in the field.Contains over 50 new gems displaying some of t

  13. Graphics Gems III IBM version

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, David

    1994-01-01

    This sequel to Graphics Gems (Academic Press, 1990), and Graphics Gems II (Academic Press, 1991) is a practical collection of computer graphics programming tools and techniques. Graphics Gems III contains a larger percentage of gems related to modeling and rendering, particularly lighting and shading. This new edition also covers image processing, numerical and programming techniques, modeling and transformations, 2D and 3D geometry and algorithms,ray tracing and radiosity, rendering, and more clever new tools and tricks for graphics programming. Volume III also includes a

  14. Graphics gems II

    CERN Document Server

    Arvo, James

    1991-01-01

    Graphics Gems II is a collection of articles shared by a diverse group of people that reflect ideas and approaches in graphics programming which can benefit other computer graphics programmers.This volume presents techniques for doing well-known graphics operations faster or easier. The book contains chapters devoted to topics on two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry and algorithms, image processing, frame buffer techniques, and ray tracing techniques. The radiosity approach, matrix techniques, and numerical and programming techniques are likewise discussed.Graphics artists and comput

  15. Characterizations of GEM detector prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, Rajendra Nath; Rudra, Sharmili; Bhattacharya, P; Sahoo, Sumanya Sekhar; Biswas, S; Mohanty, B; Nayak, T K; Sahu, P K; Sahu, S

    2015-01-01

    At NISER-IoP detector laboratory an initiative is taken to build and test Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors for ALICE experiment. The optimisation of the gas flow rate and the long-term stability test of the GEM detector are performed. The method and test results are presented.

  16. The performance of Glass GEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, T.; Mitsuya, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Fushie, T.; Kishimito, S.; Guèrard, B.; Uesaka, M.

    2014-11-01

    Here we report the performance of Glass gas electron multipliers (Glass GEMs), which were fabricated with photo-etchable glass. The photo-etchable glass used for substrate is called PEG3 (Hoya Corporation). With this material, we succeeded in fabricating a Glass GEM that was 680 μ m-thick with a hole diameter of 170 μ m and Cr and Cu layer electrodes. A Glass GEM has advantages such as good uniformity, high gain, a flat surface without stretching, cylindrical holes, and the absence of outgassing from the material. We successfully operated a Glass GEM having 100 × 100 m 2 effective area with various gas mixtures. The energy resolution for 5.9 keV X-rays was 18%, obtained by uniform irradiation of the entire effective area. The gas gain of the Glass GEM reached up to 90,000 with a gas mixture of Ne/C 4 (90:10). The Glass GEM was also operated with Ar/C 4 and Ar/C 4 gas. The gain stability measured for Glass GEM showed no significant increase or decrease as a function of elapsed time from applying high voltage. The gain stability over 15 hours of operation was about 10% in high-count-rate irradiation. Gain mapping across the Glass GEM showed good uniformity with a standard deviation of about 10%.

  17. Bedeutung des Gemüsebaus für die Landwirtschaft von Wielkopolska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jąder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In dem Artikel wurde die Bedeutung des Gemüsebaus für die Landwirtschaft der Region Wielkopolska präsentiert. Diese Bedeutung wurde mit Hilfe von einigen Kriterien bestimmt. Es wurden dargestellt: der Anteil der Gemüsefläche an der gesamten landwirtschaftlichen Nutzfläche von Wielkopolska und der Gemüseanteil in der Brutto- und Warenproduktion der regionalen Landwirtschaft und der Pflanzenabteilung. Der Anteil der Freilandgemüsefläche an der landwirtschaftlichen Nutzfläche lag bei 1,36 bis 1,56 Prozent und der Anteil der Gewächshausgemüsefläche an der landwirtschaftlichen Nutzfläche oszillierte von 0,017 bis 0,050 Prozent. Die Gemüseproduktion lag bei 4,67 Prozent der Bruttoproduktion der Landwirtschaft von Wielkopolska, und der Anteil der Gemüseproduktion an der Warenproduktion der Landwirtschaft war in der Zeit auf einem ähnlichen Niveau – 4,66 Prozent. In der Pflanzenabteilung war die Bedeutung des Gemüsebaus noch größer als in der ganzen Landwirtschaft. Der Anteil von Gemüse an der Warenproduktion der Pflanzenabteilung lag durchschnittlich in den untersuchten Jahren bei 28, 54 Prozent.

  18. Mexican gems as thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using naturally ocurring mexican gems as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) was investigated. Twelve types of gems were irradiated with X and gamma rays in order to determinate their dosimetric properties. Three of these gems showed favorable thermoluminescent characteristics compared with commercial thermoluminescent dosimeters. The plots of their thermoluminescent response as a function of gamma dose are straight lines on full log paper in the dose range 10-2 to 102 Gy. The energy dependence is very strong to low energies of the radiation. Their fading was found to be about 5%/yr. and they may be annealed as reused without loss in sensitivity. Therefore, these gems can be used as X and gamma radiation dosimeters. (author)

  19. Singlet - oxygen therapy. 'MIT-S' apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The described method is based on using singlet-oxygen mixture with antioxiding properties. This mixture is produced by photochemical sensibilization of air or water vapour in MIT-S apparatus. Technical parameters of MIT-S are presented. The method is used for therapy of different organs, for prophylactics, treatment and rehabilitation of a series of diseases (bronchial asthma, cardio-vascular, neurologic, sugar diabet, immune diseases)

  20. Technical Summaries of GEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙家广; 辜凯宁; 等

    1989-01-01

    GEMS is a solid modelling system running on CAS workstation or 32 bits microcomputer with graphics terminal.Complex solid obj ects are built from transformation and set operations upon box,cylinder,cone,sphere,torus,sweeping object and other primitives.CEMS has explicit reatures.e.g.hierarchical modular structure, interactive user interfaceintuitional input,screen menu driven by data table,defining and instancing object in network construction,storage bases on CSG(Constructive Solid Geometry)and BReps(Boundary Representations).regularized set operations,transformation pipeline consistent with PHIGS graphics standard,various transformations,cutting object with two sections in arbitrary angle,patrolling to view the inside of an object,mapping patterns onto surfaces of an object etc.,Not only can it be used for the fields of spatial planning,architectural plan,CAD/CAM for machining,structure analysis,but it is also fundamental for developing the practical system of simulation,computer vision,robotics and so on.

  1. The gas electron multiplier (GEM)

    CERN Document Server

    Bouclier, Roger; Dominik, Wojciech; Hoch, M; Labbé, J C; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1996-01-01

    We describe operating priciples and results obtained with a new detector component: the Gas Electrons Multiplier (GEM). Consisting of a thin composite sheet with two metal layers separated by a thin insulator, and pierced by a regular matrix of open channels, the GEM electrode, inserted on the path of electrons in a gas detector, allows to transfer the charge with an amplification factor approaching ten. Uniform response and high rate capability are demonstrated. Coupled to another device, multiwire or micro-strip chamber, the GEM electrode permit to obtain higher gains or less critical operation; separation of the sensitive (conversion) volume and the detection volume has other advantages, as a built-in delay (useful for triggering purposes) and the possibility of applying high fields on the photo-cathode of ring imaging detectors to improve efficiency. Multiple GEM grids in the same gas volume allow to obtain large amplification factors in a succession of steps, leading to the realization of an effective ga...

  2. GEM - The Global Earthquake Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, A.

    2009-04-01

    Over 500,000 people died in the last decade due to earthquakes and tsunamis, mostly in the developing world, where the risk is increasing due to rapid population growth. In many seismic regions, no hazard and risk models exist, and even where models do exist, they are intelligible only by experts, or available only for commercial purposes. The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) answers the need for an openly accessible risk management tool. GEM is an internationally sanctioned public private partnership initiated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) which will establish an authoritative standard for calculating and communicating earthquake hazard and risk, and will be designed to serve as the critical instrument to support decisions and actions that reduce earthquake losses worldwide. GEM will integrate developments on the forefront of scientific and engineering knowledge of earthquakes, at global, regional and local scale. The work is organized in three modules: hazard, risk, and socio-economic impact. The hazard module calculates probabilities of earthquake occurrence and resulting shaking at any given location. The risk module calculates fatalities, injuries, and damage based on expected shaking, building vulnerability, and the distribution of population and of exposed values and facilities. The socio-economic impact module delivers tools for making educated decisions to mitigate and manage risk. GEM will be a versatile online tool, with open source code and a map-based graphical interface. The underlying data will be open wherever possible, and its modular input and output will be adapted to multiple user groups: scientists and engineers, risk managers and decision makers in the public and private sectors, and the public-at- large. GEM will be the first global model for seismic risk assessment at a national and regional scale, and aims to achieve broad scientific participation and independence. Its development will occur in a

  3. Science's gem: Diamond science 2009

    OpenAIRE

    MAINWOOD, A.; Newton, M. E.; STONEHAM, M.

    2009-01-01

    Natural diamond has been valued for its appearance and mechanical properties for at least two thousand years. As a gem stone diamond is unsurpassed. However, scientific work, especially in the last 20 years, has demonstrated that diamond has numerous surprising properties and many unique ones. Some of the extreme properties have been known for many years, but the true scale of diamond's other highly desirable features is still only coming to light as control in the synthesis of diamond, and h...

  4. Gem corundum deposits of Madagascar : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Rakotondrazafy, A. F. M.; Giuliani, Gaston; Ohnenstetter, D.; Fallick, A.E.; Rakotosamizanany, S.; Andriamamonjy, A.; Ralantoarison, T.; Razanatseheno, M.; Offant, Y.; Garnier, Virginie; H. Maluski; Dunaigre, C.; Schwarz, D.; Ratrimo, V.

    2008-01-01

    Madagascar is one of the most important gem-producing countries in the world, including ruby and sapphires. Gem corundum deposits formed at different stages in the geological evolution of the island and in contrasting environments. Four main settings are identified: (I) Gem corundum formed in the Precambrian basement within the Neoproterozoic terranes of southern Madagascar. and in the volcano-sedimentary series of Beforona, north of Antananarivo. In the South, high-temperature (700 to 800 de...

  5. Leading a successful iGEM team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materi, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    The International Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM) competition allows undergraduate teams to develop projects in synthetic biology within the context of a large, international Jamboree. Organizing and managing a successful iGEM team is an exercise in advanced agile project development. While many of the principles applicable to such teams are derived from management of agile software teams, iGEM presents several unique challenges. PMID:22328439

  6. Further studies of the GEM photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of our further investigation of the Gas Electron Mutiplier (GEM) photomultiplier consisting of a solid CsI photocathode coupled to a cascade of GEMs. It operates with mixtures of pure noble gases or with noble gases having small additives of nitrogen or methane. The GEM photomultiplier (GPM) reaches multiplication factors of 105-106, allowing for detection of single photons. We discuss the limitations of the GPM, imposed by ion feedback and charging-up of the GEM elements, and some phenomena related to the avalanche development in such devices

  7. Squaraine mit ausgedehnter Konjugation

    OpenAIRE

    Gerold, Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    Squaraine mit ausgedehnter Konjugation: Die vorliegende Arbeit ist in zwei Teilbereiche gegliedert, wobei der erste Teil die Synthese und Eigenschaftsuntersuchung symmetrischer und unsymmetrischer, stilbenoider Squaraine mit ausgedehnter Konjugation (DAD-Systeme) betrifft. Im zweiten Teil der Arbeit werden als Modellverbindungen für diese Squaraine Oligo(phenylenvinylen)e (OPVs) mit terminaler Donor-Acceptor-Substitution hergestellt.Es wurden drei unterschiedliche Klassen von konjugations...

  8. The GEMS-2 SEIS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillier, S.; De Raucourt, S.; Mimoun, D.; Lognonne, P.; Giardini, D.; Christensen, U. R.; Pike, W. T.; Banerdt, B.; Laudet, P.; Kerjean, L.; Hurst, K. J.; Zweifel, P.; Mance, D.; Roll, R.; Bierwirth, M.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Nibut, T.; Robert, O.; Gabsi, T.; Pot, O.; Lecomte, B.; Schibler, P.; Mocquet, A.; Garcia, R.

    2011-12-01

    The SEIS experiment is the primary payload of the Geophysical Monitoring Station (GEMS) Mission Proposal, submitted to NASA in the frame of the 2010 Discovery program, and recently selected for the phase A study. The objective of the GEMS SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars. In particular, geophysical parameters of first importance, such as the state (liquid/solid) and size of the core, as well as structure of the mantle and shape of discontinuities will be determined by the experiment. It will measure seismic activity in a very broad band of signal, from the tidal frequencies (0.05 mHz) up to the short period frequencies (50 Hz), to address the widest range of scientific questions, from the state of the inner core to the meteoritic rate measurement. Infrasound, which might be associated to dust devils and atmospheric discharge, will be also monitored. The instrument integrates a Very Broad Band (VBB) 3 axis seismometer, completed by another trihedron of MEMS short period seismometers, environmental sensors for pressure, wind and temperature, and an infrasound sensor is additionally considered. The sensors will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm from the Phoenix lander platform and protected by a wind and thermal shield. The sensor assembly, which contains all seismic sensors, the leveling system, as well as house-keeping and temperature measurements, will be deployed on the soil in order to allow the best possible mechanical coupling with the ground motion. Thanks to the wind and thermal shield, together with the sensors' specific containers (vacuum sphere for VBBs), long term VBB bias will be protected from both temperature and pressure variations (as well as passively compensated), allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment. A dedicated electronics will manage the overall experiment and ultra-low noise, space qualified 24 bits A/D converters will perform the acquisition. The

  9. Ansatz und Bewertung originärer immaterieller Vermögensgegenständedes Anlagevermögens gemäß dem Gesetzentwurf zur Modernisierung des Bilanzrechts (Bilanzrechtsmodernisierungsgesetz – BilMoG) : Eine Betrachtung mit Blick auf die Informationsfunktion des Jahresabschlusses

    OpenAIRE

    Kramski, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit dem Ansatz und der Bewertung originärer immaterieller Vermögensgegenstände des Anlagevermögens im handelsrechtlichen Jahresabschluss. Es handelt sich hierbei um die Untersuchung der Frage, ob die Verpflichtung zur Aktivierung oben genannter Vermögensgegenstände die Aussagekraft eines Jahresabschlusses nach HGB erhöht. Während die internationalen Rechnungslegungsstandards (IFRS) den Ansatz immaterieller Vermögensgegenstände – unabhängig davon, ob sie ent...

  10. The STAR Forward GEM Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balewski, Jan

    2008-10-01

    The STAR collaboration is preparing a tracking detector upgrade, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) [1] and the Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) to further investigate fundamental properties of the new state of strongly interacting matter produced in relativistic-heavy ion collisions at RHIC and to provide fundamental studies of the proton spin structure and dynamics in high-energy polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC. The FGT will focus on novel spin physics measurements in high-energy polarized proton-proton collisions, determining the flavor dependence (δu versus δd) of the polarized sea. STAR plans to probe these PDFs using parity violating W production and decay. W^-(+) bosons are produced in u+d,d+u) collisions and can be detected through their leptonic decays, e^-+νe,e^++νe), where only the respective charged lepton is measured. The sensitivity of those measurements is enhanced in the forward direction. The discrimination of u+d (d+u) quark combinations requires distinguishing between high pT e^-(+) through their opposite charge sign. An upgrade of the STAR forward tracking system is needed to provide the required tracking precision for charge sign discrimination. This upgrade will consist of six triple-GEM detectors with two dimensional readout arranged in disks along the beam axis. The FGT design and installation schedule will be presented. [1] The STAR Heavy-Flavor Tracker, DNP Fall 2008 Meeting.

  11. Research and Development of GEM Foil at CIAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xiao-mei; ZHOU; Jing; HU; Shou-yang; SHAN; Chao; JIAN; Si-yu; YE; Li; BAI; Xin-zhan; ZHOU; Shu-hua

    2012-01-01

    <正>China Institute of Atomic Energy has signed the "License Agreement for Manufacturing and Commercialisation of Gem Foils and Gem Based Products Licensee" with CERN, and got the technical assistance from CERN. The base material of GEM foil is ultrathin, non-adhesive copper on polyimide substrate, which can be purchased from CERN and other companies. The manufacture of GEM foil is

  12. Fast drift CRID with GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The only available technique at the present time, to perform particle identification up to 40-50 GeV/c in a 4π solenoidal geometry using the Cherenkov ring imaging method is the use of gaseous detectors filled with either TMAE or TEA photocathodes, and a combination of the gaseous, and solid or liquid radiators. If one would consider building such a device, one may want to investigate alternative methods of building a single-electron detector. This paper investigates the feasibility of using the GEM together with a simple MWPC detector employing 33 μm diameter carbon wires to obtain a second coordinate. The results are compared to the CRID single-electron detector

  13. Fast Drift CRID with GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The only available technique at the present time, to perform particle identification up to 40-50 GeV/c in a 4π solenoidal geometry using the Cherenkov ring imaging method is the use of gaseous detectors tilled with either TMAE or TEA photocathodes, and a combination of the gaseous, and solid or liquid radiators. If one would consider building such a device, one may want to investigate alternative methods of building a single-electron detector. This paper investigates the feasibility of using the GEM together with a simple MWPC detector employing 33 microm diameter carbon wires to obtain a second coordinate. The results are compared to the CRID single-electron detector

  14. Characterization of the GEM foil materials

    CERN Document Server

    Benussi, L; Saviano, G; Muhammad, S; Piccolo, D; Raffone, G; Caponero, M; Passamonti, L; Pierluigi, D; Russo, A; Primavera, F; Cerbelli, S; Lalli, A; Valente, M; Ferrini, M; Teissandier, B; Taborelli, M; Parvis, M; Grassini, S; Tirilló, J; Sarasini, F; Franchi, A V

    2015-01-01

    Systematic studies on the GEM foil material are performed to measure the moisture diffusion rate and saturation level. These studies are important because the presence of this compound inside the detector's foil can possibly change its mechanical and electrical properties and, in such a way, the detector performance can be affected. To understand this phenomenon, a model is developed with COMSOL Multhiphysics v. 4.3, which described the adsorption and diffusion within the geometry of GEM foil, the concentration profiles and the time required to saturate the foil. The COMSOL model is verified by experimental observations on a GEM foil sample. This note will describe the model and its experimental verification results.

  15. Progress in GEM-based gaseous photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss recent progress in gaseous photomultipliers (GPMTs) comprising UV-to-visible spectral range photocathodes (PCs) coupled to multiple Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM). The PCs may be either semitransparent or reflective ones directly deposited on the first-GEM surface. These detectors provide high gain, even in noble gases, are sensitive to single photons, have nanosecond time resolution, and offer good localization. The operation of CsI-based GPMTs in CF4 opens new applications in Cherenkov detectors, where both the radiator and the photosensor operate in the same gas. The latest results on sealed visible-light detectors, combining bialkali PCs and Kapton-made GEMs are presented

  16. Eine Nische mit Zukunft?

    OpenAIRE

    Meili, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Die Wasserbüffel in der Schweiz sind im Kommen. Die ersten Büffel wurden 1996 von Schangnauer Bauern importiert. Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten mit IBR konnte die Zucht nun stetig ausgebaut werden.

  17. MITS machine operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains procedures which apply to operations performed on individual P-1c machines in the Machine Interface Test System (MITS) at AiResearch Manufacturing Company's Torrance, California Facility

  18. Commercial and Cost Effective Production of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, Craig

    2009-03-31

    The nuclear and high energy physics research community is constantly searching for new and improved tracking and radiation detectors. The introduction of micropattern detectors has opened new opportunities for improving the rate capabilities, as well as the spatial and time resolution of particle detectors in these applications. GEM detectors in particular have received enormous interest for use in detectors planned for a number of new and upgraded experiments at many different research facilities. These include both the STAR and PHENIX experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, experiments at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and at the future electron-positron Linear Collider. At the present time, CERN is not able to supply foils in sufficient quantities to accommodate the needs of these experiments. Compounding this problem, there is a strong interest in GEM foils for numerous other applications, such as in astrophysics, medical imaging and detectors for homeland security. It would therefore be of significant benefit to the research community to develop a commercial source of GEM foils for all of these applications. Tech-Etch is in a unique position to develop this technology for commercial use. Tech-Etch has not only experience in numerous related high precision etched Kapton® products, but it also has strong ties with several research institutions (namely Brookhaven, Yale and MIT) that can help develop and evaluate the performance of the GEM foils produced at Tech-Etch. Additionally, since Tech-Etch is a small company, it also has the capability to produce a large variety of part configurations, as well as the flexibility to shift production methods, equipment, and chemistry to optimize the GEM foil manufacturing process without being constrained by existing work running on high volume continuous coil equipment.

  19. Gas amplification properties of GEM foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the detector concept International Linear Detector for the future accelerator project International Linear Collider, in which electrons and positrons at c. m. energies of 500 GeV are brought to collision, a time projection chamber shall be applied as central track detector. By the application of such a chamber as track detector a three-dimensional reconstruction of the track points is possible. If a particle passes the gas volume within the chamber it ionizises single gas atoms and the arising electrons move after the amplification in the GEM arrangement to the anode, so that a two-dimensional projection of the particle track is possible. The third dimension is calculated from the drift time of the electrons. The advances of this readout system consist therein that a better position resolution than by a multiwire proportional chamber is reached and the back-drifting ions can be strongly suppressed. Aim of this thesis are studies for a GEM module, which shall be used in a large TPC prototype. Concerning different requirements it is valid to compare different GEMs in order to can meet an optimal choice. In a small prototype present at DESY measurements for the acquisition of GEM-describing parameters were performed. The taking into operation of the test TPC was part of this thesis. Tracks were generated by a radioactive source, by means of which the gas amplification was determined. With the measurement arrangement gas-amplifier foils of different kind were compared in view of their amplification properties and their energy resolution power and systematically studied. Five different GEM performances were studied in the test TPC. These foils differ in their geometrical classification parameters, the fabrication process, or the materials. The GEMs produced at CERN possess in comparison with GEMs of the Japanese firm SciEnergy and a GEM of the US-American firm Tech-Etch the best amplification and resolution properties. Furthermore a new GEM framing

  20. GEM Building Taxonomy (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzev, S.; Scawthorn, C.; Charleson, A.W.; Allen, L.; Greene, M.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Silva, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the development and applications of the Building Taxonomy for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The purpose of the GEM Building Taxonomy is to describe and classify buildings in a uniform manner as a key step towards assessing their seismic risk, Criteria for development of the GEM Building Taxonomy were that the Taxonomy be relevant to seismic performance of different construction types; be comprehensive yet simple; be collapsible; adhere to principles that are familiar to the range of users; and ultimately be extensible to non-buildings and other hazards. The taxonomy was developed in conjunction with other GEM researchers and builds on the knowledge base from other taxonomies, including the EERI and IAEE World Housing Encyclopedia, PAGER-STR, and HAZUS. The taxonomy is organized as a series of expandable tables, which contain information pertaining to various building attributes. Each attribute describes a specific characteristic of an individual building or a class of buildings that could potentially affect their seismic performance. The following 13 attributes have been included in the GEM Building Taxonomy Version 2.0 (v2.0): 1.) direction, 2.)material of the lateral load-resisting system, 3.) lateral load-resisting system, 4.) height, 5.) date of construction of retrofit, 6.) occupancy, 7.) building position within a block, 8.) shape of the building plan, 9.) structural irregularity, 10.) exterior walls, 11.) roof, 12.) floor, 13.) foundation system. The report illustrates the pratical use of the GEM Building Taxonomy by discussing example case studies, in which the building-specific characteristics are mapped directly using GEM taxonomic attributes and the corresponding taxonomic string is constructed for that building, with "/" slash marks separating attributes. For example, for the building shown to the right, the GEM Taxonomy string is: DX1/MUR+CLBRS+MOCL2/LWAL3/

  1. Data Analysis And Polarization Measurements With GEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohmayer, Tod

    2011-01-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) mission was selected by NASA for flight in 2014. GEMS will make the first sensitive survey of X-ray polarization across a wide range of source classes including black hole and neutron star binaries, AGN of different types, rotation and accretion-powered pulsars, magnetars, shell supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae. GEMS employs grazing-incidence foil mirrors and novel time-projection chamber (TPC) polarimeters leveraging the photoelectric effect. The GEMS detectors image the charge tracks of photoelectrons produced by 2 - 10 keV X-rays. The initial direction of the photoelectron is determined by the linear polarization of the photon. We present an overview of the data analysis challenges and methods for GEMS, including procedures for producing optimally filtered images of the charge tracks and estimating their initial directions. We illustrate our methods using laboratory measurements of polarized and unpolarized X-rays with flight-like detectors as well as from simulated tracks. We also present detailed simulations exploring the statistics of polarization measurements appropriate for GEMS, and make comparisons with previous work.

  2. Differentialtherapie mit Kalziumantagonisten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörffel Y

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Der antihypertensive Effekt der Kalziumantagonisten ist bei allen Altersgruppen und Rassen seit längerem erwiesen. Darüber hinaus sind verschiedene andere positive Wirkungen dokumentiert, wie z. B. die Verbesserung der Endothelfunktion, Reduktion der Atheroskleroseprogression in der A. carotis, Reduktion der linksventrikulären und der arteriolären Hypertrophie sowie eine Verbesserung der arteriellen Compliance. Kalziumantagonisten verschlechtern nicht den Lipid- oder Glukosestoffwechsel. Für den Einsatz in der Praxis ist die Kenntnis der Heterogenität der Substanzklasse mit sich daraus ableitenden Vor- und Nachteilen sowie unterschiedlichen Indikationen von großer Relevanz. Den Prototypen der Non-Dihydropyridine Verapamil (chem. Phenylalkylamin und Diltiazem (chem. Benzothiazepine steht die umfangreiche Substanzklasse der Dihydropyridine (DHP gegenüber. Zu den DHPs zählen neben dem Prototyp Nifedipin die neueren Substanzen wie Nitrendipin, Nisoldipin, Amlodipin, Felodipin, Lacidipin und Lercanidipin. DHPs sind in erster Linie Vasodilatatoren, die durch eine Reduktion des peripheren vaskulären Widerstandes den arteriellen Blutdruck senken. Insbesondere bei älteren Präparaten mit schnellem Wirkungseintritt, wie z. B. beim unretardierten Nifedipin, einem DHP der ersten Generation, kann eine autonome Gegenregulation ausgelöst werden. Bei den modernen DHPs mit längerer Wirkungsdauer und bei den Non-DHPs ist dieser Effekt bedeutend abgeschwächt oder gar nicht mehr nachweisbar. In mehreren prospektiven, randomisierten und placebokontrollierten Studien konnte bei Patienten mit isolierter systolischer Hypertonie eine Reduktion der Schlaganfallrate dokumentiert werden (Syst-Eur, Syst-China, signifikante Unterschiede bezüglich Mortalität und Morbidität ergaben sich im Vergleich mit anderen Antihypertensiva (Diuretika, Betablocker, ACE-Hemmer nicht (STOP-2, INSIGHT, NORDIL, ALLHAT, INVEST. In der meist erforderlichen antihypertensiven

  3. Development of a Diehard GEM using PTFE insulator substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Wakabayashi, M; Tamagawa, T; Takeuchi, Y; Aoki, K; Taketani, A; Hamagaki, H

    2014-01-01

    We have developed the gas electron multiplier (GEM) using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) insulator substrate (PTFE-GEM). Carbonization on insulator layer by discharges shorts the GEM electrodes, causing permanent breakdown. Since PTFE is hard to be carbonized against arc discharges, PTFE-GEM is expected to be robust against breakdown. Gains as high as 2.6x10^4 were achieved with PTFE-GEM (50 um thick) in Ar/CO2 = 70%/30% gas mixture at V_GEM = 730V. PTFE-GEM never showed a permanent breakdown even after suffering more than 40000 times discharges during the experiment. The result demonstrates that PTFE-GEM is really robust against discharges. We conclude that PTFE is an excellent insulator material for the GEM productions.

  4. The GEM Detector projective alignment simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precision position knowledge (< 25 microns RMS) of the GEM Detector muon system at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) is an important physics requirement necessary to minimize sagitta error in detecting and tracking high energy muons that are deflected by the magnetic field within the GEM Detector. To validate the concept of the sagitta correction function determined by projective alignment of the muon detectors (Cathode Strip Chambers or CSCs), the basis of the proposed GEM alignment scheme, a facility, called the ''Alignment Test Stand'' (ATS), is being constructed. This system simulates the environment that the CSCs and chamber alignment systems are expected to experience in the GEM Detector, albeit without the 0.8 T magnetic field and radiation environment. The ATS experimental program will allow systematic study and characterization of the projective alignment approach, as well as general mechanical engineering of muon chamber mounting concepts, positioning systems and study of the mechanical behavior of the proposed 6 layer CSCs. The ATS will consist of a stable local coordinate system in which mock-ups of muon chambers (i.e., non-working mechanical analogs, representing the three superlayers of a selected barrel and endcap alignment tower) are implemented, together with a sufficient number of alignment monitors to overdetermine the sagitta correction function, providing a self-consistency check. This paper describes the approach to be used for the alignment of the GEM muon system, the design of the ATS, and the experiments to be conducted using the ATS

  5. Optical quality assurance of GEM foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis software was developed for the high aspect ratio optical scanning system in the Detector Laboratory of the University of Helsinki and the Helsinki Institute of Physics. The system is used e.g. in the quality assurance of the GEM-TPC detectors being developed for the beam diagnostics system of the SuperFRS at future FAIR facility. The software was tested by analyzing five CERN standard GEM foils scanned with the optical scanning system. The measurement uncertainty of the diameter of the GEM holes and the pitch of the hole pattern was found to be 0.5μm and 0.3μm, respectively. The software design and the performance are discussed. The correlation between the GEM hole size distribution and the corresponding gain variation was studied by comparing them against a detailed gain mapping of a foil and a set of six lower precision control measurements. It can be seen that a qualitative estimation of the behavior of the local variation in gain across the GEM foil can be made based on the measured sizes of the outer and inner holes

  6. Simulation of the CMS GEM System

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Archie

    2015-01-01

    The new GE1/1 system of Gas Electron Multipiers (GEM) is going to be installed in the CMS detector in the forward region with $\\eta$ between 1.6 and 2.2 after the second long LHC shutdown. 36 super-chambers are planned to be installed in order to ensure the redundancy and robustness of the muon system in high-luminosity conditions at the LHC. A further extension to the GEM system is also considered. The simulation of the entire GEM system integrated in the common CMS reconstruction chain is a necessary part of the performed Monte Carlo studies. A dedicated parametric model based on the exhaustive standalone MC studies and experimental test beam results has been developed in order to simulate the response of the GEM system. The simulated digital readout signals are used to build the reconstructed hits in the detector planes. They have been included in the common CMS muon reconstruction algorithms. This contribution will present the developed simulation model and the importance of the gem system for the improve...

  7. Development of a Diehard GEM using PTFE insulator substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed the gas electron multiplier (GEM) using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) insulator substrate (PTFE-GEM). Carbonization on insulator layer by discharges shorts the GEM electrodes, causing permanent breakdown. Since PTFE is hard to be carbonized against arc discharges, PTFE-GEM is expected to be robust against breakdown. Gains as high as 2.6 × 104 were achieved with PTFE-GEM (50 μm thick) in Ar/CO2 = 70%/30% gas mixture at VGEM = 730 V. PTFE-GEM never showed a permanent breakdown even after suffering more than 40000 times discharges during the experiment. The result demonstrates that PTFE-GEM is really robust against discharges. We conclude that PTFE is an excellent insulator material for the GEM productions

  8. Mit anderen Augen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian; Høberg, Per

    The article 'Mit anderen Augen' focuses on the debate about the state-church relationship in the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Starting from the immediate assumption that a protestant church and a socialist, Marxist-Leninist state were irreconcilable in the construction of a new society the...

  9. GEM applications outside high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, Serge

    2013-01-01

    From its invention in 1997, the Gas Electron Multiplier has been applied in nuclear and high energy physics experiments. Over time however, other applications have also exploited the favorable properties of GEMs. The use of GEMs in these applications will be explained in principle and practice. This paper reviews applications in research, beam instrumentation and homeland security. The detectors described measure neutral radiations such as photons, x-rays, gamma rays and neutrons, as well as all kinds of charged radiation. This paper provides an overview of the still expanding range of possibilities of this versatile detector concept.

  10. Neutron beam imaging with GEM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron GEM-based detectors represent a new frontier of devices in neutron physics applications where a very high neutron flux must be measured such as future fusion experiments (e.g. ITER Neutral beam Injector) and spallation sources (e.g. the European Spallation source). This kind of detectors can be properly adapted to be used both as beam monitors but also as neutron diffraction detectors that could represent a valid alternative for the 3He detectors replacement. Fast neutron GEM detectors (nGEM) feature a cathode composed by one layer of polyethylene and one of aluminium (neutron scattering on hydrogen generates protons that are detected in the gas) while thermal neutron GEM detectors (bGEM) are equipped with a borated aluminium cathode (charged particles are generated through the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction). GEM detectors can be realized in large area (1 m2) and their readout can be pixelated. Three different prototypes of nGEM and one prototype of bGEM detectors of different areas and equipped with different types of readout have been built and tested. All the detectors have been used to measure the fast and thermal neutron 2D beam image at the ISIS-VESUVIO beamline. The different kinds of readout patterns (different areas of the pixels) have been compared in similar conditions. All the detectors measured a width of the beam profile consitent with the expected one. The imaging property of each detector was then tested by inserting samples of different material and shape in the beam. All the samples were correctly reconstructed and the definition of the reconstruction depends on the type of readout anode. The fast neutron beam profile reconstruction was then compared to the one obtained by diamond detectors positioned on the same beamline while the thermal neutron one was compared to the imaged obtained by cadmium-coupled x-rays films. Also efficiency and the gamma background rejection have been determined. These prototypes represent the first step towards the

  11. Proceedings of the GEM Collaboration Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main subject of the GEM meeting were: meson production near threshold, mesic atoms, nuclear resonances, symmetry violation, light ions structure and interactions. Additionally some apparatus problems like electronic equipment and charged particle detector have been discussed. The volume contains copies of transparencies supplied by the authors which are not normal full texts of papers

  12. Performance of the GEM electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GEM EM calorimeter is optimized for the best energy, position, angular resolution and jet rejection. The detailed simulation results are presented. In the barrel with LKr, an energy resolution of about 6%/√ direct-sum 0.4%, pointing resolution of 40mrad/√E + 0.5mrad, and jet rejection of a factor of 5 are expected

  13. Development of GEMs at Hampton University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Anusha; Kohl, Michael; MUSE Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Two GEM telescopes each consisting of three 10×10 cm2 triple-GEM chambers 30-40 cm apart were built, tested and operated by the Hampton group. They are read out with APV25 frontend chips and FPGA based digitizing electronics developed by INFN Rome. The telescopes served as luminosity monitors for the OLYMPUS experiment at DESY in Hamburg, Germany, with positron and electron beams at 2 GeV. The telescopes have been recycled to serve as the beam particle tracker of the MUSE experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland. In the identical configuration as in OLYMPUS, the telescope was limiting the accepted trigger rate in the test measurements. Therefore, an effort is ongoing to improve the GEM readout speed to meet the trigger rate at the design intensity of the MUSE experiment. Further, the Hampton group is responsible for the DarkLight phase-I lepton tracker which is in preparation at the low energy-recovering facility (LERF) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, USA, sponsored by the National Science Foundation through a Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) grant. The group's activities on GEM detector development will be summarized, and the achieved performance and the current effort to further improvements will be discussed.

  14. TPC with GEM readout for TESLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is proposed as the main tracking device for the detector at the future e+e- linear accelerator now studied in Europe. The performance requirements and the basic design using a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) as the readout device are described. Some preliminary R and D results are discussed

  15. Ion feedback effect in the multi GEM structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feedback of positive ions in a gas electron multiplier (GEM) has to be suppressed to reduce the photocathode degradation in GEM photomultipliers and to prevent the field distortion in a time projection chamber (TPC). The ion feedback dependency on the drift electric field, the transfer field, the asymmetry in the voltages across the GEM, and the effective gain was carefully measured in various gases. The ion feedback is sensitive to the drift field and the effective gain. A model prediction of the ion feedback in a double GEM structure was compared with the measurement. Our systematic study of the ion feedback effect can lead to progress in gas detectors with GEMs.

  16. Ion feedback effect in the multi GEM structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Se Hwan; Kim, Yong Kyun; Han, Sang Hyo; Ha, Jang Ho; Moon, Byung Soo; Chung, Chong Eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    The feedback of positive ions in a gas electron multiplier (GEM) has to be suppressed to reduce the photocathode degradation in GEM photomultipliers and to prevent the field distortion in a time projection chamber (TPC). The ion feedback dependency on the drift electric field, the transfer field, the asymmetry in the voltages across the GEM, and the effective gain was carefully measured in various gases. The ion feedback is sensitive to the drift field and the effective gain. A model prediction of the ion feedback in a double GEM structure was compared with the measurement. Our systematic study of the ion feedback effect can lead to progress in gas detectors with GEMs.

  17. Intubationsbedingungen mit Org 9487

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, S

    2004-01-01

    Die Studie vergleicht die Intubationsbedingungen nach Applikation von Org 9487, einem neuen aminosteroidalen, nicht-depolarisierenden Muskelrelaxans, Succinylcholin und Placebo. 60 Patienten nahmen an der Doppel-Blind-Studie teil. Nach Einleitung der Narkose erfolgte eine Relaxation entweder mit 1,5 mg/kgKG Org 9487, 1 mg/kgKG Succinylcholin oder Placebo. Nach 60 Sekunden erfolgte die Intubation. Es wurde kein signifikanter Unterschied zwischen Intubationsbedingungen nach Succinylcholin und n...

  18. Marketing mit Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Nufer, Gerd; Vogt, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    Die Integration von Facebook in ein bestehendes Marketingkonzept avanciert zunehmend zum Erfolgsfaktor innovativer Unternehmen. Das Marketing mit diesem sozialen Netzwerk ist dabei nicht auf die Kommunikationspolitik determiniert, sondern bietet die Möglichkeit, einen nachhaltigen Mehrwert im gesamten Marketing-Mix zu generieren. Vor diesem Hintergrund stellt Facebook aktuell das meist eingesetzte Social Marketing Instrument in Deutschland dar. Im Kontrast zum steigenden Bewusstsein der Vorte...

  19. Aufsichtspflichtverletzung mit Folgen

    OpenAIRE

    George, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Die Naturschutzgesetze selbst und eine Vielzahl der auf ihrer Grundlage erlassenen Verordnungen bestimmen Tatbestände ordnungswidrigen Handelns, die mit einer Geldbuße geahndet werden können. Leider ist es auch immer wieder erforderlich, Ordnungswidrigkeiten zu verfolgen und zu ahnden, da bekanntermaßen nicht allen Menschen die Ziele des Naturschutzes und das Wohl der Allgemeinheit am Herzen liegen, vielmehr Gedankenlosigkeit, Unkenntnis usw. ihr Handeln prägen (GEORGE 1998). Bei der Anwendun...

  20. Fraktionale Differentialgleichungen mit MAPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Dietmar

    2002-01-01

    Staatsexamensarbeit 2002. In der nachfolgenden Arbeit werde ich im zweiten Kapitel theoretisch fraktionale Ableitungen vorstellen, um dann im dritten Kapitel praktisch mit MAPLE fraktionale Ableitungen zu veranschaulichen. Genauso werde ich auch das Gebiet der fraktionalen Differentialgleichungen einführen, d.h. zuerst wird ein theoretischer Teil über Lösungsmethoden behandelt und darauf folgend ein praktischer Teil, in dem mittels MAPLE diverse Gleichungen gelöst werden. Das zweite Dokument ...

  1. Wissenschaftlerinnen mit Migrationshintergrund

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    'Angesichts der aktuellen Debatte zur Bildungsintegration von MigrantInnen sowie des parallel geführten Diskurses zum Erhalt der Innovations- und Konkurrenzfähigkeit des Wissenschaftsstandortes Deutschlands und der noch immer geringen Teilhabe von Wissenschaftlerinnen an hohen Positionen scheint dringend geboten, die Integration von Migrantinnen in wissenschaftliche Laufbahnen zu thematisieren. Der vorliegende Band greift diese Lücke auf verbunden mit der Hoffnung, innerhalb des Themenfeldes ...

  2. Organische Leuchtdioden mit Polymeranoden

    OpenAIRE

    Fehse, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    In organischen Leuchtdioden (OLEDs) werden üblicherweise anorganische Materialien wie Indium-Zinn-Oxid (ITO) als transparente leitfähige Anoden verwendet. ITO besitzt allerdings eine geringe Austrittsarbeit und kann deshalb Löcher nicht effizient in organische Materialien injizieren. Weiterhin ist ITO eine Quelle von Indium- und Sauerstoff-Ionen, die in die organischen Materialien diffundieren und dort mit der Organik reagieren bzw. als effiziente Exzitonenvernichter agieren. Eine mögliche Al...

  3. Study on Inclusions in Natural and Synthetic Gems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆麟

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of inclusions in natural and synthetic gems are distinct owing to their different forming mechanisms and can be utilized to distinguish gems from different locali ties. In addition, intensive studies on inclusion characteristics of natural gems could identify their geographical origins and provide valuable information on gem synthesis. In this paper syn thetic gems (synthetic star-spangled sapphire and emerald) and natural gems from various loca tions including natural sapphire from Thailand and Australia, and natural aquamerine from Mu fushan, Hunan Province, and Ailaoshan, Yunnan Province, were selected for the comparative study of inclusions. Significant research results have been achieved, thus providing the impor tant basis for distinguishing natural from synthetic gems.

  4. Study of Ion Back Flow suppression with thick COBRA GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion Back Flow (IBF) suppression is essential to avoid a space-charge distortion of the electric field under a high rate condition in the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). A GEM technology is one possible solution to achieve a small IBF and to keep a good performance in terms of particle tracking and particle identification at high rates in TPC. We developed Thick COBRA GEMs to investigate the capability of further IBF suppression. It was found that the COBRA GEM can suppress IBF more effectively compared to a standard GEM. IBF reaches about 0.1–0.5% with a stack configuration consisting of one standard GEM facing to the drift field and two COBRA GEMs. In this paper, the current status of development of COBRA GEM is described

  5. Ammoniakzersetzung mit salzmodifizierten Katalysatoren

    OpenAIRE

    Bajus, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, durch die Modifikation von Rutheniumkatalysatoren mit Salzen ein aktives System für die Ammoniakzersetzung zur Wasserstofffreisetzung zwischen 200 °C und 350 °C zu entwickeln. Die Modifikation sollte auf dem SCILL-Konzept aufbauen, bei dem in der ursprünglichen Variante eine ionische Flüssigkeit geträgert auf einem heterogenen Katalysator die katalytische Oberfläche modifizieren soll. Da ionische Flüssigkeiten nur bedingt thermisch stabil sind, sollte dieses Konzept...

  6. Gas electron multipliers: Development of large area GEMS and spherical GEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaseous radiation detectors have been a crucial part of high-energy physics instrumentation since the 1960s, when the first multiwire proportional counters were built. In the 1990s the first micropattern gas detectors (MPGDS) saw the light; with sub-millimeter feature sizes these novel detectors were faster and more accurate than their predecessors. The gas electron multiplier (GEM) is one of the most successful of these technologies. It is a charge multiplication structure made from a copper clad polymer foil, pierced with a regular and dense pattern of holes. I describe the properties and the application of GEMs and GEM. detectors, and the research and development I have done on this technology. Two of the main objectives were the development of large area GEMs (∝m2) for particle physics experiments and GEMs with a spherical shape for X-ray or neutron diffraction detectors. Both have been realized, and the new techniques involved are finding their way to applications in research and industry. (orig.)

  7. Gas electron multipliers. Development of large area GEMS and spherical GEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Serge Duarte

    2011-08-15

    Gaseous radiation detectors have been a crucial part of high-energy physics instrumentation since the 1960s, when the first multiwire proportional counters were built. In the 1990s the first micropattern gas detectors (MPGDS) saw the light; with sub-millimeter feature sizes these novel detectors were faster and more accurate than their predecessors. The gas electron multiplier (GEM) is one of the most successful of these technologies. It is a charge multiplication structure made from a copper clad polymer foil, pierced with a regular and dense pattern of holes. I describe the properties and the application of GEMs and GEM. detectors, and the research and development I have done on this technology. Two of the main objectives were the development of large area GEMs ({proportional_to}m{sup 2}) for particle physics experiments and GEMs with a spherical shape for X-ray or neutron diffraction detectors. Both have been realized, and the new techniques involved are finding their way to applications in research and industry. (orig.)

  8. GEM photomultiplier operation in CF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of a 3-GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) element photomultiplier, with a semitransparent CsI photocathode and CF4 gas filling, are presented. Compared to other gas mixtures, such as CH4, Ar/CH4, Ar/N2 and He/Ar/N2, CF4 has superior performance: the highest gain, approaching 107, the fastest, 8 ns wide signal and the lowest photoelectron backscattering; the latter allows to reach photocathode quantum efficiency values approaching that in vacuum. The time resolution of the multi-GEM photomultiplier for single photoelectrons was measured to be 2 ns. These properties are of high relevance for applications in Cherenkov detectors and in tracking devices

  9. Computational modeling of induced emotion using GEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Aljanaki, Anna; Wiering, Frans; Veltkamp, Remco

    2014-01-01

    Most researchers in the automatic music emotion recognition field focus on the two-dimensional valence and arousal model. This model though does not account for the whole diversity of emotions expressible through music. Moreover, in many cases it might be important to model induced (felt) emotion, rather than perceived emotion. In this paper we explore a multidimensional emotional space, the Geneva Emotional Music Scales (GEMS), which addresses these two issues. We collected the data for our ...

  10. GEM - A novel gaseous particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Meinschad, T

    2005-01-01

    The work carried out within the framework of this Ph.D. deals with the construction of gaseous prototype detectors using Gas Electron Multiplier electrodes for the amplification of charges released by ionizing particles. The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a thin metal-clad polymer foil, etched with a high density of narrow holes, typically 50-100mm-2. On the application of a potential difference between the conductive top and bottom sides each hole acts as independent proportional counter. This new fast device permits to reach large amplification factors at high rates with a strong photon and ion-mediated feedback suppression due to the avalanche confinement in the GEM-holes. Here, in particular studies have been performed, which should prove, that the GEM-technology is applicable for an efficient measurement of single Cherenkov photons. These UV-photons can be detected in different ways. An elegant solution to develop large area RICH-detectors is to evaporate a pad-segmented readout-cathode of a multi-wire...

  11. Desinfektion von Gemüsesamen mit belüftetem Dampf

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, Dr. Werner E.

    2009-01-01

    Healthy seeds are a necessary condition for economic production of high quality vegetables, not only in organic production. Seed health comprises not just high levels of germination and emergence, but also absence of fungal infections. More than 200 genera of vegetable seed borne pathogenic fungi are listed in the literature: e.g. Alternaria, Ascochyta, Botrytis, Bremia, Cercospora, Colletotrichum, Peronospora, Phoma, Plasmopara, Phytophthora, Stemphylium, Septoria. Hot wate...

  12. Comparative verification between GEM model and official aviation terminal forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert G.

    1988-01-01

    The Generalized Exponential Markov (GEM) model uses the local standard airways observation (SAO) to predict hour-by-hour the following elements: temperature, pressure, dew point depression, first and second cloud-layer height and amount, ceiling, total cloud amount, visibility, wind, and present weather conditions. GEM is superior to persistence at all projections for all elements in a large independent sample. A minute-by-minute GEM forecasting system utilizing the Automated Weather Observation System (AWOS) is under development.

  13. Heavy metals in Ratnapura alluvial gem sediments, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, M. S.; Hettiarachchi, J. K.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Wijesekara, H.; Hewawasam, T.

    2011-12-01

    The valuable gems in Sri Lanka are found from the sedimentary gem deposits in Ratnapura District, which are found as alluvial deposits some are about >50 m deep. Gem bearing gravel layer is taken out from the mine, washed by panning to recover the gem minerals in the heavy mineral fraction, is a common practice in the gem mining area. Gem bearing sediment layer is associated with different heavy minerals in which different trace metals as Co, Cr, Cu, Al, Zr, Pb and As also can be present. During panning, the sediment is washed away and the heavy metals attached to the sediments are released into the environment. Hence we studied the lability and bioavailability of arsenic and other heavy metals from the gem sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 15 small scale gem mines (3 soil layers- top, gem mineral layer and layer below gem bearing gravel layer), air dried and sieved to obtain 150 mg/kg), Cu (>150 mg/kg), Pb (>400 mg/kg), Zn (>600 mg/kg) and Co ions (>100 mg/kg). Arsenite in the gem sediments were low and recorded as Co>Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb. Sediments from few gem pits showed considerably high concentrations of metals analyzed. In some places Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn reported high in bioavailable fractions 70, 25, 20, 10 mg/kg respectively. Mobilization of these metals may increase due to changes in the pH and the presence of other ions in the environment. High concentrations of toxic metals in exchangeable and bioavailable fractions indicate the risk on plant and animals as well as the open water bodies and groundwater sources.

  14. Study of etching processes in the GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Zavazieva, Darina

    2016-01-01

    Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors are known to operate stably at high gains and high particle fluxes. Though, at very high gains and fluxes it was observed that the insulating polyimide layer between the GEM electrodes gets etched, changing the original shape of the hole, and therefore varying the gain and the energy resolution of the detector. The idea of the project to observe degradation effect of the GEM foils during the Triple GEM detector operation in extreme conditions under X-ray radiation.

  15. Gas-gain study of standard CERN GEM and 400-μm-thick Thick GEM in low-pressure He/CO2 mixed gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have evaluated and compared the performances of a 50-μm-thick CERN GEM and a 400-μm-thick Thick GEM in low-pressure He/CO2 (90%/10%) mixed gas. In particular, the empirical gas gains of the standard CERN GEM and the Thick GEM have been measured and investigated.

  16. Schädlingsbekämpfung im Vorrats- und Materialschutz mit Sulfurylfluorid

    OpenAIRE

    Reichmuth, Christoph; Klementz, Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    Seit mehreren Jahren ist Sulfurylfluorid (Sulfuryldifluorid, SF) als Schädlingsbekämpfungsmittel für den Materialschutz und den Vorratsschutz gegen Insekten gelistet. Insbesondere der Ersatz des ozonzerstörenden Brommethans wird in diesen Anwendungsgebieten überwiegend mit diesem Wirkstoff realisiert. Sulfurylfluorid gilt seit langer Zeit als ein bewährtes Begasungsmittel gegen Termiten in Holzhäusern in den Vereinigten Staaten. Als 2005 die Industrienationen gemäß den Beschlüssen des Montrea...

  17. Analysis of Mechanical Properties for GEM Foil

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Yuk Ming

    2016-01-01

    In view of new assembly technique of the GEM detector; in which three foils stack is stretched to get the uniform gaps among the foils. We studied the mechanical properties of the foil material. We conditioned the samples in different environments to make them extra dry and wet. As holes are the major source of the charge amplification their deformation can effect the detector performance. Therefore in our studies we also studied at which level of the stress the holes deformation is seen. These tensile and holes deformation studies can help to optimize the stress during detector assembly.

  18. Scalability of the plasma physics code GEM

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Bruce D.; Weinberg, Volker; Hoenen, Olivier; Karmakar, Anupam; Fazendeiro, Luis

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a detailed weak scaling analysis of GEM, a 3D MPI-parallelised gyrofluid code used in theoretical plasma physics at the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics, IPP at Garching b. M\\"unchen, Germany. Within a PRACE Preparatory Access Project various versions of the code have been analysed on the HPC systems SuperMUC at LRZ and JUQUEEN at J\\"ulich Supercomputing Centre (JSC) to improve the parallel scalability of the application. The diagnostic tool Scalasca has been used to filter o...

  19. Performance test of a triple GEM chamber with Cosmics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the response of the detector to the cosmic muons is reported and the efficiency of charged particle detection of the chamber at different GEM voltages is estimated . This study would help in optimizing the operating conditions of the triple GEM chamber

  20. GEM operation in negative ion drift gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first operation of GEM gas gain elements in negative ion gas mixtures is reported. Gains up to several thousand were obtained from single-stage GEMs in CS2 vapor at low pressure, and in mixtures of CS2 with Argon and Helium, some near 1 bar total pressure

  1. The GEM photomultiplier operated with noble gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of detailed investigations of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM)-based photomultiplier, consisting of a solid CsI photocathode coupled to a cascade of GEM elements. The detector is filled with non-ageing mixtures based on noble gases: Ar, Ne, Ar+Ne, Ar+Xe, Ar+CH4 and Ar+N2. Very high gas gains, reaching 106, and rather fast anode pulses, of a width of 10 ns, were observed in some mixtures. Various phenomena and physical processes, found to affect the device operation, are discussed here: additional gain due to secondary scintillation; mixtures with enhanced ionization efficiency; improvement of pulse-height resolution due to avalanche confinement in the GEM holes; avalanche extension outside the GEM holes; gain limitation due to ion feedback and charging-up of GEM electrodes; photoelectron backscattering

  2. Spillerum og mit eget rum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Undervisningsmaterialet Spillerum udviklet som APP til Ipad med interaktive muligheder. Spillerum som APP - et interaktivt undervisningsmateriale, hvor man ud over at bruge det originale materiale Spillerum elektronisk kan skabe sit eget billedbaserede rum "Mit eget rum" som udgangspunkt for dialog....

  3. MIT-CSR XIS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report outlines the proposers' progress toward MIT's contribution to the X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) experiment on the Japanese ASTRO-E mission. The report discusses electrical system design, mechanical system design, and ground support equipment.

  4. Die Last mit der Lust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Sauerteig

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert Jütte legt mit Lust ohne Last eine umfassende, allgemeinverständliche und spannend zu lesende Geschichte der Empfängnisverhütung von der Antike bis in die unmittelbare Gegenwart vor.

  5. Verbalsuffixe mit Liquida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zorman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt eine Zusammenfassung bzw. vervollständigte Ver­ sion einiger Kapitel der Magisterarbeit der Autorin mit dem Titel Expressive Wort­ bildung beim Verb (Ältere, wahrscheinlich ererbte Kombinationen -V/C- + -r/l- - das Grundtypus -dr- - im Slowenischen dar. Die wesentlichen Erkenntnisse der Arbeit hinsichtlich der morphologischen und semantischen Gestalt derartiger Verben, ihrer dialektologischen Verbreitung und der Genese, Funktion und Austauschbarkeit dieser Suffixe sollen unter dem Titel "Ekspresivne glagolske pripone tipa -V/C + -r/l-" in den "Razprave XV II. razreda SAZU" (Dissertationes Classis II, XV. Ljubljana, Academia scientiarium et artium Slovenica (in Druck veröffentlicht werden, deshalb werden sie hier nur so weit aufgenommen, wie das für das Verständnis des behandelten Gegen­ stands unbedingt notwendig ist. Eingehender werden Fragen erortert, die im erwähnten Artikel nicht behandelt werden, die jedoch auch für andere Linguisten interessant sein könnten. So ist der vorliegende Beitrag in vier Teile gegliedert

  6. Mit Vielfalt punkten Jahresbericht 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Birrer, Simon; Balmer, Oliver; Chevillat, Véronique; Graf, Roman; Hagist, Dominik; Jahrl, Ingrid; Rudmann, Christine; Jenny, Markus; Pfiffner, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Im zweiten Projektjahr „Mit Vielfalt punkten“ wurden wiederum auf 48 Betrieben Indikatoren für die Biodiversität in der Kulturlandschaft erhoben. Bei der Auswahl der Betriebe wurde 2010 vor allem darauf geachtet, dass die Bandbreite der Betriebe bezüglich Punktezahl vergrössert wurde. So wurden speziell Betriebe mit geringer oder sehr hoher Punktezahl ausgesucht. Die Feldaufnahmen erfolgten wiederum ohne wesentliche Probleme. Erste Auswertungen von den Aufnahmen 2009 und 2010 sind im Gang und...

  7. Rezidivmuster bei Kindern mit Medulloblastom

    OpenAIRE

    Blaßhofer, Sophia Katharina Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist es, das Rezidivmuster der Medulloblastome aufzuzeigen. Die Bedeutung prognostischer Faktoren, wie Therapie oder initiale Erkrankungsausdehnung soll im Zusammenhang mit dem Auftreten eines Rezidivs oder einer Progression näher untersucht werden. Es handelt sich um ein Patientenkollektiv von 40 Kindern mit einem Rezidiv eines Medulloblastoms. Die Patienten sind Teil des HIT 2000 Kollektivs, ein Patient war Teil der HIT ´91 Studie, 7 waren Beobachtungspatienten. ...

  8. Scalability of the plasma physics code GEM

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Bruce D; Hoenen, Olivier; Karmakar, Anumap; Fazendeiro, Luis

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a detailed weak scaling analysis of GEM, a 3D MPI-parallelised gyrofluid code used in theoretical plasma physics at the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics, IPP at Garching b. M\\"unchen, Germany. Within a PRACE Preparatory Access Project various versions of the code have been analysed on the HPC systems SuperMUC at LRZ and JUQUEEN at J\\"ulich Supercomputing Centre (JSC) to improve the parallel scalability of the application. The diagnostic tool Scalasca has been used to filter out suboptimal routines. The code uses the electromagnetic gyrofluid model which is a superset of magnetohydrodynamic and drift-Alfv\\'en microturbulance and also includes several relevant kinetic processes. GEM can be used with different geometries depending on the targeted use case, and has been proven to show good scalability when the computational domain is distributed amongst two dimensions. Such a distribution allows grids with sufficient size to describe small scale tokamak devices. In order to enable simulation of v...

  9. GEM-based thermal neutron beam monitors for spallation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, G., E-mail: Gabriele.Croci@cern.ch [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”—CNR, Milan (Italy); Sez. INFN Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Claps, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati—INFN, Frascati (Italy); Caniello, R. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”—CNR, Milan (Italy); Cazzaniga, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Grosso, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”—CNR, Milan (Italy); Murtas, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati—INFN, Frascati (Italy); Tardocchi, M.; Vassallo, E. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”—CNR, Milan (Italy); Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Sez. INFN Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Nowak, G.; Stoermer, M. [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (Germany)

    2013-12-21

    The development of new large area and high flux thermal neutron detectors for future neutron spallation sources, like the European Spallation Source (ESS) is motivated by the problem of {sup 3}He shortage. In the framework of the development of ESS, GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) is one of the detector technologies that are being explored as thermal neutron sensors. A first prototype of GEM-based thermal neutron beam monitor (bGEM) has been built during 2012. The bGEM is a triple GEM gaseous detector equipped with an aluminum cathode coated by 1μm thick B{sub 4}C layer used to convert thermal neutrons to charged particles through the {sup 10}B(n,{sup 7}Li)α nuclear reaction. This paper describes the results obtained by testing a bGEM detector at the ISIS spallation source on the VESUVIO beamline. Beam profiles (FWHM{sub x}=31 mm and FWHM{sub y}=36 mm), bGEM thermal neutron counting efficiency (≈1%), detector stability (3.45%) and the time-of-flight spectrum of the beam were successfully measured. This prototype represents the first step towards the development of thermal neutrons detectors with efficiency larger than 50% as alternatives to {sup 3}He-based gaseous detectors.

  10. Gems of combinatorial optimization and graph algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Skutella, Martin; Stiller, Sebastian; Wagner, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Are you looking for new lectures for your course on algorithms, combinatorial optimization, or algorithmic game theory?  Maybe you need a convenient source of relevant, current topics for a graduate student or advanced undergraduate student seminar?  Or perhaps you just want an enjoyable look at some beautiful mathematical and algorithmic results, ideas, proofs, concepts, and techniques in discrete mathematics and theoretical computer science?   Gems of Combinatorial Optimization and Graph Algorithms is a handpicked collection of up-to-date articles, carefully prepared by a select group of international experts, who have contributed some of their most mathematically or algorithmically elegant ideas.  Topics include longest tours and Steiner trees in geometric spaces, cartograms, resource buying games, congestion games, selfish routing, revenue equivalence and shortest paths, scheduling, linear structures in graphs, contraction hierarchies, budgeted matching problems, and motifs in networks.   This ...

  11. Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) at STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surrow, Bernd

    2012-10-01

    As part of our program to understand the internal structure of the proton, we have and will continue mid-rapidity (-1anti-d quarks to the proton spin. The gluon spin contribution can be probed through di-jet measurements. The Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) at STAR will enhance the charged sign separation for high pT tracks in the pseudo-rapidity range of 1.0<η<2.0, and therefore allows an extension of W and di-jet measurements at forward pseudo-rapidity. We will present the status of the FGT assembly and completion along with projections for future W and di-jet measurements. We will discuss studies that explore the possibilities of using the FGT to reconstruct jets in the forward direction.

  12. Summer Student Project: GEM Simulation and Gas Mixture Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Oviedo Perhavec, Juan Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This project is a numerical simulation approach to Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors design. GEMs are a type of gaseous ionization detector that have proposed as an upgrade for CMS muon endcap. The main advantages of this technology are high spatial and time resolution and outstanding aging resistance. In this context, fundamental physical behavior of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is analyzed using ANSYS and Garfield++ software coupling. Essential electron transport properties for several gas mixtures were computed as a function of varying electric and magnetic field using Garfield++ and Magboltz.

  13. Development and performance of large-scale triple GEM detectors for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bouhali, Othmane; Abi Akl, M.; Argamaingaud, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Barria, P.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Cai, J.; Calabria, C.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Celik, A.; Christiansen, J.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; De Lentdecker, G.; De Oliveira, R.; de Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Ferry, S.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Gutierrez, A.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.E.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, S.; Loddo, F.; Maerschalk, T.; Magazzu, G.; Maggi, M.; Maghrbi, Y.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Merlin, J.A.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Philipps, B.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ranieri, A.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Safonov, A.; Sakharov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Teng, H.; Turini, N.; Twigger, J.; Tytgat, M.; van Stenis, M.; Verhagen, E.; Yang, Y.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.

    2013-01-01

    The international CMS GEM collaboration is studying the feasibility of upgrading the CMS forward muon system by adding layers of triple GEM based detectors. After successful tests of small size tripe-GEM chambers in the period of 2010-2011, the collaboration has designed, built and tested full size GEM chambers for the upgrade purpose. We report on results from test beam and simulation that were conducted to study the performance of the GEM chambers.

  14. Bestimmungsgründe von Veränderungen in der Wertschöpfungskette für Obst und Gemüse

    OpenAIRE

    Stolper, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Die Wertschöpfungskette für frisches Obst und Gemüse in Deutschland hat sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten stark gewandelt. Die Konzentration im Einzelhandel, andere Konsumgewohnheiten und verbesserte Logistik haben Beschaffung und Angebot stark verändert. Daneben sind neue Stakeholder aufgetreten, die erfolgreich die Umsetzung ihrer Anliegen einforderten, was zu höheren Anforderungen an Produktsicherheit und Qualität führte. In der Wissenschaft beschäftigte man sich bislang nur wenig mit der We...

  15. Aktueller und erwünschter Obst- und Gemüsekonsum bei Studierenden: Wie motivierend ist die „5 am Tag“-Empfehlung?

    OpenAIRE

    Sieverding, Monika; Scheiter, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    Das Anliegen der Studie war es, die persönlichen Ziele bezüglich des Obst- und Gemüsekonsums bei männlichen und weiblichen Studierenden zu erfassen und zu überprüfen, ob die explizite Vorgabe der „5 am Tag“- Empfehlung einen Effekt auf diese persönlichen Ziele hat. Die Hälfte der teilnehmenden 482 Studierenden erhielt einen Fragebogen mit der „5 am Tag“-Empfehlung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Ernährung (DGE), die andere Hälfte erhielt einen Fragebogen ohne die Empfehlung. Abhängige Varia...

  16. MIT Space Engineering Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Miller, David W.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) at MIT, started in Jul. 1988, has completed two years of research. The Center is approaching the operational phase of its first testbed, is midway through the construction of a second testbed, and is in the design phase of a third. We presently have seven participating faculty, four participating staff members, ten graduate students, and numerous undergraduates. This report reviews the testbed programs, individual graduate research, other SERC activities not funded by the Center, interaction with non-MIT organizations, and SERC milestones. Published papers made possible by SERC funding are included at the end of the report.

  17. Google Books - Abzocken mit Rechtsbeistand

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhard Ruiss

    2010-01-01

    Wie sieht es eigentlich mit den Rechten bei "Google Books" aus? Vor rund einem Jahr wurden zum ersten Mal die Pläne von Google zur Veröffentlichung aller jemals erschienenen Bücher auf der Internetplattform "Google Book Search" bzw. mittlerweile "Google Bücher" auch außerhalb der USA bekannt. Bis zu diesem Zeitpunkt hielt man in den meisten anderen Ländern den Konflikt amerikanischer Autoren und Verlage mit dem US-Netzdienstleister "Google" über die Veröffentlichungsrechte für einen inner...

  18. The GEM (Gravity-Electro-Magnetism) Theory of Field Unification and its Application to Human Flight and Gravity Wave Production and Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, J. E.

    2005-02-01

    Theoretical progress on the GEM (Gravity-Electro-Magnetism) unification theory is summarized as applied to human flight and dynamically modified gravity fields and waves, as well as progress towards a GEMS (GEMStrong) theory. The GEM theory in the static Newtonian limit is the portion of the Kaluza-Klein action that is quadratic in first derivatives of the metric and in Poynting Flux that appears in the form of a VBE ("Vacuum Bernoulli Equation"). This shows Gravitational energy density to be equated to an EM dynamic pressure that is quadratic in the local Poynting Flux: g2/(2π G) + S2/(c2 L)= Constant, where g and S are the local gravity and Poynting vector magnitudes, respectively, and where L is the Lagrangian density of the vacuum EM field. The VBE can be used to understand anomalous weight loss reported in gyroscope experiments and to understand possible gravity modification for human flight. The GEM gravity modification theory is extended to predict a VHE (Vacuum Hall Effect). Methods for creating dynamic gravity fields via VHE for production and detection of high frequency gravity fields involve electric quadrapole fields normal to static magnetic fields. In terms of fundamental GEM theory, the important value of the proton to electron mass ratio Rm =1836 in the theory is linked, via the MIT Bag Model, to the value of the reciprocal fine structure constant: Rm=αs/α where αs =13.34 is the asymptotic Strong Force coupling constant. An experiment was performed using this theory that validated the anomalous gyroscope effects predicted by Kosyrev and others, that rotating EM fields appear to create lifting forces. The theory appears to offer insights into enhanced forms of propellant-less propulsion.

  19. Neutron beam monitor based on a boron-coated GEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian-Rong; LI Yi; SUN Zhi-Jia; LIU Ben; WANG Yan-Feng; YANG Gui-An; ZHOU Liang; XU Hong; DONG Jing; YANG Lei

    2011-01-01

    A new thermal neutron beam monitor with a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is developed to meet the needs of the next generation of neutron facilities. A prototype chamber has been constructed with two 100 mm×100 mm GEM foils. Enriched boron-10 is coated on one surface of the aluminum cathode plate as the neutron convertor. 96 channel pads with an area of 8 mm×8 mm each are used for fast signal readout.In order to study the basic characteristics of a boron-coated GEM, several irradiation tests were carried out with α source 239pu and neutron source 241Am(Be). The signal induced by the neutron source has a high signal-to-noise ratio. A clear image obtained from α source 239pu is presented, which shows that the neutron beam monitor based on a boron-coated GEM has a good two-dimensional imaging ability.

  20. Turnover Rate Simulation Using GEM Detector on Neutron Radiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN; Chao; LI; Xiao-mei; HU; Shou-yang; ZHOU; Jing; JIAN; Si-yu; BAI; Xin-zhan; YE; Li; ZHOU; Shu-hua

    2012-01-01

    <正>With the advantages of high counting rate, high resolution ratio and high compatibility, GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detector has becoming the hot topic in the field of gas detector. Using GEM on neutron radiography, we need a suitable neutron converter. By the action on the converter and ingoing neutron, the outgoing particles could be an alpha or proton, which are charged particles. The charged

  1. Investigation of GEM space point resolution for a TPC tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a leading candidate for the readout of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) at a future linear collider detector. This presentation describes measurements of the space point resolution of a GEM with relatively large hexagonal pads. Resolution of approximately 50 μm is achieved for 4.5 keV x-rays with two independent methods, using charge sharing and using induction signals

  2. GEM detector development for CBM experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A GEM-based detector system is being developed at VECC, Kolkata, to be used for muon tracking in the proposed Compressed Baryonic Experiment (CBM) at the upcoming FAIR facility at GSI, Darmstadt. We have built and successfully tested several multi-GEM prototypes with radioactive sources and cosmic muons. We report the details of the R and D at VECC in terms of fabrication, assembly and the subsequent tests of the prototype chambers

  3. Erfahrungen mit einem C-Pen

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Christoph

    2002-01-01

    Gemeinsamer Workshop von Universitaetsrechenzentrum und Professur Rechnernetze und verteilte Systeme der Fakultaet fuer Informatik der TU Chemnitz. Der Vortrag beginnt mit der Vorstellung eines C-Pen. Erfahrungen mit der praktischen Anwendung eines solchen "Computer-Stiftes" bilden den Hauptteil.

  4. Triple-GEM detector for the readout of a TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A time-projection-chamber (TPC) allows to do a full 3D track reconstruction in combination with a precise energy-loss measurement for particle identification. Up to now it was not possible to operate a TPC in a continuous mode due to back drifting secondary ions from the amplification stage. This can be overcome by using GEM foils for the amplification, exploiting the intrinsic ion back flow suppression of the GEM foils. A continuous read-out TPC is one option for the inner tracker of the future anti PANDA spectrometer which will be built at the new FAIR facility rate at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany). To check the operation of this solution a prototype detector of 300 mm diameter and a drift length of 725 mm with the GEM stack and readout detachable from the fieldcage was build. Tests for the commissioning of the GEM stack with an analog readout and an Fe55 source have been done. For the read-out of the GEM stack front-end electronics based on the AFTER/T2K chip were developed. The detector description, results of the GEM stack evaluation, front-end noise properties and some first experimental results achieved under realistic beam conditions within FOPI rate at GSI are presented in this contribution.

  5. Development of Tracking Detectors with industrially produced GEM Foils

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, F; Becker, U; Burns, L; Crary, D; Kearney, K; Keeler, G; Majka, R; Paton, K; Saini, G; Smirnov, N; Surrow, B; Woody, C

    2007-01-01

    The planned tracking upgrade of the STAR experiment at RHIC includes a large-area GEM tracker used to determine the charge sign of electrons and positrons produced from W+(-) decays. For such a large-scale project commercial availability of GEM foils is necessary. We report first results obtained with a triple GEM detector using GEM foils produced by Tech-Etch Inc. of Plymouth, MA, USA. Measurements of gain uniformity, long-term stability as well as measurements of the energy resolution for X-Rays are compared to results obtained with an identical detector using GEM foils produced at CERN. A quality assurance procedure based on optical tests using an automated high-resolution scanner has been established, allowing a study of the correlation of the observed behavior of the detector and the geometrical properties of the GEM foils. Detectors based on Tech-Etch and CERN produced foils both show good uniformity of the gain over the active area and stable gain after an initial charge-up period, making them well sui...

  6. Research and Development of Commercially Manufactured Large GEM Foils

    CERN Document Server

    Posik, M

    2014-01-01

    The recently completed Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) of the STAR experiment at RHIC took advantage of commercially produced GEM foils based on double-mask chemical etching techniques. With future experiments proposing detectors that utilize very large-area GEM foils, there is a need for commercially available GEM foils. Double-mask etching techniques pose a clear limitation in the maximum size. In contrast, single-mask techniques developed at CERN would allow one to overcome those limitations. We report on results obtained using 10 $\\times$ 10 cm$^2$ and 40$\\times$40 cm$^2$ GEM foils produced by Tech-Etch Inc. of Plymouth, MA, USA using single-mask techniques and thus the beginning for large GEM foil production on a commercial basis. A quality assurance procedure has been established through electrical and optical analyses via leakage current measurements and an automated high-resolution CCD scanner. The Tech-Etch foils show excellent electrical properties with leakage currents typically measured below 1 nA. The ...

  7. Still-Schlepper - Flughafenvorfeldfahrzeug mit wasserstoffbetriebenem Brennstoffzellenantrieb

    OpenAIRE

    Brinner, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Der Beitrag beschreibt einen neu entwickleten Gepäckschlepper der Fa. Still mit Elektroantrieb, bei dem als Energieversorgung eine modulares Brennstoffzellen-Hybridsystem mit Systemmodulen verschiedener Lizenznehmer des DLR eingesetzt wird. Das Brennstoffzellensystem wird mit Wasserstoff aus einem Hydridspeichersystem versorgt, dass wärmetechnisch mit dem Brensntoffzellen-Kühlsystem gekoppelt ist. Das Brennstoffzellensystem, Aufbau und Funktionsweise und die wärmetechnische Kopplung sind D...

  8. The AdMit Package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. David (David); L.F. Hoogerheide (Lennart); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis short note presents the R package AdMit which provides flexible functions to approximate a certain target distribution and it provides an efficient sample of random draws from it, given only a kernel of the target density function. The estimation procedure is fully automatic and thu

  9. Game Design Workshops mit Schulklassen

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Kaindel

    2015-01-01

    Im Oktober 2015 hat Christoph Kaindel gemeinsam mit Claudia Bayerl fünf Game Design Workshops in der wienXtra spielebox durchgeführt. Dabei haben Schulklassen der 3. bis 8. Schulstufe teilgenommen, die Gruppengrößen lagen zwischen 17 und 24. Der Projektleiter berichtet ...

  10. Game Design Workshops mit Schulklassen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kaindel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Im Oktober 2015 hat Christoph Kaindel gemeinsam mit Claudia Bayerl fünf Game Design Workshops in der wienXtra spielebox durchgeführt. Dabei haben Schulklassen der 3. bis 8. Schulstufe teilgenommen, die Gruppengrößen lagen zwischen 17 und 24. Der Projektleiter berichtet ...

  11. MIT January Operational Internship Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosanac, Natasha; DeVivero, Charlie; James, Jillian; Perez-Martinez, Carla; Pino, Wendy; Wang, Andrew; Willett, Ezekiel; Williams, Kwami

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the MIT January Operational Internship Experience (JOIE) program. The topics include: 1) Landing and Recovery; 2) Transportation; 3) Shuttle Processing; 4) Constellation Processing; 5) External Tank; 6) Launch Pad; 7) Ground Operations; 8) Hypergolic Propellants; 9) Environmental; 10) Logistics; 11) Six Sigma; 12) Systems Engineering; and 13) Human Factors.

  12. 3D Observation of GEMS by Electron Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Junya; Miyake, Akira; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Messenger, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous silicates in chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) coming from comets are dominated by glass with embedded metal and sulfides (GEMS). GEMS grains are submicron-sized rounded objects (typically 100-500) nm in diameter) with anaometer-sized (10-50 nm) Fe-Ni metal and sulfide grains embedded in an amorphous silicate matrix. Several formation processes for GEMS grains have been proposed so far, but these models are still being debated [2-5]. Bradley et al. proposed that GEMS grains are interstellar silicate dust that survived various metamorphism or alteration processes in the protoplanetary disk and that they are amorphiation products of crystalline silicates in the interstellar medium by sputter-deposition of cosmic ray irradiation, similar to space weathering [2,4]. This consideration is based on the observation of nano-sized crystals (approximately 10 nm) called relict grains in GEMS grains and their shapes are pseudomorphs to the host GEMS grains. On the other hand, Keller and Messenger proposed that most GEMS formed in the protoplanetary disk as condensates from high temperature gas [3,5]. This model is based on the fact that most GEMS grains have solar isotopic compositions and have extremely heterogeneous and non-solar elemental compositions. Keller and Messenger (2011) also reported that amorphous silicates in GEMS grains are surrounded by sulfide grains, which formed as sulfidization of metallic iron grains located on the GEMS surface. The previous studies were performed with 2D observation by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or scanning TEM (STEM). In order to understand the structure of GEMS grains described above more clearly, we observed 3D structure of GEMS grains by electron tomography using a TEM/STEM (JEM-2100F, JEOL) at Kyoto University. Electron tomography gives not only 3D structures but also gives higher spatial resolution (approximately a few nm) than that in conventional 2D image, which is restricted by

  13. Geothermal elastometric materials (GEM) program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasuna, A.R.; Bilyeu, G.D.; Davis, D.L.; Sedwick, R.A.; Stephens, C.A.; Veal, G.R.

    1979-07-01

    The primary program objective, to develop a geothermal packer elastomer to withstand 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) geothermal brine with 300 ppM H/sub 2/S, 1000 ppM CO/sub 2/, 25,000 ppM NaCl in aqueous solution for 24 hours, was successfully accomplished. In fact the requirement for one elastomer was exceeded, compounds from four elastomeric polymer systems were successfully developed to meet the GEM requirements providing good flexibility for various situations. Several secondary spin-offs also resulted. The compounds were developed for the casing packer seal application and it was demonstrated that these compounds are directly applicable to the static O-ring and other elastomer applications in similarly unusually severe environments. There is also indication based on drill bits seal tests that the basic compounds will be adaptable to high-temperature dynamic seal applications. Another secondary spin-off is a different conceptual approach to the thermal casing packer problem. This approach concentrates on minimizing the stresses subjected on the sealing element. Since it is fundamentally different, it has a good chance of advancing thermal packer capability in a revolutionary manner as opposed to an evolutionary manner.

  14. Testbeam results for full-size triple GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Ram Krishna

    2015-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will provide exceptional instantaneous and integrated luminosities. The forward region $\\mid \\eta \\mid \\ge 1.5$ of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector will face extremely high particle rates in tens of $KHz/cm^2$ and hence it will affect the momentum resolution and longevity of the muon detectors. To overcome these issues the CMS-GEM collaboration has proposed to install new large size rate capable Triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors in the forward region of CMS muon system. The first set of Triple GEM detectors will be installed in the GE1/1 region $(1.5 \\le \\eta \\le 2.2)$ of muon endcap during the long shutdown 2 of the LHC. Towards this goal, full size CMS Triple GEM prototype chambers have been fabricated and put under the test beam at the CERN SPS test beam facility. The GEM detectors were operated with two gas mixtures $Ar/CO_2$ (70/30) and $Ar/CO_2/CF_4$ (40/15/45). In 2014, good quality data was collected during test beam campaigns. In this paper, th...

  15. Development of a high rate TPC with GEM readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for high rate experiments has been developed. A gating grid can not be used to reduce the ion backflow. Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) combine the requirements of an excellent spatial resolution with an intrinsic suppression of ions. These key features of a GEM allow a TPC to maintain its excellence performance even in an ungated continuous mode. A large GEM TPC prototype with a diameter of 30.8 cm, a drift length of 72.8 cm and 10.000 readout channels has been built and tested within the low rate FOPI experiment at the GSI. The operation at high interaction rates with overlapping events in a single drift frame requires a continuous readout of the TPC including online feature extraction and and data compression. The reconstruction software then has to identify physics and filter out background events. A pattern recognition software has been developed and tested within the PANDA framework to cope with the maximal track density of 0.5 cm/cm3 in the TPC. It provides excellent information about kinked tracks or secondary vertices in the TPC to contribute to an online event selection. The concept of a GEM TPC for high rate applications, first results of the GEM TPC prototype within FOPI as well as an outlook for potential application of this concept in other high rate applications are presented.

  16. The Forward GEM Tracker of STAR at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, F; Fatemi, R; Hasell, D; Kelsey, J; Majka, R; Page, B; Plesko, M; Underwood, D; Smirnov, N; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H; Surrow, B; Visser, G

    2008-01-01

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is in the process of designing and constructing a forward tracking system based on triple GEM technology. This upgrade is necessary to give STAR the capability to reconstruct and identify the charge sign of W bosons over an extended rapidity range through their leptonic decay mode into an electron (positron) and a neutrino. This will allow a detailed study of the flavor-separated spin structure of the proton in polarized p + p collisions uniquely available at RHIC. The Forward GEM Tracker FGT will consist of six triple GEM disks with an outer radius of ~39 cm and an inner radius of ~10.5 cm, arranged along the beam pipe, covering the pseudo-rapidity range from 1.0 to 2.0 over a wide range of collision vertices. The GEM foils will be produced by Tech-Etch, Inc. Beam tests with test detectors using 10 cm x 10 cm Tech-Etch GEM foils and a two dimensional orthogonal strip readout have demonstrated a spatial r...

  17. Repair - Beispiel: Mobile mit Halogenleuchten

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuer, Simon; Eich, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Das RTeJournal möchte in seiner Rubrik:“ Repair“, Berichte aufnehmen, in denen die Reparatur oder der Ersatz von Bauteilen durch Additive Manufacturing (AM) Lösungen aufgenommen wird. Einmal als Anregung sich damit auseinander zu setzen und gleichzeitig auch als Dienstleistung beim Bedarf von Reparaturen. Es würde uns freuen, wenn Sie uns Beispiele mit einem kleinen Reparaturbericht zusenden könnten, die zum Einsatz von Additive Manufacturing führten. Email:

  18. Medical Wellness: Zukunftsmarkt mit Hindernissen

    OpenAIRE

    Dörpinghaus, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    In den letzten Jahren hat die steigende privat finanzierte Nachfrage nach Produkten und Dienstleistungen rund um die Themenfelder Gesundheit und Wohlfühlen einen regelrechten Wellnessboom ausgelöst. Zunehmend geht die Tendenz in Richtung der gezielten Prävention und Gesundheitsförderung. Daraus hat sich das Segment Medical Wellness gebildet, welches medizinische Leistungen mit Wohlfühlangeboten vereint. Medizinische Wellnessleistungen werden sowohl klassisch von Ärzten und Kliniken wie auch v...

  19. Relazione tecnica su DSpace (MIT)

    OpenAIRE

    De Robbio, Antonella

    2002-01-01

    This report presents Dspace that is a product realized in 2000 between Libraries of MIT (Massachussetts Institute Technology) and Hewlett-Packard Company relating to building a repository. It is able to support long-term memory, capturing and archiving of scholastic documents, realized from all MIT’s departments and free access by WWW, too. Furthermore, Dspace supports distribution and self-preservation of a different kinds of materials such as texts, videos, sounds, pictures, software and...

  20. MITS instrumentation error analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MITS (Machine Interface Test System) installation consists of three types of process monitoring and control instrumentation: flow, pressure, and temperature. An effort has been made to assess the various instruments used and assign a value to the accuracy that can be expected. Efforts were also made to analyze the calibration and installation procedures to be used and determine how these might effect the system accuracy

  1. Tragverhalten von Textilbeton mit Kurzfasern

    OpenAIRE

    Brameshuber, Wolfgang; Hinzen, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Das Tragverhalten von Textilbeton kann durch den Einsatz von Kurzfasern erheblich verbessert werden. Untersuchungen zeigen eine Anhebung der Erstrisslast, ein dehnungsverfestigendes Verhalten, eine Verfeinerung des Rissbildes sowie eine Anhebung der maximalen Tragfähigkeit. Unklar sind bisher noch die genauen Mechanismen, die eine gezielte Einstellung des Tragverhaltens ermöglichen. Der Beitrag fasst die Untersuchungen zu den einzelnen Bereichen der Spannungs- ehnungslinie von Textilbeton mit...

  2. MitWirkung - Zukunft gestalten

    OpenAIRE

    Säck-da Silva, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    Die Diskussion in den Planungswissenschaften beschreibt den Paradigmenwechsel vom so genannten DEAD-Model (Decide-Announce-Defend) zum Tripple-D-Model (Dialogue-Decide-Deliver) und beschäftigt sich intensiv mit dem Thema Governance. Komplexe Planungsaufgaben brauchen eine Vielfalt an Lösungsideen unterschiedlicher gesellschaftlicher Gruppen. Planung verfolgt u. a. die Umsetzung der Ziele einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung, die die Einbeziehung der Öffentlichkeit (Zivilgesellschaft, Unternehmen un...

  3. Google Books - Abzocken mit Rechtsbeistand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Ruiss

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wie sieht es eigentlich mit den Rechten bei "Google Books" aus? Vor rund einem Jahr wurden zum ersten Mal die Pläne von Google zur Veröffentlichung aller jemals erschienenen Bücher auf der Internetplattform "Google Book Search" bzw. mittlerweile "Google Bücher" auch außerhalb der USA bekannt. Bis zu diesem Zeitpunkt hielt man in den meisten anderen Ländern den Konflikt amerikanischer Autoren und Verlage mit dem US-Netzdienstleister "Google" über die Veröffentlichungsrechte für einen inneramerikanischen Streit. Erst durch die gerichtliche Anordnung des mit der Streitbeilegung beschäftigten New Yorker Richters Denny Chin zur weltweiten Bekanntmachung der konkreten Pläne von Google im Februar 2009 zeigte sich das gesamte Ausmaß der Absichten Googles. Google hatte in einem gerichtlichen Vergleichsdokument ("Google Book Settlement", das von Chin genehmigt werden sollte, sämtliche im Buchhandel erhältliche und in Bibliotheken archivierte Buchtitel weltweit aufgelistet, um sie nach gerichtlicher Genehmigung im Volltext in seinem Büchersuchdienst abrufbar zu machen. Inklusive weiterer Veröffentlichungen und Verbreitungen der Bücher zu seinem Nutzen und Gewinn wie u.a. durch Downloads, Print-On-Demand-Ausgaben, E-Books, Datenbank-Einspeisungen u.v.a.m.

  4. R&D on the Gem Readout of the Tesla TPC

    OpenAIRE

    Hamann, Markus

    2003-01-01

    Ongoing studies for the TESLA TPC with GEM readout at DESY/Hamburg University are presented. They include basic GEM performances, tracking and the determination of the resolution using different pad sizes and geometries as well as ion feedback measurements.

  5. GEM400: A front-end chip based on capacitor-switch array for pixel-based GEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upgrade of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) needs two-dimensional position-sensitive detection equipment to improve the experimental performance. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector, in particular, pixel-based GEM detector has good application prospects in the domain of synchrotron radiation. The read-out of larger scale pixel-based GEM detector is difficult for the high density of the pixels (PAD for collecting electrons). In order to reduce the number of cables, this paper presents a read-out scheme for pixel-based GEM detector, which is based on System-in-Package technology and ASIC technology. We proposed a circuit structure based on capacitor switch array circuit, and design a chip GEM400, which is a 400 channels ASIC. The proposed circuit can achieve good stability and low power dissipation. The chip is implemented in a 0.35μm CMOS process. The basic functional circuitry in ths chip includes analog switch, analog buffer, voltage amplifier, bandgap and control logic block, and the layout of this chip takes 5mm × 5mm area. The simulation results show that the chip can allow the maximum amount of input charge 70pC on the condition of 100pF external integrator capacitor. Besides, the chip has good channel uniformity (INL is better than 0.1%) and lower power dissipation.

  6. Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM), foil holes deformation studies

    CERN Document Server

    Suhaj, Adam; CERN. Geneva. PH Department

    2015-01-01

    GEM detectors play an important role in the upcoming high-luminosity LHC upgrade in 2018 where they will be exposed to high doses of radiation in the muon endcap region. A series of tensile tests were performed on neutron irradiated and non-irradiated GEM foils where the shape of the holes was thoroughly examined. It was found that the GEM foil does not deform much at lower loads but the deformation gets exponentially bigger after applying more than a 60 N force. Both sets of samples behaved similarly at lower loads up to 40 N after which the holes of the irradiated samples started to deform more rapidly than the non-irradiated ones. The failure point of the non-irradiated samples occurred consistently at around 135 N while the irradiated samples experienced failure at around 85 N with two outliers failing at 120 and 135 N.

  7. Optical scanning system for quality control of GEM-foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optical scanning system was commissioned and further developed in the Detector Laboratory of Helsinki Institute of Physics and University of Helsinki. It was designed to automatically scan, perform on-line analysis and to classify the overall quality of GEM-foils especially of the GEM-TPC detectors for Super-FRS at FAIR. The optical scanning system consists of precision positioning table, lighting, optics and operating system with analysis software. It has active scanning area of 95×95 cm2 and it can study this area with the minimum resolution of 128 lp/mm. Performance of the system and first results from the GEM-foil uniformity and quality analysis are presented.

  8. Development of single mask GEM foils in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are various techniques available around the globe for making punch through holes for Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs), such as Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). The GEM foils consists of 5 μm of Cu clad on both the sides of 50 μm polymide (PMMA/kapton) (5/50/5). At present these foils are developed in South Korea without having any adhesive between the Cu and polymide. The available techniques range from chemical etching, reactive plasma etching and laser etching. However, for GEM detectors, having an active area upto 5000 cm2, the chemical etching process using a Single Mask has been developed at CERN which is faster from the viewpoint of mass production of such foils for the upgrades which are foreseen in a couple of years with the Large Hadron Collider facility at CERN

  9. Triple GEM Detectors for the Forward Tracker in STAR

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank; Kohl, Michael; Majka, Richard; Plesko, Miroslav; Underwood, David; Sakuma, Tai; Smirnov, Nikolai; Spinka, Harold; Surrow, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Future measurements of the flavor-separated spin structure of the proton via parity-violating W boson production at RHIC require an upgrade of the forward tracking system of the STAR detector. This upgrade will allow the reconstruction of the charge sign of electrons and positrons produced from decaying W bosons. A design based on six large area triple GEM disks using GEM foils produced by Tech-Etch Inc. has emerged as a cost-effective solution to provide the necessary tracking precision. We report first results from a beam test of three test detectors using Tech-Etch produced GEM foils and a laser etched two dimensional strip readout. The detectors show good operational stability, high efficiency and a spacial resolution of around 70 um or better, exceeding the requirements for the forward tracking upgrade. The influence of the angle of incidence of the particles on the spatial resolution of the detectors has also been studied in detail.

  10. Harnack Inequality and Applications for Infinite-Dimensional GEM Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Shui; Wang, Feng-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The dimension-free Harnack inequality and uniform heat kernel upper/lower bounds are derived for a class of infinite-dimensional GEM processes, which was introduced in \\cite{FW} to simulate the two-parameter GEM distributions. In particular, the associated Dirichlet form satisfies the super log-Sobolev inequality which strengthens the log-Sobolev inequality derived in \\cite{FW}. To prove the main results, explicit Harnack inequality and super Poincar\\'e inequality are established for the one-...

  11. Simulation of the GEM central tracker performance using GEANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GEM (Gamma Electron Muon) central tracker (one of the proposed detectors for the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC)) has been simulated using the high energy physics Monte Carlo code GEANT. The performance of the GEM central tracker in terms of momentum, impact parameter, and z vertex resolution has been determined. The resolutions will be presented for both the full tracker which includes a silicon portion and an IPC portion and for the 1034 configuration which is comprised of only IPC chambers. The resolution of electrons vs. muons will also be presented

  12. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Wasseraufbereitung mit getauchten Membranen

    OpenAIRE

    Seidel, Tosca

    2004-01-01

    Die vorliegende Ausgabe beschäftigt sich mit dem Thema vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Wasseraufbereitung mit getauchten Membranen. Es werden drei Verfahren zur Aufbereitung von Oberflächenwasser zu Trinkwasser unter technischen, ökonomischen und ökologischen Gesichtspunkten verglichen. Das Verfahren der Ultrafiltration mit getauchten Membranen wurde dazu für drei Monate in einem kleintechnischen Pilotversuch an der Aare, Schweiz, getestet und hinsichtlich der Filtrationsleistung unter Varia...

  13. Konzepte zur rekonstruktiven Bildgebung mit hochfrequentem Ultraschall

    OpenAIRE

    Opretzka, Jörn

    2011-01-01

    Diese Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit Verfahren, mit denen die Bildgebungseigenschaften hochfrequenter Ultraschall- Abbildungssysteme auf Basis sphärisch fokussierender Ultraschallwandler verbessert werden können. Bei der Technik des Limited Angle Spatial Compounding werden aus verschiedenen Blickwinkeln aufgenommene Echosignale nach Demodulation überlagert. Mittels der neuartigen Fokussierungstechnik PBF-SAFT werden die Echosignale zunächst mit dem Ziel einer tiefenunabhängigen Auflö...

  14. Squaraine mit verlängerter Konjugation

    OpenAIRE

    Petermann, Ralf

    2001-01-01

    Diese Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und Untersuchung von stilbenyl- und styrylsubstituierten Squarainen.Als Squaraine bezeichnet man 1,3-disubstituierte Quadratsäurederivate. Symmetrische Squaraine werden durch Kondensation elektronenreicher Aromaten mit Quadratsäure erhalten. Die unsymmetrischen Squaraine erhält man durch Umsetzung von elektronenreichen Aromaten mit Semiquadratsäuren.Squaraine zeichnen sich durch ihre intensive Absorption im sichtbaren Bereich und im nahen IR aus....

  15. Transacylierungen mit Acylderivaten des 4-Pyridons

    OpenAIRE

    Effenberger, Franz; Bessey, Eberhard

    1980-01-01

    Mit N-Acyl-4-pyridonen (2a, b) sowie mit 4-(Benzoyloxy)pyridin (3a) werden in Methylenchlorid oder Chloroform aliphatische und aromatische Amine sowie Thiole glatt zu den Amiden (4 - 6) und Thioestern (7, 8) acyliert. Primäre und sekundäre Alkohole reagieren langsamer, tert-Butylalkohol nur noch mit 3a unter Basenkatalyse sowie mit den reaktiveren N-(Trihalogenacetyl)-4-pyridonen 3b, c zu den tert-Butylestern 12. N-Acetyl-4-pyridon (2a) besitzt ein deutlich höheres Acylierungspotential als N-...

  16. The MIT Stata Center dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Fallon, M; Johannsson, H.; Kaess, M.; Leonard, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a large scale dataset of vision (stereo and RGB-D), laser and proprioceptive data collected over an extended duration by a Willow Garage PR2 robot in the 10 story MIT Stata Center. As of September 2012 the dataset comprises over 2.3 TB, 38 h and 42 km (the length of a marathon). The dataset is of particular interest to robotics and computer vision researchers interested in long-term autonomy. It is expected to be useful in a variety of research areas—robotic mapping (long-...

  17. Mit Vielfalt punkten Jahresbericht 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Birrer, Simon; Balmer, Oliver; Chevillat, Véronique; Fischer, Judith; Graf, Roman; Jenny, Markus; Pfiffner, Lukas; Rudmann, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Das erste Projektjahr „Mit Vielfalt punkten“ lief vielversprechend. Auf 48 Betrieben wurden die Biodiversität und sozio-ökonomische Werte erhoben. Die Hälfte aller Betriebsleiter erhielten eine gesamtbetriebliche Beratung, die andere Hälfte sind unsere Vergleichsbetriebe. Alle Methoden haben sich bewährt und führten zu keinen grösseren Problemen. Wie erwartet, fanden wir auf den 48 Betrieben zwar eine grosse Artenzahl, doch waren gefährdete und besondere Arten selten. Wir erwarten, dass diese...

  18. On algorithmic optimization of histogramming functions for GEM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Rafał D.; Czarski, Tomasz; Kolasinski, Piotr; Poźniak, Krzysztof T.; Linczuk, Maciej; Byszuk, Adrian; Chernyshova, Maryna; Juszczyk, Bartlomiej; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Wojenski, Andrzej; Zabolotny, Wojciech

    2015-09-01

    This article concerns optimization methods for data analysis for the X-ray GEM detector system. The offline analysis of collected samples was optimized for MATLAB computations. Compiled functions in C language were used with MEX library. Significant speedup was received for both ordering-preprocessing and for histogramming of samples. Utilized techniques with obtained results are presented.

  19. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, T. R.

    2011-01-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) was selected by NASA for flight in 2014 to make a sensitive search for X-ray polarization from a wide set of source classes, including stellar black holes, Seyfert galaxies and quasars, blazars, rotation and accretion-powered pulsars, magnetars, shell supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae. Among the primary scientific objectives are determining the effects of the spin of black holes and the geometry of supermassive black hole accretion, determining the configurations of the magnetic fields and the X-ray emission of magnetars, and determining the magnetic structure of the supernova shocks in which cosmic rays are accelerated. GEMS will observe 23 targets during a 16 month prime mission, in observations that will be able to reach predicted levels of polarization. The mission can be extended to provide a guest observer phase. The GEMS instrument has time projection chamber polarimeters with high 2-10 keV efficiency at the focus of thin foil mirrors. The 4.5 m focal length mirrors will be deployed on an extended boom. The spacecraft with the instrument is rotated with a period of about 10 minutes to enable measurement and correction of systematic errors. A small Bragg reflection soft X-ray experiment takes advantage of this rotation to obtain a measurement at 0.5 keV. The design of the GEMS instrument and the mission, the expected performance and the planned science program will be discussed.

  20. Entrepreneurship in Ireland 2012: global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM)

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzsimons, Paula; O'Gorman, Colm

    2013-01-01

    Report on entrepreneurship in Ireland in the year 2012. Data used is the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data for Ireland and selected comparative countries. The report profiles entrepreneurs, reports on the rate of entrepreneurship in Ireland, discusses female entrepreneurship, and positions these results in the context of Irish entrepreneurship policy.

  1. CMS Technical Design Report for the Muon Endcap GEM Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Colaleo, A; Sharma, A; Tytgat, M; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2015-01-01

    This report describes both the technical design and the expected performance of the Phase-II upgrade, using Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, of the first endcap station of the CMS muon system. The upgrade is targeted for the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC and is designed to improve the muon trigger and tracking performance at high luminosity. The GEM detectors will add redundancy to the muon system in the 1.6 < |η| < 2.2 pseudorapidity region, where the amount of detection layers is lowest while the background rates are highest and the bending of the muon trajectories due to the CMS magnetic field is small. GEM detectors have been identified as a suitable technology to operate in the high radiation environment present in that region. The first muon endcap station will be instrumented with a double layer of triple-GEM chambers in the 1.6 < |η| < 2.2 region. The detector front-end electronics uses the custom designed VFAT3 chip to provide both fast input for the level-1 muon trigger ...

  2. Development of a GEM-TPC for high rate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) has to be further developed to be suitable for high rate experiments. The application of a TPC at high interaction rates with overlapping events in a single drift frame requires a continuous readout. Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) combine the requirements of an excellent spatial resolution and particle identification by measurements of specific energy loss with an intrinsic suppression of ions. These key features of a GEM allow a TPC to maintain its excellence performance even in an ungated continuous mode. A large GEM TPC prototype with an outer diameter of 30.8 cm, an inner diameter of 10.4 cm and a drift length of 72.8 cm and 10.000 readout channels has been built and tested within the low rate FOPI experiment at the GSI. The TPC detector, preliminary performance studies of the GEM TPC prototype within FOPI as well as an outlook for a potential application of this concept are presented.

  3. First results from the ALICE GEM TPC prototype test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device for tracking and charged particle identification in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. After the second long shutdown in 2018, the LHC will deliver Pb beams colliding at an interaction rate of about 50 kHz, which is about a factor of 100 above the present readout rate of the TPC. In order to make full use of this luminosity, a major upgrade of the TPC is required. It is foreseen to replace the existing MWPC-based readout with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils. A GEM TPC can exploit the intrinsic suppression of back-drifting ions from the amplification stage to reduce the problem of drift-field distortions in an ungated operation. The latter is essential for a continuous readout required for all central detectors of ALICE after the upgrade. A prototype of an ALICE Inner Read-Out Chamber (IROC) was equipped with three large-size GEM foils as amplification stage to demonstrate the feasibility of this solution. The GEM IROC was installed within a test field cage with a drift length of 115 mm and commissioned with radioactive sources. The dE/dx resolution of the prototype was evaluated in a test beam campaign using protons, pions and electrons (1 to 6 GeV/c) at the CERN PS. Preliminary results from these measurements are discussed in this contribution.

  4. Particle identification with a large GEM-TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with its low material budget constitutes an almost ideal device for 3-dimensional tracking of charged particles. The employment of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils for gas amplification promises to remedy the former limitation of TPCs to low-rate experiments: The intrinsic ion backflow suppression features of GEMs make traditional gating structures dispensable and thus open the possibility of a continuous operation of TPCs even in high-rate environments. A large prototype (75 cm length, 15 cm radius) of such a GEM-TPC with ∝10000 readout channels has been built and successfully used in a physics campaign (π-beam on different targets) at the FOPI experiment at GSI, Darmstadt. From the recorded data, charged particle tracks entering the GEM-TPC are reconstructed using a fully 3-dimensional clustering algorithm and then matched with the surrounding FOPI tracking detectors. In this talk we present a first analysis of the specific energy loss (dE/dx) of Pions, Kaons and Protons as a function of the particle momentum. Energy loss resolutions as well as separation power for particle identification are discussed.

  5. Status of triple GEM muon chambers for the LHCb experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muon triggering and offline muon identification are fundamental requirements for the LHCb experiment, which will begin to take data at the start-up of the LHC machine. The identification of muon particles and an estimate of the transverse momentum (ΔpT/pT∼20%) in the near-beam area of the first muon station is achieved by a set of 12 double triple-GEM detectors which covers an area of about 0.6m2. Since b-quark production is peaked in the forward direction, GEM detectors will trigger about 20% of muons from B-particle decays. In this paper the results of the detector quality checks on anode and cathode panels planarity, GEM foil HV test, chamber gas leak and gain uniformity are presented. The performance of a chamber, composed of two triple-GEM detectors logically OR-ed, has been measured in a recent test beam at the SPS, with particle bunches with a time structure of 25 ns similar to the LHC running conditions. In this test the final front-end electronics and the final LHCb DAQ have been used. This result demonstrates that the detector can achieve the required performances (efficiency larger than 96%) at a detector gain of 4000, thus ensuring a long detector lifetime in the harsh LHCb environment

  6. MicroGEMS employs the power of the processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MicroGEMS dosimetric stations (Great Britain), designed for the control of γ-radiation intensity in the areas of location of NPP and other nuclear industry enterprises, are described. The stations are adapted for the creation of annular monitoring systems controlled by computers from a single centre over telemetric communication lines

  7. Property of LCP-GEM in Pure Dimethyl Ether at Low Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Y; Tamagawa, T.; Kitaguchi, T; Yamada, S.; Iwakiri, W.; Asami, F.; Yoshikawa, A.; Kaneko, K.; Enoto, T.; Hayato, A.; Kohmura, T.; team, the GEMS/XACT

    2013-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the gain properties of a gas electron multiplier (GEM) foil in pure dimethyl ether (DME) at low pressures. The GEM is made from copper- clad liquid crystal polymer insulator (LCP-GEM) designed for space use, and is applied to a time projection chamber filled with low-pressure DME gas to observe the linear polarization of cosmic X-rays. We have measured gains of a 100 um-thick LCP-GEM as a function of the voltage between GEM electrodes at various gas pr...

  8. Desinfektion mit hydrodynamischer Kavitation und Chlordioxid

    OpenAIRE

    Maslak, Dominik

    2010-01-01

    Die Kombination von hydrodynamisch erzeugter Kavitation mit Desinfektionsmitteln ist ein neuer Ansatz zur effektiveren Wasserentkeimung. Zur Erzeugung oszillierender Kavitationsblasen wurde ein neuer Kavitationsreaktor (Mikrogitter mit Nachlaufdüse) entwickelt und reaktionstechnisch charakterisiert. Gegenüber der üblich verwendeten Lochblende wird hiermit besonders der Energieeintrag reduziert. Es konnte am Beispiel des Bakteriums Escherichia coli gezeigt werden, dass bei Kombination von hydr...

  9. Koronarbefunde bei Patienten mit Diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Säly Ch

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Patienten mit Diabetes mellitus haben ein etwa 3fach erhöhtes Risiko für koronare Herzerkrankung, und die koronare Herzerkrankung hat bei diesen Patienten eine schlechtere Prognose. Die Ursachen dafür sind nicht vollständig klar, zahlreiche Studien belegen aber morphologische Besonderheiten der koronaren Atherosklerose beim Patienten mit Diabetes, die zu dessen schlechter Prognose beitragen. Während die klassische Lehrbuchmeinung einer diffusen, distal lokalisierten Atherosklerose der Koronargefäße beim Patienten mit Diabetes mellitus eher für den Patienten mit Typ-1-Diabetes zu gelten scheint, stehen bei der koronaren Herzkrankheit des Patienten mit Typ-2-Diabetes andere morphologische Charakteristika, z. B. ein Muster von multiplen Koronarstenosen, im Vordergrund.

  10. Optimization of the gas flow in a GEM chamber and development of the GEM foil stretcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noto Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The gas electron multiplier technology has been proven to tolerate rat e larger than 50 MHz/cm2 without noticeable aging and to provide sub resolution on working chambers up to 45 cm x 45 cm. A new gas electron multiplier-based tracker is under development for the Hall A upgrade at Jefferson Lab. The chambers of the tracker have been designed in a modular way: each chamber consists of 3 adjacent gas electron multiplier modules, with an active area of 40 cm x 50 cm each. We optimized the gas flow inside the gas electron multiplier module volume, using the COMSOL physics simulator framework; the COMSOL-based analysis includes the design of the inlet and outlet pipes and the maximization of the uniformity of the gas flow. We have defined the procedures for the assembling of the gas electron multiplier modules and designed a mechanical system (TENDIGEM that will be used to stretch the GEM foils at the proper tension (few kg/cm; the TENDIGEM is based on the original design developed at LNF.

  11. Analysis of GEM properties and development of a GEM support structure for the ILD time projection chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the concept of the International Large Detector (ILD), developed for the International Linear Collider (ILC) a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is envisaged as main tracking detector. Such gaseous detectors have to be equipped with amplification devices in order to enlarge the amount of charge, which is set free by ionization caused by traversing charged particles. Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs) will be used in the ILD TPC as amplification stage. In this thesis, Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) - one specific MPGD species - are analyzed concerning various properties. Effective gains and energy resolutions are compared for GEM foils produced by different manufacturers. A good understanding of these observables is obtained by interpretation of the results with the help of geometrical parameters. Height profile measurements of GEM foils have been performed for the first time and the impact of non perfect flat GEMs is analyzed, especially on dE/dx determination and drift field quality. The results emphasize the need of a flat installation of GEMs in TPCs. As a consequence, a new mounting device has been developed to ensure flatness and to provide a method to cover large readout areas, as in the ILD TPC, by introducing the least possible amount of dead material into the detector. The developed structure has been tested in a TPC protoype, taking cosmic muon data. The influence of the mounting on track reconstruction, single point resolution, tracking efficiency and dE/dx measurements is quantified. The developed mounting is applicable in a large scale TPC, if some design considerations are taken into account. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of GEM properties and development of a GEM support structure for the ILD time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallermann, Lea

    2010-04-15

    In the concept of the International Large Detector (ILD), developed for the International Linear Collider (ILC) a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is envisaged as main tracking detector. Such gaseous detectors have to be equipped with amplification devices in order to enlarge the amount of charge, which is set free by ionization caused by traversing charged particles. Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs) will be used in the ILD TPC as amplification stage. In this thesis, Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) - one specific MPGD species - are analyzed concerning various properties. Effective gains and energy resolutions are compared for GEM foils produced by different manufacturers. A good understanding of these observables is obtained by interpretation of the results with the help of geometrical parameters. Height profile measurements of GEM foils have been performed for the first time and the impact of non perfect flat GEMs is analyzed, especially on dE/dx determination and drift field quality. The results emphasize the need of a flat installation of GEMs in TPCs. As a consequence, a new mounting device has been developed to ensure flatness and to provide a method to cover large readout areas, as in the ILD TPC, by introducing the least possible amount of dead material into the detector. The developed structure has been tested in a TPC protoype, taking cosmic muon data. The influence of the mounting on track reconstruction, single point resolution, tracking efficiency and dE/dx measurements is quantified. The developed mounting is applicable in a large scale TPC, if some design considerations are taken into account. (orig.)

  13. Positive Werkzeuge mit hohem IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luik, Matthias

    Fräsen ist ein Verfahren, auf welches im modernen Produktionsprozess nicht verzichtet werden kann. Dabei stellt die zunehmende Komplexität der zu fertigenden Bauteile ganz neue Herausforderungen an ein Werkzeug. Konnten früher Bauteile nur mit hohem Aufwand durch Erodieren oder Außenräumen hergestellt werden, müssen heute bereits Fräswerkzeuge für solche Bearbeitungsaufgaben aus Zeitund Kostengründen eingesetzt werden. Dies führt dazu, dass viele Bauteile heute in einer Aufspannung bearbeitbar sind, welche früher nur durch mehrmaliges Umspannen erzeugt werden konnten. Um Bearbeitungszeiten und -kosten dabei gering zu halten, müssen aber dennoch universelle Werkzeuge eingesetzt werden, welche für verschiedenste Bearbeitungsaufgaben ausgelegt sind.

  14. Kinderwunschbehandlung mit SERMs und Aromatasehemmern bei Frauen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bals-Pratsch M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selektive Östrogenrezeptormodulatoren (SERMs und Aromatasehemmer (AI werden hauptsächlich in der Behandlung des Mammakarzinoms eingesetzt. Beide Wirkstoffe werden aber auch in der Kinderwunschbehandlung angewendet, wobei nur der SERM Clomifen als Ovulationsauslöser zugelassen ist. Allerdings betragen die Schwangerschaftsraten nach Clomifenstimulation selbst für junge Frauen 35 Jahre maximal 10 %. Häufig kommt es durch die antiöstrogene Wirkung von Clomifen zu einem eingeschränkten Zervix- und Endometriumfaktor und das Risiko von Polyovulationen mit anschließenden Mehrlingsschwangerschaften ist bekannt. Seit einigen Jahren werden AI bei zyklischen und anovulatorischen Frauen zur Ovarstimulation getestet. Eine Zulassung zur Ovulationsinduktion (OI besteht jedoch nicht. Randomisierte kontrollierte Studien mit hohen Fallzahlen fehlen. Weder bei der Schleimhauthöhe noch in den Schwangerschaftsraten scheinen AI wie Letrozol gegenüber einer Stimulation mit SERMs Vorteile zu bringen. Auch unter AI werden höhergradige Mehrlingsschwangerschaften beobachtet. Allerdings ist der Östradiolwert bei der Stimulation mit AI signifikant niedriger als bei SERMs. AI können auch erfolgreich zur Senkung des Risikos für ein ovarielles Hyperstimulationssyndrom (OHSS nach Gonadotropinstimulation eingesetzt werden, da hohe Östrogen- und Progesteronspiegel effektiv gesenkt werden. Onkologen bevorzugen SERMs und AI für die Stimulation bei Patientinnen mit hormonabhängigen Tumoren im Rahmen der Fertilitätsprotektion. Es ist aber nicht erwiesen, dass diese Wirkstoffe für die Prognose der Tumorerkrankung einen Vorteil bringen, wenn man sie an der Standardtherapie mit Gonadotropinen misst. Zusammenfassend kann festgestellt werden, dass verglichen mit der Gonadotropinstimulation die Schwangerschaftsraten nach Ovulationsinduktion mit SERMs wie auch mit AI enttäuschend niedrig sind. Dies gilt sowohl für die alleinige OI wie auch für die OI im Rahmen der

  15. GEM1: First-year modeling and IT activities for the Global Earthquake Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G.; Giardini, D.; Wiemer, S.

    2009-04-01

    GEM is a public-private partnership initiated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to build an independent standard for modeling and communicating earthquake risk worldwide. GEM is aimed at providing authoritative, open information about seismic risk and decision tools to support mitigation. GEM will also raise risk awareness and help post-disaster economic development, with the ultimate goal of reducing the toll of future earthquakes. GEM will provide a unified set of seismic hazard, risk, and loss modeling tools based on a common global IT infrastructure and consensus standards. These tools, systems, and standards will be developed in partnership with organizations around the world, with coordination by the GEM Secretariat and its Secretary General. GEM partners will develop a variety of global components, including a unified earthquake catalog, fault database, and ground motion prediction equations. To ensure broad representation and community acceptance, GEM will include local knowledge in all modeling activities, incorporate existing detailed models where possible, and independently test all resulting tools and models. When completed in five years, GEM will have a versatile, penly accessible modeling environment that can be updated as necessary, and will provide the global standard for seismic hazard, risk, and loss models to government ministers, scientists and engineers, financial institutions, and the public worldwide. GEM is now underway with key support provided by private sponsors (Munich Reinsurance Company, Zurich Financial Services, AIR Worldwide Corporation, and Willis Group Holdings); countries including Belgium, Germany, Italy, Singapore, Switzerland, and Turkey; and groups such as the European Commission. The GEM Secretariat has been selected by the OECD and will be hosted at the Eucentre at the University of Pavia in Italy; the Secretariat is now formalizing the creation of the GEM Foundation. Some of GEM's global

  16. Respiratory morbidities among working children of gem polishing industries, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, R R; Saha, A; Parikh, J R

    2009-02-01

    There are millions of working children worldwide. In gem polishing industry, exposure to occupational hazards of dust and chemicals used in polishing of gemstone may result in respiratory symptoms and respiratory disorders. The present study included 586 exposed and 569 comparison group subjects. Data was collected through personal interview, clinical examination, and chest radiography. The respiratory morbidity was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms and chest radiography. The study variables included age, sex, daily working hours, and duration of exposure. The mean age of the child laborers was 11.31 +/- 5.34 years. Prevalence of respiratory morbidity was significantly high in the female child laborers. The other study variables namely age, duration of exposure, and daily working hours were found to be statistically non-significant. The prevalence of respiratory morbidity among child laborers of gem polishing industry in Jaipur was found to be 7%. PMID:19318508

  17. Effects of High Charge Densities in Multi-GEM Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Franchino, S; Hall-Wilton, R.; Muller, H.; Oliveri, E.; Pfeiffer, D.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Van Stenis, M.; Streli, C.; Thuiner, P.; Veenhof, R.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study, supported by systematic measurements and numerical computations, of the intrinsic limits of multi-GEM detectors when exposed to very high particle fluxes or operated at very large gains is presented. The observed variations of the gain, of the ion back-flow, and of the pulse height spectra are explained in terms of the effects of the spatial distribution of positive ions and their movement throughout the amplification structure. The intrinsic dynamic character of the processes involved imposes the use of a non-standard simulation tool for the interpretation of the measurements. Computations done with a Finite Element Analysis software reproduce the observed behaviour of the detector. The impact of this detailed description of the detector in extreme conditions is multiple: it clarifies some detector behaviours already observed, it helps in defining intrinsic limits of the GEM technology, and it suggests ways to extend them.

  18. GEMS: Underwater spectrometer for long-term radioactivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartini, Ludovica, E-mail: ludovica.sartini@ingv.i [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Genoa University, Genoa (Italy); Simeone, Francesco; Pani, Priscilla [' Sapienza' University and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sect.Roma, Roma (Italy); Lo Bue, Nadia; Marinaro, Giuditta [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Grubich, Andry; Lobko, Alexander [Institute for Nuclear Problems (INP), Belarus State University, Minsk (Belarus); Etiope, Giuseppe [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Capone, Antonio [' Sapienza' University and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sect.Roma, Roma (Italy); Favali, Paolo [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Gasparoni, Francesco; Bruni, Federico [Tecnomare S.p.A., Venice (Italy)

    2011-01-21

    GEMS (Gamma Energy Marine Spectrometer) is a prototype of an autonomous radioactivity sensor for underwater measurements, developed in the framework for a development of a submarine telescope for neutrino detection (KM3NeT Design Study Project). The spectrometer is highly sensitive to gamma rays produced by {sup 40}K decays but it can detect other natural (e.g., {sup 238}U,{sup 232}Th) and anthropogenic radio-nuclides (e.g., {sup 137}Cs). GEMS was firstly tested and calibrated in the laboratory using known sources and it was successfully deployed for a long-term (6 months) monitoring at a depth of 3200 m in the Ionian Sea (Capo Passero, offshore Eastern Sicily). The instrument recorded data for the whole deployment period within the expected specifications. This monitoring provided, for the first time, a continuous time-series of radioactivity in deep-sea.

  19. GEMS: Underwater spectrometer for long-term radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GEMS (Gamma Energy Marine Spectrometer) is a prototype of an autonomous radioactivity sensor for underwater measurements, developed in the framework for a development of a submarine telescope for neutrino detection (KM3NeT Design Study Project). The spectrometer is highly sensitive to gamma rays produced by 40K decays but it can detect other natural (e.g., 238U,232Th) and anthropogenic radio-nuclides (e.g., 137Cs). GEMS was firstly tested and calibrated in the laboratory using known sources and it was successfully deployed for a long-term (6 months) monitoring at a depth of 3200 m in the Ionian Sea (Capo Passero, offshore Eastern Sicily). The instrument recorded data for the whole deployment period within the expected specifications. This monitoring provided, for the first time, a continuous time-series of radioactivity in deep-sea.

  20. Schockwellensynthese und Charakterisierung von Aluminiumnitrid mit Kochsalzstruktur

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt die Ergebnisse der Synthese und Charakterisierung der Hochdruckphase von Aluminiumnitrid mit Kochsalzstruktur (rs-AlN). Die Versuche wurden mittels Schockwellensynthese unter Verwendung der „flyer-plate-Methode“ mit anschließender Probenrückgewinnung durchgeführt. Für verschiedene Aluminiumnitridpulver mit einer Ausgangsporosität k = rho_solid/rho_porous von 1,5 bis 2,5 wurde bei einem Druck von 15 bis 43 GPa die Phasenumwandlung von der Wurtzitstruktur (w-A...

  1. The R + D transfer in Spain: diagnostic based 2006 GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this research is to analyse in the international context the situation today of the Spanish R and D transference from the scientific field to the firms, using 2006 GEM data as well as complementary data sources. The main findings of the study emphasize a difficult scenario concerning the R and D transference to the Spanish enterprises. Although these negative results, some data suggest a significant improvement in this area in the near future. (Author) 9 refs

  2. The gas electron multiplier (GEM): Operating principles and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauli, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Introduced by the author in 1997, The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) constitutes a powerful addition to the family of fast radiation detectors; originally developed for particle physics experiments, the device and has spawned a large number of developments and applications; a web search yields more than 400 articles on the subject. This note is an attempt to summarize the status of the design, developments and applications of the new detector.

  3. A fast Tracker for COMPASS based on the GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The small area tracking system of COMPASS, a new high-luminosity fixed target experiment at CERN's SPS accelerator, comprises 20 large-size triple GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detectors. It was completed and fully operational for the first time for the 2002 muon run. We report on the performance of these chambers in the high-intensity beam and give first results on efficiencies as well as spatial and time resolutions measured for the full set of detectors under various beam conditions

  4. The Forward GEM Tracker of STAR at RHIC

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, F.; Balewski, J.; Fatemi, R.; Hasell, D.; Kelsey, J.; Majka, R.; Page, B.; Plesko, M.; Underwood, D.; Smirnov, N.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.; Surrow, B.(Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 19122, USA); Visser, G.

    2008-01-01

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is in the process of designing and constructing a forward tracking system based on triple GEM technology. This upgrade is necessary to give STAR the capability to reconstruct and identify the charge sign of W bosons over an extended rapidity range through their leptonic decay mode into an electron (positron) and a neutrino. This will allow a detailed study of the flavor-separated spin str...

  5. A Study of a Mini-drift GEM Tracking Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Azmoun, B; Franz, A; Kiselev, A; Pak, R; Phipps, M; Purschke, M L; Woody, C

    2015-01-01

    A GEM tracking detector with an extended drift region has been studied as part of an effort to develop new tracking detectors for future experiments at RHIC and for the Electron Ion Collider that is being planned for BNL or JLAB. The detector consists of a triple GEM stack with a small drift region that was operated in a mini TPC type configuration. Both the position and arrival time of the charge deposited in the drift region were measured on the readout plane which allowed the reconstruction of a short vector for the track traversing the chamber. The resulting position and angle information from the vector could then be used to improve the position resolution of the detector for larger angle tracks, which deteriorates rapidly with increasing angle for conventional GEM tracking detectors using only charge centroid information. Two types of readout planes were studied. One was a COMPASS style readout plane with 400 micron pitch XY strips and the other consisted of 2x10mm2 chevron pads. The detector was studie...

  6. Modelling Chemical Equilibrium Partitioning with the GEMS-PSI Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulik, D.; Berner, U.; Curti, E

    2004-03-01

    Sorption, co-precipitation and re-crystallisation are important retention processes for dissolved contaminants (radionuclides) migrating through the sub-surface. The retention of elements is usually measured by empirical partition coefficients (Kd), which vary in response to many factors: temperature, solid/liquid ratio, total contaminant loading, water composition, host-mineral composition, etc. The Kd values can be predicted for in-situ conditions from thermodynamic modelling of solid solution, aqueous solution or sorption equilibria, provided that stoichiometry, thermodynamic stability and mixing properties of the pure components are known (Example 1). Unknown thermodynamic properties can be retrieved from experimental Kd values using inverse modelling techniques (Example 2). An efficient, advanced tool for performing both tasks is the Gibbs Energy Minimization (GEM) approach, implemented in the user-friendly GEM-Selector (GEMS) program package, which includes the Nagra-PSI chemical thermodynamic database. The package is being further developed at PSI and used extensively in studies relating to nuclear waste disposal. (author)

  7. Is Kyoto Fatally Flawed? An Analysis with MacGEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present some numerical simulations with the MacGEM model to evaluate the consequences of the recent Marrakesh agreements and the defection of the USA for the Kyoto Protocol. MacGEM is a global marginal abatement cost model for carbon emissions from fossil fuel use based on the GEM-E3-World general equilibrium. Nonparticipation of the USA causes the equilibrium carbon price in Annex B countries to fall by approximately 50% since an important share of permit demand falls out. Carbon sinks enhancement activities enable Parties to fulfil their reduction commitment at lower compliance costs and cause the equilibrium permit price to decrease by 40%. Finally, it is shown that the former Soviet Union and central European countries have substantial monopoly power in the Kyoto carbon permit market. We conclude that the recent accords have eroded completely the Kyoto Protocol's emission targets but that they have the merit to have saved the international climate change negotiation framework

  8. Study of relevant parameters of GEM-based detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Croci, Gabriele; Sauli, Fabio; Ragazzi, S

    2007-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier consist of a thin Kapton insulating (50 $\\mu$m) foil copper-clad on both sides and perforated by a high density, regular matrix of holes (around 100 per square millimeter). Typically the distance between holes (pitch) is 140 $\\mu$m and diameters of about 70 $\\mu$m. The mesh is realised by conventional photolitographic methods as used for the fabrication of multi-layer board. Upon application of a potential difference between the GEM electrodes, a high dipole field develops in the holes focusing the field lines between the drift electrode and the readout element. Electron drift along the channel and the charge is amplified by a factor that depends on the field density and the length of the channel. Owing to their excellent position resolution and rate capability GEM-based detector are very suitable to be used in different applications: from the high energy physics to the medical field. The GEM temporal and rate gain stability was studied and it was discovered that the gain variation...

  9. Study of the GEM detector for the LHCb experiment upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Santimaria, Marco

    Triple-GEM chambers, so far used in the inner region of the M1 muon station, are the ideal candidates to replace the MWPCs in the regions where, after the upgrade, the particle rate will be as high as 2 MHz/cm$^2$. Testing the triple-GEM efficiency and time resolution with different gaseous mixtures is therefore a significant step in evaluating the expected performance of the muon system after the upgrade scheduled in 2018, when the luminosity in LHCb will reach $2\\times10^{33} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$. In this thesis, a study of the GEM efficiency and time performance is conducted using a cosmic rays station at the Emilio Segrè laboratory, in the Sapienza university of Rome. Two gas mixtures are used for the measurements: Ar/CO$_2$/CF$_4$ 40:55:5 and 45:15:40. A preliminar simulation of the gas mixtures properties is performed using the software GARFIELD, focusing on electron drift velocity and specific ionization. Using 2 plastic scintillator as a muon trigger system, several measurements of efficiency and time perf...

  10. Development of near infrared spectrometer for gem materials study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindata, W.; Meesiri, W.; Wongkokua, W.

    2015-07-01

    Most of gem materials can be characterized by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Normally, mid infrared absorption technique has been applied for investigating fundamental vibrational modes. However, for some gem materials, such as tourmaline, NIR is a better choice due to differentiation. Most commercial NIR spectrometers employ complicated dispersive grating or Fourier transform techniques. In this work, we developed a filter type NIR spectrometer with the availability of high efficiency and low-cost narrow bandpass NIR interference filters to be taught in a physics laboratory. The instrument was designed for transmission-mode configuration. A 50W halogen lamp was used as NIR source. There were fourteen NIR filters mounted on a rotatory wheel for wavelength selection ranging from 1000-1650 nm with steps of 50 nm. A 1.0 mm diameter of InGaAs photodiode was used as the detector for the spectrometer. Hence, transparent gem materials can be used as samples for experiment. Student can learn vibrational absorption spectroscopy as well as Beer-Lambert law from the development of this instrument.

  11. Safety analysis of the GEM Detector Magnet conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of the GEM Detector Magnet is analyzed using a computational model to determine current sharing between the cabled conductor and the external aluminum stabilizer. The model includes inductive and transverse conductive effects due to the geometries of the coil and the conductor. A conservative analysis indicates a peak conductor hotspot temperature of ∼ 50 K at two seconds after the initiation of quench. After this time, additional heating is limited because most of the current in the normal zone region is carried by the aluminum stabilizer and an external protection circuit should have begun to diminish the total current. The analysis shows that conductor safety requires adequate transverse conductivity between the cable and the aluminum stabilizer. The calculated transverse conductance of the GEM conductor, 1 x 107 mho/m, is at least 100 times greater than the minimum value necessary to limit the hotspot temperature to ∼ 50 K after two seconds. This report describes the results of calculations based on a realistic assumption of GEM conductor performance during a quench

  12. Beam test of a GEM-TPC prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with a GEM-based read out is one option for the central tracker of PANDA at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. A TPC offers very good momentum resolution and the ability to do particle ID using precise energy-loss measurements. The suppression of ion backflow intrinsic to GEM-based amplification allows us to operate the TPC an ungated, continuous mode, as required by the quasi-continuous beam in the HESR. To show the feasibility of such a detector a prototype with a drift length of 725 mm and an outer radius of 300 mm has been built. The pad plane of the detector has 10254 hexagonal read out pads which are read out using 42 front end cards based on the AFTER-T2K chip. A gas mixture of Ar/CO2 (90/10) was used together with different drift fields ranging from 150 to 350 (V)/(cm). The GEM-TPC was installed and tested in the FOPI spectrometer at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) with a 2 %X0 Al target being hit by heavy ion beams of Kr at 1.2 AGeV and Au at 1.0 AGeV, respectively. A detailed overview of the detector hardware as well as first experimental data from the beam test is presented.

  13. Modelling Chemical Equilibrium Partitioning with the GEMS-PSI Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption, co-precipitation and re-crystallisation are important retention processes for dissolved contaminants (radionuclides) migrating through the sub-surface. The retention of elements is usually measured by empirical partition coefficients (Kd), which vary in response to many factors: temperature, solid/liquid ratio, total contaminant loading, water composition, host-mineral composition, etc. The Kd values can be predicted for in-situ conditions from thermodynamic modelling of solid solution, aqueous solution or sorption equilibria, provided that stoichiometry, thermodynamic stability and mixing properties of the pure components are known (Example 1). Unknown thermodynamic properties can be retrieved from experimental Kd values using inverse modelling techniques (Example 2). An efficient, advanced tool for performing both tasks is the Gibbs Energy Minimization (GEM) approach, implemented in the user-friendly GEM-Selector (GEMS) program package, which includes the Nagra-PSI chemical thermodynamic database. The package is being further developed at PSI and used extensively in studies relating to nuclear waste disposal. (author)

  14. Charge-sharing and electron-transfer characteristics of a gas electron multiplier (GEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge sharing and electron-transfer process of a gas electron multiplier (GEM) with a high density of holes (60 μm in diameter at 100 μm of pitch) were examined. The GEM operated at a lower applied voltage due to the smaller size of the GEM holes; thus, a higher electric field is seen in the multiplication channels. The electron collection efficiency and the charge sharing were found to depend on the external field, as well as on the GEM voltage. The electron collection efficiency approached 90 % with a full collection of primary electrons under optimized GEM field conditions, and the range of the drift field for efficient electron collection to reach a plateau increased with the GEM voltage. The positive-ion feedback is also estimated

  15. Charge-sharing and electron-transfer characteristics of a gas electron multiplier (GEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Hyo; Kang, Hee Dong [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Kyun; Moon, Byung Soo; Chung, Chong Eun [KAERI, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyo Sung; Kang, Sang Mook [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    The charge sharing and electron-transfer process of a gas electron multiplier (GEM) with a high density of holes (60 {mu}m in diameter at 100 {mu}m of pitch) were examined. The GEM operated at a lower applied voltage due to the smaller size of the GEM holes; thus, a higher electric field is seen in the multiplication channels. The electron collection efficiency and the charge sharing were found to depend on the external field, as well as on the GEM voltage. The electron collection efficiency approached 90 % with a full collection of primary electrons under optimized GEM field conditions, and the range of the drift field for efficient electron collection to reach a plateau increased with the GEM voltage. The positive-ion feedback is also estimated.

  16. eGEMs: Pragmatic Publishing to Build a Learning Health System

    OpenAIRE

    Holve, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The Electronic Data Methods (EDM) Forum announces the launch of eGEMs (Generating Evidence and Methods to improve patient outcomes), a new, free, open access, peer-reviewed e-publication. eGEMs aims to disseminate innovative ideas about how electronic clinical data (ECD) can be leveraged in comparative effectiveness research (CER), patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) and quality improvement (QI). eGEMs seeks submissions in four main topic areas: analytic methods, clinical informatics, g...

  17. On the efficient operation of a CsI-coated GEM photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mörmann, D; Chechik, R; Singh, B K

    2001-01-01

    We report on the efficient operation of a CsI-coated GEM photon detector. We describe its operation mode and the dependence of the single electron detection efficiency on the electric fields. Conditions for obtaining full efficiency of photoelectron extraction and their focusing into the GEM apertures, in 1 atm CH sub 4 , are presented. The quantum efficiency of the CsI-coated GEM is 35% at 150 nm.

  18. Transmissionselektronenmikroskopie mit elektrostatischen Zach-Phasenplatten

    OpenAIRE

    Hettler, Simon Josef

    2015-01-01

    Elektrostatische Zach-Phasenplatten (PP) erlauben die Kontrastverstärkung von transparenten Objekten in der Transmissionselektronenmikroskopie. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Herstellung von Zach-PP optimiert und deren Auswirkung auf die Bildentstehung durch Simulationen und Experimente mit verschiedenen Proben analysiert. Die Möglichkeit der Verwendung einer Zach-PP in der Hochauflösung, der Objektwellenrekonstruktion und in Verbindung mit inelastischer Streuung wird aufgezeigt.

  19. Lernen sinojapanischer Schriftzeichen mit Bildern und Animationen

    OpenAIRE

    Soemer, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit werden zwei visuell-mnemonische Methoden für das Paarassoziationslernen sinojapanischer Schriftzeichen (Kanji) und deren Bedeutungen vorgestellt. Die erste Methode ist das Lernen mit Bildern, welche die Bedeutung eines Schriftzeichens darstellen und dessen Elemente den Strichen des Schriftzeichens ähneln. Die zweite Methode ist das Lernen mit Animationen, welche eine Formtransformation zwischen denselben Bildern und den entsprechenden Schriftzeichen darstellen. Die beiden Met...

  20. Hamlet er manden i mit liv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2009-01-01

    Hamlet er manden i mit liv. Min elskede. Jeg har en drøm om at frelse ham. At redde ham ud af sin mors soveværelse og ind i mit. Væk fra det ødipale Helvede han befinder sig i, fastlåst mellem et svin af en faderskikkelse (Claudius) og en alt for idealiseret far (gamle Hamlet), vågende over sin m...

  1. Untersuchung der auditiven Lokalisation mit einer Lichtzeigermethode

    OpenAIRE

    Seeber, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Die Dissertation stellt eine neue Methode zur Untersuchung der auditiven Lokalisation vor, die sich durch eine hohe Genauigkeit und geringe methodische Einflüsse auszeichnet. Dabei wird ein Lichtzeiger rechnergesteuert mit Hilfe eines Trackballs auf die wahrgenommene Schallrichtung eingestellt. Mit Hilfe dieser Methode wird ein Verfahren zur individuell-optimalen Auswahl einer Außenohrübertragungsfunktion (AOÜF) aus mehreren fremden für Anwendungen der virtuellen Akustik entwickelt. Für die H...

  2. Regionale Dentinhaftung von Kompositrestaurationen mit unterschiedlichen Polymerisationskonzepten

    OpenAIRE

    Piltz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    1.1.1 Hintergrund und Ziele Die Polymerisationsschrumpfung Methacrylat-basierter Komposite stellt bis zum heutigen Zeitpunkt ein bisher noch ungelöstes Problem in der modernen Zahnheilkunde dar. Insuffiziente Dentinhaftwerte mit konsekutiven postoperativen Hypersensitivitäten treiben die Dentalfirmen zur Perfektionierung dieses gefragten Füllungsmaterials an. Eine neue Kunststoffklasse (Silorane) mit der Strategie ringöffnender Monomerstrukturen während des Lichthärtens propagiert eine Min...

  3. Ätzen von Titannitrid mit Halogenverbindungen

    OpenAIRE

    Hellriegel, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Mit zunehmender Miniaturisierung mikroelektronischer Bauelemente steigen die Anforderungen an reproduzierbare qualitätskonforme Schichten. Um die zur Herstellung notwendigen ALD/PVD/CVD-Schichtabscheideanlagen in einen zuverlässigen Zustand zu versetzen, ist eine regelmäßige Kammerreinigung notwendig. Während des Abscheideprozesses werden nicht nur das Substrat, sondern auch die umliegenden Kammerteile beschichtet. Diese Schichten wachsen mit jedem Beschichtungszyklus weiter an. Der Stres...

  4. MIT research reactor. Power uprate and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIT Research Reactor (MITR) is a university research reactor located on MIT campus. and has a long history in supporting research and education. Recent accomplishments include a 20% power rate to 6 MW and expanding advanced materials fuel testing program. Another important ongoing initiative is the conversion to high density low enrichment uranium (LEU) monolithic U-Mo fuel, which will consist of a new fuel element design and power increase to 7 MW. (author)

  5. Photovoltaik Hybrid-Solarzellen mit Nanopartikeln

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leute, Angelika

    2004-09-01

    Die organische Photovoltaik auf der Basis halbleitender Polymere bietet eine kostengünstige Alternative zu Solarzellen aus Silizium. Allerdings weisen die organischen Materialien relativ schlechte Ladungstransporteigenschaften auf. Hybrid-Solarzellen, in denen Polymere mit geeigneten anorganischen Halbleitern kombiniert sind, besitzen einerseits die praktischen Vorteile der Organik und andererseits die hohe Elektronenbeweglichkeit der anorganischen Materialien. Wissenschaftler der Technischen Universität Eindhoven haben kürzlich Hybrid-Solarzellen vorgestellt, die aus einem halbleitenden Polymer mit Zinkoxid-Nanopartikeln bestehen.

  6. GEM*: A Molecular Electronic Density-Based Force Field for Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Robert E; Starovoytov, Oleg N; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Cisneros, G Andrés

    2014-04-01

    GEM*, a force field that combines Coulomb and Exchange terms calculated with Hermite Gaussians with the polarization, bonded, and modified van der Waals terms from AMOEBA is presented. GEM* is tested on an initial water model fitted at the same level as AMOEBA. The integrals required for the evaluation of the intermolecular Coulomb interactions are efficiently evaluated by means of reciprocal space methods. The GEM* water model is tested by comparing energies and forces for a series of water oligomers and MD simulations. Timings for GEM* compared to AMOEBA are presented and discussed. PMID:26580355

  7. Statistical exploration of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM measured at Cape Point from 2007 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Venter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors evaluated continuous high resolution gaseous elemental mercury (GEM data from the Cape Point Global Atmosphere Watch (CPT GAW station with different statistical analysis techniques. GEM data was evaluated by cluster analysis and the results indicated that two clusters, separated at 0.904 ng m−3, existed. The air mass history for the two-cluster solution was investigated by means of back-trajectory analysis. The air mass back-trajectory net result showed lower GEM concentrations originating from the sparsely populated semi-arid interior of SA and the marine environment, whereas higher GEM concentrations originated predominately along the coast of SA that most likely coincide with trade routes and industrial activities in urban areas along the coast. Considering the net result from the air mass back-trajectories, it is evident that not all low GEM concentrations are from marine origin, and similarly, not all high GEM concentrations have a terrestrial origin. Equations were developed by means of multi-linear regression (MLR analysis that allowed for the estimation/prediction of atmospheric GEM concentrations from other atmospheric parameters measured at the CPT GAW station. These equations also provided some insight into the relation and interaction of GEM with other atmospheric parameters. Both measured and MLR calculated data confirm a decline in GEM concentrations at CPT GAW over the period evaluated.

  8. Discriminating cosmic muon and x-ray based on rising time using GEM detector

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Yin, Wu; Sheng-Ying, Zhao; Xiao-Dong, Wang; Xian-Ming, Zhang; Hui-Rong, Qi; Wei, Zhang; Ke-Yan, Wu; Bi-Tao, Hu; Yi, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Gas electron multiplier(GEM) detector is used in Cosmic Muon Scattering Tomography and neutron imaging in the last decade. In this work, a triple GEM device with an effective readout area of 10 cm X 10 cm is developed, and an experiment of discriminating between cosmic muon and x-ray based on rising time is tested. The energy resolution of GEM detector is tested by 55Fe ray source to prove the GEM detector has a good performance. The analysis of the complete signal-cycles allows to get the ri...

  9. Evaluation of ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from GEMS and OMI spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Korea is planning to launch the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer instrument into a Geostationary (GEO platform in 2018 to monitor tropospheric air pollutants on an hourly basis over East Asia. GEMS will measure backscattered UV radiances covering the 300–500 nm wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 0.6 nm. The main objective of this study is to evaluate ozone profiles and stratospheric column ozone amounts retrieved from simulated GEMS measurements. Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI Level 1B radiances, which have the spectral range 270–500 nm at spectral resolution of 0.42–0.63 nm, are used to simulate the GEMS radiances. An optimal estimation-based ozone profile algorithm is used to retrieve ozone profiles from simulated GEMS radiances. Firstly, we compare the retrieval characteristics (including averaging kernels, degrees of freedom for signal, and retrieval error derived from the 270–330 nm (OMI and 300–330 nm (GEMS wavelength ranges. This comparison shows that the effect of not using measurements below 300 nm on tropospheric ozone retrievals is insignificant. However, the stratospheric ozone information decreases greatly from OMI to GEMS, by a factor of ∼2. The number of the independent pieces of information available from GEMS measurements is estimated to 3 on average in the stratosphere, with associated retrieval errors of ∼1% in stratospheric column ozone. The difference between OMI and GEMS retrieval characteristics is apparent for retrieving ozone layers above ∼20 km, with a reduction in the sensitivity and an increase in the retrieval errors for GEMS. We further investigate whether GEMS can resolve the stratospheric ozone variation observed from high vertical resolution EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS. The differences in stratospheric ozone profiles between GEMS and MLS are comparable to those between OMI and MLS above ∼3 hPa (∼40 km except with slightly larger biases and larger

  10. Resolution studies of a GEM-based TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently there are four different concept studies trying to optimise the detector for the requirements at the ILC. In three of these detector concepts a time projection chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking device. To achieve the intended spatial resolution of 100 μm, micro pattern gas detectors (MPGD) are considered for gas amplification. The two different MPGDs discussed for the ILC TPC are Micro-Mesh Gaseous Detectors (Micromegas) and Gas Electron Multiplier foils (GEMs). The current thesis shows resolution studies with a TPC prototype equipped with a triple GEM readout structure. A hodoscope made up of silicon strip sensors gives a precision reference track, allowing an unbiased measurement of the spatial resolution. High statistics measurements have been conducted at the DESY test beam facility, which provides positrons with a tunable energy between 1 GeV and 6 GeV. Using the independent measurement of the hodoscope allows systematic studies of the homogeneity of the TPC's electric field. The fluctuations of the field in the chamber's central region were found to be ΔE/E=8.10-3. Field distortions have been determined and corrected, reducing the remaining deviations to a level well below the spatial resolution of the TPC. One important task is to reduce the number of ions drifting back into the sensitive volume. Special GEM settings with minimised ion backdrift have been examined with respect to their influence on the spatial resolution and it was found that the spatial resolution is not degraded using these special settings. The TPC prototype has been operated in a 4 T magnetic field, provided by a superconducting solenoid located at DESY Hamburg. Again the spatial resolution measured with the ion backdrift optimised settings is compared to that achieved with nonoptimised settings. In both cases the measured resolution is approximately 130 μm. (orig.)

  11. Resolution studies of a GEM-based TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killenberg, M.

    2006-12-15

    Currently there are four different concept studies trying to optimise the detector for the requirements at the ILC. In three of these detector concepts a time projection chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking device. To achieve the intended spatial resolution of 100 {mu}m, micro pattern gas detectors (MPGD) are considered for gas amplification. The two different MPGDs discussed for the ILC TPC are Micro-Mesh Gaseous Detectors (Micromegas) and Gas Electron Multiplier foils (GEMs). The current thesis shows resolution studies with a TPC prototype equipped with a triple GEM readout structure. A hodoscope made up of silicon strip sensors gives a precision reference track, allowing an unbiased measurement of the spatial resolution. High statistics measurements have been conducted at the DESY test beam facility, which provides positrons with a tunable energy between 1 GeV and 6 GeV. Using the independent measurement of the hodoscope allows systematic studies of the homogeneity of the TPC's electric field. The fluctuations of the field in the chamber's central region were found to be {delta}E/E=8.10{sup -3}. Field distortions have been determined and corrected, reducing the remaining deviations to a level well below the spatial resolution of the TPC. One important task is to reduce the number of ions drifting back into the sensitive volume. Special GEM settings with minimised ion backdrift have been examined with respect to their influence on the spatial resolution and it was found that the spatial resolution is not degraded using these special settings. The TPC prototype has been operated in a 4 T magnetic field, provided by a superconducting solenoid located at DESY Hamburg. Again the spatial resolution measured with the ion backdrift optimised settings is compared to that achieved with nonoptimised settings. In both cases the measured resolution is approximately 130 {mu}m. (orig.)

  12. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS): impetus, rationale, and genesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Myron M; Kotloff, Karen L; Nataro, James P; Muhsen, Khitam

    2012-12-01

    Diarrheal disease remains one of the top 2 causes of young child mortality in the developing world. Whereas improvements in water/sanitation infrastructure and hygiene can diminish transmission of enteric pathogens, vaccines can also hasten the decline of diarrheal disease morbidity and mortality. From 1980 through approximately 2004, various case/control and small cohort studies were undertaken to address the etiology of pediatric diarrhea in developing countries. Many studies had methodological limitations and came to divergent conclusions, making it difficult to prioritize the relative importance of different pathogens. Consequently, in the first years of the millennium there was no consensus on what diarrheal disease vaccines should be developed or implemented; however, there was consensus on the need for a well-designed study to obtain information on the etiology and burden of more severe forms of diarrheal disease to guide global investment and implementation decisions. Accordingly, the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) was designed to overcome drawbacks of earlier studies and determine the etiology and population-based burden of pediatric diarrheal disease. GEMS, which includes one of the largest case/control studies of an infectious disease syndrome ever undertaken (target approximately 12,600 analyzable cases and 12,600 controls), was rolled out in 4 sites in sub-Saharan Africa (Gambia, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique) and 3 in South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan), with each site linked to a population under demographic surveillance (total approximately 467,000 child years of observation among children <5 years of age). GEMS data will guide investment and help prioritize strategies to mitigate the morbidity and mortality of pediatric diarrheal disease. PMID:23169934

  13. Extensions of GEM-E3 Computable General Equilibrium Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.; Sager, J.

    2004-03-01

    Two coupled research projects funded by the European Community under the 5th Framework Programme extend the capabilities of the GEM-E3 Computable General Equilibrium model to include: a) a wider geo-graphical extent (mainly Switzerland and Ascending Countries for the EU version) and b) a bottom-up/top-down description of the electric sector that includes specific electricity-generation technologies and incorporates endogenous technological learning into the bottom-up description of the electricity sector. PSI contributions in both areas are reported. (author)

  14. Beam Test with a GridGEM TPC Prototype Module

    OpenAIRE

    Diener, Ralf; Behnke, Ties; Caiazza, Stefano; Heinze, Isa; Prahl, Volker; Rosemann, Christoph; Schäfer, Oliver; Timmermans, Jan; Volkenborn, Robert; Zenker, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The International Large Detector (ILD) --a detector concept for the International Linear Collider (ILC)-- foresees a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) as its main tracking detector. Currently, the R&D efforts for such a TPC focus on studies using a large prototype that can accommodate up to seven read-out modules which are comparable to the ones that would be used in the final ILD TPC. The DESY TPC group has developed such a module using GEMs for the gas amplification, which are mounted on thin c...

  15. Long-term stability test of a triple GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adak, R P; Das, S; Ghosal, D; Ghosh, S K; Mondal, A; Nag, D; Nayak, T K; Patra, R N; Prasad, S K; Raha, S; Sahu, P K; Sahu, S; Swain, S

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of the study is to perform the long-term stability test of gain of the single mask triple GEM detector. A simple method is used for this long- term stability test using a radioactive X-ray source with high activity. The test is continued till accumulation of charge per unit area > 12.0 mC/mm2. The details of the chamber fabrication, the test set-up, the method of measurement and the test results are presented in this paper.

  16. A Time Projection Chamber with GEM-Based Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Attié, David; Bellerive, Alain; Bezshyyko, Oleg; Bhattacharya, Deb Sankar; Bhattacharya, Purba; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Caiazza, Stefano; Colas, Paul; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dehmelt, Klaus; Desch, Klaus; Diener, Ralf; Dixit, Madhu; Fleck, Ivor; Fujii, Keisuke; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Ganjour, Serguei; Gao, Yuanning; Gros, Philippe; Hayman, Peter; Hedberg, Vincent; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Jönsson, Leif; Kaminski, Jochen; Kato, Yukihiro; Kawada, Shin-ichi; Killenberg, Martin; Kleinwort, Claus; Kobayashi, Makoto; Krylov, Vladyslav; Li, Bo; Li, Yulan; Lundberg, Björn; Lupberger, Michael; Majumdar, Nayana; Matsuda, Takeshi; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mjörnmark, Ulf; Müller, Felix; Münnich, Astrid; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Oskarsson, Anders; Österman, Lennart; Peterson, Daniel; Riallot, Marc; Rosemann, Christoph; Roth, Stefan; Schade, Peter; Schäfer, Oliver; Settles, Ronald Dean; Shirazi, Amir Noori; Smirnova, Oxana; Sugiyama, Akira; Takahashi, Tohru; Tian, Junping; Timmermans, Jan; Titov, Maksym; Tsionou, Dimitra; Vauth, Annika; Wang, Wenxin; Watanabe, Takashi; Werthenbach, Ulrich; Yang, Yifan; Yang, Zhenwei; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenker, Klaus; Zhang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    For the International Large Detector concept at the planned International Linear Collider, the use of time projection chambers (TPC) with micro-pattern gas detector readout as the main tracking detector is investigated. In this paper, results from a prototype TPC, placed in a 1 T solenoidal field and read out with three independent GEM-based readout modules, are reported. The TPC was exposed to a 6 GeV electron beam at the DESY II synchrotron. The efficiency for reconstructing hits, the measurement of the drift velocity, the space point resolution and the control of field inhomogeneities are presented.

  17. The Muon System of the GEM detector at the SSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GEM Muon System is based on a large super conducting solenoidal magnet with no magnetic flux return. Three superlayers of muon tracking chambers are deployed outside the calorimeter to reconstruct the sagitta of the muon trajectory in the magnetic field. Iron flux concentrators are placed along the central axis of the magnet to create a radial component of the magnetic field, thereby increasing the momentum resolution at small angles. The muon system can be triggered, based on transverse momentum, and muon trajectories can be reconstructed from vertical stroke ηvertical stroke = 0 to 2.5. (orig.)

  18. First performance of the gems + gmos system. Part1. Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hibon, Pascale; Garrel, Vincent; Neichel, Benoit; Prout, Benjamin; Rigaut, Francois; Koning, Alice; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Gimeno, German; Pessev, Peter

    2016-01-01

    During the commissioning of the Gemini MCAO System (GeMS), we had the opportunity to obtain data with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS), the most utilised instrument at Gemini South Observatory, in March and May 2012. Several globular clusters were observed in imaging mode that allowed us to study the performance of this new and untested combination. GMOS is a visible instrument, hence pushing MCAO toward the visible.We report here on the results with the GMOS instruments, derive ph...

  19. Application of Gaussian Electrostatic Model (GEM) Distributed Multipoles in the AMOEBA Force Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, G Andrés

    2012-12-11

    We present the inclusion of distributed multipoles obtained from the Gaussian Electrostatic Model (GEM) into the AMOEBA force field. As a proof of principle, we have reparametrized water and alanine di-peptide. The GEM distributed multipoles (GEM-DM) have been obtained at the same levels of theory as those used for the original AMOEBA parametrization. The use of GEM allows the derivation of the distributed multipoles from the analytical fit to the molecular density or the numerical fit to the molecular electrostatic potential (mESP). In addition, GEM-DM are intrinsically finite of the highest order of the auxiliary basis used for the GEM fit. We also present the fitting of multipoles for the di-methyl imidazolium/chloride (DMIM(+)-Cl(-)) ionic liquid pair. Results for intermolecular Coulomb for all test systems show very good agreement. MD simulations for a reparametrized AMOEBA water model with GEM-DM provide results on par with the original AMOEBA force field for a series of bulk properties including liquid density and enthalpy of vaporization. A package for the calculation of GEM Hermite coefficients and derived distributed multipoles using the numerical procedure is also presented and released under the GNU public license. PMID:26593198

  20. Use of aluminium plates to simulate the dosimetry of gems during e-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The e-beam technology is used in the industrial irradiation of several products like turf, sterilization of medical products, cosmetics, polymers, food, and gems. More than 70% of the gems commercialized in the world receive treatments similar to those present in nature, including heat, and irradiation, in order to improve their value. Since aluminum has a density similar to that of several commercial gems, this paper presents a study of the penetration of electrons in calibrated aluminum plates simulating several different thicknesses ranging from 5 to 30 mm, and comparing with the one obtained in gems. This allows the monitoring of the dose received by gems during irradiation with e-beam systems measuring the delivered surface dose. This procedure is very important for industrial processing of stones due to the irregularities present on most gems, what makes dosimetry a very complex task. The determination of the thicknesses of the gems for which the surface dose is the lowest dose on the whole product assures the precise determination of the minimum dose received by the gems during industrial processing. (author)

  1. Use of aluminium plates to simulate the dosimetry of gems during e-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Marcio Z.; Sousa, Fernando N.C. de; Boente, Otavio C., E-mail: mzamboti@aceletron.com.b, E-mail: fernando.nuno@aceletron.com.b, E-mail: otavio@aceletron.com.b [Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sousa, Nuno R.A., E-mail: engenheiro.nuno.sousa@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    The e-beam technology is used in the industrial irradiation of several products like turf, sterilization of medical products, cosmetics, polymers, food, and gems. More than 70% of the gems commercialized in the world receive treatments similar to those present in nature, including heat, and irradiation, in order to improve their value. Since aluminum has a density similar to that of several commercial gems, this paper presents a study of the penetration of electrons in calibrated aluminum plates simulating several different thicknesses ranging from 5 to 30 mm, and comparing with the one obtained in gems. This allows the monitoring of the dose received by gems during irradiation with e-beam systems measuring the delivered surface dose. This procedure is very important for industrial processing of stones due to the irregularities present on most gems, what makes dosimetry a very complex task. The determination of the thicknesses of the gems for which the surface dose is the lowest dose on the whole product assures the precise determination of the minimum dose received by the gems during industrial processing. (author)

  2. Study on Physical Properties and Chemical Composition of Some Myanmar Gems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical properties of some Myanmar gems were studied by using refractometer, dichroscope, polariscope, SG test, UV test and microscope. Then, chemical composition were investigated by XRF-technique. After that, gem identification, evaluation, colour improvement were studied according to these physical properties and chemical composition

  3. MIT 12 Tesla Coil test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test results from the MIT 12 Tesla Coil experiment are presented. The coil was tested in the High Field Test Facility (HFTF) of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in October 1984 and January 1985. The experiment measured the performance of an Internally Cooled, Cabled Superconductor (ICCS) of practical size, intended for use in magnetic fusion experiments. The MIT coil carried 15 kA at 11 T for 5 min with no sign of instability. A half turn length in a 10 T field was able to absorb a heat load in 4 msec of more than 200 mJ/cm3 of cable volume while carrying a current of 12 kA. The MIT coil successfully met the performance requirements of the Department of Energy's 12 Tesla Coil Program

  4. Investigations on Important Properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Kulasri, Kittipong; Ritthirong, Anawat

    2015-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is one of promising particle and radiation detectors that has been improved greatly from previous gas detectors. The improvement includes better spatial resolutions, higher detection rate capabilities, and flexibilities in designs. In particular, the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM prototype is designed and provided by the Gas Detectors Development group (GDD) at CERN, Switzerland. With its simplicity in operations and designs, while still maintaining high qualities, the GEM prototype is suitable for both start-up and advanced researches. This article aims to report the investigations on some important properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM detector using current measurement and signal counting. Results have shown that gains of the GEM prototype exponentially increase as voltage supplied to the detector increases, while the detector reaches full efficiency (plateau region) when the voltage is greater than 4100 V. In terms of signal sharing between X and Y strips of the readout, X str...

  5. Characterization of GEM foils and materials simulation, measurements and interferometric monitoring tools

    CERN Document Server

    Benussi, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The GE1/1 CMS project consists of 144 GEM chambers of about 0.5 qm active area each, based on the triple GEMs technology, to be installed in the very forward region of the CMS endcap during the long shutdown of LHC in 2108-2019. GE1/1 chambers will be operated for decades in harsh environment, and are expected to perform consistently providing good space and time resolution and excellent rate capabilities. An extensive material science simulation and measurement campaign is in progress to characterize GEM materials, with main focus on the GEM foils. Results are presented on full Finite Element Analysis simulations, measurement of tensile properties and humidity absorption coefficients, both for unused and irradiated samples. Preliminary results are shown on interferometric methods based on Moirè fringes for the monitoring of GEM foils mechanical properties during chamber construction.

  6. A new glass GEM with a single-sided guard-ring structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas electron multiplier (GEM) is a gaseous detector that is widely used in many applications. Our glass GEM (G-GEM) comprises a photo-etchable glass (PEG3, HOYA Corporation, Japan). Our research indicated that it shows superior performance compared with other gas detectors. In this article, a new type of G-GEM is introduced. It has a guard-ring structure around the holes in order to improve the spark tolerance by reducing the total capacitance of each hole structure. A measured gas gain of approximately 7500 is attained for this new G-GEM with a single-sided guard-ring structure using a gas mixture of Ar (90%) and CH4 (10%) in the gas flow mode. An energy resolution of 17.3% (FWHM) is also achieved with a collimated 6 keV X-ray beam. The results of a 10 to 12 hour gas gain stability measurements are also shown. (author)

  7. A preliminary geochemical study of sedimentary gem deposits of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geochemical abundances of 22 elements from the < 0.63 μm fraction of gem-bearing alluvial gravel from the main gem fields of Sri Lanka have been studied. These abundances are compared with those in the probable source rocks. Be and Zr are generally enriched in the gem-bearing sediments compared with most alkali and alkaline earths, which are depleted. When compared to the metal contents of average shales, the < 0.63 μm fraction of the gem sediments of Sri Lanka is enriched in Be, Zr, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn. The charnockites and the gneisses of the area are rich in most of these elements and in the gem-bearing sediments, they are presumably found in diadochic substitution in minerals, or adsorbed by a variety of clay minerals, secondary Fe and Mn hydroxides and oxides and primary minerals. (author)

  8. PREFACE: Science's gem: diamond science 2009 Science's gem: diamond science 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwood, Alison; Newton, Mark E.; Stoneham, Marshall

    2009-09-01

    Natural diamond has been valued for its appearance and mechanical properties for at least two thousand years. As a gem stone diamond is unsurpassed. However, scientific work, especially in the last 20 years, has demonstrated that diamond has numerous surprising properties and many unique ones. Some of the extreme properties have been known for many years, but the true scale of diamond's other highly desirable features is still only coming to light as control in the synthesis of diamond, and hence material perfection, improves. The ultimate prize for man-made diamond is surely not in the synthesis of gem stones, but in delivering technological solutions enabled by diamond to the challenges facing our society today. If the special properties are to be exploited to their full potential, at least four crucial factors must be considered. First, there must be sufficient scientific understanding of diamond to make applications effective, efficient and economical. Secondly, the means of fabrication and control of properties have to be achieved so that diamond's role can be optimised. Thirdly, it is not enough that its properties are superior to existing materials: they must be so much better that it is worth initiating new technologies to exploit them. Finally, any substantial applications will have to address the society's major needs worldwide. The clear technology drivers for the 21st century come from the biomedical technologies, the demand for energy subject to global constraints, and the information technologies, where perhaps diamond will provide the major enabling technology [1]. The papers in this volume concern the solid state physics of diamond, and primarily concern the first two factors: understanding, and control of properties. They address many of the outstanding basic problems, such as the identification of existing defects, which affect the material's properties, both desirable and less so. Regarding future substantial applications, one paper discusses

  9. Pattern recognition for a continuously operating GEM-TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pattern recognition software for a continuously operating high rate Time Projection Chamber with Gas Electron Multiplier amplification (GEM-TPC) has been designed and tested. A track-independent clustering algorithm delivers space points. A true 3-dimensional track follower combines them to helical tracks, without constraints on the vertex position. Fast helix fits, based on a conformal mapping on the Riemann sphere, are the basis for deciding whether points belong to one track. The software has been tested on simulated as well as on real data taken in a physics run of the GEM-TPC prototype installed in the FOPI detector at GSI facility, Germany. To assess the performance of the algorithm in a high-rate environment, anti pp-interactions corresponding to a maximum average track density of 0.5 cm/cm3 have been simulated. The pattern recognition is capable of finding all kinds of track topologies with high efficiency and provides excellent seed values for fitting or online event selection. Computational costs are O(50) ms/track on a 3.1 GHz office PC. Parallel implementation of the code on a graphics processing unit (GPU) is under investigation. Structure, functioning and benchmark results of the algorithm are presented.

  10. Two-dimensional position sensitive ionization chamber with GEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Noritaka; Noro, Tetsuo; Sakaguchi, Satoshi; Takao, Hideaki; Nishio, Yasutaka

    2014-09-01

    We have been developing a multi-anode ionization chamber for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at Kyushu University. Furthermore, we are planning to construct a neutron detector with high position resolution by combining the chamber with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) and a neutron converter. One of purposes is the measurement of p-> , pn knockout reaction from unstable nuclei. The multi-anode ionization chamber is composed of subdivided multiple anodes, a cathode to produce an uniform electric field, and a Frisch grid. The chamber must have position sensitivity because obtaining a beam profile is required for AMS measurements, where counting loss should be avoided. Also in the case of the neutron detector, it is necessary to measure the position to deduce the scattering angles. We have recently established a two-dimensional position readout system by the following methods: the measurement of horizontal position is enabled by trimming some anodes into wedge-like shape, and vertical position can be determined by the ratio of induced charge on the grid to the total charge on anodes. In addition, improvement of S/N ratio is important for isotope separation and position resolution. We installed a rectangular-shaped GEM and tried improving S/N ratio by electron amplification.

  11. Towards a GEM-based TPC for PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is a very promising option for the central tracker of the PANDA experiment at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt, Germany. Installed in a ring-type experiment with 2 x 107 p anti p annihilations per second it has to be operated continuously despite the presence of space charge effects. These are kept at a bearable level using GEM-based amplification providing an intrinsic suppression of ion backflow. The system promises high-accuracy tracking as well as information on the specific energy-loss and features high momentum resolution of 1% as well as particle-identification capability with a highly homogeneous and low material budget. As a prototype of a PANDA TPC a large-volume detector with a ring-cylindrical shape of the drift volume with diameters of 10/30 cm and 73 cm length has been set up. A triple-GEM stack serves as an amplification stage. The signals of 10254 hexagonal pads are read out using front end cards based on the AFTER-T2K chip. Two copies of this system will be installed and employed in 2011 within both the FOPI spectrometer at GSI and the Crystal-Barrel experiment at ELSA in Bonn. In this contribution, we will present the status of the project; report on the design and construction of the detector system as well as results obtained during the commissioning and first beam experiments.

  12. New developments for the GEM-based TPC for PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PANDA experiment is an internal target experiment at the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt. A TPC is proposed as the central tracker due to its good position and momentum resolution, its low material budget, and its particle identification capabilities via ionization measurements. The continuous nature of the antiproton beam makes the use of a traditional ion gate impractical and hence GEM foils are used for gas amplification, due to their intrinsic ion back flow suppression properties. A small prototype of this GEM-TPC (diameter 200mm, drift length 77mm) has been built and characterized with cosmic muons using a rectangular pad readout structure. The chamber has recently been upgraded with a new readout plane with hexagonal pads, and new front end electronics, based on the AFTER ASIC. The performance of the detector is expected to improve significantly and is currently being studied at a beam test at the ELSA accelerator at Bonn. Preliminary results are presented in this talk.

  13. The stable K0 giant star β Gem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, David F., E-mail: dfgray@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-12-01

    A nine-season spectroscopic study of the photosphere of β Gem (K0 III) shows this low-luminosity giant to be stable, with no effective temperature variations above ∼2 K, and no secular temperature variations over the 2002-2010 time span above 0.2 K per year. The radial-velocity variations are consistent with an orbital variation of ∼40 m s{sup –1}. The projected rotation rate is found to be 1.70 ± 0.20 km s{sup –1} with a macroturbulence dispersion of 4.53 ± 0.10 km s{sup –1}. The third-signature plot is also invariant and shows a granulation velocity gradient 20% smaller than the solar gradient. The absolute shift of the third-signature plot gives a blueshift-corrected radial velocity of 3385 ± 70 m s{sup –1}. Bisector mapping of the Fe I λ6253 line yields a flux deficit of 12% ± 1% in area, somewhat smaller than for other giants, but the shape and the position of the peak at 4.8 km s{sup –1} is consistent with other giants. All of the investigated photospheric parameters are consistent with β Gem being a low-luminosity giant in agreement with its absolute magnitude.

  14. Enantioselektive Transferhydrierung mit Ruthenium(II)-Komplexen

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Frauke

    2003-01-01

    Eine Vielzahl chiraler Liganden und Komplexe wurden als Katalysatoren in der enantioselektiven Transferhydrierung von Acetophenon mit den Wasserstoffdonoren 2-Propanol und Ameisensäure getestet. Vier dreizähnige axial chirale Binaphthyle erzielen in situ mit Tris-(triphenylphosphanyl)ruthenium(II)-chlorid hohe Enantiomerenüberschüsse von bis zu 98% und Ausbeuten über 90% unter optimierten Reaktionsbedingungen. Es wird ein deutlicher OH-Effekt beobachtet, während ein NH-Effekt nicht bestätigt ...

  15. Herstellung von Metallkomplexen mit schwefelreichen Liganden

    OpenAIRE

    Chrzanowski, Lars Stefan von

    2005-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und Charakterisierung von neuen Übergangsmetallkomplexen der ersten und zweiten Nebengruppe mit schwefelreichen Liganden. Die neuen Thiokronenetherkomplexe (1,4,7,10-Tetrathiacyclododecan)silber(I)trifluoromethansulfonat 5, Di(3,6,9,14-Tetrathiabicyclo-[9.2.1]tetradeca-11,13-dien)silber(I)trifluoromethansulfonat 6, (1,4,7,10,13,16-Hexathiacyclooctadecan)silber(I)trifluoromethansulfonat 7 und Diiodo(1,4,7,10,13,16-Hexathiacyclooctadecan)...

  16. 3. Zusammenarbeit mit Osteuropa und der GUS

    OpenAIRE

    Guggenbühl, Tanja; Tschumi Canosa, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Die neue Rechtsgrundlage für die Zusammenarbeit mit den Staaten Osteuropas und der Gemeinschaft Unabhängiger Staaten (GUS) trat am 1. Juni 2007 in Kraft. Sie ist sowohl für den Beitrag der Schweiz zur Erweiterung der Europäischen Union (EU) als auch für die Zusammenarbeit mit den Oststaaten massgebend. Während der Bundesrat eine Kürzung der Mittel für die Ostzusammenarbeit vorgesehen hatte, um dadurch einen Teil der Finanzierung der Kohäsionsmilliarde zu kompensieren, konnte der Rahmenkredit ...

  17. Entwicklung eines Ultraschallkatheters mit integriertem Mikroantrieb

    OpenAIRE

    Ledworuski, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    In der medizinischen Diagnostik werden Ultraschallkatheter häufig eingesetzt, um Gefäße wie z. B. Arterien oder den Gallengang auf Ablagerungen und krankhafte Veränderungen zu untersuchen und diese in einem sehr frühen Stadium zu erkennen. Voraussetzung dafür ist eine kontrastreiche Gefäßdarstellung mit guter Auflösung. Kathetersysteme aus dem Bereich des intravaskulären Ultraschalls (IVUS) und Minisonden des endoskopischen Ultraschalls (EUS) erzeugen zirkuläre Ultraschallbilder mit dem Ultra...

  18. Flexible Stromerzeugung mit Mikro-KWK-Anlagen

    OpenAIRE

    Lipp, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Die Arbeit realisiert eine flexible Stromerzeugung mit Mikro-KWK-Anlagen. Hierfür wird eine intelligente Speichereinsatzplanung unter Zuhilfenahme einer Wärmebedarfsprognose umgesetzt. Letztere fließt in einen Optimierungsalgorithmus ein, deren Zielgröße die Maximierung der generierbaren Erlöse anhand der EEX-Preise ist. Dieser erzeugt BHKW-Fahrpläne und Speichereinsatzpläne. Für deren Umsetzung wird eine intelligente Regelung programmiert, so dass im Zusammenwirken mit dem flexib...

  19. Rationales und kombinatorisches Protein-Engineering mit Lipocalinen

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Jan-Peter Mayer

    2013-01-01

    Mit dem Ziel, künstliche Proteine mit biokatalytischen Eigenschaften zu selektieren, wurden hochkomplexe Zufalls-Bibliotheken erzeugt und unter eigens entwickelten Selektionsbedingungen auf enzymatische Aktivität durchmustert, wobei die Komplementierung eines unterbrochenen bakteriellen Stoffwechselwegs als Kriterium diente. Weiterhin wurde ein Anticalin mit Spezifität für Digoxigenin biophysikalisch charakterisiert und als Fusionsprotein mit β-Lactamasen sowie einer optimierten Alkalischen P...

  20. Sexualisierte Gewalt gegen Menschen mit Behinderung in Institutionen

    OpenAIRE

    Zemp, Aiha

    2002-01-01

    Es werden zwei Studien vorgestellt: "'Weil das alles weh tut mit Gewalt' - Sexuelle Ausbeutung von Mädchen und Frauen mit Behinderung" (Zemp u. Pircher 1996) und "Sexualisierte Gewalt im behinderten Alltag - Jungen und Männer mit Behinderung als Opfer und Täter" (Zemp et al. 1997). In den vorliegenden Untersuchungen haben wir uns auf Frauen und Männer mit Behinderung konzentriert, die aufgrund ihrer körperlichen, geistigen und/oder psychischen Behinderung in einer Institution leben. S...

  1. Decadal predictions with the HiGEM high resolution global coupled climate model: description and basic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffrey, LC; Stevens, David; Hodson, D.; Robson, J.; Hawkins, E.; Polo, I; Stevens, Ian; Sutton, RT; Lister, G.; Iwi, AM; Smith, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and basic evaluation of decadal predictions produced using the HiGEM coupled climate model. HiGEM is a higher resolution version of the HadGEM1 Met Office Unified Model. The horizontal resolution in HiGEM has been increased to 1.25◦ × 0.83◦ in longitude and latitude for the atmosphere, and 1/3◦ × 1/3◦ globally for the ocean. The HiGEM decadal predictions are initialised using an anomaly assimilation scheme that relaxes anomalies of ocean temperature and sa...

  2. The MIT bagmodel and some spectroscopic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author studies the MIT bag model in a simple approximation and applies it to the static properties of the light hadrons. Another approximation is then studied, better adapted to the study of all-quark states with baryon number B = 2 to 6. Finally, the spectroscopic properties of the Q2 anti Q2 system is investigated. (G.T.H.)

  3. Sport bei Patienten mit angeborenen Herzfehlern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel H

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Angeborene Herzfehler sind die häufigsten angeborenen Defekte, die bei ca. 0,8 % aller Geburten vorkommen. Diese hohe Inzidenz der kongenitalen Herzdefekte (CHD bedingt, daß Kardiologen und Leistungsphysiologen nicht selten diese Patienten evaluieren, behandeln und Empfehlungen in bezug auf die körperliche Belastbarkeit abgeben müssen. Diese Richtlinien wurden zuletzt für "Wettkampfsportler" in der "26th Bethesda Conference" veröffentlicht. Die meisten der Patienten mit CHD planen jedoch keine Teilnahme am Wettkampf, sondern wünschen sich einen aktiveren Lebensstil mit sportlichen Aktivitäten aus Freude an der Bewegung oder wegen des Gesundheitsbenefits. Ebenso wie die Lebenserwartung dieser Patienten ansteigt, steigt auch die Inzidenz für Krankheiten wie koronare Herzerkrankung, Hypertonie oder Diabetes, die in einer erwachsenen Population auftreten. Konsequenterweise spielt auch die Prävention atherosklerotischer Veränderungen von kardiovaskulären Risikofaktoren eine immer größere Rolle. Daneben brauchen Patienten mit CHD eine konkrete Anleitung für ein Trainingsprogramm, um eine verbesserte Belastungstoleranz, vermehrtes Wohlbefinden und andere positive psychische Effekte zu erreichen. Dieser Artikel bezieht sich auf den aktuellen Wissensstand über körperliche Belastungen der Patienten mit angeborenem Herzfehler und beinhaltet diesbezügliche praxisbezogene Empfehlungen.

  4. Abbildendes Mikrowellen-Spektrometer mit Apertursynthese

    OpenAIRE

    Jirousek, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird die neuartige Kombination des hochauflösenden radiometrischen Abbildungsverfahrens Apertursynthese mit einer spektralen Messung untersucht und im System ANSAS umgesetzt. Diese Verknüpfung ermöglicht z.B. in der Fernerkundung eine umfangreichere Erdbeobachtung zur genaueren Erfassung geophysikalischer Parameter. Die messtechnische Verifikation wurde anhand verschiedener Abbildungsszenarien untersucht und damit die Machbarkeit eines solchen Systemkonzepts demonstriert.

  5. Mit Mischkulturen die inländische Eiweissversorgung verbessern

    OpenAIRE

    Clerc, Maurice; Klaiss, Matthias; Messmer, Monika; Arncken, Christine; Dierauer, Hansueli; Hegglin, Django; Böhler, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Mischkulturen von Körnerleguminosen mit Getreide sind vielversprechend, um wirtschaftlich und ressourceneffizient heimische Proteinpflanzen zu produzieren. Seit 2009 hat das FiBL in Zusammenarbeit mit Biolandwirten Praxisversuche angelegt, um gemeinsam geeignete Anbauverfahren für Schweizer Bedingungen zu entwickeln. Getestet wurde eine Vielzahl von Mischungsverhältnissen sowie von Arten- und Sortenkombinationen. Als standardisierte praxisreife Anbauverfahren wurden Mischkulturen mit Prote...

  6. Wrestling with Pedagogical Change: The TEAL Initiative at MIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, Lori

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the physics department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) had a problem. The department was responsible for teaching the two required physics courses that are part of the General Institute Requirements (GIRs), MIT's core curriculum--Physics I (mechanics, or in MIT parlance, 8.01) and Physics II (electricity and…

  7. Simulation of the dielectric charging-up effect in a GEM detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsi, M., E-mail: Matteo.Alfonsi@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Croci, G.; Duarte Pinto, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Rocco, E. [INFN Torino and University of Eastern Piedmont (Italy); Ropelewski, L. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Sauli, F. [TERA Foundation, Novara (Italy); Veenhof, R.; Villa, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-04-11

    The charging up effect is well-known in detectors containing dielectric materials and it is due to electrons and ions liberated in an avalanche and collected on the dielectric surfaces. In particular in Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based detectors, charges can be captured by the Kapton that separates top and bottom electrodes. The collection of a substantial number of charges on the dielectric surfaces induces a modification of the field inside the GEM holes that implies important consequences on some fundamental parameters such as the electron transparency and the effective gain. The correct simulation of this effect opens new ways to the detailed study of the processes that happens in a GEM-based detector and gives the possibility to optimise the GEM geometry in order to avoid it. This paper compares results of the measurements and the simulations, with and without the introduction of the charging-up effect, of the GEM electron transparency in the case of a single GEM detector. The introduction of the charging up effect in the simulation resulted to be crucial in order to get the proper agreement with the measurements. The measurements and simulations of the GEM effective gain will be the subject of a future work.

  8. Development of Thick-foil and Fine-pitch GEMs with a Laser Etching Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Tamagawa, T; Asami, F; Abe, K; Iwamoto, S; Nakamura, S; Hayato, A; Iwahashi, T; Konami, S; Hamagaki, H; Yamaguchi, Y L; Tawara, H; Makishima, K; 10.1016/j.nima.2009.07.014

    2009-01-01

    We have produced thick-foil and fine-pitch gas electron multipliers (GEMs) using a laser etching technique. To improve production yield we have employed a new material, Liquid Crystal Polymer, instead of polyimide as an insulator layer. The effective gain of the thick-foil GEM with a hole pitch of 140 um, a hole diameter of 70 um, and a thickness of 100 um reached a value of 10^4 at an applied voltage of 720 V. The measured effective gain of the thick-foil and fine-pitch GEM (80 um pitch, 40 um diameter, and 100 um thick) was similar to that of the thick-foil GEM. The gain stability was measured for the thick-foil and fine-pitch GEM, showing no significant increase or decrease as a function of elapsed time from applying the high voltage. The gain stability over 3 h of operation was about 0.5%. Gain mapping across the GEM showed a good uniformity with a standard deviation of about 4%. The distribution of hole diameters across the GEM was homogeneous with a standard deviation of about 3%. There was no clear cor...

  9. Large size GEM for Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) polarimeter for Hall A 12 GeV program at JLab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the R&D effort in the design and construction of a large size Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for the Proton Polarimeter Back Tracker (BT) of the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) in Hall A at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab). The SBS BT GEM trackers consist of two sets of five large GEM chambers of size 60×200 cm2. The GEM chamber is a vertical stack of four GEM modules, each with an active area of 60×50 cm2. We have built and tested several prototypes and the construction of GEM modules for SBS BT is ongoing. We describe in this paper the design and construction of the GEM module prototype as well as the preliminary results on performance from tests carried out in our detector lab and during test beam at Fermi National Laboratory (Fermilab)

  10. Characterization of a scintillating GEM detector with low energy x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seravalli, E; de Boer, M R; Geurink, F; Huizenga, J; Kreuger, R; Schippers, J M; van Eijk, C W E

    2008-11-01

    A two-dimensional position-sensitive dosimetry system based on a scintillating gas detector is being developed with the aim of using it for pre-treatment verification of dose distributions in charged particle therapy. The dosimetry system consists of a chamber filled with an Ar/CF(4) scintillating gas mixture, inside which two cascaded gas electron multipliers (GEMs) are mounted. A GEM is a thin kapton foil with copper cladding structured with a regular pattern of sub-mm holes. In such a system, light quanta are emitted by the scintillating gas mixture during the electron avalanches in the GEM holes when radiation traverses the detector. The light intensity distribution is proportional to the energy deposited in the detector's sensitive volume by the beam. In the present work, we investigated the optimization of the scintillating GEM detector light yield. The light quanta are detected by means of a CCD camera or a photomultiplier tube coupled to a monochromator. The GEM charge signal is measured simultaneously. We have found that with 60 microm diameter double conical GEM holes, a brighter light signal and a higher electric signal are obtained than with 80 microm diameter holes. With an Ar + 8% CF(4) volume concentration, the highest voltage across the GEMs and the largest light and electric signals were reached. Moreover, we have found that the emission spectrum of Ar/CF(4) is independent of (1) the voltages applied across the GEMs, (2) the x-ray beam intensity and (3) the GEM hole diameter. On the other hand, the ratio of Ar to CF(4) peaks in the spectrum changes when the concentration of the latter gas is varied. PMID:18854612

  11. Gem-quality Turkish purple jade: Geological and mineralogical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat; Başevirgen, Yasemin; Chamberlain, Steven C.

    2012-02-01

    In the Harmancık-Bursa region of the western Anatolia (Turkey), an extensive contact metamorphic aureole at the border between the Late Mesozoic coherent metaclastic rocks of blueschist facies and the Early Senozoic intrusive granodiorite stock hosts an interesting and unique gem material with a mineral assemblage consisting mainly of jadeite, quartz, orthoclase, epidote, chloritoid, and phlogopite as identified by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and polarized-light microscopy. In addition, chemical analyses performed with X-ray fluorescence and inductive-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy show that the mass of the metamorphic aureole has a silica-rich, calc-alkaline chemical content. Therefore, some rock building elements (such as Al, Ca, Na, K, P, Sr, and B of which characterize an acidic-neutral rock formation) and trace elements (such as Fe, Cr, Mn, Be, Cu, Ga, La, Ni, Pb, and Zn) are remarkable high ratios. Pale purple-colored gem material of this composition appears to be unique to Turkey, also is only found in one narrow provenance in Turkey. Therefore, it is specially called "Turkish (and/or Anatolian) purple jade" on the worldwide gem market. Even though the mineral jadeite is the principal constituent, 40% by volume as determined with petrographic thin-section examination under a polarized-light microscope, the material cannot be considered pure jadeite. Specific gravity measurements of the jade using a hydrostatic balance confirm that it has a heterogeneous structure. The measured average specific gravity of 3.04, is significantly lower than the normal range for characterized jadeites of 3.24-3.43. Turkish purple jade samples were examined in detail using dispersive confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy (DCμRS) as well as other well-known analytical methods. The resulting strong micro-Raman bands that peaked at 1038, 984, 697, 571, 521, 464, 430, 372, 326, 307, 264, and 201 cm -1 are characteristics of the Turkish purple jade. The first most

  12. How Complete is the ISC-GEM Global Earthquake Catalog?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    In January, 2013, the International Seismological Centre (ISC), in collaboration with the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) effort, released a new global earthquake catalog, covering the time period from 1900 through the end of 2009. The ISC-GEM catalog effort made substantial improvements over existing catalogs by adding new phase data, relocating all events using one method, and reviewing and revising magnitudes. In order to use this catalog for global earthquake studies, I determined the magnitude of completeness (Mc) as a function of time. First, I divided the catalog into 7 time periods based on major changes in catalog processing and data availability. For each time period, I used 4 objective methods to determine Mc, with uncertainties determined by non-parametric bootstrapping. Due to differences between the 4 methods, the final Mc was determined subjectively by examining the features that each method focused on in both the cumulative and binned magnitude frequency distributions (MFD). Features which were subjectively rejected as correct Mc determinations included complications in the MFD at high magnitudes well above a linear portion of the MFD, large curvature of the MFD at magnitudes below smaller curvatures, and changes in the MFD that were actually in an increase above a Gutenberg-Richter distribution with decreasing magnitude. The high end of the bootstrap confidence range was preferred so that there is 95% confidence that Mc is not underestimated. The time periods and Mc values are: 1900-1917, Mc=7.7; 1918-1939 Mc=6.8; 1940-1954, Mc=6.8; 1955-1963, Mc=6.5; 1964-1975, Mc=6.0; 1976-2003, Mc=5.8; and 2004-2009, Mc=5.7. Using these Mc values for the longest time periods they are valid for (e.g. 1918-2009, 1940-2009,...) the data fits a Gutenberg-Richter relationship with b=1.0 and a=8.3, within 1 std. dev, with no declustering. The exception is for time periods that include 1900-1917 in which there are only 28 events with M≥Mc and the largest event is only

  13. An Approach from Knowledge Dust to Gems (Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Most businesses rely on the fact that their employees possess relevant knowledge and that they can apply it to the task at hand. The problem is that this knowledge is not owned by the organization. It is owned and controlled by its employees. Maintaining an appropriate level of knowledge in the organization is a very important issue. It is, however, not an easy task for most organizations and it is particularly problematic for software organizations, which are human and knowledge intensive. Knowledge management is a relatively new area that has attempted to address these problems. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study introduces an approach called the Knowledge Dust to Gems approach. This approach addresses some of the issues with knowledge management by providing low-barrier mechanisms to “jump start” the experience base. This approach allows the experience base to become more useful more quickly than traditional approaches.

  14. Operation of a GEM-TPC with pixel readout

    CERN Document Server

    Brezina, C; Kaminski, J; Killenberg, M; Krautscheid, T

    2012-01-01

    A prototype time projection chamber with 26 cm drift length was operated with a short-spaced triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) stack in a setup triggering on cosmic muon tracks. A small part of the anode plane is read out with a CMOS pixel application-specified integrated circuit (ASIC) named Timepix, which provides ultimate readout granularity. Pixel clusters of charge depositions corresponding to single primary electrons are observed and analyzed to reconstruct charged particle tracks. A dataset of several weeks of cosmic ray data is analyzed. The number of clusters per track length is well described by simulation. The obtained single point resolution approaches 50 m at short drift distances and is well reproduced by a simple model of single-electron diffusion.

  15. Particle tracking with a Timepix based triple GEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper details the response of a triple GEM detector with a 55 μmetre pitch pixelated ASIC for readout. The detector is operated as a micro TPC with 9.5 cm3 sensitive volume and characterized with a mixed beam of 120 GeV protons and positive pions. A process for reconstruction of incident particle tracks from individual ionization clusters is described and scans of the gain and drift fields are performed. The angular resolution of the measured tracks is characterized. Also, the readout was operated in a mixed mode where some pixels measure drift time and others charge. This was used to measure the energy deposition in the detector and the charge cloud size as a function of interaction depth. The future uses of the device, including in microdosimetry are discussed

  16. Development of Thick-foil and Fine-pitch GEMs with a Laser Etching Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Tamagawa, T.; Asami, F.; Abe, K.; Iwamoto, S.; Nakamura, S.; Hayato, A.; Iwahashi, T.; Konami, S.; Hamagaki, H.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Tawara, H.; Makishima, K.

    2009-01-01

    We have produced thick-foil and fine-pitch gas electron multipliers (GEMs) using a laser etching technique. To improve production yield we have employed a new material, Liquid Crystal Polymer, instead of polyimide as an insulator layer. The effective gain of the thick-foil GEM with a hole pitch of 140 um, a hole diameter of 70 um, and a thickness of 100 um reached a value of 10^4 at an applied voltage of 720 V. The measured effective gain of the thick-foil and fine-pitch GEM (80 um pitch, 40 ...

  17. A triple-GEM detector for high-rate particle triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that adding CF4 to the standard Ar/CO2 gas mixture allows to substantially improve the time resolution of triple-GEM detectors. In this paper we discuss measurements of time resolution, discharge probability per incident charged particle and pad multiplicity of a triple-GEM detector with pad readout, with new gas mixtures with CF4 and isobutane. Results for detectors with GEM foil size of both 10x10 cm2 and 20x24 cm2 are presented

  18. Overview of the GEM muon system cosmic ray test program at the SSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muon track resolution exceeding 75-μm per plane is one of the main strengths of the GEM detector design, and will be crucial in searches for Higgs Bosons, heavy Z-Bosons, technicolor, and supersymmetry. Achieving this resolution coal requires improved precision in muon chambers and their alignment. A cosmic ray test stand known as the Texas Test Rio, (TTR) has been created at the SSCL for studying candidate GEM muon chamber technologies. Test results led to selecting Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) as the GEM muon system baseline chamber technology

  19. Characteristics of a glass gem with a guard-ring structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recently developed a Glass GEM (G-GEM), and it exhibited a superior performance compared with other gaseous detectors. We are currently developing a G-GEM with a single-sided guard ring structure, in order to improve its spark tolerance. In this research, we compared its performance with that of a conventional hole structure. The single-sided guard-ring structure has shown strong polarity when it was operated upside down, however, the similar output pulse shapes were observed for both cases. The gain curves were consistent with simulation results. The energy resolutions were also compared

  20. Pattern recognition for the PANDA GEM-TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PANDA fixed target experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany, will investigate fundamental questions of non-perturbative QCD. It will make use of a cooled, continuous antiproton beam (impinging on a hydrogen target) with momenta from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c, reaching a anti pp-annihilation rate of 2.107s-1. One option for the central tracker of the target spectrometer is a cylindrical, ungated, continuously running Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with GEM-based gas amplification stage. The chamber is designed to be 150 cm long with an outer radius of 41.5 cm and will be read out by ∝100.000 pickup electrodes. In this setup, several thousand tracks will be stored inside the TPC volume at any given time, leading to sustained data rates of ∝50 GB s-1 in the TPC alone. On top of such technical challenges, PANDA is designed to run without a 1st-level hardware trigger, making powerful online data processing indispensable. Most importantly, in order to filter out interesting signatures from the purely time-stamped track data and associate information from different detectors uniquely to distinct physics events, fast and efficient online pattern recognition methods will play a central role. Several methods, which are presently being studied - testing them on simulated data as well as data recently taken with a large GEM-TPC prototype (over 10.000 readout channels) - are discussed, complemented by first results from simulated and real events.

  1. Development of a GEM-based TPC for PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is a very promising option for the central tracker of the PANDA experiment at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt, Germany. Installed in a ring-type experiment with 2x107 p anti p annihilations per second it has to be operated continuously despite the presence of space charge effects. These are kept at a bearable level using GEM-based amplification providing an intrinsic suppression of ion backflow. The system promises high-accuracy tracking as well as information on the specific energy-loss and features high momentum resolution of 1% as well as particle-identification capability with a highly homogeneous and low material budget. A test TPC with an active volume of 8 cm length and a diameter of 20 cm was operated in 2009 at the test-bench of the CB-ELSA experiment in Bonn. It served to investigate some of the relevant design features, the electronic foreseen for the readout as well as the analysis procedures. A large-volume TPC with a drift length of 70 cm and an active diameter of 30 cm is being built in parallel. Due to its very similar design it serves as a precursor prototype of a PANDA TPC. This detector is installed and employed within both the FOPI spectrometer at GSI and the Crystal-Barrel experiment at ELSA in Bonn. In this talk, we present the status of the project; report on the results obtained with the test detector as well as the design and construction of the GEM-TPC prototype.

  2. Therapeutisches Drug Monitoring von Ribavirin bei Patienten mit chronischer Hepatitis C und Patienten mit einer Koinfektion mit dem Hepatitis-C-Virus und dem Humanen Immundefizienz-Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Romberg, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Weltweit sind etwa 170 Millionen Menschen chronisch mit Hepatits-C-Virus (HCV) infiziert, in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland leben ca. 500.000 HCV-Infizierte. Ein großes Problem bereitet die hohe Chronifizierungsrate der Erkrankung mit 60 – 80 %. Die Therapieerfolge konnten deutlich gesteigert werden, seitdem die Behandlung aus Interferon in Kombination mit Ribavirin besteht. Es gibt jedoch noch immer viele Patienten, die unzureichend auf die Therapie ansprechen. Es ist Gegenstand der For-schu...

  3. Flight research with the MIT Daedalus prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussolari, Steven R.; Youngren, Harold H.; Langford, John S.

    1987-01-01

    The MIT Light Eagle human-powered aircraft underwent long-duration testing over Rogers Dry Lake in California during January, 1987. Designed as a prototype for the MIT Daedalus Project, the Light Eagle's forty-eight flights provided pilot training, established new distance records for human-powered flight, and provided quantitative data through a series of instrumented flight experiments. The experiments focused on: (1) evaluating physiological loads on the pilot, (2) determining airframe power requirements, and (3) developing an electronic flight control system. This paper discusses the flight test program, its results and their implications for the follow-on Daedalus aircraft, and the potential uses of the Light Eagle as a low Reynolds number testbed.

  4. Quality control for the first large areas of triple GEM chambers for the CMS endcaps

    CERN Document Server

    Tytgat, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The CMS GEM collaboration plans to equip the very forward muon system with triple GEM detectors that can withstand the environment of the high-luminosity LHC. This project is at the final stages of R and D and moving to production. An unprecedented large area of several 100m2 are to be instrumented with GEM detectors which will be produced in six different sites around the world. A common construction and quality control procedure is required to ensure the performance of each detector. The quality control steps will include optical inspection, cleaning and baking of all materials and parts used to build the detector, leakage current tests of the GEM foils, high voltage tests, gas leak tests of the chambers and monitoring pressure drop vs. time, gain calibration to know the optimal operation region of the detector, gain uniformity tests, and studying the efficiency, noise and tracking performance of the detectors in a cosmic stand using scintillators.

  5. Gain Characteristics of a 100μm thick Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) invented by F. Sauli [1] consists of high density holes etched in 50μm thick copper clad Kapton foil. This study, however, investigated the basic charge gain characteristics of a non-standard 100μm thick Gas Electron Multiplier, fabricated using the same wet chemical etch process at CERN. It was possible to sustain charge gains of 3×103 and 1×104 using single and double stage configurations, respectively, operated in an Ar(70%)-CO2(30%) gas mixture. These values are similar to those achieved with standard GEMs. Crucially, we found that the thicker GEM is more robust as it withstood sparking without catastrophic failure. We also measured the gain dependence on ambient variables such as pressure and temperature and found the gain sensitivity to be 4.0 K/mbar, compared with 1.55 K/mbar for the standard GEM

  6. The status of the GEM project for CMS high-$\\eta$ muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Armagnaud, C; Aspell, P; Assran, Y; Bally, S; Ban, Y; Barria, P; Benussi, L; Berzano, U; Bianco, S; Bos, J; Bunkowski, K; Cai, J; Chatelain, J.P; Christiansen, J; Colafranceschi, S; Colaleo, A; Conde Garcia, A; David, E; De Lentdecker, G; De Oliveira, R; De Robertis, G; Duarte Pinto, S; Ferry, S; Formenti, F; Franconi, L; Fruboes, T; Gutierrez, A; Hohlmann, M; Kamel, A.E; Karchin, P.E; Loddo, F; Maerschalk, T; Magazzù, G; Maggi, M; Marchioro, A; Marinov, A; Mehta, K; Merlin, J; Mohapatra, A; Moulik, T; Nemallapudi, M.V; Nuzzo, S; Oliveri, E; Piccolo, D; Postema, H; Radi, A; Raffone, G; Rodrigues, A; Ropelewski, L; Saviano, G; Sharma, A; Smilkjovic, N; Staib, M.J; Teng, H; Tupputi, S.A; Turini, N; Tytgat, M; Villa, M; Yang, Y; Zaganidis, N; Zenoni, F; Zientek, M

    2013-01-01

    The dedicated CMS R&D program was intended to study the feasibility of using micropattern detectors for the instrumentation of the vacant j η j 4 1 : 6 region in the present Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) endcap system. The proposed detector for CMS is a Triple-Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) trapezoidal chamber, equipped with 1D readout. While during 2010 – 2011 the Collaboration worked on the prototyping of the detector, during the fi rst part of 2012 a newly developed assembly technique to be used for the mass production was adopted. GEMs can provide precision tracking and fast trigger information, contributing on one hand to the improvement of the CMS muon Trigger and on the other hand to provide the missing redundancy in the high η region. In the view of the next LHC long shutdown (LS1) the CMS GEM Collaboration designed and built four full-size Triple GEM-based muon detectors

  7. The gain in Thick GEM multipliers and its time-evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of a project to upgrade the gas photon detectors of COMPASS RICH-1, we have performed an R and D programme aimed to develop photon detectors based on multi-layer arrangements of thick GEM electron multipliers coupled to a CsI photoconverter. For this purpose, thick GEMs have been characterised in detail including the gain performance, its dependance on the geometrical parameters and its time-evolution, a feature exhibited by the gas detectors with open insulator surfaces. The variation due to this evolution drammatically depends on the parameters themselves. In the present article we summarise the outcomes of the studies dedicated to the thick GEM gain and its evolution versus time. We also include a qualitative model which accounts for the peculiar details of the observed thick GEM gain time-evolution

  8. GEM based detector for future upgrade of the CMS forward muon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaneo, D.; Armagnaud, C. [CERN Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Abbrescia, M. [Politecnico di Bari, Università di Bari (Italy); INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Aspell, P.; Bally, S. [CERN Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ban, Y. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Benussi, L. [Labortori Nazionali di Frascati INFN, Frascati (Italy); Berzano, U. [CERN Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bianco, S. [Labortori Nazionali di Frascati INFN, Frascati (Italy); Bos, J.; Bunkowski, K. [CERN Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Cai, J. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Chatelain, J.P.; Christiansen, J. [CERN Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Colafranceschi, S., E-mail: stefano.colafranceschi@cern.ch [CERN Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Colaleo, A. [Politecnico di Bari, Università di Bari (Italy); INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Conde Garcia, A.; David, E.; De Oliveira, R. [CERN Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Robertis, G. de [Politecnico di Bari, Università di Bari (Italy); INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); and others

    2013-08-01

    In view of an upgrade of the CMS experiment, the GEM for CMS collaboration is performing feasibility studies on employing Triple-GEM detectors for the high-η region (1.6–2.4) of the CMS endcaps. A detailed review of the development and characterization of the CMS full-size prototype baseline detector will be presented. GEMs have excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability and radiation hardness, they are an appealing option for simultaneously enhancing muon tracking and triggering capabilities in the high-η region. The GEM for CMS collaboration has studied the performance of small and full-size prototype detectors during several test beam campaigns in order to validate new technologies and techniques in view of a mass production for CMS experiment. Results from measurements with x-rays and from test beam campaigns at the CERN SPS will be shown from both small and large prototypes.

  9. GEM based detector for future upgrade of the CMS forward muon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of an upgrade of the CMS experiment, the GEM for CMS collaboration is performing feasibility studies on employing Triple-GEM detectors for the high-η region (1.6–2.4) of the CMS endcaps. A detailed review of the development and characterization of the CMS full-size prototype baseline detector will be presented. GEMs have excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability and radiation hardness, they are an appealing option for simultaneously enhancing muon tracking and triggering capabilities in the high-η region. The GEM for CMS collaboration has studied the performance of small and full-size prototype detectors during several test beam campaigns in order to validate new technologies and techniques in view of a mass production for CMS experiment. Results from measurements with x-rays and from test beam campaigns at the CERN SPS will be shown from both small and large prototypes

  10. The status of the GEM project for CMS high-η muon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dedicated CMS R and D program was intended to study the feasibility of using micropattern detectors for the instrumentation of the vacant |η|>1.6 region in the present Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) endcap system. The proposed detector for CMS is a Triple-Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) trapezoidal chamber, equipped with 1D readout. While during 2010–2011 the Collaboration worked on the prototyping of the detector, during the first part of 2012 a newly developed assembly technique to be used for the mass production was adopted. GEMs can provide precision tracking and fast trigger information, contributing on one hand to the improvement of the CMS muon Trigger and on the other hand to provide the missing redundancy in the high η region. In the view of the next LHC long shutdown (LS1) the CMS GEM Collaboration designed and built four full-size Triple GEM-based muon detectors

  11. Physics Studies for the CMS muon system upgrade with triple-GEM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CMS collaboration considers upgrading the muon forward region with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers, which are able to handle the extreme particle rates expected in this region along with a high spatial resolution. This allows to combine tracking and triggering capabilities, resulting in a lower trigger threshold along with improved muon identification and track reconstruction. In the last year the GEM project took a major leap forward by integrating triple-GEM chambers in the official CMS software, allowing physics studies to be carried out. Several benchmark analyses have been studied for the impact of such detector upgrade on the physics performance. In this contribution the status of the CMS upgrade project with the usage of GEM detector will be reviewed, discussing the trigger, the muon reconstruction performance, and the impact on the physics analyses

  12. Upgrade of the CMS muon system with triple-GEM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CMS collaboration considers upgrading the muon forward region which is particularly affected by the high-luminosity conditions at the LHC. The proposal involves Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers, which are able to handle the extreme particle rates expected in this region along with a high spatial resolution. This allows to combine tracking and triggering capabilities, which will improve the CMS muon High Level Trigger, the muon identification and the track reconstruction. Intense R and D has been going on since 2009 and it has lead to the development of several GEM prototypes and associated detector electronics. These GEM prototypes have been subjected to extensive tests in the laboratory and in test beams at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). This contribution will review the status of the CMS upgrade project with GEMs and its impact on the CMS performance

  13. Testing of large real-size GEM detector for CBM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector has been extensively used in many experiments for its excellent performance as a tracking detector. In CBM experiment, Muon Chamber detector (MUCH) for tracking muon, will be built using GEM based detector technology. In this direction several R and D has been performed with small to medium size triple GEM chambers. A real-size triple GEM detector proto-type, suitable for 1st detector station of MUCH detector, has been tested using high intensity proton beam of momentum 2.36 GeV/c at COSY, Germany. We get efficiency of detector >95 % at Δ VGEM = 371: 85 V. The variation of efficiency of the detector with rate of incoming particle is within 1%. The detector shows a gain of 3509 at ∆ Vgem = 375.18 Volt. The gain is stable with high rate of incoming particles with a small variation (∼9%)

  14. Thermal neutron response of a boron-coated GEM detector via GEANT4 Monte Carlo code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, M; Rhee, J T; Kim, H G; Ahmad, Farzana; Jeon, Y J

    2014-10-22

    In this work, we report the design configuration and the performance of the hybrid Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector. In order to make the detector sensitive to thermal neutrons, the forward electrode of the GEM has been coated with the enriched boron-10 material, which works as a neutron converter. A total of 5×5cm(2) configuration of GEM has been used for thermal neutron studies. The response of the detector has been estimated via using GEANT4 MC code with two different physics lists. Using the QGSP_BIC_HP physics list, the neutron detection efficiency was determined to be about 3%, while with QGSP_BERT_HP physics list the efficiency was around 2.5%, at the incident thermal neutron energies of 25meV. The higher response of the detector proves that GEM-coated with boron converter improves the efficiency for thermal neutrons detection. PMID:25464183

  15. Discriminating cosmic muon and x-ray based on rising time using GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hui-Yin, Wu; Xiao-Dong, Wang; Xian-Ming, Zhang; Hui-Rong, Qi; Wei, Zhang; Ke-Yan, Wu; Bi-Tao, Hu; Yi, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Gas electron multiplier(GEM) detector is used in Cosmic Muon Scattering Tomography and neutron imaging in the last decade. In this work, a triple GEM device with an effective readout area of 10 cm X 10 cm is developed, and an experiment of discriminating between cosmic muon and x-ray based on rising time is tested. The energy resolution of GEM detector is tested by 55Fe ray source to prove the GEM detector has a good performance. The analysis of the complete signal-cycles allows to get the rising time and pulse heights. The experiment result indicates that cosmic muon and x-ray can be discriminated with an appropriate rising time threshold.

  16. Entwicklung eines Extraktreinigungsverfahrens mit reduziertem Kalkverbrauch

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidizenouz, Azar

    2008-01-01

    Zur Einsparung von Kalk und Koks in der Extraktreinigung (Saftreinigung) der Zuckerfabrikation wurden in den letzten Jahren verstärkte Anstrengungen unternommen. Unterschiedliche Extraktreinigungsverfahren wurden entwickelt und getestet. Ein in der ZAFES (Zentralabteilung Forschung, Entwicklung und Services der Südzucker AG) entwickeltes Extraktreinigungsverfahren mit der Abtrennung einer eiweißhaltigen Fraktion aus dem vorgekalkten Extrakt (SZ/RT-Extraktreinigungsverfahren) führte zu einem d...

  17. Gentherapie der Rheumatoiden Arthritis mit foamyviralen Vektoren

    OpenAIRE

    Armbruster, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Die rheumatoide Arthritis (RA) ist eine Autoimmunerkrankung, die durch anhaltende Gelenksentzündungen gekennzeichnet ist und mit einer fortschreitenden Degradierung des Knorpels und Knochen einhergeht. Ungefähr 2 % der erwachsenen Bevölkerung weltweit sind betroffen und leiden unter erheblichen Gelenkschmerzen und Beeinträchtigungen. Der intraartikuläre Transfer anti-entzündlicher Gene (z.B. des Interleukin-1 Rezeptorantagonisten – IL1RA) zeigte signifikante Bedeutung in präklinischen und Pha...

  18. Fälschungsschutz mit RFID-Technologie

    OpenAIRE

    Staake, Thorsten; Thiesse, Frederic; Fleisch, Elgar

    2004-01-01

    Produktfälschungen stellen ein massives ökonomisches Problem dar. Technische Verfahren zum Schutz vor Fälschungen gewinnen bei Unternehmen zunehmend an Bedeutung. Vielversprechend ist in diesem Zusammenhang der Einsatz der RFIDTechnologie. Kombiniert mit einer geeigneten lT Infrastruktur lassen sich Mechanismen entwickeln, deren Sicherheitsniveau den Anforderungen flexibel angepasst werden kann und die eine automatisierte Überprüfung auf Echtheit ermöglichen.

  19. MIT App Inventor: Enabling Personal Mobile Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Pokress, Shaileen Crawford; Veiga, José Juan Dominguez

    2013-01-01

    MIT App Inventor is a drag-and-drop visual programming tool for designing and building fully functional mobile apps for Android. App Inventor promotes a new era of personal mobile computing in which people are empowered to design, create, and use personally meaningful mobile technology solutions for their daily lives, in endlessly unique situations. App Inventor's intuitive programming metaphor and incremental development capabilities allow the developer to focus on the logic for programming ...

  20. Textualizing cultures: thinking beyond the MIT controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines how the MIT Controversy hardened identities in terms of the timeworn template of geopolitical conflict of national stereotypes. It critically analyzes the Chinese students’ response to the “Visualizing Cultures” project by putting it in the context of the PRC’s patriotic education policy that securitizes culture by focusing on identity as difference in a zero-sum game that distinguishes civilization from barbarism, and China from the rest of the world. It cr...

  1. ß-Laktamasen mit breitem Wirkungsspektrum

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, Wolfgang; Mielke, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Als extended spectrum β-Laktamasen (ESBL) wurden ursprünglich plasmidkodierte Enzyme der Ambler-Klassifizierung A und D bezeichnet, die aufgrund von Aminosäureaustauschmutation( en) auch Cephalosporine der 3. und 4.Gruppe hydrolysieren. Die erweiterte Definition schließt β-Laktamasen der Klasse C sowie Carbapenemasen (vorwiegend Metallo-β-Laktamasen der Klasse B) mit ein.ESBL der Gruppe A wurden bei Enterobacteriaceae erstmals 1988 in Frankreich bekannt.Seither gibt es eine fortlau...

  2. Kurz zum Klima: Solarstromboom mit Nebenwirkungen

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Wackerbauer; Jana Lippelt

    2012-01-01

    Die deutsche Solarstrombranche befindet sich in einer Phase der Marktbereinigung. Der Sonnenstromboom geht mit Überkapazitäten bei den Herstellern von Solarzellen und Modulen und fallenden Preisen einher. Trotz einer großzügigen Förderung gerät die als Zukunftsindustrie bezeichnete deutsche Photovoltaikindustrie in eine Absatzkrise und die Förderung der Photovoltaik in Deutschland erweist sich als industriepolitisches Debakel: Während die asiatischen Produzenten gezielt ihre Marktanteile ausb...

  3. Aufgabenorientierte Kopplung von Sensoren mit unterschiedlichen Abtasteigenschaften

    OpenAIRE

    Robl, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Die Sensorkopplung auf Signal-Level für Regelungszwecke wird in drei funktionelle Blöcke - Synchronisation, Sensordatenvorverarbeitung und Sensordatenfusion - unterteilt. Es werden dafür Methoden erarbeitet und mit klassischen Verfahren verglichen. Die Sensoren werden anhand ihres Abtastverhaltens in vier Klassen unterteilt. Es werden dafür geeignete Simulationsmodelle abgeleitet. Die Erweiterung von MatLab/SimuLink ermöglicht die Verwendung des gleichen Blockschaltbilds für Software- und Har...

  4. Gem GTPase acts upstream Gmip/RhoA to regulate cortical actin remodeling and spindle positioning during early mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieu, Guillaume; Quaranta, Muriel; Leprince, Corinne; Cuvillier, Olivier; Hatzoglou, Anastassia

    2014-11-01

    Gem is a small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein within the Ras superfamily, involved in the regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity and cytoskeleton reorganization. Gem overexpression leads to stress fiber disruption, actin and cell shape remodeling and neurite elongation in interphase cells. In this study, we show that Gem plays a crucial role in the regulation of cortical actin cytoskeleton that undergoes active remodeling during mitosis. Ectopic expression of Gem leads to cortical actin disruption and spindle mispositioning during metaphase. The regulation of spindle positioning by Gem involves its downstream effector Gmip. Knockdown of Gmip rescued Gem-induced spindle phenotype, although both Gem and Gmip accumulated at the cell cortex. In addition, we implicated RhoA GTPase as an important effector of Gem/Gmip signaling. Inactivation of RhoA by overexpressing dominant-negative mutant prevented normal spindle positioning. Introduction of active RhoA rescued the actin and spindle positioning defects caused by Gem or Gmip overexpression. These findings demonstrate a new role of Gem/Gmip/RhoA signaling in cortical actin regulation during early mitotic stages. PMID:25173885

  5. Mishap Investigation Team (MIT) - Barksdale AFB, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepaniak, Philip

    2005-01-01

    The Shuttle Program is organized to support a Shuttle mishap using the resources of the MIT. The afternoon of Feb. 1, 2003, the MIT deployed to Barksdale AFB. This location became the investigative center and interim storage location for crewmembers received from the Lufkin Disaster Field Office (DFO). Working under the leadership of the MIT Lead, the medical team executed a short-term plan that included search, recovery, and identification including coordination with the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Temporary operations was set up at Barksdale Air Force Base for two weeks. During this time, coordination with the DFO field recovery teams, AFIP personnel, and the crew surgeons was on going. In addition, the crewmember families and NASA management were updated daily. The medical team also dealt with public reports and questions concerning biological and chemical hazards, which were coordinated with SPACEHAB, Inc., Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Medical Operations and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Space Medicine office. After operations at Barksdale were concluded the medical team transitioned back to Houston and a long-term search, recovery and identification plan was developed.

  6. Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (gems) Over the Korea Peninsula and Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasnik, J.; Stephens, M.; Baker, B.; Randall, C.; Ko, D. H.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, E. S.; Chang, S.; Park, J. M.; SEO, S. B.; Youk, Y.; Kong, J. P.; Lee, D.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction: The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) is one of two instruments manifested aboard the South Korean Geostationary Earth Orbit KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-2B (GEO-KOMPSAT-2B or GK2B), which is scheduled to launch in 2018. Jointly developed/built by KARI and Ball Aerospace, GEMS is a geostationary UV-Vis hyperspectral imager designed to monitor trans-boundary tropospheric pollution events over the Korean peninsula and Asia-Pacific region. The spectrometer provides high temporal and spatial resolution (3.5 km N/S by 7.2 km E/W) measurements of ozone, its precursors, and aerosols. Over the short-term, hourly measurements by GEMS will improve early warnings for potentially dangerous pollution events and monitor population exposure. Over the 10-year mission-life, GEMS will serve to enhance our understanding of long-term climate change and broader air quality issues on both a regional and global scale. The GEMS sensor design and performance are discussed, which includes an overview of measurement capabilities and the on-orbit concept of operations. GEMS Sensor Overview: The GEMS hyperspectral imaging system consists of a telescope and Offner grating spectrometer that feeds a single CCD detector array. A spectral range of 300-500 nm and sampling of 0.2 nm enables NO2, SO2, HCHO, O3, and aerosol retrieval. The GEMS field of regard (FOR), which extends from 5°S to 45°N in latitude and 75°E to 145°E in longitude, is operationally achieved using an onboard two-axis scan mirror. On-orbit, the radiometric calibration is maintained using solar measurements, which are performed using two onboard diffusers: a working diffuser that is deployed routinely for the purpose of solar calibration, and a reference diffuser that is deployed sparingly for the purpose of monitoring working diffuser performance degradation.

  7. BoNuS: Development and Use of a Radial TPC using Cylindrical GEMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard Fenker; Nathan Baillie; Peter Bradshaw; S. Bultmann; Stephen Bueltmann; Volker Burkert; Michael Christy; Gail Dodge; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Josh Evans; Robert Fersch; Kevin Giovanetti; Keith Griffioen; Mikayel Ispiryan; Chandana Jayalath; Narbe Kalantarians; Cynthia Keppel; Sebastian Kuhn; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Svyatoslav Tkachenko; Vladas Tvaskis; Jixie Zhang

    2007-11-28

    To provide new access to information about nucleon structure from electron-neutron interactions, a specialized aystem of target and detector was developed at Jefferson Lab. It allows identification and measurement of spectator protons produced in e X scattering events. The detector is a radial time-projection chamber optimized for the acceptance of low-momentum protons. Gas gain is provided by three cascaded curved Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs), the first application of GEMs in any configuration other than flat.

  8. 16 CFR 23.25 - Misuse of the word “gem.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of the word âgem.â 23.25 Section 23... JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.25 Misuse of the word “gem.” (a) It is unfair or deceptive to use the word “gem” to describe, identify, or refer to a ruby, sapphire, emerald, topaz,...

  9. Morbidity Profile of Child Labor at Gem Polishing Units of Jaipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    RR Tiwari; Saha, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are millions of working children worldwide. Several causes are suggested for this social evil of which poverty plays a significant role in whether a child will work.Objective: To determine the morbidity profile in the working children of gem polishing units of Jaipur, India and assess some of its associated socio-economic factors.Methods: The present cross-sectional study included 586 gem polishing working children. Using interview, the demographic characteristics, occupatio...

  10. Writing Gems: Ekphrastic Description and Precious Stones in Hellenistic Epigrams and Later Greek Prose

    OpenAIRE

    Rush, Emily Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how inscribed gems and precious stones serve as a particularly useful model for discussing a variety of concerns of the Hellenistic world. These widely circulated objects, typically made from valuable materials and ranging in type from uncarved gems to decorative cameos and seal stones, were anything but inert objects. Rather, as I argue, precious stones were not only treasured for their economic value, but were also charged with social, political, and cultural signifi...

  11. Current status of GEM: the best collider experiment at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broadly based international collaboration has been formed in order to exploit the physics opportunities offered by the construction of the SSC. Although the GEM detector will emphasize precise measurement of muons, electrons and photons, it will also provide excellent hadron calorimetry and tracking. The current status of the experiment and the anticipated capabilities of the GEM detector are reviewed briefly in this report. (orig.)

  12. Simulation of GEM-TPC prototype for the super-FRS beam diagnostics system at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Superconducting Fragment Recoil Separator will be a key part of the experiments of the NuSTAR collaboration. The beam of the separator will have heavy ion projectiles that are steered to the experimental area. With the Time Projection Chambers with Gas Electron Multiplier amplification (GEM-TPC), diagnostics of the beam properties can be performed. The performance of the components of the design of a GEM-TPC prototype has been studied with Geant4 and Garfield simulation tools. (author)

  13. BoNuS: Development and Use of a Radial TPC using Cylindrical GEMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide new access to information about nucleon structure from electron-neutron interactions, a specialized system of target and detector was developed at Jefferson Lab. It allows identification and measurement of spectator protons produced in e X scattering events. The detector is a radial time-projection chamber optimized for the acceptance of low-momentum protons. Gas gain is provided by three cascaded curved Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs), the first application of GEMs in any configuration other than flat

  14. Development of triple GEM detector for a heavy ion physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building and testing of micro-pattern gas detector such as Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for several upcoming High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiment projects, is an advance area of research in the field of detector development. We have carried out the long-term stability test and the uniformity of the relative gain over a GEM detector. The method of long-term test and uniformity of the relative gain and the results are presented in this article

  15. iGEMS: an integrated model for identification of alternative exon usage events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Sanjana; Szkop, Krzysztof J; Nakhuda, Asif; Gallagher, Iain J; Murie, Carl; Brogan, Robert J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Atherton, Philip J; Kujala, Urho M; Gustafsson, Thomas; Larsson, Ola; Timmons, James A

    2016-06-20

    DNA microarrays and RNAseq are complementary methods for studying RNA molecules. Current computational methods to determine alternative exon usage (AEU) using such data require impractical visual inspection and still yield high false-positive rates. Integrated Gene and Exon Model of Splicing (iGEMS) adapts a gene-level residuals model with a gene size adjusted false discovery rate and exon-level analysis to circumvent these limitations. iGEMS was applied to two new DNA microarray datasets, including the high coverage Human Transcriptome Arrays 2.0 and performance was validated using RT-qPCR. First, AEU was studied in adipocytes treated with (n = 9) or without (n = 8) the anti-diabetes drug, rosiglitazone. iGEMS identified 555 genes with AEU, and robust verification by RT-qPCR (∼90%). Second, in a three-way human tissue comparison (muscle, adipose and blood, n = 41) iGEMS identified 4421 genes with at least one AEU event, with excellent RT-qPCR verification (95%, n = 22). Importantly, iGEMS identified a variety of AEU events, including 3'UTR extension, as well as exon inclusion/exclusion impacting on protein kinase and extracellular matrix domains. In conclusion, iGEMS is a robust method for identification of AEU while the variety of exon usage between human tissues is 5-10 times more prevalent than reported by the Genotype-Tissue Expression consortium using RNA sequencing. PMID:27095197

  16. Characterization of the allergen Sol gem 2 from the fire ant venom, Solenopsis geminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sukprasert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sol i 2 is a potent allergen in Solenopsis invicta venom, and most humans exhibit reactivity to it. The Sol gem 2 allergen found in the venom of the Thai tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata was analysed in the present study. The protein was present in higher amounts than other proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, and presumably has allergenic properties similar to those of Sol i 2. Sol gem 2 molecular weight is 28 and 15 kDa, respectively, under non-reducing and reducing conditions, indicating that its native form is a dimer. LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed its similarity to Sol i 2. The mono/dimeric form of Sol gem 2 was determined to be relevant by proteomic approach and immunoblotting. An anti-Sol gem 2 antibody was produced in mice, with a titer greater than 1:800 according to the Western blotting analysis. The Sol gem 2-neutralising activity of this antibody was determined in crickets. The paralytic dose 50 (PD50 of crude S. geminata venom was elevated from 0.18 mg/g of body weight to more than 0.90 mg/g of body weight after preincubation with antibody at a ratio of 1:1. These results suggest that Sol gem 2 plays an important role in mediating the effects of the piperidine derivatives in the venom.

  17. Property of LCP-GEM in Pure Dimethyl Ether at Low Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Y; Kitaguchi, T; Yamada, S; Iwakiri, W; Asami, F; Yoshikawa, A; Kaneko, K; Enoto, T; Hayato, A; Kohmura, T

    2013-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the gain properties of a gas electron multiplier (GEM) foil in pure dimethyl ether (DME) at low pressures. The GEM is made from copper- clad liquid crystal polymer insulator (LCP-GEM) designed for space use, and is applied to a time projection chamber filled with low-pressure DME gas to observe the linear polarization of cosmic X-rays. We have measured gains of a 100 um-thick LCP-GEM as a function of the voltage between GEM electrodes at various gas pressures ranging from 10 to 190 Torr with 6.4 keV X-rays. The highest gain at 190 Torr is about 2x10^4, while that at 20 Torr is about 500. We find that the pressure and electric-field dependence of the GEM gain is described by the first Townsend coefficient. The energy scale from 4.5 to 8.0 keV is linear with non-linearity of less than 1.4% above 30 Torr.

  18. Evaluation of ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from GEMS and OMI spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available South Korea is planning to launch the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer instrument into the GeoKOMPSAT (Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose SATellite platform in 2018 to monitor tropospheric air pollutants on an hourly basis over East Asia. GEMS will measure backscattered UV radiances covering the 300–500 nm wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 0.6 nm. The main objective of this study is to evaluate ozone profiles and stratospheric column ozone amounts retrieved from simulated GEMS measurements. Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI Level 1B radiances, which have the spectral range 270–500 nm at spectral resolution of 0.42–0.63 nm, are used to simulate the GEMS radiances. An optimal estimation-based ozone profile algorithm is used to retrieve ozone profiles from simulated GEMS radiances. Firstly, we compare the retrieval characteristics (including averaging kernels, degrees of freedom for signal, and retrieval error derived from the 270–330 nm (OMI and 300–330 nm (GEMS wavelength ranges. This comparison shows that the effect of not using measurements below 300 nm on retrieval characteristics in the troposphere is insignificant. However, the stratospheric ozone information in terms of DFS decreases greatly from OMI to GEMS, by a factor of ∼2. The number of the independent pieces of information available from GEMS measurements is estimated to 3 on average in the stratosphere, with associated retrieval errors of ~1% in stratospheric column ozone. The difference between OMI and GEMS retrieval characteristics is apparent for retrieving ozone layers above ~20 km, with a reduction in the sensitivity and an increase in the retrieval errors for GEMS. We further investigate whether GEMS can resolve the stratospheric ozone variation observed from high vertical resolution Earth Observing System (EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS. The differences in stratospheric ozone profiles between GEMS and MLS are comparable to those

  19. Properties of thick GEM in low-pressure deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuteron inelastic scattering (d, d') provides a promising spectroscopic tool to study nuclear incompressibility. In studies of deuteron inelastic scattering of unstable nuclei, measurements of low-energy recoiled particles is very important. In order to perform these measurements, we are developing a GEM-TPC based gaseous active target, called CAT (Center for nuclear study Active Target), operated with pure deuterium gas. The CAT has been tested with deuterium gas at 1 atm and 100-μm-thick GEMs. The low-pressure operation of CAT is planned in order to improve the detection capability for lower-energy recoil particles. A 400 μm-thick gas electron multiplier (THGEM) was chosen for the low-pressure operation of CAT. However, the properties of THGEM in low-pressure deuterium are currently undocumented. In this work, the performance of THGEM with low-pressure pure deuterium gas has been investigated. The effective gas gain of THGEM has been measured in various conditions using a 5.5-MeV 241Am alpha source. The effective gas gain was measured for 0.2-, 0.3- and 0.4-atm deuterium gas and a gas gain of about 103 was achieved by a double THGEM structure at 0.2 atm. The maximum achieved gain decreased with increasing gas pressure. The dependences of the effective gas gain on the electric field strengths of the drift, transfer and induction regions were investigated. The gain stability as a function of time in hydrogen gas was also tested and a relaxation time of THGEM of about 60 hours was observed with a continuous irradiation of alpha particles, which is significantly longer than previous studies have reported. We have tried to evaluate the gas gain of THGEM in deuterium gas by considering only the Townsend ionization process; however, it turned out that more phenomenological aspects, such as transfer efficiency, should be included in the evaluation. The basic properties of THGEM in low-pressure deuterium have been investigated for the first time

  20. First performance of the gems + gmos system. Part1. Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hibon, Pascale; Neichel, Benoit; Prout, Benjamin; Rigaut, Francois; Koning, Alice; Carrasco, Eleazar R; Gimeno, German; Pessev, Peter

    2016-01-01

    During the commissioning of the Gemini MCAO System (GeMS), we had the opportunity to obtain data with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS), the most utilised instrument at Gemini South Observatory, in March and May 2012. Several globular clusters were observed in imaging mode that allowed us to study the performance of this new and untested combination. GMOS is a visible instrument, hence pushing MCAO toward the visible.We report here on the results with the GMOS instruments, derive photometric performance in term of Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) and throughput. In most of the cases, we obtained an improvement factor of at least 2 against the natural seeing. This result also depends on the Natural Guide Star constellation selected for the observations and we then study the impact of the guide star selection on the FWHM performance.We also derive a first astrometric analysis showing that the GeMS+GMOS system provide an absolute astrometric precision better than 8mas and a relative astrometric precision...

  1. An Interactive Java Statistical Image Segmentation System: GemIdent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Holmes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Supervised learning can be used to segment/identify regions of interest in images usingboth color and morphological information. A novel object identication algorithm wasdeveloped in Java to locate immune and cancer cells in images of immunohistochemically-stained lymph node tissue from a recent study published by Kohrt et al. (2005. Thealgorithms are also showing promise in other domains. The success of the method de-pends heavily on the use of color, the relative homogeneity of object appearance and oninteractivity. As is often the case in segmentation, an algorithm specically tailored tothe application works better than using broader methods that work passably well on anyproblem. Our main innovation is the interactive feature extraction from color images. Wealso enable the user to improve the classication with an interactive visualization system.This is then coupled with the statistical learning algorithms and intensive feedback fromthe user over many classication-correction iterations, resulting in a highly accurate anduser-friendly solution. The system ultimately provides the locations of every cell recog-nized in the entire tissue in a text le tailored to be easily imported into R (Ihaka andGentleman 1996; R Development Core Team 2009 for further statistical analyses. Thisdata is invaluable in the study of spatial and multidimensional relationships between cellpopulations and tumor structure. This system is available at http://www.GemIdent.com/together with three demonstration videos and a manual.

  2. Radiation Tests for a Single-GEM Loaded Gaseous Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kyong Sei; Kim, Sang Yeol; Park, Sung Keun

    2014-01-01

    We report on the systematic study of a single-gas-electron-multiplication (GEM) loaded gaseous detector developed for precision measurements of high-energy particle beams and dose-verification measurements. In the present study, a 256-channel prototype detector with an active area of 16$\\times$16 cm$^{2}$, operated in a continuous current-integration-mode signal-processing method, was manufactured and tested with x rays emitted from a 70-kV x-ray generator and 43-MeV protons provided by the MC50 proton cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS). The amplified detector response was measured for the x rays with an intensity of about 5$\\times$10$^{6}$ Hz cm$^{-2}$. The linearity of the detector response to the particle flux was examined and validated by using 43-MeV proton beams. The non-uniform development of the amplification for the gas electrons in space was corrected by applying proper calibration to the channel responses of the measured beam-profile data. We concluded fro...

  3. The cylindrical GEM detector for the KLOE-2 Inner Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part of the upgrade of the KLOE detector at the DAΦNE Φ-factory consists of the insertion of a tracking device around the interaction region, composed of four tracking layers with radii from 130 mm to 205 mm and an active length of 700 mm. Each layer was realized as a cylindrical triple-GEM (CGEM) kapton-based detector, a solution that allows us to keep the total material budget below 2% of X0, of utmost importance to limit the multiple scattering of low-momentum tracks at KLOE-2, and to minimize dead spaces. The peculiar readout pattern with XV strips provides a spatial resolution of about 200 μm on both views, while a dedicated readout system has been developed by the KLOE-2 collaboration. It is composed of a digital readout front-end card based on the GASTONE ASIC and a General Interface Board with a configurable FPGA architecture and Gigabit Ethernet. The construction of the four CGEM layers has been completed and the detectors have been tested with a beta source and cosmic-ray muons. The insertion inside the KLOE apparatus was performed in July 2013. The construction procedure and the results of the validation tests will be reported

  4. Radiation tests for a single-GEM-loaded gaseous detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyong Sei; Hong, Byung Sik; Park, Sung Keun [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yeol [NoticeKorea, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    We report on a systematic study of a single-gas-electron-multiplier (GEM)-loaded gaseous detector developed for precision measurements of high-energy particle beams and for dose verification in particle therapy. In the present study, a 256-channel prototype detector having an active area of 16 x 16 cm{sup 2} and operating using a continuous current-integration-mode signal-processing method was manufactured and tested with X-rays emitted from a 70-kV X-ray generator and 43-MeV protons provided by the MC50 proton cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science(KIRAMS). The amplified detector response was measured for X-rays with an intensity of about 5 x 10{sup 6} Hz cm{sup -2}. The linearity of the detector response to the particle flux was examined and validated by using 43-MeV proton beams. The non-uniform development of the amplification for the gas electrons in space was corrected by applying a proper calibration to the channel responses of the measured beam-profile data. We conclude from the radiation tests that the detector developed in the present study will allow us to perform quality measurements of various high-energy particle beams and to apply the technology to dose-verification measurements in particle therapy.

  5. Development of gem based detector for ALICE TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is to study matter at highly extreme condition. The main detector of ALICE experiment is Time Projection Chamber (TPC), which is used for charged particle tracking and identification. The present ALICE TPC readout is based on Multi Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC). The readout chambers are operated with an active bipolar Gating Grid (GG), which, in the presence of a trigger, switches to transparent mode to allow the ionization electrons to pass into the amplification region. However, operation of the TPC at high interaction rate (50 kHz) cannot be accomplished with an active ion-gating scheme. The back-drifting ions from the amplification region of a MWPC without gate will lead to excessive ion charge densities and drift distortions that render precise space-point measurements impossible. Therefore there is a proposal to replace existing MWPC-based readout chambers by a multi-stage GEM system

  6. Quality Control (QC2) of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for GE1/1 at CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a gas ionization detector that detect charged particles and will be implemented on CMS system. It is designed to improve muon trigger and tracking performance at high luminosity after the second Long Shutdown (LS2). For my project, GEM foils, a component of the Triple GEM detector have been studied. In order to pass the test, the foils need to run in the Fast Test and Long Test of QC2.

  7. The Emotionality of Sonic Events : Testing the Geneva Emotional Music Scale (GEMS) for Popular and Electroacoustic Music

    OpenAIRE

    Lykartsis, Athanasios; Pysiewicz, Andreas; von Coler, Henrik; Lepa, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the Geneva Emotional Music Scale (GEMS-25) and its German offshoot, the GEMS-28-G were tested for measurement invariance across different types of musical stimuli. Additionally, the comparability of scores across the different language versions was checked. While alternative scales are often based on general dimensional or categorical emotion theories and are thus "stimulus-neutral", the domain-specific likert-type emotion scale GEMS is designed to especially capture the ...

  8. Der klinische Stellenwert der Polysomnographie bei Kindern mit kraniofazialen Fehlbildungssyndromen

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, Astrid

    2008-01-01

    Schlaf- und nächtliche Atemstörungen sind ein häufiges Symptom bei Kindern mit kraniofazialen Fehlbildungen, da es durch die Mittelgesichtshypoplasie zu einer Einengung der Atemwege kommen kann. Wir haben bei 28 Kindern Polysomnographien vorgenommen, um differenziertere Aussagen über die Art der schlafbezogenen Apnoen, den Zusammenhang mit bestimmten Schlafstadien und Schlafarchitektur und Korrelationen mit der mental-kognitiven Entwicklung sowie der Lebensqualität machen zu können. Diese wur...

  9. Stahlbetonplatten verstärkt mit Textilbeton unter Brandbelastung

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlig, Daniel; Jesse, Frank; Curbach, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Im Rahmen experimenteller Untersuchungen wurden Stahlbetonplatten hergestellt, mit verschiedenen textilen Bewehrungen verstärkt, mit 125 % Gebrauchslast vorgeschädigt und anschließend unter Gebrauchslast mit einer Brandbelastung nach der Einheitstemperaturkurve (ISO-834, Cellulosic curve) beaufschlagt. Alle Platten hielten der Brandbelastung bei gleichzeitiger Biegebeanspruchung mehr als 60 Minuten stand und zeigten weder Betonabplatzungen noch andere optische Schädigungen auf. Die für dieses...

  10. [Bernt Ahrenholz : Verweise mit Demonstrativa im Gesprochenen Deutsch...] / Klaus Geyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Geyer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Ahrenholz, Bernt. Verweise mit Demonstrativa im gesprochenen Deutsch : Grammatik, Zweitspracherwerb und Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Berlin ; New York : de Gruyter, 2007. (Linguistik - Impulse & Tendenzen ; 17)

  11. Analysis of MIT Pressurizer Experiment Using RETRAN Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIT pressurizer experiment is a simplified experiment for assessment of pressurizer response during water insurge and outsurge transients. In this paper, RETRAN code is used to analyze MIT pressurizer experiment. The RETRAN input for MIT pressurizer experiment is developed and simulations are performed. The calculation results are compared with measured data from the experiment. The MIT Pressurizer experiment was simulated with RETRAN thermal hydraulic code. Two cases were analyzed: insurge into partially filled pressurizer and outsurge from pressurizer. The results show that general trend agree with experiment results

  12. Nachuntersuchung von Patienten mit arthroskopisch subacromialer Dekompression in Korrelation mit Klinik, MRT und isokinetischen Kraftverhältnissen

    OpenAIRE

    Oppelt, Britta

    2005-01-01

    Die arthroskopisch subakromiale Dekompression (ASD) ist eine häufig angewandte Methode, Patienten mit Impingement-Syndrom eine Linderung der Beschwerdesymptomatik zu verschaffen. 31 Patienten mit Impingement-Syndrom wurden präoperativ und nach ASD untersucht und die Ergebnisse mit Hilfe der MRT und des Cybex-Dynamometers korreliert.Ob die MRT eine Entscheidungshilfe bei der Indikationsstellung zur ASD beitragen kann, wurde ebenfalls untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigten eine Verbesserung des Con...

  13. Zusammenhang zwischen MRT-Befunden und klinischen Symptomen bei Hunden mit Hydrozephalus im Vergleich zu Hunden mit Ventrikulomegalie

    OpenAIRE

    Laubner, Steffi

    2016-01-01

    Erweiterte Ventrikel kommen häufig bei brachyzephalen Hunden vor, ohne dass die Tiere klinische Symptome zeigen. In diesem Fall wurde bisher die in der MRT gefundene Ventrikulomegalie als Normalbefund gewertet. Definierte Kriterien zur Abgrenzung einer Ventrikulomegalie von einem klinisch relevanten Hydrocephalus internus in der MRT fehlen bisher beim Hund. In einer retrospektiven Studie wurden MRT-Befunde von asymptomatischen Hunden mit erweiterten Ventrikeln mit solchen mit klinisch rele...

  14. Thyroid hemiagenesis with immunthyropathy; Schilddruesenhemiagenesie mit Immunthyreopathie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, P.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Kresnik, E.; Lind, P. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Endokrinologie

    1999-06-01

    A case of Graves` disease occurring in a patient with hemiagenesis is presented. The detection of the rare occurrence of a congential hemiagenesis is often made by either clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction or anatomical abnormalities such as nodular goiter. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the current case led to the diagnostic confirmation by scintiscanning and ultrasonography of an absent lobe. Anti-thyroid antibody studies documented the presence of Graves` disease within the remaining lobe. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Hemiagenesie der Schilddruese stellt eine seltene angeborene Veraenderung dar. Diese angeborene Variante der Schilddruesenanlage wird in den meisten Faellen durh Auffaelligkeiten der Funktion oder der Groesse des vorhandenen Schilddruesenlappens zufaellig gefunden. Der Fall einer 57jaehrigen Frau mit einer Schilddruesenhemiagenesie in Kombination mit einer Immunthyreopatie Basedow wird vorgestellt. Die Zuweisung der Patientin zur Untersuchung erfolgte wegen einer Schilddruesenueberfunktion. Die erforderlichen diagnostischen Schritte zur Erstellung dieser beiden Schilddruesenveraenderungen waren ein 99m-Tc-Schilddruesenszintigramm, Ultraschall und Laborparameter der Schilddruese (fT4, TT3, bTSH, TAK, TPO, TRAK). (orig.)

  15. The HadGEM2 family of Met Office Unified Model Climate configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The HadGEM2 Development Team: Martin, G. M.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the HadGEM2 family of climate configurations of the Met Office Unified Model, MetUM. The concept of a model "family" comprises a range of specific model configurations incorporating different levels of complexity but with a common physical framework. The HadGEM2 family of configurations includes atmosphere and ocean components, with and without a vertical extension to include a well-resolved stratosphere, and an Earth-System (ES component which includes dynamic vegetation, ocean biology and atmospheric chemistry. The HadGEM2 physical model includes improvements designed to address specific systematic errors encountered in the previous climate configuration, HadGEM1, namely Northern Hemisphere continental temperature biases and tropical sea surface temperature biases and poor variability. Targeting these biases was crucial in order that the ES configuration could represent important biogeochemical climate feedbacks. Detailed descriptions and evaluations of particular HadGEM2 family members are included in a number of other publications, and the discussion here is limited to a summary of the overall performance using a set of model metrics which compare the way in which the various configurations simulate present-day climate and its variability.

  16. The HadGEM2 family of Met Office Unified Model climate configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The HadGEM2 Development Team: G. M. Martin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the HadGEM2 family of climate configurations of the Met Office Unified Model, MetUM. The concept of a model "family" comprises a range of specific model configurations incorporating different levels of complexity but with a common physical framework. The HadGEM2 family of configurations includes atmosphere and ocean components, with and without a vertical extension to include a well-resolved stratosphere, and an Earth-System (ES component which includes dynamic vegetation, ocean biology and atmospheric chemistry. The HadGEM2 physical model includes improvements designed to address specific systematic errors encountered in the previous climate configuration, HadGEM1, namely Northern Hemisphere continental temperature biases and tropical sea surface temperature biases and poor variability. Targeting these biases was crucial in order that the ES configuration could represent important biogeochemical climate feedbacks. Detailed descriptions and evaluations of particular HadGEM2 family members are included in a number of other publications, and the discussion here is limited to a summary of the overall performance using a set of model metrics which compare the way in which the various configurations simulate present-day climate and its variability.

  17. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Alexander Maxwell

    Full Text Available Snow surface-to-air exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM was measured using a modified Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP dynamic flux chamber (DFC in a remote, open site in Potsdam, New York. Sampling was conducted during the winter months of 2011. The inlet and outlet of the DFC were coupled with a Tekran Model 2537A mercury (Hg vapor analyzer using a Tekran Model 1110 two port synchronized sampler. The surface GEM flux ranged from -4.47 ng m(-2 hr(-1 to 9.89 ng m(-2 hr(-1. For most sample periods, daytime GEM flux was strongly correlated with solar radiation. The average nighttime GEM flux was slightly negative and was not well correlated with any of the measured meteorological variables. Preliminary, empirical models were developed to estimate GEM emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York. These models suggest that most, if not all, of the Hg deposited with and to snow is reemitted to the atmosphere.

  18. Identifying the Source of Gem Diamonds: Requirements for a Certification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigley, J. E.

    2002-05-01

    Recent civil conflicts in several countries, in which profits from the sales of gem diamonds have supported the rival factions, have forced the jewelry industry to confront the need to certify the geographic sources of gem diamonds. The goals of this program are to prohibit the sale of so-called "conflict diamonds", and to prevent the loss of consumer confidence. Efforts to identify unique characteristics of gem diamonds have been hampered so far by the absence of chemical or physical features that are diagnostic of particular sources, and the lack of a representative collection of diamonds from major producing areas that would be required for a rigorous scientific study. The jewelry industry has therefore adopted plans to track gem diamonds from the mine through the manufacturing process to the consumer. Practical requirements for implementation of such a certification system will be summarized. Any proposed solutions for determining the sources of gem diamonds by some analytical technique, or for following diamonds from the mine, must take into account the annual production of several tens of millions of carats of rough diamonds, which are transformed during manufacturing into several hundreds of millions of polished gemstones (with an average weight of only about 0.03 carat, or 0.006 gram).

  19. First measurement of dE/dx with a GEM-based TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realizing gas amplification for TPCs with GEM foils - instead of the traditional setup using MWPCs and a gating grid - promises to allow continuous operation of such a detector: exploiting the intrinsic suppression of ion backflow that is characteristic for GEMs lifts the constraint to low-rate environments entailed by the presence of a gating system. While the spatial resolution achievable with GEM foils is comparable to or better than that of MWPCs, fluctuations of the gain in a multi-GEM system could compromise the energy resolution of the detector. We have studied the specific energy loss (''dE/dx'') performance of a TPC based on a triple-GEM readout - the largest of its kind to date - on data from a 3-weeks physics campaign inside the FOPI spectrometer at GSI, Germany. Particle identification capabilities for particles originating from π-induced reactions are studied as a function of the momentum. Resolutions are extracted using an exponentially modified Gaussian as a fit function, and are found to be in good agreement with expectations. A dedicated Monte Carlo study has been performed to investigate the impact of the track length on the peak asymmetries in a truncated mean analysis.

  20. Thermal neutron response of a boron-coated GEM detector via GEANT4 Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we report the design configuration and the performance of the hybrid Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector. In order to make the detector sensitive to thermal neutrons, the forward electrode of the GEM has been coated with the enriched boron-10 material, which works as a neutron converter. A total of 5×5 cm2 configuration of GEM has been used for thermal neutron studies. The response of the detector has been estimated via using GEANT4 MC code with two different physics lists. Using the QGSPBICHP physics list, the neutron detection efficiency was determined to be about 3%, while with QGSPBERTHP physics list the efficiency was around 2.5%, at the incident thermal neutron energies of 25 meV. The higher response of the detector proves that GEM-coated with boron converter improves the efficiency for thermal neutrons detection. - Highlights: • The results of boron-coated GEM for thermal neutrons are described. • The simulations were performed by GEANT4 MC code. • The evaluation was determined by GEANT4 using two physics lists. • The response of the detector was taken for En=25–100 meV

  1. Applications of Mapping and Tomographic Techniques in Gem Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Gem Sciences are scientific studies of gemstones - their genesis, provenance, synthesis, enhancement, treatment and identification. As high quality forms of specific minerals, the gemstones exhibit unusual physical properties that are usually unseen in the regular counterparts. Most gemstones are colored by trace elements incorporated in the crystal lattice during various growth stages; forming coloration zones of various scales. Studying the spectral and chemical contrast across color zones helps elucidating the origins of colors. These are done by UV-visible spectrometers with microscope and LA-ICPMS in modern gemological laboratories. In the case of diamonds, their colored zones arise from various structural defects incorporated in different growth zones and are studied with FTIR spectrometers with IR microscope and laser photoluminescence spectrometers. Advancement in modern synthetic techniques such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has created some problem for identification. Some exploratory experiments in carbon isotope mapping were done on diamonds using SIMS. The most important issue in pearls is to identify one particular pearl being a cultured one or a natural pearl. The price difference can be enormous. Classical way of such identification is done by x-ray radiographs, which clearly show the bead and the nacre. Modern cultured pearl advancement has eliminated the need for an artificial bead, but a small piece of tissue instead. Nowadays, computer x-ray tomography (CT) scanning devices are used to depict the clear image of the interior of a pearl. In the Chinese jade market, filling fissures with epoxy and/or wax are very commonly seen. We are currently exploring Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique to map the distribution of artificial resin within a polycrystalline aggregates.

  2. Experiments and analyses on reactivity worth of gas expansion module (GEM) in FCA XX-1. Joint research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas Expansion Module (GEM) will be installed in large scale fast reactors in order to insert negative reactivity feedback in a transition of the primary pump trip. A mock-up experiment was performed at the XX-1 core of the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) to evaluate and improve the prediction accuracy of the reactivity effect inserted by the GEM (GEM reactivity worth). The GEM was categorized into 'External GEM' and 'In-core GEM' according to its position; the experiment was performed for both cases, and the prediction accuracy was discussed. As for the external GEM reactivity worth, it was indicated that the self-shielding effect for iron used as the structural material of the GEM should be taken into account in the preparation process of the effective cross section of the GEM region. The overestimation of 10-20% was observed when the deterministic calculation was adopted for the transport correction in RZ geometry. When the Monte-Carlo method was used instead, the overestimation was reduced below 10%. As for the in-core GEM reactivity worth, it was pointed out that the cell homogenization should be carefully carried out since the neutron streaming affects the prediction accuracy. The prediction accuracy shows a dependence on the sodium level in the GEM. The prediction accuracy was evaluated by separating it into the non-leakage term and the leakage term by a least-squares fitting. It was found that the non-leakage term shows 10-20% overestimation, while the leakage term agrees well with the measurement within the experimental error. (author)

  3. Experiments and analyses on reactivity worth of gas expansion module (GEM) in FCA XX-1. Joint research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Andoh, Masaki; Iijima, Susumu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takaki, Naoyuki; Uematsu, Mari Marianne [The Japan Atomic Power Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Gas Expansion Module (GEM) will be installed in large scale fast reactors in order to insert negative reactivity feedback in a transition of the primary pump trip. A mock-up experiment was performed at the XX-1 core of the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) to evaluate and improve the prediction accuracy of the reactivity effect inserted by the GEM (GEM reactivity worth). The GEM was categorized into 'External GEM' and 'In-core GEM' according to its position; the experiment was performed for both cases, and the prediction accuracy was discussed. As for the external GEM reactivity worth, it was indicated that the self-shielding effect for iron used as the structural material of the GEM should be taken into account in the preparation process of the effective cross section of the GEM region. The overestimation of 10-20% was observed when the deterministic calculation was adopted for the transport correction in RZ geometry. When the Monte-Carlo method was used instead, the overestimation was reduced below 10%. As for the in-core GEM reactivity worth, it was pointed out that the cell homogenization should be carefully carried out since the neutron streaming affects the prediction accuracy. The prediction accuracy shows a dependence on the sodium level in the GEM. The prediction accuracy was evaluated by separating it into the non-leakage term and the leakage term by a least-squares fitting. It was found that the non-leakage term shows 10-20% overestimation, while the leakage term agrees well with the measurement within the experimental error. (author)

  4. Potenziale zur Steigerung der Kundenzufriedenheit mit Automobilwerkstätten

    OpenAIRE

    Stechmann, Lea

    2011-01-01

    Kundenzufriedenheit erweist sich zunehmend als bedeutender Wirtschaftsfaktor. Wie gezeigt wurde, besteht zwischen wirtschaftlichem Erfolg, Qualität und dem Grad der erreichten Zufriedenheit ein positiver Zusammenhang. Die Kundenzufriedenheit mit einigen Automobilherstellern und ihren Vertragswerkstätten muss zurzeit jedoch als nicht ausreichend gelten. Allgemein wird die Zufriedenheit von Automobilkunden von verschiedenen Aspekten bestimmt, wobei mit Blick auf die Kundenbindung die Zufriedenh...

  5. Historisches Rätsel Physik mit Gewehr und Eiern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Andreas

    2003-11-01

    Es fing schon gut an: Mit zehn Jahren saß der begabte Junge bereits in der Universität, wo ihn kein Geringerer als sein Vater persönlich unterrichtete. Damit schlug dieser zwei Fliegen mit einer Klappe: Sein Sohn lernte etwas Gescheites, und er war zugleich in sicherer Obhut.

  6. Tissue Velocity, Strain und Strain Rate bei Hunden mit Mitralklappenendokardiose

    OpenAIRE

    Javornik, Ana

    2007-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit „Tissue Velocity, Strain und Strain Rate bei Hunden mit Mitralklappenendokardiose“ wurden erstmals die Geschwindigkeits- und Verformungsparameter zur Evaluierung von Hunden mit Mitralklappenendokardiose angewendet. Diese erweisen sich als neue und viel versprechende Möglichkeiten zur Quantifizierung der regionalen Myokardfunktion. Die myokardialen Funktionsparameter finden in der Humanmedizin weit verbreitete Anwendung und auch in der Tiermedizin erlangen sie zunehm...

  7. A Note on Partial Merchant Internalization and MIT Threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Lipatov, Vilen

    2015-01-01

    In framework of Rochet and Tirole (2011), I allow for partial merchant internalization and study how MIT threshold is related to levels of inter-change fee that maximize various components of social welfare. I find that cost absorption on the side of issuers and merchant heterogeneity each bias MIT threshold upward from TUS maximizing level.

  8. Effect of Regrown Graphite on the Growth of Large Gem Diamonds by Temperature Gradient Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Chuan-Yi; JIA Xiao-Peng; MA Hong-An; TIAN Yu; XIAO Hong-Yu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Generally, when growing high-quality large gem diamond crystals by temperature gradient method under high pressure and high temperature, the crystal growth rate is only determined by the temperature gradient. However,we find that the seed crystal cannot completely absorb all the diffused carbon sources, when growing gem diamonds under a higher temperature gradient. Other influence factors appear, and the growth rate of growing diamonds is partly dependent on the crystalline form of superfluous unabsorbed carbon source, flaky regrown graphite or small diamond crystals nucleated spontaneously. The present form is determined by the growth temperature if the pressure isfixed. Different from spontaneous diamond nuclei, the appearance of regrown graphite in the diamondstable region can retard the growth rate of gem diamonds substantially, even if the temperature gradient keeps unchanged. On the other hand, the formation mechanism of metastable regrown graphite in the diamond-stable region is also explained.

  9. Electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder ion source simulation by MCBC and GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulation results by the GEM and MCBC codes are presented, along with a comparison with experiments for beam capture dynamics and parameter studies of charge state distribution (CSD) of electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder ion sources. First, steady state plasma profiles are presented by GEM with respect to key experimental parameters such as rf power and gas pressure. As rf power increases, electron density increases by a small amount and electron energy by a large amount. The central electrostatic potential dip also increased. Next, MCBC is used to trace injected beam ions to obtain beam capture profiles. Using the captured ion profiles, GEM obtains a CSD of beam ions. As backscattering can be significant, capturing the ions near the center of the device enhances the CSD. The effect of rf power on the beam CSD is mainly due to different steady states plasmas. Example cases are presented assuming that the beam ions are small enough not to affect the plasma

  10. OSG-GEM: Gene Expression Matrix Construction Using the Open Science Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlman, William L; Rynge, Mats; Branton, Chris; Balamurugan, D; Feltus, Frank A

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing technology has revolutionized the study of gene expression while introducing significant computational challenges for biologists. These computational challenges include access to sufficient computer hardware and functional data processing workflows. Both these challenges are addressed with our scalable, open-source Pegasus workflow for processing high-throughput DNA sequence datasets into a gene expression matrix (GEM) using computational resources available to U.S.-based researchers on the Open Science Grid (OSG). We describe the usage of the workflow (OSG-GEM), discuss workflow design, inspect performance data, and assess accuracy in mapping paired-end sequencing reads to a reference genome. A target OSG-GEM user is proficient with the Linux command line and possesses basic bioinformatics experience. The user may run this workflow directly on the OSG or adapt it to novel computing environments. PMID:27499617

  11. Python based integration of GEM detector electronics with JET data acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabołotny, Wojciech M.; Byszuk, Adrian; Chernyshova, Maryna; Cieszewski, Radosław; Czarski, Tomasz; Dalley, Simon; Hogben, Colin; Jakubowska, Katarzyna L.; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Poźniak, Krzysztof; Rzadkiewicz, Jacek; Scholz, Marek; Shumack, Amy

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the system integrating the dedicated measurement and control electronic systems for Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors with the Control and Data Acquisition system (CODAS) in the JET facility in Culham, England. The presented system performs the high level procedures necessary to calibrate the GEM detector and to protect it against possible malfunctions or dangerous changes in operating conditions. The system also allows control of the GEM detectors from CODAS, setting of their parameters, checking their state, starting the plasma measurement and to reading the results. The system has been implemented using the Python language, using the advanced libraries for implementation of network communication protocols, for object based hardware management and for data processing.

  12. Use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the determination of gem provenance: beryls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Catherine E; McMillan, Nancy J; Harmon, Russell S; Whitmore, Robert C; De Lucia, Frank C; Miziolek, Andrzej W

    2008-11-01

    The provenance of gem stones has been of interest to geologists, gemologists, archeologists, and historians for centuries. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a minimally destructive tool for recording the rich chemical signatures of gem beryls (aquamarine, goshenite, heliodor, and morganite). Broadband LIBS spectra of 39 beryl (Be(3)Al(2)Si(6)O(18)) specimens from 11 pegmatite mines in New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Maine (USA) are used to assess the potential of using principal component analysis of LIBS spectra to determine specimen provenance. Using this technique, beryls from the three beryl-bearing zones in the Palermo #1 pegmatite (New Hampshire) can be recognized. However, the compositional variation within this single mine is comparable to that in beryls from all three states. Thus, a very large database with detailed location metadata will be required to routinely determine gem beryl provenance. PMID:19122706

  13. Analysis of parental strain DNA fragments existing in GEMs-Fhhh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Chun-bo; YAN Jun; QU Meng-meng; WANG Dong; CHENG Shu-pei; GU Ji-dong; QIU Wan-fei; WANG Yin-yin

    2003-01-01

    There were 6 target DNA fragments of the three parental strains existing in the cell of GEMs(genetically engineered microorganism strain) Fhhh measured in this research by PCR(polymerase chain reaction). The determination showed that GEMs Fhhh contained all the 6 target DNA fragments, mnp1, mnp2、lip1、lip2, FLO1 and 16S rDNA, and had the molecular genetic stability. Meanwhile the PCR production of each parental strain could only had its target DNA fragments and was different from each other. It may illustrate that the technique of the inter-kingdom protoplast fusion for the construction of GEMs Fhhh through the process of intercellular gene recombination could be used as a reliable bioengineering technique to create the specific functional stain for the pollution control.

  14. GEM System: automatic prototyping of cell-wide metabolic pathway models from genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Yoichi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful realization of a "systems biology" approach to analyzing cells is a grand challenge for our understanding of life. However, current modeling approaches to cell simulation are labor-intensive, manual affairs, and therefore constitute a major bottleneck in the evolution of computational cell biology. Results We developed the Genome-based Modeling (GEM System for the purpose of automatically prototyping simulation models of cell-wide metabolic pathways from genome sequences and other public biological information. Models generated by the GEM System include an entire Escherichia coli metabolism model comprising 968 reactions of 1195 metabolites, achieving 100% coverage when compared with the KEGG database, 92.38% with the EcoCyc database, and 95.06% with iJR904 genome-scale model. Conclusion The GEM System prototypes qualitative models to reduce the labor-intensive tasks required for systems biology research. Models of over 90 bacterial genomes are available at our web site.

  15. An aging study of triple GEMs in Ar-CO sub 2

    CERN Document Server

    Guirl, L; May, J; Miyamoto, J; Shipsey, I

    2002-01-01

    An aging study was performed using triple GEMs and a print circuit board (PCB) with an intense X-ray radiation source. The GEM chamber consists of three identical GEMs and a large gas gain (6000) was shared by them. The chamber and its gas circulation line was carefully cleaned and constructed with stainless steel materials. The detector was irradiated continuously about 750 h without interruption until a large amount of charge was accumulated. A single-wire counter served as a monitoring device to check the beam and ambient conditions. The quality of the Ar-CO sub 2 gas was checked by gas chromatography and no measurable amount of hydrocarbons were found. 27 mC/mm sup 2 was accumulated with no noticeable degradation and no deposit or discoloration was found in an optical check.

  16. A COMSOL-GEMS interface for modeling coupled reactive-transport geochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Vahid Jafari; Li, Chang; Verba, Circe; Ideker, Jason H.; Isgor, O. Burkan

    2016-07-01

    An interface was developed between COMSOL MultiphysicsTM finite element analysis software and (geo)chemical modeling platform, GEMS, for the reactive-transport modeling of (geo)chemical processes in variably saturated porous media. The two standalone software packages are managed from the interface that uses a non-iterative operator splitting technique to couple the transport (COMSOL) and reaction (GEMS) processes. The interface allows modeling media with complex chemistry (e.g. cement) using GEMS thermodynamic database formats. Benchmark comparisons show that the developed interface can be used to predict a variety of reactive-transport processes accurately. The full functionality of the interface was demonstrated to model transport processes, governed by extended Nernst-Plank equation, in Class H Portland cement samples in high pressure and temperature autoclaves simulating systems that are used to store captured carbon dioxide (CO2) in geological reservoirs.

  17. Status of the cylindrical-GEM project for the KLOE-2 inner tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balla, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Cerioni, S.; Ciambrone, P. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Lucia, E., E-mail: erika.delucia@lnf.infn.i [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Robertis, G. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Domenici, D.; Felici, G.; Gatta, M.; Jacewicz, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Lacalamita, N. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Lauciani, S. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Liuzzi, R.; Loddo, F.; Mongelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Morello, G. [INFN gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Cosenza (Italy); Pelosi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, ' Sapienza' Universita di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Pistilli, M.; Quintieri, L. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Ranieri, A. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy)

    2011-02-01

    The status of the R and D on the Cylindrical-GEM (CGEM) detector foreseen as inner tracker for KLOE-2, the upgrade of the KLOE experiment at the DA{Phi}NE{phi}-factory, is presented. The R and D includes several activities: (i) the construction and complete characterization of the full-size CGEM prototype, equipped with 650{mu}m pitch 1-D longitudinal strips; (ii) the study of the 2-D readout with XV patterned strips and operation in magnetic field (up to 1.5 T), performed with small planar prototypes in a dedicated test at the H4-SPS beam facility; (iii) the characterization of the single-mask GEM technology for the realization of large-area GEM foils.

  18. Status of the Cylindical-GEM project for the KLOE-2 Inner Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Balla, A; Cerioni, S; Ciambrone, P; De Lucia, E; De Robertis, G; Domenici, D; Felici, G; Gatta, M; Jacewicz, M; Lacalamita, N; Lauciani, S; Liuzzi, R; Loddo, F; Mongelli, M; Morello, G; Pelosi, A; Pistilli, M; Quintieri, L; Ranieri, A; Valentino, V

    2010-01-01

    The status of the R&D on the Cylindrical-GEM (CGEM) detector foreseen as Inner Tracker for KLOE-2, the upgrade of the KLOE experiment at the DAFNE phi-factory, will be presented. The R&D includes several activities: i) the construction and complete characterization of the full-size CGEM prototype, equipped with 650 microns pitch 1-D longitudinal strips; ii) the study of the 2-D readout with XV patterned strips and operation in magnetic field (up to 1.5T), performed with small planar prototypes in a dedicated test at the H4-SPS beam facility; iii) the characterization of the single-mask GEM technology for the realization of large-area GEM foils.

  19. Status of the cylindrical-GEM project for the KLOE-2 inner tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the R and D on the Cylindrical-GEM (CGEM) detector foreseen as inner tracker for KLOE-2, the upgrade of the KLOE experiment at the DAΦNEφ-factory, is presented. The R and D includes several activities: (i) the construction and complete characterization of the full-size CGEM prototype, equipped with 650μm pitch 1-D longitudinal strips; (ii) the study of the 2-D readout with XV patterned strips and operation in magnetic field (up to 1.5 T), performed with small planar prototypes in a dedicated test at the H4-SPS beam facility; (iii) the characterization of the single-mask GEM technology for the realization of large-area GEM foils.

  20. Gas Gain Measurement Of GEM-Foil In Argon-Carbon Dioxide Mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reaction measurement with radioactive beam at low energy plays an important role in nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure. The trajectory of particle beams can be obtained by using an active gas target, multiple-sampling and tracking proportional chamber (MSTPC), as a proportional counter. Because of intensity of low energy radioactive beam, in the stellar reaction such as (α, p), (p, α), it is necessary to increase the gain for the counter. In this case, a gas electrons multiplier (GEM) foil will be used, so the proportional counter is called GEM-MSTPC. The efficient gas gain of GEM foils which relates to foil thickness and operating pressure was investigated with two type of the foils, 400 μm and 200 μm, in Argon (70%) + Carbon dioxide (30%) mixture. (author)

  1. Optical characterization of synthetic faceted gem materials grown from hydrothermal solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Taijin; Shigley, James E.

    1998-10-01

    Various non-destructive optical characterization techniques have been used to characterize and identify synthetic gem materials grown from hydrothermal solutions, to include ruby, sapphire, emerald, amethyst and ametrine (amethyst-citrine), from their natural counterparts. The ability to observe internal features, such as inclusions, dislocations, twins, color bands, and growth zoning in gem materials is strongly dependent on the observation techniques and conditions, since faceted gemstones have many polished surfaces which can reflect and scatter light in various directions which can make observation difficult. However, diagnostic gemological properties of these faceted synthetic gem materials can be obtained by choosing effective optical characterization methods, and by modifying optical instruments. Examples of some of the distinctive features of synthetic amethyst, ametrine, pink quartz, ruby and emerald are presented to illustrate means of optical characterization of gemstones. The ability to observe defects by light scattering techniques is discussed.

  2. Characterization of a high resolution triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) readout as an option for the TPC of the near detector of the T2K neutrino experiment is presented. The low track density and the wide range in polar angle of particles produced by neutrino interactions drive the initial choice of relatively large squared pads (8 mm) for the performance study. The physics requirements [T2K ND280 Conceptual Design Report, (http://dpnc.unige.ch:8080/nu/Members/nabgrall/t2kge/t2kgedoc/cdr.pdf)] are a momentum resolution better than 10 % at 1 GeV/c and a 3σ dE/dx separation between muons and electrons. Micro-pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs) such as GEMs or Micromegas show several beneficial features compared to the traditional Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers. They have been tested in the HARP TPC environment at CERN. Preliminary results form the GEM tests are reported here

  3. Developments and the preliminary tests of Resistive GEMs manufactured by a screen printing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Agócs, G; Oliveira, R; Martinego, P; Peskov, Vladimir; Pietropaolo, P; Picchi, P

    2008-01-01

    We report promising initial results obtained with new resistive-electrode GEM (RETGEM) detectors manufactured, for the first time, using screen printing technology. These new detectors allow one to reach gas gains nearly as high as with ordinary GEM-like detectors with metallic electrodes; however, due to the high resistivity of its electrodes the RETGEM, in contrast to ordinary hole-type detectors, has the advantage of being fully spark protected. We discovered that RETGEMs can operate stably and at high gains in noble gases and in other badly quenched gases, such as mixtures of noble gases with air and in pure air; therefore, a wide range of practical applications, including dosimetry and detection of dangerous gases, is foreseeable. To promote a better understanding of RETGEM technology some comparative studies were completed with metallic-electrode thick GEMs. A primary benefit of these new RETGEMs is that the screen printing technology is easily accessible to many research laboratories. This accessibilit...

  4. Gemcitabine-loaded albumin nanospheres (GEM-ANPs) inhibit PANC-1 cells in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Di, Yang; Jin, Chen; Fu, Deliang; Yang, Feng; Jiang, Yongjian; Yao, Lie; Hao, Sijie; Wang, Xiaoyi; Subedi, Sabin; Ni, Quanxing

    2013-04-01

    With the development of nanotechnology, special attention has been given to the nanomaterial application in tumor treatment. Here, a modified desolvation-cross-linking method was successfully applied to fabricate gemcitabine-loaded albumin nanospheres (GEM-ANPs), with 110 and 406 nm of mean diameter, respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the drug distribution, side effects, and antitumor activity of GEM-ANPs in vivo. The metabolic viability and flow cytometry analysis revealed that both GEM-ANPs, especially 406-nm GEM-ANPs, could effectively inhibit the metabolism and proliferation and promote the apoptosis of human pancreatic carcinoma (PANC-1) in vitro. Intravenous injection of 406-nm GEM-ANPs exhibited a significant increase of gemcitabine in the pancreas, liver, and spleen of Sprague-Dawley rats ( p < 0.05). Moreover, no signs of toxic side effects analyzed by blood parameter changes were observed after 3 weeks of administration although a high dose (200 mg/kg) of GEM-ANPs were used. Additionally, in PANC-1-induced tumor mice, intravenous injection of 406-nm GEM-ANPs also could effectively reduce the tumor volume by comparison with free gemcitabine. With these findings, albumin nanosphere-loading approach might be efficacious to improve the antitumor activity of gemcitabine, and the efficacy is associated with the size of GEM-ANPs.

  5. Science and Math Explorations for Young Children: A GEMS/PEACHES Handbook for Early Childhood Educators, Childcare Providers, and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katharine; Blinderman, Ellen; Boffen, Beatrice; Echols, Jean; House, Patricia A.; Hosoume, Kimi; Kopp, Jaine

    This handbook is designed to help readers understand the educational philosophy and practice of the PEACHES (Primary Explorations for Children and Educators in Science) and GEMS (Great Explorations in Math and Science) programs, and to assist in using GEMS/PEACHES teachers' guides in schools and child care centers. The handbook outlines techniques…

  6. Copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of epoxides with gem-diborylmethane: access to γ-hydroxyl boronic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim-Alkhalil, Ahmed; Zhang, Zhen-Qi; Gong, Tian-Jun; Su, Wei; Lu, Xiao-Yu; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao

    2016-04-01

    Herein, we describe a novel copper-catalyzed epoxide opening reaction with gem-diborylmethane. Aliphatic, aromatic epoxides as well as aziridines are converted to the corresponding γ-pinacolboronate alcohols or amines in moderate to excellent yields. This new reaction provides beneficial applications for classic epoxide substrates as well as interesting gem-diborylalkane reagents. PMID:26973991

  7. Advances in Trace Element “Fingerprinting” of Gem Corundum, Ruby and Sapphire, Mogok Area, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lin Sutherland

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mogok gem corundum samples from twelve localities were analyzed for trace element signatures (LA-ICP-MS method and oxygen isotope values (δ18O, by laser fluorination. The study augmented earlier findings on Mogok gem suites that suggested the Mogok tract forms a high vanadium gem corundum area and also identified rare alluvial ruby and sapphire grains characterised by unusually high silicon, calcium and gallium, presence of noticeable boron, tin and niobium and very low iron, titanium and magnesium contents. Oxygen isotope values (δ18O for the ruby and high Si-Ca-Ga corundum (20‰–25‰ and for sapphire (10‰–20‰ indicate typical crustal values, with values >20‰ being typical of carbonate genesis. The high Si-Ca-Ga ruby has high chromium (up to 3.2 wt % Cr and gallium (up to 0. 08 wt % Ga compared to most Mogok ruby (<2 wt % Cr; <0.02 wt % Ga. In trace element ratio plots the Si-Ca-Ga-rich corundum falls into separate fields from the typical Mogok metamorphic fields. The high Ga/Mg ratios (46–521 lie well within the magmatic range (>6, and with other features suggest a potential skarn-like, carbonate-related genesis with a high degree of magmatic fluid input The overall trace element results widen the range of different signatures identified within Mogok gem corundum suites and indicate complex genesis. The expanded geochemical platform, related to a variety of metamorphic, metasomatic and magmatic sources, now provides a wider base for geographic typing of Mogok gem corundum suites. It allows more detailed comparisons with suites from other deposits and will assist identification of Mogok gem corundum sources used in jewelry.

  8. Formation of GEMS from shock-accelerated crystalline dust in Superbubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, A; Bradley, J P

    2004-12-08

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) contain enigmatic sub-micron components called GEMS (Glass with Embedded Metal and Sulfides). The compositions and structures of GEMS indicate that they have been processed by exposure to ionizing radiation but details of the actual irradiation environment(s) have remained elusive. Here we propose a mechanism and astrophysical site for GEMS formation that explains for the first time the following key properties of GEMS; they are stoichiometrically enriched in oxygen and systematically depleted in S, Mg, Ca and Fe (relative to solar abundances), most have normal (solar) oxygen isotopic compositions, they exhibit a strikingly narrow size distribution (0.1-0.5 {micro}m diameter), and some of them contain ''relict'' crystals within their silicate glass matrices. We show that the compositions, size distribution, and survival of relict crystals are inconsistent with amorphization by particles accelerated by diffusive shock acceleration. Instead, we propose that GEMS are formed from crystalline grains that condense in stellar outflows from massive stars in OB associations, are accelerated in encounters with frequent supernova shocks inside the associated superbubble, and are implanted with atoms from the hot gas in the SB interior. We thus reverse the usual roles of target and projectile. Rather than being bombarded at rest by energetic ions, grains are accelerated and bombarded by a nearly monovelocity beam of atoms as viewed in their rest frame. Meyer, Drury and Ellison have proposed that galactic cosmic rays originate from ions sputtered from such accelerated dust grains. We suggest that GEMS are surviving members of a population of fast grains that constitute the long-sought source material for galactic cosmic rays. Thus, representatives of the GCR source material may have been awaiting discovery in cosmic dust labs for the last thirty years.

  9. Secondary scintillation yield from GEM and THGEM gaseous electron multipliers for direct dark matter search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for alternatives to PMTs as photosensors in optical TPCs for rare event detection has significantly increased in the last few years. In particular, in view of the next generation large volume detectors, the use of photosensors with lower natural radioactivity, such as large area APDs or GM-APDs, with the additional possibility of sparse surface coverage, triggered the intense study of secondary scintillation production in micropattern electron multipliers, such as GEMs and THGEMs, as alternatives to the commonly used uniform electric field region between two parallel meshes. The much higher scintillation output obtained from the electron avalanches in such microstructures presents an advantage in those situations. The accurate knowledge of the amount of such scintillation is important for correct detector simulation and optimization. It will also serve as a benchmark for software tools developed and/or under development for the calculation of the amount of such scintillation. The secondary scintillation yield, or electroluminescence yield, in the electron avalanches of GEMs and THGEMs operating in gaseous xenon and argon has been determined for different gas pressures. At 1 bar, THGEMs deliver electroluminescence yields that are more than one order of magnitude higher when compared to those achieved in GEMs and two orders of magnitude when compared to those achieved in a uniform field gap. The THGEM electroluminescence yield presents a faster decrease with pressure when comparing to the GEM electroluminescence yield, reaching similar values to what is achieved in GEMs for xenon pressures of 2.5 bar, but still one order of magnitude higher than that produced in a uniform field gap. Another exception is the GEM operating in argon, which presents an electroluminescence yield similar to that produced in a uniform electric field gap, while the THGEM achieves yields that are more than one order of magnitude higher.

  10. Klinische Ergebnisse der Schulterendoprothetik bei Patienten mit Erkrankungen aus dem rheumatischen Formenkreis im Vergleich zu Patienten mit degenerativ bedingter Omarthrose

    OpenAIRE

    Wätzig, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Im Rahmen dieser retrospektiven Studie wurden 23 Patienten mit Erkrankungen aus dem rheumatischen Formenkreis, überwiegend rheumatoide Arthritis und 22 Kontrollpersonen mit degenerativ bedingter Omarthrose, welchen zwischen 1993 und 2005 eine Schulterendoprothese unterschiedlichen Typs implantiert worden war, durchschnittlich 28 Monate postoperativ klinisch und radiologisch nachuntersucht. Das Alter zum Zeitpunkt der Operation betrug im Mittel 65 Jahre. Die Ergebnisse wurden anhand des Consta...

  11. ''24/36/48'' Cathode Strip Chamber layout for SSC GEM Detector muon subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''48/48/48'' φ-segmentation design for the Cathode Strip Chambers in the GEM Detector produces a number of coverage ''gaps'' in φ and θ. A revised ''24/36/48'' φ-segmentation layout provides increased geometric coverage and a significant reduction in the number of chambers in the detector. This will increase physics performance while reducing the labor costs associated with building and installing chambers in the GEM Detector. This paper documents the physical layout of the proposed change to the baseline chamber arrangement

  12. GEM tracker for high luminosity experiments at the JLab Hall A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellini, Vincenzo G; Cisbani, Evaristo; Capogni, Marco; Colilli, Stephano P; De Leo, Raffaele A; De Oliveira, Denny M; De Smet, Fabienne; Fratoni, Rolando; Frullani, Salvatore; Giuliani, Fausto; Gricia, Massimo; Librizzi, F; Maurizio, Lucentini; Mammoliti, Francesco D; Minutoli, Saverio G; Musico, Paolo; Noto, Francesco; Perrino, Roberto; Santavenere, Fabio; Sutera, Concetta

    2012-05-01

    A new large-area, lightweight tracker based on the GEM technology is under development for the upcoming experiments in Hall A at Jefferson Lab, where a longitudinally polarized electron beam of 11 GeV will be available in late 2013. This beam, combined with innovative polarized targets, will provide luminosity up to 10{sup 39}/(s-cm{sup 2}) opening exciting opportunities to investigate unexplored aspects of the inner structure of the nucleon and the dynamics of its constituents. The GEM tracker design is presented in this paper.

  13. 2-dimensional GEM detector with FEE based on the nXYTER ASIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GEM detector with 2-dimensional readout printed circuit board and an active area 10 × 10 cm2 for detection of diffraction patterns has been developed and constructed. A multichannel front end electronics based on two 128 channel nXYTER chips has been used. The investigations with this detector were made with high rate X-ray sources (6–15 keV). The measurement results of gas gain, spatial resolution and energy resolution are presented. The application of the GEM detector as a potential detector for material science and other diffraction experiments is presented

  14. Discharge probability measurement of a Triple GEM detector irradiated with neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Croci, G.; Alfonsi, M.; Ropelewski, L.(CERN, Geneva, Switzerland); Tsipolitis, G.; Fanourakis, G.(National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece); Ntomari, E.; Karakostas, K.

    2013-01-01

    Neutron GEM-based detectors represent a new frontier of diagnostic devices in neutron-linked physics applications such as detectors for fusion experiments (Croci et al., 2012 [1]) and spallation sources (Murtas et al., 2012 [2]). Besides, detectors installed in HEP experiments (like LHC at CERN) are dip in a high flux neutron field. For example, the TOTEM T2 GEM telescope (Bagliesi et al., 2010 [3]) at LHC is currently installed very close to the beam pipe where a high intensity (>104ncm-2s-1...

  15. Sealed GEM photomultiplier with a CsI photocathode: ion feedback and ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the performance of a sealed gaseous photomultiplier consisting of a cascade of 3 or 4 Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) elements coupled to a semitransparent CsI photocathode, in Ar/CH4 (95/5). A few-month stability study of the photocathode in a sealed mode is presented. Increasing the number of GEMs in cascade substantially reduces the ageing of the detector under strong irradiation. The ion feedback to the photocathode has probably a minor effect on the ageing rate

  16. Avalanche-ion back-flow reduction in gaseous electron multipliers based on GEM/MHSP

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, J. M.; Mörmann, D.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Santos, J. M. F. dos

    2004-01-01

    We report on avalanche-ion back-flow measurements in the novel Micro-Hole and Strip-Plate (MHSP) multiplier and in gaseous photomultipliers comprising Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) followed by an MHSP. In a 3-GEMs/MHSP photomultiplier with reflective photocathode, avalanche-ion back-flow fraction of ~7% and ~2% were recorded for respective effective gains of 107 and 106, in Ar/CH4 (95/5) at 760 Torr. This is about one order of magnitude reduction in ion back-flow compared to the best values...

  17. Gaseous Elemental Mercury (GEM) Emissions from Snow Surfaces in Northern New York

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, J. Alexander; Holsen, Thomas M.; Mondal, Sumona

    2013-01-01

    Snow surface-to-air exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) was measured using a modified Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) dynamic flux chamber (DFC) in a remote, open site in Potsdam, New York. Sampling was conducted during the winter months of 2011. The inlet and outlet of the DFC were coupled with a Tekran Model 2537A mercury (Hg) vapor analyzer using a Tekran Model 1110 two port synchronized sampler. The surface GEM flux ranged from −4.47 ng m−2 hr−1 to 9.89 ng m−2 hr−1. Fo...

  18. Evaluation of the GEM-AQ model in the context of the AQMEII Phase 1 project

    OpenAIRE

    Struzewska, J.; M. Zdunek; Kaminski, J.W.; L. Lobocki; Porebska, M.; Jefimow, M.; Gawuc, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the scope of the AQMEII Phase 1 project the GEM-AQ model was run over Europe for the year 2006. The modelling domain was defined using a global variable resolution grid with a rotated equator and uniform resolution of 0.2° × 0.2° over the European continent. Spatial distribution and temporal variability of the GEM-AQ model results were analysed for surface ozone and PM10 concentrations. Model results were compared with measurements available in the ENSEMBLE d...

  19. Metadata for selecting or submitting generic seismic vulnerability functions via GEM's vulnerability database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor

    2013-01-01

    This memo lays out a procedure for the GEM software to offer an available vulnerability function for any acceptable set of attributes that the user specifies for a particular building category. The memo also provides general guidelines on how to submit the vulnerability or fragility functions to the GEM vulnerability repository, stipulating which attributes modelers must provide so that their vulnerability or fragility functions can be queried appropriately by the vulnerability database. An important objective is to provide users guidance on limitations and applicability by providing the associated modeling assumptions and applicability of each vulnerability or fragility function.

  20. Quality assurance of GEM foils in the framework of the TPC upgrade in the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ozcelik, Melih Arslan

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the TPC upgrade of the ALICE Experiment, new readout chambers will be installed during the LHC long shutdown 2, which is scheduled to start in July 2018. The current MWPCs (Multi Wire Proportional Chambers) will be replaced by readout chambers consisting of GEM (Gas Electron Multipliers) foils in order to meet the increasing readout rate requirements. QA (Quality Assurance) tests on the GEMs are performed to classify the foils. In this report we present the work done during the CERN Summer Student Programme 2016.

  1. MIT 12 TESLA coil experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIT 12 tesla coil was fabricated using a 486-strand bronze-matrix Nb3Sn, JBK-75 superalloy sheathed Internally Cooled Cabled Superconductor (ICCS). The rectangularly shaped ICCS conductor was wound into three double pancakes prior to a six-day reaction (4 days at 7000C followed by 2 days at 7300C). Prior to installation in the High Field Test Facility (HFTF) at LLNL the three subcoils were insulated and epoxy potted. With the HFTF providing a 9 T background field, the test coil was used to raise the central field up to 12 T. Measurements of critical current are reported for fields in the 11 to 12 T range for temperatures of 4.2, 5.2 and 7.5 K with supercritical as well as 1 atm, two-phase internal helium. Steady-state, inductively heated as well as quench induced operations are described

  2. Optics in the Great Exploration in Math and Science (GEMS) program: a summary of effective pedagogical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Gek, Tan K.

    2002-05-01

    This paper examines how optics is treated in instructional materials developed for the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) Program at the Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley. The GEMS program is a prominent resource for teachers in the United States and in many other countries. It represents a widely acknowledged, innovative approach to science and mathematics education. GEMS teacher's guides and handbooks offer a wide range of supplementary learning experiences for preschool through 8th grade (about age 13). Two guides already developed (Color Analyzers and More than Magnifiers) and one under development (working title: Invisible Universe) have a strong emphasis on fundamentals of optics. The organization and approaches of the guides will be described, with particular emphasis on the pedagogical approach represented. GEMS activities engage students in direct experience and experimentation in order to introduce essential, standards- based principles and concepts. Overwhelming educational evidence that students learn best by doing is the basis for the GEMS approach.

  3. Divergent Mechanistic Routes for the Formation of gem-Dimethyl Groups in the Biosynthesis of Complex Polyketides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poust, S; Phelan, RM; Deng, K; Katz, L; Petzold, CJ; Keasling, JD

    2015-01-07

    The gem-dimethyl groups in polyketide-derived natural products add steric bulk and, accordingly, lend increased stability to medicinal compounds, however, our ability to rationally incorporate this functional group in modified natural products is limited. In order to characterize the mechanism of gem-dimethyl group formation, with a goal toward engineering of novel compounds containing this moiety, the gem-dimethyl group producing polyketide synthase (PKS) modules of yersiniabactin and epothilone were characterized using mass spectrometry. The work demonstrated, contrary to the canonical understanding of reaction order in PKSs, that methylation can precede condensation in gem-dimethyl group producing PKS modules. Experiments showed that both PKSs are able to use dimethylmalonyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) as an extender unit. Interestingly, for epothilone module8, use of dimethylmalonyl-ACP appeared to be the sole route to form a gem-dimethylated product, while the yersiniabactin PKS could methylate before or after ketosynthase condensation.

  4. Beurteilung problematischer Verhaltensweisen bei Kindern mit intellektueller Behinderung mit der "Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form"

    OpenAIRE

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologische Studien an Kindern und Jugendlichen mit intellektueller Behinderung zeigen eine deutlich erhöhte Rate von emotionalen Störungen und Verhaltensproblemen. Es fehlt aber bisher an standardisierten Beurteilungsverfahren, die für eine spezifische und objektive Diagnostik in dieser Gruppe geeignet wären. Es werden die Erfahrungen beim Einsatz der "Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form" in einer Gruppe von 246 Kindern zu Reliabilität, Übereinstimmung verschiedener Beurteiler, konverge...

  5. Wirbelsäulenfrakturen bei Patienten mit Spondylitis ankylosans : eine retrospektive Analyse mit 45 Patienten

    OpenAIRE

    Smajic, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Problem: Wirbelsäulenfrakturen bei Patienten mit Morbus Bechterew sind selten und immer als hochinstabil zu bewerten. Es gibt wenige Erkenntnisse über Demographie, klinisches Bild, chirurgisches Vorgehen und Komplikationen, welche in der vorliegenden Arbeit untersucht wurden. Ergebnis: 45 Patienten wiesen insgesamt 70 Wirbelkörperfrakturen auf, wobei die untere Hals- und untere Brustwirbelsäule bevorzugt involviert waren. Fast 60 % wiesen zum Operationszeitpunkt neurologische Ausf...

  6. Multiple Mittelwertvergleiche - parametrisch und nichtparametrisch - sowie α-Adjustierungen mit praktischen Anwendungen mit R und SPSS

    OpenAIRE

    Lüpsen, Haiko

    2014-01-01

    Die etwa 20 bekanntesten parametrischen und ca. 10 nichtparametrischen Verfahren für multiple Mittelwertvergleiche sowie ca. 20 Methoden für alpha-Korrekturen bei Paarvergleichen werden vorgestellt. Dabei stehen solche im Vordergrund, die in R und/oder in SPSS ohne großen Aufwand anwendbar sind. Es werden die Voraussetzungen der Verfahren besprochen sowie Lösungen mit R und SPSS ausführlich gezeigt.

  7. Zusammenhang von Vagus Evozierten Potentialen mit Riechfunktion gemessen mit Sniffin’ Sticks

    OpenAIRE

    Beeretz, Stefan Georg

    2016-01-01

    Die Alzheimer Erkrankung (AD) als Hauptursache für eine Demenz ist nicht zuletzt aufgrund ihrer demographischen Entwicklung eine der größten medizinischen und ökonomischen Herausforderungen des 21. Jahrhunderts. Weltweit befassen sich multiple Forschungsprojekte intensiv mit Pathogenese, Früherkennung, Therapie und Prävention dieser Erkrankung. Obwohl es derzeit keine Möglichkeit gibt, der AD therapeutisch oder präventiv entgegenzuwirken wird vermutet, dass zukünftige Therapiemethoden am wirk...

  8. Current activities at the MIT research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIT Research Reactor (MITR) is a 5 MW nuclear research reactor that is owned and operated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to further its educational and research goals at both the undergraduate and graduate level. The facility (MITR-II) uses finned, aluminum-clad, plate-type fuel that is cooled and moderated by light water and reflected by heavy water. This paper provides an overview of current activities at the MITR including: (1) The current operating license will expire in August 1999. A decision has been made to pursue a power upgrade to the maximum level (6-7 MW) that can be safely supported by the existing heat removal equipment. Preparation of relicensing documents and results of thermal hydraulic studies are reviewed. (2) The status of an on-going phase-I clinical trial of BNCT for both glioblastoma multiform and metastatic melanoma will be reported. (3) A fission converter facility has been designed for advanced BNCT clinical trials and for routine therapy. This facility will provide a high quality epithermal neutron beam which is capable of treating a patient in a few minutes. Construction of the facility is currently in progress. The facility's design is summarized. (4) A recent study that was completed at the MIT-II using NAA is reported. This study entailed evaluation of the air quality in Upstate New York from October 1991 through September 1993. (5) A number of unique experimental water loop facilities for the study of light water power reactor coolant chemistry have been installed and operated in the MITR-II. The capabilities and the research objectives addressed by these facilities are summarized. (author)

  9. Current activities at the MIT research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Lin Wen; Bernard, John A.; Harling, Otto K.; Kohse, Gordon E.; Olmez, Ilhan [MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The MIT Research Reactor (MITR) is a 5 MW nuclear research reactor that is owned and operated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to further its educational and research goals at both the undergraduate and graduate level. The facility (MITR-II) uses finned, aluminum-clad, plate-type fuel that is cooled and moderated by light water and reflected by heavy water. This paper provides an overview of current activities at the MITR including: (1) The current operating license will expire in August 1999. A decision has been made to pursue a power upgrade to the maximum level (6-7 MW) that can be safely supported by the existing heat removal equipment. Preparation of relicensing documents and results of thermal hydraulic studies are reviewed. (2) The status of an on-going phase-I clinical trial of BNCT for both glioblastoma multiform and metastatic melanoma will be reported. (3) A fission converter facility has been designed for advanced BNCT clinical trials and for routine therapy. This facility will provide a high quality epithermal neutron beam which is capable of treating a patient in a few minutes. Construction of the facility is currently in progress. The facility's design is summarized. (4) A recent study that was completed at the MIT-II using NAA is reported. This study entailed evaluation of the air quality in Upstate New York from October 1991 through September 1993. (5) A number of unique experimental water loop facilities for the study of light water power reactor coolant chemistry have been installed and operated in the MITR-II. The capabilities and the research objectives addressed by these facilities are summarized. (author)

  10. Current activities at the MIT Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIT Research Reactor (MITR) is a MW nuclear research reactor that is owned and operated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to further its educational and research goals at both the undergraduate and graduate level. The reactor first achieved criticality in 1958. It was largely rebuilt in 1973/1974 by MIT staff and students, and its current license expires in August 1999. The current facility, which is designated as the MITR-H, uses a compact core with finned, aluminum-clad, plate-type fuel that is cooled and moderated by light water and reflected by heavy water. The reactor core can hold twenty-seven fuel elements. However, the normal configuration is twenty-four elements. A maximum of four fuel elements can be replaced with in-core experimental facilities. A unique feature of the MITR-II's design is that fixed absorber plates can be inserted in the upper half of the core. These cause the flux to peak in the lower half which benefits experimenters and also facilitates a fuel strategy that involves inversion of fuel elements midway through their life cycle. The MITR-II currently operates continuously for four weeks followed by shutdown of a few days for maintenance. This paper provides an overview of current activities at the MITR including preparations for re-licensing. The status of an on-going Phase-I clinical trial of boron neutron capture therapy for both glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma is described as well as the design of a fission converter facility for BNCT. Environmental research using neutron activation analysis is summarized as well as in-pile research focussed on LWR water chemistry and structural materials. (author)

  11. The GEM code. A simulation program for the evaporation and the fission process of an excited nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GEM code is a simulation program which describes the de-excitation process of an excited nucleus, which is based on the Generalized Evaporation Model and the Atchison fission model. It has been shown that the combination of the Bertini intranuclear cascade model and GEM accurately predicts the cross sections of light fragments, such as Be produced from the proton-induced reactions. It has also been shown that the use of the reevaluated parameters in the Atchison model improves predictions of cross sections of fission fragments produced from the proton-induced reaction on Au. In this report, we present details and the usage of the GEM code. Furthermore, the results of benchmark calculations are shown by using the combination of the Bertini intranuclear cascade model and the GEM code (INC/GEM). Neutron spectra and isotope production cross sections from the reactions on various targets irradiated by protons are calculated with INC/GEM. Those results are compared with experimental data as well as the calculation results with LAHET. INC/GEM reproduces the experiments of double differential neutron emissions from the reaction on Al and Pb. The isotopic distributions for He, Li, and Be produced from the reaction on Ag are in good agreement with experimental data within 50%, although INC/GEM underestimates those of heavier nuclei than O. It is also shown that the predictions with INC/GEM for isotope production of light fragments, such as Li and Be, are better than those calculation with LAHET, particularly for heavy target. INC/GEM also gives better estimates of the cross sections of fission products than LAHET. (author)

  12. The GEM code. A simulation program for the evaporation and the fission process of an excited nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furihata, Shiori [Mitsubishi Research Institute Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Niita, Koji [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Ikeda, Yujiro; Maekawa, Fujio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The GEM code is a simulation program which describes the de-excitation process of an excited nucleus, which is based on the Generalized Evaporation Model and the Atchison fission model. It has been shown that the combination of the Bertini intranuclear cascade model and GEM accurately predicts the cross sections of light fragments, such as Be produced from the proton-induced reactions. It has also been shown that the use of the reevaluated parameters in the Atchison model improves predictions of cross sections of fission fragments produced from the proton-induced reaction on Au. In this report, we present details and the usage of the GEM code. Furthermore, the results of benchmark calculations are shown by using the combination of the Bertini intranuclear cascade model and the GEM code (INC/GEM). Neutron spectra and isotope production cross sections from the reactions on various targets irradiated by protons are calculated with INC/GEM. Those results are compared with experimental data as well as the calculation results with LAHET. INC/GEM reproduces the experiments of double differential neutron emissions from the reaction on Al and Pb. The isotopic distributions for He, Li, and Be produced from the reaction on Ag are in good agreement with experimental data within 50%, although INC/GEM underestimates those of heavier nuclei than O. It is also shown that the predictions with INC/GEM for isotope production of light fragments, such as Li and Be, are better than those calculation with LAHET, particularly for heavy target. INC/GEM also gives better estimates of the cross sections of fission products than LAHET. (author)

  13. OpenGeoSys-GEMS: Hybrid parallelization of a reactive transport code with MPI and threads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakowski, G.; Kulik, D. A.; Shao, H.

    2012-04-01

    OpenGeoSys-GEMS is a generic purpose reactive transport code based on the operator splitting approach. The code couples the Finite-Element groundwater flow and multi-species transport modules of the OpenGeoSys (OGS) project (http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=18345) with the GEM-Selektor research package to model thermodynamic equilibrium of aquatic (geo)chemical systems utilizing the Gibbs Energy Minimization approach (http://gems.web.psi.ch/). The combination of OGS and the GEM-Selektor kernel (GEMS3K) is highly flexible due to the object-oriented modular code structures and the well defined (memory based) data exchange modules. Like other reactive transport codes, the practical applicability of OGS-GEMS is often hampered by the long calculation time and large memory requirements. • For realistic geochemical systems which might include dozens of mineral phases and several (non-ideal) solid solutions the time needed to solve the chemical system with GEMS3K may increase exceptionally. • The codes are coupled in a sequential non-iterative loop. In order to keep the accuracy, the time step size is restricted. In combination with a fine spatial discretization the time step size may become very small which increases calculation times drastically even for small 1D problems. • The current version of OGS is not optimized for memory use and the MPI version of OGS does not distribute data between nodes. Even for moderately small 2D problems the number of MPI processes that fit into memory of up-to-date workstations or HPC hardware is limited. One strategy to overcome the above mentioned restrictions of OGS-GEMS is to parallelize the coupled code. For OGS a parallelized version already exists. It is based on a domain decomposition method implemented with MPI and provides a parallel solver for fluid and mass transport processes. In the coupled code, after solving fluid flow and solute transport, geochemical calculations are done in form of a central loop over all finite

  14. Unfälle mit motorisierten Zweirädern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirschwitz, Christian

    Der Fahrer eines Pkw Opel Astra überquerte mit seinem Pkw von einer untergeordneten Einmündung kommend eine außerörtliche Bundesstraße in gerade Richtung. Dabei kam es zur Kollision mit einem sich von rechts vorfahrtsberechtigt annähernden Krad Suzuki RGV250. Der Anprall des Krades erfolgte mit dem Heck an die rechte Pkw-Flanke zwischen vorderem Radausschnitt und Fahrzeugecke. Der Krad-Fahrer, welcher sofort tot war und das Zweirad verklemmten sich am Pkw und verblieben relativ zu selbigem annähernd in Kollisionsstellung.

  15. LHCb: A fast triple-GEM detector for high-rate charged-particle triggering

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    - GEM: Principle of Operation - Time Performances - Detector Prototypes and Test Setup - Gas Mixtures - Fields Optimisation - Vgem Optimisation Ar/CO2 (70/30) - Vgem Optimisation Ar/CO2/CF4 (60/20/20) - Time Distributions - Future Tests and Developments

  16. CAMEO/GEM program for future 2β decay and dark matter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity (T1/2 limit for 0ν2β decay) of CAMEO experiment with ∼100 kg of 116CdWO4 crystals placed in the liquid scintillator of the BOREXINO CTF is ∼1026 yr, which corresponds to a bound on the neutrino mass mν, ≤ 0.06 eV. It would be improved by the GEM project with one ton of 'naked' HP Ge detectors operating in HP liquid nitrogen. The latest is contained in the Cu cryostat placed in the CTF water tank. The sensitivity of the GEM-I phase with natural Ge crystals is ∼ 1027 yr (or mν ≤ 0.05 eV), while in the GEM-II stage with enriched (in 76Ge to 86%) detectors it is ∼ 1028 yr (or mν ≤ 0.015 eV). Besides, the GEM-I set up could advance the best limits on the existence of neutralinos - as dark matter candidates - by three order of magnitude, and at the same time would be able to identify the dark matter signal by detection of its seasonal modulation

  17. Promoting microbiology education through the iGEM synthetic biology competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelwick, Richard; Bowater, Laura; Yeoman, Kay H; Bowater, Richard P

    2015-08-01

    Synthetic biology has developed rapidly in the 21st century. It covers a range of scientific disciplines that incorporate principles from engineering to take advantage of and improve biological systems, often applied to specific problems. Methods important in this subject area include the systematic design and testing of biological systems and, here, we describe how synthetic biology projects frequently develop microbiology skills and education. Synthetic biology research has huge potential in biotechnology and medicine, which brings important ethical and moral issues to address, offering learning opportunities about the wider impact of microbiological research. Synthetic biology projects have developed into wide-ranging training and educational experiences through iGEM, the International Genetically Engineered Machines competition. Elements of the competition are judged against specific criteria and teams can win medals and prizes across several categories. Collaboration is an important element of iGEM, and all DNA constructs synthesized by iGEM teams are made available to all researchers through the Registry for Standard Biological Parts. An overview of microbiological developments in the iGEM competition is provided. This review is targeted at educators that focus on microbiology and synthetic biology, but will also be of value to undergraduate and postgraduate students with an interest in this exciting subject area. PMID:26260156

  18. Development and Test of a GEM-Based TEPC System for In-Phantom Dose Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C-K Chris Wang

    2007-03-13

    The objectives of this project include: (1) to construct a minature tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) using a gas-electron-multiplier (GEM) foil, and (2) to conduct neutron and gamma-ray dose measurements with the detector embedded in a phantom

  19. Characterization of a few gem stones by x-ray emission techniques (EDXRF and external PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray Emission Techniques (EDXRF) and External Proton Induced X-ray Emission Technique (PIXE) have been used to characterize 13 gem stones obtained from Gem Testing Laboratory, Jaipur, India. Radioisotope sources 109Cd and 241Am were used to excite the gem stones to generate K and L X-rays in the low and high Z region of the periodic table to investigate trace element inclusions besides the main matrix. A proton beam of 4 MeV energy and current of 8 nA intensity were extracted from the FOTIA (Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator) at VandeGaaff Accelerator, Trombay, Mumbai in air through a Kapton foil of 8 micrometer thick mounted on a Teflon cone. Gem stones such as Labradorite Feldspar, Moonstone Feldspar, Almandine Garnet, Tsavorite Garnet, Apatite, Natural Spinel, Natural Zircon, Spessartine Garnet, Natural Ruby (Lead filled), Natural Ruby were characterized for their elemental profile to see the differences in composition besides the main matrix differences. Elements such as Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y and Zr were detected. (author)

  20. Tracking properties of the two-stage GEM/micro-groove detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bondar, A E; Shekhtman, L I; Sokolov, A; Tatarinov, A A; Bellazzini, R; Brez, A; Gariano, G; Latronico, L; Loni, R; Lumb, N; Massai, M M; Moggi, A; Spandre, G

    2000-01-01

    Tracking properties of GEM/micro-groove detectors have been studied at a 120 GeV muon beam at CERN. Detector efficiency reaches 98% when the signal over noise value is equal to ~17. Spatial resolution as high as 30 mu has been measured using a Ne-DME (40-60) gas mixture. (8 refs).

  1. Tracking properties of the two-stage GEM/Micro-groove detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracking properties of GEM/Micro-groove detectors have been studied at a 120 GeV muon beam at CERN. Detector efficiency reaches 98% when the signal over noise value is equal to ∼17. Spatial resolution as high as 30 μ has been measured using a Ne-DME (40-60) gas mixture

  2. Physics motivations and expected performance of the CMS muon system upgrade with triple-GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbrescia, Marcello; Aleksandrov, Andrey B; Benussi, Luigi; Beni, Noemi; Bianco, Stefano; Calabria, Cesare; Caponero, Michele; Hernandez, Alfredo Martin Castaneda; Cavallo, Francesca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Lentdecker, Gilles De; Oliveira, R; Guiducci, Luigi; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Iaydjiev, P S; Korytov, Andrey; Krutelyov, Slava; Kumar, A; Lee, Jason; Litov, L; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Marchioro, Alessandro; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Molnar, J; Naimuddin, Md; Nuzzo, S; Pant, Lalit; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Pavlov, Borislav; Piccolo, Davide; Postema, Hans; Raffaella, Radogna; Ranieri, A; Riccardi, C; Rodozov, Mircho; Safonov, Alexei; Saviano, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Tytgat, Michael; Vitulo, Paolo; Colaleo, Anna; Caputo, Claudio; Errico, Filippo; Dildick, Sven; Vai, Ilaria; Magnani, Alice; Verwilligen, Piet; Altieri, Palma; Aspell, Paul; Giacomelli, Paolo; Braibant, Sylvie; Buontempo, S; Kamon, Teruki; Tatarinov, A; Celik, Ali; Gilmore, Jason; Flanagan, Will; Khotilovich, Vadim; Czellar, S; Fenyvesi, A; Jozsef Molnar@Cern Ch, Jozsef; Barria, P; Korntheuer, Michael; Lenzi, T; Maerschalk, T; Verhagen, E; Yang, Yifan; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Merlin, J; Dorney, B; Garcia, A Conde; Dabrowski, M; Marinov, A; Oliveri, E; Baranac, A Puig; Ropelewski, Leszek; Bos, J; Bally, S; Stenis, M Van; Ferry, S; Rodrigues, A; Robertis, G De; Christiansen, J; Hohlmann, M; Bhopatkar, V; Mohapatra, A; Zhang, A; Hauser, J; Tuuva, Tuure; Talvitie, J; Passeggio, G; Cassese, F; Banerjee, S; Majumdar, N; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roychowdhur, S; Salva, S; Zaganidis, N; Cimmino, A; Cauwenbergh, S; Bouhali, O; Akl, M Abi; Sturdy, J; Karchin, P; Gutierrez, A; Hadjiiska, R; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Rashevski, G; Rodozov, M; Shopova, M; Sultanov, G; Acosta, D; Barashko, V; Furic, I; Madorsky, A; Korytov, A; Mitselmakher, G; Raffone, G; Radi, A; Assran, Y; Aboamer, O; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, W; Awan, I; Hoorani, H; Muhammad, S; Sharma, R; Geonmo, R; Ryu, M S; Park, I; Jeng, Y C; Choi, M; Golovtsov, V; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Choi, S; Guilloux, F; Philipps, B

    2015-01-01

    For the LHC High Luminosity phase (HL-LHC) the CMS GEM Collaboration is planning to in- stall new large size triple-GEM detectors in the forward region of the muon system (1.5< j h |<2.2) of the CMS detector. The muon reconstruction with triple-GEM chambers information included have been successfully integrated in the official CMS software, allowing physics studies to be carried out. The new sub-detector will be able to cope the extreme particle rates expected in this region along with a high spatial resolution. The resulting benefit in terms of triggering and tracking capabilities has been studied: the expected improvement in the performance of the muon identification and track reconstruction as well as the expected improvement coming from the low- ering of the muon p T trigger tresholds will be presented. The contribution will review the status of the CMS upgrade project with the usage of GEM detector, discussing the trigger, the muon reconstruction performance and the impact on the physics analyses.

  3. Evaluation of the GEM-AQ model in the context of the AQMEII Phase 1 project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzewska, J.; Zdunek, M.; Kaminski, J. W.; Łobocki, L.; Porebska, M.; Jefimow, M.; Gawuc, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the scope of the AQMEII Phase 1 project the GEM-AQ model was run over Europe for the year 2006. The modelling domain was defined using a global variable resolution grid with a rotated equator and uniform resolution of 0.2° × 0.2° over the European continent. Spatial distribution and temporal variability of the GEM-AQ model results were analysed for surface ozone and PM10 concentrations. Model results were compared with measurements available in the ENSEMBLE database. Statistical measures were used to evaluate performance of the GEM-AQ model. The mean bias error, the mean absolute gross error and the Pearson correlation coefficient were calculated for the maximum 8 h running average ozone concentrations and daily mean PM10 concentrations. The GEM-AQ model performance was characterized for station types, European climatic regions and seasons. The best performance for ozone was obtained at suburban stations, and the worst performance was obtained for rural stations where the model tends to underestimate. The best results for PM10 were calculated for urban stations, while over most of Europe concentrations at rural sites were too high. Discrepancies between modelled and observed concentrations were discussed in the context of emission data uncertainty as well as the impact of large-scale dynamics and circulation of air masses. Presented analyses suggest that interpretation of modelling results is enhanced when regional climate characteristics are taken into consideration.

  4. Evaluation of the GEM-AQ model in the context of the AQMEII Phase 1 project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Struzewska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of the AQMEII Phase 1 project the GEM-AQ model was run over Europe for the year 2006. The modelling domain was defined using a global variable resolution grid with a rotated equator and uniform resolution of 0.2° × 0.2° over the European continent. Spatial distribution and temporal variability of the GEM-AQ model results were analysed for surface ozone and PM10 concentrations. Model results were compared with measurements available in the ENSEMBLE database. Statistical measures were used to evaluate performance of the GEM-AQ model. The mean bias error, the mean absolute gross error and the Pearson correlation coefficient were calculated for the maximum 8 h running average ozone concentrations and daily mean PM10 concentrations. The GEM-AQ model performance was characterized for station types, European climatic regions and seasons. The best performance for ozone was obtained at suburban stations, and the worst performance was obtained for rural stations where the model tends to underestimate. The best results for PM10 were calculated for urban stations, while over most of Europe concentrations at rural sites were too high. Discrepancies between modelled and observed concentrations were discussed in the context of emission data uncertainty as well as the impact of large-scale dynamics and circulation of air masses. Presented analyses suggest that interpretation of modelling results is enhanced when regional climate characteristics are taken into consideration.

  5. The design of a DAQ system for a GEM imaging detector based on FET array readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A data acquisition system was designed for a GEM imaging detector, which is readout by a FET switch array and can be used in real-time imaging. By using some advanced technologies, like FPGA and MCU, the designed DAQ system succeeds in multi-channel real-time readout with high-accuracy and high universality. (authors)

  6. Experiential Engineering through iGEM--An Undergraduate Summer Competition in Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rudolph; Dori, Yehudit Judy; Kuldell, Natalie H.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike students in other engineering disciplines, undergraduates in biological engineering typically have limited opportunity to develop design competencies, and even fewer chances to implement their designed projects. The international Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM) competition is a student Synthetic Biology competition that, in 2009,…

  7. Evaluation of the GEM-AQ model in the context of the AQMEII Phase 1 project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Struzewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of the AQMEII Phase 1 project the GEM-AQ model was run over Europe for the year 2006. The modelling domain was defined using a global variable resolution grid with a rotated equator and uniform resolution of 0.2° × 0.2° over the European continent. Spatial distribution and temporal variability of the GEM-AQ model results were analysed for surface ozone and PM10 concentrations. Model results were compared with measurements available in the ENSEMBLE database. Statistical measures were used to evaluate performance of the GEM-AQ model. The mean bias error, the mean absolute gross error and the Pearson correlation coefficient were calculated for the maximum 8 h running average ozone concentrations and daily mean PM10 concentrations. The GEM-AQ model performance was characterised for station types, European climatic regions, and seasons. The best performance for ozone was obtained at suburban stations and the worst performance was obtained for rural stations where the model tends to underestimate. The best results for PM10 were calculated for urban stations, while over most of Europe concentrations at rural sites were too high. Discrepancies between modelled and observed concentrations were discussed in the context of emission data uncertainty as well as the impact of large scale dynamics and circulation of air masses. Presented analyses suggest that interpretation of modelling results is enhanced when regional climate characteristics are ta ken into consideration.

  8. Application of CMOS charge-sensitive preamplifier in triple-GEM detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Among the various micro-pattern gas detectors (MPGD) that are available, the gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector is an attractive gas detector that has been used in particle physics experiments. However the GEM detector usually needs thousands of preamplifier units for its large number of micro-pattern readout strips or pads,which leads to considerable difficulties and complexities for front end electronics (FEE). Nowadays, by making use of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), it is feasible to integrate hundreds of preamplifier units and other signal process circuits in a small-sized chip, which can be bound to the readout strips or pads of a micro-pattern particle detector (MPPD). Therefore, CMOS ASIC may provide an ideal solution to the readout problem of MPPD. In this article, a triple GEM detector is constructed and one of its readout strips is connected to a CMOS charge-sensitive preamplifier chip. The chip was exposed to an 55Fe source of 5.9 keV X-ray, and the amplitude spectrum of the chip was tested, and it was found that the energy resolution was approximately 27%, which indicates that the chip can be used in triple GEM detectors.

  9. Activity of CERN and LNF groups on large area GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, M; Brock, I; Cerioni, S; Croci, G; David, E; De Lucia, E; De Oliveira, R; De Robertis, G; Domenici, D; Duarte Pinto, S; Felici, G; Gatta, M; Jacewicz, M; Loddo, F; Morello, G; Pistilli, M; Ranieri, A; Ropelewski, L; Sauli, F; Schioppa, M; Van Stenis, M

    2010-01-01

    We report on the activity of CERN and INFN-LNF groups on the development of large area GEM detectors. The two groups work together within the RD51 Collaboration, to aim at the development of Micro-pattern Gas detectors technologies. The vast request for large area foils by the GEM community has driven a change in the manufacturing procedure by the TS-DEM-PMT laboratory, needed to overcome the previous size limitation of 450 x 450 mm2. Now a single-mask technology is used allowing foils to be made as large as 450 x 2000 mm2. The limitation in the short size, due to the definite width of the raw material, can be overcome by splicing more foils together. A 10 x 10 cm2 GEM detector with the new single-mask foil has been tested with X-rays and the results are shown. Possible future applications for large area GEM are the TOTEM experiment upgrade at CERN, and the KLOE-2 experiment at the Dafne Φ-factory in Frascati.

  10. Activity of CERN and LNF groups on large area GEM detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsi, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bencivenni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Brock, I. [Physikalisches Institute der Universitat Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Cerioni, S. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Croci, G.; David, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Oliveira, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); De Robertis, G. [Sezione INFN di Bari, Bari (Italy); Domenici, D., E-mail: Danilo.Domenici@lnf.infn.i [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Duarte Pinto, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Felici, G.; Gatta, M.; Jacewicz, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Loddo, F. [Sezione INFN di Bari, Bari (Italy); Morello, G. [Dipeartimento di Fisica Universita della Calabria e INFN, Cosenza (Italy); Pistilli, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Ranieri, A. [Sezione INFN di Bari, Bari (Italy); Ropelewski, L. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Sauli, F. [TERA Foundation, Novara (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    We report on the activity of CERN and INFN-LNF groups on the development of large area GEM detectors. The two groups work together within the RD51 Collaboration, to aim at the development of Micro-pattern Gas detectors technologies. The vast request for large area foils by the GEM community has driven a change in the manufacturing procedure by the TS-DEM-PMT laboratory, needed to overcome the previous size limitation of 450x450mm{sup 2}. Now a single-mask technology is used allowing foils to be made as large as 450x2000mm{sup 2}. The limitation in the short size, due to the definite width of the raw material, can be overcome by splicing more foils together. A 10x10cm{sup 2} GEM detector with the new single-mask foil has been tested with X-rays and the results are shown. Possible future applications for large area GEM are the TOTEM experiment upgrade at CERN, and the KLOE-2 experiment at the Dafne {Phi}-factory in Frascati.

  11. Activity of CERN and LNF groups on large area GEM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the activity of CERN and INFN-LNF groups on the development of large area GEM detectors. The two groups work together within the RD51 Collaboration, to aim at the development of Micro-pattern Gas detectors technologies. The vast request for large area foils by the GEM community has driven a change in the manufacturing procedure by the TS-DEM-PMT laboratory, needed to overcome the previous size limitation of 450x450mm2. Now a single-mask technology is used allowing foils to be made as large as 450x2000mm2. The limitation in the short size, due to the definite width of the raw material, can be overcome by splicing more foils together. A 10x10cm2 GEM detector with the new single-mask foil has been tested with X-rays and the results are shown. Possible future applications for large area GEM are the TOTEM experiment upgrade at CERN, and the KLOE-2 experiment at the Dafne Φ-factory in Frascati.

  12. CMS Muon System Phase 2 Upgrade with triple-GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Salva Diblen, Sinem

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector installed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has an extensive muon system which provides information simultaneously for identification, track reconstruction and triggering of muons. As a consequence of the extreme particle rate and high integrated charge, the essentiality to upgrade the LHC has given rise to the High Luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) project so that the CMS muon system will be upgraded with superior technological challenges. The CMS GEM collaboration offers a solution to equip the high-eta region of the muon system for Phase 2 (after the year 2017) with large-area triple-layer Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, since GEMs have the ability to provide robust and redundant tracking and triggering functions with an excellent spatial resolution of order 100 micron and a high particle rate capability, with a close to 100pct detection efficiency. In this contribution, the present status of the triple-GEM project will be reviewed, and the signifi...

  13. The gem collection of the Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie of Leiden The Peridots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, P.C.

    1957-01-01

    The peridots in the gem collection of our Museum were acquired a long time ago (part of them were from the collection of King William I of the Netherlands). We should be sceptical about data on the origin of this material. Firstly we do not generally know whether the stones were bought or received a

  14. Status of the Triple-GEM project for the upgrade of the CMS Muon System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CMS GEM collaboration is performing a feasibility study to install triple-GEM detectors in the forward region of the muon system (1.6 < |η| < 2.4) of the CMS detector at the LHC. Such micro-pattern gas detectors are able to cope with the extreme particle rates that are expected in that region during the High Luminosity phase of the LHC. With their spatial resolution of order 100 micron GEMs would not only provide additional benefits in the CMS muon High Level Trigger, but also in the muon identification and track reconstruction, effectively combining tracking and triggering capabilities in one single device. The present status of the full project will be reviewed, highlighting all importants steps and achievements since the start of the R and amp;D in 2009. Several small and full-size prototypes were constructed with different geometries and techniques. The baseline design of the triple-GEM detector for CMS will be described, along with the results from extensive test measurements of all prototypes both in the lab and in test beams at the CERN SPS. The proposed on- and off-detector electronics for the final system will be presented

  15. Discharge probability studies in GEM structures for the ALICE TPC upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device for tracking and charged particle identification in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. After the second long shutdown in 2018, the LHC will deliver Pb beams colliding at an interaction rate of about 50 kHz, which is about a factor of 100 above the present readout rate of the TPC. In order to make full use of this luminosity, a major upgrade of the TPC is required. It is foreseen to replace the existing MWPC-based readout with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils. The GEM foils are commonly known structures used as proportional counters, which permits to obtain high gains at very high radiation rates. However, highly ionizing particles, which may be produced during heavy ion collisions, may trigger an electrical breakdown which may result in damage of the foils or readout electronics. The key parameter for a long-term operation of the GEM-based TPC is the stability against electrical discharges. We performed discharge probability studies in triple and quadruple GEM structures in Ne- and Ar-based gas mixtures to find operational conditions for the upgraded ALICE TPC. Preliminary results from these measurements are discussed in this contribution.

  16. High sensitivity GEM experiment on 2β decay of 76Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GEM project is designed for the next-generation 2β decay experiments with 76Ge. One ton of 'naked' HP Ge detectors (natural at the first GEM-I phase and enriched in 76Ge to 86% at the second GEM-II stage) are operating in super-high-purity liquid nitrogen contained in a Cu vacuum cryostat (sphere of diameter 5 m). The latter is placed in the water shield (of dimensions 11x11 m2). Monte Carlo simulation evidently shows that the sensitivity of the experiment (in terms of the T1/2 limit for 0ν2β decay) is ∼1027 yr with natural HP Ge crystals and ∼ 1028 yr with enriched ones. These bounds correspond to the restrictions on the neutrino mass mν≤0.05 eV and mν0.015 eV with natural and enriched detectors, respectively. Besides, the GEM-I set-up could advance the current best limits on the existence of neutralinos - as dark matter candidates - by three orders of magnitude, and at the same time would be able to identify unambiguously the dark matter signal by detection of its seasonal modulation. (author)

  17. Studies of characteristics of triple GEM detector for the ALICE-TPC upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a novel gas detector in the field of radiation detection. GEM detectors have tremendous advantages over other types gas detectors like high rate handling capability with high efficiency and very low ion back flow (IBF). These detectors are most suitable for the use in the future experiments in high-energy proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI. A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) at the LHC is a dedicated experiment for the study of Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). In few years, the data taking rate for Pb-Pb collisions will increase by 100 times to 50 KHz. The ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector in ALICE. It is planned that by the year 2018, GEM detectors will replace the present readout planes of TPC. The goal of the present study is to characterize the GEM detector to achieve the performance goal of the TPC

  18. Open source large-scale high-resolution environmental modelling with GEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarsma, Rein; Alberti, Koko; Marra, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Many environmental, topographic and climate data sets are freely available at a global scale, creating the opportunities to run environmental models for every location on Earth. Collection of the data necessary to do this and the consequent conversion into a useful format is very demanding however, not to mention the computational demand of a model itself. We developed GEMS (Global Environmental Modelling System), an online application to run environmental models on various scales directly in your browser and share the results with other researchers. GEMS is open-source and uses open-source platforms including Flask, Leaflet, GDAL, MapServer and the PCRaster-Python modelling framework to process spatio-temporal models in real time. With GEMS, users can write, run, and visualize the results of dynamic PCRaster-Python models in a browser. GEMS uses freely available global data to feed the models, and automatically converts the data to the relevant model extent and data format. Currently available data includes the SRTM elevation model, a selection of monthly vegetation data from MODIS, land use classifications from GlobCover, historical climate data from WorldClim, HWSD soil information from WorldGrids, population density from SEDAC and near real-time weather forecasts, most with a ±100m resolution. Furthermore, users can add other or their own datasets using a web coverage service or a custom data provider script. With easy access to a wide range of base datasets and without the data preparation that is usually necessary to run environmental models, building and running a model becomes a matter hours. Furthermore, it is easy to share the resulting maps, timeseries data or model scenarios with other researchers through a web mapping service (WMS). GEMS can be used to provide open access to model results. Additionally, environmental models in GEMS can be employed by users with no extensive experience with writing code, which is for example valuable for using models

  19. Benchmarking the CEMDATA07 database to model chemical degradation of concrete using GEMS and PHREEQC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic equilibrium modelling of degradation of cement and concrete systems by chemically detrimental reactions as carbonation, sulphate attack and decalcification or leaching processes requires a consistent thermodynamic database with the relevant aqueous species, cement minerals and hydrates. The recent and consistent database CEMDATA07 is used as the basis in the studies of the Belgian near-surface disposal concept being developed by ONDRAF/NIRAS. The database is consistent with the thermodynamic data in the Nagra/PSI-Thermodynamic Database. When used with the GEMS thermodynamic code, thermodynamic modelling can be performed at temperatures different from the standard temperature of 25 C. GEMS calculates thermodynamic equilibrium by minimizing the Gibbs free energy of the system. Alternatively, thermodynamic equilibrium can also be calculated by solving a nonlinear system of mass balance equations and mass action equations, as is done in PHREEQC. A PHREEQC-database for the cement systems at temperatures different from 25 C is derived from the thermodynamic parameters and models from GEMS. A number of benchmark simulations using PHREEQC and GEM-Selektor were done to verify the implementation of the CEMDATA07 database in PHREEQC-databases. Simulations address a series of reactions that are relevant to the assessment of long-term cement and concrete durability. Verification calculations were performed for different systems with increasing complexity: CaO-SiO2-CO2, CaO-Al2O3-SO3-CO2, and CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-Fe2O3-MgO-SO3-CO2. Three types of chemical degradation processes were simulated: (1) carbonation by adding CO2 to the bulk composition, (2) sulphate attack by adding SO3 to the bulk composition, and (3) decalcification/leaching by putting the cement solid phase sequentially in contact with pure water. An excellent agreement between the simulations with GEMS and PHREEQC was obtained

  20. MIT gets good marks for fighting gender discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2011-05-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has made "significant progress" in increasing the number of female faculty members, with their numbers in science and engineering almost doubling over the last decade.

  1. Behandlung des chronischen Tinnitus mit repetitiver transkranieller Magnetstimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinjung, T

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus ist eine Funktionsstörung des Hörsystems, die von verschiedenen Strukturen und Ebenen ausgehen kann. Tinnitus geht mit neuroplastischen Veränderungen im zentralen auditorischen System einher. Existenz eines „Tinnitus-Netzwerkes“.

  2. Abbildung mit Millimeterwellen für die Personenkontrolle

    OpenAIRE

    Bertl, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit werden Methoden zur Abbildung von Gegenständen mit Millimeterwellen (MMW) analysiert und anhand eines Messsystems umgesetzt. Ein mögliches Anwendungsgebiet ist die Personenkontrolle in sicherheitskritischen Bereichen. Um das Streuverhalten von Gegenständen im MMW Bereich in verschiedenen Messgeometrien genauer beschreiben zu können, wird mit Hilfe numerischer Berechnungsverfahren u.a. das Streuverhalten dielektrischer Körper analysiert. Ausgehend von der reinen Fourierraumbet...

  3. Perianale Fisteln bei Patienten mit Morbus Crohn - Krankheitsverlauf, Therapie, Langzeitprognose

    OpenAIRE

    Glaß, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Unsere Studie konnte all die Problematik der Behandlung der Patienten mit perianalen Crohn-Fisteln aufzeigen. Trotz erheblichen thera-peutischen Entwicklungen wird ein hoher Anteil (47 %) der betroffenen Patienten ein Stoma benötigen. Die meisten Patienten müssen mehrfach operiert werden. Etwa ¾ aller Patienten präsentieren sich mit den sog. „hohen“ Fisteln. Bei diesen Patienten gilt auch heute zwischen Symptomkontrolle durch Abszesspaltungen, Fadeneinlage und/oder Immunsuppression auf der...

  4. Wärmeversorgung mit fester Biomasse bei kleiner Leistung

    OpenAIRE

    Gaderer, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Mit der Arbeit wurde das Ziel verfolgt, Systeme zu untersuchen, die das Potenzial besitzen, die Wirtschaftlichkeit bei der Wärmeversorgung mit fester Biomasse bei kleiner Leistung zu verbessern und die Emissionen zu verringern. Untersucht wurden die Gleichzeitigkeit des Leistungsbedarfs bei Nahwärmenetzen und die Systemoptimierung durch Einbindung von Pufferspeichern als Hausübergabestationen um die erforderliche Spitzenleistung am Heizwerk durch Leistungsglättung zu reduzieren. Hier besteht ...

  5. Biotransformation von 11-Desoxycortisol mit Schizosaccharomyces pombe und Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Appel, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    In diesem Projekt, welches in Kooperation mit dem Institut für Biochemie der Universität des Saarlandes und der Schering AG Bergkamen durchgeführt wurde, sollte mit Hilfe von rekombinanten Spalthefestämmen, welche die humane Monooxygenase P450 CYP11B1 exprimieren, eine nachhaltigere Bio-Produktion von Hydrocortison entwickelt werden, um das bestehende Verfahren der Hydrocortisonherstellung, mittels des filamentösen Pilz Curvularia lunata zu ersetzen. Um die Optimierung der Hydrocortisonpro...

  6. Stakeholder-Management - Möglichkeiten des Umgangs mit Anspruchsgruppen

    OpenAIRE

    Theuvsen, Ludwig

    2001-01-01

    Organisationen werden mit den Erwartungen verschiedener Anspruchsgruppen (Stakeholder) und den von ihnen verfolgten, oftmals konfligierenden Zielen konfrontiert. Jede Organisation sieht sich daher vor die Notwendigkeit gestellt zu entscheiden, wie sie im Rahmen des Stakeholder-Managements mit diesen verschiedenen Gruppierungen umgehen will. Eine mögliche Ausrichtung eines Stakeholder-Managements verfolgt nicht die normativ-ethisch orientierte Auffassung, dass alle Stakeholder dieselbe Beachtu...

  7. Neue Fluoreszenzfarbstoffe mit Anthracen- und Fluoranthengrundgerüst

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Markus

    2004-01-01

    1. Anthracenderivate Durch Suzuki-Kupplung gelingt es, ausgehend von 9,10-Dibrom-2,6-di-tert-butylanthracen 9,10-diarylsubstituierte Anthracenderivate mit Ausbeuten von 22 - 82 % herzustellen. Die Kupplung von halogensubstituerten Arylen erfolgt durch nucleophile Addition einer Arylgrignardverbindung an 2,6-Di-tert-butylanthrachinon mit anschließender wässriger Aufarbeitung und Reduktion. Eine zweite Gruppe von Anthracenderivaten wird durch Pyrimidin-Kondensation aus Amidinen und Vinamid...

  8. Sterotaktische, fraktionierte Strahlentherapie bei Patienten mit Optikusscheidenmeningeomen und Keilbeinmeningeomen

    OpenAIRE

    Dörr, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Das OSM ist ein seltener, gutartiger Tumor der Sehnervenscheide, dessen klinisches Bild durch langsamen, progredienten Visusverlust und Gesichtsfeldeinschränkungen geprägt ist. Neben klinischer Beobachtung und Operation steht seit einigen Jahren auch die Strahlentherapie zur Verfügung. Wir zeigen die Ergebnisse eines dreistelligen Patientenkollektivs, das zwischen 1993 und 2005 eine SFRT in Tübingen erhielt und vergleichen die Ergebnisse mit älteren Studien ähnlichen Konzepts, sowie mit den E...

  9. Lung Clearance Index bei erwachsenen Patienten mit Mukoviszidose

    OpenAIRE

    Rückel, Helena Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Die Spirometrie mit Bestimmung des forcierten exspiratorischen Volumens in einer Sekunde gilt derzeit als Gold-Standard bei der Beurteilung der Lungenfunktion von Patienten mit Cystischer Fibrose. Da die spirometrische Untersuchung eine aktive Mitarbeit des Patienten erfordert, kann sie jedoch erst etwa ab dem fünften Lebensjahr durchgeführt werden. Im Gegensatz dazu kann der Lung Clearance Index (LCI), der aus Gasdilutionsuntersuchungen abgeleitet wird, in jedem Alter, d.h. auch im Säugl...

  10. Optische Detektion der magnetischen Resonanz mit modengekoppelten Femtosekunden-Pulsen

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Volker

    2000-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit dem Aufbau eines neuartigen Spektrometers zur Elektronen-Paramagnetischen Resonanz. Die konventionelle magnetische Resonanz wurde hierbei um eine optisch gepulste Detektion, mittels Titan-Saphir-Femtosekunden-Pulslaser erweitert. Als Proben wurden mit diesem neuen Spektrometer Rubin (gepulste ODEPR in Transmission), bzw. ein Fe/V-Multilayer (gepulste ODFMR in Reflektion) untersucht. Die Wechselwirkung zwischen optischer Welle und Magnetisierung...

  11. Analyse von 12 Patienten mit konservativer Behandlung nach Paracetamolintoxikation

    OpenAIRE

    Zulueta La Rosa, Pia Noreen

    2013-01-01

    Paracetamol ist ein häufig angewendetes Schmerzmittel mit einem geringen Nebenwirkungsprofil, wirkt jedoch in hohen Dosen hepatotoxisch. Aufgrund seiner leichten Zugänglichkeit kommt es häufig zu Überdosierungen, versehentlich oder in suizidaler Absicht und spielt somit im klinischen Alltag eine zunehmende Rolle. In dieser retrospektiven Untersuchung, die einen Zeitraum von fünf Jahren umfasst, wurden die Daten von zwölf Patienten (Alter 16-51 Jahre) mit Paracetamolintoxikation ausgewertet...

  12. Clusteranalyse mit gemischtskalierten Merkmalen: SPSS-Makropaket Paare

    OpenAIRE

    Fickel, Norman

    1995-01-01

    Die Statistiksoftware SPSS unterstützt auch in der Version 6 nur Clusteranalysen, wenn alle Merkmale dasselbe Skalenniveau besitzen. Mit dem hier vorgestellten Makropaket Paare kann SPSS auch gemischtskalierte Daten verarbeiten. Der zugrundeliegende Algorithmus abstrahiert dazu durch Abstandsmaße von den unterschiedlichen Skalenniveaus der gegebenen Merkmale. Die Güte der gefundenen Klassifikation läßt sich mit einer Streuungszerlegung sowohl insgesamt als auch merkmalsspezifisch beurteilen

  13. Metabolische und Genotypische Charakteristika bei Frauen mit polyzystischem Ovar Syndrom

    OpenAIRE

    Schnuck, Franziska

    2006-01-01

    Das Syndrom der polyzystischen Ovarien ist eine sehr komplexe endokrinologi-sche Erkrankung multifaktorieller Genese. Neben dem Vorhandensein patholo-gischer Ovarien, persistierender Oligo-/Amenorrhoen, sowie Diskrepanzen des Androgenstoffwechsels rücken zunehmend metabolische Störungen in den Fokus der Wissenschaft. Sowohl die Pathogenese des PCO-Syndroms, als auch des Typ 2 Diabetes mellitus ist mit der Insulinresistenz und der mit ihr einher-gehenden hormonellen und metabolischen Störungen...

  14. Schlaf und Atmung bei Patienten mit Morbus Parkinson

    OpenAIRE

    Georg, Wulf-Martin

    2001-01-01

    Bei 9 Patienten mit Morbus Parkinson wurden anhand polysomnografischer Meßdaten Schlafverhalten und Atmung untersucht. Es wurden Hypnogramme erstellt und Sauerstoffsättigung, Atemzugvolumen, Atemzykluszeit, endexspiratorischer CO2- Partialdruck, Anteil periodischer Atmung und Laboured Breathing Index (LBI) ermittelt. Bei 8 Pat. wurde CO2-Atemantwort durchgeführt. Schlafstruktur ist gestört. Pat. haben fragmentierten Schlaf mit häufigem Erwachen und langen Wachphasen. Tiefschlaf is...

  15. Simulation of the West African monsoon onset using the HadGEM3-RA regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Ismaïla; Bain, Caroline L.; Gaye, Amadou T.; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; Niang, Coumba; Dieng, Mame D. B.; Graham, Richard

    2014-08-01

    The performance of the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 3 regional climate model (HadGEM3-RA) in simulating the West African monsoon (WAM) is investigated. We focus on performance for monsoon onset timing and for rainfall totals over the June-July-August (JJA) season and on the model's representation of the underlying dynamical processes. Experiments are driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis and follow the CORDEX experimental protocol. Simulations with the HadGEM3 global model, which shares a common physical formulation with HadGEM3-RA, are used to gain insight into the causes of HadGEM3-RA simulation errors. It is found that HadGEM3-RA simulations of monsoon onset timing are realistic, with an error in mean onset date of two pentads. However, the model has a dry bias over the Sahel during JJA of 15-20 %. Analysis suggests that this is related to errors in the positioning of the Saharan heat low, which is too far south in HadGEM3-RA and associated with an insufficient northward reach of the south-westerly low-level monsoon flow and weaker moisture convergence over the Sahel. Despite these biases HadGEM3-RA's representation of the general rainfall distribution during the WAM appears superior to that of ERA-Interim when using Global Precipitation Climatology Project or Tropical Rain Measurement Mission data as reference. This suggests that the associated dynamical features seen in HadGEM3-RA can complement the physical picture available from ERA-Interim. This approach is supported by the fact that the global HadGEM3 model generates realistic simulations of the WAM without the benefit of pseudo-observational forcing at the lateral boundaries; suggesting that the physical formulation shared with HadGEM3-RA, is able to represent the driving processes. HadGEM3-RA simulations confirm previous findings that the main rainfall peak near 10°N during June-August is maintained by a region of mid-tropospheric ascent located, latitudinally, between the cores of

  16. DFB-Laser mit integriert optischer Rückkopplung für die optische Signalverarbeitung

    OpenAIRE

    Brox, Olaf

    2005-01-01

    Im Mittelpunkt dieser Arbeit stehen DFB-Laser mit integriert optischer Rückkopplung und Anwendungen dieser Komponente für die optische Signalverarbeitung. DFB-Laser mit integrierten Rückkoppelsektionen werden hergestellt und experimentell untersucht. Erstmalig erfolgen Untersuchungen an DFB-Lasern mit passiver Rückkopplung (PFL) und DFB-Lasern mit aktiver Rückkopplung (AFL), wobei das Hauptaugenmerk auf der zuverlässigen Erzeugung von Selbstpulsationen mit einer Frequenz von 40 GHz liegt. Sta...

  17. Der Lebenslauf von Menschen mit Asperger Syndrom / High-Functioning Autismus : eine Interviewstudie mit Schwerpunkt auf dem Erwachsenenalter

    OpenAIRE

    Gomolla, Annette

    2002-01-01

    Über den Lebensverlauf und insbesondere das Erwachsenenalter von Menschen mit Asperger Syndrom (AS) / High-Functioning Autismus (HFA) ist bisher wenig bekannt, insbesondere gibt es keine Studien, die die Erfahrungen und Bewertungen der Personen selbst in den Mittelpunkt stellen. Die vorliegende Studie hat sich bemüht, bestehende Informationen und Einschätzungen Dritter über Kindheit, Jugendzeit und Erwachsenenalter mit den subjektiven Sichtweisen dieser Personengruppe zu vergleichen und spezi...

  18. Development of aerosol retrieval algorithm for Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijin; Kim, Jhoon; Park, Sang Seo; Jeong, Ukkyo; Ahn, Changwoo; Bhartia, Pawan. K.; Torres, Omar; Song, Chang-Keun; Han, Jin-Seok

    2014-05-01

    A scanning UV-Visible spectrometer, the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) onboard the GEO-KOMPSAT2B (Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite) is planned to be launched in geostationary orbit in 2018. The GEMS employs hyper-spectral imaging with 0.6 nm resolution to observe solar backscatter radiation in the UV and Visible range. In the UV range, the low surface contribution to the backscattered radiation and strong interaction between aerosol absorption and molecular scattering can be advantageous in retrieving aerosol optical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA). This study presents a UV-VIS algorithm to retrieve AOD and SSA from GEMS. The algorithm is based on the general inversion method, which uses pre-calculated look-up table (LUT) with assumed aerosol properties and measurement condition. To calculate LUT, aerosol optical properties over Asia [70°E-145°E, 0°N-50°N] are obtained from AERONET inversion data (level 2.0) at 46 AERONET sites, and are applied to VLIDORT (spur, 2006). Because the backscattering radiance in UV-Visible range has significant sensitivity to radiance absorptivity and size distribution of loading aerosol, aerosol types are classified from AERONET inversion data by using aerosol classification method suggested in Lee et al. (2010). Then the LUTs are calculated with average optical properties for each aerosol type. The GEMS aerosol algorithm is tested with OMI level-1B dataset, a provisional data for GEMS measurement. The aerosol types for each measured scene are selected by using both of UVAI and VISAI, and AOD and SSA are simultaneously retrieved by comparing simulated radiance with selected aerosol type and the measured value. The AOD and SSA retrieved from GEMS aerosol algorithm are well matched with OMI products, although the retrieved AOD is slightly higher than OMI value. To detect cloud pixel, spatial standard deviation test of radiance is applied in the

  19. Progress on the realization of a new GEM based neutron diagnostic concept for high flux neutron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croci, G.; Rebai, M.; Cazzaniga, C.; Palma, M. Dalla; Grosso, G.; Muraro, A.; Murtas, F.; Claps, G.; Pasqualotto, R.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Tardocchi, M.; Tollin, M.; Cavenago, M.; Gorini, G.

    2014-08-01

    Fusion reactors will need high flux neutron detectors to diagnose the deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium. A candidate detection technique is the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). New GEM based detectors are being developed for application to a neutral deuterium beam test facility. The proposed detection system is called Close-contact Neutron Emission Surface Mapping (CNESM). The diagnostic aims at providing the map of the neutron emission due to interaction of the deuterium beam with the deuterons implanted in the beam dump surface. This is done by placing a detector in close contact, right behind the dump. CNESM uses nGEM detectors, i.e. GEM detectors equipped with a cathode that also serves as neutron-proton converter foil. After the realization and test of several small area prototypes, a full size prototype has been realized and tested with laboratory sources. Test on neutron beams are foreseen for the next months.

  20. Time analysis of the light pulses on gaseous active scintillators using GEMs with He/CF4

    OpenAIRE

    Margato, L. M. S.; Fraga, F. A. F.; Fetal, S. T. G.; Fraga, M. M. F. R.; Marques, R. Ferreira; Policarpo, A. J. P. L.; Guerard, B.; Manzin, G.

    2003-01-01

    The time structure of light pulses from GEM detectors operated in scintillation mode with He/CF4 mixtures, previously used with integrating readout devices for neutron detection, has been investigated. A system using photomultipliers (PMs) and charge preamplifiers coupled to a fast digitizer has been used to measure simultaneously both the charge and light signals of the avalanches and the dependence of these signals on the operating conditions of the GEM, such as gain, transfer yield and col...

  1. Atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations and mercury depositions at a high-altitude mountain peak in south China

    OpenAIRE

    X. W. Fu; Feng, X.; Dong, Z. Q.; R. S. Yin; Wang, J. X.; Yang, Z. R.; Zhang, H.

    2010-01-01

    China is regarded as the largest contributor of mercury (Hg) to the global atmospheric Hg budget. However, concentration levels and depositions of atmospheric Hg in China are poorly known. Continuous measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) were carried out from May 2008 to May 2009 at the summit of Mt. Leigong in south China. Simultaneously, deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg in precipitation, throughfall and litterfall were also studied. Atmospheric GEM concentrations aver...

  2. Development of GEM-based Read-Out Chambers for the upgrade of the ALICE TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALICE at the LHC at CERN is planning a major upgrade of the central barrel detectors, including the TPC, to cope with an increase of the LHC luminosity after 2018. A prototype of an ALICE TPC Inner Read-Out Chamber (IROC) was equipped with three large-size Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils as amplification stage to demonstrate the feasibility of replacing the current readout by Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) with such technology. The GEM IROC was installed within a test field cage with a drift length of 115 mm and commissioned with radioactive sources. The dE/dx resolution of the prototype was evaluated in a test beam campaign at the CERN PS and is comparable to the resolution of the MWPC IROC. Stability under LHC conditions was tested during the ALICE p-Pb beam time, when the prototype was mounted underneath LHC beam pipe, close to the interaction point

  3. GEM detector development for tokamak plasma radiation diagnostics: SXR poloidal tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshova, Maryna; Malinowski, Karol; Ziółkowski, Adam; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, Ewa; Czarski, Tomasz; Poźniak, Krzysztof T.; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Zabołotny, Wojciech; Wojeński, Andrzej; Kolasiński, Piotr; Krawczyk, Rafał D.

    2015-09-01

    An increased attention to tungsten material is related to a fact that it became a main candidate for the plasma facing material in ITER and future fusion reactor. The proposed work refers to the studies of W influence on the plasma performances by developing new detectors based on Gas Electron Multiplier GEM) technology for tomographic studies of tungsten transport in ITER-oriented tokamaks, e.g. WEST project. It presents current stage of design and developing of cylindrically bent SXR GEM detector construction for horizontal port implementation. Concept to overcome an influence of constraints on vertical port has been also presented. It is expected that the detecting unit under development, when implemented, will add to the safe operation of tokamak bringing creation of sustainable nuclear fusion reactors a step closer.

  4. Optical readout of a triple-GEM detector by means of a CMOS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafini, M.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Spiriti, E.

    2016-07-01

    In last years, the development of optical sensors has produced objects able to provide very interesting performance. Large granularity is offered along with a very high sensitivity. CMOS sensors with millions of pixels able to detect as few as two or three photons per pixel are commercially available and can be used to read-out the optical signals provided by tracking particle detectors. In this work the results obtained by optically reading-out a triple-GEM detector by a commercial CMOS sensor will be presented. A standard detector was assembled with a transparent window below the third GEM allowing the light to get out. The detector is supplied with an Ar/CF4 based gas mixture producing 650 nm wavelength photons matching the maximum quantum efficiency of the sensor.

  5. BoNus: Development and use of a radial TPC using cylindrical GEMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specialized system of target and detector was developed at Jefferson Lab to provide new access to information about neutron structure from electron-neutron interactions. It allows identification and measurement of spectator protons produced in e-d→e-psX scattering events. The detector is a radial time-projection chamber optimized for the acceptance of low-momentum protons. Gas gain is provided by three cascaded curved Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs), the first application of GEMs in any configuration other than flat. This article provides details about the development and construction of the detector, its performance, and the analysis of the data from the successful running of its first physics experiment

  6. TPC-like readout for thermal neutron detection using a GEM-detector

    CERN Document Server

    Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Zeitelhack, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Spatial resolution of less than 200 um is challenging for thermal neutron detection. A novel readout scheme based on the time-projection-chamber (TPC) concept is used in a gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detector. Thermal neutrons are captured in a single 2 um thick Boron-10 converter cathode and secondary Helium and Lithium ions are produced with a combined energy of 2.8 MeV. These ions have sufficient energy to form straight tracks of several mm length. With a time resolving 2-dimensional readout of 400 um pitch in both directions, based on APV25 chips, the ions are tracked and their respective origin in the cathode converter foil is reconstructed. Using an Ar-CO2 93:7% gas mixture, a resolution of 100 um (FWHM 235 um) has been observed with a triple GEM-detector setup at the Garching neutron source (FRMII) for neutrons of 4.7 Angstrom.

  7. Use of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detectors for an Advanced X-ray Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Remillard, R A; Boughan, E A; Bradt, H V; Morgan, E H; Becker, U J; Nenonen, S; Vilhu, O R

    2000-01-01

    We describe a concept for a NASA SMEX Mission in which Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, developed at CERN, are adapted for use in X-ray astronomy. These detectors can be used to obtain moderately large detector area and two-dimensional photon positions with sub mm accuracy in the range of 1.5 to 15 keV. We describe an application of GEMs with xenon gas, coded mask cameras, and simple circuits for measuring event positions and for anticoincidence rejection of particle events. The cameras are arranged to cover most of the celestial sphere, providing high sensitivity and throughput for a wide variety of cosmic explosions. At longer timescales, persistent X-ray sources would be monitored with unprecedented levels of coverage. The sensitivity to faint X-ray sources on a one-day timescale would be improved by a factor of 6 over the capability of the RXTE All Sky Monitor.

  8. New High-Resolution Gadolinium-GEM Neutron Detectors for the NMX Instrument at ESS

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Birch, Jens; Etxegarai, Maddi; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Höglund, Carina; Hultman, Lars; Llamas-Jansa, Isabel; Oliveri, Eraldo; Oksanen, Esko; Robinson, Linda; Ropelewski, Leszek; Schmidt, Susann; Streli, Christina; Thuiner, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    European Spallation Source instruments like the macromolecular diffractometer, NMX, require an excellent neutron detection efficiency, high-rate capabilities, time resolution, and an unprecedented spatial resolution in the order of a few hundred micrometers over a wide angular range of the incoming neutrons. For these instruments solid converters in combination with Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) are a promising option. A GEM detector with gadolinium converter was tested on a cold neutron beam at the IFE research reactor in Norway. The {\\mu}TPC analysis, proven to improve the spatial resolution in the case of $^{10}$B converters, is extended to gadolinium based detectors. For the first time, a Gd-GEM was successfully operated to detect neutrons with an estimated efficiency of 10% at a wavelength of 2 {\\AA} and a position resolution better than 350 {\\mu}m.

  9. GASTONE: A new ASIC for the cylindrical GEM inner tracker of KLOE experiment at DAFNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GEM Amplifier Shaper Tracking ON Events (GASTONE) is a low-noise low-power mixed analog-digital ASIC designed to host 64 channels to readout the GEM inner tracker (IT) detector foreseen in the upgrade of the KLOE apparatus at the LNF e+e- DAFNE collider. Each channel is made of a charge sensitive preamplifier, a shaper, a discriminator and a monostable. Digital output data are transmitted via serial interface at 100 Mbit/s data rate. The chip has been developed by using the AMS CMOS 0.35 process. A 16 channels prototype has been produced and used to instrument the single layer IT prototype that has been tested with cosmic muons and a proton beam test at CERN.

  10. GASTONE: A new ASIC for the cylindrical GEM inner tracker of KLOE experiment at DAFNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balla, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Beretta, M.; Cerioni, S.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Via Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); De Robertis, G. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Domenici, D.; Felici, G.; Flammia, M.; Gatta, M.; Jacewicz, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Via Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Liuzzi, R. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Loddo, F. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy)], E-mail: flavio.loddo@ba.infn.it; Monno, L. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Pistilli, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Via Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Ranieri, A. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Rizzi, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Via Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    GEM Amplifier Shaper Tracking ON Events (GASTONE) is a low-noise low-power mixed analog-digital ASIC designed to host 64 channels to readout the GEM inner tracker (IT) detector foreseen in the upgrade of the KLOE apparatus at the LNF e{sup +}e{sup -} DAFNE collider. Each channel is made of a charge sensitive preamplifier, a shaper, a discriminator and a monostable. Digital output data are transmitted via serial interface at 100 Mbit/s data rate. The chip has been developed by using the AMS CMOS 0.35 process. A 16 channels prototype has been produced and used to instrument the single layer IT prototype that has been tested with cosmic muons and a proton beam test at CERN.

  11. Non-uniformity effects of the inter-foil distance on GEM detector performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huang; Han, YI; Zhi-Gang, Xiao; Zhao, Zhang; Wen-Jing, Cheng; Li-Ming, Lü; Wei-Hua, Yan; Ren-Sheng, Wang; Hong-Jie, Li; Yan, Zhang; Li-Min, Duan; Rong-Jiang, Hu; Chen-Gui, Lu; He-Run, Yang; Peng, Ma; Hai-Yan, Gao

    2016-04-01

    The non-uniformity effect of the inter-foil distance has been studied using a gaseous electron multiplication (GEM) detector with sensitive area of 50mm × 50mm. A gradient of the inter-foil distance is introduced by using spacers with different heights at the two ends of the foil gap. While the cluster size and the intrinsic spatial resolution show insignificant dependence on the inter-foil distance, the gain exhibits an approximately linear dependence on the inter-foil distance. From the slope, a quantitative relationship between the change of the inter-foil distance and the change of the gain is derived, which can be used as a method to evaluate the non-uniformity of the foil gap in the application of large-area GEM detectors. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375094, U1332207, 11120101004), and by Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program

  12. Overview of the superconducting magnet subsystem for the GEM detector at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SSC Laboratory plans to deploy two open-quotes largeclose quotes detectors for the essential high-energy physics experiments at the initial startup of the collider. The GEM detector is optimized to emphasize precise measurement of photons and electrons, as well as precise tracking of high-energy muons. An essential part of the GEM detector is the magnet subsystem, which provides the magnetic field necessary for identification and high-resolution tracking of charged particles. This large superconducting magnet system, with ferromagnetic field-shapers, presents a variety of engineering challenges in superconductor technology, in magnet-winding technology, fabrication, assembly and installation of large and heavy components, and in ensuring the required high operating availability

  13. Overview of the superconducting magnet subsystem for the GEM detector at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SSC Laboratory plans to deploy two ''large'' detectors for the essential high-energy physics experiments at the initial startup of the collider. The GEM detector is optimized to emphasize precise measurement of photons and electrons, as well as precise tracking of high-energy muons. An essential part of the GEM detector is the magnet subsystem, which provides the magnetic field necessary for identification and high-resolution tracking of charged particles. This large superconducting magnet system, with ferromagnetic field-shapers, presents a variety of engineering challenges in superconductor technology, in magnet-winding technology, fabrication, assembly and installation of large and heavy components, and in ensuring the required high operating availability

  14. R and D results on a CsI-coated triple thick GEM-based photodetector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very high momentum particle identification detector proposed for the ALICE upgrade is a focusing RICH using a C4F10 gaseous radiator. For the detection of Cherenkov photons, one of the options currently under investigation is to use a CsI-coated triple thick GEM with metallic or resistive electrodes. We will present results from the laboratory studies as well as preliminary results of beam tests of a RICH detector prototype consisting of a CaF2 radiator coupled to a 10x10 cm2 CsI-coated triple thick GEM equipped with a pad readout and GASSIPLEX-based front-end electronics. With such a prototype the detection of Cherenkov photons simultaneously with minimum ionizing particles has been achieved for the first time in a stable operation mode.

  15. Energy calibration of a GEM-TPC prototype with 83mKr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A GEM-TPC has been built as a 10% scale prototype for the P-bar ANDA experiment and as a full-scale prototype for the CBELSA/TAPS experiment (Fabbietti L, et al: Nucl Instrum Methods A 628:204, 2011). The intrinsic suppression of ion backflow into the drift volume makes it suitable for high rate/background environments. The GEM-TPC has been used as an inner tracking update for the FOPI experiment at GSI where cosmic and beam tests were performed. For calibration purposes a 83Rb source has been produced at the Bonn HISKP Cyclotron. Using the isomeric 83mKr evaporated by the source, a relative channel-wise gain calibration as well as gain estimation for different high voltage settings could be performed.

  16. Investigations of the long-term stability of a GEM-TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorchuk, Oleksiy [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: LCTPC-Deutschland-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    For the International Large Detector (ILD) at the planned International Linear Collider (ILC), a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking detector. The gas amplification will be done by Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD). One option is to use Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM). While the applicability of GEMs for the gas amplification in a TPC readout has been shown, the focus of the current research is to improve the stability and reliability of the readout modules. This is a crucial requirement for the operation in the final ILD TPC. This presentation shows results from precise discharge current measurements and parallel optical investigations. Ways to improve the long-term stability of the amplification system have been studied.

  17. Performance of the full size nGEM detector for the SPIDER experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, A.; Croci, G.; Albani, G.; Claps, G.; Cavenago, M.; Cazzaniga, C.; Dalla Palma, M.; Grosso, G.; Murtas, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Rebai, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Tollin, M.; Gorini, G.

    2016-03-01

    The ITER neutral beam test facility under construction in Padova will host two experimental devices: SPIDER, a 100 kV negative H/D RF beam source, and MITICA, a full scale, 1 MeV deuterium beam injector. SPIDER will start operations in 2016 while MITICA is expected to start during 2019. Both devices feature a beam dump used to stop the produced deuteron beam. Detection of fusion neutrons produced between beam-deuterons and dump-implanted deuterons will be used as a means to resolve the horizontal beam intensity profile. The neutron detection system will be placed right behind the beam dump, as close to the neutron emitting surface as possible thus providing the map of the neutron emission on the beam dump surface. The system uses nGEM neutron detectors. These are Gas Electron Multiplier detectors equipped with a cathode that also serves as neutron-proton converter foil. The cathode is designed to ensure that most of the detected neutrons at a point of the nGEM surface are emitted from the corresponding beamlet footprint (with dimensions of about 40×22 mm2) on the dump front surface. The size of the nGEM detector for SPIDER is 352 mm×200 mm. Several smaller size prototypes have been successfully made in the last years and the experience gained on these detectors has led to the production of the full size detector for SPIDER during 2014. This nGEM has a read-out board made of 256 pads (arranged in a 16×16 matrix) each with a dimension of 22 mm×13 mm. This paper describes the production of this detector and its tests (in terms of beam profile reconstruction capability, uniformity over the active area, gamma rejection capability and time stability) performed on the ROTAX beam-line at the ISIS spallation source (Didcot-UK).

  18. Emissions from Petrol Engine Fueled Gasoline–Ethanol–Methanol (GEM) Ternary mixture as Alternative Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Thangavelu Saravana Kannan; Chelladorai Piraiarasi; Ani Farid Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demands of petroleum fuels due to the rapid development automotive society coupled with the environmental pollution issues have inspired the efforts on exploring alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Bioethanol obtained from biomass and bioenergy crops has been proclaimed as one of the feasible alternative to gasoline. In this study, the effect of gasoline–ethanol–methanol (GEM) ternary blend on the emission characteristics of petrol engine was studied. Three diffe...

  19. A new Cylindrical-GEM Inner Tracker for the upgrade of the KLOE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the new Inner Tracker detector for the upgrade of the KLOE apparatus at DAΦNE, the Frascati Φ-factory. The device is devoted to improve the vertex reconstruction performance for decays close to the Interaction Point. It is composed of 4 Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, realized as very light cylinders with an innovative technique that allows to minimize the material budget inside the active area. We report about the construction and test of several prototypes.

  20. A new Cylindrical-GEM Inner Tracker for the upgrade of the KLOE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balla, A.; Bencivenni, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Capodiferro, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Cerioni, S.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); De Robertis, G. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Di Domenico, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Domenici, D., E-mail: Danilo.Domenici@lnf.infn.it [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Dong, J.; Felici, G.; Gatta, M.; Jacewicz, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Lacalamita, N. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Lauciani, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Liuzzi, R.; Loddo, F.; Mongelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Morello, M. [INFN Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Cosenza (Italy); Patera, V. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    We present the new Inner Tracker detector for the upgrade of the KLOE apparatus at DA{Phi}NE, the Frascati {Phi}-factory. The device is devoted to improve the vertex reconstruction performance for decays close to the Interaction Point. It is composed of 4 Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, realized as very light cylinders with an innovative technique that allows to minimize the material budget inside the active area. We report about the construction and test of several prototypes.

  1. Perceived Psychological Contract and Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Teachers in Gem District, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mande Wycliffe Odhiambo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between psychological contract and job satisfaction of secondary school teachers in Gem district, Kenya. A descriptive survey design was used with the target population of 400 teachers in public secondary schools. Stratified random sampling technique was used to come up with a total sample size of 200. Questionnaires with open ended and closed ended questions were developed by the researcher and used in primary data collection. The ...

  2. Malaysia International Jewellery and Gems Fair (IJG05) Unveiled in Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      "Diamonds are a girl's best friend." This is certainly not an overstatement as women of all ages and ethnicity flocked to the much awaited annual jewellery extravaganza-Malaysia International Jewellery and Gems Fair (IJG'05) which was officially launched in style by Her Highness, Y.A.M. Tunku Dara Tunku Tan Sri Naquiah binti Tuanku Ja' afar earlier today at the swanky Mandarin Oriental Hotel, Kuala Lumpur.……

  3. Malaysia International Jewellery and Gems Fair (IJG05) Unveiled in Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ "Diamonds are a girl's best friend." This is certainly not an overstatement as women of all ages and ethnicity flocked to the much awaited annual jewellery extravaganza-Malaysia International Jewellery and Gems Fair (IJG'05) which was officially launched in style by Her Highness, Y.A.M. Tunku Dara Tunku Tan Sri Naquiah binti Tuanku Ja' afar earlier today at the swanky Mandarin Oriental Hotel, Kuala Lumpur.

  4. CSC large panel R ampersand D summary for the SSC GEM muon subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GEM Detector uses 1,128 Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) muon detectors requiring a total of approximately 10,000 precision panels in the CSC assemblies. These panels must be fabricated to extreme tolerances in order to meet the physics requirement. A fabrication technique used to produce two large panels, nominally 1 by 3 meters, is described and the resulting panel precision is reported

  5. Demenz und Depression bei Patienten mit idiopathischem Parkinson-Syndrom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herting B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Das idiopathische Parkinson-Syndrom (IPS ist eine progressive neurodegenerative Erkrankung mit motorischen und nicht-motorischen Symptomen. Bei Patienten mit IPS sind kognitive Defizite und Demenzen mit einer Prävalenz von 20–40 % nachgewiesen worden. Risikofaktoren für das Auftreten einer Parkinson-Demenz (PDe sind hohes Alter bei Krankheitsbeginn, schwere und/oder beidseitige motorische Symptomatik, Verwirrtheitszustände unter Levodopa-Medikation, aber auch Demenzerkrankungen in der Familie und niedriges Bildungsniveau. Patienten mit PDe weisen eine erhöhte Morbidität und Mortalität im Vergleich zu Patienten mit IPS ohne Demenz und der altersgleichen Normalbevölkerung auf, die unabhängig von der Schwere der motorischen Einbußen zweifach erhöht ist. Die Depression ist das häufigste psychiatrische Symptom beim IPS (die Angaben zur Prävalenz schwanken zwischen 4 % und 70 % und beeinflußt neben den Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens wesentlich die Lebensqualität der Betroffenen. Darin liegt auch die Herausforderung, kognitive und affektive Symptome effizient zu behandeln.

  6. The micro turbine: the MIT example; La micro turbine: l'exemple du MIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribaud, Y. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA-DEFA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    2001-10-01

    The micro turbine study began a few years ago at the MIT, with the participation of specialists from different fields. The purpose is the development of a MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems) based, 1 cm in diameter, micro gas turbine. Potential applications are devoted to micro drone propulsion, electric power generation for portable power sources in order to replace heavy Lithium batteries, satellite motorization, the surface distributed power for boundary suction on plane wings. The manufacturing constraints at such small scales lead to 2-D extruded shapes. The physical constraints stem from viscous effects and from limitations given by 2-D geometry. The time scales are generally shorter than for conventional machines. Otherwise the material properties are better at such length scales. Transposition from conventional turbomachinery laws is no more applicable and new design methods must be established. The present paper highlights the project progress and the technology breakthroughs. (author)

  7. First evidence of hydrous silicic fluid films around solid inclusions in gem-quality diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimis, Paolo; Alvaro, Matteo; Nestola, Fabrizio; Angel, Ross J.; Marquardt, Katharina; Rustioni, Greta; Harris, Jeff W.; Marone, Federica

    2016-09-01

    Diamonds form from fluids or melts circulating at depth in the Earth's mantle. Analysis of these fluids is possible if they remain entrapped in the diamond during its growth, but this is rarely observed in gem-quality stones. We provide the first evidence that typical mineral inclusions in gem-quality diamonds from the Siberian and Kaapvaal cratons are surrounded by a thin film of hydrous silicic fluid of maximum thickness 1.5 μm. The fluid contains Si2O(OH)6, Si(OH)4, and molecular H2O and was identified using confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy. As the solid mineral inclusions have both peridotitic and eclogitic affinities and occur in two cratonic regions, our results demonstrate the strong connection between water-rich fluids and the growth of gem-quality lithospheric diamonds. The presence of the fluid films should be taken into account for a proper evaluation of H2O contents in the mantle based on H2O contents in solid inclusions and for a robust assessment of diamond formation pressures based on the residual pressures of the inclusions.

  8. GEMS: In what type of galaxies do most stars form at z~0.7?

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, C; McIntosh, D H; Rix, H W; Barden, M; Beckwith, S V W; Borch, A; Caldwell, J A R; Haeussler, B; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; Jogee, S; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C Y; Sánchez, S F; Somerville, R S; Wisotzki, L

    2004-01-01

    We combine high-resolution images from GEMS with redshifts and spectral energy distributions from COMBO-17 to explore the morphological types of galaxies that contribute most to the UV luminosity density at z~0.7. We analysed restframe 280 nm and V-band luminosities of 1483 galaxies in the redshift range 0.65GEMS morphologies against the deeper GOODS images and quantify an incompleteness of the GEMS merger identification at the faint end. We derive the fractions of the global UV luminosity density j_280 originating from the galaxy types, and find that Sa-Sd spirals and Irregulars dominate with about 40% share each. I...

  9. R&D on GEM Detectors for Forward Tracking at a Future Electron-Ion Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Aiwu; Hohlmann, Marcus; Bai, Xinzhan; Gnanvo, Kondo; Liyanage, Nilanga K; Posik, Matt; Surrow, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    We report the status of R&D on large triple-GEM detectors for a forward tracker (FT) in an experiment at a future Electron Ion Collider (EIC) that will improve our understanding of QCD. We have designed a detector prototype specifically targeted for the EIC-FT, which has a trapezoidal shape with 30.1 degrees opening angle. We are investigating different detector assembly techniques and signal readout technologies, but have designed a common GEM foil to minimize NRE cost for foil production. The assembly techniques comprise either a purely mechanical method including foil stretching as pioneered by CMS but with certain modifications, or gluing foils to frames that are then assembled mechanically, or gluing foils to frames that are then glued together. The first two assembly techniques allow for re-opening chambers so that a GEM foil can be replaced if it is damaged. For readout technologies, we are pursuing a cost-effective one-dimensional readout with wide zigzag strips that maintains reasonable spatial r...

  10. Converting a controlled vocabulary into an ontology: the case of GEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Qin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevelance of digital information raised issues regarding the suitability of conventional library tools for organizing information. The multi-dimensionality of digital resources requires a more versatile and flexible representation to accommodate intelligent information representation and retrieval. Ontologies are used as a solution to such issues in many application domains, mainly due to their ability to explicitly specify the semantics and relations and to express them in a computer understandable language. Conventional knowledge organization tools such as classifications and thesauri resemble ontologies in a way that they define concepts and relationships in a systematic manner, but they are less expressive than ontologies when it comes to machine language. This paper used the controlled vocabulary at the Gateway to Educational Materials (GEM as an example to address the issues in representing digital resouces. The theoretical and methodological framework in this paper serves as the rationale and guideline for converting the GEM controlled vocabulary into an ontology. Compared to the original semantic model of GEM controlled vocabulary, the major difference between the two models lies in the values added through deeper semantics in describing digital objects, both conceptually and relationally.

  11. GEM, Fuel Cycle Cost and Economics for Thermal Reactor, Present Worth Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1- Description of problem or function: GEM is used to predict fuel cycle costs for any type nuclear system (i.e., BWR, HTGR, PWR, LMFBR, GCFR,... ). The current version is limited to thermal reactors. GEM is designed for production use by large utilities which have several reactor types on their system. GEM has been written so as to accommodate all major fuel management activities undertaken by a utility - (1) fuel bid analysis, (2) evaluation of actual day to day operation, and (3) system simulation and optimization studies. 2 - Method of solution: Costs are calculated using present-worth techniques and continuous compounding. The equations are based on an investor-owned utility capitalization structure which easily covers the range of industrial, private, and public (government) owned utilities. Three distinct types of analysis (cash flow, allocated costs, yearly cash flow) are performed, each yielding identical results. Using these as a basis many other analyses are undertaken. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Dimensions of all arrays are carried as variables throughout the analysis. The maximum size of each array is set by the user in program MAIN. Current values are set so that maxima are: 50 batches per case study, 20 year batch life, 30 year case study, 120 batch burn time-steps, 20 individual payments (sales) associated with each cost component

  12. Performance Verification of the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer GEMS X-Ray Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Black, J. Kevin; Kitaguchi, Takao; Hayato, Asami; Hill, Joanne E.; Jahoda, Keith; Tamagawa, Toru; Kanako, Kenta; Takeuchi, Yoko; Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Kenward, David

    2014-01-01

    olarimetry is a powerful tool for astrophysical observations that has yet to be exploited in the X-ray band. For satellite-borne and sounding rocket experiments, we have developed a photoelectric gas polarimeter to measure X-ray polarization in the 2-10 keV range utilizing a time projection chamber (TPC) and advanced micro-pattern gas electron multiplier (GEM) techniques. We carried out performance verification of a flight equivalent unit (1/4 model) which was planned to be launched on the NASA Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) satellite. The test was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) facility in April 2013. The polarimeter was irradiated with linearly-polarized monochromatic X-rays between 2.3 and 10.0 keV and scanned with a collimated beam at 5 different detector positions. After a systematic investigation of the detector response, a modulation factor greater than or equal to 35% above 4 keV was obtained with the expected polarization angle. At energies below 4 keV where the photoelectron track becomes short, diffusion in the region between the GEM and readout strips leaves an asymmetric photoelectron image. A correction method retrieves an expected modulation angle, and the expected modulation factor, approximately 20% at 2.7 keV. Folding the measured values of modulation through an instrument model gives sensitivity, parameterized by minimum detectable polarization (MDP), nearly identical to that assumed at the preliminary design review (PDR).

  13. Cytogenetic Status of Workers Occupationally Exposed to Microwave Radiation of GEM Radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of the present study was to analyzed cytogenetic status of workers occupationally exposed to damaging effects of microwave radiation of GEM radar. Microwave radiation of GEM radar acts within microwave field of 10 μW/cm2 to 10 mW/cm2 and frequency range of 1.5 GHz to 10.9 GHz that has contradictory cytogenetic effect on human genome. For that reason we used two methods commonly used in this type of monitoring research: comet assay and micronucleus test. We measured the baseline comet assay effect in whole blood samples and in corresponding unexposed control subjects. It was found that in the subjects who were occupationally exposed to microwave radiation, the levels of DNA damage increased compare to control group and showed interindividual variations. In addition we studied parameters of the micronucleus test were the levels of micronuclei also increased and showed interindividual variations. In addition, new parameters that were measured; nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds, were detected in exposed group in compare to control group that did not shown this type of damage. All differences between mean group values were statistically significant (P less than 0.05) in compare to control unexposed group. Results of our study indicate that individuals occupationally exposed to microwave frequency of GEM radar equipment may experience an increased genotoxic risk, emphasizing the importance of individual biomonitoring to prevent any hazard to their health.(author)

  14. Performance Test of a Triple GEM Detector at CERN n_TOF Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Claps, Gerardo; Murtas, Fabrizio; Pietropaolo, Antonino; Puddu, Silvia; Severino, Clizia Tecla; Silari, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The application of a triple GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) for neutron detection was tested at the n_TOF facility at CERN. n_TOF allows the neutron energy distribution to be measured via a ~185 m time of flight path. A 20 GeV/c proton beam hits a lead target generating a neutron spectrum ranging from thermal energies to the GeV region. Due to their long flight path and short proton pulse, the neutron arrival times at the experimental area define their energy (1). A triple GEM detector with a 60 μm Polyethylene (PE) neutron converter and 40 μm of Aluminium, filled with an Ar-CO2 70-30% mixture, was installed a few meters downstream of the experimental area, just in front of the beam dump. The measurements were purely parasitic; they were conducted in parallel and without interfering with the official n_TOF scientific program. Using the n_TOF trigger it is possible to synchronize the GEM data acquisition in order to select a given neutron energy window and measure the detector efficiency as a function of neutr...

  15. The 2.3 GHz continuum survey of the GEM project

    CERN Document Server

    Tello, C; Torres, S; Bersanelli, M; Smoot, G F; Ferreira, I S; Cingoz, A; Lamb, J; Barbosa, D; Perez-Becker, D; Ricciardi, S; Currivan, J A; Platania, P; Maino, D

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the scope of the Galactic Emission Mapping (GEM) project and its results at 2.3 GHz. Its observational program was conceived and developed to reveal the large scale properties of Galactic synchrotron radiation in total intensity and polarisation through a self-consistent set of radio continuum surveys between 408 MHz and 10 GHz. GEM's unique observational strategy and experimental design aim at the production of foreground templates in order to address the mutual inconsistencies between existing surveys and the role of Galactic emission as the main source of astrophysical contamination in measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. The GEM experiment uses a portable and double-shielded 5.5-m radiotelescope on a rotating platform to map 60 deg wide declination bands, from different observational sites, by circularly scanning the sky at 30 deg from the Zenith. The observations at 2.3 GHz were accomplished with a total power receiver, whose front-end HEMT was matched direc...

  16. Performances of a GEM-based Time Projection Chamber prototype for the AMADEUS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lener, M Poli; Corradi, G; Curceanu, C; D'Uffizi, A; Paglia, C; Vidal, A Romero; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Tagnani, D; Zmeskal, J

    2013-01-01

    A large number of high-energy and heavy-ion experiments successfully used Time Projection Chamber (TPC) as central tracker and particle identification detector. However, the performance requirements on TPC for new high-rate particle experiments greatly exceed the abilities of traditional TPC read out by multi-wire proportional chamber (MWPC). Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector has great potential to improve TPC performances when used as amplification device. In this paper we present the R&D activity on a new GEM-based TPC detector built as a prototype for the inner part for AMADEUS, a new experimental proposal at the DAFNE collider at Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (INFN), aiming to perform measurements of the low-energy negative kaons interactions in nuclei. In order to evaluate the GEM-TPC performances, a 10x10 cm2 prototype with a drift gap up to 15 cm has been realized. The detector was tested at the pM1 beam facility of the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) with low momentum pions and protons, witho...

  17. A simulation study on angular and micro pattern effects in GEM detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H G; Jamil, M; Rhee, J T; Ahmad, Farzana; Jeon, Y J

    2016-04-01

    A useful approach for the enhancement of thermal neutrons detection has been reported here. This technique, based on the angular and micro pattern effects, has been developed and applied to the boron-coated ((10)B) Gas Electron multiplier (GEM) detector. In the angular effect case, as a general rule, the detector device is turned at an angle which improves the device response per unit area of the detector. While for the latter case, a regular pattern in the form of micrometer deep grooves is fabricated onto the converter coating, consequently it enhances the capture probability of the detector. For the current study, both of these techniques using a (10)B-coated GEM detector have been simulated for low energy neutrons. For the evaluation of detector response thermal neutrons in the energy ranges from 25meV to 100meV were transported onto the detector surface. For this work, FLUKA MC code has been utilized. The output in both cases has been estimated as a function of incident thermal neutron energies. By employing both techniques, the angle and the micro pattern dependent efficiencies for (10)B-coated GEM detectors are presented, which indicate an improved efficiency response of the device. We anticipate that by using these modifications can lead a further forward step in the development and improvement of thermal neutron detection technology. PMID:26773818

  18. The HadGEM2-ES implementation of CMIP5 centennial simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Jones

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific understanding of the Earth's climate system, including the central question of how the climate system is likely to respond to human-induced perturbations, is comprehensively captured in GCMs and Earth System Models(ESM. Diagnosing the simulated climate response, and comparing responses across different models, is crucially dependent on transparent assumptions of how the GCM/ESM has been driven – especially because the implementation can involve subjective decisions and may differ between modelling groups performing the same experiment. This paper outlines the climate forcings and setup of the Met Office Hadley Centre ESM, HadGEM2-ES for the CMIP5 set of centennial experiments. We document the prescribed greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol precursors, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone assumptions, as well as implementation of land-use change and natural forcings for the HadGEM2-ES historical and future experiments following the Representative Concentration Pathways. In addition, we provide details of how HadGEM2-ES ensemble members were initialised from the control run and how the palaeoclimate and AMIP experiments, as well as the "emission-driven" RCP experiments were performed.

  19. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  20. Islam, Migration und Integration: Konflikte jugendlicher Migranten mit islamischem Hintergrund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Kizilhan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Der Islam mit seinen verschiedenen Verhaltensweisen und Verboten spielt direkt oder indirekt immer noch eine wichtige Rolle im alltäglichen Leben vieler Migranten. Religiöse Vorschriften zeichnen sich dadurch aus, dass ihrer Achtung nicht juristisch, sondern durch sozialen Druck Nachdruck verliehen wird (Verwandtschaft, religiöse Lehrer, islamische Gemeinde, religiöse Vereine etc. und dass ihre Missachtung mit Folgen in Form von Ausgrenzung, Missachtung und Diskriminierung einhergeht. Die kulturellen Vorstellungen der ersten Generation unterscheiden sich auf Grund der unterschiedlichen Biografien von denen der zweiten und dritten durch den Grad der Verwurzelung in der kulturellen Identität und der Verbundenheit mit traditionellen Wertvorstellungen. Fehlende Integrationskonzepte, Ausgrenzung im Migrationsland auf der einen und weltweite staatliche und halbstaatliche Konflikte im Namen des Islams bis hin zum Terrorismus auf der anderen Seite haben einen erheblichen Einfluss auf den Integrationsgrad von jugendlichen Migranten im Aufnahmeland.

  1. Professionell entwickeln mit Java EE 7 das umfassende Handbuch

    CERN Document Server

    Salvanos, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Ein praxisorientiertes Lehrbuch zur JEE 7 und zugleich ein Standardwerk, das Sie auf Ihrem Weg zum Enterprise-Entwickler begleitet. Inklusive Best Practices für leichtgewichtige Enterprise Applications, Standards zu servicebasierten Anwendungen, Persistence API, Dependency Injection, HTML5 und Performance-Tuning. Aus dem Inhalt: Grundlagen und Installation Software-Architektur mit Java EE Webanwendungen mit HTML5 und CSS3 Java Standard Tag Library Asynchrone Servlets und Non-blocking I/O Datenbanken anbinden mit der JDBC API Java Server Faces Datenbank-Organisation Java Persistence API Objektrelationales Mapping Transaktionssicherheit Performance-Tuning Internationalisierung Enterprise Java Beans WebSockets PrimeFaces Deployment Galileo Press heißt von jetzt an Rheinwerk Verlag.

  2. Wege zu einem nachhaltigen Umgang mit Süßwasser

    OpenAIRE

    Wissenschaftlicher Beirat Globale Umweltveränderungen

    2009-01-01

    Der Umgang mit Wasser – seine Erschließung, Verteilung, Nutzung, Reinhaltung und Abwehr – hat die Geschichte der menschlichen Zivilisation nachhaltig geprägt. Der Umgang mit Wasser ist aber auch eine der vorrangigen Aufgaben der Gegenwart. Heute leben rund 2 Mrd. Menschen ohne Zugang zu sauberem Trink- und Sanitärwasser (Gleick, 1993), weltweit werden nur 5% der Abwässer gereinigt. Infolgedessen leidet jeder zweite Mensch in den Entwicklungsländern an einer wasserbedingten Krankheit; 5 Mio. M...

  3. Beiträge zur Analyse von Finanzmarktmodellen mit Transaktionskosten

    OpenAIRE

    Prelle, Claas

    2007-01-01

    Gegenstand dieser Arbeit ist die Untersuchung von Finanzmarktmodellen, die für den An- und Verkauf von Finanzgütern anfallende Kosten berücksichtigen, sogenannte Transaktionskosten. Zentrales Thema ist dabei ein Portfoliooptimierungsproblem in einem Black-Scholes-Modell mit n Aktien bei unendlichem Zeithorizont. Es wird mit erneuerungstheoretischen Methoden gezeigt, daß sich für eine große Klasse von Strategien die asymptotische Rendite des zugehörigen Portfolios auf das Verhalten in einer "...

  4. Index3 Algebro-Differentialgleichungen mit proper formuliertem Hauptterm

    OpenAIRE

    Schumilina, Irina

    2002-01-01

    Diese Arbeit widmet sich der Untersuchung von Algebro-Differentialgleichungen mit Index 3. Im ersten Kapitel werden grundlegende Begriffe und die Definition der DAE mit Index3 eingefürt. Dabei wird eine spezielle Kette von Matrixfunktionen verwendet. Weiter wird die Invarianz des Indexes $ \\mu = \\{ 1,2,3\\} $ unter regulären Transformationen bewiesen. Im zweiten Kapitel erhalten wir die Zerlegung der Index3 DAE und beweisen die Lösbarkeit der DAE. Im dritten Teil vergleichen wir den von P. Kun...

  5. Stochastische Differentialgleichungen mit unendlichem Gedächtnis

    OpenAIRE

    Riedle, Markus

    2003-01-01

    Für einen R^d-wertigen stochastischen Prozess X auf R bezeichne X_t den Segmentprozess X_t:={X(t+u): u = 0. Es wird folgende affine stochastische Differentialgleichung mit unendlichem Gedächtnis betrachtet: dX(t)=L(X_t)dt + dW(t) für t >= 0, X_0=F, (A) wobei L:B -> R^d ein lineares stetiges Funktional, W einen Wiener-Prozess mit Werten in R^d sowie B einen semi-normierten linearen Unterraum von {f:(-00, 0] -> R^d} bezeichnen. Die Anfangsbedingung F ist eine B-wertige Zufallsvariab...

  6. Enantioselektive katalytische Hydrierung mit polymerfixiertem Katalysator auf einer Kieselgurmatrix

    OpenAIRE

    Jaser, Karl

    2004-01-01

    Diese Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Fixierung des enantioselektiven Rhodium-Pyrphos-Katalysators auf einer inerten Kieselgurmatrix. Dabei wird als Polymer Glycerin-tris[polypropylenglycol-amingestoppt]-ether verwendet, das mit 1,3,5-Benzoltricarbonsäure-trichlorid oder 1,6-Diisocyanato-hexan vernetzt wird. Die Hydrierdauer einer bestimmten Menge Acetamidozimtsäure, der Umsatz und der ee-Wert, die im Batch-Betrieb ermittelt wurden, lassen einen Rückschluss auf die Menge des reaktiven Rhodium...

  7. Mikrostrukturierte segmentierte Paul-Falle mit einstellbarem Magnetfeldgradienten

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Delia

    2012-01-01

    Lasergekühlte Ionenketten in mikrostrukturierten Paul-Fallen (Mikrofallen) bieten ein großes Potential für Anwendungen in den Quanteninformationswissenschaften. Sie können in einer dekohärenzarmen Umgebung präpariert und manipuliert, und ihre Zustände mit einer Effizienz von fast 100% detektiert werden. Mit zusätzlichen Magnetfeldgradienten ist es möglich, die Ionen im Frequenzraum zu adressieren und zu koppeln (MAGIC-Methode - MAgnetic Gradient Induced Coupling). In dieser Arbeit wurde ei...

  8. GEM-E3: A computable general equilibrium model applied for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the European Research Project GEM-E3-ELITE, funded by the European Commission and coordinated by the Centre for European Economic Research (Germany), were to further develop the general equilibrium model GEM-E3 (Capros et al., 1995, 1997) and to conduct policy analysis through case studies. GEM-E3 is an applied general equilibrium model that analyses the macro-economy and its interaction with the energy system and the environment through the balancing of energy supply and demand, atmospheric emissions and pollution control, together with the fulfillment of overall equilibrium conditions. PSI's research objectives within GEM-E3-ELITE were to implement and apply GEM-E3 for Switzerland. The first objective required in particular the development of a Swiss database for each of GEM-E3 modules (economic module and environmental module). For the second objective, strategies to reduce CO2 emissions were evaluated for Switzerland. In order to develop the economic, PSI collaborated with the Laboratory of Applied Economics (LEA) of the University of Geneva and the Laboratory of Energy Systems (LASEN) of the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). The Swiss Federal Statistical Office (SFSO) and the Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) contributed also data. The Swiss environmental database consists mainly of an Energy Balance Table and of an Emission Coefficients Table. Both were designed using national and international official statistics. The Emission Coefficients Table is furthermore based on know-how of the PSI GaBE Project. Using GEM-E3 Switzerland, two strategies to reduce the Swiss CO2 emissions were evaluated: a carbon tax ('tax only' strategy), and the combination of a carbon tax with the buying of CO2 emission permits ('permits and tax' strategy). In the first strategy, Switzerland would impose the necessary carbon tax to achieve the reduction target, and use the tax

  9. GEM-E3: A computable general equilibrium model applied for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Frei, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Paul Scherrer Inst. (Switzerland)

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the European Research Project GEM-E3-ELITE, funded by the European Commission and coordinated by the Centre for European Economic Research (Germany), were to further develop the general equilibrium model GEM-E3 (Capros et al., 1995, 1997) and to conduct policy analysis through case studies. GEM-E3 is an applied general equilibrium model that analyses the macro-economy and its interaction with the energy system and the environment through the balancing of energy supply and demand, atmospheric emissions and pollution control, together with the fulfillment of overall equilibrium conditions. PSI's research objectives within GEM-E3-ELITE were to implement and apply GEM-E3 for Switzerland. The first objective required in particular the development of a Swiss database for each of GEM-E3 modules (economic module and environmental module). For the second objective, strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated for Switzerland. In order to develop the economic, PSI collaborated with the Laboratory of Applied Economics (LEA) of the University of Geneva and the Laboratory of Energy Systems (LASEN) of the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). The Swiss Federal Statistical Office (SFSO) and the Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) contributed also data. The Swiss environmental database consists mainly of an Energy Balance Table and of an Emission Coefficients Table. Both were designed using national and international official statistics. The Emission Coefficients Table is furthermore based on know-how of the PSI GaBE Project. Using GEM-E3 Switzerland, two strategies to reduce the Swiss CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated: a carbon tax ('tax only' strategy), and the combination of a carbon tax with the buying of CO{sub 2} emission permits ('permits and tax' strategy). In the first strategy, Switzerland would impose the necessary carbon tax to achieve

  10. Zwischen Ressourcen und doppelter Belastung – Familien mit Migrationshintergrund und Kindern mit Behinderung stärken

    OpenAIRE

    Tsirigotis, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Familien mit Migrationshintergrund leben häufig in schwierigen sozialen und ökonomischen Verhältnissen. Das äußert sich zum einen in besonderem Hilfebedarf, sollte zum anderen jedoch nicht den Blick für die eigenen Möglichkeiten dieser Familien verstellen. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird der Blick auf Ressourcen gerichtet, die Familien in der Migration erwerben. Systemische Ansätze bieten dabei hilfreiche Perspektiven, mit unterschiedlichen kulturellen Vorannahmen umzugehen. Dies unterstüt...

  11. Zum Tragverhalten von mehrschichtigen Glaselementen mit integrierten Funktionsträgern am Beispiel von Glaslamellen mit eingebetteten Hologrammen

    OpenAIRE

    Topp, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Glasfassaden werden neben den originären Aufgaben der Belichtung und des Gebäudeabschlusses, in zunehmendem Maße mit weiteren Funktionen ausgestattet. Die dafür notwendigen Funktionselemente sind überwiegend als Folien ausgebildet und in die Funktionsschichten von Verbundgläsern integriert. Es entstehen mehrschichtige Funktionsgläser mit einem Potenzial für Verbundtragwirkung. Die sichere Identifizierung dieses Tragverhaltens im Hinblick auf eine wirtschaftliche Dimensionierung für größere Sp...

  12. Ein Konzept für die merkmalsbasierte Tumor-Klassifikation mit diagnostischem Ultraschall

    OpenAIRE

    Siebers, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Die Bildgebung mit Ultraschall (Sonographie) hat sich zu der am häufigsten verwendeten medizinischen Bildgebungsmodalität entwickelt. Eine Unterscheidung gut- und bösartiger Tumoren mit Hilfe der Sonographie setzt allerdings große Erfahrung beim Untersucher voraus und gilt als außerordentlich schwierig. In dieser Arbeit wurde daher ein Konzept zur automatisierten Klassifikation mit diagnostischem Ultraschall entwickelt und im Rahmen einer klinischen Studie mit 138 Fällen zur Digni...

  13. Die Entwicklung des Emotionswissens und der behavioralen Selbstregulation bei Vorschulkindern mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund

    OpenAIRE

    Köckeritz, Martha; Klinkhammer, Julie; von Salisch, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Die vorliegende Untersuchung erkundet, ob sich Kindergartenkinder mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund in ihrem Emotionsverständnis und ihrer behavioralen Selbstregulation unterscheiden. 356 drei- bis sechsjährige Kinder mit deutschen Eltern wurden mit 115 Kindern mit mindestens einem nicht-deutschen Elternteil hinsichtlich ihres Emotionsverständnisses (TEC) und ihrer Selbstregulation (HTKS) miteinander verglichen, wobei zunächst nur das Alter der Kinder kontrolliert wurde. Dabei konnten starke...

  14. Menschen mit Demenz als Interaktionspartner. Eine Auswertung empirischer Studien vor dem Hintergrund eines dimensionalisierten Interaktionsbegriffs

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Der Anteil von Menschen mit Demenz an der Gesamtbevölkerung Deutschlands wird mittelfristig stark zunehmen und die Begegnung mit Betroffenen aufgrund persönlicher und familiärer Kontakte zu einem alltäglichen Teil der Gesellschaft werden. Angesichts der spezifischen Symptomatik der Demenz – insbesondere des sukzessiven Verlusts des deklarativen und biografischen (episodischen) Gedächtnisses – stellt sich die Frage, wie sich soziale Interaktion mit Menschen mit Demenz gestaltet, und ob in solc...

  15. Das Erkennen mimisch kodierter Basisemotionen durch Patienten mit Panikstörung

    OpenAIRE

    Bruckner, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Ziel unserer Untersuchung war es, Defizite der Emotionserkennung zu untersuchen und die Einflüsse auf die Emotionserkennungsfähigkeit bei Patienten mit Panikstörung zu erfassen. An der Untersuchung nahmen 37 Patienten mit Panikstörung und 43 Patienten mit leichteren neurologischen Erkrankungen teil, sie absolvierten hierbei den computergestützten FEEL-Test (Facially Expressed Emotion Labeling). Ergebnisse: Patienten mit Panikstörung weisen im Vergleich zu psychisch gesunden Kontrollp...

  16. Analyse von Arbeitsplätzen auf halbautomatischen Pflanzmaschinen mit Hilfe von MTM (Methods Time Measurement)

    OpenAIRE

    Remmele, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Mit Hilfe von MTM (Methods Time Measurement), einem System vorbestimmter Zeiten, werden Bewegungsstudien an drei verschiedenen halbautomatischen Pflanzmaschinen durchgeführt. Hauptunterscheidungsmerkmal der untersuchten Pflanzmaschinen ist die Methode der Übergabe der Pflanze von der Pflanzperson an die Pflanzmaschine. Analysiert wird der Arbeitsplatz der Pflanzmaschine ACCORD-Standard mit der Methode Klemmscheibe, PES-Beetpflanzer 1500/1900 mit der Methode Pflanzfinger und Lännen RT-2 mit de...

  17. Behandlungseffekte kombinierter kognitiver Verhaltenstherapie mit Elterntraining bei hyperkinetischen Kindern

    OpenAIRE

    Frölich, Jan; Döpfner, Manfred; Berner, Walter; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2002-01-01

    Kognitiv verhaltenstherapeutische Ansätze zur Behandlung der Hyperkinetischen Störung sind bisher den empirischen Beweis ihrer klinischen Wirksamkeit schuldig geblieben. Die Zielsetzung dieser Studie bestand erstens darin, die Wirksamkeit eines kognitiv-verhaltenstherapeutischen Therapieansatzes (KVT) mit Fokussierung auf Selbstinstruktions- und Selbstmanagementelemente bei Lern- und Sozialverhaltensproblemen hyperkinetischer Kindern nachzuweisen sowie zweitens die Fähigkeit der Eltern ...

  18. Interaktion mit RFID Ausleih- und Rückgabeautomaten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke; Heyroth, Melanie; Klingbeil, Karin;

    2011-01-01

    Der Artikel untersucht mittels Beobachtung die Interaktion zwischen RFID-Ausleih- und Rückgabeautomaten sowie Bibliotheksbenutzern in vier deutschen Bibliotheken. Die Ergebnisse belegen, dass die Interaktion grundsätzlich funktioniert. Die Benutzer zeigten Gelassenheit und Routine im Umgang mit den...

  19. Stiff lightweight steel constructions; Steife Leichtbauweise mit Stahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerick, A.; Lempenauer, K. [Daimler Benz AG, Ulm (Germany). Forschungszentrum; Hauger, A.; Kopp, R. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Bildsame Formgebung

    1999-07-01

    Compared with welded sheets of composite materials, glued sheets have much better deformation characteristics. This was the result of experiments carried out by the authors. Further investigation will focus on the integration of the sheets in a car body by welding, the long-term strength of welds, the applicability of bolting or riveting techniques, and the fatigue strength of the car body under oscillating stress. [German] Durch die Verwendung von Klebefolien bzw. Klebstoffen auf Epoxidharz-Basis und einem optimierten Herstellungs- und Verarbeitungsprozess konnten im Vergleich mit geschweissten Verbundblechen erheblich groessere Umformgrade erzielt werden. Anhand von Erichsen-Tiefungen und Grenzformaenderungsschaubildern wurde dies aufgezeigt. Dabei wurde eine gute Streckzieh- und insbesonders gute Tiefziehfaehigkeit festgestellt. Mittels 4-Punkt-Biegeversuchen wurde die Gesamtbiegesteifigkeit der Verbunde ermittelt. Fuer alle Verbundvariationen wurde eine deutliche Gewichtsreduktion gegenueber Massivstahlblechen nachgewiesen. Sogar im Vergleich zu Massivaluminiumblechen lassen sich mit Streckmetallverbunden Gewichtsvorteile erreichen. Mit Hilfe der elementaren Theorie und einem Modell zur Berechnung des Traegheitsmomentes kann das tatsaechliche Biegeverhalten der Verbundstrukturen in guter Naeherung berechnet werden. Insgesamt hat sich gezeigt, dass das Ziel, umformbare und biegesteife Blechsandwiche darzustellen, mit einem geklebten Streckmetallverbundblech im Hinblick auf das genaue Anforderungsprofil weitgehend zu erreichen ist. In weiterfuehrenden Untersuchungen werden insbesondere die Anbindung an die Gesamtstruktur einer Karosserie durch Schweissverfahren, die Dauerfestigkeit von Schweissverbindungen, die Anwendbarkeit von mechanischen Fuegeverfahren (Setzverhalten von Schraub- und Nietverbindungen) und die Schwingfestigkeit des Verbundes naeher betrachtet. (orig.)

  20. Approximation stochastischer Differentialgleichungen mit Markovschen Sprüngen

    OpenAIRE

    Henkel, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit geht es darum, für die Lösung eindimensionaler stochastischer Differentialgleichungen mit Markovschen Sprüngen gute Näherungen zu finden, genauer gesagt die erwartete quadratische Abweichung der Approximation von der Lösung soll möglichst klein sein.

  1. The Creation of OpenCourseWare at MIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Hal

    2008-01-01

    This paper traces the genesis of the MIT OpenCourseWare project from its initial strategic precursors in 1999 and 2000, through its launch in 2001 and its subsequent evolution. The story told here illuminates the interplay among institutional leadership, and strategic planning, and with university culture in launching major educational technology…

  2. MIT Orients Course Materials Online to K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Many science and mathematics educators across the country are taking advantage of a Web site created by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the famed research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which offers free video, audio, and print lectures and course material taken straight from the school's classes. Those resources…

  3. MIT Mints a Valuable New Form of Academic Currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has invented or improved many world-changing things--radar, information theory, and synthetic self-replicating molecules, to name a few. Last month the university announced, to mild fanfare, an invention that could be similarly transformative, this time for higher education itself. It is called MITx.…

  4. Very Short Bunches in MIT-Bates South Hall Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dong; Farkhondeh, Manouchehr; Franklin, Wilbur; Graves, William; Ihloff, Ernie; Podobedov, Boris; Tschalär, C; Wang, Defa; Wang, Fuhua; Zwart, Townsend; van der Laan, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The study of ultra-short bunches in MIT SHR storage ring with very small momentum compactions is carried out. The ultra-short bunches are to greatly enhence the coherent radiation by many orders of magnitude. The ring lattice is resigned to reach very small momentum compaction factor down to 1·10-5

  5. SAT Solving mit GPU Unterstützung

    OpenAIRE

    Sieweck, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Vorgestellt wird eine Implementierung des Survey Propagation Algorithmus (SP) auf einer GPU mit CUDA, sowie ein SAT Solver auf Basis von MiniSAT, der SP als zusätzliche Heuristik verwendet, um zufällige $k$-SAT Probleme schneller lösen zu können.

  6. Past, present and future of MIT reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor physics curriculum at MIT has been undergoing lots of changes in recent years. This paper describes the course sequence and philosophy that we have implemented and continue to develop. Additionally, thoughts on future direction with respect to modularity and web-based learning are presented. (author)

  7. Metal-mediated gem-Difluoroallylation of N-Acylhydrazones: Highly Efficient Synthesis of a,a-Difluorohomoallylic Amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Xuyi; QIU Xiaolong; QING Fengling

    2009-01-01

    Indium-mediated gem-difluoroallylation of aldehyde-derived N-acylhydrazones 1a-1q and 4a-4g with 3-bromo-3,3-difluoropropene 2 afforded a,a-difluorohomoallylic hydrazides 3a-3q and 5a-5g in high yields, re-spectively. Functional groups such as nitro, phenolic hydroxyl, benzyloxy and even C=C bonds of a,fl-unsaturated aldehydes were compatible under this mild and operationally simple gem-difluoroallylic reaction condition. By means of substitution of Zn powder for indium, gem-difluoroallylation of ketone-derived N-acylhydrazones 6a-6d also provided the corresponding a,a-difluorohomoallylic hydrazides 7a-7d in medium yields. The N-N bond cleavage of the hydrazide 3a proceeded smoothly to give the corresponding primary gem-difluorohomoallylic amine 8, which could be converted to gem-difluoro-δ-substituted α,β-unsaturated lactam 11 via acryloylation fol-lowed by ring closing metathesis (RCM) reaction.

  8. Studies on the upgrade of the muon system in the forward region of the CMS experiment at LHC with GEMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LHC data-taking will resume in 2015 with energy of 13–14 TeV and luminosity of 2÷5 × 1034 cm−2 s−1. At those energies, a considerable fraction of the particles produced propagate in the high pseudo-rapidity regions. The proposal for the upgrade of the CMS muon forward system involves Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers to be installed during the second LHC Long Shutdown (LS2) covering the pseudorapidity range 1.5 < |η| < 2.2. This detector is able to handle the extreme particle rates expected in this region when the LHC will be running at higher luminosity. The GEM is an excellent choice, as its high spatial resolution (order of 100 μm) allows to combine tracking and triggering capabilities, which will improve the CMS muon High Level Trigger, the muon identification and the track reconstruction. Intense R and D has been going on since 2009 and it has lead to the development of several GEM prototypes and associated detector electronics. These GEM prototypes have been subjected to extensive tests in the laboratory and in test beams at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). This contribution will review the status of the CMS upgrade project with GEMs, discussing also the trigger performance

  9. Study of long-term operation of triple-GEM detectors for the high rate environment in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The CMS GEM collaboration is working on the possible instrumentation of the high-eta region of the CMS Endcap with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, a technology capable to sustain the hostile environment that will be encountered at the high-luminosity LHC. To ensure the long-term operation of large triple-GEM detectors in the CMS experiment, we are performing a set of studies in order to measure and understand the aging effect of triple-GEM Muon chambers. The aging includes all the processes that lead to a significant degradation of the performances of the detector gain drop, non-uniformity, dark current, discharges and resolution loss. The project is focused on monitoring continuously the response of the detector when irradiated by a source of Cs 137 at CERN in the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF). Moreover, the new technology employed for stretching the GEM foils, so called NS2, introduces new, carefully chosen materials and components in the detectors. Outgassing tests are performed in order to va...

  10. Lösung parabolischer Differentialgleichungen mit zufälligen Randbedingungen mittels FEM

    OpenAIRE

    Kandler, Anne; vom Scheidt, Jürgen; Unger, Roman

    2004-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit werden stochastische Charakteristiken der Lösung parabolischer Differentialgleichungen mit zufälligen Neumann-Randbedingungen mit Hilfe der Finite-Elemente-Methode angegeben. Dabei wird der Berechnung der Korrelations- bzw. Varianzfunktion besondere Bedeutung beigemessen. Das stochastische Randanfangswertproblem wird durch Anwendung von FEM-Techniken durch ein System gewöhnlicher Differentialgleichungen mit stochastischen inhomogenen Termen approximiert. ...

  11. Aktivierungsmuster humaner neutrophiler Granulozyten nach Kontakt mit den pathogenen Pilzen Candida albicans und Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Hornbach, Anke

    2010-01-01

    Humane neutrophile Granulozyten spielen eine wichtige Rolle in der Immunabwehr invasiver Infektionen durch die humanpathogenen Pilze Candida albicans und Aspergillus fumigatus. Das Ziel der hier vorliegenden Arbeit bestand in einer Charakterisierung der Interaktion beider Pilzspezies mit neutrophilen Granulozyten, mit Fokussierung auf die unterschiedlichen Effektormechanismen dieser Zellen. C. albicans exprimiert eine Reihe von Aspartatproteasen, welche mit der Virulenz des Erregers assoziier...

  12. 2D dosimetry in a proton beam with a scintillating GEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-dimensional position-sensitive dosimetry system based on a scintillating gas detector is being developed for pre-treatment verification of dose distributions in particle therapy. The dosimetry system consists of a chamber filled with an Ar/CF4 scintillating gas mixture, inside which two gas electron multiplier (GEM) structures are mounted (Seravalli et al 2008b Med. Phys. Biol. 53 4651-65). Photons emitted by the excited Ar/CF4 gas molecules during the gas multiplication in the GEM holes are detected by a mirror-lens-CCD camera system. The intensity distribution of the measured light spot is proportional to the 2D dose distribution. In this work, we report on the characterization of the scintillating GEM detector in terms of those properties that are of particular importance in relative dose measurements, e.g. response reproducibility, dose dependence, dose rate dependence, spatial and time response, field size dependence, response uniformity. The experiments were performed in a 150 MeV proton beam. We found that the detector response is very stable for measurements performed in succession (σ = 0.6%) and its response reproducibility over 2 days is about 5%. The detector response was found to be linear with the dose in the range 0.05-19 Gy. No dose rate effects were observed between 1 and 16 Gy min-1 at the shallow depth of a water phantom and 2 and 38 Gy min-1 at the Bragg peak depth. No field size effects were observed in the range 120-3850 mm2. A signal rise and fall time of 2 μs was recorded and a spatial response of ≤1 mm was measured.

  13. 2D dosimetry in a proton beam with a scintillating GEM detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seravalli, E.; de Boer, M. R.; Geurink, F.; Huizenga, J.; Kreuger, R.; Schippers, J. M.; van Eijk, C. W. E.

    2009-06-01

    A two-dimensional position-sensitive dosimetry system based on a scintillating gas detector is being developed for pre-treatment verification of dose distributions in particle therapy. The dosimetry system consists of a chamber filled with an Ar/CF4 scintillating gas mixture, inside which two gas electron multiplier (GEM) structures are mounted (Seravalli et al 2008b Med. Phys. Biol. 53 4651-65). Photons emitted by the excited Ar/CF4 gas molecules during the gas multiplication in the GEM holes are detected by a mirror-lens-CCD camera system. The intensity distribution of the measured light spot is proportional to the 2D dose distribution. In this work, we report on the characterization of the scintillating GEM detector in terms of those properties that are of particular importance in relative dose measurements, e.g. response reproducibility, dose dependence, dose rate dependence, spatial and time response, field size dependence, response uniformity. The experiments were performed in a 150 MeV proton beam. We found that the detector response is very stable for measurements performed in succession (σ = 0.6%) and its response reproducibility over 2 days is about 5%. The detector response was found to be linear with the dose in the range 0.05-19 Gy. No dose rate effects were observed between 1 and 16 Gy min-1 at the shallow depth of a water phantom and 2 and 38 Gy min-1 at the Bragg peak depth. No field size effects were observed in the range 120-3850 mm2. A signal rise and fall time of 2 µs was recorded and a spatial response of <=1 mm was measured.

  14. Multiplexed barcoded CRISPR-Cas9 screening enabled by CombiGEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alan S. L.; Choi, Gigi C. G.; Cui, Cheryl H.; Pregernig, Gabriela; Milani, Pamela; Adam, Miriam; Perli, Samuel D.; Kazer, Samuel W.; Gaillard, Aleth; Hermann, Mario; Shalek, Alex K.; Fraenkel, Ernest; Lu, Timothy K.

    2016-01-01

    The orchestrated action of genes controls complex biological phenotypes, yet the systematic discovery of gene and drug combinations that modulate these phenotypes in human cells is labor intensive and challenging to scale. Here, we created a platform for the massively parallel screening of barcoded combinatorial gene perturbations in human cells and translated these hits into effective drug combinations. This technology leverages the simplicity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for multiplexed targeting of specific genomic loci and the versatility of combinatorial genetics en masse (CombiGEM) to rapidly assemble barcoded combinatorial genetic libraries that can be tracked with high-throughput sequencing. We applied CombiGEM-CRISPR to create a library of 23,409 barcoded dual guide-RNA (gRNA) combinations and then perform a high-throughput pooled screen to identify gene pairs that inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth when they were targeted. We validated the growth-inhibiting effects of specific gene sets, including epigenetic regulators KDM4C/BRD4 and KDM6B/BRD4, via individual assays with CRISPR-Cas–based knockouts and RNA-interference–based knockdowns. We also tested small-molecule drug pairs directed against our pairwise hits and showed that they exerted synergistic antiproliferative effects against ovarian cancer cells. We envision that the CombiGEM-CRISPR platform will be applicable to a broad range of biological settings and will accelerate the systematic identification of genetic combinations and their translation into novel drug combinations that modulate complex human disease phenotypes. PMID:26864203

  15. Cytogenetic monitoring of personnel occupationally exposed to microwave radiation of GEM radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study we analyzed and followed-up on the DNA damaging effects of microwave radiation of GEM radar equipment within microwave field of 10 μW/cm2 to 10 mW/cm2 in personnel occupationally exposed to frequency range of 1.5 GHz to 10.9 GHz. The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)/comet assay as a tool for the bio monitoring of individuals accidentally, environmentally or occupationally exposed to physical or chemical agents was used to evaluate possible genotoxic effect on peripheral human blood lymphocytes. The comet assay is a method that allows efficient determination of single strand breaks (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DSB), as well as alkali-labile sites in the DNA of single cells. The comet assay was carried out under alkaline conditions. We measured the baseline comet assay effect in whole blood samples. Parameter of the comet assay was studied in workers occupationally exposed to microwave radiation of GEM radar and in corresponding unexposed control subjects. It was found that in the subjects who were occupationally exposed to microwave radiation, the levels of DNA damage increased compare to control group and showed interindividual variations. As a measure of DNA damage tail length was used, calculated from the centre of the head and presented in micrometers (μm). Mean value of exposed group was 13.54±1.44 as opposed to control mean value that was 13.15±1.39. Differences between mean tail lengths were statistically significant (P<0.05, ANOVA). The results of this study indicate that individuals occupationally exposed to microwave frequency of GEM radar equipment may experience an increased genotoxic risk, emphasizing the importance of individual bio monitoring, limiting exposure and radiation safety programs. (author)

  16. Trace elemental analysis of Indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selected number of Indian Eastern Ghats natural moonstone gems were studied with a powerful nuclear analytical and non-destructive Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Thirteen elements, including V, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ba and Pb, were identified in these moonstones and may be useful in interpreting the various geochemical conditions and the probable cause of their inceptions in the moonstone gemstone matrix. Furthermore, preliminary XRD studies of different moonstone patterns were performed. The PIXE technique is a powerful method for quickly determining the elemental concentration of a substance. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The chemical constituents of moonstones from parts of the Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India were determined, and gemological studies were performed on those gems. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters of the moonstones were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies, trace and minor elements were determined using the PIXE technique, and major compositional elements were confirmed by XRD. In the present work, the usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique for research in geo-scientific methodology is established. - Highlights: • For the first time, PIXE technique was employed to analyze the East Indian natural moonstone gems. • The trace and minor elements are estimated using PIXE technique whereas major compositional elements are confirmed by XRD. • Adularia variety of moonstone is found to be abundant in the present study. • The PIXE analysis concludes that Eastern Ghats of India are rich not only in gemstones but also in trace elements

  17. First Year K-12 Teachers as High Leverage Point to Implement GEMS Space Science Curriculum Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Mendez, B. J.; Schultz, G.; Wierman, T.

    2013-01-01

    The recurring challenge for curriculum developers is how to efficiently prepare K-12 classroom teachers to use new curricula. First-year teachers, numbering nearly 250,000 in the US each year, have the greatest potential to impact the largest number of students because they have potential to be in the classroom for thirty years. At the same time, these novice teachers are often the most open minded about adopting curricular innovation because they are not yet deeply entrenched in existing practices. To take advantage of this high leverage point, a collaborative of space scientists and science educators at the University of California, Berkeley’s Lawrence Hall of Science and Center for Science Education at the Space Sciences Laboratory with experts from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the University of Wyoming, and the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education experimented with a unique professional development model focused on helping master teachers work closely with pre-service teachers during their student teaching internship field experience. The Advancing Mentor and Novice Teachers in Space Science (AMANTISS) team first identified master teachers who supervise novice, student teachers and trained these master teachers to use the GEMS Space Science Curriculum Sequence. Then, these master teachers were mentored in coaching interning student teachers assigned to them in using GEMS materials. Evaluation showed that novice teachers mentored by the master teachers felt knowledgeable after teaching the GEMS units. However, they seemed relatively less confident about the solar system and objects beyond the solar system. Overall, mentees felt strongly at the end of the year that they have acquired good strategies for teaching the various topics, suggesting that the support they received while teaching and working with a mentor was of real benefit to them. Funding provided in part by NASA ROSES AMANTISS NNX09AD51G

  18. Multiplexed barcoded CRISPR-Cas9 screening enabled by CombiGEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alan S L; Choi, Gigi C G; Cui, Cheryl H; Pregernig, Gabriela; Milani, Pamela; Adam, Miriam; Perli, Samuel D; Kazer, Samuel W; Gaillard, Aleth; Hermann, Mario; Shalek, Alex K; Fraenkel, Ernest; Lu, Timothy K

    2016-03-01

    The orchestrated action of genes controls complex biological phenotypes, yet the systematic discovery of gene and drug combinations that modulate these phenotypes in human cells is labor intensive and challenging to scale. Here, we created a platform for the massively parallel screening of barcoded combinatorial gene perturbations in human cells and translated these hits into effective drug combinations. This technology leverages the simplicity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for multiplexed targeting of specific genomic loci and the versatility of combinatorial genetics en masse (CombiGEM) to rapidly assemble barcoded combinatorial genetic libraries that can be tracked with high-throughput sequencing. We applied CombiGEM-CRISPR to create a library of 23,409 barcoded dual guide-RNA (gRNA) combinations and then perform a high-throughput pooled screen to identify gene pairs that inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth when they were targeted. We validated the growth-inhibiting effects of specific gene sets, including epigenetic regulators KDM4C/BRD4 and KDM6B/BRD4, via individual assays with CRISPR-Cas-based knockouts and RNA-interference-based knockdowns. We also tested small-molecule drug pairs directed against our pairwise hits and showed that they exerted synergistic antiproliferative effects against ovarian cancer cells. We envision that the CombiGEM-CRISPR platform will be applicable to a broad range of biological settings and will accelerate the systematic identification of genetic combinations and their translation into novel drug combinations that modulate complex human disease phenotypes. PMID:26864203

  19. On the challenges of high resolution forecasting with the Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid Husain, Syed; Girard, Claude

    2016-04-01

    High resolution forecasting at the sub-kilometer scale with the Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) atmospheric model leads to a number of challenges. The three-dimensional elliptic problem resulting from vertical discretization imposes severe restrictions on the vertical resolution and the time-step size in order to maintain vertical separability that permits the use of a direct solver. Although iterative solvers do not depend on vertical separability, readjusting the contributions of the nonhydrostatic pressure perturbation is found to circumvent the separability issue for the direct solver. In addition to the vertical-separability problem, at sub-kilometer resolutions the model currently exhibits strong instability particularly over complex orography where the model may encounter mountains with steep slopes. Off-centered averaging in the semi-Lagrangian scheme as well as the explicit high order numerical diffusion scheme - available within the GEM model to control high wave number noise - are found to be inadequate in addressing this strong orography-induced instability. Increasing the level of off-centering for the equations attributable to the non-hydrostatic aspects of the atmospheric flow is found to improve model stability during preliminary tests. Furthermore, as the existing hyperdiffusion schemes in GEM does not conserve angular momentum a new Smagorinsky-type diffusion scheme is currently being developed that will be compatible with the conservation laws. The improved diffusion scheme coupled with the modified off-centering of the non-hydrostatic equations is expected to have a more meaningful impact on the orgography-induced instability. Pertinent results will be presented at the conference.

  20. Evaluation intraoperativen Neuromonitorings während TIVA mit Propofol/Remifentanil versus Anästhesien mit Sevofluran/ S+-Ketamin

    OpenAIRE

    Hackmann, Veronika

    2010-01-01

    Um eine Optimierung der Narkosetiefe zu erreichen und eine Überdosierung von Anästhetika mit konsekutiv verlängerten Aufwachzeiten insbesondere nach TIVA zu vermeiden, wird intraoperatives Neuromonitoring genutzt. Ziel der Arbeit ist, im Rahmen des Vergleichs einer TIVA mit Propofol/Remifentanil und einer Anästhesie mit Sevofluran/S+-Ketamin den Einfluss von Ketamin auf den AAI zu untersuchen und das Verhalten der parallel aufgezeichneten Neuromonitoringsysteme BIS und Narcotrend ...

  1. Elektrophysiologische Veränderungen im EEG von gesunden Kindern, Kindern mit Aufmerksamkeits-Defizit-Syndrom und Kindern mit Legasthenie während mentaler Belastungen

    OpenAIRE

    Brechtel, Charlotte Désirée Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Die durchgeführten Untersuchungen hatten als Zielsetzung herauszufinden, ob Kinder mit ADS unterschiedliche elektrophysiologische Veränderungen während verschiedener mentaler Belastungen, wie Lesen, Konzentrationsleistungstest, Konzentrationsleistungstest mit einer Störquelle und Videosequenz, im Vergleich zu gesunden Kindern aufweisen. Die Untersu-chungen wurden an 26 gesunden Kindern und jeweils 8 Kindern mit ADS und Legasthenie im Alter zwischen 7 und 14 Jahren mittels quantitativen topogr...

  2. Single Electron Detection in Quadruple-GEM Detector with Pad Readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a system of four GEMs operating in tandem and coupled to pad readout, we have demonstrated the detection of single electrons in ethane at 1 bar. The paper presents measurements of single electron pulse height distributions, total gas gain measurement and calculation, pad-to-pad cross-talk, quenching capability, high rate capability, charging effects, etc. We describe the overall operational experience, including addition of a gaseous photocathode, TMAE, and compare it to the SLD CRID single-electron detector [1], which has been operational during the past decade

  3. Single electron detection in quadruple-GEM detector with pad readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a system of four gas electron multipliers (GEMs) operating in tandem and coupled to pad readout, we have demonstrated the detection of single electrons in ethane at 1 bar. The paper presents measurements of single electron pulse height distributions, total gas gain measurement and calculation, pad-to-pad cross-talk, quenching capability, high rate capability, charging effects, etc. We describe the overall operational experience, including addition of a gaseous photocathode, TMAE, and compare it to the SLD CRID single-electron detector (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 343 (1994) 74; Va'vra, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 433 (1999) 59), which has been operational during the past decade

  4. Gas Properties and Different Detector Geometries for Multi-GEM Detectors in the CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Volz, Travis Jay

    2013-01-01

    In our research, we attempted to determine ways to increase the time resolution in a multi-GEM muon detector for the CMS . This would allow for faster and more accurate muon tracking in the CMS. We studied two ways of achieving this. First, we studied gas properties such as drift velocities and Lorentz angles in various gas mixtures. We also studied different geometrical set-ups in another attempt to maximize the time resolution. By using simulation and modeling programs such as Garfield, Magboltz, ROOT, and ANSYS, we tried to find the most efficient set up, but ran into time contstraints.

  5. Preparation of SRN1-Type Coupling Adducts from Aliphatic gem-Dinitro Compounds in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichi Toyoshima

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available SRN1-type coupling adducts are readily prepared by the reaction between a-sulfonylesters or a-cyanosulfones and gem-dinitro compounds in ionic liquids. The reactions progress smoothly and recovered ionic liquids can be used for several iterations, as long as they are washed with water to remove alkali metallic salts. The reaction rate is slower than the corresponding SRN1 reaction in DMSO, but no acceleration on irradiation or no inhibition in the presence of m-DNB are observed.

  6. Performance of a Large-area GEM Detector Read Out with Wide Radial Zigzag Strips

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Aiwu; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Hansen, Eric; Hohlmann, Marcus; Khanal, Shreeya; Phipps, Michael; Starling, Elizabeth; Twigger, Jessie; Walton, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    A 1-meter-long trapezoidal Triple-GEM detector with wide readout strips was tested in hadron beams at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility in October 2013. The readout strips have a special zigzag geometry and run along the radial direction with an azimuthal pitch of 1.37 mrad to measure the azimuthal phi-coordinate of incident particles. The zigzag geometry of the readout reduces the required number of electronic channels by a factor of three compared to conventional straight readout strips while...

  7. A 40 GByte/s read-out system for GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary design of the read-out system for the GEM (Gammas, Electrons, Muons) detector at the Superconducting Super Collider is presented. The system reads all digitized data from the detector data sources at a Level 1 trigger rate of up to 100 kHz. A total read-out bandwidth of 40 GBytes/s is available. Data are stored in buffers that are accessible for further event filtering by an on-line, processor farm. Data are transported to the farm only as they are needed by the higher-level trigger algorithms, leading to a reduced bandwidth requirement in the Data Acquisition System

  8. An Entrepreneurial Well-being Model based on GEM Data for Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sáiz-Álvarez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Economics of Happiness is one of the research areas of greatest growth in recent years. Throughout this work, a venture based model in which satisfaction of Spanish entrepreneurs with their professional life is performed. We analyze the responses of 9,989 entrepreneurs using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, and six hypothesis are discussed. The results show that, for the Spanish case, there is a strong consistency in the results the opportunity entrepreneurs present greater satisfaction than necessity entrepreneurs.

  9. Developments of a large area VUV sensitive gas PMT with GEM/μPIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new large area UV photon detector with micro pattern gaseous detectors is developed and evaluated. A semitransparent CsI photocathode deposited on a MgF2 window was combined with 10cm x 10cm GEM and μPIC. Using Ar+C2H6 (10%) gas, we achieved the gas gain of more than 105 which is enough to detect single photoelectron. We, then, irradiated vacuum UV photons (VUV, around 172nm) from the newly developed LaF3(Nd) scintillator to the detector and the single photoelectrons were successfully detected. We also demonstrated the imaging capability of the detector with μPIC readout systems.

  10. Operation of gas electron multiplier (GEM) with propane gas at low pressure and comparison with tissue-equivalent gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardo, L.; Farahmand, M.

    2016-05-01

    A Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), based on a single GEM foil of standard geometry, has been tested with pure propane gas at low pressure, in order to simulate a tissue site of about 1 μm equivalent size. In this work, the performance of GEM with propane gas at a pressure of 21 and 28 kPa will be presented. The effective gas gain was measured in various conditions using a 244Cm alpha source. The dependence of effective gain on the electric field strength along the GEM channel and in the drift and induction region was investigated. A maximum effective gain of about 5×103 has been reached. Results obtained in pure propane gas are compared with gas gain measurements in gas mixtures commonly employed in microdosimetry, that is propane and methane based Tissue-Equivalent gas mixtures.

  11. 1+1+2 gravitational perturbations on LRS class II space-times: GEM vector harmonic amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Burston, R B

    2007-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers which considers first-order gauge-invariant and covariant gravitational perturbations to locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) class II space-times. This paper shows how to decouple a complex combination of the gravito-electromagnetic (GEM) 2-vectors with the 2-tensors describing the shear of the 2/3-sheets. An arbitrary harmonic expansion is then used along with an eigen-vector/value analysis of the first-order GEM system, analogous to the first paper in this series. This results in four real decoupled equations governing four real combinations of the harmonic amplitudes of the GEM 2-vectors and the (2/3-sheet) shear 2-tensors. Finally, these are categorized into polar and axial perturbations.

  12. Quality control and beam test of GEM detectors for future upgrades of the CMS muon high rate region at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) are a proven position sensitive gas detector technology which nowadays is becoming more widely used in High Energy Physics. GEMs offer an excellent spatial resolution and a high particle rate capability, with a close to 100% detection efficiency. In view of the high luminosity phase of the CERN Large Hadron Collider, these aforementioned features make GEMs suitable candidates for the future upgrades of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector. In particular, the CMS GEM Collaboration proposes to cover the high-eta region of the muon system with large-area triple-GEM detectors, which have the ability to provide robust and redundant tracking and triggering functions. In this contribution, after a general introduction and overview of the project, the construction of full-size trapezoidal triple-GEM prototypes will be described in more detail. The procedures for the quality control of the GEM foils, including gain uniformity measurements with an x-ray source will be presented. In the past few years, several CMS triple-GEM prototype detectors were operated with test beams at the CERN SPS. The results of these test beam campaigns will be summarised

  13. Gillespie eco-evolutionary models (GEMs) reveal the role of heritable trait variation in eco-evolutionary dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, John P; Gibert, Jean P

    2016-02-01

    Heritable trait variation is a central and necessary ingredient of evolution. Trait variation also directly affects ecological processes, generating a clear link between evolutionary and ecological dynamics. Despite the changes in variation that occur through selection, drift, mutation, and recombination, current eco-evolutionary models usually fail to track how variation changes through time. Moreover, eco-evolutionary models assume fitness functions for each trait and each ecological context, which often do not have empirical validation. We introduce a new type of model, Gillespie eco-evolutionary models (GEMs), that resolves these concerns by tracking distributions of traits through time as eco-evolutionary dynamics progress. This is done by allowing change to be driven by the direct fitness consequences of model parameters within the context of the underlying ecological model, without having to assume a particular fitness function. GEMs work by adding a trait distribution component to the standard Gillespie algorithm - an approach that models stochastic systems in nature that are typically approximated through ordinary differential equations. We illustrate GEMs with the Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model. We show not only how heritable trait variation fuels trait evolution and influences eco-evolutionary dynamics, but also how the erosion of variation through time may hinder eco-evolutionary dynamics in the long run. GEMs can be developed for any parameter in any ordinary differential equation model and, furthermore, can enable modeling of multiple interacting traits at the same time. We expect GEMs will open the door to a new direction in eco-evolutionary and evolutionary modeling by removing long-standing modeling barriers, simplifying the link between traits, fitness, and dynamics, and expanding eco-evolutionary treatment of a greater diversity of ecological interactions. These factors make GEMs much more than a modeling advance, but an important

  14. Atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM concentrations and mercury depositions at a high-altitude mountain peak in south China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Fu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available China is regarded as the largest contributor of mercury (Hg to the global atmospheric Hg budget. However, concentration levels and depositions of atmospheric Hg in China are poorly known. Continuous measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM were carried out from May 2008 to May 2009 at the summit of Mt. Leigong in south China. Simultaneously, deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg in precipitation, throughfall and litterfall were also studied. Atmospheric GEM concentrations averaged 2.80±1.51 ng m−3, which was highly elevated compared to global background values but much lower than semi-rural and industrial/urban areas in China. Sources identification indicates that both regional industrial emissions and long range transport of Hg from central, south and southwest China were corresponded to the elevated GEM level. Seasonal and diurnal variations of GEM were observed, which reflected variations in source intensity, deposition processes and meteorological factors. Precipitation and throughfall deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg in Mt. Leigong were comparable or lower compared to those reported in Europe and North America, whereas litterfall deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg were higher compared to Europe and North America. This highlights the importance of vegetation to Hg atmospheric cycling. In th remote forest ecosystem of China, deposition of GEM via uptake of foliage followed by litterfall was very important for the depletion of atmospheric Hg. Elevated GEM level in ambient air may accelerate the foliar uptake of Hg through air which may partly explain the elevated litterfall deposition fluxes of Hg observed in Mt. Leigong.

  15. 1+1+2 gravitational perturbations on LRS class II space-times: GEM vector harmonic amplitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Burston, R. B.

    2007-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers which considers first-order gauge-invariant and covariant gravitational perturbations to locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) class II space-times. This paper shows how to decouple a complex combination of the gravito-electromagnetic (GEM) 2-vectors with the 2-tensors describing the shear of the 2/3-sheets. An arbitrary harmonic expansion is then used along with an eigen-vector/value analysis of the first-order GEM system, analogous to the first paper ...

  16. First demonstration of VUV-photon detection in liquid xenon with THGEM and GEM-based Liquid Hole Multipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Erdal, E; Rappaport, M; Shchemelinin, S; Vartsky, D; Breskin, A

    2016-01-01

    The bubble-assisted Liquid Hole-Multiplier (LHM) is a recently-introduced detection concept for noble-liquid time projection chambers. In this "local dual-phase" detection element, a gas bubble is supported underneath a perforated electrode (e.g., Thick Gas Electron Multiplier - THGEM, or Gas Electron Multiplier - GEM). Electrons drifting through the holes induce large electroluminescence signals as they pass into the bubble. In this work we report on recent results of THGEM and GEM electrodes coated with cesium iodide and immersed in liquid xenon, allowing - for the first time - the detection of primary VUV scintillation photons in addition to ionization electrons using LHMs.

  17. Design of a Constant Fraction Discriminator for the VFAT3 front-end ASIC of the CMS GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Loddo, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    In this work the design of a Constant Fraction Discriminator (CFD) to be used in the VFAT3 chip, currently under design for the read-out of the Triple-Gem detectors of the CMS experiment, is described. Simulations show that it is possible to extend the front-end shaping time in order to fully integrate the GEM detector signal charge whilst maintaining optimal timing resolution using the CFD technique. A prototype chip containing 8 CFDs was implemented in 130 nm CMOS technology to prove the effectiveness of the proposed architecture before its integration in the VFAT3 chip. The CFD design and test results will be shown.

  18. Gem of an idea: ITT to study high resolution remote sensing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2000-12-01

    The Geological and Environmental Mapping (GEM) of Image Interpretation Technologies Inc (ITT) is a new technology in exploration and environmental mapping. The GEM project is supported by the Canadian Space Agency to evaluate the ability of high-resolution remote sensing to support the needs of the oil industry in exploration, environmental monitoring, seismic and pipeline design. The project aims to establish a knowledge base regarding surface oil detection using airborne hyperspectral data prior to launch of equivalent satellite platforms. Since the presence of surface oil deposits is often indicative of local migration pathways, it can be used to pinpoint reserves by correlating them with sub-surface data such as high resolution magnetics or seismic. ITT, in addition to a 25 square kilometre hyperspectral shoot over the Norman Wells study area, also acquired and compiled regional seismic data, high-resolution satellite imagery and geological data from the same area. It is expected that the project will demonstrate the hyperspectral signature of oil seeps and spills, the capabilities of hyperspectral data to map exposed geological units, and to demonstrate the use of integrated products for pipeline planning and emergency and disaster response planning. 2 figs.

  19. TPC-like readout for thermal neutron detection using a GEM-detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Biebel, O.; Zeitelhack, K.

    2016-07-01

    Spatial resolution of less than 200 μm is challenging for thermal neutron detection. A novel readout scheme based on the time-projection-chamber (TPC) concept is used in a gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detector [1]. Thermal neutrons are captured in a single 2 μm thick Boron-10 converter cathode and secondary Helium and Lithium ions are produced with a combined energy of 2.8 MeV. These ions have sufficient energy to form straight tracks of several mm length. With a time resolving 2-dimensional readout of 400 μm pitch in both directions, based on APV25 chips, the ions are tracked and their respective origin in the cathode converter foil is reconstructed. Using an Ar-CO2 93:7% gas mixture, a resolution of 100 μm (FWHM 235 μm) has been observed with a triple GEM-detector setup at the Garching neutron source (FRMII) for neutrons of 4.7 Å.

  20. Trace elemental analysis of Indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, R; Venkateswarulu, P; Kasipathi, C; Sivajyothi, S

    2013-12-01

    A selected number of Indian Eastern Ghats natural moonstone gems were studied with a powerful nuclear analytical and non-destructive Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Thirteen elements, including V, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ba and Pb, were identified in these moonstones and may be useful in interpreting the various geochemical conditions and the probable cause of their inceptions in the moonstone gemstone matrix. Furthermore, preliminary XRD studies of different moonstone patterns were performed. The PIXE technique is a powerful method for quickly determining the elemental concentration of a substance. A 3MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The chemical constituents of moonstones from parts of the Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India were determined, and gemological studies were performed on those gems. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters of the moonstones were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies, trace and minor elements were determined using the PIXE technique, and major compositional elements were confirmed by XRD. In the present work, the usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique for research in geo-scientific methodology is established. PMID:24055999