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  1. Antimicrobial peptides effectively kill a broad spectrum of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus strains independently of origin, sub-type, or virulence factor expression

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    Kristensen Hans-Henrik

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host defense peptides (HDPs, or antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, are important components of the innate immune system that bacterial pathogens must overcome to establish an infection and HDPs have been suggested as novel antimicrobial therapeutics in treatment of infectious diseases. Hence it is important to determine the natural variation in susceptibility to HDPs to ensure a successful use in clinical treatment regimes. Results Strains of two human bacterial pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, were selected to cover a wide range of origin, sub-type, and phenotypic behavior. Strains within each species were equally sensitive to HDPs and oxidative stress representing important components of the innate immune defense system. Four non-human peptides (protamine, plectasin, novicidin, and novispirin G10 were similar in activity profile (MIC value spectrum to the human β-defensin 3 (HBD-3. All strains were inhibited by concentrations of hydrogen peroxide between 0.1% – 1.0%. Sub-selections of both species differed in expression of several virulence-related factors and in their ability to survive in human whole blood and kill the nematode virulence model Caenorhabditis elegans. For L. monocytogenes, proliferation in whole blood was paralleled by high invasion in Caco-2 cells and fast killing of C. elegans, however, no such pattern in phenotypic behavior was observed for S. aureus and none of the phenotypic differences were correlated to sensitivity to HDPs. Conclusion Strains of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were within each species equally sensitive to a range of HDPs despite variations in subtype, origin, and phenotypic behavior. Our results suggest that therapeutic use of HDPs will not be hampered by occurrence of naturally tolerant strains of the two species investigated in the present study.

  2. Antimicrobial peptides effectively kill a broad spectrum of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus strains independently of origin, sub-type, or virulence factor expression

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    Gottlieb, Caroline Trebbien; Thomsen, L.E.; Ingmer, H.

    2008-01-01

    -type, and phenotypic behavior. Strains within each species were equally sensitive to HDPs and oxidative stress representing important components of the innate immune defense system. Four non-human peptides (protamine, plectasin, novicidin, and novispirin G10) were similar in activity profile (MIC value spectrum......Background Host defense peptides (HDPs), or antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), are important components of the innate immune system that bacterial pathogens must overcome to establish an infection and HDPs have been suggested as novel antimicrobial therapeutics in treatment of infectious diseases...... Caenorhabditis elegans. For L. monocytogenes, proliferation in whole blood was paralleled by high invasion in Caco-2 cells and fast killing of C. elegans, however, no such pattern in phenotypic behavior was observed for S. aureus and none of the phenotypic differences were correlated to sensitivity to HDPs...

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of the Quality Control Strain Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923.

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    Treangen, Todd J; Maybank, Rosslyn A; Enke, Sana; Friss, Mary Beth; Diviak, Lynn F; Karaolis, David K R; Koren, Sergey; Ondov, Brian; Phillippy, Adam M; Bergman, Nicholas H; Rosovitz, M J

    2014-11-06

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923 is commonly used as a control strain for susceptibility testing to antibiotics and as a quality control strain for commercial products. We present the completed genome sequence for the strain, consisting of the chromosome and a 27.5-kb plasmid. Copyright © 2014 Treangen et al.

  4. THE EVOLUTION OF NEW HOSPITAL STRAINS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.

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    JEVONS, M P; PARKER, M T

    1964-05-01

    The emergence of new groups of strains of Staph. aureus as important causes of endemic hospital infection in Great Britain has been followed by the phage typing method. Experiments are reported which suggest the possible origin of one of them.

  5. Characterization of a mouse-adapted Staphylococcus aureus strain.

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    Silva Holtfreter

    Full Text Available More effective antibiotics and a protective vaccine are desperately needed to combat the 'superbug' Staphylococcus aureus. While in vivo pathogenicity studies routinely involve infection of mice with human S. aureus isolates, recent genetic studies have demonstrated that S. aureus lineages are largely host-specific. The use of such animal-adapted S. aureus strains may therefore be a promising approach for developing more clinically relevant animal infection models. We have isolated a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain (JSNZ which caused a severe outbreak of preputial gland abscesses among male C57BL/6J mice. We aimed to extensively characterize this strain on a genomic level and determine its virulence potential in murine colonization and infection models. JSNZ belongs to the MLST type ST88, rare among human isolates, and lacks an hlb-converting phage encoding human-specific immune evasion factors. Naive mice were found to be more susceptible to nasal and gastrointestinal colonization with JSNZ than with the human-derived Newman strain. Furthermore, naïve mice required antibiotic pre-treatment to become colonized with Newman. In contrast, JSNZ was able to colonize mice in the absence of antibiotic treatment suggesting that this strain can compete with the natural flora for space and nutrients. In a renal abscess model, JSNZ caused more severe disease than Newman with greater weight loss and bacterial burden. In contrast to most other clinical isolates, JSNZ can also be readily genetically modified by phage transduction and electroporation. In conclusion, the mouse-adapted strain JSNZ may represent a valuable tool for studying aspects of mucosal colonization and for screening novel vaccines and therapies directed at preventing colonization.

  6. THE STUDY OF RESISTENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS TO ANTIMICROBIALS

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    Nazarchuk GG; Paliy DV; Nazarchuk OA

    2012-01-01

    In the research work the results of the study of resistance forming to antibiotics, antiseptics and decametoxine composition with modified polysaccharides in S.aureus strains are presented. The development of resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, glycopeptides, macrolides is shown. Slow forming of resistance to decasan and decametoxine composition with carboxymethylamylum, oxyethylcellulose was determined.

  7. THE STUDY OF RESISTENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS TO ANTIMICROBIALS

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    Nazarchuk GG

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the research work the results of the study of resistance forming to antibiotics, antiseptics and decametoxine composition with modified polysaccharides in S.aureus strains are presented. The development of resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, glycopeptides, macrolides is shown. Slow forming of resistance to decasan and decametoxine composition with carboxymethylamylum, oxyethylcellulose was determined.

  8. Identification of Genes Involved in Polysaccharide-Independent Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation

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    Boles, Blaise R.; Thoendel, Matthew; Roth, Aleeza J.; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a potent biofilm former on host tissue and medical implants, and biofilm growth is a critical virulence determinant for chronic infections. Recent studies suggest that many clinical isolates form polysaccharide-independent biofilms. However, a systematic screen for defective mutants has not been performed to identify factors important for biofilm formation in these strains. We created a library of 14,880 mariner transposon mutants in a S. aureus strain that generates a proteinaceous and extracellular DNA based biofilm matrix. The library was screened for biofilm defects and 31 transposon mutants conferred a reproducible phenotype. In the pool, 16 mutants overproduced extracellular proteases and the protease inhibitor α2-macroglobulin restored biofilm capacity to 13 of these mutants. The other 15 mutants in the pool displayed normal protease levels and had defects in genes involved in autolysis, osmoregulation, or uncharacterized membrane proteins. Two transposon mutants of interest in the GraRS two-component system and a putative inositol monophosphatase were confirmed in a flow cell biofilm model, genetically complemented, and further verified in a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) isolate. Collectively, our screen for biofilm defective mutants identified novel loci involved in S. aureus biofilm formation and underscored the importance of extracellular protease activity and autolysis in biofilm development. PMID:20418950

  9. Identification of genes involved in polysaccharide-independent Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

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    Blaise R Boles

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a potent biofilm former on host tissue and medical implants, and biofilm growth is a critical virulence determinant for chronic infections. Recent studies suggest that many clinical isolates form polysaccharide-independent biofilms. However, a systematic screen for defective mutants has not been performed to identify factors important for biofilm formation in these strains. We created a library of 14,880 mariner transposon mutants in a S. aureus strain that generates a proteinaceous and extracellular DNA based biofilm matrix. The library was screened for biofilm defects and 31 transposon mutants conferred a reproducible phenotype. In the pool, 16 mutants overproduced extracellular proteases and the protease inhibitor alpha(2-macroglobulin restored biofilm capacity to 13 of these mutants. The other 15 mutants in the pool displayed normal protease levels and had defects in genes involved in autolysis, osmoregulation, or uncharacterized membrane proteins. Two transposon mutants of interest in the GraRS two-component system and a putative inositol monophosphatase were confirmed in a flow cell biofilm model, genetically complemented, and further verified in a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA isolate. Collectively, our screen for biofilm defective mutants identified novel loci involved in S. aureus biofilm formation and underscored the importance of extracellular protease activity and autolysis in biofilm development.

  10. Genetic Variation among Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Norwegian Bulk Milk

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    Jørgensen, H. J.; Mørk, T.; Caugant, D. A.; Kearns, A.; Rørvik, L. M.

    2005-01-01

    Strains of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from bovine (n = 117) and caprine (n = 114) bulk milk were characterized and compared with S. aureus strains from raw-milk products (n = 27), bovine mastitis specimens (n = 9), and human blood cultures (n = 39). All isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In addition, subsets of isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), multiplex PCR (m-PCR) for genes encoding nine of the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE), and the cloverleaf method for penicillin resistance. A variety of genotypes were observed, and greater genetic diversity was found among bovine than caprine bulk milk isolates. Certain genotypes, with a wide geographic distribution, were common to bovine and caprine bulk milk and may represent ruminant-specialized S. aureus. Isolates with genotypes indistinguishable from those of strains from ruminant mastitis were frequently found in bulk milk, and strains with genotypes indistinguishable from those from bulk milk were observed in raw-milk products. This indicates that S. aureus from infected udders may contaminate bulk milk and, subsequently, raw-milk products. Human blood culture isolates were diverse and differed from isolates from other sources. Genotyping by PFGE, MLST, and m-PCR for SE genes largely corresponded. In general, isolates with indistinguishable PFGE banding patterns had the same SE gene profile and isolates with identical SE gene profiles were placed together in PFGE clusters. Phylogenetic analyses agreed with the division of MLST sequence types into clonal complexes, and isolates within the same clonal complex had the same SE gene profile. Furthermore, isolates within PFGE clusters generally belonged to the same clonal complex. PMID:16332822

  11. Guanine limitation results in CodY-dependent and -independent alteration of Staphylococcus aureus physiology and gene expression.

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    King, Alyssa N; Borkar, Samiksha; Samuels, David J; Batz, Zachary; Bulock, Logan; Sadykov, Marat R; Bayles, Kenneth W; Brinsmade, Shaun R

    2018-04-30

    In Staphylococcus aureus , the global transcriptional regulator CodY modulates the expression of hundreds of genes in response to the availability of GTP and the branched-chain amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine (ILV). CodY DNA-binding activity is high when GTP and ILV are abundant. When GTP and ILV are limited, CodY's affinity for DNA drops, altering expression of CodY regulated targets. In this work, we investigated the impact of guanine nucleotides on S. aureus physiology and CodY activity by constructing a guaA null mutant (Δ guaA ). De novo biosynthesis of guanine monophosphate is abolished due to the guaA mutation; thus, the mutant cells require exogenous guanosine for growth. We also found that CodY activity was reduced when we knocked out guaA , activating the Agr two-component system and increasing secreted protease activity. Notably, in a rich, complex medium, we detected an increase in alternative sigma factor B activity in the Δ guaA mutant, which results in a 5-fold increase in production of the antioxidant pigment staphyloxanthin. Under biologically relevant flow conditions, Δ guaA cells failed to form robust biofilms when limited for guanine or guanosine. RNA-seq analysis of S. aureus transcriptome during growth in guanosine-limited chemostats revealed substantial CodY-dependent and -independent alteration of gene expression profiles. Importantly, these changes increase production of proteases and δ-toxin, suggesting that S. aureus exhibits a more invasive lifestyle when limited for guanosine. Further, gene-products upregulated under GN limitation, including those necessary for lipoic acid biosynthesis and sugar transport, may prove to be useful drug targets for treating Gram-positive infections. Importance Staphylococcus aureus infections impose a serious economic burden on healthcare facilities and patients because of the emergence of strains resistant to last-line antibiotics. Understanding the physiological processes governing

  12. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant S aureus strains isolated from hospital effluents.

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    Mandal, Santi M; Ghosh, Ananta K; Pati, Bikas R

    2015-12-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) strains were examined in hospital effluents. Most S aureus strains are resistant to methicillin (MRSA), followed by tetracycline. Approximately 15% of MRSA strains are also resistant to vancomycin (VRSA). All VRSA strains developed a VanR/VanS-regulated 2-component system of VanA-type resistance in their genome. Results indicate that there is a possibility of developing resistance to aminoglycosides by VRSA strains in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-spa-typeable clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains are naturally occurring protein A mutants

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    Baum, Cathrin; Haslinger-Löffler, Bettina; Westh, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen responsible for increasing the prevalence of community- and hospital-acquired infections. Protein A (SpA) is a key virulence factor of S. aureus and is highly conserved. Sequencing of the variable-number tandem-repeat region of SpA (spa typing......) provides a rapid and reliable method for epidemiological studies. Rarely, non-spa-typeable S. aureus strains are encountered. The reason for this is not known. In this study, we characterized eight non-spa-typeable bacteremia isolates. Sequencing of the entire spa locus was successful for five strains...... and revealed various mutations of spa, all of which included a deletion of immunoglobulin G binding domain C, in which the upper primer for spa typing is located, while two strains were truly spa negative. This is the first report demonstrating that nontypeability of S. aureus by spa sequencing is due either...

  14. Detection of enterotoxins and genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from Isfahan Educational Hospital, Iran

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    Seyed Asghar Havaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Staphylococcus aureus is known as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens, which may lead to several infections. The aim of this study was determining the enterotoxins A, C, and TSST-1 and molecular characterization of S. aureus strains with PFGE and MLST typing methods. Materials and methods: In the present study during the sixmonths sampling, fifty S. aureus strains were isolated from patients admitted to Al-Zahra university hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Multiplex PCR for detection of enterotoxin A, C and TSST-1, pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST were used for molecular typing. Results: In antibiogram the highest and lowest percentage of resistance was belonged to tetracycline and rifampin respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that 30% of the strains harbored sea and 34% harbored sec genes. However, only 4% of our collected isolates had tsst gene. In PFGE method analysis on all S. aureus strains, a total of 19 different patterns were identified. Nine various sequence types in 27 selected S. aureus isolates were identified by MLST. Conclusions: Present study indicates a possible higher variability among our S. aureus strains by two different molecular typing methods; nevertheless four main common types (CT1, CT7, CT9, and CT11 with at least one toxin genes were determined.

  15. Increasing rate of daptomycin non-susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with atopic dermatitis

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    Izabela Błażewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide that is bactericidal against Staphylococcus aureus , including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA strains. Daptomycin exerts its antimicrobial effect by a calcium-dependent interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane resulting in depolarization, ion loss and rapid cell death. Unfortunately, loss of daptomycin susceptibility in S. aureus in the clinical setting has been noted. Aim : To evaluate the susceptibility profile to daptomycin among S. aureus strains isloted from patients with atopic dermatitis (AD. Another point was to correlate the results obtained by broth microdilution method and Etest, which is commonly applied in clinical setting. Material and methods : One hundred patients with the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis were microbiologically assessed for the carriage of S. aureus . Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using broth-microdilution (BMD and Etests for daptomycin. Results : Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from the majority of our patients, either from the skin (73% or the anterior nares (75%. Six of the 100 nasal swabs (6% and 5 of the 100 skin swabs (5% were positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. A total of 81 of 148 (54.7% daptomycin non-susceptible isolates of S. aureus were identified by BMD. Only 19 of 81 were also classified as non-susceptible by Etest. Conclusions : Clinicians and microbiologists should be aware of the possibility of the emergence of daptomycin non-susceptibility (or increase in minimal inhibitory concentration during prolonged therapy and closely monitor the susceptibility of persisting isolates that might be recovered during therapy.

  16. Human SAP is a novel peptidoglycan recognition protein that induces complement- independent phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus

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    An, Jang-Hyun; Kurokawa, Kenji; Jung, Dong-Jun; Kim, Min-Jung; Kim, Chan-Hee; Fujimoto, Yukari; Fukase, Koichi; Coggeshall, K. Mark; Lee, Bok Luel

    2014-01-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for many community-acquired and hospital-associated infections and is associated with high mortality. Concern over the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains has renewed interest in the elucidation of host mechanisms that defend against S. aureus infection. We recently demonstrated that human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binds to S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA), a cell wall glycopolymer, a discovery that prompted further screening to identify additional serum proteins that recognize S. aureus cell wall components. In this report, we incubated human serum with 10 different S. aureus mutants and determined that serum amyloid P component (SAP) bound specifically to a WTA-deficient S. aureus ΔtagO mutant, but not to tagO-complemented, WTA-expressing cells. Biochemical characterization revealed that SAP recognizes bacterial peptidoglycan as a ligand and that WTA inhibits this interaction. Although SAP binding to peptidoglycan was not observed to induce complement activation, SAP-bound ΔtagO cells were phagocytosed by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in an Fcγ receptor-dependent manner. These results indicate that SAP functions as a host defense factor, similar to other peptidoglycan recognition proteins and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors. PMID:23966633

  17. Prevalence and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains in the Pork Chain Supply in Chile.

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    Velasco, Valeria; Vergara, José L; Bonilla, Ana M; Muñoz, Javier; Mallea, Alejandra; Vallejos, Diego; Quezada-Aguiluz, Mario; Campos, Jorge; Rojas-García, Pedro

    2018-05-01

    The detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other emerging strains in meat-producing animals and retail meat has increased the risk of contamination of food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characterize S. aureus strains isolated from the pork chain supply in Chile. A total of 487 samples were collected: 332 samples from pigs at farms and slaughterhouses (nasal, n = 155; skin, n = 177); 85 samples from carcasses at slaughterhouses; and 70 meat samples at supermarkets and retail stores. The isolation of S. aureus was carried out by selective enrichment and culture media. Biochemical testing (API ® Staph) and PCR (detection of the nuc and mecA genes) were used to confirm S. aureus and MRSA strains. The agglutination test was used to determine the protein PBP2'. Enterotoxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED) were determined by agglutination test and the se genes by PCR method. Oxacillin and cefoxitin susceptibility testing were carried out using the diffusion method. The overall prevalence of S. aureus in the pork meat supply was 33.9%. A higher prevalence was detected on carcasses (56.5%), in pigs sampled at farms (40.6%) than in pigs sampled at slaughterhouses (23.3%) and in nonpackaged retail meat (43.1%) than packaged retail meat (5.3%) (p ≤ 0.05). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the prevalence in pigs (28.3%) and pork meat (32.9%) and between natural pig farming (33.3%) and conventional production (52.8%). The mecA gene and the protein PBP2' were not detected in S. aureus strains. Two S. aureus strains exhibited oxacillin and cefoxitin resistance, and one S. aureus strain was resistant to cefoxitin. One S. aureus strain isolated from a meat sample was positive for enterotoxin SEB. Although the mecA gene was not detected, oxacillin-resistant and seb-producing S. aureus strains were detected, which represent a risk in the pork chain supply.

  18. Population structure and antimicrobial profile of Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with bovine mastitis in China.

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    Zhang, Lili; Li, Yuchen; Bao, Hongduo; Wei, Ruicheng; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Ran

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a significant bacterial pathogen associated with bovine mastitis. The aim of the present study was to investigate and characterize of S. aureus strains isolated from the milk of cows suffering from mastitis in the mid-east of China. Among the 200 milk samples analyzed, 58 were positive for S. aureus, of these isolates, 11 isolates were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). All of the 58 S. aureus strains were classified in agr group I, while seven different sequence type (ST) patterns were identified and among them the most common was ST630 followed by ST188. All of the S. aureus isolates belonging to ST630 were resistant to more than four antimicrobials, and 22.2% of isolates belonging to ST188 were resistant to eight antimicrobials. Interestingly, while strong biofilm producers demonstrated higher resistance to multiple antimicrobials, they exhibited lower intracellular survival rates. The results of this study illustrated the distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, genotype, and the ability of biofilm production and mammary epithelial cells invasion of these S. aureus isolates. This study can provide the basis for the development of a disease prevention program in dairy farms to reduce the potential risk in both animal and human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of Methicillin Resistance and Various Virulence Factors in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Nasal Carriers

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    Hatice Türk Dağı

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococus aureus can be found as a commensal on skin and nasal flora or it may cause local and invasive infections. S. aureus has a large number of virulence factors. Aims: To investigate the methicillin resistance and frequency of various virulence factors in S. aureus nasal isolates. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: Nasal samples collected from university students were cultured in media. S. aureus was identified by conventional methods and the Staphyloslide latex test (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, USA. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were conducted, and the methicillin resistance was determined. The mecA, nuc, pvl and staphylococcal toxin genes were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: S. aureus was isolated in 104 of 600 (17.3% nasal samples. In total, 101 (97.1% S. aureus isolates were methicillin-sensitive and the remaining 3 (2.9% were methicillin-resistant. Furthermore, all but five isolates carried at least one staphylococcal enterotoxin gene, with seg being predominant. The tst and eta genes were determined in 29 (27.9%, and 3 (2.9% isolates, respectively. None of the S. aureus isolates harbored see, etb, and pvl genes. Conclusion: A moderate rate of S. aureus carriage and low frequency of MRSA were detected in healthy students. S. aureus isolates had a high prevalence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes and the tst gene. In this study, a large number of virulence factors were examined in S. aureus nasal isolates, and the data obtained from this study can be used for monitoring the prevalence of virulence genes in S. aureus strains isolated from nasal carriers.

  20. In vitro effectiveness of triterpenoids and their synergistic effect with antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus strains.

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    Hamza, Muhammad; Nadir, Maha; Mehmood, Nadir; Farooq, Adeel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of four triterpenoids such as oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, cycloastragenol, and beta-boswellic acid alone and in combination with antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus strains. Sixteen clinical strains of S. aureus from infected wounds were isolated. Eight were methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), and the other eight were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The activity was also seen in reference S. aureus American Type Culture Collection ™ strains. The activity of all the triterpenoids and antibiotics against S. aureus was evaluated by broth microdilution method. The effectiveness was judged by comparing the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the compounds with antibiotics. The combination of antibiotics with compounds was evaluated by their fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC). Against both clinical and reference MSSA strains, none of the compounds exhibited comparable activity to antibiotics vancomycin or cefradine except for ursolic acid (MIC 7.8 μg/ml). Against MRSA, all compounds (MIC 16-128 μg/ml) showed lesser activity than vancomycin (MIC 5.8 μg/ml). Among triterpenoid-antibiotic combinations, the most effective were ursolic acid and vancomycin against clinical strain MSSA (FIC S 0.17). However, overall, different combinations between triterpenoids and antibiotics showed 95%-46% ( P antibiotics compared to when antibiotics were used alone. Cefradine, a drug not suitable for treating MRSA (MIC = 45 μg/ml), showed a remarkable decrease in its MIC (87% Pantibiotics. However, when used in combination with antibiotics, they showed remarkable synergistic effect and thus can help in prolonging the viability of these antibiotics against S. aureus infections. Furthermore, reduction in MIC of cefradine with oleanolic acid indicates their potential use against MRSA.

  1. Discriminatory Indices of Typing Methods for Epidemiologic Analysis of Contemporary Staphylococcus aureus Strains.

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    Rodriguez, Marcela; Hogan, Patrick G; Satola, Sarah W; Crispell, Emily; Wylie, Todd; Gao, Hongyu; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Fritz, Stephanie A

    2015-09-01

    Historically, a number of typing methods have been evaluated for Staphylococcus aureus strain characterization. The emergence of contemporary strains of community-associated S. aureus, and the ensuing epidemic with a predominant strain type (USA300), necessitates re-evaluation of the discriminatory power of these typing methods for discerning molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics, essential to investigations of hospital and community outbreaks. We compared the discriminatory index of 5 typing methods for contemporary S. aureus strain characterization. Children presenting to St. Louis Children's Hospital and community pediatric practices in St. Louis, Missouri (MO), with community-associated S. aureus infections were enrolled. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (repPCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal protein A (spa), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing were performed on 200 S. aureus isolates. The discriminatory index of each method was calculated using the standard formula for this metric, where a value of 1 is highly discriminatory and a value of 0 is not discriminatory. Overall, we identified 26 distinct strain types by repPCR, 17 strain types by PFGE, 30 strain types by MLST, 68 strain types by spa typing, and 5 strain types by SCCmec typing. RepPCR had the highest discriminatory index (D) of all methods (D = 0.88), followed by spa typing (D = 0.87), MLST (D = 0.84), PFGE (D = 0.76), and SCCmec typing (D = 0.60). The method with the highest D among MRSA isolates was repPCR (D = 0.64) followed by spa typing (D = 0.45) and MLST (D = 0.44). The method with the highest D among MSSA isolates was spa typing (D = 0.98), followed by MLST (D = 0.93), repPCR (D = 0.92), and PFGE (D = 0.89). Among isolates designated USA300 by PFGE, repPCR was most discriminatory, with 10 distinct strain types identified (D = 0.63). We identified 45

  2. PCR detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from raw and pasteurized milk.

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    Rall, V L M; Vieira, F P; Rall, R; Vieitis, R L; Fernandes, A; Candeias, J M G; Cardoso, K F G; Araújo, J P

    2008-12-10

    Milk is considered a nutritious food because it contains several important nutrients including proteins and vitamins. Conversely, it can be a vehicle for several pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of genes encoding the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEG, SEH, SEI and SEJ in S. aureus strains isolated from raw or pasteurized bovine milk. S. aureus was found in 38 (70.4%) out of 54 raw milk samples at concentrations of up to 8.9 x 10(5) CFU/ml. This microorganism was present in eight samples of pasteurized milk before the expiration date and in 11 samples analyzed on the expiration date. Of the 57 strains studied, 68.4% were positive for one or more genes encoding the enterotoxins, and 12 different genotypes were identified. The gene coding for enterotoxin A, sea, was the most frequent (16 strains, 41%), followed by sec (8 strains, 20.5%), sed (5 strains, 12.8%), seb (3 strains, 7.7%) and see (2 strains, 5.1%). Among the genes encoding the other enterotoxins, seg was the most frequently observed (11 strains, 28.2%), followed by sei (10 strains) and seh and sej (3 strains each). With the recent identification of new SEs, the perceived frequency of enterotoxigenic strains has increased, suggesting that the pathogenic potential of staphylococci may be higher than previously thought; however, further studies are required to assess the expression of these new SEs by S. aureus, and their impact in foodborne disease. The quality of Brazilian milk is still low, and efforts from the government and the entire productive chain are required to attain consumer safety.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strain diversity underlying pediatric atopic dermatitis.

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    Byrd, Allyson L; Deming, Clay; Cassidy, Sara K B; Harrison, Oliver J; Ng, Weng-Ian; Conlan, Sean; Belkaid, Yasmine; Segre, Julia A; Kong, Heidi H

    2017-07-05

    The heterogeneous course, severity, and treatment responses among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD; eczema) highlight the complexity of this multifactorial disease. Prior studies have used traditional typing methods on cultivated isolates or sequenced a bacterial marker gene to study the skin microbial communities of AD patients. Shotgun metagenomic sequence analysis provides much greater resolution, elucidating multiple levels of microbial community assembly ranging from kingdom to species and strain-level diversification. We analyzed microbial temporal dynamics from a cohort of pediatric AD patients sampled throughout the disease course. Species-level investigation of AD flares showed greater Staphylococcus aureus predominance in patients with more severe disease and Staphylococcus epidermidis predominance in patients with less severe disease. At the strain level, metagenomic sequencing analyses demonstrated clonal S. aureus strains in more severe patients and heterogeneous S. epidermidis strain communities in all patients. To investigate strain-level biological effects of S. aureus , we topically colonized mice with human strains isolated from AD patients and controls. This cutaneous colonization model demonstrated S. aureus strain-specific differences in eliciting skin inflammation and immune signatures characteristic of AD patients. Specifically, S. aureus isolates from AD patients with more severe flares induced epidermal thickening and expansion of cutaneous T helper 2 (T H 2) and T H 17 cells. Integrating high-resolution sequencing, culturing, and animal models demonstrated how functional differences of staphylococcal strains may contribute to the complexity of AD disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. [Enterotoxin genes occurance among S. aureus strains isolated from inpatients and carriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrynowicz-Paciorek, Maja; Kochman, Maria; Piekarska, Katarzyna; Wyrebiak, Agata; Potracka, Ewa; Leniak-Chmiel, Urszula; Magdziak, Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    We examined 44 inpatients and 66 carriers Staphylococcus aureus strains, isolated in years 2002-2005, for the presence of 18 enterotoxin genes (se/sel) (by PCR), the ability for A-D enterotoxin production (by SET-RPLA) and antibiotic resistance distribution (by disc diffusion method). se/sel genes were detected in 90,9% of all strains, sea (70,5%) and selk and selq (52,3%) - among inpatients strains and egc (65,2%) - among carriers strains were the most frequently se/sel genes found. Positive results of SET-RPLA were consistent with PCR results. There was no correlation observed between antibiotic resistance and se/sel genes distribution among tested S. aureus strains.

  5. The synergistic activity of antibiotics combined with eight traditional Chinese medicines against two different strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zai-Chang; Wang, Bo-Chu; Yang, Xiao-Sheng; Wang, Qiang; Ran, Liang

    2005-03-25

    The ethanolic extracts of eight traditional Chinese medicines and four antibiotics were investigated for their combined effects on the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in vitro. Methicillin resistant S. aureus, which was isolated from patient and a standard strain, were used. Our results showed that there are differences in the effects of many combinations used on the standard strain and resistant strain of S. aureus. The ethanolic extracts of Isatis tinctoria, Scutellaria baicalensis and Rheum palmatum can improve the antimicrobial activity of four antibiotics we used.

  6. Molecular characteristics of bap-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains from dairy cow mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snel, Gustavo G M; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Piccinini, Renata

    2015-08-01

    The biofilm-associated protein (Bap) of Staphylococcus aureus is a high molecular weight cell-wall-anchored protein involved in biofilm formation, first described in bovine mastitis strains from Spain. So far, studies regarding Bap were mainly based on the Spanish strain V329 and its mutants, but no information on the genetic variability of bap-positive Staph. aureus strains is yet available in the literature. The present study investigated the molecular characteristics of 8 bap-positive Staph. aureus strains from subclinical bovine mastitis, isolated in 5 herds; somatic cell counts (SCC) of milk samples were also registered. Strains were characterised using MLST, SPA typing and microarray and the results were compared with V329. All isolates from this study and V329 were assigned to ST126, t605, but some molecular differences were observed. Only herd A and B strains harboured the genes for β-lactams resistance; the leukocidin D/E gene, a type I site-specific deoxyribonuclease subunit, 3rd locus gene and serin-protease A and B were carried by all strains, but not by V329, while serin-protease E was absent in V329 and in another isolate. Four isolates and V329 harboured the fibronectin-binding protein B gene. SCC showed the highest value in the milk sample affected by the only strain carrying all the virulence factors considered. Potential large variability of virulence was evidenced among V329 and all bap-positive Staph. aureus strains considered: the carriage of fnb could enhance the accumulation of biofilm, but the lack of lukD/E and splA, B or E might decrease the invasiveness of strain.

  7. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Personnel of Jahrom Hospitals in 2012

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    S Saadat

    2014-01-01

    Undo edits Methods: In this cross - sectional study, 397 of the anterior nasal samples of medical personnel and hospital services were collected by swab. The identification of S.aureus was determined by biochemical tests and microbiology, and the antibiotic resistances of isolates were determined by disk diffusion method for 13 antibiotics. In this method, the inhibition zone for methicillin-resistant strains was ≤ 10 mm the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC against antibiotic vancomycin, ticoplanin, linezolid and synercid were determined by E-test method. Results: In the present study, 11.3% of personals carried S. aureus in the nose. Among them, 90% were health care workers and 10% were health service workers. The most sensitivity was observed resistance to Ciprofloxacin, rifampin, linezolid and synercid (91.1%, but the lowest sensitivity was to penicillin (4.7%. of 9 MRSA strains, 1 strain was resistance to vancomycin and 2 strains were resistant to teicoplanin and linezolid. Conclusion: Because of S. aureus strains isolated from hospital staffs were resistant to most common antibiotics, identification and treatment of health care and health service workers can prevent nosocomial infections. Key words: Staphylococcu aureus carriers, hospital personnel, antibiotic resistance.

  8. Commercial biocides induce transfer of prophage Φ13 from human strains of Staphylococcus aureus to livestock CC398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yuanyue; Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Hvitved, Annemette

    2017-01-01

    Human strains of Staphylococcus aureus commonly carry the bacteriophage ΦSa3 that encodes immune evasion factors. Recently, this prophage has been found in livestock-associated, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 strains where it may promote human colonization. Here, we have addressed...

  9. Typing of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enfin, le gène de résistance à la méthicil ine a été retrouvé dans 2,75% des souches isolées. L'analyse de l'association entre les gènes de virulence et la présence de mammites subcliniques a montré l'importance des gènes spa, lukD et sej. Une bonne sensibilité de S. aureus a été notée à la plupart des antibiotiques ...

  10. Screening of medicinal plants for antibacterial activities on Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

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    Marisa A. N. Diaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the main causative agent of bovine mastitis. The activity of several extracts from ten medicinal plants traditionally used in Brazil as antiseptic was investigated against fifteen strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from animals with mastitis manifestation by the disc diffusion method and broth microdilution assay. The interference of the extracts on cell in the form of adherent colonies was also evaluated. MIC values ranged from 0.5 mg/mL to 1.0 mg/mL and biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC were between 0.25 mg/mL and 0.8 mg/mL. Results revealed the potential of extracts of Senna macranthera, Artemisia absinthium, Cymbopogon nardus and Baccharis dracunculifolia as antibacterial agents against S. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis and support the possible use of these phytotherapic agents in the clinical management of the disease.

  11. Complete genome analysis of two new bacteriophages isolated from impetigo strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botka, Tibor; Růžičková, Vladislava; Konečná, Hana; Pantůček, Roman; Rychlík, Ivan; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Petráš, Petr; Doškař, Jiří

    2015-08-01

    Exfoliative toxin A (ETA)-coding temperate bacteriophages are leading contributors to the toxic phenotype of impetigo strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Two distinct eta gene-positive bacteriophages isolated from S. aureus strains which recently caused massive outbreaks of pemphigus neonatorum in Czech maternity hospitals were characterized. The phages, designated ϕB166 and ϕB236, were able to transfer the eta gene into a prophageless S. aureus strain which afterwards converted into an ETA producer. Complete phage genome sequences were determined, and a comparative analysis of five designed genomic regions revealed major variances between them. They differed in the genome size, number of open reading frames, genome architecture, and virion protein patterns. Their high mutual sequence similarity was detected only in the terminal regions of the genome. When compared with the so far described eta phage genomes, noticeable differences were found. Thus, both phages represent two new lineages of as yet not characterized bacteriophages of the Siphoviridae family having impact on pathogenicity of impetigo strains of S. aureus.

  12. DAYA HAMBAT SARI TANAMAN OBAT TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI STRAIN Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

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    Dwi Hilda Putri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus infection can be treated with Methicilin, β lactam class of antibiotics that have drug targets in the cell wall. Bacteria S. aureus that is resistant to methicillin called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. One alternative that can be used in strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that have this is to use medicinal plants. This study aimed to know the ability of medicinal plant extracts inhibit the growth of bacterial strains of MRSA. This kind of research is experimental research. Medicinal plants tested were Garlic, Turmeric, Aloe Vera, Daun Salam, Curcuma, Ginger, Betel Leaf and Alpinia galanga. As a control, which is used Amphicillin, β lactam antibiotic class. The method used to determine the diameter of inhibition area of medicinal plant extracts is paper diffusion method. The results showed that all medicinal plants can inhibit bacterial growth of MRSA strains characterized by the inhibition zone formed on each treatment. The ability of garlic and turmeric extract better than Amphicillin and other medicinal plants to inhibit bacterial growth of MRSA strains. Kata kunci: inhibit,  growth, bacteria, methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

  13. Virulence factors and genetic variability of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from raw sheep's milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Vincenzo; Spanu, Carlo; Virdis, Salvatore; Cossu, Francesca; Scarano, Christian; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2012-02-01

    Contamination of dairy products with Staphylococcus aureus can be of animal or human origin. The host pathogen relationship is an important factor determining genetic polymorphism of the strains and their potential virulence. The aim of the present study was to carry out an extensive characterization of virulence factors and to study the genetic variability of S. aureus strains isolated from raw ewe's milk cheese. A total of 100 S. aureus strains isolated from cheese samples produced in 10 artisan cheese factories were analyzed for the presence of enterotoxins (sea-see) and enterotoxins-like genes (seh, sek, sel, sem, seo, sep), leukocidins, exfoliatins, haemolysins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) and the accessory gene regulator alleles (agr). Strains were also typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). AMOVA analysis carried out on PFGE and PCR data showed that the major component explaining genetic distance between strains was the dairy of origin. Of the total isolates 81% had a pathogenicity profile ascribable to "animal" biovar while 16% could be related to "human" biovar. The biovar allowed to estimate the most likely origin of the contamination. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of nine antimicrobial agents and the presence of the corresponding genes coding for antibiotic resistance was also investigated. 18 strains carrying blaZ gene showed resistance to ampicillin and penicillin and 6 strains carrying tetM gene were resistant to tetracycline. The presence of mecA gene and methicillin resistance, typical of strains of human origin, was never detected. The results obtained in the present study confirm that S. aureus contamination in artisan cheese production is mainly of animal origin. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Morphology-Independent Virulence of Candida Species during Polymicrobial Intra-abdominal Infections with Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Evelyn E; Peters, Brian M; Fidel, Paul L; Noverr, Mairi C

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal polymicrobial infections cause significant morbidity and mortality. An experimental mouse model of Candida albicans-Staphylococcus aureus intra-abdominal infection (IAI) results in 100% mortality by 48 to 72 h postinoculation, while monomicrobial infections are avirulent. Mortality is associated with robust local and systemic inflammation without a requirement for C. albicans morphogenesis. However, the contribution of virulence factors coregulated during the yeast-to-hypha transition is unknown. This also raised the question of whether other Candida species that are unable to form hyphae are as virulent as C. albicans during polymicrobial IAI. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of non-albicans Candida (NAC) species with various morphologies and C. albicans transcription factor mutants (efg1/efg1 and cph1/cph1) to induce synergistic mortality and the accompanying inflammation. Results showed that S. aureus coinoculated with C. krusei or C. tropicalis was highly lethal, similar to C. albicans, while S. aureus-C. dubliniensis, S. aureus-C. parapsilosis, and S. aureus-C. glabrata coinoculations resulted in little to no mortality. Local and systemic interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were significantly elevated during symptomatic and/or lethal coinfections, and hypothermia strongly correlated with mortality. Coinoculation with C. albicans strains deficient in the transcription factor Efg1 but not Cph1 reversed the lethal outcome. These results support previous findings and demonstrate that select Candida species, without reference to any morphological requirement, induce synergistic mortality, with IL-6 and PGE2 acting as key inflammatory factors. Mechanistically, signaling pathways controlled by Efg1 are critical for the ability of C. albicans to induce mortality from an intra-abdominal polymicrobial infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains involved in human and bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Susana; García, Pilar; Fernández, Leonides; Jiménez, Esther; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; del Campo, Rosa; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2011-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main etiological agents of mastitis in different mammalian species. At present, it is unknown whether strains isolated from human mastitis cases share phenotypic properties and genetic background with those obtained from animal mastitis cases. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize S. aureus strains isolated from women with lactational mastitis and to compare them with the strains responsible for bovine mastitis and noninfectious strains. All the strains were genotyped by both pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing and submitted to a characterization scheme that included diverse assays related to pathogenic potential and antibiotic resistance. Apart from siderophore production, no significant association was observed between the strains from bovine and human mastitis. Statistical differences between human- and bovine-mastitis-associated strains were detected for some traits and virulence determinants, such as the presence of prophages and cna and hlb genes, which were more frequently found within the bovine group. On the contrary, resistance to penicillin was significantly higher among strains isolated from human lactational mastitis, probably related to the common presence of the blaZ gene. A high genetic diversity was found among the strains involved in mastitis in breastfeeding women. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of mercuric ions on growth and respiration of two coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynecka, Z; Szymona, O

    1966-01-01

    Sensitivity toward HgCl/sub 2/ of two coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains has been studied. Strain 15 proved to be over 10 times more resistant to HgCl/sub 2/ in the growth test than strain 31. The former showed also higher rates of endogenous respiration and more actively oxidized glucose in presence of HgCl/sub 2/. Strain 31 grew better in absence of HgCl/sub 2/ but readily underwent inhibition both in the growth and glucose oxidation experiment. Strain 31 was, however, less sensitive to HgCl/sub 2/, as detected by methylene blue reduction in presence of malate and succinate as substrates. Cysteine largely reversed the inhibitory effect of mercuric ions. Experiments with radioactive Hg/sup 203/Cl/sub 2/ did not prove the sensitive strain 31 to bind more mercuric ions than strain 15. 12 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  17. Synergistic antimicrobial activity between pentacyclic triterpenoids and antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus strains

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    Navaratnam Parasakthi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been considerable effort to discover plant-derived antibacterials against methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA which have developed resistance to most existing antibiotics, including the last line of defence, vancomycin. Pentacyclic triterpenoid, a biologically diverse plant-derived natural product, has been reported to show anti-staphylococcal activities. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between three pentacyclic triterpenoid and standard antibiotics (methicillin and vancomycin against reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Methods and Results The activity of the standard antibiotics and compounds on reference methicillin-sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus were determined using the macrodilution broth method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the compounds was compared with that of the standard antibiotics. The interaction between any two antimicrobial agents was estimated by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index of the combination. The various combinations of antibiotics and compounds reduced the MIC to a range of 0.05 to 50%. Conclusion Pentacyclic triterpenoids have shown anti-staphylococcal activities and although individually weaker than common antibiotics produced from bacteria and fungi, synergistically these compounds may use different mechanism of action or pathways to exert their antimicrobial effects, as implicated in the lowered MICs. Therefore, the use of current antibiotics could be maintained in their combination with plant-derived antibacterial agents as a therapeutic option in the treatment of S. aureus infections.

  18. The role of biofilms in persistent infections and factors involved in ica-independent biofilm development and gene regulation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; Ferreira, Fabienne Antunes; Beltrame, Cristiana Ossaille; Côrtes, Marina Farrel

    2017-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus biofilms represent a unique micro-environment that directly contribute to the bacterial fitness within hospital settings. The accumulation of this structure on implanted medical devices has frequently caused the development of persistent and chronic S. aureus-associated infections, which represent an important social and economic burden worldwide. ica-independent biofilms are composed of an assortment of bacterial products and modulated by a multifaceted and overlapping regulatory network; therefore, biofilm composition can vary among S. aureus strains. In the microniches formed by biofilms-produced by a number of bacterial species and composed by different structural components-drug refractory cell subpopulations with distinct physiological characteristics can emerge and result in therapeutic failures in patients with recalcitrant bacterial infections. In this review, we highlight the importance of biofilms in the development of persistence and chronicity in some S. aureus diseases, the main molecules associated with ica-independent biofilm development and the regulatory mechanisms that modulate ica-independent biofilm production, accumulation, and dispersion.

  19. SDS interferes with SaeS signaling of Staphylococcus aureus independently of SaePQ.

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    Phuti E Makgotlho

    Full Text Available The Staphylococcus aureus regulatory saePQRS system controls the expression of numerous virulence factors, including extracellular adherence protein (Eap, which amongst others facilitates invasion of host cells. The saePQRS operon codes for 4 proteins: the histidine kinase SaeS, the response regulator SaeR, the lipoprotein SaeP and the transmembrane protein SaeQ. S. aureus strain Newman has a single amino acid substitution in the transmembrane domain of SaeS (L18P which results in constitutive kinase activity. SDS was shown to be one of the signals interfering with SaeS activity leading to inhibition of the sae target gene eap in strains with SaeS(L but causing activation in strains containing SaeS(P. Here, we analyzed the possible involvement of the SaeP protein and saePQ region in SDS-mediated sae/eap expression. We found that SaePQ is not needed for SDS-mediated SaeS signaling. Furthermore, we could show that SaeS activity is closely linked to the expression of Eap and the capacity to invade host cells in a number of clinical isolates. This suggests that SaeS activity might be directly modulated by structurally non-complex environmental signals, as SDS, which possibly altering its kinase/phosphatase activity.

  20. [Behavior of different strains of Staphylococcus aureus against root canal filling cements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumarola, J; Berástegui, E; Canalda, C; Brau, E

    1991-01-01

    The mean goal of this study is the determination of the conduct of 120 strains of Staphylococcus aureus against seven root canal sealers: Traitement Spad, Endométhasone, N2 Universal, AH26 with silver, Diaket-A, Tubli Seal and Sealapex. The agar diffusion test was employed in the determination of its bacterial growth inhibition. The results obtained have demonstrated values very different between the tested strains. Therefore we recommended to employ strains with reference in the investigation of the bacterial growth inhibition in order to repeat equal experimentation conditions.

  1. [Septicaemia in piglets associated with a positive finding of a methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graage, R; Ganter, M; Verspohl, J; Strommenger, B; Waldmann, K-H; Baumgärtner, W; Hennig-Pauka, I

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus has been associated with septicaemia, mastitis, vaginitis, metritis, osteomyelitis, and endocarditis. This case report demonstrates S. aureus-induced septicaemia in suckling pig- lets. Three days after birth, littermates displayed severe ecchymosis and cyanosis, with a 50% mortality rate. The surviving littermates were cross-fostered, but died 1 day later. Other piglets, which were allowed to suck at the sow, developed similar clinical signs. Haematological findings were anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia; therefore, neither isohaemolytic anaemia nor septicaemia could be excluded as differential diagnoses. At necropsy, petechial bleeding on inner organ surfaces and free blood in body cavities were found. Bacteriological examination of the sow's milk and of the spleen of one piglet detected a methicillin-resistent S. aureus strain (MRSA CC398), which was in all likelihood the cause of the disease. Potential differential diagnoses are discussed.

  2. Nasal carriers are more likely to acquire exogenous Staphylococcus aureus strains than non-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh-Moghaddam, H; Neela, V; van Wamel, W; Hamat, R A; Shamsudin, M Nor; Hussin, N Suhaila Che; Aziz, M N; Haspani, M S Mohammad; Johar, A; Thevarajah, S; Vos, M; van Belkum, A

    2015-11-01

    We performed a prospective observational study in a clinical setting to test the hypothesis that prior colonization by a Staphylococcus aureus strain would protect, by colonization interference or other processes, against de novo colonization and, hence, possible endo-infections by newly acquired S. aureus strains. Three hundred and six patients hospitalized for >7 days were enrolled. For every patient, four nasal swabs (days 1, 3, 5, and 7) were taken, and patients were identified as carriers when a positive nasal culture for S. aureus was obtained on day 1 of hospitalization. For all patients who acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or methicillin-susceptible S. aureus via colonization and/or infection during hospitalization, strains were collected. We note that our study may suffer from false-negative cultures, local problems with infection control and hospital hygiene, or staphylococcal carriage at alternative anatomical sites. Among all patients, 22% were prior carriers of S. aureus, including 1.9% whom carried MRSA upon admission. The overall nasal staphylococcal carriage rate among dermatology patients was significantly higher than that among neurosurgery patients (n = 25 (55.5%) vs. n = 42 (16.1%), p 0.005). This conclusion held when the carriage definition included individuals who were nasal culture positive on day 1 and day 3 of hospitalization (p 0.0001). All MRSA carriers were dermatology patients. There was significantly less S. aureus acquisition among non-carriers than among carriers during hospitalization (p 0.005). The mean number of days spent in the hospital before experiencing MRSA acquisition in nasal carriers was 5.1, which was significantly lower than the score among non-carriers (22 days, p 0.012). In conclusion, we found that nasal carriage of S. aureus predisposes to rather than protects against staphylococcal acquisition in the nose, thereby refuting our null hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical

  3. Identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from burn patients by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Effat Abbasi; Khosravi, Azar Dokht; Jolodar, Abbas; Ghaderpanah, Mozhgan; Azarpira, Samireh

    2015-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) as important human pathogens are causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Burn patients are at a higher risk of local and systemic infections with these microorganisms. A screening method for MRSA by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), mecA, and nuc genes was developed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of this PCR assay for the detection of MRSA strains in samples from burn patients. During an 11-month period, 230 isolates (53.11%) of Staphylococcus spp. were collected from burn patients. The isolates were identified as S. aureus by using standard culture and biochemical tests. DNA was extracted from bacterial colonies and multiplex PCR was used to detect MRSA and MRCoNS strains. Of the staphylococci isolates, 149 (64.9%) were identified as S. aureus and 81 (35.21%) were described as CoNS. Among the latter, 51 (62.97%) were reported to be MRCoNS. From the total S. aureus isolates, 132 (88.6%) were detected as MRSA and 17 (11.4%) were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). The presence of the mecA gene in all isolates was confirmed by using multiplex PCR as a gold standard method. This study presented a high MRSA rate in the region under investigation. The 16S rRNA-mecA-nuc multiplex PCR is a good tool for the rapid characterization of MRSA strains. This paper emphasizes the need for preventive measures and choosing effective antimicrobials against MRSA and MRCoNS infections in the burn units. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Induction of type I interferon signaling determines the relative pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus strains.

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    Dane Parker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous success of S. aureus as a human pathogen has been explained primarily by its array of virulence factors that enable the organism to evade host immunity. Perhaps equally important, but less well understood, is the importance of the intensity of the host response in determining the extent of pathology induced by S. aureus infection, particularly in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. We compared the pathogenesis of infection caused by two phylogenetically and epidemiologically distinct strains of S. aureus whose behavior in humans has been well characterized. Induction of the type I IFN cascade by strain 502A, due to a NOD2-IRF5 pathway, was the major factor in causing severe pneumonia and death in a murine model of pneumonia and was associated with autolysis and release of peptidogylcan. In contrast to USA300, 502A was readily eliminated from epithelial surfaces in vitro. Nonetheless, 502A caused significantly increased tissue damage due to the organisms that were able to invade systemically and trigger type I IFN responses, and this was ameliorated in Ifnar⁻/⁻ mice. The success of USA300 to cause invasive infection appears to depend upon its resistance to eradication from epithelial surfaces, but not production of specific toxins. Our studies illustrate the important and highly variable role of type I IFN signaling within a species and suggest that targeted immunomodulation of specific innate immune signaling cascades may be useful to prevent the excessive morbidity associated with S. aureus pneumonia.

  5. Antibiotic activity of the extract of Punica granatum Linn. over bovine strains of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Maria A. R. Silva

    Full Text Available Human and veterinary medicines have not been so well succeeded in order to achieving their goals concerning the treatment of infections for long term caused by Staphylococcus aureus linked to resistance development against antibiotic agents. The antibiotic activity of the Punica granatum Linn. fresh fruit pericarp extract was evaluated by the agar diffusion method on 38 S. aureus strains, isolated from apparently healthy lactating cows in farms situated in counties of the semi-arid region of the State of Paraíba, Brazil to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Twenty-two of the thirty-eight strains are penicillin-resistant (PRSA. The extract of P. granatum presented potential antibiotic action over all the assayed strains, forming 10 to 36 mm diameter inhibition zones. This paper's results claim the effectiveness of the extract of P. granatum as a potential antibacterial agent on S. aureus, and display the significance of evaluating new substances with antimicrobial potential, which can contribute to alternative therapeutics for veterinary and medicine.

  6. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Italian Dairy Products

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    Stefano Morandi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a known major cause of foodborne illnesses, and milk and dairy products are often contaminated by enterotoxigenic strains of this bacterium. In the present study, 122 S. aureus isolates collected from different dairy products were characterised by phenotypic properties, by the distribution of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins (sea, sec, sed, seg, seh, sei, sej, and sel and by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR. Moreover, strain resistance to vancomycin and methicillin (oxacillin was studied. The differences in the RAPD-PCR profiles obtained with the primers M13 and AP4 revealed the presence of a great genetic heterogeneity among the different S. aureus strains. Using the primer AP4 and M13, eight groups were distinguished by RAPD-PCR cluster analysis, although, except in few cases, it was not possible to correlate the isolates of different animal species (cow or ovine with the presence of se genes. None of the isolates showed resistance to vancomycin or methicillin.

  7. In vitro efficacy of teat antiseptics against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

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    Renata Paoli Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of teat disinfection is a widely accepted component of successful mastitis control programs by reducing the number of bacteria on the teat skin and healing teat lesions. For contagious pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, post-milking teat disinfection remains a simple, effective and economical practice for prevention of new intramammary infections (IMIs of lactating dairy cows. Despite the universal acceptance of teat dipping as a method of mastitis control, variations in the susceptibility and resistance profile of mastitis pathogens among antiseptics have been described. Thus, here we sought to explore the in vitro efficacy of the followings antiseptics against S. aureus isolated from IMIs: chlorhexidine (2.0%, chlorine (2.5%, quarternary ammonium (4.0%, lactic acid (2.0% and iodine (0.6%. We used 50 S. aureus strains isolated from bovine IMIs from 50 dairy herds located at Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul States (Brazil. The antiseptics were evaluated at four different specific intervals (15, 30, 60 and 300 s. We found a higher activity for quarternary ammonium and chlorhexidine against S. aureus at all time-points, followed by iodine and then chlorine. Lactic acid treatment produced the worst results for all time-points and strains. Due to variations in the sensitivity and resistance profile of antiseptics against S. aureus isolated from IMIs, the effectiveness of the antiseptics against the major mastitis pathogens should be periodically evaluated in dairy farms in an attempt to reduce the rate of new IMIs in the herd.

  8. Changes in Holstein cow milk and serum proteins during intramammary infection with three different strains of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Robert Claude

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogens to cause mastitis in dairy cattle. Intramammary infection of dairy cows with S. aureus is often subclinical, due to the pathogen's ability to evade the innate defense mechanisms, but this can lead to chronic infection. A sub-population of S. aureus, known as small colony variant (SCV, displays atypical phenotypic characteristics, causes persistent infections, and is more resistant to antibiotics than parent strains. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the host immune response will be different for SCV than its parental or typical strains of S. aureus. In this study, the local and systemic immune protein responses to intramammary infection with three strains of S. aureus, including a naturally occurring bovine SCV strain (SCV Heba3231, were characterized. Serum and casein-depleted milk cytokine levels (interleukin-8, interferon-γ, and transforming growth factor-β1, as well as serum haptoglobin concentrations were monitored over time after intramammary infection with each of the three S. aureus strains. Furthermore, comparative proteomics was used to evaluate milk proteome profiles during acute and chronic phases of S. aureus intramammary infection. Results Serum IL-8, IFN-γ, and TGF-β1 responses differed in dairy cows challenged with different strains of S. aureus. Changes in overall serum haptoglobin concentrations were observed for each S. aureus challenge group, but there were no significant differences observed between groups. In casein-depleted milk, strain-specific differences in the host IFN-γ response were observed, but inducible IL-8 and TGF-β1 concentrations were not different between groups. Proteomic analysis of the milk following intramammary infection revealed unique host protein expression profiles that were dependent on the infecting strain as well as phase of infection. Notably, the protein, component-3 of the proteose peptone (CPP3, was

  9. Decreased uptake of cadmium by a resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, I

    1971-01-01

    Penicillinase plasmids, and some related extrachromosomal elements in Staphylococcus aureus, can specify resistance to inorganic ions, including Hg/sup 2 +/ and Cd/sup 2 +/. There is some tentative evidence that resistance to Hg/sup 2 +/ ions is due to the impermeability of the cells to the ions and not to a higher concentration of free -SH groups in resistance to cadmium ions is unknown. Experiments are described which show that there is a markedly decreased rate of uptake of Cd/sup 2 +/ ions by resistant cells when compared with strains that lack the cad-r gene. The uptake of Cd/sup 2 +/ ions has been studied in the cadmium resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain 8325 (..cap alpha...i/sup +/p/sup +/.cad-r.mer-r) and in its cadmium-sensitive derivative, strain 8324(N). Strain 8325(N) was obtained from 8325 (..cap alpha...i/sup +/.cad-r.mer-r) by isolating a variant which had spontaneously lost the ..cap alpha.. penicillinase plasmid specifying resistance to Cd/sup 2 +/ ions. Cadmium uptake was estimated by adding /sup 115m/CdCl/sub 2/ (final concentration: 10/sup -4/M) to exponentially growing cultures of the sensitive and resistant strains and following the uptake of radioactivity.

  10. Phenotypic Variation Is Almost Entirely Independent of the Host-Pathogen Relationship in Clinical Isolates of S. aureus.

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    Adrian D Land

    Full Text Available A key feature of Staphylococcus aureus biology is its ability to switch from an apparently benign colonizer of ~30% of the population to a cutaneous pathogen, to a deadly invasive pathogen. Little is known about the mechanisms driving this transition or the propensity of different S. aureus strains to engender different types of host-pathogen interactions. At the same time, significant weight has been given to the role of specific in vitro phenotypes in S. aureus virulence. Biofilm formation, hemolysis and pigment formation have all been associated with virulence in mice.To determine if there is a correlation between in vitro phenotype and the three types of host-pathogen relationships commonly exhibited by S. aureus in the context of its natural human host, we assayed 300 clinical isolates for phenotypes implicated in virulence including hemolysis, sensitivity to autolysis, and biofilm formation. For comparative purposes, we also assayed phenotype in 9 domesticated S. aureus strains routinely used for analysis of virulence determinants in laboratory settings.Strikingly, the clinical strains exhibited significant phenotypic uniformity in each of the assays evaluated in this study. One exception was a small, but significant, correlation between an increased propensity for biofilm formation and isolation from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs. In contrast, we observed a high degree of phenotypic variation between common laboratory strains that exhibit virulence in mouse models. These data suggest the existence of significant evolutionary pressure on the S. aureus genome and highlight a role for host factors as a strong determinant of the host-pathogen relationship. In addition, the high degree of variation between laboratory strains emphasizes the need for caution when applying data obtained in one lab strain to the analysis of another.

  11. [Antagonism between hospital strains of Staphylococcus aureus and lactic acid bacteria in vitro and the use of the latter as a sanitary agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambartsumian, A D; Dekhtsunian, K M; Atopek, S Ia; Erzinkian, L A

    1983-08-01

    The study of antagonism between S. aureus hospital strains and lactic acid bacteria, strain 317/402 "Nariné", revealed that the latter possessed high antagonistic activity. A new method for the sanitation of carriers of S. aureus hospital strains was developed; this method made it possible to limit the epidemiological significance of 82% of these strains.

  12. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus – evolution of the strains or iatrogenic effects?

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    Izabela Błażewicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium capable of causing various diseases, from skin infections to life-threatening necrotizing pneumonia, bacteraemia, endocarditis and toxic shock syndrome. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is endemic in hospitals worldwide and is a major cause of human morbidity and mortality. Healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA infections occur in individuals with a compromised immune system and people with prior surgery. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA infections often occur in healthy individuals and are epidemic in some countries, which may suggest that those strains are more virulent and transmissible than HA-MRSA. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, a case of MRSA infection is community acquired when it is diagnosed in an outpatient or within 48 hours of hospitalization if the patient lacks the following traditional risk factors for MRSA infection: receipt of hemodialysis, surgery, residence in a long-term care facility, or hospitalization during the previous year; the presence of an indwelling catheter or a percutaneous device at the time culture samples were obtained. Although progress has been made toward understanding emergence of CA-MRSA, virulence factors and treatment options, our knowledge remains incomplete. The recent occurrence of CA-MRSA in addition to the widespread problem of MRSA in hospitals has underlined the high urgency to find novel treatment options for drug-resistant S. aureus .

  13. Mixed Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus Induced Inflammation and Ameliorate Intestinal Microflora in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dayong; Gong, Shengjie; Shu, Jingyan; Zhu, Jianwei; Rong, Fengjun; Zhang, Zhenye; Wang, Di; Gao, Liangfeng; Qu, Tianming; Liu, Hongyan; Chen, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Objective . Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that causes intestinal infection. We examined the immunomodulatory function of single and mixed Lactobacillus plantarum strains, as well as their impacts on the structure of the microbiome in mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus . The experiment was divided into three groups: protection, treatment, and control. Serum IFN- γ and IL-4 levels, as well as intestinal sIgA levels, were measured during and 1 week after infection with Staphylococcus aureus with and without Lactobacillus plantarum treatment. We used 16s rRNA tagged sequencing to analyze microbiome composition. IFN- γ /IL-4 ratio decreased significantly from infection to convalescence, especially in the mixed Lactobacillus plantarum group. In the mixed Lactobacillus plantarum group the secretion of sIgA in the intestine of mice (9.4-9.7 ug/mL) was significantly higher than in the single lactic acid bacteria group. The dominant phyla in mice are Firmicutes , Bacteroidetes , and Proteobacteria . Treatment with mixed lactic acid bacteria increased the anti-inflammatory factor and the secretion of sIgA in the intestine of mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus and inhibited inflammation.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus strains from dairy herds in KwaZulu-Natal

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    T. Schmidt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is 1 of the most important causes of bovine mastitis and is responsible for significant economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. One of the principal approaches used in treating intramammary infections is the administration of antimicrobials. Due to the propensity of S. aureus to develop resistance, antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring is necessary to ensure that treatment regimens are effective. As part of this investigation, 90 S. aureus strains isolated from mastitis cases submitted to Allerton Provincial Veterinary Laboratory during 2008 and 2009 were evaluated for their susceptibility to a panel of 10 antimicrobials. Only 8 of the 90 S. aureus isolates tested (8.9 % were found to be susceptible to all of the antimicrobials evaluated. A very high level of resistance to the beta-lactam antibiotics was noted: 47.8 % of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and 65.6 % were resistant to ampicillin. Minimal resistance to oxacillin, cephalothin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.1 % was found. Seventeen (18.9 % of the isolates tested were found to be resistant to 3 or more antimicrobials. The need for vigilant monitoring of bacterial resistance trends in the dairy industry is warranted as the potential public health implications are significant.

  15. Persistent environmental contamination with USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other pathogenic strain types in households with S. aureus skin infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eells, Samantha J; David, Michael Z; Taylor, Alexis; Ortiz, Nancy; Kumar, Neha; Sieth, Julia; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Daum, Robert S; Miller, Loren G

    2014-11-01

    To understand the genotypic spectrum of environmental contamination of Staphylococcus aureus in households and its persistence. Prospective longitudinal cohort investigation. Index participants identified at 2 academic medical centers. Adults and children with S. aureus skin infections and their household contacts in Los Angeles and Chicago. Household fomites were surveyed for contamination at baseline and 3 months. All isolates underwent genetic typing. We enrolled 346 households, 88% of which completed the 3-month follow-up visit. S. aureus environmental contamination was 49% at baseline and 51% at 3 months. Among households with a USA300 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) body infection isolate, environmental contamination with an indistinguishable MRSA strain was 58% at baseline and 63% at 3 months. Baseline factors associated with environmental contamination by the index subject's infection isolate were body colonization by any household member with the index subject's infection isolate at baseline (odds ratio [OR], 10.93 [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.75-20.79]), higher housing density (OR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.10-1.96]), and more frequent household fomite cleaning (OR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.16-2.27]). Household environmental contamination with the index subject's infection strain at 3 months was associated with USA300 MRSA and a synergistic interaction between baseline environmental contamination and body colonization by any household member with the index subject's infection strain. We found that infecting S. aureus isolates frequently persisted environmentally in households 3 months after skin infection. Presence of pathogenic S. aureus strain type in the environment in a household may represent a persistent reservoir that places household members at risk of future infection.

  16. Molecular basis of surface anchored protein A deficiency in the Staphylococcus aureus strain Wood 46.

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    Manasi Balachandran

    Full Text Available Protein A in Staphylococcus aureus is encoded by the spa (staphylococcal protein A gene and binds to immunoglobulin (Ig. The S. aureus strain Wood 46 has been variously reported as protein A-deficient and/or spa negative and used as a control in animal models of staphylococcal infections. The results of this study indicate that Wood 46 has normal spa expression but transcribes very low levels of the srtA gene which encodes the sortase A (SrtA enzyme. This is consistent with unique mutations in the srtA promoter. In this study, a low level of sortase A explains deficient anchoring of proteins with an LPXTG motif, such as protein A, fibrinogen-binding protein and fibronectin-binding proteins A and B on to the peptidoglycan cell wall. The activity of secreted protein A is an important consideration for use of Wood 46 in functional experiments and animal models.

  17. Molecular basis of surface anchored protein A deficiency in the Staphylococcus aureus strain Wood 46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Manasi; Giannone, Richard J; Bemis, David A; Kania, Stephen A

    2017-01-01

    Protein A in Staphylococcus aureus is encoded by the spa (staphylococcal protein A) gene and binds to immunoglobulin (Ig). The S. aureus strain Wood 46 has been variously reported as protein A-deficient and/or spa negative and used as a control in animal models of staphylococcal infections. The results of this study indicate that Wood 46 has normal spa expression but transcribes very low levels of the srtA gene which encodes the sortase A (SrtA) enzyme. This is consistent with unique mutations in the srtA promoter. In this study, a low level of sortase A explains deficient anchoring of proteins with an LPXTG motif, such as protein A, fibrinogen-binding protein and fibronectin-binding proteins A and B on to the peptidoglycan cell wall. The activity of secreted protein A is an important consideration for use of Wood 46 in functional experiments and animal models.

  18. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus strains producing enterotoxin A and B

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    Safiyeh Abbasi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a gram positive coccus which is able to cause different kinds of infection in certain condition. The function of this bacteria is to provide the conditions for the invasion of it to the host with the secretion of different sorts of toxins such as Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin, including important virulence factors that super antigens are all factors digestive inconvenience. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin-secreting toxins such conditions provides invasion of host genes. There are different types of SE, but type A enterotoxin (SEA and type B enterotoxin (SEB are the most important types. Therefore, in this study, the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus toxin-producing enterotoxin genes (SEB, SEA in clinical strains isolated from patients in teaching hospitals of Shahrekord city, Iran, were studied. Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study, which was conducted from May 2014 to December 2014. A hundred and ten isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from patients collected over a period of 8 months and were first identified using standard biochemical methods and laboratory. Using standard methods and laboratory tests were identified and compared with the antibiotic oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentration were determined by broth micro dilution, and then they were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Results: The results indicated that, 110 samples of dairy products infected by Staphylococcus aureus were detected. Two cases (1.8% of these infected samples were carrying both enterotoxin A and enterotoxin B genes. The frequencies of enterotoxin A genes were twenty-six cases (23/6% and The frequencies of enterotoxin B genes were two cases (1/8%, respectively. Conclusion: The detection of enterotoxin A and enterotoxin B genes, shows the most important role they have in bringing about superinfection. The detection of enterotoxin A and B genes, shows the most important role they have in

  19. Low Fluid Shear Culture of Staphylococcus Aureus Represses hfq Expression and Induces an Attachment-Independent Biofilm Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark; Castro, S. L.; Nickerson, C. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, experiences fluctuations in fluid shear during infection and colonization of a human host. Colonization frequently occurs at mucus membrane sites such as in the gastrointestinal tract where the bacterium may experience low levels of fluid shear. The response of S. aureus to low fluid shear remains unclear. Methods: S. aureus was cultured to stationary phase using Rotating-Wall Vessel (RWV) bioreactors which produce a physiologically relevant low fluid shear environment. The bacterial aggregates that developed in the RWV were evaluated by electron microscopy as well as for antibiotic resistance and other virulence-associated stressors. Genetic expression profiles for the low-shear cultured S. aureus were determined by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Planktonic S. aureus cultures in the low-shear environment formed aggregates completely encased in high amounts of extracellular polymeric substances. In addition, these aggregates demonstrated increased antibiotic resistance indicating attachment-independent biofilm formation. Carotenoid production in the low-shear cultured S. aureus was significantly decreased, and these cultures displayed an increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and killing by whole blood. The hfq gene, associated with low-shear growth in Gram negative organisms, was also found to be down-regulated in S. aureus. Conclusions: Collectively, this data suggests that S. aureus decreases virulence characteristics in favor of a biofilm-dwelling colonization phenotype in response to a low fluid shear environment. Furthermore, the identification of an Hfq response to low-shear culture in S. aureus, in addition to the previously reported responses in Gram negative organisms, strongly suggests an evolutionarily conserved response to mechanical stimuli among structurally diverse prokaryotes.

  20. Derivatives of a vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain isolated at Hershey Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Bülent; Ednie, Lois; Credito, Kim; Kosowska, Klaudia; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2004-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibilities and genetic relatedness of the vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain (VRSA) isolated at Hershey, Pa. (VRSA Hershey), and its vancomycin-susceptible and high-level-resistant derivatives were studied and compared to 32 methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) isolated from patients and medical staff in contact with the VRSA patient. Derivatives of VRSA were obtained by subculturing six VRSA colonies from the original culture with or without vancomycin. Ten days of drug-free subculture caused the loss of vanA in two vancomycin-susceptible derivatives for which vancomycin MICs were 1 to 4 microg/ml. Multistep selection of three VRSA clones with vancomycin for 10 days increased vancomycin MICs from 32 to 1,024 to 2,048 microg/ml. MICs of teicoplanin, dalbavancin, and oritavancin were also increased from 4, 0.5, and 0.12 to 64, 1, and 32 microg/ml, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing analysis indicated that VRSA Hershey was the vanA-acquired variety of a common MRSA clone in our hospital with sequence type 5 (ST5). Three of five vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strains tested from geographically different areas were also ST5, and the Michigan VRSA was ST371, a one-allele variant of ST5. Derivatives of VRSA Hershey had differences in PFGE profiles and the size of SmaI fragment that carries the vanA gene cluster, indicating instability of this cluster in VRSA Hershey. However induction with vancomycin increased glycopeptide MICs and stabilized the resistance.

  1. Major clonal lineages in impetigo Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated in Czech and Slovak maternity hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžičková, Vladislava; Pantůček, Roman; Petráš, Petr; Machová, Ivana; Kostýlková, Karla; Doškař, Jiří

    2012-11-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven exfoliative toxin-producing (ET-positive) strains of Staphylococcus aureus collected in 23 Czech and one Slovak maternity hospitals from 1998 to 2011 were genotypically characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling, spa gene polymorphism analysis, and ETA-converting prophage carriage, which resulted in the identification of 21 genotypes grouped into 4 clonal complexes (CC). Ninety-one isolates carried the eta gene alone whilst 12 isolates harboured only the etb gene. Two new, to date not defined, spa types (t6644 and t6645) and 2 novel sequence types (ST2194 and ST2195) were identified in the set of strains under study. The predominant CC121 occurred in 13 Czech hospitals. CC15, CC9, and ST88 (CC88) exclusively included eta gene-positive strains while the strains belonging to ST121 harboured the eta and/or etb genes. This study highlights not only significant genomic diversity among impetigo strains and the distribution of major genotypes disseminated in the Czech and Slovak maternity hospitals, but also reveals their impact in epidermolytic infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Genotyping of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Hospitalized Children

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    Mouna Ben Nejma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is an emerging pathogen increasingly reported to cause skin and soft tissue infections for children. The emergence of highly virulencet CA-MRSA strains in the immunodeficiency of young children seemed to be the basic explanation of the increased incidence of CA-MRSA infections among this population. The subjects of this study were 8 patients hospitalized in the Pediatric Department at the University Hospital of Monastir. The patients were young children (aged from 12 days to 18 months who were suffering from MRSA skin infections; two of them had the infections within 72 h of their admission. The isolates were classified as community isolates as they all carried the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec IV and pvl genes. Epidemiological techniques, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, were applied to investigate CA-MRSA strains. Analysis of molecular data revealed that MRSA strains were related according to PFGE patterns and they belonged to a single clone ST80. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that all strains were resistant to kanamycin and 2 strains were resistant to erythromycin.

  3. Phenotypic and genomic comparisons of highly vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains developed from multiple clinical MRSA strains by in vitro mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kenichi; Tabuchi, Fumiaki; Matsuo, Miki; Tatsuno, Keita; Sato, Tomoaki; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Kaito, Chikara; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Moriya, Kyoji; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2015-11-25

    The development of vancomycin (VCM) resistance in Staphylococcus aureus threatens global health. Studies of the VCM-resistance mechanism and alternative therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. We mutagenized S. aureus laboratory strains and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with ethyl methanesulfonate, and isolated mutants that exhibited high resistance to VCM (minimum inhibitory concentration = 32 μg/ml). These VCM-resistant strains were sensitive to linezolid and rifampicin, and partly to arbekacin and daptomycin. Beta-lactams had synergistic effects with VCM against these mutants. VCM-resistant strains exhibited a 2-fold increase in the cell wall thickness. Several genes were commonly mutated among the highly VCM-resistant mutants. These findings suggest that MRSA has a potential to develop high VCM resistance with cell wall thickening by the accumulation of mutations.

  4. Complete genome sequence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (strain USA400-0051, a prototype of the USA400 clone

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    Marina Farrel Côrtes

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, commonly referred as S. aureus, is an important bacterial pathogen frequently involved in hospital- and community-acquired infections in humans, ranging from skin infections to more severe diseases such as pneumonia, bacteraemia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and disseminated infections. Here, we report the complete closed genome sequence of a community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain, USA400-0051, which is a prototype of the USA400 clone.

  5. Prevalence, molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cheese and in vitro antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against such strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima G. Abdel Hameed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate cheese samples for the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, evaluate multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods for S. aureus identification, as well as to determine the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against such strains. Materials and Methods: Total of 100 random locally manufactured cheese samples were collected from Qena dairy markets, Egypt, and examined conventionally for the prevalence of S. aureus then, confirmation of these isolates were done using multiplex PCR. The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against such isolates was also checked. Results: Lower prevalence of S. aureus in Damietta cheese (54% than in Kareish cheese (62% was recorded. As well lower frequency distribution for both S. aureus (36% and CNS (8% was also reported for Damietta cheese. Using of multiplex PCR method for S. aureus identification have been confirmed all 58 S. aureus stains that were identified conventionally by detection of two PCR products on agarose gel: The 791 bp and the 638 bp. The correlation coefficient between conventional and multiplex PCR method was 0.91 and was significant at p≤0.001. Regarding antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using disk diffusion method on Baird Parker agar it was found that inhibition zone of silver nanoparticles against S. aureus, was 19.2±0.91 mm and it was higher than that produced by gentamicin (400 units/ml 15.2±0.89 mm. Conclusions: The present study illustrated the higher prevalence of S. aureus in cheese samples that may constitute a public health hazard to consumers. According to the results, it can be concluded that silver nanoparticles can be used as an effective antibacterial against S. aureus. Thereby, there is a need for an appropriate study for using silver nanoparticles in cleaning and disinfection of equipment and in food packaging.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from inpatients with infected diabetic foot ulcers in an Algerian University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djahmi, N; Messad, N; Nedjai, S; Moussaoui, A; Mazouz, D; Richard, J-L; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen cultured from diabetic foot infection (DFI). The consequence of its spread to soft tissue and bony structures is a major causal factor for lower-limb amputation. The objective of the study was to explore ecological data and epidemiological characteristics of S. aureus strains isolated from DFI in an Algerian hospital setting. Patients were included if they were admitted for DFI in the Department of Diabetology at the Annaba University Hospital from April 2011 to March 2012. Ulcers were classified according to the Infectious Diseases Society of America/International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot classification system. All S. aureus isolates were analysed. Using oligonucleotide arrays, S. aureus resistance and virulence genes were determined and each isolate was affiliated to a clonal complex. Among the 128 patients, 277 strains were isolated from 183 samples (1.51 isolate per sample). Aerobic Gram-negative bacilli were the most common isolated organisms (54.9% of all isolates). The study of ecological data highlighted the extremely high rate of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) (58.5% of all isolates). The situation was especially striking for S. aureus [(85.9% were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)], Klebsiella pneumonia (83.8%) and Escherichia coli (60%). Among the S. aureus isolates, 82.2% of MRSA belonged to ST239, one of the most worldwide disseminated clones. Ten strains (13.7%) belonged to the European clone PVL+ ST80. ermA, aacA-aphD, aphA, tetM, fosB, sek, seq, lukDE, fnbB, cap8 and agr group 1 genes were significantly associated with MRSA strains (p study shows for the first time the alarming prevalence of MDROs in DFI in Algeria. ©2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection ©2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  7. Genetic variation in the Staphylococcus aureus 8325 strain lineage revealed by whole-genome sequencing.

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    Kristoffer T Bæk

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus strains of the 8325 lineage, especially 8325-4 and derivatives lacking prophage, have been used extensively for decades of research. We report herein the results of our deep sequence analysis of strain 8325-4. Assignment of sequence variants compared with the reference strain 8325 (NRS77/PS47 required correction of errors in the 8325 reference genome, and reassessment of variation previously attributed to chemical mutagenesis of the restriction-defective RN4220. Using an extensive strain pedigree analysis, we discovered that 8325-4 contains 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP arising prior to the construction of RN4220. We identified 5 indels in 8325-4 compared with 8325. Three indels correspond to expected Φ11, 12, 13 excisions, one indel is explained by a sequence assembly artifact, and the final indel (Δ63bp in the spa-sarS intergenic region is common to only a sub-lineage of 8325-4 strains including SH1000. This deletion was found to significantly decrease (75% steady state sarS but not spa transcript levels in post-exponential phase. The sub-lineage 8325-4 was also found to harbor 4 additional SNPs. We also found large sequence variation between 8325, 8325-4 and RN4220 in a cluster of repetitive hypothetical proteins (SA0282 homologs near the Ess secretion cluster. The overall 8325-4 SNP set results in 17 alterations within coding sequences. Remarkably, we discovered that all tested strains of the 8325-4 lineage lack phenol soluble modulin α3 (PSMα3, a virulence determinant implicated in neutrophil chemotaxis, biofilm architecture and surface spreading. Collectively, our results clarify and define the 8325-4 pedigree and reveal clear evidence that mutations existing throughout all branches of this lineage, including the widely used RN6390 and SH1000 strains, could conceivably impact virulence regulation.

  8. Comparative proteomics of Staphylococcus aureus and the response of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive strains to Triton X-100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordwell, Stuart J; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Cole, Rebecca T

    2002-01-01

    profiles of S. aureus strains COL (methicillin-resistant) and 8325 (methicillin-sensitive). Reference mapping via this approach identified 377 proteins that corresponded to 266 distinct ORFs. Amongst these identified proteins were 14 potential virulence factors. The production of 41 'hypothetical' proteins....... Comparative maps were used to characterize the S. aureus response to treatment with Triton X-100 (TX-100), a detergent that has been shown to reduce methicillin resistance independently of an interaction with the mecA-encoded penicillin-binding protein 2a. In response to growth of the bacteria in the presence...... of TX-100, 44 protein spots showed altered levels of abundance, and 11 of these spots were found only in COL. The products of genes regulated by sigma(B) (the alternative sigma factor), including Asp23 and three proteins of unknown function, and SarA (a regulator of virulence genes) were shown...

  9. Insertional inactivation of Eap in Staphylococcus aureus strain Newman confers reduced staphylococcal binding to fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muzaffar; Haggar, Axana; Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg; Flock, Jan-Ingmar; Herrmann, Mathias

    2002-06-01

    To initiate invasive infection, Staphylococcus aureus must adhere to host substrates, such as the extracellular matrix or eukaryotic cells, by virtue of different surface proteins (adhesins). Recently, we identified a 60-kDa cell-secreted extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of S. aureus strain Newman with broad-spectrum binding characteristics (M. Palma, A. Haggar, and J. I. Flock, J. Bacteriol. 181:2840-2845, 1999), and we have molecularly confirmed Eap to be an analogue of the previously identified major histocompatibility complex class II analog protein (Map) (M. Hussain, K. Becker, C. von Eiff, G. Peter, and M. Herrmann, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8:1281-1286, 2001). Previous analyses of the Eap/Map function performed with purified protein did not allow dissection of its precise role in the complex situation of the staphylococcal whole cell presenting several secreted and wall-bound adhesins. Therefore, the role of Eap was investigated by constructing a stable eap::ermB deletion in strain Newman and by complementation of the mutant. Patterns of extracted cell surface proteins analyzed both by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by Western ligand assays with various adhesive matrix molecules clearly confirmed the absence of Eap in the mutant. However, binding and adhesion tests using whole staphylococcal cells demonstrated that both the parent and mutant strains bound equally well to fibronectin- and fibrinogen-coated surfaces, possibly due to their recognition by other staphylococcal adhesins. Furthermore, Eap mediated staphylococcal agglutination of both wild-type and mutant cells. In contrast, the mutant adhered to a significantly lesser extent to cultured fibroblasts (P Eap, whereas preimmune serum was not active. In conclusion, Eap may contribute to pathogenicity by promoting adhesion of whole staphylococcal cells to complex eukaryotic substrates.

  10. Characterization of Foodborne Strains of Staphylococcus aureus by Shotgun Proteomics: Functional Networks, Virulence Factors and Species-Specific Peptide Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Mónica; Böhme, Karola; Gallardo, José M.; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Cañas, Benito; Calo-Mata, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we applied a shotgun proteomics approach for the fast and easy characterization of 20 different foodborne strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), one of the most recognized foodborne pathogenic bacteria. A total of 644 non-redundant proteins were identified and analyzed via an easy and rapid protein sample preparation procedure. The results allowed the differentiation of several proteome datasets from the different strains (common, accessory, and unique datasets), which were used to determine relevant functional pathways and differentiate the strains into different Euclidean hierarchical clusters. Moreover, a predicted protein-protein interaction network of the foodborne S. aureus strains was created. The whole confidence network contains 77 nodes and 769 interactions. Most of the identified proteins were surface-associated proteins that were related to pathways and networks of energy, lipid metabolism and virulence. Twenty-seven virulence factors were identified, and most of them corresponded to autolysins, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidases, phenol-soluble modulins, extracellular fibrinogen-binding proteins and virulence factor EsxA. Potential species-specific peptide biomarkers were screened. Twenty-one species-specific peptide biomarkers, belonging to eight different proteins (nickel-ABC transporter, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, autolysin, clumping factor A, gram-positive signal peptide YSIRK, cysteine protease/staphopain, transcriptional regulator MarR, and transcriptional regulator Sar-A), were proposed to identify S. aureus. These results constitute the first major dataset of peptides and proteins of foodborne S. aureus strains. This repository may be useful for further studies, for the development of new therapeutic treatments for S. aureus food intoxications and for microbial source-tracking in foodstuffs. PMID:29312172

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Protocatechuic Acid Ethyl Ester on Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Strains Alone and in Combination with Antistaphylococcal Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Miklasińska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented study was to examine in vitro the antibacterial activity of protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, EDHB against Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates alone and in the combination with four selected antibiotics. The EDHB antimicrobial activity was tested against twenty S. aureus strains isolated from the clinical samples, and three reference strains. The phenotypes and genotypes of resistance to methicillin for the tested strains were defined as well as the phenotypic resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B (MLSB. EDHB displayed diverse activity against examined S. aureus strains with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC within the range from 64 to 1024 µg/mL. Addition of ¼ MIC of EDHB into the Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA resulted in augmented antibacterial effect in the presence of clindamycin. In the case of cefoxitin no synergistic effect with EDHB was noted. For erythromycin and vancomycin the decrease of mean MICs in the presence of EDHB was observed but did not reach statistical significance. The results of the present study showed that in vitro EDHB possesses antibacterial activity against S. aureus clinical strains and triggers a synergistic antimicrobial effect with clindamycin and to the lesser extent with erythromycin and vancomycin.

  12. In vitro activity of Inula helenium against clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains including MRSA.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, S

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the bactericidal activity (specifically antistaphylococcal) of Inula helenium. The antimicrobial activity of the extract is tested against 200 clinically significant Irish Staphylococcus aureus isolates consisting of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and -sensitive (MSSA) S. aureus using a drop test method and a microbroth dilution method. The antibacterial effect is evaluated by measuring the area of the inhibition zone against the isolates. Results proved I. helenium to be 100% effective against the 200 staphylococci tested, with 93% of isolates falling within the ++ and +++ groups. The minimum bactericidal concentration of I. helenium was examined on a subset of isolates and values ranged from 0.9 mg\\/mL to 9.0 mg\\/mL. The extract was equally effective against antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive strains. This plant therefore possesses compounds with potent antistaphylococcal properties, which in the future could be used to complement infection control policies and prevent staphylococcal infection and carriage. This research supports other studies wherein herbal plants exhibiting medicinal properties are being examined to overcome the problems of antibiotic resistance and to offer alternatives in the treatment and control of infectious diseases.

  13. Thioridazine potentiates the effect of a beta-lactam antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus independently of mecA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marianne Østergaard; Jacobsen, Kirstine; Bonde, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The neuroleptic antipsychotic derivate thioridazine has been shown to increase the susceptibility of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolate towards dicloxacillin. The aim of this study was to investigate the combinatorial effect of the two drugs on a broad selection of staph......The neuroleptic antipsychotic derivate thioridazine has been shown to increase the susceptibility of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolate towards dicloxacillin. The aim of this study was to investigate the combinatorial effect of the two drugs on a broad selection...... of staphylococcal strains by analyzing a large collection of MRSA strains carrying different types of SCCmec, as well as MSSA strains. Transcription and translation of the resistance marker PBP2a encoded by mecA within the SCCmec cassette were analyzed by primer extension and western blotting. We observed increased...... susceptibility to dicloxacillin in the presence of thioridazine in all tested MRSA isolates. In contrast to previously published results, the synergistic effect was also applicable to methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). We conclude that the combination of dicloxacillin and thioridazine potentiates...

  14. Effect of chosen lactic acid bacteria strains on Staphylococcus aureus in vitro as well as in meat and raw sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomółka-Pawlicka, M; Uradziński, J; Wiszniewska, A

    2004-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the influence of 15 strains of lactic acid bacteria on the growth of 2 Staphylococcus aureus strains in vitro as well as in meat and raw sausages. The investigations were performed within the framework of three alternate stages which differed in respect to the products studied, the number of Lactobacillus sp. strains and, partly, methodological approach. The study also considered water activity (a(w)) and pH of the products investigated. The results obtained are demonstrated in 5 diagrams. It was found that among 15 strains of Lactobacillus aureus investigated only one strain, Lactobacillus helveticus T 78, showed antagonistic effect on studied strains of Staphylococcus aureus both in vitro as well as in meat and raw sausages. Five other strains of Lactobacillus spp. displayed the antagonistic effect in vitro only. The temperature and incubation time of sausages, but also the type of sausage stuffing were found to have a distinct or slight influence, respectively, on the antagonistic interaction between the bacteria. However, this phenomenon was affected by neither a(w) nor pH.

  15. Novel nonsense mutation in the katA gene of a catalase-negative Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Jaime; Alarcón, Pedro; Benadof, Dona; Ulloa, Soledad; Fasce, Rodrigo; Tognarelli, Javier; Aguayo, Carolina; Araya, Pamela; Parra, Bárbara; Olivares, Berta; Hormazábal, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We report the first description of a rare catalase-negative strain of Staphylococcus aureus in Chile. This new variant was isolated from blood and synovial tissue samples of a pediatric patient. Sequencing analysis revealed that this catalase-negative strain is related to ST10 strain, which has earlier been described in relation to S. aureus carriers. Interestingly, sequence analysis of the catalase gene katA revealed presence of a novel nonsense mutation that causes premature translational truncation of the C-terminus of the enzyme leading to a loss of 222 amino acids. Our study suggests that loss of catalase activity in this rare catalase-negative Chilean strain is due to this novel nonsense mutation in the katA gene, which truncates the enzyme to just 283 amino acids. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparative study of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis during 1952-1956 and 1992

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Rosdahl, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    Fiftytwo strains of S. aureus isolated from cases of bovine subclinical mastitis in 52 different dairy herds in Denmark, in the peri ods 1952 to 1956 and 1992, were compared with regard to their phage- and EcoRI ribotypes. Furthermore, susceptibility to penicillin and production of fibrinolysin...

  17. Novel types of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements identified in clonal complex 398 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.; Skov, R.L.; Han, X.; Larsen, A.R.; Larsen, J.; Sorum, M.; Wulf, M.; Voss, A.; Hiramatsu, K.; Ito, T.

    2011-01-01

    The structures of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements carried by 31 clonal complex 398 (CC398) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from the participants at a conference were analyzed. The SCCmecs were classified into novel types, namely, IX, X,

  18. Commercial Biocides Induce Transfer of Prophage Φ13 from Human Strains of Staphylococcus aureus to Livestock CC398

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyue Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human strains of Staphylococcus aureus commonly carry the bacteriophage ΦSa3 that encodes immune evasion factors. Recently, this prophage has been found in livestock-associated, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA CC398 strains where it may promote human colonization. Here, we have addressed if exposure to biocidal products induces phage transfer, and find that during co-culture, Φ13 from strain 8325, belonging to ΦSa3 group, is induced and transferred from a human strain to LA-MRSA CC398 when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of commercial biocides containing hydrogen peroxide. Integration of ΦSa3 in LA-MRSA CC398 occurs at multiple positions and the integration site influences the stability of the prophage. We did not observe integration in hlb encoding β-hemolysin that contains the preferred ΦSa3 attachment site in human strains, and we demonstrate that this is due to allelic variation in CC398 strains that disrupts the phage attachment site, but not the expression of β-hemolysin. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide present in biocidal products stimulate transfer of ΦSa3 from human to LA-MRSA CC398 strains and that in these strains prophage stability depends on the integration site. Knowledge of ΦSa3 transfer and stability between human and livestock strains may lead to new intervention measures directed at reducing human infection by LA-MRSA strains.

  19. Commercial Biocides Induce Transfer of Prophage Φ13 from Human Strains of Staphylococcus aureus to Livestock CC398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanyue; Nielsen, Lene N; Hvitved, Annemette; Haaber, Jakob K; Wirtz, Christiane; Andersen, Paal S; Larsen, Jesper; Wolz, Christiane; Ingmer, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Human strains of Staphylococcus aureus commonly carry the bacteriophage ΦSa3 that encodes immune evasion factors. Recently, this prophage has been found in livestock-associated, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 strains where it may promote human colonization. Here, we have addressed if exposure to biocidal products induces phage transfer, and find that during co-culture, Φ13 from strain 8325, belonging to ΦSa3 group, is induced and transferred from a human strain to LA-MRSA CC398 when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of commercial biocides containing hydrogen peroxide. Integration of ΦSa3 in LA-MRSA CC398 occurs at multiple positions and the integration site influences the stability of the prophage. We did not observe integration in hlb encoding β-hemolysin that contains the preferred ΦSa3 attachment site in human strains, and we demonstrate that this is due to allelic variation in CC398 strains that disrupts the phage attachment site, but not the expression of β-hemolysin. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide present in biocidal products stimulate transfer of ΦSa3 from human to LA-MRSA CC398 strains and that in these strains prophage stability depends on the integration site. Knowledge of ΦSa3 transfer and stability between human and livestock strains may lead to new intervention measures directed at reducing human infection by LA-MRSA strains.

  20. In vitro biofilm formation by methicillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from cystic fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Lambiase

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens isolated from respiratory tracts of Cystic Fibrosis patients (CF. The infection by this pathogen starts in early infancy, often preceding chronic infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The infection and colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are, by then, events very frequent among CF patients and this bacterial isolation leads to complications in therapeutic management because of the limited treatment options. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus are able to produce biofilms on natural or synthetic surfaces. Biofilms are sophisticated communities of matrix-encased bacteria and infections by biofilm-producing bacteria are particularly problematic because sessile bacteria can often withstand host immune responses and are generally much more tolerant to antibiotics. The first aim of this work is to evaluate the ability of MRSA strains isolated from respiratory secretions of CF patients to develop biofilms in comparison with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA strains obtained from respiratory secretions of CF patients.Therefore, our second aim is to evaluate the environmental influence on this ability. To evaluate the development of biofilm on solid matrix and the possible environmental influence,we applied the method described by Christensen et al. We found that a significantly higher number of MRSA strains were biofilm positive compared with MSSA strains (p<0.05.The presence of glucose did not influence the ability to form biofilm in our MRSA strains (p=0.165. MSSA strains are not strong biofilm-producers, but, when grown in TSB added with 0.25% glucose, the number of biofilm-forming strains increases, as expected. These data suggest a possible association between methicillin-resistance and biofilm formation.

  1. Risk factors assessment for nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus and its methicillin resistant strains among pre-clinical medical students of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Shamshul; Gautam, Rajendra; Shrestha, Sony; Ansari, Safiur Rahman; Subedi, Shankar Nanda; Chhetri, Muni Raj

    2016-04-12

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), a normal flora of nasal cavity, can cause minor to life threatening invasive diseases and nosocomial infections. Methicillin resistant strains of S. aureus are causing a great challenge for treatment options. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus, its methicillin resistant strains and risk factors in medical students prior to clinical exposure. The bacterial growth of S. aureus from nasal swab culture was identified by using standard microbiological methods recommended by American Society for Microbiology. Modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility testing and methicillin resistance was confirmed using cefoxitin and oxacillin disks. D-zone test method was used to determine the inducible clindamycin resistance. Among 200 participants, nasal carriage of S. aureus was detected from 30 (15%) subjects. Upper respiratory tract infections significantly (P aureus and their methicillin resistant strains. All of the isolates were reported to be susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. S. aureus strains detected from 8 (4%) students were confirmed to be methicillin resistant. The result of our study demands for strict policy to screen all the students for nasal carriage of S. aureus and its MRSA strains to minimize the transmission of this organism from community to hospital settings.

  2. 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy and its strain-dependent combined effect with antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Zhao Zhang

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is hard to be eradicated, not only due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains but also because of its ability to form biofilm. Antibiotics are the major approach to treating biofilm infections, but their effects are unsatisfactory. One of the potential alternative treatments for controlling biofilm infections is photodynamic therapy (PDT, which requires the administration of photosensitizer, followed by light activation. 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a natural photosensitizer prodrug, presents favorable characteristics, such as easy penetration and rapid clearance. These advantages enable ALA-based PDT (ALA-PDT to be well-tolerated by patients and it can be repeatedly applied without cumulative toxicity or serious side effects. ALA-PDT has been proven to be an effective treatment for multidrug resistant pathogens; however, the study of its effect on S. aureus biofilm is limited. Here, we established our PDT system based on the utilization of ALA and a light-emitting diode, and we tested the effect of ALA-PDT on S. aureus biofilm as well as the combined effect of ALA-PDT and antibiotics on S. aureus biofilm. Our results showed that ALA-PDT has a strong antibacterial effect on S. aureus biofilm, which was confirmed by the confocal laser scanning microscope. We also found that lethal photosensitization occurred predominantly in the upper layer of the biofilm, while the residual live bacteria were located in the lower layer of the biofilm. In addition, the improved bactericidal effect was observed in the combined treatment group but in a strain-dependent manner. Our results suggest that ALA-PDT is a potential alternative approach for future clinical use to treat S. aureus biofilm-associated infections, and some patients may benefit from the combined treatment of ALA-PDT and antibiotics, but drug sensitivity testing should be performed in advance.

  3. A new real-time PCR assay for rapid identification of the S. aureus/MRSA strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Manga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA with the livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA are of great interest to scientists and general public. The aim of our study was to present a new more rapid and reliable diagnostic method working on the RT-PCR platform applicable for monitoring of MRSA/S. aureus. The parallel testing of the S. aureus specific nuc gene sequence and the mecA gene sequence was utilised for this purpose. A collection of ten S. aureus/MRSA reference strains, fifteen genetically related non S. aureus reference strains and fifty-six environmental samples was employed for estimation of the assay performance and parameters. The environmental samples acquired in the Czech livestock farms were represented with the livestock and human nasal mucosae or skin swabs, the slaughter meat swabs and were chosen preferentially from individuals with previously confi rmed or suspected positive MRSA/S. aureus cases. The classic selective cultivation approach with the biochemical test and agar disk diffusion test was accepted as reference diagnostic method. As there were no culture positive samples that were negative using RT-PCR, our method featured with 100% sensitivity in comparison to reference method. The limit of detection allowed to identify from tens to hundreds copies of S. aureus/MRSA genome. Further, the RT-PCR assay featured with 100% inclusivity and 95% exclusivity at Cq value below 30. These parameters suggested on powerful and reliable diagnostic method with real potential of practical utilisation. We consider our method as ideal for testing of individual suspected colonies, when the results can be acquired in less than 1.5 hour.

  4. Differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus from freshly slaughtered poultry and strains 'endemic' to processing plants by biochemical and physiological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, G C; Norris, A P; Bratchell, N

    1989-02-01

    A comparison was made of 27 'endemic' strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 35 strains from freshly slaughtered birds, isolated at five commercial slaughterhouses processing chickens or turkeys. Of 112 biochemical and physiological tests used, 74 gave results which differed among the strains. Cluster analysis revealed several distinct groupings which were influenced by strain type, processing plant and bird origin; these included a single group at the 72% level of similarity containing most of the 'endemic' strains. In comparison with strains from freshly slaughtered birds, a higher proportion of 'endemic' strains produced fibrinolysin, alpha-glucosidase and urease and were beta-haemolytic on sheep-blood agar. The 'endemic' type also showed a greater tendency to coagulate human but not bovine plasma, and to produce mucoid growth and clumping. The last two properties, relevant to colonization of processing equipment, were less evident in heart infusion broth than in richer media or process water collected during defeathering of the birds.

  5. Identification of point mutations in clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains that produce small-colony variants auxotrophic for menadione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Melissa A; Olsen, Randall J; Long, S Wesley; Rosato, Adriana E; Musser, James M

    2014-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants (SCVs) are implicated in chronic and relapsing infections that are difficult to diagnose and treat. Despite many years of study, the underlying molecular mechanisms and virulence effect of the small-colony phenotype remain incompletely understood. We sequenced the genomes of five S. aureus SCV strains recovered from human patients and discovered previously unidentified nonsynonymous point mutations in three genes encoding proteins in the menadione biosynthesis pathway. Analysis of genetic revertants and complementation with wild-type alleles confirmed that these mutations caused the SCV phenotype and decreased virulence for mice.

  6. Rapid Differentiation between Livestock-Associated and Livestock-Independent Staphylococcus aureus CC398 Clades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jesper; Soldanova, Katerina; Aziz, Maliha; Contente-Cuomo, Tania; Petersen, Andreas; Vandendriessche, Stien; Jiménez, Judy N.; Mammina, Caterina; van Belkum, Alex; Salmenlinna, Saara; Laurent, Frederic; Skov, Robert L.; Larsen, Anders R.; Andersen, Paal S.; Price, Lance B.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398 (CC398) isolates cluster into two distinct phylogenetic clades based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealing a basal human clade and a more derived livestock clade. The scn and tet(M) genes are strongly associated with the human and the livestock clade, respectively, due to loss and acquisition of mobile genetic elements. We present canonical single-nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP) assays that differentiate the two major host-associated S. aureus CC398 clades and a duplex PCR assay for detection of scn and tet(M). The canSNP assays correctly placed 88 S. aureus CC398 isolates from a reference collection into the human and livestock clades and the duplex PCR assay correctly identified scn and tet(M). The assays were successfully applied to a geographically diverse collection of 272 human S. aureus CC398 isolates. The simple assays described here generate signals comparable to a whole-genome phylogeny for major clade assignment and are easily integrated into S. aureus CC398 surveillance programs and epidemiological studies. PMID:24244535

  7. Nasal Colonization rate of Staphylococcus aureus strains among Health Care Service Employee’s of Teaching University Hospitals in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili Mohammad Bagher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to find the extent of staphylococcal carriages including Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA in employee's of teaching university hospitals in Yazd. Nasal swabs of 742 employees in four different medical teaching hospitals in Yazd were collected, and tested for detection of staphylococci strains. Out of 742 employees, 94 (12.7% were carrier of staphylococcus aurus and 57 (11.38% for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA respectively. Prevalence of Staphylococci aureus and MRSA in individual hospitals and wards were different. In general the highest carriers were personnel of dialysis ward and the lowest pediatrics wards. Resistance rate of MRSA against Ciprofloxacin, Vancomycin, and Rifampin were found to be as 28.1%, 10.5% and 35.1% respectively.

  8. Typing of Staphylococcus aureus in order to determine the spread of drug resistant strains inside and outside hospital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobiega, Monika; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Heczko, Piotr B

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important etiological factors of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Multidrug-resistant S. aureus is frequently isolated nowadays. Antibiotics used on the hospital ward exert a selective pressure on the strains and favor resistant strains. Multidrug-resistant and highly virulent strains can spread not only within the hospital but also between hospitals. Numerous studies show a predominance of one clone on a specific territory. The spread of such dangerous clones to neighboring countries and the entire continent is possible. Typing methods are very useful in infection control and prevention. Modern methods which are based on sequencing are necessary in rationalizing of infection control programs. Typing of Staphylococcus aureus includes methods that allow to determine the spread of drug-resistant pathogens. 'Gold standard' is pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which relies on separating the DNA fragments after restriction cutting. MLST (Multi Locus Sequence Typing) is based on a comparison of"housekeeping" gene sequences controlling the basic cell functions. With the MLST method, it is possible to demonstrate a broad, international spread of the specific clones. However, for epidemiological investigations, MLST seems to be too time-consuming and expensive to be used as a basic typing tool. The complementary method is spa typing, based on the sequencing of short repetitive sequences of the polymorphic X region from the gene encoding protein A. This method can be used for studying molecular evolution of S. aureus, as well as for testing for hospital outbreaks. It is faster and cheaper than MLST. It is also necessary to subtype the elements responsible for methycillin resistance (SCCmec), which allows to distinguish MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) clones with a common ancestor, but different epidemiological origin. All of those methods have their specific advantages and disadvantages and

  9. Role of ArlRS in autolysis in methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmi, Guido; Nair, Dhanalakshmi R; Cheung, Ambrose

    2012-02-01

    Autolysis plays an essential role in bacterial cell division and lysis with β-lactam antibiotics. Accordingly, the expression of autolysins is tightly regulated by several endogenous regulators, including ArlRS, a two component regulatory system that has been shown to negatively regulate autolysis in methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains. In this study, we found that inactivation of arlRS does not play a role in autolysis of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, such as community-acquired (CA)-MRSA strains USA300 and MW2 or the hospital-acquired (HA)-MRSA strain COL. This contrasts with MSSA strains, including Newman, SH1000, RN6390, and 8325-4, where autolysis is affected by ArlRS. We further demonstrated that the striking difference in the roles of arlRS between MSSA and MRSA strains is not due to the methicillin resistance determinant mecA. Among known autolysins and their regulators, we found that arlRS represses lytN, while no effect was seen on atl, lytM, and lytH expression in both CA- and HA-MRSA strains. Transcriptional-fusion assays showed that the agr transcripts, RNAII and RNAIII, were significantly more downregulated in the arlRS mutant of MW2 than the MSSA strain Newman. Importantly, provision of agr RNAIII in trans to the MW2 arlRS mutant via a multicopy plasmid induced autolysis in this MRSA strain. Also, the autolytic phenotype in the arlRS mutant of MSSA strain Newman could be rescued by a mutation in either atl or lytM. Together, these data showed that ArlRS impacts autolysis differently in MSSA and MRSA strains.

  10. Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in Staphylococcus aureus strains recovered from patients at two main health facilities in Kabul, Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Haji Mohammad; Rasekh, Hamidullah; Noori, Ahmad Zia; Bahaduri, Mohammad Aman

    2017-11-29

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major pathogen implicated in skin and soft tissue infections, abscess in deep organs, toxin mediated diseases, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, post-surgical wound infections, meningitis and many other diseases. Irresponsible and over use of antibiotics has led to an increased presence of multidrug resistant organisms and especially methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a major public health concern in Afghanistan. As a result, there are many infections with many of them undiagnosed or improperly diagnosed. We aimed to establish a baseline of knowledge regarding the prevalence of MRSA in Kabul, Afghanistan, as well as S. aureus antimicrobial susceptibility to current available antimicrobials, while also determining those most effective to treat S. aureus infections. Samples were collected from patients at two main Health facilities in Kabul between September 2016 and February 2017. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined by the disc diffusion method and studied using standard CLSI protocols. Out of 105 strains of S. aureus isolated from pus, urine, tracheal secretions, and blood, almost half (46; 43.8%) were methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) while 59 (56.2%) were Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). All strains were susceptible to vancomycin. In total, 100 (95.2%) strains were susceptible to rifampicin, 96 (91.4%) susceptible to clindamycin, 94 (89.5%) susceptible to imipenem, 83 (79.0%) susceptible to gentamicin, 81(77.1%) susceptible to doxycycline, 77 (77.1%) susceptible to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, 78 (74.3%) susceptible to cefazolin, 71 (67.6%) susceptible to tobramycin, 68 (64.8%) susceptible to chloramphenicol, 60 (57.1%) were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 47 (44.8%) susceptible to ciprofloxacin, 38 (36.2%) susceptible to azithromycin and erythromycin, 37 (35.2%) susceptible to ceftriaxone and 11 (10.5%) were

  11. Molecular epidemiology of clinical and carrier strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in the hospital settings of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar Mohammad J

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was conducted between 2000 and 2003 on 750 human subjects, yielding 850 strains of staphylococci from clinical specimens (575, nasal cultures of hospitalized patients (100 and eye & nasal sources of hospital workers (50 & 125 respectively in order to determine their epidemiology, acquisition and dissemination of resistance genes. Methods Organisms from clinical samples were isolated, cultured and identified as per the standard routine procedures. Susceptibility was measured by the agar diffusion method, as recommended by the Nat ional Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. The modified method of Birnboin and Takahashi was used for isolation of plasmids from staphylococci. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE typing of clinical and carrier Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains isolated during our study was performed as described previously. Results It was shown that 35.1% of Staphylococcus aureus and 22.5% of coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates were resistant to methicillin. Highest percentage of MRSA (35.5% was found in pus specimens (n = 151. The multiple drug resistance of all MRSA (n = 180 and Methicillin resistant Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus (MRCNS (n = 76 isolates was detected. In case of both methicillin-resistant as well as methicillin-sensitive Saphylococcal isolates zero resistance was found to vancomycin where as highest resistance was found to penicillin G followed by ampicillin. It was shown that the major reservoir of methicillin resistant staphylococci in hospitals are colonized/infected inpatients and colonized hospital workers, with carriers at risk for developing endogenous infection or transmitting infection to health care workers and patients. The results were confirmed by molecular typing using PFGE by SmaI-digestion. It was shown that the resistant markers G and T got transferred from clinical S. aureus (JS-105 to carrier S. aureus (JN-49

  12. High potential of adhesion to biotic and abiotic surfaces by opportunistic Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghni, Abderrahmen; Ben Nejma, Mouna; Dallel, Ines; Tobji, Samir; Ben Amor, Adel; Janel, Sébastien; Lafont, Frank; Aouni, Mahjoub; Mastouri, Maha

    2016-02-01

    Orthodontic and other oral appliances act as reservoir of opportunistic pathogens that can easily become resistant to antibiotics and cause systemic infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from healthy patients with orthodontic appliances, to adhere to biotic (HeLa cells) and abiotic surfaces (polystyrene and dental alloy). Adhesive ability to polystyrene was tested by crystal violet staining and quantitative biofilm production on dental alloy surfaces was evaluated by MTT reduction assay. In addition, the presence of icaA and icaD genes was achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Qualitative biofilm production revealed that 70.6% of strains were slime producers. The metabolic activity of S. aureus biofilms on dental alloy surfaces was high and did not differ between tested strains. Moreover, all the isolates were adhesive to HeLa cells and 94% of them harbor icaA and icaD genes. Considerable adhesion and internalization capacity to the epithelial HeLa cells and strong biofilm production abilities together, with a high genotypic expression of icaA/icaD genes are an important equipment of S. aureus to colonize orthodontic appliances and eventually to disseminate towards other body areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-spa-typeable clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains are naturally occurring protein A mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Cathrin; Haslinger-Löffler, Bettina; Westh, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen responsible for increasing the prevalence of community- and hospital-acquired infections. Protein A (SpA) is a key virulence factor of S. aureus and is highly conserved. Sequencing of the variable-number tandem-repeat region of SpA (spa typing) prov...

  14. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Associated with Food Poisoning in Shenzhen, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Xiaomei; Wang, Bing; Tao, Xiaoxia; Hu, Qinghua; Cui, Zhigang; Zhang, Jianzhong; Lin, Yiman; You, Yuanhai; Shi, Xiaolu; Grundmann, Hajo

    To characterize isolates of Staphylococcus aureus that were associated with staphylococcal food poisoning between 2006 and 2009 in Shenzhen, Southern China, a total of 52 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 11 outbreaks were analyzed by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and

  15. Phage type and sensitivity to antibiotics of Staphylococcus aureus film-forming strains isolated from airway mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Voronkova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Today film-forming strains of bacteria play very important role in clinical pathology. Staphylococci are ones of most dangerous of them. This bacteria can determine different pathological processes, for example, complication of airway mucosa. The ability to form a biofilm is one of the main properties of nosocomial strains. These strains should be monitored and their carriers are to be properly treated. To determine the origin of staphylococci strains we used bacteriophages from the International kit. The aim of research was to determine the phage type of staphylococci film-forming strains, that were isolated from naso-pharingial mucosa. Phage typing has been carried out for 16 film-forming strains of S. aureus. To solve this problem, we used the International phage kit by Fisher’s method. As a result, sensitivity to phages from the International kit showed 53.8% of studied strains of S. aureus. 64.3% of sensitivity strains were lysed by one of the phage, 21.4% – were by two of the phages, 14.3% – by three of the phages. Isolates were sensitive to phages: 81 – 42.9%, 75 – 35.7%, 28.6% were sensitive to phages 47 and 53. All cases of detection of sensitivity to phage 47 coincided with the ability to form biofilm. Among non-film-forming strains there was no sensitive strains for this phage. Film-forming strains resist to erythromycin (62.5%, ciprofloxacin (43.8%, gentamicin (56.3%, tetracycline (87.5%, amoxicillin (93.8%, and cefuroxime (37.5%. All cases of sensitivity to phage 47 coincided with resistance to erythromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. For two of these strains, we also defined resistance to gentamicin and for one of them – to ciprofloxacin. Results of research allowed to relate the bacterial cultures for determining the type. This may have implications for studying of film-forming ability, because surface structures of bacterial cell take place in this process. Belonging of an isolate to specific phage type may

  16. Characterization and Persistence of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from the Anterior Nares and Throats of Healthy Carriers in a Mexican Community▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan-Partida, Aída; Sainz-Espuñes, Teresita; Bustos-Martínez, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    Healthy carriers of Staphylococcus aureus strains have an important role in the dissemination of this bacterium. To investigate the presence of S. aureus in the throat and anterior nares, samples from 1,243 healthy volunteers in a Mexican community were examined. The percentage of healthy carriers was 59.8%. Results showed that colonization of the throat occurred more frequently than that of the nares (46.5% versus 37.1%, P < 0.0001). Of the S. aureus carriers, 22.2% were exclusive nasal carriers and 38% were exclusive throat carriers. A total of 1,039 strains were isolated; 12.6% were shown to be methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Of MRSA strains, 32.1% were isolated from exclusive throat carriers. Most of the strains isolated from the anterior nares and throat of the same carriers were the same or related; however, some were different. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern analysis of the MRSA strains isolated from the exclusive nasal carriers or exclusive throat carriers showed that they belong to different clusters. A 6-year prospective study was performed to investigate the persistence of S. aureus in the throat. Results showed that 13% of subjects were persistent carriers. Most of them were colonized with the same clone of S. aureus throughout the time of the study, and just three had different clones. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 91.1% of the strains were penicillin resistant. The presence of mecA and nucA genes (in order to confirm methicillin resistance) and of thermostable nuclease of S. aureus was examined. This study showed that some strains of S. aureus regularly colonized the throats of healthy people and could persist for years. PMID:20335416

  17. Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with food poisoning outbreaks in France: comparison of different molecular typing methods, including MLVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Sophie; Felix, Benjamin; Vingadassalon, Noémie; Grout, Joël; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine; Guillier, Laurent; Brisabois, Anne; Auvray, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks (SFPOs) are frequently reported in France. However, most of them remain unconfirmed, highlighting a need for a better characterization of isolated strains. Here we analyzed the genetic diversity of 112 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from 76 distinct SFPOs that occurred in France over the last 30 years. We used a recently developed multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) protocol and compared this method with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing and carriage of genes (se genes) coding for 11 staphylococcal enterotoxins (i.e., SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEG, SEH, SEI, SEJ, SEP, SER). The strains known to have an epidemiological association with one another had identical MLVA types, PFGE profiles, spa-types or se gene carriage. MLVA, PFGE and spa-typing divided 103 epidemiologically unrelated strains into 84, 80, and 50 types respectively demonstrating the high genetic diversity of S. aureus strains involved in SFPOs. Each MLVA type shared by more than one strain corresponded to a single spa-type except for one MLVA type represented by four strains that showed two different-but closely related-spa-types. The 87 enterotoxigenic strains were distributed across 68 distinct MLVA types that correlated all with se gene carriage except for four MLVA types. The most frequent se gene detected was sea, followed by seg and sei and the most frequently associated se genes were sea-seh and sea-sed-sej-ser. The discriminatory ability of MLVA was similar to that of PFGE and higher than that of spa-typing. This MLVA protocol was found to be compatible with high throughput analysis, and was also faster and less labor-intensive than PFGE. MLVA holds promise as a suitable method for investigating SFPOs and tracking the source of contamination in food processing facilities in real time. PMID:26441849

  18. The Activity of Cotinus coggygria Scop. Leaves on Staphylococcus aureus Strains in Planktonic and Biofilm Growth Forms

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    Katarína Rendeková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to detect the effectiveness of Cotinus coggygria Scop. leaves methanol extract against planktonic and biofilm growth forms of Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the broth microdilution test. Minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations were detected against two collection and ten clinical S. aureus strains. Anti-biofilm activity of the tested extract was detected using 24 h bacterial biofilm on the surface of microtiter plate wells. The biofilm inhibitory activity was evaluated visually after 24 h interaction of extract with biofilm, and the eradicating activity by a regrowth method. The tested extract showed bactericidal activity against all S. aureus strains (methicillin susceptible or methicillin resistant in concentrations ranging from 0.313 to 0.625 mg·mL−1. Biofilm inhibitory concentrations were 10-times higher and biofilm eradicating concentrations 100-times higher (8 and 32 mg·mL−1, respectively. The phytochemical analysis of C. coggygria leaves 60% methanol extract performed by LC-DAD-MS/MS revealed quercetin rhamnoside, methyl gallate, and methyl trigallate as main constituents. Results of our study indicate that C. coggygria, rich in tannins and flavonoids, seems to be a prospective topical antibacterial agent with anti-biofilm activity.

  19. Investigation of Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Patients Referring to Some Treatment Centers of Qom City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mosaei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the important causes of nosocomial infections. Resistance to various antibiotics, such as beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, and macrolides is one of the major problems in treatment and prevention of infections caused by this bacterium. Therefore, accurate determination of antibiotic susceptibility pattern of organisms isolated from patients can be beneficial in treatment and prevention of dangerous infections. The objective of this study was to isolate S. aureus bacterium and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolated strains in patients referred to some treatment centers of Qom city. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 340 clinical samples, were collected from September 2016 to July 2017. After isolation and primary identification of S. aureus isolates (using standard bacteriology methods, the isolated strains were confirmed by PCR technique and amplification of femA gene as a molecular diagnostic marker of S. aureus. Finally, antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the strains, was determined by disk diffusion method according to CLSI guideline. Results: Out of 340 clinical samples, 86 S. aureus strains were isolated and identified based on phenotypic characteristics. The femA gene was observed only in 45 strains (52.32% based on molecular analysis. The results of the antibiotic susceptibility test showed that the highest resistance was to penicillin (86.04% and the lowest resistance was to chloramphenicol (0%. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that femA gene cannot by itself identify all the S. aureus strains. Also, with regard to the results of antibiogram test, it seems that antibiotic susceptibility test is necessary for S. aureus strains isolated from patients.

  20. Caracterização de biótipos de Staphylococcus aureus isolados de mastite bovina Biotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.V.P. Brito

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Duzentos e dezoito amostras de Staphylococcus aureus, isoladas de infecção intramamária de vacas de 44 rebanhos leiteiros, foram classificadas em biótipos de acordo com os testes de produção de estafiloquinase (K, beta-hemolisina (beta , coagulação do plasma bovino (Pl e crescimento na presença de cristal violeta (CV. As amostras foram distribuídas em 10 biótipos e 63 delas foram classificadas nas ecovariedades bovina (35, ovina (17, aviária (10 e humana (1 e 155 não apresentaram características específicas de hospedeiro. Estas últimas podem ser isoladas de homem, cabra, coelho, suíno, alimentos e de mastite bovina. O biótipo 1, encontrado com maior freqüência (37,2%, apresentou o padrão K (-, beta (+, Pl (- e CV (azul. Em sete rebanhos nos quais se examinaram 10 ou mais amostras, verificou-se que, apesar da ocorrência simultânea de mais de um biótipo por rebanho, houve predominância de um sobre os demais.Two hundred and eighteen strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections, obtained from 44 different dairy herds, were classified in biotypes based on staphylokinase (K and beta-haemolysin (beta production, bovine plasma coagulation (Pl and growth on crystal violet agar (CV. The strains were assigned to 10 different types, with 63 in the bovine (35, ovine (17, poultry (10 and human (1 ecovars and 155 in non-host specific biotypes. The latter can be isolated from man, goat, rabbit, pig, food, and bovine mastitis. The biotype 1, with reaction pattern K (-, beta (+, Pl (- and CV (blue, was the most frequently found (37,2%. From seven herds ten or more strains were examined. It was found that in spite of the presence of different biotypes per herd, there was always one prevalent biotype.

  1. Growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli strains by neutralizing IgY antibodies from ostrich egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Tobias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich raising around the world have some key factors and farming profit depend largely on information and ability of farmers to rear these animals. Non fertilized eggs from ostriches are discharged in the reproduction season. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are microorganisms involved in animal and human diseases. In order to optimize the use of sub products of ostrich raising, non fertilized eggs of four selected birds were utilized for development of polyclonal IgY antibodies. The birds were immunized (200ug/animal with purified recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin C (recSEC and synthetic recRAP, both derived from S. aureus, and recBFPA and recEspB involved in E. coli pathogenicity, diluted in FCA injected in the braquial muscle. Two subsequent immunization steps with 21 days intervals were repeated in 0,85% saline in FIA. Blood and eggs samples were collected before and after immunization steps. Egg yolk immunoglobulins were purified by precipitation with 19% sodium sulfate and 20% ammonium sulphate methodologies. Purified IgY 50µL aliquots were incubated in 850µL BHI broth containing 50µL inoculums of five strains of S. aureus and five strains of E.coli during four hours at 37ºC. Growth inhibition was evaluated followed by photometry reading (DO550nm. Egg yolk IgY preparation from hiperimmunized birds contained antibodies that inhibited significantly (p<0,05 growth of strains tested. Potential use of ostrich IgY polyclonal antibodies as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool is proposed for diseased animals.

  2. Noncontiguous Finished Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus KLT6, a Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Positive Strain Involved in a Food Poisoning Outbreak in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobes, Raquel; Manrique, Marina; Brozynska, Marta; Stephan, Roger; Pareja, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We present the first complete genome sequence of a Staphylococcus aureus strain assigned to clonal complex 12. The strain was isolated in a food poisoning outbreak due to contaminated potato salad in Switzerland in 2009, and it produces staphylococcal enterotoxin B. PMID:23704175

  3. Genomic and transcriptomic differences in community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and USA400 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marcus B; Montgomery, Christopher P; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Shatzkes, Kenneth; Maybank, Rosslyn; Frank, Bryan C; Peterson, Scott N; Daum, Robert S

    2014-12-19

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality through its ability to cause a number of human infections including bacteremia, pneumonia and soft tissue infections. Of great concern is the emergence and dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA) that are resistant to nearly all β-lactams. The emergence of the USA300 MRSA genetic background among community associated S. aureus infections (CA-MRSA) in the USA was followed by the disappearance of USA400 CA-MRSA isolates. To gain a greater understanding of the potential fitness advantages and virulence capacity of S. aureus USA300 clones, we performed whole genome sequencing of 15 USA300 and 4 USA400 clinical isolates. A comparison of representative genomes of the USA300 and USA400 pulsotypes indicates a number of differences in mobile genome elements. We examined the in vitro gene expression profiles by microarray hybridization and the in vivo transcriptomes during lung infection in mice of a USA300 and a USA400 MRSA strain by performing complete genome qRT-PCR analysis. The unique presence and increased expression of 6 exotoxins in USA300 (12- to 600-fold) compared to USA400 may contribute to the increased virulence of USA300 clones. Importantly, we also observed the up-regulation of prophage genes in USA300 (compared with USA400) during mouse lung infection (including genes encoded by both prophages ΦSa2usa and ΦSa3usa), suggesting that these prophages may play an important role in vivo by contributing to the elevated virulence characteristic of the USA300 clone. We observed differences in the genetic content of USA300 and USA400 strains, as well as significant differences of in vitro and in vivo gene expression of mobile elements in a lung pneumonia model. This is the first study to document the global transcription differences between USA300 and USA400 strains during both in vitro and in vivo growth.

  4. Genotyping of coa and aroA Genes of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated From Nasal Samples in Western Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajeri, Parviz; Azizkhani, Samira; Farahani, Abbas; Norozi, Baharak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterial pathogen frequently isolated in both hospital and community environments. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is considered a major nosocomial pathogen that causes severe morbidity and mortality. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to determine the genotypes of MRSA strains isolated from the nares of hospitalized and community patients in Kermanshah Hospital, western Iran, by PCR-restriction fra...

  5. Influence of red laser irradiation and photosensitizers Photoditazine and Dimegin on the growth of methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, G. E.; Egorova, A. V.; Bugaeva, I. O.; Tuchina, E. S.; Morozov, O. A.; Ponomaryov, G. V.; Ushakova, O. V.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of red laser irradiation on the growth of colonies of methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus and photodynamic effects of the photosensitizers Photoditazine and Dimegin were performed. It was established that the red semiconductor laser (λ - 660 nm, 100 mW/cm2) at 10-, 15- and 30-mins exposure, has a direct bacteriostatic action on the growth of S. aureus. Pre-treatment of bacterial cells by Photoditazine significantly enhances the inhibitory effect. The photosensitizing action of Dimegin does not appear at influence on methicillin-resistant S. aureus.

  6. Food-Borne Outbreak Investigation and Molecular Typing: High Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Strains and Importance of Toxin Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denayer, Sarah; Nia, Yacine; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important aetiological agent of food intoxications in the European Union as it can cause gastro-enteritis through the production of various staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in foods. Reported enterotoxin dose levels causing food-borne illness are scarce and varying. Three food poisoning outbreaks due to enterotoxin-producing S. aureus strains which occurred in 2013 in Belgium are described. The outbreaks occurred in an elderly home, at a barbecue event and in a kindergarten and involved 28, 18, and six cases, respectively. Various food leftovers contained coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS). Low levels of staphylococcal enterotoxins ranging between 0.015 ng/g and 0.019 ng/g for enterotoxin A (SEA), and corresponding to 0.132 ng/g for SEC were quantified in the food leftovers for two of the reported outbreaks. Molecular typing of human and food isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterotoxin gene typing, confirmed the link between patients and the suspected foodstuffs. This also demonstrated the high diversity of CPS isolates both in the cases and in healthy persons carrying enterotoxin genes encoding emetic SEs for which no detection methods currently exist. For one outbreak, the investigation pointed out to the food handler who transmitted the outbreak strain to the food. Tools to improve staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) investigations are presented. PMID:29261162

  7. Food-Borne Outbreak Investigation and Molecular Typing: High Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Strains and Importance of Toxin Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denayer, Sarah; Delbrassinne, Laurence; Nia, Yacine; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2017-12-20

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important aetiological agent of food intoxications in the European Union as it can cause gastro-enteritis through the production of various staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in foods. Reported enterotoxin dose levels causing food-borne illness are scarce and varying. Three food poisoning outbreaks due to enterotoxin-producing S. aureus strains which occurred in 2013 in Belgium are described. The outbreaks occurred in an elderly home, at a barbecue event and in a kindergarten and involved 28, 18, and six cases, respectively. Various food leftovers contained coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS). Low levels of staphylococcal enterotoxins ranging between 0.015 ng/g and 0.019 ng/g for enterotoxin A (SEA), and corresponding to 0.132 ng/g for SEC were quantified in the food leftovers for two of the reported outbreaks. Molecular typing of human and food isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterotoxin gene typing, confirmed the link between patients and the suspected foodstuffs. This also demonstrated the high diversity of CPS isolates both in the cases and in healthy persons carrying enterotoxin genes encoding emetic SEs for which no detection methods currently exist. For one outbreak, the investigation pointed out to the food handler who transmitted the outbreak strain to the food. Tools to improve staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) investigations are presented.

  8. Differentiation between Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains using Raman spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rebrošová, K.; Šiler, Martin; Samek, Ota; Růžička, F.; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2017), s. 881-890 ISSN 1746-0913 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * rapid diagnostics * Staphylococcus epidermidis * Staphyococcus aureus Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 3.374, year: 2016

  9. Estimation of Staphylococcus aureus growth parameters from turbidity data: characterization of strain variation and comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, R

    2006-07-01

    Turbidity methods offer possibilities for generating data required for addressing microorganism variability in risk modeling given that the results of these methods correspond to those of viable count methods. The objectives of this study were to identify the best approach for determining growth parameters based on turbidity data and use of a Bioscreen instrument and to characterize variability in growth parameters of 34 Staphylococcus aureus strains of different biotypes isolated from broiler carcasses. Growth parameters were estimated by fitting primary growth models to turbidity growth curves or to detection times of serially diluted cultures either directly or by using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach. The maximum specific growth rates in chicken broth at 17 degrees C estimated by time to detection methods were in good agreement with viable count estimates, whereas growth models (exponential and Richards) underestimated growth rates. Time to detection methods were selected for strain characterization. The variation of growth parameters among strains was best described by either the logistic or lognormal distribution, but definitive conclusions require a larger data set. The distribution of the physiological state parameter ranged from 0.01 to 0.92 and was not significantly different from a normal distribution. Strain variability was important, and the coefficient of variation of growth parameters was up to six times larger among strains than within strains. It is suggested to apply a time to detection (ANOVA) approach using turbidity measurements for convenient and accurate estimation of growth parameters. The results emphasize the need to consider implications of strain variability for predictive modeling and risk assessment.

  10. Subtyping of Chilean Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Medina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec present in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has two essential components, the ccr gene complex and the mec gene complex. Additionally, SCCmec has non-essential components called J regions which are used for MRSA subtyping. This study was performed to determine subtypes MRSA strains carrying SCCmec type I based on polymorphism of regions located downstream of the mecA gene. A total of 98 MRSA strains carrying SCCmec type I isolated from patients hospitalized at the County Hospital of Valdivia (Chile between May 2007 and May 2008, were analyzed by multiplex PCR designed to amplify the mecA gene and 7 DNA hypervariable regions located around the mecA gene. MRSA strains were classified into seventeen genotypes accordingly to amplification patterns of DNA hypervariable regions. Five genotypes showed amplification patterns previously described. The remaining twelve genotypes showed new amplification patterns. Genotypes 18 and Genotype 19 were the most frequently detected. Regions HVR, Ins117 and pI258 stand out as being present in more than 60% of tested isolates. The acquisition of hypervariable regions by MRSA is a continuous horizontal transfer process through which the SCCmec have been preserved intact, or even may give rise to new types and subtypes of SCCmec. Therefore it is possible to infer that most MRSA strains isolated at the County Hospital of Valdivia (Chile were originated from two local clones which correspond to Genotype 18 and Genotype 19.

  11. Mastitis Bovina: Resistencia a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus asiladas de leche (Bovine Mastitis: Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk)

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrino, MS; Frola, ID; Odierno, LM; Bogni, CI

    2011-01-01

    ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.

  12. Identification of strains with phenotypes similar to those of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from table chicken eggs using MALDI-TOF MS and genotyping methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the affinity of 10 Staphylococcus strains isolated from table chicken eggs to specific species. Preliminary analysis performed by API ID32 Staph test identified these strains as S. aureus, but they exhibited a negative reaction in the tube coagulase test. Thus, the analysed strains were initially characterised as Staphylococcus aureus-like (SAL. Further characterisation was performed by genotypic methods, using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of the coagulase gene (coa and sequencing of the gene rpoB. An attempt was also made to identify the isolated Staphylococcus strains by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The results indicated that none of the strains tested belonged to the species S. aureus. The rpoB sequences of five isolates showed the highest sequence similarity to S. haemolyticus, three isolates to S. chromogenes, and one isolate to S. epidermidis. One strain (SAL4 remained unidentified in this analysis. The results obtained using mass spectrometry were comparable to those based on gene sequence analysis. Strain SAL4, which could not be identified by sequencing, was identified by MALDI-TOF as Staphylococcus chromogenes.

  13. Evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibilities and virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from community-acquired and health-care associated pediatric infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbuz, Adem; Karahan, Zeynep Ceren; Aldemir-Kocabaş, Bilge; Tekeli, Alper; Özdemir, Halil; Güriz, Haluk; Gökdemir, Refik; İnce, Erdal; Çiftçi, Ergin

    2017-01-01

    Karbuz A, Karahan ZC, Aldemir-Kocabaş B, Tekeli A, Özdemir H, Güriz H, Gökdemir R, İnce E, Çiftçi E. Evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibilities and virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from community-acquired and health-care associated pediatric infections. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 395-403. The aim of this study was to investigate the enterotoxins and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene as virulence factor, identification if antimicrobial sensitivity patterns, agr (accessory gene regulator) types and sequence types and in resistant cases to obtain SCCmec (staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec) gene types which will be helpful to decide empirical therapy and future health politics for S. aureus species. Total of 150 isolates of S. aureus were isolated from the cultures of the child patients in January 2011 and December 2012. In this study, the penicillin resistance was observed as 93.8%. PVL and mecA was detected positive in 8.7% and in 6% of all S. aureus strains, respectively. Two MRSA (methicillin resistant S.aureus) strains were detected as SCCmec type III and SCCmec type V and five MRSA strains were detected as SCCmec type IV. SET-I and SET-G were the most common detected enterotoxins. In both community-associated and healthcare-associated MRSA strains, agr type 1 was detected most commonly. The most common sequence types were ST737 in 13 patients than ST22 in eight patients and ST121 in six patients. This study highlights a necessity to review the cause of small changes in the structural genes in order to determine whether it is a cause or outcome; community-acquired and healthcare associated strains overlap.

  14. Two highly divergent lineages of exfoliative toxin B-encoding plasmids revealed in impetigo strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botka, Tibor; Růžičková, Vladislava; Svobodová, Karla; Pantůček, Roman; Petráš, Petr; Čejková, Darina; Doškař, Jiří

    2017-09-01

    Exfoliative toxin B (ETB) encoded by some large plasmids plays a crucial role in epidermolytic diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus. We have found as yet unknown types of etb gene-positive plasmids isolated from a set of impetigo strains implicated in outbreaks of pemphigus neonatorum in Czech maternity hospitals. Plasmids from the strains of clonal complex CC121 were related to archetypal plasmid pETB TY4 . Sharing a 33-kb core sequence including virulence genes for ETB, EDIN C, and lantibiotics, they were assigned to a stand-alone lineage, named pETB TY4 -based plasmids. Differing from each other in the content of variable DNA regions, they formed four sequence types. In addition to them, a novel unique plasmid pETB608 isolated from a strain of ST130 was described. Carrying conjugative cluster genes, as well as new variants of etb and edinA genes, pETB608 could be regarded as a source of a new lineage of ETB plasmids. We have designed a helpful detection assay, which facilitates the precise identification of the all described types of ETB plasmids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains and evidence for the involvement of non-classical enterotoxin genes in food poisoning outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupescu, Laurentiu-Mihai; Auvray, Frederic; Nicorescu, Isabela Madalina; Meheut, Thomas; Ciupescu, Veronica; Lardeux, Anne-Laure; Tanasuica, Rodica; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2018-06-05

    To an increasing extent, molecular and genetic characterization is now used to investigate foodborne outbreaks. The aim of this study was to seek molecular links among coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) isolated from three recent food poisoning outbreaks in Romania using polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) techniques. Nineteen CPS isolates were identified as Staphylococcus aureus by detection of the 23S rDNA gene. Among them, 15 carried at least one staphylococcal enterotoxin-encoding gene (se). The Calarași outbreak strains grouped in pulsotype 2 and were sed/sej/ser-positive, whereas the Arad outbreak strains clustered in pulsotype 17 and were either sed/seg/sei/sej/ser- or seg/sei-positive. The Pitești outbreak strains clustered in pulsotype 1 and, surprisingly, possessed only one enterotoxin gene, i.e. seh. Similar to other European countries, the seh gene has been identified with increasing frequency in Romanian outbreaks; this highlights the importance of considering the application of methods recommended for staphylococcal enterotoxin regulation in Europe.

  16. Expansion of a plasmid classification system for Gram-positive bacteria and determination of the diversity of plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus strains of human, animal, and food origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano, C.; Garcia-Migura, L.; Aspiroz, C.

    2012-01-01

    An expansion of a previously described plasmid classification was performed and used to reveal the plasmid content of a collection of 92 Staphylococcus aureus strains of different origins. rep genes of other genera were detected in Staphylococcus. S1 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) hybrid...

  17. Outbreak of bullous impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains of phage type 3C/71 in a maternity ward linked to nasal carriage of a healthcare worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechowicz, Lidia; Garbacz, Katarzyna; Budzyńska, Anna; Dąbrowska-Szponar, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of bullous impetigo (BI) that occurred in a maternity unit and show phenotypic and genotypic properties and relatedness of isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains. Clinical material was obtained from 11 affected neonates. Additionally, nasal swabs from 67 healthy care workers (HCWs) as well as 107 environmental swabs were investigated. All isolates were screened for exfoliative toxin genes (eta, etb), antibiotic susceptibility and phage typed. Chromosomal DNA was genotyped by MLVF method and PCR/RFLP of coagulase gene were tested. Affected neonates were infected by two clusters of eta-positive S. aureus of phage type 3C/71: (1) MLVF type A isolates resistant only to penicillin, and (2) MLVF type B isolates resistant to penicillin and erythromycin/clindamycin. All isolates were susceptible to methicillin. We found 19 of 67 HCWs to be S. aureus nasal carriers. Two nasal isolates from HCWs were related to the outbreak on the basis of phage typing, PCR detection of eta/etb genes, antibiotyping and genotyping. Additionally, environmental swabs from the maternity unit revealed a 3C/71 S. aureus in the mattress of a baby bed. This is the first documented case of an outbreak of BI caused by phage type 3C/71 eta-positive strain of S. aureus.

  18. In vitro profiling of antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity of thymoquinone against selected type and clinical strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, P; Paul-Satyaseela, M; Gnanamani, A

    2016-03-01

    This study explores antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of a bioactive phytochemical constituent, thymoquinone obtained from the medicinal herb, Nigella sativa Linn. Based on initial assessment on crude extract of seeds of Nigella sativa Linn, the pure active constituent was employed in the study. A total of 99 MRSA strains which comprised of 40 types and 59 clinical strains were selected for the study. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), bactericidal activity, postantibiotic effect (PAE) and propensity to select resistant mutants were determined using standard protocols. Results revealed that thymoquinone exhibited MIC in the range of 8-16 μg ml(-1) and MIC90 of 16 μg ml(-1) against MRSA strains. It was bactericidal to MRSA by demonstrating >3 log kill. It showed a longer PAE of 3·2 ± 0·2 h. Upon exposure to high-density inoculum of MRSA, it did not select resistant mutants. Transmission electron microscopy of thymoquinone-treated MRSA showed no lysis but damage to cell wall and cell membrane which corroborated well with the salt tolerance and bacteriolysis assays. In conclusion, MIC90 , bactericidal property, longer PAE, absence of resistant mutant selection and damages in cell membrane and cell wall imply a promising anti-MRSA activity of thymoquinone. This is the first detailed report on anti-MRSA activity of thymoquinone. The assessment was made with both type and clinical strains. Thymoquinone may be a potential lead compound which can be further optimized to discover novel anti-MRSA agents. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Method for independent strain and temperature measurement in polymeric tensile test specimen using embedded FBG sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; McGugan, Malcolm; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    to calculate independently the strain and temperature are presented in the article, together with a measurement resolution study. This multi-parameter measurement method was applied to an epoxy tensile specimen, tested in a unidirectional tensile test machine with a temperature controlled cabinet. A full......A novel method to obtain independent strain and temperature measurements using embedded Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) in polymeric tensile test specimens is presented in this paper. The FBG strain and temperature cross-sensitivity was decoupled using two single mode FBG sensors, which were embedded...... of temperature, from 40 C to -10 C. The consistency of the expected theoretical results with the calibration procedure and the experimental validation shows that this proposed method is applicable to measure accurate strain and temperature in polymers during static or fatigue tensile testing. Two different...

  20. Genomic, Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Studies of Two Well-Characterized, Laboratory-Derived Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Strains Derived from the Same Parent Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti S. Hattangady

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Complete genome comparisons, transcriptomic and metabolomic studies were performed on two laboratory-selected, well-characterized vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA derived from the same parent MRSA that have changes in cell wall composition and decreased autolysis. A variety of mutations were found in the VISA, with more in strain 13136p−m+V20 (vancomycin MIC = 16 µg/mL than strain 13136p−m+V5 (MIC = 8 µg/mL. Most of the mutations have not previously been associated with the VISA phenotype; some were associated with cell wall metabolism and many with stress responses, notably relating to DNA damage. The genomes and transcriptomes of the two VISA support the importance of gene expression regulation to the VISA phenotype. Similarities in overall transcriptomic and metabolomic data indicated that the VISA physiologic state includes elements of the stringent response, such as downregulation of protein and nucleotide synthesis, the pentose phosphate pathway and nutrient transport systems. Gene expression for secreted virulence determinants was generally downregulated, but was more variable for surface-associated virulence determinants, although capsule formation was clearly inhibited. The importance of activated stress response elements could be seen across all three analyses, as in the accumulation of osmoprotectant metabolites such as proline and glutamate. Concentrations of potential cell wall precursor amino acids and glucosamine were increased in the VISA strains. Polyamines were decreased in the VISA, which may facilitate the accrual of mutations. Overall, the studies confirm the wide variability in mutations and gene expression patterns that can lead to the VISA phenotype.

  1. Next-Generation Sequence Analysis Reveals Transfer of Methicillin Resistance to a Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Strain That Subsequently Caused a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Outbreak: a Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Veronica; Bosch, Thijs; Witteveen, Sandra; Landman, Fabian; Schouls, Leo; Kluytmans, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Resistance to methicillin in Staphylococcus aureus is caused primarily by the mecA gene, which is carried on a mobile genetic element, the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ). Horizontal transfer of this element is supposed to be an important factor in the emergence of new clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) but has been rarely observed in real time. In 2012, an outbreak occurred involving a health care worker (HCW) and three patients, all carrying a fusidic acid-resistant MRSA strain. The husband of the HCW was screened for MRSA carriage, but only a methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain, which was also resistant to fusidic acid, was detected. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) typing showed that both the MSSA and MRSA isolates were MT4053-MC0005. This finding led to the hypothesis that the MSSA strain acquired the SCC mec and subsequently caused an outbreak. To support this hypothesis, next-generation sequencing of the MSSA and MRSA isolates was performed. This study showed that the MSSA isolate clustered closely with the outbreak isolates based on whole-genome multilocus sequence typing and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, with a genetic distance of 17 genes and 44 SNPs, respectively. Remarkably, there were relatively large differences in the mobile genetic elements in strains within and between individuals. The limited genetic distance between the MSSA and MRSA isolates in combination with a clear epidemiologic link supports the hypothesis that the MSSA isolate acquired a SCC mec and that the resulting MRSA strain caused an outbreak. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. A coagulase-negative and non-haemolytic strain of Staphylococcus aureus for investigating the roles of SrtA in a murine model of bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Bi, Chongwei; Wang, Tiedong; Xiang, Hua; Chen, Fuguang; Hu, Jinping; Liu, Bingrun; Cai, Hongjun; Zhong, Xiaobo; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Dacheng

    2015-08-01

    Sortase A (SrtA) is a cysteine transpeptidase and virulence factor from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) that catalyses the attachment and display of surface proteins on the cell wall, thereby mediating bacterial adhesion to host tissues, host-cell entry and evasion of the immune response. As a result, SrtA has become an important target in the development of therapies for S. aureus infections. In this study, we used the new reference strain S. aureus Newman D2C to investigate the role of SrtA in a murine model of bloodstream infection, when the impact of coagulase and haemolysin is excluded. The results suggested that deletion of SrtA reduced the bacterial burden on the heart, liver and kidneys by blunting the host proinflammatory cytokine response at an early point in infection. Kidneys, but not heart or liver, formed abscesses on the sixth day following non-lethal infection, and this effect was diminished by SrtA mutation. These findings indicate that SrtA is a determining virulence factor in lethality and formation of renal abscesses in mice followed by S. aureus bloodstream infection. We have thus established a convenient in vitro and mouse model for developing SrtA-targeted therapeutic strategies. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Frequency of resistance to methicillin and other antimicrobial agents among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from pigs and their human handlers in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Gordon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged recently worldwide in production animals, particularly pigs and veal calves, which act as reservoirs for MRSA strains for human infection. The study determined the prevalence of MRSA and other resistant strains of S. aureus isolated from the anterior nares of pigs and human handlers on pig farms in Trinidad. Methods: Isolation of S. aureus was done by concurrently inoculating Baird-Parker agar (BPA and Chromagar MRSA (CHROM with swab samples and isolates were identified using standard methods. Suspect MRSA isolates from Chromagar and BPA were subjected to confirmatory test using Oxoid PBP2 latex agglutination test. The disc diffusion method was used to determine resistance to antimicrobial agents. Results: The frequency of isolation of MRSA was 2.1% (15 of 723 for pigs but 0.0% (0 of 72 for humans. Generally, for isolates of S. aureus from humans there was a high frequency of resistance compared with those from pigs, which had moderate resistance to the following antimicrobials: penicillin G (54.5%, 51.5%, ampicillin (59.1%, 49.5%, and streptomycin (59.1%, 37.1%, respectively. There was moderate resistance to tetracycline (36.4%, 41.2% and gentamycin (27.2%, 23.7% for human and pig S. aureus isolates, respectively, and low resistance to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (4.5%, 6.2% and norfloxacin (9.1%, 12.4%, respectively. The frequency of resistance to oxacillin by the disc method was 36.4 and 34.0% from S. aureus isolates from humans and pigs, respectively. Out of a total of 78 isolates of S. aureus from both human and pig sources that were resistant to oxacillin by the disc diffusion method, only 15 (19.2% were confirmed as MRSA by the PBP'2 latex test kit. Conclusions: The detection of MRSA strains in pigs, albeit at a low frequency, coupled with a high frequency of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents in pig and humans could have zoonotic and therapeutic

  4. Screening of medicinal plants for antibacterial activities on Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis Screening de plantas medicinais com atividade antimicrobiana contra cepas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de mastite bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa A. N. Diaz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the main causative agent of bovine mastitis. The activity of several extracts from ten medicinal plants traditionally used in Brazil as antiseptic was investigated against fifteen strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from animals with mastitis manifestation by the disc diffusion method and broth microdilution assay. The interference of the extracts on cell in the form of adherent colonies was also evaluated. MIC values ranged from 0.5 mg/mL to 1.0 mg/mL and biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC were between 0.25 mg/mL and 0.8 mg/mL. Results revealed the potential of extracts of Senna macranthera, Artemisia absinthium, Cymbopogon nardus and Baccharis dracunculifolia as antibacterial agents against S. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis and support the possible use of these phytotherapic agents in the clinical management of the disease.Staphylococcus aureus é o principal agente causador de mastite bovina. A atividade de diversos extratos de dez plantas medicinais tradicionalmente usadas no Brasil como anti-sépticas foi investigada contra quinze cepas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de animais com manifestação de mastite pelo método de difusão em ágar e ensaio de microdiluição. A interferência dos extratos na célula bacteriana em forma de colônias aderidas também foi avaliada. Os valores de MIC variaram de 0.5 mg/mL a 1.0 mg/mL e a concentração inibitória de biofilme (BIC variou de 0.25 mg/mL a 0.8 mg/mL. Os resultados revelaram o potencial dos extratos de Senna macranthera, Artemisia absinthium, Cymbopogon nardus e Baccharis dracunculifolia como agentes antibacterianos contra cepas de S. aureus isolados de mastite bovina e suportam o possível uso destas plantas no manejo clínico da doença.

  5. Antibacterial effect of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF®-Endoret®) against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; Alonso, R; Girbau, C; Aguirre, J J; Muruzabal, F; Orive, G

    2012-08-01

    Formulations containing plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) are opening new avenues in the field of regenerative medicine. To evaluate the potential antimicrobial effects of a product (plasma rich in growth factors; PRGF(®)-Endoret(®)) against both methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The potential effect of incorporating the patient's leucocytes into the PRGF formulation (F3+leu) was also studied. Blood samples were obtained from five healthy volunteers and used to prepare each type of PRGF (F1, F3 and F3+leu). Various biological assays were performed to compare the characteristics of the different formulations, including measurement of the concentration of platelets and leucocytes, and assays of coagulation. The microbiological activity of PRGF-Endoret against both staphylococcal strains was performed by counting the number of the surviving bacterial colonies after incubation at 0, 4 and 8 h with the different formulations. The three PRGF-Endoret formulations evaluated were enriched in platelets by 1.10, 2.57 and 1.89 times, respectively, and the leucocyte concentration in the F3+leu sample was increased by 3.9 times. We found that all formulations had a strong bacteriostatic effect, especially in the first 4 h after application. All formulations had an antibacterial effect at 4 h for three of the four strains, with the exception of methicillin-sensitive S. epidermidis. No differences in the bacterial inhibitory effect were found between the formulations. This is the first time different formulations of this product have been evaluated, and the results suggest that PRGF-Endoret could be used in the fight against postoperative and wound infections. © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Analysis of antibiotic resistance pattern of S. aureus strains isolated from the Orthopedics-Traumatology Section of "Sf. Spiridon" Clinical Emergency Hospital, Iaşi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucaliuc, D; Alexa, O; Tuchiluş, Cristina Gabriela; Ursu, Ramona Gabriela; Tucaliuc, Elena Simona; Iancu, Luminiţa Smaranda

    2014-01-01

    The retrospective analysis of antibiotic sensibility of S. aureus strains isolated from infected patients from the Orthopedics-Traumatology Clinic of "Sf. Spiridon" Clinical Emergency Hospital, Iaşi during January 2003-December 2013, in view of determining the evolution trend of the resistance phenomenon and of pinpointing the most useful treatment for these strains. The antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out using two methods: diffusimetric-Kirby-Bauer and the MIC determination by E-test (for the strains isolated in 2013); the interpretation of the sensitivity was made in a standardized manner, in compliance with the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) standard for antibiotics testing in force. The sensitivity testing for beta-lactams proved that during the 11 years of the study, the average value of the frequency of resistant strains was of 41.59% +/- 8.68. The highest frequency of MRSA (Methicillin Restant S. aureus) strains was noticed in 2012 (58.6%), followed by 2004 (50.7%). Even if in 2013 it dropped to 38.9%, the trend calculated for 2003-2013 is slightly rising (y = 0.0073x + 0.372). Out of the total of 495 S. aureus strains that were isolated, 164 (33.13%) were completely sensitive to the tested antibiotics and 26 (5.25%) were resistant only to beta-lactams. The other MRSA strains associated multiple resistance and MIC for vancomycin varied between 0.5-2 mg/ml. Two strains whose MIC was of 0.5 mg/ml were sensitive to most classes of tested antibiotics, including beta-lactams, except for macrolides (erythromycin), and the strain whose MIC was of 2 mg/ml, was resistant to all classes of tested antibiotics, except for glycopeptides and oxazolidiones. The other tested strains had a MIC for vancomycin equal to 1 mg/ml. Due to the fact that there are infections with SAMR strains in a rather worrying percentage (53.9%) that are resistant to the other classes of antibiotics, the only therapeutic solution being the vancomycin treatment, its

  7. Evaluation of biofilm formation using milk in a flow cell model and microarray characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snel, G G M; Malvisi, M; Pilla, R; Piccinini, R

    2014-12-05

    It was hypothesized that biofilm could play an important role in the establishment of chronic Staphylococcus aureus bovine mastitis. The in vitro evaluation of biofilm formation can be performed either in closed/static or in flow-based systems. Efforts have been made to characterize the biofilm-forming ability of S. aureus mastitis isolates, however most authors used static systems and matrices other than UHT milk. It is not clear whether such results could be extrapolated to the mammary gland environment. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the biofilm-forming ability of S. aureus strains from subclinical bovine mastitis using the static method and a flow-based one. One hundred and twelve strains were tested by the classic tissue culture plate assay (TCP) and 30 out of them were also tested by a dynamic semi-quantitative assay using commercial UHT milk as culture medium (Milk Flow Culture, MFC) or Tryptic Soy Broth as control medium (TS Flow Culture, TSFC). Only 6 (20%) strains formed biofilm in milk under flow conditions, while 36.6% were considered biofilm-producers in TCP, and 93.3% produced biofilm in TSFC. No agreement was found between TCP, MFC and TSFC results. The association between strain genetic profile, determined by microarray, and biofilm-forming ability in milk was evaluated. Biofilm formation in MFC was significantly associated with the presence of those genes commonly found in bovine-associated strains, assigned to clonal complexes typically detected in mastitis. Based on our results, biofilm-forming potential of bovine strains should be critically analysed and tested applying conditions similar to mammary environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Variability of antibiotic susceptibility and toxin production of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from skin, soft tissue, and bone related infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sina, Haziz; Ahoyo, Theodora A.; Moussaoui, Wardi; Keller, Daniel; Bankole, Honore S.; Barogui, Yves; Stienstra, Ymkje; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Prevost, Gilles; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic commensal bacterium that mostly colonizes the skin and soft tissues. The pathogenicity of S. aureus is due to both its ability to resist antibiotics, and the production of toxins. Here, we characterize a group of genes responsible for toxin

  9. SPECIFIC DIFFERENTIATION AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL MARKING OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS DISTINGUISHED FROM THE CARRIERS OF MEDICAL PERSONNEL AND OBJECTS OF EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT IN CURATIVE INSTITUTIONS OF THE SOUTH RAILWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grechishkina Y.A.,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Carried out specific differentiation of pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus, which were isolated from various environmental objects surgical hospital, biomaterials from patients. The results of the research brought together strains of pathogenic staphylococci in the lytic group and 4 show the frequency of detection of each analytic group in the particular material. Received the rationale for the introduction of phage-typing method in the practical work of bacteriological laboratories, epidemiological control software in the hospital for bacteriological indicators to effectively combat nosocomial infections.

  10. Iterative Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data Analysis for Extended Independent Variable Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Norbert Manfred

    2011-01-01

    A new method was developed that makes it possible to use an extended set of independent calibration variables for an iterative analysis of wind tunnel strain gage balance calibration data. The new method permits the application of the iterative analysis method whenever the total number of balance loads and other independent calibration variables is greater than the total number of measured strain gage outputs. Iteration equations used by the iterative analysis method have the limitation that the number of independent and dependent variables must match. The new method circumvents this limitation. It simply adds a missing dependent variable to the original data set by using an additional independent variable also as an additional dependent variable. Then, the desired solution of the regression analysis problem can be obtained that fits each gage output as a function of both the original and additional independent calibration variables. The final regression coefficients can be converted to data reduction matrix coefficients because the missing dependent variables were added to the data set without changing the regression analysis result for each gage output. Therefore, the new method still supports the application of the two load iteration equation choices that the iterative method traditionally uses for the prediction of balance loads during a wind tunnel test. An example is discussed in the paper that illustrates the application of the new method to a realistic simulation of temperature dependent calibration data set of a six component balance.

  11. Biotin-independent strains of Escherichia coli for enhanced streptavidin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschek, Markus; Bahls, Maximilian O; Schneider, Veronika; Marlière, Philippe; Ward, Thomas R; Panke, Sven

    2017-03-01

    Biotin is an archetypal vitamin used as cofactor for carboxylation reactions found in all forms of life. However, biotin biosynthesis is an elaborate multi-enzymatic process and metabolically costly. Moreover, many industrially relevant organisms are incapable of biotin synthesis resulting in the requirement to supplement defined media. Here we describe the creation of biotin-independent strains of Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum through installation of an optimized malonyl-CoA bypass, which re-routes natural fatty acid synthesis, rendering the previously essential vitamin completely obsolete. We utilize biotin-independent E. coli for the production of the high-value protein streptavidin which was hitherto restricted because of toxic effects due to biotin depletion. The engineered strain revealed significantly improved streptavidin production resulting in the highest titers and productivities reported for this protein to date. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hardening and strengthening behavior in rate-independent strain gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, C.; Niordson, C. F.; Nielsen, K.L.

    2018-01-01

    Two rate-independent strain gradient crystal plasticity models, one new and one previously published, are compared and a numerical framework that encompasses both is developed. The model previously published is briefly outlined, while an in-depth description is given for the new, yet somewhat...... related,model. The difference between the two models is found in the definitions of the plastic work expended in the material and their relation to spatial gradients of plastic strains. The model predictions are highly relevant to the ongoing discussion in the literature, concerning 1) what governs...... the increase in the apparent yield stress due to strain gradients (also referred to as strengthening)? And 2), what is the implication of such strengthening in relation to crystalline material behavior at the micron scale? The present work characterizes material behavior, and the corresponding plastic slip...

  13. Attaining the rate-independent limit of a rate-dependent strain gradient plasticity theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Naaman, Salim Abdallah; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    The existence of characteristic strain rates in rate-dependent material models, corresponding to rate-independent model behavior, is studied within a back stress based rate-dependent higher order strain gradient crystal plasticity model. Such characteristic rates have recently been observed...... for steady-state processes, and the present study aims to demonstrate that the observations in fact unearth a more widespread phenomenon. In this work, two newly proposed back stress formulations are adopted to account for the strain gradient effects in the single slip simple shear case, and characteristic...... rates for a selected quantity are identified through numerical analysis. Evidently, the concept of a characteristic rate, within the rate-dependent material models, may help unlock an otherwise inaccessible parameter space....

  14. Avaliação da tolerância à vancomicina em 395 cepas hospitalares de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à oxacilina Evaluation of the tolerance to vancomycin in 395 oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from Brazilian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo A. Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a presença de tolerância à vancomicina em cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à oxacilina (Orsa isoladas de quatro hospitais da cidade de São Paulo. Foram estudadas 395 cepas Orsa isoladas de pacientes hospitalizados entre outubro de 1998 e maio de 2000. A determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e da concentração bactericida mínima (CBM para vancomicina foi realizada conforme padronizado pelo National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. A tolerância à vancomicina foi definida como a razão CBM/CIM > ou = 32. Do total de cepas estudadas, 10,4% apresentaram CIM de 0,5µg/ml para vancomicina; 41,3%, CIM de 1µg/ml; 42,2%, CIM de 2µg/ml; e 6,1%, CIM de 4µg/ml. Em média, 49,1% dos Orsa apresentaram tolerância à vancomicina. Em conclusão, a tolerância à vancomicina entre as cepas Orsa foi considerada elevada. Conseqüentemente, aumentam as chances de falhas no tratamento com vancomicina, além de aumentar o risco da emergência de Staphylococcus aureus vancomicina-intermediário.The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of tolerance to vancomycin in oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (Orsa strains isolated from four hospitals in the city of São Paulo. From October/1998 to May/2000 we analysed 395 Orsa strains isolated from hospitalized patients. MIC and MBC to vancomycin were determined as standardised by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. Tolerance was defined as the ratio MBC/MIC > or = 32. The results showed that 10.4% of the Orsa strains presented a MIC of 0.5µg/mL for vancomycin, 41.3% presented a MIC of 1µg/mL, 42.2% a MIC of 2µg/mL and 6.1% a MIC of 4µg/mL. On average, 49,1% of the Orsa presented tolerance to vancomycin. We conclude that the tolerance to vancomycin amongst the Orsa strains was considered high. These high levels of tolerance augment the chances of failure in the treatment with

  15. Variabilidades fenotípica e genotípica de estirpes de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas em casos de mastite subclínica bovina Phenotypic and genotypic variabilities of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Menezes Ferreira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram submetidas a PCR-Ribotipagem e aos testes de sensibilidade in vitro frente a 12 antimicrobianos 77 estirpes de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas em amostras de leite procedentes de 40 vacas da raça holandesa que apresentaram mastite subclínica, em uma propriedade rural localizada no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os resultados obtidos revelaram quatro diferentes padrões de resistência a antimicrobianos, sendo observada a predominância de resistência à lincomicina entre 19 (24,7% estirpes de S.aureus. As 58 (75,3% estirpes restantes foram sensíveis aos 12 antimicrobianos testados. A PCR-ribotipagem revelou a ocorrência de nove padrões genotípicos distintos, além de apresentar uma capacidade discriminatória maior (D = 0,82 que a obtida nos antibiogramas (D = 0,42. Entre as 19 estirpes resistentes aos antimicrobianos, 14 (73,7% foram agrupadas em três padrões de ribotipagem e, destas, 13 (92,9% apresentaram resistência à eritromicina e à lincomicina, isoladamente ou em associação. O grande número de ribotipos e de padrões de resistência a antimicrobianos observados nesta propriedade demonstrou que há grande heterogeneidade genética em populações naturais de S. aureus, fato este que deve ser levado em consideração em programas de controle da mastite bovina.Seventy-seven S. aureus strains, isolated in milk samples obtained from 40 Holstein cows suffering from subclinical mastitis in a dairy herd in the state of São Paulo - Brazil, were undergone to PCR-ribotyping and in vitro susceptibility testing to 12 antimicrobial drugs. PCR-ribotyping revealed nine different patterns and presented a higher discriminatory power (D = 0.82 in comparison with the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility test (D = 0.42. Moreover,, the results showed four antibiotic resistance patterns, with the resistance to lincomycin being the most predominant and comprising 19 (24.7% S. aureus strains. The other 58 (75.3% isolates were sensitive to all

  16. Phenotypic and Serotypic Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Subclinical Mastitis Cattle (KARAKTERISASI SECARA FENOTIPE DAN SEROTIPE STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS YANG BERASAL DARI MASTITIS SUBKLINIK PADA SAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Gusti Ningrum

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is known as a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cattle. In the presentstudy, 104 isolates of Staphylococcus originated from subclinical mastitis cattle characterized for thephenotypic properties and the presence of Staphylococcal protein A (Spa. Some bacteria were resistancesagainst several antibiotics were also studied, such as erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, cefepime,nitrofurantoin, amikacin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. About 78% of the isolated were moderatelysensitive to nitrofurantoin, while 89% were highly resistant to cefepime and ciprofloxacin. Using thevarious mammals’ sera, seven isolates out of 104 revealed the presence of Spa.

  17. Minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) of polihexanide and triclosan against antibiotic sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadian, Ojan; Wehse, Katrin; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Koburger, Torsten; Bagel, Simone; Jethon, Frank; Kramer, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Background: An in-vitro study was conducted investigating the antimicrobial efficacy of polihexanide and triclosan against clinical isolates and reference laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Methods: The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC) were determined following DIN 58940-81 using a micro-dilution assay and a quantitative suspension test following EN 1040. Polihexanide was tested in polyethylene glycol 4000, triclosan in aqueous solutions. Results: Against all tested strains the MIC of polihexanide ranged between 1–2 µg/mL. For triclosan the MICs varied depending on strains ranging between 0.5 µg/mL for the reference strains and 64 µg/mL for two clinical isolates. A logRF >5 without and logRF >3 with 0.2% albumin burden was achieved at 0.6 µg/mL triclosan. One exception was S. aureus strain H-5-24, where a triclosan concentration of 0.6 µg/mL required 1 minute without and 10 minutes with albumin burden to achieve the same logRFs. Polihexanide achieved a logRF >5 without and logRF >3 with albumin burden at a concentration of 0.6 µg/mL within 30 sec. The exception was the North-German epidemic MRSA strain, were an application time of 5 minutes was required. Conclusion: The clinical isolates of E. coli generally showed higher MICs against triclosan, both in the micro-dilution assay as well in the quantitative suspension test than comparable reference laboratory strains. For polihexanide and triclosan strain dependant susceptibility was shown. However, both antimicrobial compounds are effective when used in concentrations common in practice. PMID:22242087

  18. The anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) essential oils against five strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adukwu, E C; Allen, S C H; Phillips, C A

    2012-11-01

    To determine the sensitivity of five strains of Staphylococcus aureus to five essential oils (EOs) and to investigate the anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass and grapefruit EOs. Antimicrobial susceptibility screening was carried out using the disk diffusion method. All of the strains tested were susceptible to lemongrass, grapefruit, bergamot and lime EOs with zones of inhibition varying from 2·85 to 8·60 cm although they were resistant to lemon EO. Lemongrass EO inhibited biofilm formation at 0·125% (v/v) as measured by colorimetric assay and at 0·25% (v/v) no metabolic activity was observed as determined by 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction. Grapefruit EO did not show any anti-biofilm activity. Following exposure to lemongrass EO extensive disruption to Staph. aureus biofilms was shown under scanning electron microscopy. In comparison to the other EOs tested, lemongrass exhibited the most effective antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity. The effect of lemongrass EO highlights its potential against antibiotic resistant Staph. aureus in the healthcare environment. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Establishing quality control ranges for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus: a cornerstone to develop reference strains for Korean clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kuk; Choi, Seung Jun; Shin, Saeam; Lee, Wonmok; Pinto, Naina; Shin, Nari; Lee, Kwangjun; Hong, Seong Geun; Kim, Young Ah; Lee, Hyukmin; Kim, Heejung; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Sun Hwa; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) processes are being performed in the majority of clinical microbiology laboratories to ensure the performance of microbial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by using ATCC strains. To obtain these ATCC strains, some inconveniences are encountered concerning the purchase cost of the strains and the shipping time required. This study was focused on constructing a database of reference strains for QC processes using domestic bacterial strains, concentrating primarily on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Three strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus) that showed legible results in preliminary testing were selected. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters (ZDs) of eight antimicrobials for each strain were determined according to the CLSI M23. All resulting MIC and ZD ranges included at least 95% of the data. The ZD QC ranges obtained by using the CLSI method were less than 12 mm, and the MIC QC ranges extended no more than five dilutions. This study is a preliminary attempt to construct a bank of Korean QC strains. With further studies, a positive outcome toward cost and time reduction can be anticipated.

  20. Antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of biosurfactants isolated from Lactobacillus casei and their anti-biofilm effect in oral Staphylococcus aureus strains.

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    Merghni, Abderrahmen; Dallel, Ines; Noumi, Emira; Kadmi, Yassine; Hentati, Hajer; Tobji, Samir; Ben Amor, Adel; Mastouri, Maha

    2017-03-01

    Biosurfactants also called bioemulsifiers are amphipathic compounds produced by many microorganisms that allow them to exhibit a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of biosurfactants isolated from Lactobacillus casei and to assess their anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm abilities against oral opportunistic Staphylococcus aureus strains. The antioxidant activity of biosurfactant was evaluated using the in vitro scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The antiproliferative activity was determined on epithelial cell line (HEp-2) by the Methylthiazole tetrazolium (MTT) reduction assay. The anti-adhesive and antibiofilm activity against S. aureus strains were achieved using crystal violet staining. Our results revealed that the DPPH scavenging activity of biosurfactants at 5.0 mg/mL concentration is between 74.6 and 77.3%. Furthermore, biosurfactants showed antiproliferative potency against studied epithelial cells as judged by IC50 and its value ranged from 109.1 ± 0.84 mg/mL to 129.7 ± 0.52 mg/mL. The results of the growth inhibition indicate that biosurfactant BS-LBl was more effective against oral S. aureus strains 9P and 29P with an IC50 of 1.92 ± 0.26 mg/mL and 2.16 ± 0.12 mg/mL respectively. Moreover, both biosurfactants displayed important antibiofilm activity with eradication percentages ranging from 80.22 ± 1.33% to 86.21 ± 2.94% for the BS-LBl, and from 53.38 ± 1.77% to 64.42 ± 2.09% for the BS-LZ9. Our findings demonstrate that biosurfactants from L. casei strains exhibited considerable antioxidant and antiproliferative potencies and were able to inhibit oral S. aureus strains with important antibiofilm efficacy. They could have a promising role in the prevention of oral diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin resistant strains, isolated from bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of South-West Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, Benon B; Baldan, Rossella; Trovato, Alberto; Cirillo, Daniela M

    2017-06-13

    Staphylococcus aureus strains are now regarded as zoonotic agents. In pastoral settings where human-animal interaction is intimate, multi-drug resistant microorganisms have become an emerging zoonotic issue of public health concern. The study of S. aureus prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and clonal lineages in humans, animals and food in African settings has great relevance, taking into consideration the high diversity of ethnicities, cultures and food habits that determine the lifestyle of the people. Little is known about milk carriage of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) and their virulence factors in Uganda. Here, we present the prevalence of MRSA in bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of south-west Uganda. We also present PFGE profiles, spa-types, as well as frequency of enterotoxins genes. S. aureus was identified by the coagulase test, susceptibility testing by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and E-test methods and MRSA by detection of the mecA gene and SCCmec types. The presence of Panton - Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) genes and staphylococcal enterotoxins was determined by PCR, while genotyping was by PFGE and spa typing. S. aureus were isolated from 30/148 (20.3%) milk and 11/91(12%) sour milk samples. mecA gene carriage, hence MRSA, was detected in 23/41 (56.1%) of the isolates, with 21 of the 23 (91.3%) being SCCmec type V; while up to 30/41 (73.2%) of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Only five isolates carried the PVL virulence gene, while PFGE typing revealed ten clusters (ranging from two seven isolates each) that comprised 83% of the sample, and only eight isolates with unique pulsotypes. The largest PFGE profile (E) consisted of seven isolates while t7753, t1398, and t2112 were the most common spa-types. Thirty seven of the 41 strains (90.2%) showed at least one of the eight enterotoxin genes tested, with sem 29 (70.7%), sei 25 (61%) and seg 21 (51.2%) being the most frequently observed genes. This

  2. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ethiopia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetie, Setegn; Tarekegn, Fentahun; Moges, Feleke; Amsalu, Anteneh; Birhan, Wubet; Huruy, Kahsay

    2016-11-21

    The burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern worldwide; however the overall epidemiology of multidrug resistant strains is neither coordinated nor harmonized, particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcos aureus and its antibiotic resistance pattern in Ethiopia at large. PubMed, Google Scholar, and lancet databases were searched and a total of 20 studies have been selected for meta-analysis. Six authors have independently extracts data on the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analysis was achieved by using Open meta-analyst (version 3.13) and Comprehensive meta-analysis (version 3.3) softwares. The overall prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its antibiotic resistance pattern were pooled by using the forest plot, table and figure with 95% CI. The pooled prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 32.5% (95% CI, 24.1 to 40.9%). Moreover, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were found to be highly resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, and amoxicillin, with a pooled resistance ratio of 99.1, 98.1, 97.2 and 97.1%, respectively. On the other hand, comparably low levels of resistance ratio were noted to vancomycin, 5.3%. The overall burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is considerably high, besides these strains showed extreme resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin and amoxicillin. In principle, appropriate use of antibiotics, applying safety precautions are the key to reduce the spread of multidrug resistant strains, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in particular.

  3. Genetic pathway in acquisition and loss of vancomycin resistance in a methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain of clonal type USA300.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Gardete

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An isolate of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA clone USA300 with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (SG-R (i.e, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus, VISA and its susceptible "parental" strain (SG-S were recovered from a patient at the end and at the beginning of an unsuccessful vancomycin therapy. The VISA phenotype was unstable in vitro generating a susceptible revertant strain (SG-rev. The availability of these 3 isogenic strains allowed us to explore genetic correlates of antibiotic resistance as it emerged in vivo. Compared to the susceptible isolate, both the VISA and revertant strains carried the same point mutations in yycH, vraG, yvqF and lspA genes and a substantial deletion within an intergenic region. The revertant strain carried a single additional frameshift mutation in vraS which is part of two component regulatory system VraSR. VISA isolate SG-R showed complex alterations in phenotype: decreased susceptibility to other antibiotics, slow autolysis, abnormal cell division and increased thickness of cell wall. There was also altered expression of 239 genes including down-regulation of major virulence determinants. All phenotypic properties and gene expression profile returned to parental levels in the revertant strain. Introduction of wild type yvqF on a multicopy plasmid into the VISA strain caused loss of resistance along with loss of all the associated phenotypic changes. Introduction of the wild type vraSR into the revertant strain caused recovery of VISA type resistance. The yvqF/vraSR operon seems to function as an on/off switch: mutation in yvqF in strain SG-R turns on the vraSR system, which leads to increase in vancomycin resistance and down-regulation of virulence determinants. Mutation in vraS in the revertant strain turns off this regulatory system accompanied by loss of resistance and normal expression of virulence genes. Down-regulation of virulence genes may provide VISA strains with a "stealth

  4. In vitro production of biofilm in a flow cell system in a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and determination of efficiency of ciprofloxacin against them

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    Soham Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microorganisms develop biofilm on various medical devices. The process is particularly relevant in public health since biofilm associated organisms are much more resistant to antibiotics and have a potential to cause infections in patients with indwelling medical devices. Materials and Methods: To determine the efficiency of an antibiotic against the biofilm it is inappropriate to use traditional technique of determining Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC on the free floating laboratory phenotype. Thus we have induced formation of biofilm in two strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which showed heavy growth of biofilm in screening by Tube method in a flow cell system and determined their antibiotic susceptibility against ciprofloxacin by agar dilution method in the range (0.25 mg/ml to 8 mg/ml. The MIC value of ciprofloxacin for the biofilm produced organism was compared with its free form and a standard strain as control on the same plates. Observations: Both the biofilm produced strains showed a higher resistance (MIC > 8 mg/ml than its free form, which were 2 μg/ml for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 4 mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus. Thus biofilm can pose a threat in the patient treatment.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of honey of africanized bee (Apis mellifera) and stingless bee, tiuba (Melipona fasciculata) against strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório, Eleuza Gomes; Alves, Natália Furtado; Mendes, Bianca Evanita Pimenta

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of honey of Africanized bees (Apis mellifera) and stingless bees (Melipona fasciculata), produced under the same flowering conditions, in municipalities of Baixada Maranhese, Brazil, against strains of pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In each municipality, the apiary and meliponario were less than 150 meters away from each other. The Kirby-Bauer method, and the diffusion technique of the agar plate through the extension of the inhibition in millimeters were used. The test results were negative for all samples, which did not demonstrate antimicrobial activity in any of the microorganisms tested.

  6. Capture of cell culture-derived influenza virus by lectins: strain independent, but host cell dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Lars; Zimmermann, Anke; Lehmann, Sylvia; Genzel, Yvonne; Lübben, Holger; Reichl, Udo; Wolff, Michael W

    2008-12-01

    Strategies to control influenza outbreaks are focused mainly on prophylactic vaccination. Human influenza vaccines are trivalent blends of different virus subtypes. Therefore and due to frequent antigenic drifts, strain independent manufacturing processes are required for vaccine production. This study verifies the strain independency of a capture method based on Euonymus europaeus lectin-affinity chromatography (EEL-AC) for downstream processing of influenza viruses under various culture conditions propagated in MDCK cells. A comprehensive lectin binding screening was conducted for two influenza virus types from the season 2007/2008 (A/Wisconsin/67/2005, B/Malaysia/2506/2004) including a comparison of virus-lectin interaction by surface plasmon resonance technology. EEL-AC resulted in a reproducible high product recovery rate and a high degree of contaminant removal in the case of both MDCK cell-derived influenza virus types demonstrating clearly the general applicability of EEL-AC. In addition, host cell dependency of EEL-AC was studied with two industrial relevant cell lines: Vero and MDCK cells. However, the choice of the host cell lines is known to lead to different product glycosylation profiles. Hence, altered lectin specificities have been observed between the two cell lines, requiring process adaptations between different influenza vaccine production systems.

  7. A full genomic characterization of the development of a stable Small Colony Variant cell-type by a clinical Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Long M G; Kidd, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    A key to persistent and recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections is its ability to adapt to diverse and toxic conditions. This ability includes a switch into a biofilm or to the quasi-dormant Small Colony Variant (SCV). The development and molecular attributes of SCVs have been difficult to study due to their rapid reversion to their parental cell-type. We recently described the unique induction of a matrix-embedded and stable SCV cell-type in a clinical S. aureus strain (WCH-SK2) by growing the cells with limiting conditions for a prolonged timeframe. Here we further study their characteristics. They possessed an increased viability in the presence of antibiotics compared to their non-SCV form. Their stability implied that there had been genetic changes; we therefore determined both the genome sequence of WCH-SK2 and its stable SCV form at a single base resolution, employing Single Molecular Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing that enabled the methylome to also be determined. The genetic features of WCH-SK2 have been identified; the SCCmec type, the pathogenicity and genetic islands and virulence factors. The genetic changes that had occurred in the stable SCV form were identified; most notably being in MgrA, a global regulator, and RsbU, a phosphoserine phosphatase within the regulatory pathway of the sigma factor SigB. There was a shift in the methylomes of the non-SCV and stable SCV forms. We have also shown a similar induction of this cell-type in other S. aureus strains and performed a genetic comparison to these and other S. aureus genomes. We additionally map RNAseq data to the WCH-SK2 genome in a transcriptomic analysis of the parental, SCV and stable SCV cells. The results from this study represent the unique identification of a suite of epigenetic, genetic and transcriptional factors that are implicated in the switch in S. aureus to its persistent SCV form. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from patients with bacteremia based on MLST, SCCmec, spa, and agr locus types analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Mehdi; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat; Nasiri, Mohammad Javad; Goudarzi, Hossein; Sajadi Nia, Raheleh; Dabiri, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    The widespread emergence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as a common cause of nosocomial infections, is becoming a serious concern in global public health. The objective of the present study was to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, frequency of virulence genes and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from patients with bacteremia. A total of 128 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were collected during February 2015 to January 2016. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was assessed using the disk diffusion method. Conventional PCR was performed for the detection of adhesion (can, bbp, ebp, fnbB, fnbA, clfB, clfA) and toxin (etb, eta, pvl, tst) encoding genes, determining the agr type, SCCmec, MLST and spa typing of the isolates. All the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found to be sensitive to linezolid, teicoplanin, and vancomycin. Resistance to the tested antibiotics varied from 97.7% for penicillin to 24.2% for mupirocin. The rate of multi drug resistance (MDR) in the present study was 97.7%. The most commonly detected toxin and adhesion genes were tst (58.6%), and clfB (100%), respectively. The majority of SCCmec III isolates were found in agr group I while SCCmec IV and II isolates were distributed among agr group III. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) of the MRSA isolates showed five different sequence types: ST239 (43%), ST22 (39.8%), ST585 (10.9%), ST45 (3.9%) and ST240 (2.3%). All of the pvl positive strains belonged to ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 clone and were MDR. Among different 7 spa types, the most common were t790 (27.3%), t037 (21.9%), and t030 (14.1%). spa types t016, t924 and spa type t383 were reported for the first time from Asia and Iran, respectively. It was shown that spa types circulating in the studied hospitals varied which support the need to perform future surveillance studies in order to understand

  9. Contamination of public transports by Staphylococcus aureus and its carriage by biomedical students: point-prevalence, related risk factors and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Â; Martins da Costa, P; Rego, D; Beça, N; Alves, C; Moreira, T; Conceição, T; Aires-de-Sousa, M

    2015-08-01

    To analyse the contamination of public transports by Staphylococcus aureus and assess its carriage by biomedical students, focussing on the point-prevalence, related risk factors and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant strains. Cross-sectional survey. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolated from handrails of buses (n = 112) and trains (n = 79) circulating in Porto and from nasal swabs of local university students (n = 475) were quantified, characterized by molecular typing methods and related to possible risk factors. The MRSA prevalence in buses (16.1%) was not significantly different from trains (8.9%). There was also no identifiable association between the counts of MSSA and MRSA in buses and trains and the number of travellers in each sampling day, specific routes (including those passing by main hospitals) or other risk factors. Of the students, 37.1% carried S. aureus, and having a part-time job or smoking were found to be risk factors for carriage. EMRSA-15 (ST22-SCCmecIVh) was the prevalent MRSA clonal lineage, found not only in the buses (n = 14) and trains (n = 2) but also in the single MRSA-carrier among the students. The characteristics of the community-associated Southwest Pacific MRSA clone were found in a single ST30-IVa isolate, which may suggest a recent SCCmec acquisition by an MSSA background in the community. The spread of EMRSA-15, a common hospital-associated lineage, among different public transports and as a nasal coloniser is of concern and warrants adequate public health control measures. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In Vitro Synergistic Effects of Double and Triple Combinations of β-Lactams, Vancomycin, and Netilmicin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon-Edouard, Stéphanie; Pestel-Caron, Martine; Lemeland, Jean-François; Caron, François

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have previously reported synergistic effects between vancomycin and a given β-lactam or a given aminoglycoside against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. The aim of our study was to exhaustively compare the effects of different combinations of a β-lactam, vancomycin, and/or an aminoglycoside against 32 clinical MRSA strains with different aminoglycoside susceptibility patterns. The effects of 26 different β-lactam–vancomycin and 8 different aminoglycoside-vancomycin combinations were first studied using a disk diffusion screening method. The best interactions with vancomycin were observed with either imipenem, cefazolin, or netilmicin. By checkerboard studies, imipenem-vancomycin and cefazolin-vancomycin each provided a synergistic bacteriostatic effect against 22 strains; the mean fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indexes were 0.35 and 0.46 for imipenem-vancomycin and cefazolin-vancomycin, respectively. The vancomycin-netilmicin combination provided an indifferent effect against all of the 32 strains tested; the mean of FIC index was 1.096. The mean concentrations of imipenem, cefazolin, netilmicin, and vancomycin at which FIC indexes were calculated were clinically achievable. Killing experiments were then performed using imipenem, cefazolin, netilmicin, and vancomycin at one-half of the MIC, alone and in different combinations, against 10 strains. The vancomycin-netilmicin regimen was rarely bactericidal, even against strains susceptible to netilmicin. The imipenem-vancomycin and cefazolin-vancomycin combinations were strongly bactericidal against six and five strains, respectively. The addition of netilmicin markedly enhanced the killing activity of the combination of cefazolin or imipenem plus vancomycin, but only for the MRSA strains against which the β-lactam–vancomycin combinations had no bactericidal effect. It is noteworthy that the latter strains were both susceptible to netilmicin and

  11. Eliminação de resistência a drogas por fluorquinolonas em Staphylococcus aureus de origem bovina Elimination of resistance to drugs by fluoroquinolones in bovine strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S.V. Pereira

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Cepas de Staphylococcus aureus de origem bovina foram submetidas ao tratamento com quatro fluoquinolonas na concentração subinibitória (1/2 x CMI, para avaliar a influência desses agentes sobre plasmídios. A ciprofloxacina mostrou ser a fluorquinolona mais eficiente, eliminando marcas de resistência para estreptomicina, tetraciclina, penicilina e cádmio. A norfloxacina e a pefloxacina eliminaram resistência para penicilina e tetraciclina, respectivamente; no entanto, não foi evidenciada a eliminação de plasmídio com ofloxacina. Os resultados confirmam a eficácia das fluor-quinolonas em eliminar plasmídios de resistência mostrando a importância desses estudos como contribuição para o entendimento da prevenção de linhagens multiresistentes, uma vez que as quinolonas em concentrações subinibitórias podem aumentar a sensibilidade das linhagens a outros agentes antimicrobianos.Bovine strains of Staphylococcus aureus were submitted to treatment with four fluoro-quinolones in subinhibitory concentrations (1/2 x MICs to evaluate their influence on the curing of plasmids. Ciprofloxacin showed to be the most efficient by eliminating resistance to streptomycin, tetracyclin, penicillin, and cadmium nitrate. Norfloxacin and pefloxacin eliminated penicillin- and tetracyclin-resistance respectively. Otherwise, plasmids elimination by ofloxacin was not evidenced. The results obtained in this study confirm the potential of fluoroquinolones to eliminate antibiotic-resistant plasmids, and showed to be a valuable contribution for the prevention of multi-resistant strains, and may even enhance their sensitivity to other chemotherapeutic agents.

  12. Evaluation of the synergistic potential of vancomycin combined with other antimicrobial agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Viganor da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp (CNS are the most common pathogens that cause serious long term infections in patients. Despite the existence of new antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, vancomycin (VAN remains the standard therapy for the treatment of infections caused by these multidrug-resistant strains. However, the use of VAN has been associated with a high frequency of therapeutic failures in some clinical scenarios, mainly with decreasing concentration of VAN. This work aims to evaluate the synergic potential of VAN plus sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT, VAN plus rifampin (RIF and VAN plus imipenem (IPM in sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations against 22 clinical strains of MRSA and CNS. The checkerboard method showed synergism of VAN/RIF and VAN/SXT against two and three of the 22 strains, respectively. The combination of VAN with IPM showed synergistic effects against 21 out of 22 strains by the E-test method. Four strains were analyzed by the time-kill curve method and synergistic activity was observed with VAN/SXT, VAN/RIF and especially VAN/IPM in sub-inhibitory concentrations. It would be interesting to determine if synergy occurs in vivo. Evidence of in vivo synergy could lead to a reduction of the standard VAN dosage or treatment time.

  13. An investigation of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration creep among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from pediatric patients and healthy children in Northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ning; Lo, Wen-Tsung; Chan, Ming-Chin; Yu, Ching-Mei; Wang, Chih-Chien

    2017-06-01

    The phenomenon of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep is an increasingly serious problem in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. In this study, we investigated the vancomycin and daptomycin MIC values of MRSA strains isolated from pediatric patients and MRSA colonized healthy children. Then, we assessed whether there was evidence of clonal dissemination for strains with an MIC to vancomycin of ≥ 1.5 μg/mL. We collected clinical MRSA isolates from pediatric patients and from healthy children colonized with MRSA during 2008-2012 at a tertiary medical center in northern Taiwan and obtained vancomycin and daptomycin MIC values using the Etest method. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec) typing were used to assess clonal dissemination for strains with an MIC to vancomycin of ≥ 1.5 μg/mL. A total 195 MRSA strains were included in this study; 87 were isolated patients with a clinical MRSA infection, and the other 108 strains from nasally colonized healthy children. Vancomycin MIC≥1.5 μg/mL was seen in more clinical isolates (60/87, 69%) than colonized isolates (32/108, 29.6%), p < 0.001. The PFGE typing of both strains revealed multiple pulsotypes. Vancomycin MIC creeps existed in both clinical MRSA isolates and colonized MRSA strains. Great diversity of PFGE typing was in both strains collected. There was no association between the clinical and colonized MRSA isolates with vancomycin MIC creep. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewnetu, Yalemwork; Lemma, Wossenseged; Birhane, Nega

    2013-10-19

    Honey is a natural substance produced by honeybees and has nutritional and therapeutic uses. In Ethiopia, honeys are used traditionally to treat wounds, respiratory infections and diarrhoea. Recent increase of drug resistant bacteria against the existing antibiotics forced investigators to search for alternative natural remedies and evaluate their potential use on scientific bases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of different types of honeys in Ethiopia which are used traditionally to treat different types of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. Mueller Hinton agar (70191) diffusion and nutrient broth culture medium assays were performed to determine susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and resistant clinical isolates (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA), Escherichia coli(R) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), using honeys of Apis mellifera and stingless bees in northern and north western Ethiopia. Honey of the stingless bees produced the highest mean inhibition (22.27 ± 3.79 mm) compared to white honey (21.0 ± 2.7 mm) and yellow honey (18.0 ± 2.3 mm) at 50% (v/v) concentration on all the standard and resistant strains. Stingless bees honey was found to have Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 6.25% (6.25 mg/ml) for 80% of the test organisms compared to 40% for white and yellow Apis mellifera honeys. All the honeys were found to have minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 12.5% (12.5 mg/ml) against all the test organisms. Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) was susceptible to amoxicillin, methicillin, kanamycine, tetracycline, and vancomycine standard antibiotic discs used for susceptibility tests. Similarly, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) was found susceptible for kanamycine, tetracycline and vancomycine. Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) has not been tested for amoxicillin ampicillin and methicillin. The susceptibility tests performed against

  15. Human factor in Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Nouwen (Jan); H.A.M. Boelens (Hélène); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPersistent nasal carriers and noncarriers of Staphylococcus aureus were inoculated with a mixture of different S. aureus strains. The majority of noncarriers and nearly all persistent carriers returned to their original carrier state after artificial inoculation. Furthermore, the

  16. Strain Specific Phage Treatment for Staphylococcus aureus Infection Is Influenced by Host Immunity and Site of Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan B Pincus

    Full Text Available The response to multi-drug resistant bacterial infections must be a global priority. While mounting resistance threatens to create what the World Health Organization has termed a "post-antibiotic era", the recent discovery that antibiotic use may adversely impact the microbiome adds further urgency to the need for new developmental approaches for anti-pathogen treatments. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, in particular, has declared itself a serious threat within the United States and abroad. A potential solution to the problem of antibiotic resistance may not entail looking to the future for completely novel treatments, but instead looking into our history of bacteriophage therapy. This study aimed to test the efficacy, safety, and commercial viability of the use of phages to treat Staphylococcus aureus infections using the commercially available phage SATA-8505. We found that SATA-8505 effectively controls S. aureus growth and reduces bacterial viability both in vitro and in a skin infection mouse model. However, this killing effect was not observed when phage was cultured in the presence of human whole blood. SATA-8505 did not induce inflammatory responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cultures. However, phage did induce IFN gamma production in primary human keratinocyte cultures and induced inflammatory responses in our mouse models, particularly in a mouse model of chronic granulomatous disease. Our findings support the potential efficacy of phage therapy, although regulatory and market factors may limit its wider investigation and use.

  17. Strain Specific Phage Treatment for Staphylococcus aureus Infection Is Influenced by Host Immunity and Site of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Nathan B; Reckhow, Jensen D; Saleem, Danial; Jammeh, Momodou L; Datta, Sandip K; Myles, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    The response to multi-drug resistant bacterial infections must be a global priority. While mounting resistance threatens to create what the World Health Organization has termed a "post-antibiotic era", the recent discovery that antibiotic use may adversely impact the microbiome adds further urgency to the need for new developmental approaches for anti-pathogen treatments. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in particular, has declared itself a serious threat within the United States and abroad. A potential solution to the problem of antibiotic resistance may not entail looking to the future for completely novel treatments, but instead looking into our history of bacteriophage therapy. This study aimed to test the efficacy, safety, and commercial viability of the use of phages to treat Staphylococcus aureus infections using the commercially available phage SATA-8505. We found that SATA-8505 effectively controls S. aureus growth and reduces bacterial viability both in vitro and in a skin infection mouse model. However, this killing effect was not observed when phage was cultured in the presence of human whole blood. SATA-8505 did not induce inflammatory responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cultures. However, phage did induce IFN gamma production in primary human keratinocyte cultures and induced inflammatory responses in our mouse models, particularly in a mouse model of chronic granulomatous disease. Our findings support the potential efficacy of phage therapy, although regulatory and market factors may limit its wider investigation and use.

  18. Validation and qualification of surface-applied fibre optic strain sensors using application-independent optical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukar, Vivien G; Kadoke, Daniel; Kusche, Nadine; Münzenberger, Sven; Gründer, Klaus-Peter; Habel, Wolfgang R

    2012-01-01

    Surface-applied fibre optic strain sensors were investigated using a unique validation facility equipped with application-independent optical reference systems. First, different adhesives for the sensor's application were analysed regarding their material properties. Measurements resulting from conventional measurement techniques, such as thermo-mechanical analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis, were compared with measurements resulting from digital image correlation, which has the advantage of being a non-contact technique. Second, fibre optic strain sensors were applied to test specimens with the selected adhesives. Their strain-transfer mechanism was analysed in comparison with conventional strain gauges. Relative movements between the applied sensor and the test specimen were visualized easily using optical reference methods, digital image correlation and electronic speckle pattern interferometry. Conventional strain gauges showed limited opportunities for an objective strain-transfer analysis because they are also affected by application conditions. (paper)

  19. Commercial biocides induce transfer of prophage Φ13 from human strains of Staphylococcus aureus to livestock CC398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yuanyue; Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Hvitved, Annemette

    2017-01-01

    if exposure to biocidal products induces phage transfer, and find that during co-culture, Φ13 from strain 8325, belonging to ΦSa3 group, is induced and transferred from a human strain to LA-MRSA CC398 when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of commercial biocides containing hydrogen peroxide. Integration...... variation in CC398 strains that disrupts the phage attachment site, but not the expression of β-hemolysin. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide present in biocidal products stimulate transfer of ΦSa3 from human to LA-MRSA CC398 strains and that in these strains prophage stability depends...

  20. Genetic diversity of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from burn patients in Iran: ST239-SCCmec III/t037 emerges as the major clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Mehdi; Bahramian, Mahnaz; Satarzadeh Tabrizi, Mahboobeh; Udo, Edet E; Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; Fazeli, Maryam; Goudarzi, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a major cause of infection in health care, hospital and community settings is a global health concern. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and distribution of circulating molecular types of MRSA in a burn hospital in Tehran, the capital of Iran. During a 10-month study period, 106 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were assessed. Isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion method and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for detection of mecA, fem and nuc genes. The presence of PVL and tst encoding genes were determined by PCR method. All the MRSA isolates were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, SCCmec typing and agr typing. The presence of mecA gene was confirmed in all the Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed a high resistance rate (90.6%) to ampicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. The rates of resistance to remaining antibiotics tested varied between 18.9% and 84.9%. The high- level of resistance to mupirocin was confirmed in 19.8% of MRSA strains isolated from burn patients. Multi-drug resistance was observed in 90.6% of isolates. Sixteen of the 106 MRSA isolates (15.1%) harbored PVL-encoding genes. The majority of our MRSA strains carried SCCmec III (71.7%). ST239-SCCmec III/t037 (34%) was the most common genotype followed by ST239-SCCmec III/t030 (24.5%), ST15-SCCmec IV/t084 (15.1%), ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 (13.2%), and ST239-SCCmec III/t631 (13.2%). Mupirocin resistant MRSA isolates belonged to ST15-SCCmec IV/t084 (40%), ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 (23.3%), ST239-SCCmec III/t631 (20%), and ST239-SCCmec III/t030 (16.7%) clones. The results showed that genetically diverse strains of MRSA are circulating in our burn hospitals with relatively high prevalence of ST239-SCCmec III/t037 clone. The findings support the need for regular surveillance of MRSA to determine the distribution of

  1. Antimicrobial activity and synergy of antibiotics with two biphenyl compounds, protosappanins A and B from Sappan Lignum against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guo-Ying; Han, Zong-Qi; Han, Jun; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Tang, Hua-Shu; Wang, Gen-Chun

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to investigate antimicrobial ingredients from Sappan Lignum and to evaluate their synergy on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains with antibiotics. Bioactivity-guided phytochemical procedures were used to screen the active compounds. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were assayed by broth microdilution. The synergy was evaluated through checkerboard microdilution and loss of viability assays. Protosappanins A (PsA) and B (PsB) were identified from Sappan Lignum extracts. They showed active against both S. aureus and MRSA with MIC or MIC50 at 64 (PsA) and 128 (PsB) mg/L alone. When they were used in combination with antibiotics, they showed best synergy with amikacin and gentamicin with MIC50 (mg/L) of amikacin reduced more significantly from 32 to four (with PsA) and eight (with PsB), and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) ranged between 0.078 and 0.500 (FICI50  = 0.375). Moreover, the resistance of MRSA towards amikacin and gentamicin could be reversed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria. The combined bactericidal mode could as well be synergy. PsA and PsB showed very low cytotoxicity in comparison with their promising activity against MRSA. Protosappanins A and B showed both alone activities and resistance reversal effects of amikacin and gentamicin against MRSA, which warrant further investigations for potential combinatory therapy of MRSA infection. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus in the community: colonization versus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections have increased dramatically in the community, yet S. aureus nasal colonization has remained stable. The objectives of this study were to determine if S. aureus colonization is a useful proxy measure to study disease transmission and infection in community settings, and to identify potential community reservoirs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Randomly selected households in Northern Manhattan, completed a structured social network questionnaire and provided nasal swabs that were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to identify S. aureus colonizing strains. The main outcome measures were: 1 colonization with S. aureus; and 2 recent serious skin infection. Risk factor analyses were conducted at both the individual and the household levels; logistic regression models identified independent risks for household colonization and infection. RESULTS: 321 surveyed households contained 914 members. The S. aureus prevalence was 25% and MRSA was 0.4%. More than 40% of households were colonized. Recent antibiotic use was the only significant correlate for household colonization (p = .002. Seventy-eight (24% households reported serious skin infection. In contrast with colonization, five of the six risk factors that increased the risk of skin infection in the household at the univariate level remained independently significant in multivariable analysis: international travel, sports participation, surgery, antibiotic use and towel sharing. S. aureus colonization was not significantly associated with serious skin infection in any analysis. Among multiperson households with more than one person colonized, 50% carried the same strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of association between S. aureus nasal colonization and serious skin infection underscores the need to explore alternative venues or body sites that may be crucial to transmission. Moreover, the magnitude of colonization and

  3. Staphylococcus aureus surface contamination of mobile phones and presence of genetically identical strains on the hands of nursing personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuse Kanayama, Akiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Kaneko, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Intetsu

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the genetic relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from mobile phones and palms and fingers of users. Genetically identical isolates were detected from mobile phones and their user and multiple users, which is consistent with mobile phones serving as reservoirs of infection in the health care environment. These findings reinforce the need for hand hygiene prior to patient contact as the most effective intervention for preventing health care-associated infection. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. N,N'-disubstituted cinnamamide derivatives potentiate ciprofloxacin activity against overexpressing NorA efflux pump Staphylococcus aureus 1199B strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radix, Sylvie; Jordheim, Anne Doléans; Rocheblave, Luc; N'Digo, Serge; Prignon, Anne-Laure; Commun, Carine; Michalet, Serge; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Geneviève; Mularoni, Angélique; Walchshofer, Nadia

    2018-04-25

    A multi-step procedure has been described which afforded satisfactory yields of N,N'-disubstituted cinnamamides derived from N-Boc-protected amino acids (Boc-Gly, Boc-Val, Boc-Phe). The key step of this synthesis was a regioselective RedAl reduction of an amide function in presence of a carbamate group. Next, these cinnamamides were evaluated in co-admnistration with ciprofloxacin as efflux pump inhibitors against two S. aureus strains, NorA overexpressing SA1199B and wild type SA1199. In parallel, their intrinsic toxicity was appreciated on human lung fibroblast MRC5 cells. Therefore, the cinnamamide combining both carbamate and indol-3-yl groups, was found to be the most active and one of the less toxic EPI and constituted a promising hit. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of honey of stingless bees, tiúba (Melipona fasciculata) and jandaira (Melipona subnitida) compared to the strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório, Eleuza Gomes; de Jesus, Natália Rocha; Nascimento, Adenilde Ribeiro; Teles, Amanda Mara

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of honeys of stingless bees produced in Maranhão, tiúba (Melipona fasciculata) and jandaira (Melipona subnitida), opposite the strains of pathogenic bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The honey samples were collected from different regions of Maranhão. Of the 17 samples collected, twelve samples were honey M. fasciculata and five were honey M. subnitida. We used the Kirby-Bauer method, and the technique of agar disk diffusion through the extent of inhibition in milimetros. Results were negative for all samples from M. fasciculata. However, the tests for M. subnitida demonstrated bacteriostatic halos ranging from 12 to 32,6mm.

  6. Prolonged exposure of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) COL strain to increasing concentrations of oxacillin results in a multidrug-resistant phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Aagaard, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that exposure of a bacterium to increasing concentrations of an antibiotic would increase resistance to that antibiotic as a consequence of activating efflux pumps. This study utilises the same approach; however, it employs the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus...... aureus (MRSA) COL strain, which is highly resistant to oxacillin (OXA). MRSA COL was adapted to 3200 mg/L of OXA. Changes in resistance to other antibiotics were evaluated and efflux pump activity during the adaptation process was determined. MRSA COL was exposed to stepwise two-fold increases of OXA....... At the end of each step, minimum inhibitory concentration determination for erythromycin (ERY) and other antibiotics was conducted. Reserpine (RES) was employed to evaluate whether resistance to ERY was dependent on efflux pump activity. Efflux pump activity was also evaluated using the ethidium bromide (EB...

  7. Intracellular activity of antibiotics in a model of human THP-1 macrophages infected by a Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variant strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient: pharmacodynamic evaluation and comparison with isogenic normal-phenotype and revertant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Denis, Olivier; Vergison, Anne; Theunis, Anne; Tulkens, Paul M; Struelens, Marc J; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2009-04-01

    Small-colony variant (SCV) strains of Staphylococcus aureus show reduced antibiotic susceptibility and intracellular persistence, potentially explaining therapeutic failures. The activities of oxacillin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, gentamicin, rifampin, vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, daptomycin, tigecycline, moxifloxacin, telavancin, and oritavancin have been examined in THP-1 macrophages infected by a stable thymidine-dependent SCV strain in comparison with normal-phenotype and revertant isogenic strains isolated from the same cystic fibrosis patient. The SCV strain grew slowly extracellularly and intracellularly (1- and 0.2-log CFU increase in 24 h, respectively). In confocal and electron microscopy, SCV and the normal-phenotype bacteria remain confined in acid vacuoles. All antibiotics tested, except tigecycline, caused a net reduction in bacterial counts that was both time and concentration dependent. At an extracellular concentration corresponding to the maximum concentration in human serum (total drug), oritavancin caused a 2-log CFU reduction at 24 h; rifampin, moxifloxacin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin caused a similar reduction at 72 h; and all other antibiotics had only a static effect at 24 h and a 1-log CFU reduction at 72 h. In concentration dependence experiments, response to oritavancin was bimodal (two successive plateaus of -0.4 and -3.1 log CFU); tigecycline, moxifloxacin, and rifampin showed maximal effects of -1.1 to -1.7 log CFU; and the other antibiotics produced results of -0.6 log CFU or less. Addition of thymidine restored intracellular growth of the SCV strain but did not modify the activity of antibiotics (except quinupristin-dalfopristin). All drugs (except tigecycline and oritavancin) showed higher intracellular activity against normal or revertant phenotypes than against SCV strains. The data may help rationalizing the design of further studies with intracellular SCV strains.

  8. alpha-Toxin is a mediator of Staphylococcus aureus-induced cell death and activates caspases via the intrinsic death pathway independently of death receptor signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bantel, H; Sinha, B; Domschke, W; Peters, Georg; Schulze-Osthoff, K; Jänicke, R U

    2001-01-01

    Infections with Staphylococcus aureus, a common inducer of septic and toxic shock, often result in tissue damage and death of various cell types. Although S. aureus was suggested to induce apoptosis, the underlying signal transduction pathways remained elusive. We show that caspase activation and

  9. Capsular polysaccharide typing of domestic mastitis-causing Staphylococcus aureus strains and its potential exploration of bovine mastitis vaccine development. I. Capsular polysaccharide typing, isolation and purification of the strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H R; Pak, S I; Kang, S W; Jong, W S; Youn, C J

    2000-06-01

    One hundred seven isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis were investigated for colony morphology in serum-soft agar (SSA), autoagglutination in salt, and capsular serotype. Capsular polysaccharide (CP) was purified and quantified from the extracts of clinical isolates. Overall, 89 isolates (83.2%) were diffuse in the SSA, without any difference in the proportion of diffuse colony between type 5 and type 8 strains. Some strains exhibited compact colonies in the SSA and expressed CP as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indicating that compact morphology does not exclude encapsulation. The majority of the strains (11/12) showed autoagglutination in the salt aggregation test. The serotype 336 accounted for 46.7% of the isolates followed by serotype 5 (12.1%) and serotype 8 (12.1%). Particularly, twenty-six (24.3%) isolates reacted with two serotypes; 7 for type 8/336 and 19 for type 5/336. Five isolates (4.7%) were nontypeable with monoclonal antibodies specific for CP serotype 5, 8, or 336. The CP concentration in culture supernatants varied with the serotypes, and the total amount of CP produced by cells grown in a liquid medium was much less than that produced by cells grown on a solid medium. The Western blotting indicated that the CP bands of S. aureus serotype 5 and 8 were ranged in the molecular mass of 58-84 kilodalton (kDa), with additional bands in the region of approximately >/= 48 or

  10. [Vitamin B12-independent strains of Methylophaga marina isolated from Red Sea algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ts D; Doronina, N V; Ivanova, E G; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2007-01-01

    Two strains (KM3 and KM5) of halophilic methylobacteria isolated from Red Sea algae do not require vitamin B12 for growth and can use methanol, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, dimethyl sulfide, and fructose as sources of carbon and energy. The cells of these strains are gram-negative motile monotrichous (strain KM3) or peritrichous (strain KM5) rods. The strains are strictly aerobic and require Na+ ions but not growth factors for growth. They are oxidase- and catalase-positive and reduce nitrates to nitrites. Both strains can grow in a temperature range of 4 to 37 degrees C (with optimal growth at 29-34 degrees C), at pH between 5.5 and 8.5 (with optimal growth at pH 7.5-8.0), and in a range of salt concentrations between 0.5 and 15% NaCl (with optimal growth at 5-9% NaCl). The phospholipids of these strains are dominated by phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol and also include phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and cardiolipin. The dominant fatty acids are C(16:1omega7c) and C(16:0). The major ubiquinone is Q8. The cells accumulate ectoin, glutamate, and sucrose as intracellular osmoprotectants. The strains implement the 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate-dependent variant of the ribulose monophosphate pathway. The G+C content of the DNA is 44.4-44.7 mol %. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes showed that both strains belong to Gammaproteobacteria and have a high degree of homology (99.4%) to Methylophaga marina ATCC 35842T . Based on the data of polyphasic taxonomy, strains KM3 and KM5 are identified as new strains M. marina KM3 (VKM B-2386) and M. marina KM5 (VKM B-2387). The ability of these strains to produce auxins (indole-3-acetic acid) suggests their metabolic association with marine algae.

  11. Immunoglobulin Fc receptors in clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus do not confer resistance to Phagocytosis in an in vitro assay Los receptores Fc para inmunoglobulinas en cepas clínicas de Staphylococcus aureus no confieren resistencia a la fagocitosis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito VEGA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus binds Immunoglobulin G (IgG on its external surface due to the presence of specific receptors for the Fc domain of this immunoglobulin. This mechanism represents a kind of camouflage against phagocytic cells. In order to confirm that possibility an in vitro evaluation of the phagocytic activity of leukocytes polymorpho-nuclear (PMN against strains of Staphylococcus aureus was done, comparing 18 strains isolated from clinical samples and 16 from healthy individuals. The presence of Fc receptors was evaluated by haemagglutination (HA with erythrocytes group A after incubation of the strains with IgG anti blood group A. Phagocytosis of S. aureus was carried out by mixing live bacteria with a suspension of human PMN and incubating at 37 °C for 1 h; survivors were counted as colony forming units by plating. The strains from clinical specimens showed higher HA than those from healthy individuals (p = 0.01; but the former were killed more efficiently than the latter (80-90% and 40%, respectively. It is may be possible that S. aureus showed different behavior in vivo, where could express other virulence factors to prevent the action of phagocytes.Staphylococcus aureus liga inmunoglobulinas G (IgG a su superficie externa debido a la presencia de receptores para el dominio Fc de esas inmunoglobulinas. Este mecanismo representa una clase de camuflage contra células fagocíticas. Para confirmar tal posibilidad se realizó una evaluación in vitro de la actividad fagocítica de leucocitos polimorfonucleares (PMN contra cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, comparando 18 cepas aisladas de casos clínicos y 16 de individuos sanos. La presencia de receptores fue evaluada por hemaglutinación (HA con eritrocitos grupo A luego que las cepas fueron incubadas con IgG anti grupo sanguíneo A. La fagocitosis de S. aureus fue realizada mezclando células vivas con una suspensión de PMN e incubada a 37 °C por una hora; las bacterias sobrevivientes

  12. Prophage-Encoded Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A: Regulation of Production in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Representing Different Sea Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Zeaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the nature of the link between the staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA gene and the lifecycle of Siphoviridae bacteriophages, including the origin of strain variation regarding SEA production after prophage induction. Five strains representing three different genetic lines of the sea region were studied under optimal and prophage-induced growth conditions and the Siphoviridae lifecycle was followed through the phage replicative form copies and transcripts of the lysogenic repressor, cro. The role of SOS response on prophage induction was addressed through recA transcription in a recA-disruption mutant. Prophage induction was found to increase the abundance of the phage replicative form, the sea gene copies and transcripts and enhance SEA production. Sequence analysis of the sea regions revealed that observed strain variances were related to strain capacity for prophage induction, rather than sequence differences in the sea region. The impact of SOS response activation on the phage lifecycle was demonstrated by the absence of phage replicative form copies in the recA-disruption mutant after prophage induction. From this study it emerges that all aspects of SEA-producing strain, the Siphoviridae phage and the food environment must be considered when evaluating SEA-related hazards.

  13. Role of lipase from community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300 in hydrolyzing triglycerides into growth-inhibitory free fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadieux, Brigitte; Vijayakumaran, Vithooshan; Bernards, Mark A; McGavin, Martin J; Heinrichs, David E

    2014-12-01

    Part of the human host innate immune response involves the secretion of bactericidal lipids on the skin and delivery of triglycerides into abscesses to control invading pathogens. Two Staphylococcus aureus lipases, named SAL1 and SAL2, were identified in the community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain USA300, which, presumably, are produced and function to degrade triglycerides to release free fatty acids. We show that the SAL2 lipase is one of the most abundant proteins secreted by USA300 and is proteolytically processed from the 72-kDa proSAL2 to the 44-kDa mature SAL2 by the metalloprotease aureolysin. We show that spent culture supernatants had lipase activity on both short- and long-chain fatty acid substrates and that deletion of gehB, encoding SAL2, resulted in the complete loss of these activities. With the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we show that SAL2 hydrolyzed trilinolein to linoleic acid, a fatty acid with known antistaphylococcal properties. When added to cultures of USA300, trilinolein and, to a lesser extent, triolein inhibited growth in a SAL2-dependent manner. This effect was shown to be due to the enzymatic activity of SAL2 on these triglycerides, since the catalytically inactive SAL2 Ser412Ala mutant was incapable of hydrolyzing the triglycerides or yielding delayed growth in their presence. Overall, these results reveal that SAL2 hydrolyzes triglycerides of both short- and long-chain fatty acids and that the released free fatty acids have the potential to cause significant delays in growth, depending on the chemical nature of the free fatty acid. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. A novel interpretation of the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index: The case Origanum vulgare L. and Leptospermum scoparium J. R. et G. Forst essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratini, Filippo; Mancini, Simone; Turchi, Barbara; Friscia, Elisabetta; Pistelli, Luisa; Giusti, Giulia; Cerri, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Origanum vulgare (oregano) and Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) were traditionally employed as natural remedies for infected wounds and skin injuries where Staphylococcus aureus is mainly involved. The first aim of this study was to investigate oregano and manuka essential oils (EOs) chemical compositions and evaluate their antibacterial activity (MIC, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) against fourteen S. aureus wild strains. The second aim was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of oregano and manuka EOs mixed in different combination (FIC, Fractional Inhibitory Concentration) with an improved chequerboard technique. This allowed to avoid the usual uncertainty in the determination of MIC and FIC values and to obtain a more precise interpretation of FIC indexes (FICIs). Moreover, FICIs were discussed on the basis of a novel interpretation method to evaluate the synergistic/antagonistic effect of EOs mixtures. The most representative compounds in oregano EO were Carvacrol (65.93%), p-Cymene (9.33%) and γ-Terpinene (5.25%), while in manuka EO were Leptospermone (31.65%), cis-Calamenene (15.93%) and Flavesone (6.92%). EOs presented MIC values ranging from 1:2048 to 1:4096 v/v and FIC values ranging from 0.125 to 1. According to our interpretation, a synergistic effect (34.68%), a commutative effect (15.32%) and an indifferent effect (50.00%) and no antagonistic effect were observed. Conversely, according to two previously proposed FICI interpretation models, 1.80% synergistic effect could be observed and, respectively, 98.20% indifferent effect or 48.20% additive effect and 50.00% indifferent effect. As practical results, oregano and manuka EOs may be an effective alternative to chemotherapic drugs in staphylococcal infections and useful tools to enhance food security. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Produção de enterotoxinas e da toxina da síndrome do choque tóxico por cepas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas na mastite bovina Production of enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin by Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nader Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 72 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were examined for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE A, B, C, D and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1. The strains were isolated from milk samples from cows with mastitis in dairy herds of São Paulo State, Brazil. Off 72 isolates, 38 (52.8% produced SEA, 38 (52.8% SEB, 32 (44.4% SED, 28 (38.9% SEC and 27 (37.5% TSST-1. From the 72 strains, 66 (91.7% produced, at least, one or more toxin, including TSST-1.

  16. Ketamine inhibits tumor necrosis factor secretion by RAW264.7 murine macrophages stimulated with antibiotic-exposed strains of community-associated, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by community-associated strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA are associated with a marked and prolonged host inflammatory response. In a sepsis simulation model, we tested whether the anesthetic ketamine inhibits the macrophage TNF response to antibiotic-exposed CA-MRSA bacteria via its antagonism of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors. RAW264.7 cells were stimulated for 18 hrs with 105 to 107 CFU/mL inocula of either of two prototypical CA-MRSA isolates, USA300 strain LAC and USA400 strain MW2, in the presence of either vancomycin or daptomycin. One hour before bacterial stimulation, ketamine was added with or without MK-801 (dizocilpine, a chemically unrelated non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, APV (D-2-amino-5-phosphono-valerate, a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, NMDA, or combinations of these agents. Supernatants were collected and assayed for TNF concentration by ELISA. Results RAW264.7 cells exposed to either LAC or MW2 in the presence of daptomycin secreted less TNF than in the presence of vancomycin. The addition of ketamine inhibited macrophage TNF secretion after stimulation with either of the CA-MRSA isolates (LAC, MW2 in the presence of either antibiotic. The NMDA inhibitors, MK-801 and APV, also suppressed macrophage TNF secretion after stimulation with either of the antibiotic-exposed CA-MRSA isolates, and the effect was not additive or synergistic with ketamine. The addition of NMDA substrate augmented TNF secretion in response to the CA-MRSA bacteria, and the addition of APV suppressed the effect of NMDA in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions Ketamine inhibits TNF secretion by MRSA-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the mechanism likely involves NMDA receptor antagonism. These findings may have therapeutic significance in MRSA sepsis.

  17. Anti-bacterial Efficacy of Bacteriocin Produced by Marine Bacillus subtilis Against Clinically Important Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Strains and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Mickymaray

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anti-bacterial efficacy of bacteriocin produced by Bacillus subtilis SM01 (GenBank accession no: KY612347, a Gram-positive marine bacterium, against Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL producing Gram-negative pathogens Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, and Gram-positive pathogen Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Methods: A marine bacterium was isolated from mangrove sediment from the Red Sea coast of Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and identified based on its morphological, biochemical, and molecular characteristics. The bacteriocin production using this isolate was carried out in brain heart infusion broth (BHIB medium. The Anti-bacterial activity of bacteriocin was evaluated against selected ESBL strains and MRSA by the well agar method. The effects of incubation time, pH, and temperature on the Anti-bacterial activity were studied. Results: The bacteriocin Bac-SM01 produced by B. subtilis SM01 demonstrated broad-spectrum Anti-bacterial activity against both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. The present study is the first report that the bacteriocin Bac-SM01 inhibits the growth of ESBL producing Gram-negative strains A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli, and a Gram-positive MRSA strain. The optimum incubation time, pH, and temperature for the Anti-bacterial activity of Bac-SM01 was 24 h, 7, and 37°C respectively. Conclusion: The overall investigation can conclude that the bacteriocin Bac-SM01 from the marine isolate Bacillus subtilis SM01 could be used as an alternative Anti-bacterial agent in pharmaceutical products.

  18. Phylogeny and Classification of Yersinia pestis Through the Lens of Strains From the Plague Foci of Commonwealth of Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Kutyrev

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The established phylogeny of the etiological agent of plague, Yersinia pestis, is not perfect, as it does not take into account the strains from numerous natural foci of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS. We have carried out PCR and SNP typing of 359 strains and whole genome sequencing of 51 strains from these plague foci and determined the phylogenetic diversity of the strains circulating here. They belong to 0.ANT3, 0.ANT5, 2.ANT3, 4.ANT branches of antique biovar, 2.MED0, 2.MED1 branches of medieval biovar and to 0.PE2, 0.PE4a. 0.PE4h, 0.PE4t branches. Based on the studies of 178 strains from 23 plague foci of CIS countries, it was determined that the population structure of 2.MED strains is subdivided into Caucasian–Caspian and Central Asian–Chinese branches. In Central-Caucasian high-mountain plague foci in the Russian Federation (RF the most deeply diverged branch of medieval biovar, 2.MED0, has been found. With the data obtained, the current population structure of Y. pestis species has been refined. New subspecies classification is developed, comprising seven subspecies: pestis, caucasica (0.PE2, angolica (0.PE3, central asiatica (0.PE4, tibetica (0.PE7, ulegeica (0.PE5, and qinghaica (0.PE10.

  19. Determination of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from various clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegül Copur-Cicek

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion ― In the present study, the most frequent cassette was detected as SCCmec type III in concordance with the studies conducted in Turkey and in some regions in the world. In conclusion, determination of epidemiological and molecular characteristics of MRSA strains has critical importance because of the difficulties in the treatment and of the nosocomial infections and epidemics they caused. The data obtained would contribute to the preventions in terms of epidemiology.

  20. Efficacy of Lincomycin Against the Strains of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated From Various Types of Pyodermas in Children : in Vitro and in Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Rama

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Lincomycin is chemically distinct from all other available antibiotics except its semi-synthetic derivative clindamycin. Though it has been in the market for over three decades, there were not many clinical studies in India. This study has been undertaken to know its efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus, commonest organism of pyodermas in children. Material was taken from the lesions of 100 fresh cases of various types of pyodermas in children and studied by Gram stain and in 50% human blood agar and nutrient agar according to standard methods. The staphylococci thus isolated were tested for linocomycin susceptibility by using the disc diffusion technique. Lincomycin was given to all these children in a daily dose of 30 mg/kg 5 - 10 days. Treatment failure was defined as persistence of lesions after 10 days of treatment. 75% strains of staphylococci were susceptible to lincomycin in vitro and 95% of the patients responded to 5-10 days treatment. Five out of 100 children did not respond to treatment even after 10 days. No case of relapse was noticed among these 95 children for a period of 2 weeks. No side effects were observed and the drug was very well tolerated. Being highly effective and least toxic linomycin deserves a place in the antimicrobial arsenal of the modern dermatologists.

  1. Direct bacterial loop-mediated isothermal amplification detection on the pathogenic features of the nosocomial pathogen - Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains with respiratory origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qun; Xu, Pusheng; Li, Jiaowu; Chen, Yin; Feng, Jieyi

    2017-08-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification based detection assays using bacterial culture or colony for direct detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) had been developed and evaluated, followed by its extensive application on a large scale of clinical MRSA isolated from respiratory origins, including nasal swabs and sputums. Six primers, including outer primers, inner primers and loop primers, were specifically designed for recognizing eight distinct sequences on four targets: 16SrRNA, femA, mecA and orfX. Twenty-seven reference strains were used to develop, evaluate and optimize this assay. Then, a total of 532 clinical MRSA isolates were employed for each detected targets. And the results were determined through both visual observation of the color change by naked eye and electrophoresis. The specific of each primer had been confirmed, and the optimal amplification was obtained under 65 °C for 40 min. The limit of detections (LOD) of bacteria culture LAMP assays were determined to be 10 4  CFU/ml for 16S rRNA, femA, as well as orfX and 10 5  CFU/ml for mecA, respectively. The established novel assays on MRSA detection may provide new strategies for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. A new scheme for strain typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on the basis of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry by using machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin-Yao; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Tseng, Yi-Ju; Liu, Tsui-Ping; Huang, Kai-Yao; Chang, Yung-Ta; Chen, Chun-Hsien; Lu, Jang-Jih

    2018-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), one of the most important clinical pathogens, conducts an increasing number of morbidity and mortality in the world. Rapid and accurate strain typing of bacteria would facilitate epidemiological investigation and infection control in near real time. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is a rapid and cost-effective tool for presumptive strain typing. To develop robust method for strain typing based on MALDI-TOF spectrum, machine learning (ML) is a promising algorithm for the construction of predictive model. In this study, a strategy of building templates of specific types was used to facilitate generating predictive models of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain typing through various ML methods. The strain types of the isolates were determined through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the predictive accuracy of the models were compared. ST5, ST59, and ST239 were the major MLST types, and ST45 was the minor type. For binary classification, the AUC values of various ML methods ranged from 0.76 to 0.99 for ST5, ST59, and ST239 types. In multiclass classification, the predictive accuracy of all generated models was more than 0.83. This study has demonstrated that ML methods can serve as a cost-effective and promising tool that provides preliminary strain typing information about major MRSA lineages on the basis of MALDI-TOF spectra.

  3. METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus often pose therapeutic dilemma to the clinicians because of the multi resistant nature of these strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Outbreaks of both nosocomial and community acquired infections are also frequent and difficult to control.

  4. The action of NIR (808nm) laser radiation and gold nanorods labeled with IgA and IgG human antibodies on methicillin-resistant and methicillin sensitive strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Petrov, Pavel O.; Ratto, Fulvio; Centi, Sonia; Pini, Roberto; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    The effect of NIR laser radiation (808 nm) on methicillin-sensitive and methicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus incubated with gold nanorods is studied. Nanorods having length of 44 (± 4) nm and diameter of 10 (± 3) nm with the absorption maximum in the NIR (800 nm), functionalized with human immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, were synthesized and used in the studies. The killing ability up to 97% of the microorganism populations by using this nanotechnology was shown.

  5. Ethanol-Independent Biofilm Formation by a Flor Wine Yeast Strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Severino; Gross, Michael K.; Zara, Giacomo; Budroni, Marilena; Bakalinsky, Alan T.

    2010-01-01

    Flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae form a biofilm on the surface of wine at the end of fermentation, when sugar is depleted and growth on ethanol becomes dependent on oxygen. Here, we report greater biofilm formation on glycerol and ethyl acetate and inconsistent formation on succinic, lactic, and acetic acids. PMID:20435772

  6. Ethanol-independent biofilm formation by a flor wine yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Severino; Gross, Michael K; Zara, Giacomo; Budroni, Marilena; Bakalinsky, Alan T

    2010-06-01

    Flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae form a biofilm on the surface of wine at the end of fermentation, when sugar is depleted and growth on ethanol becomes dependent on oxygen. Here, we report greater biofilm formation on glycerol and ethyl acetate and inconsistent formation on succinic, lactic, and acetic acids.

  7. Comparison of five tests for identification of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Luijendijk (Ad); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractFive different laboratory tests for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus were compared. Analyses of 271 presumptive S. aureus strains, supplemented with 59 well-defined methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates, were performed. Only the

  8. A Point Mutation in the Sensor Histidine Kinase SaeS of Staphylococcus aureus Strain Newman Alters the Response to Biocide Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Daniel; Lam, Thien-Tri; Geiger, Tobias; Mainiero, Markus; Engelmann, Susanne; Hussain, Muzaffar; Bosserhoff, Armin; Frosch, Matthias; Bischoff, Markus; Wolz, Christiane; Reidl, Joachim; Sinha, Bhanu

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus reacts to changing environmental conditions such as heat, pH, and chemicals through global regulators such as the sae (S. aureus exoprotein expression) two-component signaling system. Subinhibitory concentrations of some antibiotics were shown to increase virulence factor

  9. Short communication: Effects of lactose and milk on the expression of biofilm-associated genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ting; Chen, Xiaolin; Shang, Fei

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the main etiological organism responsible for bovine mastitis. The ability of S. aureus to form biofilms plays an important role in the pathogenesis of mastitis. Biofilm formation in S. aureus is associated with the production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) protein and several other proteins. Several environmental factors, including glucose, osmolarity, oleic acid, temperature, and anaerobiosis, have been reported to affect biofilm formation in S. aureus. This study investigated the influence of lactose and milk on the biofilm formation capacity of 2 clinical bovine isolates of S. aureus. We found that lactose increased biofilm formation predominantly by inducing PIA production, whereas milk increased biofilm formation through PIA as well as by increasing the production of other biofilm-associated proteins, which might be mediated by the transcriptional regulators intercellular adhesion regulator (icaR) and repressor of biofilm (rbf). Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Angle- and strain-independent coloured free-standing films incorporating non-spherical colloidal photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Seon Ju; Tu, Fuquan; Kim, Seung-hyun; Yi, Gi-Ra; Yoo, Pil J; Lee, Daeyeon

    2015-02-28

    Colloidal photonic crystals (CPCs) provide a convenient way to generate structural colour with high stability against degradation under environmental factors. For a number of applications including flexible electronic and energy devices, it is important to generate flexible structural colour that maintains its colour regardless of the angle of observation and the extent of mechanical deformation. However, it is challenging to simultaneously achieve these goals because anisotropy in typical CPC structures (e.g., CPC films) tends to lead to angle-dependent photonic properties and also changes in the lattice constant due to mechanical deformation lead to changes in the photonic properties of CPCs. To overcome these challenges, we present a means of fabricating large-area free-standing films of CPC structures that exhibit angle- and strain-independent photonic characteristics. First, monodisperse double emulsions encapsulating colloidal crystal arrays are prepared using a microfluidic device. By inducing crystallization of highly charged polystyrene particles in the core of double emulsions using osmotic annealing, we generate angle independent colloidal photonic crystal (CPC) supraparticles. Moreover, the shape and crystallinity of the CPC supraparticles can be tuned by changing the concentration of salt in the solution used for osmotic annealing. Subsequently, an array of CPC supraparticles is embedded inside an elastomeric matrix to form a flexible free-standing film, which exhibits structural colours that are independent of viewing angles and externally applied strain.

  11. A numerical basis for strain-gradient plasticity theory: Rate-independent and rate-dependent formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2014-01-01

    of a single plastic zone is analyzed to illustrate the agreement with earlier published results, whereafter examples of (ii) multiple plastic zone interaction, and (iii) elastic–plastic loading/unloading are presented. Here, the simple shear problem of an infinite slab constrained between rigid plates......A numerical model formulation of the higher order flow theory (rate-independent) by Fleck and Willis [2009. A mathematical basis for strain-gradient plasticity theory – part II: tensorial plastic multiplier. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 57, 1045-1057.], that allows for elastic–plastic...... loading/unloading and the interaction of multiple plastic zones, is proposed. The predicted model response is compared to the corresponding rate-dependent version of visco-plastic origin, and coinciding results are obtained in the limit of small strain-rate sensitivity. First, (i) the evolution...

  12. Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh cow milk in settled ... produced alpha haemolysin, 45.5% (n=25) produced beta haemolysin and ... resistant strains of S. aureus of animal and human biotypes and can serve as ...

  13. Molecular Characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Intensive Care Units in Iran: ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 Emerges as the Major Clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Mehdi; Goudarzi, Hossein; Sá Figueiredo, Agnes Marie; Udo, Edet E; Fazeli, Maryam; Asadzadeh, Mohammad; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in different patient populations is a major public health concern. This study determined the prevalence and distribution of circulating molecular types of MRSA in hospitalized patients in ICU of hospitals in Tehran. A total of 70 MRSA isolates were collected from patients in eight hospitals. Antimicrobial resistance patterns were determined using the disk diffusion method. The presence of toxin encoding genes and the vancomycin resistance gene were determined by PCR. The MRSA isolates were further analyzed using multi-locus sequence, spa, SCCmec, and agr typing. The MRSA prevalence was 93.3%. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed a high resistance rate (97.1%) to ampicillin and penicillin. The rate of resistance to the majority of antibiotics tested was 30% to 71.4%. Two isolates belonging to the ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 clone (MIC ≥ 8 μg/ml) had intermediate resistance to vancomycin. The majority of MRSA isolates (24.3%) were associated with the ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 clone; the other MRSA clones were ST859-SCCmec IV/t969 (18.6%), ST239-SCCmec III/t037 (17.1%), and ST291-SCCmec IV/t030 (8.6%). The circulating MRSA strains in Iranian hospitals were genetically diverse with a relatively high prevalence of the ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 clone. These findings support the need for future surveillance studies on MRSA to better elucidate the distribution of existing MRSA clones and detect emergence of new MRSA clones.

  14. Thermodynamics and analysis of rate-independent adhesive contact at small strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rossi, R.; Roubíček, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 10 (2011), s. 3159-3190 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : adhesive contact * nonlinear heat equation * rate-independence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.536, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X11000496

  15. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Budri, Paulo E; Silva, Nathalia CC; Bonsaglia, Erika CR; Fernandes Júnior, Ary; Araújo Júnior, Joao P; Doyama, Julio T; Gonçalves, Juliano L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Rall, Vera LM

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syz...

  16. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and infection among patients with diabetic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Lin, Nai-Yu; Huang, Yu-Yao; Hsieh, Chi-Chun; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2018-06-04

    To evaluate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage in patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) in Taiwan, and to assess the concordance between colonizing and clinical MRSA isolates from the patients. A total of 354 nasal specimens were collected from 112 to 242 diabetic patients with and without foot ulcer, respectively. MRSA clinical isolates from DFU wound cultures were collected for comparison. Nasal carriage rate of S. aureus and MRSA was similar between diabetic patients with and without foot ulcer (15.2% vs. 16.9% for S. aureus and 5.4% vs. 1.7% for MRSA). Nasal S. aureus colonization was an independent predictor for wound S. aureus infection (Odds ratio [OR]: 5.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-17.59), so did nasal MRSA colonization (OR: 19.09, 95% CI: 2.12-171.91). The levels of glycated hemoglobin, and the usage with immunosuppressant agent were associated with S. aureus nasal colonization while oral hypoglycemic agent usage a protective factor. Sequence type 59/staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec IV or V, the local endemic community-associated clone, accounted for 42% and 70% of the clinical and colonizing isolates, respectively. Six of 10 patients with paired colonizing and clinical isolates, either MRSA or methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, had a genetically identical strain from a single patient. Less than one-fifth of patients with DFU have nasal S. aureus, including MRSA, colonization; however, the colonization is significantly associated with S. aureus diabetic foot infection. Screening for S. aureus colonizing status in DFU patients might have a potential clinical implication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Gene expression-based classifiers identify Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hee Ahn

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes a spectrum of human infection. Diagnostic delays and uncertainty lead to treatment delays and inappropriate antibiotic use. A growing literature suggests the host's inflammatory response to the pathogen represents a potential tool to improve upon current diagnostics. The hypothesis of this study is that the host responds differently to S. aureus than to E. coli infection in a quantifiable way, providing a new diagnostic avenue. This study uses Bayesian sparse factor modeling and penalized binary regression to define peripheral blood gene-expression classifiers of murine and human S. aureus infection. The murine-derived classifier distinguished S. aureus infection from healthy controls and Escherichia coli-infected mice across a range of conditions (mouse and bacterial strain, time post infection and was validated in outbred mice (AUC>0.97. A S. aureus classifier derived from a cohort of 94 human subjects distinguished S. aureus blood stream infection (BSI from healthy subjects (AUC 0.99 and E. coli BSI (AUC 0.84. Murine and human responses to S. aureus infection share common biological pathways, allowing the murine model to classify S. aureus BSI in humans (AUC 0.84. Both murine and human S. aureus classifiers were validated in an independent human cohort (AUC 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. The approach described here lends insight into the conserved and disparate pathways utilized by mice and humans in response to these infections. Furthermore, this study advances our understanding of S. aureus infection; the host response to it; and identifies new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues.

  18. Investigating a rare methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain: first description of genome sequencing and molecular characterization of CC15-MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senok AC

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abiola C Senok,1 Ali M Somily,2 Peter Slickers,3,4 Muhabat A Raji,5 Ghada Garaween,5 Atef Shibl,5 Stefan Monecke,3,4,6 Ralf Ehricht3,4 1Department of Basic Science, College of Medicine, Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital and King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Alere Technologies GmbH, Jena, Germany, 4InfectoGnostics Research Campus, Jena, Germany; 5Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene (IMMH, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany Purpose: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC15 strains (CC15-MRSA have only been sporadically described in literature. This study was carried out to describe the genetic make-up for this rare MRSA strain.Methods: Four CC15-MRSA isolates collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 2013 and 2014 were studied. Two isolates were from clinical infection and 2 from retail meat products. Whole genome sequencing was carried out using Illumina HiSeq2500 genome analyzer.Results: All the CC15-MRSA isolates had the multilocus sequence typing profile ST1535, 13–13-1–1-81-11-13, which is a single locus variant of ST15. Of the 6 contigs related to the SCC element, one comprised a recombinase gene ccrAA, ccrC-PM1, fusC and a helicase, another one included mvaS, dru, mecA and 1 had yobV and Q4LAG7. The SCC element had 5 transposase genes, namely 3 identical paralogs of tnpIS431 and 2 identical paralogs of tnpIS256. Two identical copies of a tnpIS256-based insertion element flank the aacA-aphD gene. Two copies of this insertion element were present with 1 located in the SCC element and another inserted into the sasC gene. A short 3 kb region, which lacks any bacteriophage structural genes and site-specific DNA integrase, was

  19. Distribution of sasX, pvl, and qacA/B genes in epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong H

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Haishen Kong,1,2 Lingmei Fang,3 Rujin Jiang,4 Jixiang Tong2 1State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; 2Key Laboratory of Clinical In Vitro Diagnostic Techniques of Zhejiang Province, Department of Laboratory Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; 3Clinical Laboratory, Chunan First People’s Hospital, Zhejiang Province People’s Hospital Chunan Branch, Hangzhou, China; 4Clinical Laboratory, Yuhang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hangzhou, China Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen. Various virulence and antiseptic-resistant factors increase the pathogenicity of MRSA strains and allow for increased infection rates.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of virulence-associated and antiseptic-resistant genes from epidemic MRSA strains isolated from East China.Methods: A newly designed multiplex PCR assay was used to assess whether the virulence-associated genes sasX and pvl and the chlorhexidine tolerance gene qacA/B were present in 189 clinical isolates of MRSA. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST and Staphylococcal protein A (spa typing of these isolates were also performed. The frequency of these genes in isolates with epidemic sequence types (STs was investigated. Results: Twenty STs and 36 spa types with five epidemic clones (ST5-t311, ST59-t437, ST5-t002, ST239-t030, and ST239-t037 were identified. The prevalence of sasX, pvl, and qacA/B in all isolates was 5.8%, 10.1%, and 20.1%, respectively. The prevalences of these genes in isolates with ST5, ST59, ST239, and other ST genetic backgrounds were all significantly different (P<0.001. Isolates that had the highest frequency of sas

  20. Clumping factor A-mediated virulence during Staphylococcus aureus infection is retained despite fibrinogen depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmqvist, Niklas; Josefsson, Elisabet; Tarkowski, Andrzej

    2004-02-01

    Clumping factor A (ClfA), a fibrinogen-binding protein expressed on the Staphylococcus aureus cell surface, has previously been shown to act as a virulence factor in experimental septic arthritis. Although the interaction between ClfA and fibrinogen is assumed to be of importance for the virulence of S. aureus, this has not been demonstrated in any in vivo model of infection. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of this interaction to ClfA-mediated virulence in murine S. aureus-induced arthritis. Ancrod, a serine protease with thrombin-like activity, was used to induce in vivo depletion of fibrinogen in mice. Ancrod treatment significantly aggravated septic arthritis following inoculation with a ClfA-expressing strain (Newman) compared to control treatment. Also, ancrod treatment tended to enhance the arthritis induced by a clfA mutant strain (DU5876), indicating that fibrinogen depletion exacerbates septic arthritis in a ClfA-independent manner. Most importantly, the ClfA-expressing strain was much more arthritogenic than the isogenic clfA mutant, following inoculation of fibrinogen-depleted mice. This finding indicates that the interaction between ClfA and free fibrinogen is not required for ClfA-mediated functions contributing to S. aureus virulence. It is conceivable that ClfA contributes to the virulence of S. aureus through interactions with other host ligands than fibrinogen.

  1. 'Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from raw meat and meat products in Zaria, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndahi, M D; Kwaga, J K P; Bello, M; Kabir, J; Umoh, V J; Yakubu, S E; Nok, A J

    2014-03-01

    The bacterial genera Listeria and Staphylococcus have been frequently isolated from food products and are responsible for a number of animal and human diseases. The aim of the study was to simultaneously isolate and characterize L. monocytogenes and Staphylococcus species from 300 samples of raw meat and meat products, to determine the susceptibility of the organisms to commonly used antimicrobial agents and to determine the presence of haemolysin A (hyl) virulence gene in L. monocytogenes and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mecA (SCCmec) gene in the Staph. aureus isolates using PCR. Of the 85 Listeria isolates tested, 12 L. monocytogenes were identified and tested for their sensitivity to 14 antimicrobial agents. All the 12 isolates (100%) were resistant to nine antimicrobial agents, but however sensitive to gentamicin. Only one isolate was found to harbour the hylA gene. Twenty-nine isolates were confirmed as Staph. aureus by the Microbact 12S identification system and were all presumptively identified as methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus species using oxacillin-resistant Staph. aureus basal medium (ORSAB). The 29 Staph. aureus isolates were tested for their sensitivity to 16 antimicrobial agents, and 11 were resistant to methicillin. None of the 11 Staph. aureus isolates harboured the methicillin resistance, mecA gene. Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus are important agents of foodborne diseases. Occurrence of these infectious agents was established in meat and meat products in Zaria, Nigeria. Majority of isolates obtained from this study, displayed multidrug resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents, including methicillin resistance among the Staph. aureus isolates. The potential virulence of L. monocytogenes found in ready-to-eat food was documented by the carriage of hly A gene by one of the isolates. A different mechanism of methicillin resistance or different homologue of mec A gene may be circulating among Nigerian

  2. A preliminary report on the contact-independent antagonism of Pseudogymnoascus destructans by Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain DAP96253.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelison, Christopher T; Keel, M Kevin; Gabriel, Kyle T; Barlament, Courtney K; Tucker, Trudy A; Pierce, George E; Crow, Sidney A

    2014-09-26

    The recently-identified causative agent of White-Nose Syndrome (WNS), Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been responsible for the mortality of an estimated 5.5 million North American bats since its emergence in 2006. A primary focus of the National Response Plan, established by multiple state, federal and tribal agencies in 2011, was the identification of biological control options for WNS. In an effort to identify potential biological control options for WNS, multiply induced cells of Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain DAP96253 was screened for anti-P. destructans activity. Conidia and mycelial plugs of P. destructans were exposed to induced R. rhodochrous in a closed air-space at 15°C, 7°C and 4°C and were evaluated for contact-independent inhibition of conidia germination and mycelial extension with positive results. Additionally, in situ application methods for induced R. rhodochrous, such as fixed-cell catalyst and fermentation cell-paste in non-growth conditions, were screened with positive results. R. rhodochrous was assayed for ex vivo activity via exposure to bat tissue explants inoculated with P. destructans conidia. Induced R. rhodochrous completely inhibited growth from conidia at 15°C and had a strong fungistatic effect at 4°C. Induced R. rhodochrous inhibited P. destructans growth from conidia when cultured in a shared air-space with bat tissue explants inoculated with P. destructans conidia. The identification of inducible biological agents with contact-independent anti- P. destructans activity is a major milestone in the development of viable biological control options for in situ application and provides the first example of contact-independent antagonism of this devastating wildlife pathogen.

  3. In silico analysis for identifying potential vaccine candidates against Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Delfani, Somayeh; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Mobarez, Ashraf Mohabati; Emaneini, Mohammad; Amani, Jafar; Sedighian, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important causes of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The increasing incidence of multiple antibiotic-resistant S. aureus strains and the emergence of vancomycin resistant S. aureus strains have placed renewed interest on alternative means of prevention and control of infection. S. aureus produces a variety of virulence factors, so a multi-subunit vaccine will be more successful for preventing S. aureus infections than a mono-subuni...

  4. Detection of different Staphylococcus aureus strains in bovine milk from subclinical mastitis using PCR and routine techniques Detecção de diferentes cepas de Staphylococcus aureus de mastite bovina subclínica através da técnica de PCR e técnicas tradicionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olney Vieira-da-Motta

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of fresh milk with Staphylococcus aureus was assessed comparatively through routine phenotypic (coagulase tube test and coagulase slide test and genotypic (PCR screening of 128 S. aureus strains isolated from 555 milk samples. These samples were collected from 362 cows with subclinical mastitis, hosted in different dairy herds at various locations of the Northern and Northeastern rural areas of the State of Rio de Janeiro, 39.7% of which were CMT-positive. All S. aureus isolates tested positive for the presence of the coagulase gene by PCR and the isolates could be grouped into four distinct classes according to the size of the PCR product. The strains also yielded variable results when assayed with coagulase test. Taken together, these data indicate the existence of extensive polymorphism at the coagulase gene locus in the genus Staphylococcus and exemplifies the extent of molecular and phenotypic heterogeneity associated with the strains circulating in rural herds.Quinhentas e cinqüenta e cinco amostras de leite, provenientes de 362 vacas com mastite subclínica em diferentes propriedades rurais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, de 1995 a 1997, foram submetidas ao teste "Califórnia Mastitis Test" (CMT. 39,7% das amostras foram positivas, das quais foram isoladas 128 cepas de Staphylococcus aureus. Todas as cepas isoladas foram positivas para o gene da coagulase utilizando a técnica de PCR, todavia, resultados de coagulase através das técnicas em tubo e "coagulase slide test" foram variáveis. Após a amplificação do gen de coagulase através da técnica de PCR utilizando iniciadores específicos para o referido gen, fragmentos com diferentes pesos moleculares foram vistos através de análise em gel de agarose, sugerindo a ocorrência de polimorfismo genético. O estudo também sugere a ocorrência de diferentes cepas da bactéria atuando nos rebanhos leiteiros causando mastite bovina.

  5. Detecção da toxina-1 da síndrome do choque tóxico em amostras de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de mastite bovina Detection of toxic shock syndrome toxin by Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.F.T. Cardoso

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar a produção da toxina da síndrome do choque tóxico (TSST-1 e de enterotoxinas estafilocócicas (SE A, B, C e D em 127 amostras de S. aureus, isoladas de amostras de leite proveniente de vacas com mastite no Estado de Minas Gerais, entre 1994 e 1997. A verificação da produção de toxinas foi feita pela técnica de sensibilidade ótima em placa. Das 127 amostras testadas, 60 (47% eram produtoras de TSST-1 e 54 (43% produtoras de SE, 38 amostras produziram SED (30%, 24 SEB (19%, 8 SEC (6% e 4 SEA (3%. Estes resultados trazem preocupações quanto à saúde pública pela alta prevalência de amostras de S. aureus produtoras de TSST-1 e de enterotoxinas em isolamentos a partir de leite de vacas com mastite.A total of 127 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were examined for the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1 and staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE A, B, C and D. The strains were isolated from milk samples from cows with mastitis in dairy herds of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 1994 to 1997. The toxins were detected using the optimum-sensitivity plate method. Of 127 isolates, 60 (47% produced TSST-1 and 54 (43% produced SE, 38 (30% produced SED, 24 (19% SEB, 8 (6% SEC and 4 (3% enterotoxin A..

  6. Mild Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection Improves the Course of Subsequent Endogenous S. aureus Bacteremia in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and evaluate protection in relation to anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. Skin infections once or twice by a clinical S. aureus isolate (isolate P or S. aureus strain 8325-4 were induced in mice free of S. aureus and anti-staphylococcal antibodies. Five weeks later, immunoglobulin G (IgG levels in blood against 25 S. aureus antigens were determined, and LD50 or LD100 bacteremia caused by S. aureus isolate P was induced. S. aureus skin infections led to elevated levels of anti-staphylococcal IgG in blood. One skin infection improved the course of subsequent severe endogenous bacteremia only. A second skin infection further improved animal survival rate, which was associated with increased pre-bacteremia IgG levels against Efb, IsaA, LukD, LukE, Nuc, PrsA and WTA. In conclusion, S. aureus isolate P skin infection in mice reduces the severity of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia only. Although cellular immune effects cannot be rules out, anti-staphylococcal IgG against specified antigens may contribute to this effect.

  7. Poly-N-acetylglucosamine production in Staphylococcus aureus is essential for virulence in murine models of systemic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropec, Andrea; Maira-Litran, Tomas; Jefferson, Kimberly K; Grout, Martha; Cramton, Sarah E; Götz, Friedrich; Goldmann, Donald A; Pier, Gerald B

    2005-10-01

    The contribution of the Staphylococcus aureus surface polysaccharide poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) to virulence was evaluated in three mouse models of systemic infection: bacteremia, renal abscess formation, and lethality following high-dose intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection. Deletion of the intercellular adhesin (ica) locus that encodes the biosynthetic enzymes for PNAG production in S. aureus strains Mn8, Newman, and NCTC 10833 resulted in mutant strains with significantly reduced abilities to maintain bacterial levels in blood following intravenous or i.p. injection, to spread systemically to the kidneys following i.p. injection, or to induce a moribund/lethal state following i.p. infection. In the bacteremia model, neither growth phase nor growth medium used to prepare the S. aureus inoculum affected the conclusion that PNAG production was needed for full virulence. As the SarA regulatory protein has been shown to affect ica transcription, PNAG synthesis, and biofilm formation, we also evaluated S. aureus strains Mn8 and 10833 deleted for the sarA gene in the renal infection model. A decrease in PNAG production was seen in sarA mutants using immunoblots of cell surface extracts but was insufficient to reduce the virulence of sarA-deleted strains in this model. S. aureus strains deleted for the ica genes were much more susceptible to antibody-independent opsonic killing involving human peripheral blood leukocytes and rabbit complement. Thus, PNAG confers on S. aureus resistance to killing mediated by these innate host immune mediators. Overall, PNAG production by S. aureus appears to be a critical virulence factor as assessed in murine models of systemic infection.

  8. Relationship between Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin-Intermediate S. aureus, High Vancomycin MIC, and Outcome in Serious S. aureus Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Natasha E.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2012-01-01

    Vancomycin has been used successfully for over 50 years for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections, particularly those involving methicillin-resistant S. aureus. It has proven remarkably reliable, but its efficacy is now being questioned with the emergence of strains of S. aureus that display heteroresistance, intermediate resistance, and, occasionally, complete vancomycin resistance. More recently, an association has been established between poor outcome and infections with strain...

  9. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... and in the nose in all cases, and between visits in 90% of cases. Ten different CC types were identified, no association with severity was found, and toxin-producing strains were not found more frequently in patients with HE than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Staphylococcus aureus was present on hands in almost half...

  10. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain is predictive of all-cause mortality independent of aortic stenosis severity and ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Arnold C T; Prihadi, Edgard A; Antoni, M Louisa; Bertini, Matteo; Ewe, See Hooi; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Leung, Dominic Y; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J

    2017-07-28

    Left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) may identify subclinical myocardial dysfunction in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). The aims of the present retrospective single centre study were to determine the independent prognostic value of LV GLS over LV ejection fraction (EF) and the role of LV GLS to further risk stratify severe AS patients before aortic valve replacement. A total of 688 patients (median age 72 years, 61.2% men) with mild (n = 130), moderate (n = 264) and severe AS (n = 294) were included. LV GLS was determined by 2D speckle tracking echocardiography. A total of 114 (16.6%) patients died before surgery during the study. When patients with severe AS and normal LVEF were dichotomized based on the median LV GLS value (-14.0%), patients with normal LVEF and 'preserved' LV GLS of ≤ -14% had significantly higher survival than patients with 'impaired' LV GLS of > -14%. There was no difference in survival between patients with normal LVEF but 'impaired' LV GLS ( > -14%) and patients with impaired LVEF (log-rank P = 0.34). LV GLS was independently associated with all-cause mortality on multivariable Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.26; P optimal timing of aortic valve replacement. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. An investigation of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration creep among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from pediatric patients and healthy children in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ning Chang

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Vancomycin MIC creeps existed in both clinical MRSA isolates and colonized MRSA strains. Great diversity of PFGE typing was in both strains collected. There was no association between the clinical and colonized MRSA isolates with vancomycin MIC creep.

  12. Growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on Brie and Camembert cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Soomin; Han, Minkyung; Yoon, Yohan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we developed mathematical models to describe the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on natural cheeses. A five-strain mixture of Staph. aureus was inoculated onto 15 g of Brie and Camembert cheeses at 4 log CFU/g. The samples were then stored at 4, 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C for 2-60 d, with a different storage time being used for each temperature. Total bacterial and Staph. aureus cells were enumerated on tryptic soy agar and mannitol salt agar, respectively. The Baranyi model was fitted to the growth data of Staph. aureus to calculate kinetic parameters such as the maximum growth rate in log CFU units (r max; log CFU/g/h) and the lag phase duration (λ; h). The effects of temperature on the square root of r max and on the natural logarithm of λ were modelled in the second stage (secondary model). Independent experimental data (observed data) were compared with prediction and the respective root mean square error compared with the RMSE of the fit on the original data, as a measure of model performance. The total growth of bacteria was observed at 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C on both cheeses. The r max values increased with storage temperature (PCamembert cheeses.

  13. Spreading of genes encoding enterotoxins, haemolysins, adhesin and biofilm among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains with staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IIIA isolated from burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motallebi, Mitra; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Asadollahi, Kheirollah; Taherikalani, Morovat; Emaneini, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in particular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is an important concern in burn medical centers either in Iran or worldwide. A total of 128 S. aureus isolates were collected from wound infection of burn patients during June 2013 to June 2014. Multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) assay was performed for the characterization of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). Genes encoding virulence factors and biofilm were targeted by PCR. Of 128 S. aureus isolates, 77 (60.1%) isolates were MRSA. Fifty four (70.1%) isolates were identified as SCCmec type IIIA. The most frequently detected toxin genes among MRSA isolates with SCCmec type IIIA were sea (64.1%) and hla (51.8%). The rate of coexistence of sea with hla and sea with hla and hlb was 37% and12.9%, respectively. The sec, eta, tst, pvl, hla and hlb genes were not detected in any of the MRSA isolates. The most prevalent genes encoding biofilm was eno, found in 61.1% of isolates, followed by fib and icaA found in 48.1% and 38.8% of the isolates, respectively. The rate of coexistence of fib + eno + icaA + icaD and fib + eno was 20.3% and 9.2%, respectively. The ebps gene was not detected in any of the isolates. In conclusion, our study indicated that the sea, hla, fib and icaA were most frequent genes encoding virulence factors among MRSA with SCCmec type IIIA isolated from burn wound infection. Moreover, the results of this study shows that the rate of coexistence of genes encoding different virulence factor were high. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SDS-PAGE and gel IEF – tool for differentiation of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesařová, Marie; Horká, Marie; Moravcová, Dana; Svojanovská, Lenka; Mlynariková, K.; Růžička, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 3 (2016), s. 315-320 ISSN 0343-8651 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus * sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis * gel isoelectric focusing * precipitated proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.322, year: 2016 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0251069

  15. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budri, P E; Silva, N C C; Bonsaglia, E C R; Fernandes Júnior, A; Araújo Júnior, J P; Doyama, J T; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Rall, V L M

    2015-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove; EOSA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon; EOCZ) and their major components, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, on Staph. aureus biofilm formation on different surfaces was investigated. The results showed a significant inhibition of biofilm production by EOSA on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces (69.4 and 63.6%, respectively). However, its major component, eugenol, was less effective on polystyrene and stainless steel (52.8 and 19.6%, respectively). Both EOCZ and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, significantly reduced biofilm formation on polystyrene (74.7 and 69.6%, respectively) and on stainless steel surfaces (45.3 and 44.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that EOSA, EOCZ, and cinnamaldehyde may be considered for applications such as sanitization in the food industry. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Changing patterns among the subgroups of strains of Staphylococcus aureus of phage group II in Danish hospitals from 1961-91

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, N H; Hartzen, S H; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    1994-01-01

    of group II have, during the observation period, become more frequently resistant to penicillin and/or tetracycline. Strains typed at 100 x RTD of subgroup 71+ and the 'rest of group II' are more frequently antibiotic resistant than the rest of the group II strains. Strains of the increasing subgroups...

  17. Novel patterns of ultraviolet mutagenesis and Weigle reactivation in Staphylococcus aureus and phage phi II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.K.; Hart, M.G.R.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of u.v. irradiation on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus and its phage phi11 were studied. The recA and uvr mutations affected their survival like synonymous mutations in Escherichia coli. Weigle reactivation (W-reactivation) of phi11 occurred in wild-type S. aureus and in a uvr mutant. Reactivation was recA-dependent and was accompanied by u.v.-induced mutagenesis in a temperature-sensitive mutant of phi11. Bacterial mutation to streptomycin resistance was induced by u.v. and was also recA-dependent. In S. aureus, as in E. coli, u.v. was a more effective mutagen in the uvr genetic background. However, a dose-squared response for u.v.-induced mutation of wild-type and uvr strains of S. aureus to streptomycin resistance, and of a trp auxotroph to tryptophan independence, was found only with u.v. doses below 1 J m -2 . In relation to the Uvr mechanism of DNA repair, u.v. mutagenesis in S. aureus may involve both repairable and non-repairable lesions. As in E. Coli, the uvr genetic background reduced the u.v. dose required for maximal W-reactivation of u.v.-irradiated phage. However, there was no enhancement of W-reactivation by post-irradiation broth incubation of S. aureus. The results are compatible with a non-inducible mechanism for this phenomenon. (author)

  18. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical samples at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnessa, Tebelay; Bitew, Adane

    2016-08-09

    Staphylococcus aureus particularly MRSA strains are one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired bacterial infections. They are also becoming increasingly multi-drug resistant and have recently developed resistance to vancomycin, which has been used successfully to treat MRSA for many years. In-vitro determination of drug resistance patterns of S. aureus is critical for the selection of effective drugs for the treatment of staphylococci infections. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains from different clinical specimens from patients referred for routine culture and sensitivity testing. A cross sectional study was conducted among 1360 participants at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College in Ethiopia from September 2013 to April 2014. Clinical samples from various anatomical sites of study participants were cultured on blood agar and mannitol salt agar and identified to be S. aureus by using catalase, coagulase and DNAse tests. S. aureus isolates then were screened for MRSA using 30 μg cefoxitin disc and other 11 antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion procedure, and agar dilution and E tests for vancomycin. All S. aureus isolates examined for beta-lactamase production by employing nitrocefin. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software and logistic regressions were applied to assess any association between dependent and independent variables. Of 1360 clinical specimens analyzed S. aureus was recovered from (194, 14.3 %). Rate of isolation of S. aureus with regard to clinical specimens was the highest in pus (118, 55.4 %).No S. aureus was isolated from CSF and urethral discharge. Out of 194 S. aureus isolates, (34, 17.5 %) were found out to be MRSA and the remaining (160, 82.5 %) were MSSA. Ninety eight (50.5 %) S. aureus were multi drug resistant and the highest isolates were resistant to penicillin (187, 96.4 %) and least resistant for clindamycin (23, 11.9 %) and vancomycin

  19. Study on the efficacy and safety of different antigens and oil formulations of infectious coryza vaccines containing an NAD-independent strain of Avibacterium paragallinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dungu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess and compare three different formulations of the new Onderstepoort infectious coryza (IC quadrivalent vaccine, which contain an NAD-independent strain of Avibacterium paragallinarum (previously known as Haemophilus paragallinarum, and a commercial IC vaccine, not containing an NAD-independent strain, for their safety and ability to protect chickens of varying ages against virulent challenges with four different serovars of A. paragallinarum, including the NAD-independent strain of the C-3 serovar. Four groups of 140 chickens each were vaccinated at the age of 17 weeks and revaccinated at the age of 19 weeks with each of the four vaccine formulations. A similar sized group of non-vaccinated chickens was used as control. Two rounds of challenge were conducted: a group of chicken in each vaccination group was challenged between 31 and 35 weeks of age, while another group was challenged between 51 and 55 weeks of age. The ''in-contact'' challenge model was used in this experiment. For each vaccination group, the four challenge strains representing four local serovars were used in each challenge round. The efficacy of the vaccines was compared based on overall protection levels obtained and the duration of protection. The safety of the different vaccines was determined by the severity of post-vaccination reactions. The need for the incorporation of the NAD-independent strain in the vaccine was evidenced by the low protection level against NAD-independent challenge recorded in the group of birds vaccinated with the commercial vaccine. The results obtained confirmed not only the variation in virulence of different South African serovars, with serovar C-3 being the most virulent and serovar B having almost no virulence but also the age related increase in susceptibility. The importance of a suitable formulation of the vaccine is discussed.

  20. Proof of Principle for a Real-Time Pathogen Isolation Media Diagnostic: The Use of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy to Discriminate Bacterial Pathogens and Antimicrobial-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Grown on Blood Agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie A. Multari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS is a rapid, in situ, diagnostic technique in which light emissions from a laser plasma formed on the sample are used for analysis allowing automated analysis results to be available in seconds to minutes. This speed of analysis coupled with little or no sample preparation makes LIBS an attractive detection tool. In this study, it is demonstrated that LIBS can be utilized to discriminate both the bacterial species and strains of bacterial colonies grown on blood agar. A discrimination algorithm was created based on multivariate regression analysis of spectral data. The algorithm was deployed on a simulated LIBS instrument system to demonstrate discrimination capability using 6 species. Genetically altered Staphylococcus aureus strains grown on BA, including isogenic sets that differed only by the acquisition of mutations that increase fusidic acid or vancomycin resistance, were also discriminated. The algorithm successfully identified all thirteen cultures used in this study in a time period of 2 minutes. This work provides proof of principle for a LIBS instrumentation system that could be developed for the rapid discrimination of bacterial species and strains demonstrating relatively minor genomic alterations using data collected directly from pathogen isolation media.

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae eradicates preformed Staphylococcus aureus biofilms through a mechanism requiring physical contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faidad Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (Sau strains are a main cause of disease, including nosocomial infections which have been linked to the production of biofilms and the propagation of antibiotic resistance strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. A previous study found that Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn strains kill planktonic cultures of Sau strains. In this work, we have further evaluated in detail the eradication of Sau biofilms and investigated ultrastructural interactions of the biofilmicidal effect. Spn strain D39, which produces the competence stimulating peptide 1 (CSP1, reduced Sau biofilms within 8 h of inoculation, while TIGR4, producing CSP2, eradicated Sau biofilms and planktonic cells within 4 h. Differences were not attributed to pherotypes as other Spn strains producing different pheromones eradicated Sau within 4 h. Experiments using Transwell devices, which physically separated both species growing in the same well, demonstrated that direct contact between Spn and Sau was required to efficiently eradicate Sau biofilms and biofilm-released planktonic cells. Physical contact-mediated killing of Sau was not related to production of hydrogen peroxide as an isogenic TIGR4spxB mutant eradicated Sau bacteria within 4 h. Confocal micrographs confirmed eradication of Sau biofilms by TIGR4 and allowed us to visualize ultrastructural point of contacts between Sau and Spn. A time-course study further demonstrated spatial colocalization of Spn chains and Sau tetrads as early as 30 min post-inoculation (Pearson’s coefficient >0.72. Finally, precolonized biofilms produced by Sau strain Newman, or MRSA strain USA300, were eradicated by mid-log phase cultures of washed TIGR4 bacteria within 2 h post-inoculation. In conclusion, Spn strains rapidly eradicate pre-colonized Sau aureus biofilms, including those formed by MRSA strains, by a mechanism(s requiring bacterium-bacterium contact, but independent from the production of

  2. Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob; Penadés, José R; Ingmer, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen with remarkable adaptive powers. Antibiotic-resistant clones rapidly emerge mainly by acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes from other S. aureus strains or even from other genera. Transfer is mediated by a diverse complement of mobile genetic...... of plasmids that can be transferred by conjugation and the efficiency with which transduction occurs. Here, we review the main routes of antibiotic resistance gene transfer in S. aureus in the context of its biology as a human commensal and a life-threatening pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus cells...... are effective in exchanging mobile genetic elements, including antibiotic-resistance genes.During colonization or infection of host organisms, the exchange appears to be particularly effective.Bacteriophage-mediated transfer involves both transduction and autotransduction, which may enable lysogenic S. aureus...

  3. Whole genome sequencing of a rare rotavirus from archived stool sample demonstrates independent zoonotic origin of human G8P[14] strains in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Szilvia; Dóró, Renáta; Fehér, Enikő; Forró, Barbara; Ihász, Katalin; Varga-Kugler, Renáta; Farkas, Szilvia L; Bányai, Krisztián

    2017-01-02

    Genotype P[14] rotaviruses in humans are thought to be zoonotic strains originating from bovine or ovine host species. Over the past 30 years only few genotype P[14] strains were identified in Hungary totalinghuman rotaviruses whose genotype had been determined. In this study we report the genome sequence and phylogenetic analysis of a human genotype G8P[14] strain, RVA/Human-wt/HUN/182-02/2001/G8P[14]. The whole genome constellation (G8-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A11-N2-T6-E2-H3) of this strain was shared with another Hungarian zoonotic G8P[14] strain, RVA/Human-wt/HUN/BP1062/2004/G8P[14], although phylogenetic analyses revealed the two rotaviruses likely had different progenitors. Overall, our findings indicate that human G8P[14] rotavirus detected in Hungary in the past originated from independent zoonotic events. Further studies are needed to assess the public health risk associated with infections by various animal rotavirus strains. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The intra-observer reproducibility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking strain assessment is independent of field strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, Andreas; Morton, Geraint; Hussain, Shazia T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking (CMR-FT) is a promising novel method for quantification of myocardial wall mechanics from standard steady-state free precession (SSFP) images. We sought to determine whether magnetic field strength affects the intra-observer reproducibility of CMR-FT strain analysis. Methods: We studied 2 groups, each consisting of 10 healthy subjects, at 1.5 T or 3 T Analysis was performed at baseline and after 4 weeks using dedicated CMR-FT prototype software (Tomtec, Germany) to analyze standard SSFP cine images. Right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) longitudinal strain (Ell RV and Ell LV ) and LV long-axis radial strain (Err LAX ) were derived from the 4-chamber cine, and LV short-axis circumferential and radial strains (Ecc SAX , Err SAX ) from the short-axis orientation. Strain parameters were assessed together with LV ejection fraction (EF) and volumes. Intra-observer reproducibility was determined by comparing the first and the second analysis in both groups. Results: In all volunteers resting strain parameters were successfully derived from the SSFP images. There was no difference in strain parameters, volumes and EF between field strengths (p > 0.05). In general Ecc SAX was the most reproducible strain parameter as determined by the coefficient of variation (CV) at 1.5 T (CV 13.3% and 46% global and segmental respectively) and 3 T (CV 17.2% and 31.1% global and segmental respectively). The least reproducible parameter was Ell RV (CV 1.5 T 28.7% and 53.2%; 3 T 43.5% and 63.3% global and segmental respectively). Conclusions: CMR-FT results are similar with reasonable intra-observer reproducibility in different groups of volunteers at 1.5 T and 3 T. CMR-FT is a promising novel technique and our data indicate that results might be transferable between field strengths. However there is a considerable amount of segmental variability indicating that further refinements are needed before CMR

  5. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Multiple Drug-Resistant Strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Mastitis-Infected Goats: An Alternative Approach for Antimicrobial Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Guo Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have been widely used in various applications as antimicrobial agents, anticancer, diagnostics, biomarkers, cell labels, and drug delivery systems for the treatment of various diseases. Microorganisms generally acquire resistance to antibiotics through the course of antibacterial therapy. Multi-drug resistance (MDR has become a growing problem in the treatment of infectious diseases, and the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has resulted in the development of antibiotic resistance by numerous human and animal bacterial pathogens. As a result, an increasing number of microorganisms are resistant to multiple antibiotics causing continuing economic losses in dairy farming. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of alternative, cost-effective, and efficient antimicrobial agents that overcome antimicrobial resistance. Here, AgNPs synthesized using the bio-molecule quercetin were characterized using various analytical techniques. The synthesized AgNPs were highly spherical in shape and had an average size of 11 nm. We evaluated the efficacy of synthesized AgNPs against two MDR pathogenic bacteria, namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which were isolated from milk samples produced by mastitis-infected goats. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of AgNPs against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were found to be 1 and 2 μg/mL, respectively. Our findings suggest that AgNPs exert antibacterial effects in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Results from the present study demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of AgNPs is due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, malondialdehyde (MDA, and leakage of proteins and sugars in bacterial cells. Results of the present study showed that AgNP-treated bacteria had significantly lower lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH and lower adenosine triphosphate (ATP levels compared to the control. Furthermore, Ag

  6. Detection of Genes for Superantigen Toxins in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates in Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taj, Y.; Fatima, I.; Ali, S. W.; Kazmi, S. U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To detect genes for enterotoxins, exfoliative and toxic shock syndrome toxins in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains isolated from clinical specimens. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Molecular Genetics, Dr. Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi, from January to December 2010. Methodology: Two hundred and ninety eight S. aureus clinical isolates were obtained from various clinical samples received at Dr. Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi. Out of these, 115 were detected as methicillin resistant (MRSA) by cefoxitin disk diffusion test showing a prevalence rate of 38.6%. Detection of individual toxin genes was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) by using only one primer pair for each tube. Uniplex primers were preferred as multiplex primers are longer in base pairs and have the potential for cross reaction due to non-specific binding and increase in optimization time. Results: The possession of a single gene or more than a single gene in MRSA isolates was found in 61.73% of clinical samples; the highest number was found in pus swab, followed by sputum, blood, urethral swab, and urine. The prevalence of toxin genes was higher in MRSA as compared to methicillin sensitive (MSSA) isolates (19.12%). Conclusion: PCR detects strains possessing toxin genes independent of their expression. The possession of genes for super-antigens seems to be a frequent and habitual trait of S. aureus more so in MRSA. (author)

  7. Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in the neonatal intensive care unit: an infection prevention and patient safety challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, P J; Boyle, M G; Hogan, P G; Johnson, A J; Wallace, M A; Elward, A M; Warner, B B; Burnham, C-A D; Fritz, S A

    2016-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We characterized the clinical and molecular epidemiology of MRSA strains colonizing NICU patients. Nasal MRSA isolates (n = 250, from 96 NICU patients) recovered through active surveillance from 2009 to 2014 were characterized with staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing and detection of mupA (marker of high-level mupirocin resistance) and qacA/B (marker associated with chlorhexidine resistance). Factors associated with community-associated (CA-) or healthcare-associated (HA-) MRSA were evaluated. The overall prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization was 3.9%. Of 96 neonates in our retrospective cohort, 60 (63%) were colonized with CA-MRSA strains and 35 (36%) were colonized with HA-MRSA strains. Patients colonized with HA-MRSA were more likely to develop MRSA infections than patients colonized with CA-MRSA (13/35, 37% versus 8/60, 13%; p 0.007), although the interval from colonization to infection was shorter in CA-MRSA-colonized infants (median 0 days, range -1 to 4 versus HA-MRSA-colonized infants, 7 days, -1 to 43; p 0.005). Maternal peripartum antibiotics were associated with CA-MRSA colonization (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 8.7; 95% CI 1.7-45.0); intubation and surgical procedures were associated with HA-MRSA colonization (aOR 7.8; 95% CI 1.3-47.6 and aOR 6.0; 95% CI 1.4-24.4, respectively). Mupirocin- and chlorhexidine-resistant MRSA was isolated from four and eight patients, respectively; carriage of a mupirocin-resistant strain precluded decolonization. CA-MRSA strains are prominent in the NICU and associated with distinct risk factors. Given community reservoirs for MRSA acquisition and transmission, novel infection prevention strategies are needed. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In-vivo expression profiling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections reveals niche-specific and strain-independent transcriptional programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bielecki

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a threatening, opportunistic pathogen causing disease in immunocompromised individuals. The hallmark of P. aeruginosa virulence is its multi-factorial and combinatorial nature. It renders such bacteria infectious for many organisms and it is often resistant to antibiotics. To gain insights into the physiology of P. aeruginosa during infection, we assessed the transcriptional programs of three different P. aeruginosa strains directly after isolation from burn wounds of humans. We compared the programs to those of the same strains using two infection models: a plant model, which consisted of the infection of the midrib of lettuce leaves, and a murine tumor model, which was obtained by infection of mice with an induced tumor in the abdomen. All control conditions of P. aeruginosa cells growing in suspension and as a biofilm were added to the analysis. We found that these different P. aeruginosa strains express a pool of distinct genetic traits that are activated under particular infection conditions regardless of their genetic variability. The knowledge herein generated will advance our understanding of P. aeruginosa virulence and provide valuable cues for the definition of prospective targets to develop novel intervention strategies.

  9. Faecal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the hospital and community setting: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantelle eClaassen-Weitz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and rationale: Staphylococcus aureus faecal carriage has been identified as a potential source for nosocomial transmission and a risk factor for disease development. This systematic review determined the overall S. aureus (including methicillin susceptible and resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage rates within the community and healthcare settings.Methodology: Peer-reviewed articles indexed in Medline, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Africa-Wide Information, CINAHL, and Web of Science were identified using applicable and controlled vocabulary through to 11 November 2015. Eligible studies were ascertained by three independent reviewers. Random-effects meta-analyses of proportions were performed to determine S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage rates reported by eligible studies.Results: Twenty six studies were included in this review. The pooled estimates for S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage were 26 % (95 % confidence interval (CI: 16.8 % - 36.3 %, 86 % (95 % confidence interval (CI: 65.9 % - 97.9 % and 10 % (95 % CI: 0.7 % - 27.0 %, respectively. Faecal S. aureus carriage rates increased on average from 10 % to 65 % during the first eight weeks of life, followed by an average carriage rate of 64 % at six months and 46 % at one year of life. Genotyping techniques were employed mainly in studies conducted in developed countries and comprised largely of gel-based techniques. Six studies reported on the role of S. aureus faecal strains in diarrhoea (n = 2 and the risk for acquiring infections (n = 4. Eight of the 26 studies included in this review performed antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus faecal isolates.Conclusion: This study provides evidence that screening for S. aureus faecal carriage, at least in populations at high risk, could be an effective measure for the prevention of S. aureus transmission and infection in the healthcare and community setting. More well-structured studies need to be

  10. Bovine origin Staphylococcus aureus: A new zoonotic agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Relangi Tulasi; Jayakumar, Kannan; Kumar, Pavitra

    2017-10-01

    The study aimed to assess the nature of animal origin Staphylococcus aureus strains. The study has zoonotic importance and aimed to compare virulence between two different hosts, i.e., bovine and ovine origin. Conventional polymerase chain reaction-based methods used for the characterization of S. aureus strains and chick embryo model employed for the assessment of virulence capacity of strains. All statistical tests carried on R program, version 3.0.4. After initial screening and molecular characterization of the prevalence of S. aureus found to be 42.62% in bovine origin samples and 28.35% among ovine origin samples. Meanwhile, the methicillin-resistant S. aureus prevalence is found to be meager in both the hosts. Among the samples, only 6.8% isolates tested positive for methicillin resistance. The biofilm formation quantified and the variation compared among the host. A Welch two-sample t -test found to be statistically significant, t=2.3179, df=28.103, and p=0.02795. Chicken embryo model found effective to test the pathogenicity of the strains. The study helped to conclude healthy bovines can act as S. aureus reservoirs. Bovine origin S. aureus strains are more virulent than ovine origin strains. Bovine origin strains have high probability to become zoonotic pathogen. Further, gene knock out studies may be conducted to conclude zoonocity of the bovine origin strains.

  11. Independent inactivation of arginine decarboxylase genes by nonsense and missense mutations led to pseudogene formation in Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 and D strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham David E

    2009-07-01

    selection, consistent with the recent inactivation of these genes. Conclusion The ancestor of the Chlamydiaceae had a functional arginine:agmatine exchange system that is decaying through independent, parallel processes in the C. trachomatis lineage. Differences in arginine metabolism among Chlamydiaceae species may be partly associated with their tissue tropism, possibly due to the protection conferred by a functional arginine-agmatine exchange system against host nitric oxide production and innate immunity. The independent loss of AaxB activity in all sequenced C. trachomatis strains indicates continual gene inactivation and illustrates the difficulty of recognizing recent bacterial pseudogenes from sequence comparison, transcriptional profiling or the analysis of nucleotide substitution rates.

  12. Invasive Staphylococcus aureus infection in an African adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus remains an important cause of mortality, in the community and health care set-ups. S. aureus strains with genes encoding lethal toxins and culture negative sepsis augment the diagnostic challenge in resource limited settings. With a growing rate of resistance to the causative bacteria and atypical ...

  13. Intracellular synthesis of glutamic acid in Bacillus methylotrophicus SK19.001, a glutamate-independent poly(γ-glutamic acid)-producing strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yingyun; Zhang, Tao; Mu, Wanmeng; Miao, Ming; Jiang, Bo

    2016-01-15

    Bacillus methylotrophicus SK19.001 is a glutamate-independent strain that produces poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA), a polymer of D- and L-glutamic acids that possesses applications in food, the environment, agriculture, etc. This study was undertaken to explore the synthetic pathway of intracellular L- and D-glutamic acid in SK19.001 by investigating the effects of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and different amino acids as metabolic precursors on the production of γ-PGA and analyzing the activities of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of L- and D-glutamate. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and amino acids could participate in the synthesis of γ-PGA via independent pathways in SK19.001. L-Aspartate aminotransferase, L-glutaminase and L-glutamate synthase were the enzymatic sources of L-glutamate. Glutamate racemase was responsible for the formation of D-glutamate for the synthesis of γ-PGA, and the synthetase had stereoselectivity for glutamate substrate. The enzymatic sources of L-glutamate were investigated for the first time in the glutamate-independent γ-PGA-producing strain, and multiple enzymatic sources of L-glutamate were verified in SK19.001, which will benefit efforts to improve production of γ-PGA with metabolic engineering strategies. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Plasmidome interchange between Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum converts strains of independent lineages into distinctly different pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarin, Hanna; Segerman, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum (group III), Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum are well-known pathogens causing animal botulism, gas gangrene/black disease, and bacillary hemoglobinuria, respectively. A close genetic relationship exists between the species, which has resulted in the collective term C. novyi sensu lato. The pathogenic traits in these species, e.g., the botulinum neurotoxin and the novyi alpha toxin, are mainly linked to a large plasmidome consisting of plasmids and circular prophages. The plasmidome of C. novyi sensu lato has so far been poorly characterized. In this study we explored the genomic relationship of a wide range of strains of C. novyi sensu lato with a special focus on the dynamics of the plasmidome. Twenty-four genomes were sequenced from strains selected to represent as much as possible the genetic diversity in C. novyi sensu lato. Sixty-one plasmids were identified in these genomes and 28 of them were completed. The genomic comparisons revealed four separate lineages, which did not strictly correlate with the species designations. The plasmids were categorized into 13 different plasmid groups on the basis of their similarity and conservation of plasmid replication or partitioning genes. The plasmid groups, lineages and species were to a large extent entwined because plasmids and toxin genes had moved across the lineage boundaries. This dynamic process appears to be primarily driven by phages. We here present a comprehensive characterization of the complex species group C. novyi sensu lato, explaining the intermixed genetic properties. This study also provides examples how the reorganization of the botulinum toxin and the novyi alpha toxin genes within the plasmidome has affected the pathogenesis of the strains.

  15. Plasmidome interchange between Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum converts strains of independent lineages into distinctly different pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Skarin

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum (group III, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum are well-known pathogens causing animal botulism, gas gangrene/black disease, and bacillary hemoglobinuria, respectively. A close genetic relationship exists between the species, which has resulted in the collective term C. novyi sensu lato. The pathogenic traits in these species, e.g., the botulinum neurotoxin and the novyi alpha toxin, are mainly linked to a large plasmidome consisting of plasmids and circular prophages. The plasmidome of C. novyi sensu lato has so far been poorly characterized. In this study we explored the genomic relationship of a wide range of strains of C. novyi sensu lato with a special focus on the dynamics of the plasmidome. Twenty-four genomes were sequenced from strains selected to represent as much as possible the genetic diversity in C. novyi sensu lato. Sixty-one plasmids were identified in these genomes and 28 of them were completed. The genomic comparisons revealed four separate lineages, which did not strictly correlate with the species designations. The plasmids were categorized into 13 different plasmid groups on the basis of their similarity and conservation of plasmid replication or partitioning genes. The plasmid groups, lineages and species were to a large extent entwined because plasmids and toxin genes had moved across the lineage boundaries. This dynamic process appears to be primarily driven by phages. We here present a comprehensive characterization of the complex species group C. novyi sensu lato, explaining the intermixed genetic properties. This study also provides examples how the reorganization of the botulinum toxin and the novyi alpha toxin genes within the plasmidome has affected the pathogenesis of the strains.

  16. Emergence of CD134 cysteine-rich domain 2 (CRD2)-independent strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is associated with disease progression in naturally infected cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M; Techakriengkrai, Navapon; Logan, Nicola; McMonagle, Elizabeth; Litster, Annette; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2014-11-28

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is mediated by sequential interactions with CD134 and CXCR4. Field strains of virus vary in their dependence on cysteine-rich domain 2 (CRD2) of CD134 for infection. Here, we analyse the receptor usage of viral variants in the blood of 39 naturally infected cats, revealing that CRD2-dependent viral variants dominate in early infection, evolving towards CRD2-independence with disease progression. These findings are consistent with a shift in CRD2 of CD134 usage with disease progression.

  17. Stress-driven solution to rate-independent elasto-plasticity with damage at small strains and its computer implementation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš; Valdman, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2017), s. 1267-1287 ISSN 1081-2865 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15264S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : rate-independent systems * nonsmooth continuum mechanics * incomplete ductile damage Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics; Pure mathematics (UTIA-B) Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1081286515627674

  18. Genotypic characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bacteraemia at Tygerberg hospital, western cape province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, H.; Salaam-Dreyer, Z.; Makgotlho, E.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is a paucity of studies on the genotypic characterisation of invasive S. aureus strains and the incidence of communityacquired methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in South Africa. In this study we characterized S. aureus isolates from bacteraemia episodes using

  19. Toxicity test and bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , however, the prevalence of phage group III and α-haemolytic strains of S. aureus calls for concern since these groups have frequently been implicated in food borne diseases. Effective hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) evaluation ...

  20. Host- and tissue-specific pathogenic traits of Staphylococcus aureus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); D.C. Melles (Damian); A. Alaidan (Alwaleed); M. Al-Ahdal (Mohammed); H.A.M. Boelens (Hélène); S.V. Snijders (Susan); H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman); E. van Duijkeren (Engeline); J.K. Peeters (Justine); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); R.F.J. Gorkink (Raymond); G. Simons (Guus); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractComparative genomics were used to assess genetic differences between Staphylococcus aureus strains derived from infected animals versus colonized or infected humans. A total of 77 veterinary isolates were genetically characterized by high-throughput amplified fragment length polymorphism

  1. Intestinal microbial dysbiosis and colonic epithelial cell hyperproliferation by dietary α-mangostin is independent of mouse strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Orozco, Fabiola; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Galley, Jeffrey D; Bailey, Michael T; Clinton, Steven K; Lesinski, Gregory B; Failla, Mark L

    2015-01-22

    Beverages and supplements prepared from mangosteen fruit are claimed to support gut health and immunity, despite the absence of supporting evidence from clinical trials. We recently reported that α-mangostin (α-MG), the most abundant xanthone in mangosteen fruit, altered the intestinal microbiome, promoted dysbiosis, and exacerbated colitis in C57BL/6J mice. The objective of this study was to determine whether induction of dysbiosis by dietary α-MG is limited to the C57BL/6J strain or represents a more generic response to chronic intake of the xanthone on the gut microbiota of mice. C3H, Balb/c, Nude FoxN1nu, and C57BL/6J mice, each demonstrating unique microbiomes, were fed standard diet or diet containing 0.1% α-MG for four weeks. Dietary α-MG significantly altered the cecal and colonic microbiota in all four strains of mice, promoting a reduction in generally assumed beneficial bacterial groups while increasing the abundance of pathogenic bacteria. Consumption of α-MG was associated with reduced abundance of Firmicutes and increased abundance of Proteobacteria. The abundance of Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Lactobacillaceae was reduced in α-MG-fed mice, while that of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcaceae was increased. Dietary α-MG also was associated with increased proliferation of colonic epithelial cells, infiltration of immune cells, infiltration of immune cells and increased fluid content in stool. These results suggest that ingestion of pharmacologic doses of xanthones in mangosteen-containing supplements may adversely alter the gut microbiota and should be used with caution.

  2. Intestinal Microbial Dysbiosis and Colonic Epithelial Cell Hyperproliferation by Dietary α-Mangostin is Independent of Mouse Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Gutierrez-Orozco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beverages and supplements prepared from mangosteen fruit are claimed to support gut health and immunity, despite the absence of supporting evidence from clinical trials. We recently reported that α-mangostin (α-MG, the most abundant xanthone in mangosteen fruit, altered the intestinal microbiome, promoted dysbiosis, and exacerbated colitis in C57BL/6J mice. The objective of this study was to determine whether induction of dysbiosis by dietary α-MG is limited to the C57BL/6J strain or represents a more generic response to chronic intake of the xanthone on the gut microbiota of mice. C3H, Balb/c, Nude FoxN1nu, and C57BL/6J mice, each demonstrating unique microbiomes, were fed standard diet or diet containing 0.1% α-MG for four weeks. Dietary α-MG significantly altered the cecal and colonic microbiota in all four strains of mice, promoting a reduction in generally assumed beneficial bacterial groups while increasing the abundance of pathogenic bacteria. Consumption of α-MG was associated with reduced abundance of Firmicutes and increased abundance of Proteobacteria. The abundance of Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Lactobacillaceae was reduced in α-MG-fed mice, while that of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcaceae was increased. Dietary α-MG also was associated with increased proliferation of colonic epithelial cells, infiltration of immune cells, infiltration of immune cells and increased fluid content in stool. These results suggest that ingestion of pharmacologic doses of xanthones in mangosteen-containing supplements may adversely alter the gut microbiota and should be used with caution.

  3. Stress-driven solution to rate-independent elasto-plasticity with damage at small strains and its computer implementation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš; Valdman, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2017), s. 1267-1287 ISSN 1081-2865 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15264S; GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : rate-independent systems * nonsmooth continuum mechanics * incomplete ductile damage Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UT-L) OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics; Pure mathematics (UT-L) Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/valdman-0458555.pdf

  4. Meticillineresistente Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in de gemeenschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, A. G.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have been confined to healthcare centres for decades. However, MRSA infections are increasingly seen in young healthy individuals with no exposure to healthcare centres. These community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains differ from

  5. Resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred (200) strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were isolated from clinical samples collected from patients in Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital and Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kano. The confirmed isolates were tested for resistance to quinolones by the agar disk diffusion susceptibility test and the agar ...

  6. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus isolates in a hospital of shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Ouyang, Lin; Luo, Lingfei; Liu, Jiqian; Song, Chiping; Li, Cuizhen; Yan, Hongjing; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-24

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are now common both in the health care setting and in the community. Active surveillance is critical for MRSA control and prevention. Specimens of patients (200 patients with 1119 specimens) as well as medical staff and hospital setting (1000 specimens) were randomly sampled in a level 2 hospital in Shanghai from September 2011 to August 2012. Isolation, cultivation and identification of S. aureus were performed. Totally, 67 S. aureus strains were isolated. 32 S. aureus strains were isolated from patient samples; 13 (13/32, 40.6%) of the 32 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; sputum sample and patients in the department of general internal medicine were the most frequent specimen and patient group for S. aureus strains isolation. Remaining 35 S. aureus strains were isolated from the medical staff and hospital setting; 20 (20/35, 57.1%) of the 35 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; specimens sampled from doctors and nurses' hands and nose and hospital facilities were the most frequent samples to isolate S. aureus. Resistant and virulent genes detection showed that, all 33 MRSA strains were mecA positive which accounts for 49.3% of the 67 S. aureus strains; 38 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene positive which accounts for 56.7% of the 67 S. aureus strains; and 17 (17/67, 25.4%) isolates are mecA and PVL genes dual positive. Multidrug-resistant strains of MRSA and PVL positive S. aureus are common in patients, medical staff and hospital setting, the potential health threat is worthy of our attention.

  7. Intracellular activity of clinical concentrations of phenothiazines including thioridiazine against phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Diane; Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Amaral, Leonard

    2002-07-01

    The effect of thioridazine (TZ) was studied on the killing activity of human peripheral blood monocyte derived macrophages (HPBMDM) and of human macrophage cell line THP-1 at extracellular concentrations below those achievable clinically. These macrophages have nominal killing activity against bacteria and therefore, would not influence any activity that the compounds may have against intracellular localised Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicated that whereas TZ has an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the strains of S. aureus of 18, 0.1 mg/l of TZ in the medium completely inhibits the growth of S. aureus that has been phagocytosed by macrophages. The latter concentration was non-toxic to macrophages, did not cause cellular expression of activation marker CD69 nor induction of CD3+ T cell production of IFN-gamma, but blocked cellular proliferation and down-regulated the production of T cell-derived cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-5). These results suggest that TZ induces intracellular bactericidal activities independent of the capacity to generate Type 1 responses against S. aureus.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus in Some Brazilian Dairy Industries: Changes of Contamination and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Karen Kiesbye; Chaul, Luiza T.; Lee, Sarah H. I.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, a major food-poisoning pathogen, is a common contaminant in dairy industries worldwide, including in Brazil. We determined the occurrence of S. aureus in five dairies in Brazil over 8 months. Of 421 samples, 31 (7.4%) were positive for S. aureus and prevalence varied from 0.......8% of strains being sensitive to all antibiotic classes and no Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were found. The enterotoxin-encoding genes involved in food-poisoning, e.g., sea, sed, see, and seg were targeted by PCR. The two toxin-encoding genes, sed and see, were not detected. Only three strains...... contamination....

  9. Diabetes as an independent predictor of left ventricular longitudinal strain reduction at rest and during dobutamine stress test in patients with significant coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbowska-Drabik, Karina; Trzos, Ewa; Kurpesa, Malgorzata; Rechcinski, Tomasz; Miskowiec, Dawid; Cieslik-Guerra, Urszula; Uznanska-Loch, Barbara; Sobczak, Maria; Kasprzak, Jaroslaw Damian

    2017-12-09

    Diabetes (DM) is a strong cardiovascular risk factor modifying also the left ventricular (LV) function that may be objectively assessed with echocardiographic strain analysis. Although the impact of isolated DM on myocardial deformation has been already studied, few data concern diabetics with coronary artery disease (CAD), especially in all stages of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). We compared LV systolic function during DSE in CAD with and without DM using state-of-the art speckle-tracking quantification and assessed the impact of DM on LV systolic strain. DSE was performed in 250 patients with angina who afterwards had coronarography with ≥50% stenosis in the left main artery and ≥70% in other arteries considered as significant. In this analysis, we included 127 patients with confirmed CAD: 42 with DM [DM(+); mean age 64 ± 9 years] and 85 patients without DM [DM(-); mean age 63 ± 9 years]. The severity of CAD and LV ejection fraction (EF) were similar in both groups. Global and regional LV peak systolic longitudinal strain (PSLS) revealed in all DSE phases lower values in DM(+) group: 14.5 ± 3.6% vs. 17.4 ± 4.0% at rest; P = 0.0001, 13.8 ± 3.9% vs. 16.7 ± 4.0% at peak stress; P = 0.0002, and 14.2 ± 3.1% vs. 15.5 ± 3.5% at recovery; P = 0.0432 for global parameters, although dobutamine challenge did not enhance further resting differences. LV EF, body surface area, and diabetes were independent predictors for strain in 16-variable model (R2 = 0, 51, P coexisting CAD and DM on myocardial strain. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A sensitive assay for Staphylococcus aureus nucleases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, J K; Vakil, B V; Patil, M S; Pandey, V N; Pradhan, D S [Bhabha Atomic Reserach Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry Div.

    1989-10-01

    A sensitive assay for staphylococcal nuclease involving incubation of the enzyme sample with heat-denatured ({sup 3}H) thymidine labelled DNA from E.coli, precipitation with trichloroacetic acid and measurement of the radioactivity of acid-soluble nucleotides released has been developed. The assay is sensitive enough to be used for comparing the levels of nucleases elaborated by different strains of S. aureus as well as for determining the extent of contamination of S. aureus in food and water samples even at levels at which the conventional spectrophotometric and toluidine blue-DNA methods are totally inadequate. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs ., 3 tabs.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus phage types and their correlation to antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehndiratta P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most devastating human pathogen. The organism has a differential ability to spread and cause outbreak of infections. Characterization of these strains is important to control the spread of infection in the hospitals as well as in the community. Aim: To identify the currently existing phage groups of Staphylococcus aureus, their prevalence and resistance to antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Study was undertaken on 252 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical samples. Strains were phage typed and their resistance to antibiotics was determined following standard microbiological procedures. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test was used to compare the antibiotic susceptibility between methicillin resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA and methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA strains. Results: Prevalence of MRSA and MSSA strains was found to be 29.36% and 70.65% respectively. Of these 17.56% of MRSA and 40.44% of MSSA strains were community acquired. All the MSSA strains belonging to phage type 81 from the community were sensitive to all the antibiotics tested including clindamycin and were resistant to penicillin. Forty five percent strains of phage group III and 39% of non-typable MRSA strains from the hospital were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Conclusion: The study revealed that predominant phage group amongst MRSA strains was phage group III and amongst MSSA from the community was phage group NA (phage type 81. MSSA strains isolated from the community differed significantly from hospital strains in their phage type and antibiotic susceptibility. A good correlation was observed between community acquired strains of phage type 81 and sensitivity to gentamycin and clindamycin.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  13. STAT3 polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori CagA strains with higher number of EPIYA-C segments independently increase the risk of gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Gifone A; Rocha, Andreia MC; Gomes, Adriana D; Faria, César LL Jr; Melo, Fabrício F; Batista, Sérgio A; Fernandes, Viviane C; Almeida, Nathálie BF; Teixeira, Kádima N; Brito, Kátia S; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2015-01-01

    Because to date there is no available study on STAT3 polymorphism and gastric cancer in Western populations and taking into account that Helicobacter pylori CagA EPIYA-C segment deregulates SHP-2/ERK-JAK/STAT3 pathways, we evaluated whether the two variables are independently associated with gastric cancer. We included 1048 subjects: H. pylori-positive patients with gastric carcinoma (n = 232) and with gastritis (n = 275) and 541 blood donors. Data were analyzed using logistic regression model. The rs744166 polymorphic G allele (p = 0.01; OR = 1.76; 95 % CI = 1.44-2.70), and CagA-positive (OR = 12.80; 95 % CI = 5.58-19.86) status were independently associated with gastric cancer in comparison with blood donors. The rs744166 polymorphism (p = 0.001; OR = 1.64; 95 % CI = 1.16-2.31) and infection with H. pylori CagA-positive strains possessing higher number of EPIYA-C segments (p = 0.001; OR = 2.28; 95 % CI = 1.41-3.68) were independently associated with gastric cancer in comparison with gastritis. The association was stronger when host and bacterium genotypes were combined (p < 0.001; OR = 3.01; 95 % CI = 2.29-3.98). When stimulated with LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or Pam3Cys, peripheral mononuclear cells of healthy carriers of the rs744166 GG and AG genotypes expressed higher levels of STAT3 mRNA than those carrying AA genotype (p = 0.04 for both). The nuclear expression of phosphorylated p-STAT3 protein was significantly higher in the antral gastric tissue of carriers of rs744166 GG genotype than in carriers of AG and AA genotypes. Our study provides evidence that STAT3 rs744166 G allele and infection with CagA-positive H. pylori with higher number of EPIYA-C segments are independent risk factors for gastric cancer. The odds ratio of having gastric cancer was greater when bacterium and host high risk genotypes were combined

  14. Construction of Stable Fluorescent Reporter Plasmids for Use in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle D. Rodriguez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, the genes encoding three different fluorescent proteins were cloned into the stably maintained Staphylococcus aureus shuttle vector pKK30. The resulting plasmids were transformed into two S. aureus strains; SH1000 and RN4220. Stability assays illustrated that the three recombinant plasmids retained near 100% maintenance in vitro for 160 generations. S. aureus strain SH1000 expressing green fluorescent protein was then inoculated in an ovine model and in vivo stability for 6 days was demonstrated. In essence, these reporter plasmids represent a useful set of tools for dynamic imaging studies in S. aureus. These three reporter plasmids are available through BEI Resources.

  15. Construction of Stable Fluorescent Reporter Plasmids for Use in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Michelle D; Paul, Zubin; Wood, Charles E; Rice, Kelly C; Triplett, Eric W

    2017-01-01

    Here, the genes encoding three different fluorescent proteins were cloned into the stably maintained Staphylococcus aureus shuttle vector pKK30. The resulting plasmids were transformed into two S. aureus strains; SH1000 and RN4220. Stability assays illustrated that the three recombinant plasmids retained near 100% maintenance in vitro for 160 generations. S. aureus strain SH1000 expressing green fluorescent protein was then inoculated in an ovine model and in vivo stability for 6 days was demonstrated. In essence, these reporter plasmids represent a useful set of tools for dynamic imaging studies in S. aureus . These three reporter plasmids are available through BEI Resources.

  16. Biodegradation of endosulfan by mixed bacteria culture strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodegradation of endosulfan by mixed bacteria culture strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Nsidibeabasi Calvin Nwokem, Calvin Onyedika Nwokem, Casmir Emmanuel Gimba, Beatrice Nkiruka Iwuala ...

  17. Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus invasion into bovine mammary epithelial cells by contact with live Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Damien S; Rault, Lucie; Berkova, Nadia; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2013-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that is responsible for mastitis in dairy herds. S. aureus mastitis is difficult to treat and prone to recurrence despite antibiotic treatment. The ability of S. aureus to invade bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) is evoked to explain this chronicity. One sustainable alternative to treat or prevent mastitis is the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as mammary probiotics. In this study, we tested the ability of Lactobacillus casei strains to prevent invasion of bMEC by two S. aureus bovine strains, RF122 and Newbould305, which reproducibly induce acute and moderate mastitis, respectively. L. casei strains affected adhesion and/or internalization of S. aureus in a strain-dependent manner. Interestingly, L. casei CIRM-BIA 667 reduced S. aureus Newbould305 and RF122 internalization by 60 to 80%, and this inhibition was confirmed for two other L. casei strains, including one isolated from bovine teat canal. The protective effect occurred without affecting bMEC morphology and viability. Once internalized, the fate of S. aureus was not affected by L. casei. It should be noted that L. casei was internalized at a low rate but survived in bMEC cells with a better efficiency than that of S. aureus RF122. Inhibition of S. aureus adhesion was maintained with heat-killed L. casei, whereas contact between live L. casei and S. aureus or bMEC was required to prevent S. aureus internalization. This first study of the antagonism of LAB toward S. aureus in a mammary context opens avenues for the development of novel control strategies against this major pathogen.

  18. Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus Invasion into Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells by Contact with Live Lactobacillus casei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Damien S.; Rault, Lucie; Berkova, Nadia; Le Loir, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that is responsible for mastitis in dairy herds. S. aureus mastitis is difficult to treat and prone to recurrence despite antibiotic treatment. The ability of S. aureus to invade bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) is evoked to explain this chronicity. One sustainable alternative to treat or prevent mastitis is the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as mammary probiotics. In this study, we tested the ability of Lactobacillus casei strains to prevent invasion of bMEC by two S. aureus bovine strains, RF122 and Newbould305, which reproducibly induce acute and moderate mastitis, respectively. L. casei strains affected adhesion and/or internalization of S. aureus in a strain-dependent manner. Interestingly, L. casei CIRM-BIA 667 reduced S. aureus Newbould305 and RF122 internalization by 60 to 80%, and this inhibition was confirmed for two other L. casei strains, including one isolated from bovine teat canal. The protective effect occurred without affecting bMEC morphology and viability. Once internalized, the fate of S. aureus was not affected by L. casei. It should be noted that L. casei was internalized at a low rate but survived in bMEC cells with a better efficiency than that of S. aureus RF122. Inhibition of S. aureus adhesion was maintained with heat-killed L. casei, whereas contact between live L. casei and S. aureus or bMEC was required to prevent S. aureus internalization. This first study of the antagonism of LAB toward S. aureus in a mammary context opens avenues for the development of novel control strategies against this major pathogen. PMID:23183972

  19. Severity of nonbullous Staphylococcus aureus impetigo in children is associated with strains harboring genetic markers for exfoliative toxin B, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, and the multidrug resistance plasmid pSK41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Koning (Sander); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); S.V. Snijders (Susan); J.L. Nouwen (Jan); M. op 't Veld; J.C. van der Wouden (Hans); C.M. Verduin (Cees); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractNonbullous impetigo is a common skin infection in children and is frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcal toxins and especially exfoliative toxin A are known mediators of bullous impetigo in children. It is not known whether this is also true for

  20. Prevalence and resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus, including meticillin-resistant S aureus, in nine European countries: a cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, C.D.J. den; Bijnen, E.M.E. van; Paget, W.J.; Pringle, M.; Goossen, H.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Information about the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus resistance to antimicrobial drugs has mainly been obtained from invasive strains, although the commensal microbiota is thought to be an important reservoir of resistance. We aimed to compare the prevalence of nasal S aureus

  1. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus harboring the mecA or Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes in hospitals in Java and Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosaningsih, Dewi; Santoso, Sanarto; Budayanti, Nyoman S; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Lestari, Endang S; Farida, Helmia; Hapsari, Rebriarina; Hadi, Purnomo; Winarto, Winarto; Milheiriço, Catarina; Maquelin, Kees; Willemse-Erix, Diana; van Belkum, Alex; Severin, Juliëtte A; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2014-04-01

    Data of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in Indonesian hospitals are scarce. Therefore, the epidemiology of S. aureus among surgery patients in three academic hospitals in Indonesia was studied. In total, 366 of 1,502 (24.4%) patients carried S. aureus. The methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage rate was 4.3%, whereas 1.5% of the patients carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Semarang and Malang city (odds ratio [OR] 9.4 and OR 9.0), being male (OR 2.4), hospitalization for more than 5 days (OR 11.708), and antibiotic therapy during hospitalization (OR 2.6) were independent determinants for MRSA carriage, whereas prior hospitalization (OR 2.5) was the only one risk factor for PVL-positive MSSA carriage. Typing of MRSA strains by Raman spectroscopy showed three large clusters assigned type 21, 24, and 38, all corresponding to ST239-MRSA-SCCmec type III. In conclusion, MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA are present among patients in surgical wards in Indonesian academic hospitals.

  2. Evidence for Community Transmission of Community-Associated but Not Health-Care-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Linked to Social and Material Deprivation: Spatial Analysis of Cross-sectional Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Tosas Auguet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and tackling the social determinants of infectious diseases has become a public health priority following the recognition that individuals with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by infectious diseases. In many parts of the world, epidemiologically and genotypically defined community-associated (CA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains have emerged to become frequent causes of hospital infection. The aim of this study was to use spatial models with adjustment for area-level hospital attendance to determine the transmission niche of genotypically defined CA- and health-care-associated (HA-MRSA strains across a diverse region of South East London and to explore a potential link between MRSA carriage and markers of social and material deprivation.This study involved spatial analysis of cross-sectional data linked with all MRSA isolates identified by three National Health Service (NHS microbiology laboratories between 1 November 2011 and 29 February 2012. The cohort of hospital-based NHS microbiology diagnostic services serves 867,254 usual residents in the Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham boroughs in South East London, United Kingdom (UK. Isolates were classified as HA- or CA-MRSA based on whole genome sequencing. All MRSA cases identified over 4 mo within the three-borough catchment area (n = 471 were mapped to small geographies and linked to area-level aggregated socioeconomic and demographic data. Disease mapping and ecological regression models were used to infer the most likely transmission niches for each MRSA genetic classification and to describe the spatial epidemiology of MRSA in relation to social determinants. Specifically, we aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic population traits that explain cross-area extra variation in HA- and CA-MRSA relative risks following adjustment for hospital attendance data. We explored the potential for associations with the English Indices

  3. Evidence for Community Transmission of Community-Associated but Not Health-Care-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Linked to Social and Material Deprivation: Spatial Analysis of Cross-sectional Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosas Auguet, Olga; Betley, Jason R; Stabler, Richard A; Patel, Amita; Ioannou, Avgousta; Marbach, Helene; Hearn, Pasco; Aryee, Anna; Goldenberg, Simon D; Otter, Jonathan A; Desai, Nergish; Karadag, Tacim; Grundy, Chris; Gaunt, Michael W; Cooper, Ben S; Edgeworth, Jonathan D; Kypraios, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and tackling the social determinants of infectious diseases has become a public health priority following the recognition that individuals with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by infectious diseases. In many parts of the world, epidemiologically and genotypically defined community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have emerged to become frequent causes of hospital infection. The aim of this study was to use spatial models with adjustment for area-level hospital attendance to determine the transmission niche of genotypically defined CA- and health-care-associated (HA)-MRSA strains across a diverse region of South East London and to explore a potential link between MRSA carriage and markers of social and material deprivation. This study involved spatial analysis of cross-sectional data linked with all MRSA isolates identified by three National Health Service (NHS) microbiology laboratories between 1 November 2011 and 29 February 2012. The cohort of hospital-based NHS microbiology diagnostic services serves 867,254 usual residents in the Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham boroughs in South East London, United Kingdom (UK). Isolates were classified as HA- or CA-MRSA based on whole genome sequencing. All MRSA cases identified over 4 mo within the three-borough catchment area (n = 471) were mapped to small geographies and linked to area-level aggregated socioeconomic and demographic data. Disease mapping and ecological regression models were used to infer the most likely transmission niches for each MRSA genetic classification and to describe the spatial epidemiology of MRSA in relation to social determinants. Specifically, we aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic population traits that explain cross-area extra variation in HA- and CA-MRSA relative risks following adjustment for hospital attendance data. We explored the potential for associations with the English Indices of

  4. Fresh garlic extract inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation under chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panan Ratthawongjirakul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are the leading aetiological pathogens of nosocomial infections worldwide. These bacteria form biofilms on both biotic and abiotic surfaces causing biofilm-associated infections. Within the biofilm, these bacteria might develop persistent and antimicrobial resistant characteristics resulting in chronic infections and treatment failures. Garlic exhibits broad pharmaceutical properties and inhibitory activities against S. aureus. We investigated the effects of aqueous fresh garlic extract on biofilm formation in S. aureus ATCC25923 and MRSA strains under chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic conditions. The viable bacteria and biofilm levels were quantified through colony count and crystal violet staining, respectively. The use of fresh garlic extract under both conditions significantly inhibited biofilm formation in S. aureus strains ATCC25923 and MRSA. Garlic could be developed as either a prophylactic or therapeutic agent to manage S. aureus biofilm-associated infections.

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among a community-based diabetes population in Foshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jialing; Xu, Ping; Peng, Yang; Lin, Dongxin; Ou, Qianting; Zhang, Ting; Bai, Chan; Ye, Xiaohua; Zhou, Junli; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2017-05-01

    Evidence suggests that diabetes might cause an increase in colonization of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in community settings. We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and influencing factors of S. aureus and MRSA nasal colonization among a community-based diabetes population, and to identify the characteristics of the isolated strains. A total of 956 participants from 11 community settings were included in the study. Of the 529 diabetes participants, 46 were colonized with S. aureus and 22 were colonized with MRSA. Of the 427 non-diabetes participants, 25 were colonized with S. aureus and 12 were colonized with MRSA. Men (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.99, P = 0.047) were less likely to have S. aureus nasal colonization, and those with well-controlled blood glucose (odds ratio 2.04, 95% confidence interval 1.01-4.13, P = 0.047) among the diabetes population were more likely to have S. aureus nasal colonization. The proportion of multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains in the diabetes population (52.17%) was higher than that in the non-diabetes population (28.00%; χ 2 = 3.848, P = 0.050). The most common clonal complex type and Staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec type of MRSA in diabetes population was clonal complex 5 (40.91%) and type IV (27.27%), respectively. The proportion of Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene in MRSA strains was 17.65%. There was great sequence type diversity in MRSA strains. The prevalence of MRSA in the community-based diabetes population was moderate, and the high proportions of multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains and diverse molecular characteristics in the diabetes population should be noticed. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Genetic Determinants of High-Level Oxacillin Resistance in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardos de la Gandara, Maria; Borges, Vitor; Chung, Marilyn; Milheiriço, Catarina; Gomes, João Paulo; de Lencastre, Herminia; Tomasz, Alexander

    2018-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains carry either a mecA - or a mecC -mediated mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, and the phenotypic expression of resistance shows extensive strain-to-strain variation. In recent communications, we identified the genetic determinants associated with the stringent stress response that play a major role in the antibiotic resistant phenotype of the historically earliest "archaic" clone of MRSA and in the mecC -carrying MRSA strain LGA251. Here, we sought to test whether or not the same genetic determinants also contribute to the resistant phenotype of highly and homogeneously resistant (H*R) derivatives of a major contemporary MRSA clone, USA300. We found that the resistance phenotype was linked to six genes ( fruB , gmk , hpt , purB , prsA , and relA ), which were most frequently targeted among the analyzed 20 H*R strains (one mutation per clone in 19 of the 20 H*R strains). Besides the strong parallels with our previous findings (five of the six genes matched), all but one of the repeatedly targeted genes were found to be linked to guanine metabolism, pointing to the key role that this pathway plays in defining the level of antibiotic resistance independent of the clonal type of MRSA. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus Invasion into Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells by Contact with Live Lactobacillus casei

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, Damien S.; Rault, Lucie; Berkova, Nadia; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that is responsible for mastitis in dairy herds. S. aureus mastitis is difficult to treat and prone to recurrence despite antibiotic treatment. The ability of S. aureus to invade bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) is evoked to explain this chronicity. One sustainable alternative to treat or prevent mastitis is the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as mammary probiotics. In this study, we tested the ability of Lactobacillus casei strains to prevent...

  8. Comparative supragenomic analyses among the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae Using a modification of the finite supragenome model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Susan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is associated with a spectrum of symbiotic relationships with its human host from carriage to sepsis and is frequently associated with nosocomial and community-acquired infections, thus the differential gene content among strains is of interest. Results We sequenced three clinical strains and combined these data with 13 publically available human isolates and one bovine strain for comparative genomic analyses. All genomes were annotated using RAST, and then their gene similarities and differences were delineated. Gene clustering yielded 3,155 orthologous gene clusters, of which 2,266 were core, 755 were distributed, and 134 were unique. Individual genomes contained between 2,524 and 2,648 genes. Gene-content comparisons among all possible S. aureus strain pairs (n = 136 revealed a mean difference of 296 genes and a maximum difference of 476 genes. We developed a revised version of our finite supragenome model to estimate the size of the S. aureus supragenome (3,221 genes, with 2,245 core genes, and compared it with those of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. There was excellent agreement between RAST's annotations and our CDS clustering procedure providing for high fidelity metabolomic subsystem analyses to extend our comparative genomic characterization of these strains. Conclusions Using a multi-species comparative supragenomic analysis enabled by an improved version of our finite supragenome model we provide data and an interpretation explaining the relatively larger core genome of S. aureus compared to other opportunistic nasopharyngeal pathogens. In addition, we provide independent validation for the efficiency and effectiveness of our orthologous gene clustering algorithm.

  9. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantosti, Annalisa; Sanchini, Andrea; Monaco, Monica

    2007-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can exemplify better than any other human pathogen the adaptive evolution of bacteria in the antibiotic era, as it has demonstrated a unique ability to quickly respond to each new antibiotic with the development of a resistance mechanism, starting with penicillin and methicillin, until the most recent, linezolid and daptomycin. Resistance mechanisms include enzymatic inactivation of the antibiotic (penicillinase and aminoglycoside-modification enzymes), alteration of the target with decreased affinity for the antibiotic (notable examples being penicillin-binding protein 2a of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and D-Ala-D-Lac of peptidoglycan precursors of vancomycin-resistant strains), trapping of the antibiotic (for vancomycin and possibly daptomycin) and efflux pumps (fluoroquinolones and tetracycline). Complex genetic arrays (staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec elements or the vanA operon) have been acquired by S. aureus through horizontal gene transfer, while resistance to other antibiotics, including some of the most recent ones (e.g., fluoroquinolones, linezolid and daptomycin) have developed through spontaneous mutations and positive selection. Detection of the resistance mechanisms and their genetic basis is an important support to antibiotic susceptibility surveillance in S. aureus.

  10. Decrease of Staphylococcus aureus Virulence by Helcococcus kunzii in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngba Essebe, Christelle; Visvikis, Orane; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Vergne, Anne; Cattoir, Vincent; Lecoustumier, Alain; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Social bacterial interactions are considered essential in numerous infectious diseases, particularly in wounds. Foot ulcers are a common complication in diabetic patients and these ulcers become frequently infected. This infection is usually polymicrobial promoting cell-to-cell communications. Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent pathogen isolated. Its association with Helcococcus kunzii , commensal Gram-positive cocci, is frequently described. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of co-infection on virulence of both H. kunzii and S. aureus strains in a Caenorhabditis elegans model. To study the host response, qRT-PCRs targeting host defense genes were performed. We observed that H. kunzii strains harbored a very low (LT50: 5.7 days ± 0.4) or an absence of virulence (LT50: 6.9 days ± 0.5). In contrast, S. aureus strains (LT50: 2.9 days ± 0.4) were significantly more virulent than all H. kunzii ( P aureus strains were associated, H. kunzii significantly reduced the virulence of the S. aureus strain in nematodes (LT50 between 4.4 and 5.2 days; P aureus led to a strong induction of defense genes ( lys-5, sodh-1 , and cyp-37B1 ) while H. kunzii did not. No statistical difference of host response genes expression was observed when C. elegans were infected with either S. aureus alone or with S. aureus + H. kunzii . Moreover, two well-characterized virulence factors ( hla and agr ) present in S. aureus were down-regulated when S. aureus were co-infected with H. kunzii . This study showed that H. kunzii decreased the virulence of S. aureus without modifying directly the host defense response. Factor(s) produced by this bacterium modulating the staphylococci virulence must be investigated.

  11. Photoreactivation of ultraviolet-irradiation damage in Staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, B. Jr.; Allen, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    This study reports the capacity of Staphylococcus aureus strain 7 - 8 to undergo photoenzymatic repair of UV-irradiation induced damage and compares it to the photoreactivation (PR) response of Escherichia coli strain B. Staphylococcus aureaus showed greater inhibition by UV irradiation than E. coli, consistent with its higher adenine and thymine content of DNA. Staphylococcus aureus showed an enhanced rate of photoreactivation with no lag in initiation of the PR response at low PR doses compared to E. coli. Maximum PR capacity of both cultures was about equal and occurred in cultures incubated at 23 - 25 0 . The PR responses at 11 - 12 and 35 - 37 0 for S. aureus and E. coli differed although both were capable of PR at each of these temperatures. The PR response of E. coli was directly related to the dosage of PR light (J/m 2 ); however, the photoenzymatic capacity of S. aureus was not directly responsive to continued decrease in light intensity. The capacity of S. aureus to undergo liquid holding recovery (LHR) occurred at 23 - 25 0 (not at 11 - 12 0 or 35 - 37 0 ), whereas E. coli underwent LHR at 11 - 12 0 and 23 - 25 0 but not at 35 - 37 0 . The LHR response of S. aureus was somewhat more effective than E. coli and did not show the direct response to increased liquid-holding period as did E. coli. (author)

  12. Bovine Staphylococcus aureus secretes the leukocidin LukMF′ to kill migrating neutrophils through CCR1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, M.; Koymans, K.J.; Heesterbeek, D.A.C.; Aerts, P.C.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; de Haas, C.J.C.; van Kessel, K.P.M.; Koets, A.P.; Nijland, R; van Strijp, J.A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Although Staphylococcus aureus is best known for infecting humans, bovine-specific strains are a major cause of mastitis in dairy cattle. The bicomponent leukocidin LukMF′, exclusively harbored by S. aureus of ruminant origin, is a virulence factor associated with bovine infections. In this study,

  13. Bovine Staphylococcus aureus secretes the leukocidin LukMF' to kill migrating neutrophils through CCR1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, M.; Koymans, K.J.; Heesterbeek, D.A.C.; Aerts, P.C.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Haas, de C.J.C.; Kessel, van K.P.M.; Koets, A.P.; Nijland, R.; Strijp, van J.A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Although Staphylococcus aureus is best known for infecting humans, bovine-specific strains are a major cause of mastitis in dairy cattle. The bicomponent leukocidin LukMF′, exclusively harbored by S. aureus of ruminant origin, is a virulence factor associated with bovine infections. In this study,

  14. Host adaptation of bovine Staphylococcus aureus seems associated with bacteriological cure after lactational antimicrobial treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den B.H.P.; Nielen, M.; Schaik, van G.; Melchior, M.B.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Zadoks, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide range of diseases in multiple species. Some sequence types (ST) are observed in a variety of hosts, whereas other strains are mainly associated with bovine mastitis, suggesting host adaptation. We propose that host adaptation of Staph. aureus may influence

  15. Unraveling the dynamics of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bootsma, M.C.; Bonten, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Since the first description of the community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain USA300 [1] in the 1990s, this pathogen has emerged worldwide [2]. Within a decade, USA300 has become the most prevalent cause of community-acquired S. aureus infections in many

  16. [Change in drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Liu, Yan; Luo, Yan-Ping; Liu, Chang-Ting

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the change in drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (SAU) in the PLA general hospital from January 2008 to December 2012, and to provide solid evidence to support the rational use of antibiotics for clinical applications. The SAU strains isolated from clinical samples in the hospital were collected and subjected to the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. The results were assessed based on the 2002 American National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines. SAU strains were mainly isolated from sputum, urine, blood and wound excreta and distributed in penology, neurology wards, orthopedics and surgery ICU wards. Except for glycopeptide drugs, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) had a higher drug resistance rate than those of the other drugs and had significantly more resistance than methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (P resistance, we discovered a gradual increase in drug resistance to fourteen test drugs during the last five years. Drug resistance rate of SAU stayed at a higher level over the last five years; moreover, the detection ratio of MRSA keeps rising year by year. It is crucial for physicians to use antibiotics rationally and monitor the change in drug resistance in a dynamic way.

  17. A Selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Promotes EGFR-Independent Akt Activation in an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88-Infected IPEC-J2 Cell Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC are important intestinal pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Although probiotic bacteria may protect against ETEC-induced enteric infections, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, porcine intestinal epithelial J2 cells (IPEC-J2 were pre-incubated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and then exposed to F4+ ETEC. Increases in TLR4 and NOD2 mRNA expression were observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge, but these increases were attenuated by L. rhamnosus treatment. Expression of TLR2 and NOD1 mRNA was up-regulated in cells pre-treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus counteracted F4+ ETEC-induced increases in TNF-α concentration. Increased PGE2. concentrations were observed in cells infected with F4+ ETEC and in cells treated with L. rhamnosus only. A decrease in phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR was observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge in cells treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus enhanced Akt phosphorylation and increased ZO-1 and occludin protein expression. Our findings suggest that L. rhamnosus protects intestinal epithelial cells from F4+ ETEC-induced damage, partly through the anti-inflammatory response involving synergism between TLR2 and NOD1. In addition, L. rhamnosus promotes EGFR-independent Akt activation, which may activate intestinal epithelial cells in response to bacterial infection, in turn increasing tight junction integrity and thus enhancing the barrier function and restricting pathogen invasion. Pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus was superior to co-incubation in reducing the adhesion of F4+ ETEC to IPEC-J2 cells and subsequently attenuating F4+ ETEC-induced mucin layer destruction and suppressing apoptosis. Our data indicate that a selected L. rhamnosus strain interacts with porcine intestinal epithelial cells to maintain the epithelial barrier and promote intestinal epithelial

  18. A Selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Promotes EGFR-Independent Akt Activation in an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88-Infected IPEC-J2 Cell Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Yang, Jin-Cai; Yang, Gui-Yan; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are important intestinal pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Although probiotic bacteria may protect against ETEC-induced enteric infections, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, porcine intestinal epithelial J2 cells (IPEC-J2) were pre-incubated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and then exposed to F4+ ETEC. Increases in TLR4 and NOD2 mRNA expression were observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge, but these increases were attenuated by L. rhamnosus treatment. Expression of TLR2 and NOD1 mRNA was up-regulated in cells pre-treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus counteracted F4+ ETEC-induced increases in TNF-α concentration. Increased PGE2. concentrations were observed in cells infected with F4+ ETEC and in cells treated with L. rhamnosus only. A decrease in phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge in cells treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus enhanced Akt phosphorylation and increased ZO-1 and occludin protein expression. Our findings suggest that L. rhamnosus protects intestinal epithelial cells from F4+ ETEC-induced damage, partly through the anti-inflammatory response involving synergism between TLR2 and NOD1. In addition, L. rhamnosus promotes EGFR-independent Akt activation, which may activate intestinal epithelial cells in response to bacterial infection, in turn increasing tight junction integrity and thus enhancing the barrier function and restricting pathogen invasion. Pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus was superior to co-incubation in reducing the adhesion of F4+ ETEC to IPEC-J2 cells and subsequently attenuating F4+ ETEC-induced mucin layer destruction and suppressing apoptosis. Our data indicate that a selected L. rhamnosus strain interacts with porcine intestinal epithelial cells to maintain the epithelial barrier and promote intestinal epithelial cell activation in

  19. Molecular basis of virulence in Staphylococcus aureus mastitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Le Maréchal

    Full Text Available S. aureus is one of the main pathogens involved in ruminant mastitis worldwide. The severity of staphylococcal infection is highly variable, ranging from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. This work represents an in-depth characterization of S. aureus mastitis isolates to identify bacterial factors involved in severity of mastitis infection.We employed genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to comprehensively compare two clonally related S. aureus strains that reproducibly induce severe (strain O11 and milder (strain O46 mastitis in ewes. Variation in the content of mobile genetic elements, iron acquisition and metabolism, transcriptional regulation and exoprotein production was observed. In particular, O11 produced relatively high levels of exoproteins, including toxins and proteases known to be important in virulence. A characteristic we observed in other S. aureus strains isolated from clinical mastitis cases.Our data are consistent with a dose-dependant role of some staphylococcal factors in the hypervirulence of strains isolated from severe mastitis. Mobile genetic elements, transcriptional regulators, exoproteins and iron acquisition pathways constitute good targets for further research to define the underlying mechanisms of mastitis severity.

  20. Influence of the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate on the intracellular activity of antibiotics against hemin- and menadione-auxotrophic small-colony variant mutants of Staphylococcus aureus and their wild-type parental strain in human THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Laetitia G; Lemaire, Sandrine; Kahl, Barbara C; Becker, Karsten; Proctor, Richard A; Tulkens, Paul M; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2012-12-01

    In a previous study (L. G. Garcia et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 56:3700-3711, 2012), we evaluated the intracellular fate of menD and hemB mutants (corresponding to menadione- and hemin-dependent small-colony variants, respectively) of the parental COL methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and the pharmacodynamic profile of the intracellular activity of a series of antibiotics in human THP-1 monocytes. We have now examined the phagocytosis and intracellular persistence of the same strains in THP-1 cells activated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and measured the intracellular activity of gentamicin, moxifloxacin, and oritavancin in these cells. Postphagocytosis intracellular counts and intracellular survival were lower in PMA-activated cells, probably due to their higher killing capacities. Gentamicin and moxifloxacin showed a 5- to 7-fold higher potency (lower static concentrations) against the parental strain, its hemB mutant, and the genetically complemented strain in PMA-activated cells and against the menD strain in both activated and nonactivated cells. This effect was inhibited when cells were incubated with N-acetylcysteine (a scavenger of oxidant species). In parallel, we observed that the MICs of these drugs were markedly reduced if bacteria had been preexposed to H(2)O(2). In contrast, the intracellular potency of oritavancin was not different in activated and nonactivated cells and was not decreased by the addition of N-acetylcysteine, regardless of the phenotype of the strains. The oritavancin MIC was also unaffected by preincubation of the bacteria with H(2)O(2). Thus, activation of THP-1 cells by PMA may increase the intracellular potency of certain antibiotics (probably due to synergy with reactive oxygen species), but this effect cannot be generalized to all antibiotics.

  1. Variation among Staphylococcus aureus membrane vesicle proteomes affects cytotoxicity of host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyejin; Oh, Man Hwan; Jun, So Hyun; Kim, Seung Il; Choi, Chi Won; Kwon, Hyo Il; Na, Seok Hyeon; Kim, Yoo Jeong; Nicholas, Asiimwe; Selasi, Gati Noble; Lee, Je Chul

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus secretes membrane-derived vesicles (MVs), which can deliver virulence factors to host cells and induce cytopathology. However, the cytopathology of host cells induced by MVs derived from different S. aureus strains has not yet been characterized. In the present study, the cytotoxic activity of MVs from different S. aureus isolates on host cells was compared and the proteomes of S. aureus MVs were analyzed. The MVs purified from S. aureus M060 isolated from a patient with staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome showed higher cytotoxic activity toward host cells than that shown by MVs from three other clinical S. aureus isolates. S. aureus M060 MVs induced HEp-2 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, but the cytotoxic activity of MVs was completely abolished by treatment with proteinase K. In a proteomic analysis, the MVs from three S. aureus isolates not only carry 25 common proteins, but also carry ≥60 strain-specific proteins. All S. aureus MVs contained δ-hemolysin (Hld), γ-hemolysin, leukocidin D, and exfoliative toxin C, but exfoliative toxin A (ETA) was specifically identified in S. aureus M060 MVs. ETA was delivered to HEp-2 cells via S. aureus MVs. Both rETA and rHld induced cytotoxicity in HEp-2 cells. In conclusion, MVs from clinical S. aureus isolates differ with respect to cytotoxic activity in host cells, and these differences may result from differences in the MV proteomes. Further proteogenomic analysis or mutagenesis of specific genes is necessary to identify cytotoxic factors in S. aureus MVs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Depke, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that colonizes about 20% of the human population. Intriguingly, this Gram-positive bacterium can survive and thrive under a wide range of different conditions, both inside and outside the human body. Here, we investigated the transcriptional adaptation of...

  3. Global analysis of the impact of linezolid onto virulence factor production in S. aureus USA300

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, Florian; Pane-Farre, Jan; Schlueter, Rabea; Schaffer, Marc; Fuchs, Stephan; Bernhardt, Joerg; Riedel, Katharina; Otto, Andreas; Voelker, Uwe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Hecker, Michael; Maeder, Ulrike; Becher, Doerte

    The translation inhibitor linezolid is an antibiotic of last resort against Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin resistant strains of the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Linezolid is reported to inhibit production of extracellular virulence factors, but the molecular cause is

  4. Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Is Effective against both Extra- and Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noore, Jabeen; Noore, Adly

    2013-01-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics and the challenges posed by intracellular bacteria, which may be responsible for chronic and recurrent infections, have driven the need for advanced antimicrobial drugs for effective elimination of both extra- and intracellular pathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine the killing efficacy of cationic antimicrobial peptide LL-37 compared to conventional antibiotics against extra- and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial killing assays and an infection model of osteoblasts and S. aureus were studied to determine the bacterial killing efficacy of LL-37 and conventional antibiotics against extra- and intracellular S. aureus. We found that LL-37 was effective in killing extracellular S. aureus at nanomolar concentrations, while lactoferricin B was effective at micromolar concentrations and doxycycline and cefazolin at millimolar concentrations. LL-37 was surprisingly more effective in killing the clinical strain than in killing an ATCC strain of S. aureus. Moreover, LL-37 was superior to conventional antibiotics in eliminating intracellular S. aureus. The kinetic studies further revealed that LL-37 was fast in eliminating both extra- and intracellular S. aureus. Therefore, LL-37 was shown to be very potent and prompt in eliminating both extra- and intracellular S. aureus and was more effective in killing extra- and intracellular S. aureus than commonly used conventional antibiotics. LL-37 could potentially be used to treat chronic and recurrent infections due to its effectiveness in eliminating not only extracellular but also intracellular pathogens. PMID:23274662

  5. Multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the prevalence of resistant strains of S. aureus isolated from surfaces, beds and various equipment of an Iranian hospital emergency ward. Methods: Two hundred swab samples were collected from the surfaces, beds, trolleys, surgical equipment and diagnostic medical devices in emergency ward.

  6. Cloxacillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Children's Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-29

    Jun 29, 1974 ... methicillin and cloxacillin were sought and their incidence determined. Annear1 demonstrated that the incubation of cultures of. Staph. aureus at temperatures below 37°C accentuated the difference between sensitive and resistant strains for methi- cillin and to a lesser extent for other antibiotics. Hewitt et al ...

  7. spa typing for epidemiological surveillance of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, Marie; Friedrich, Alexander W; Struelens, Marc J; Caugant, Dominique A.

    2009-01-01

    The spa typing method is based on sequencing of the polymorphic X region of the protein A gene (spa), present in all strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The X region is constituted of a variable number of 24-bp repeats flanked by well-conserved regions. This single-locus sequence-based typing method

  8. Distribution of mecA gene amongst Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Antibiotics susceptibility testing including methicillin sensitivity testing, beta lactamase testing, PCR for detection of mecA gene, and minimum inhibitory concentrations to methicillin were carried out on all the 194 isolates of S. aureus. Among the 194 strains, 40 (20.6%) were MRSA using 10 µg methicillin disc. PCR analysis.

  9. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus : a review of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus : a review of the molecular epidemiology, clinical significance and laboratory detection methods. ... Added to this burden is the emergence of more virulent strains of community-associated MRSA (CAMRSA) which at the turn of the century, has been increasingly reported to ...

  10. Regulation of Expression of Oxacillin-Inducible Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R. Baum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell wall-active antibiotics cause induction of a locus that leads to elevated synthesis of two methionine sulfoxide reductases (MsrA1 and MsrB in Staphylococcus aureus. To understand the regulation of this locus, reporter strains were constructed by integrating a DNA fragment consisting of the msrA1/msrB promoter in front of a promoterless lacZ gene in the chromosome of wild-type and MsrA1-, MsrB-, MsrA1/MsrB-, and SigB-deficient methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strain SH1000 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain COL. These reporter strains were cultured in TSB and the cellular levels of β-galactosidase activity in these cultures were assayed during different growth phases. β-galactosidase activity assays demonstrated that the lack of MsrA1, MsrB, and SigB upregulated the msrA1/msrB promoter in S. aureus strain SH1000. In S. aureus strain COL, the highest level of β-galactosidase activity was observed under the conditions when both MsrA1 and MsrB proteins were absent. The data suggest that the msrA1/msrB locus, in part, is negatively regulated by MsrA1, MsrB, and SigB in S. aureus.

  11. The human nasal microbiota and Staphylococcus aureus carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N Frank

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colonization of humans with Staphylococcus aureus is a critical prerequisite of subsequent clinical infection of the skin, blood, lung, heart and other deep tissues. S. aureus persistently or intermittently colonizes the nares of approximately 50% of healthy adults, whereas approximately 50% of the general population is rarely or never colonized by this pathogen. Because microbial consortia within the nasal cavity may be an important determinant of S. aureus colonization we determined the composition and dynamics of the nasal microbiota and correlated specific microorganisms with S. aureus colonization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nasal specimens were collected longitudinally from five healthy adults and a cross-section of hospitalized patients (26 S. aureus carriers and 16 non-carriers. Culture-independent analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the nasal microbiota of healthy subjects consists primarily of members of the phylum Actinobacteria (e.g., Propionibacterium spp. and Corynebacterium spp., with proportionally less representation of other phyla, including Firmicutes (e.g., Staphylococcus spp. and Proteobacteria (e.g. Enterobacter spp. In contrast, inpatient nasal microbiotas were enriched in S. aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis and diminished in several actinobacterial groups, most notably Propionibacterium acnes. Moreover, within the inpatient population S. aureus colonization was negatively correlated with the abundances of several microbial groups, including S. epidermidis (p = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The nares environment is colonized by a temporally stable microbiota that is distinct from other regions of the integument. Negative association between S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and other groups suggests microbial competition during colonization of the nares, a finding that could be exploited to limit S. aureus colonization.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus CC398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Lance B.; Stegger, Marc; Hasman, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Since its discovery in the early 2000s, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) has become a rapidly emerging cause of human infections, most often associated with livestock exposure. We applied whole-genome sequence typing to characterize a diverse collection...... of CC398 isolates (n = 89), including MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from animals and humans spanning 19 countries and four continents. We identified 4,238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the 89 core genomes. Minimal homoplasy (consistency index = 0.9591) was detected...... among parsimony-informative SNPs, allowing for the generation of a highly accurate phylogenetic reconstruction of the CC398 clonal lineage. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that MSSA from humans formed the most ancestral clades. The most derived lineages were composed predominantly of livestock...

  13. Prevalence and resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a European cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, C.D.J. den; Bijnen, E.M.E. van; Paget, W.J.; Pringle, M.; Goossen, H.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Information on the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus resistance has mainly been obtained from invasive strains, although the commensal flora is considered an important reservoir of resistance. Within ‘The Appropriateness of prescribing antibiotics in primary health care in Europe with

  14. Prevalence of nasal portal of Staphylococcus aureus in disabled children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Molin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colonization of the nasal mucosa by Staphylococcus aureus set a carrier state. Which is recognized as a potential source of infection and a high risk factor for subsequent invasive infections. The prevalence of nasal carriage of this germ in disabled children in Paraguay is not known, thus contributing to the knowledge of their frequency and evaluate the profile of sensitivity to common antimicrobials was conducted this study, from May to July 2015.  Objective: to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and profile of antimicrobial resistance in disabled children. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study in which 80 nasal swabs of children, who attended the service laboratory of SENADIS (Secretaria Nacional por los Derechos Humanos de las Personas con Discapacidad. The identification and sensitivity of germ was accomplished by conventional testing.  Results: 80 pediatric patients, 46 boys and 34 girls. 18 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were obtained, corresponding to a prevalence of 22,5%. Susceptibility testing indicated that 14 strains were MSSA (Methicillin – Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and 4 RMSA ( Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in a population with its own characteristics provides valuable data for the epidemiology, reflecting the need for continued vigilance and take steps to reduce associated infections. The detection of RMAR evidences their progress; it is important to evaluate the empirical treatment to primary care.

  15. Low Dose Vaccination with Attenuated Francisella tularensis Strain SchuS4 Mutants Protects against Tularemia Independent of the Route of Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockx-Brouwer, Dedeke; Chong, Audrey; Wehrly, Tara D.; Child, Robert; Crane, Deborah D.

    2012-01-01

    Tularemia, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Interest in tularemia has increased over the last decade due to its history as a biological weapon. In particular, development of novel vaccines directed at protecting against pneumonic tularemia has been an important goal. Previous work has demonstrated that, when delivered at very high inoculums, administration of live, highly attenuated strains of virulent F. tularensis can protect against tularemia. However, lower vaccinating inoculums did not offer similar immunity. One concern of using live vaccines is that the host may develop mild tularemia in response to infection and use of high inoculums may contribute to this issue. Thus, generation of a live vaccine that can efficiently protect against tularemia when delivered in low numbers, e.g. tularemia when delivered at concentrations of approximately 50 or fewer bacteria. Attenuated strains for use as vaccines were selected by their inability to efficiently replicate in macrophages in vitro and impaired replication and dissemination in vivo. Although all strains were defective for replication in vitro within macrophages, protective efficacy of each attenuated mutant was correlated with their ability to modestly replicate and disseminate in the host. Finally, we demonstrate the parenteral vaccination with these strains offered superior protection against pneumonic tularemia than intranasal vaccination. Together our data provides proof of principle that low dose attenuated vaccines may be a viable goal in development of novel vaccines directed against tularemia. PMID:22662210

  16. Activity of daptomycin alone and in combination with rifampin and gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus assessed by time-kill methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2007-04-01

    The synergistic effects of daptomycin plus gentamicin or rifampin were tested against 50 Staphylococcus aureus strains, with daptomycin MICs ranging between 0.25 and 8 microg/ml. Daptomycin sub-MICs combined with gentamicin concentrations lower than the MIC yielded synergy in 34 (68%) of the 50 strains. Daptomycin combined with rifampin yielded synergy in one vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strain only, and virtually all synergy occurred between daptomycin and gentamicin.

  17. Frequency of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Rahimi-Alang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is one of the most important pathogen in hospitals. Healthcare personnel are the main source of nosocomial infections and identification and control of MRSA carriers can reduce incidence of infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MRSA and their antibiotic susceptibility profile among healthcare workers in Gorgan.Materials and Method: 333 healthcare workers were participated in this cross-sectional study in 2009. Samples were taken with sterile cotton swabs from both anterior nares and hands. Swabs were plated immediately on to the mannitol salt agar. Suspected colonies were confirmed as S. aureus by Gram staining, catalase, coagulase and DNase tests. Minimum inhibition concentration by micro dilution broth method was used to determine methicillin resistant strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility to other antibiotics was performed according to NCCLS guidelines by disc diffusion method.Result: Frequency of S.aureus and MRSA carriers among healthcare workers was 24% and 3% respectively. The highest rate of S. aureus and MRSA carriers were observed in operating room staff. Resistance to penicillin was seen in 97.5% of isolates and all strains were sensitive to vancomycin.Conclusions: Frequency of S. aureus and MRSA in healthcare workers was median and rather low respectively. Continual monitoring and control of carriers can reduce distribution of this organism and their infections

  18. Molecular Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Bovine Mastitis between 2014 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianming; Lu, Huiying; Wang, Xing; Gao, Qianqian; Dai, Yingxin; Shang, Jun; Li, Min

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is highly pathogenic and can cause diseases in both humans and domestic animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. This study aimed to investigate the molecular profile, antimicrobial resistance, and genotype/phenotype correlation of 212 S. aureus isolates recovered from cases of bovine mastitis from 2014 to 2015 in the Shanghai and Zhejiang areas of China. Nineteen sequence types (STs) were determined by multi-locus sequence typing, while the dominant ST was ST97, followed by ST520, ST188, ST398, ST7, and ST9. Within 14 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates and 198 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates, ST97 was the predominant MSSA clone and ST9-MRSA-SCCmecXII-spa t899 was the most common MRSA clone. The MRSA strains showed much higher rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics than did MSSA strains. Compared with other MSSA strains, MSSA ST398 was more resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin. No isolates were resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin, or linezolid. The molecular profiles of the virulence genes varied in different strains. ST520 strains carried seg-sei-sem-sen-seo genes, and ST9 and ST97 harbored sdrD-sdrE genes. Virulence phenotype analysis showed diversity in different clones. Biofilm formation ability was significantly enhanced in ST188 and ST7, and red blood cell lysis capacity was relatively strong in all S. aureus strains of animal origin except ST7. Our results indicate that MSSA was the predominant S. aureus strain causing bovine mastitis in eastern regions of China. However, the presence of multidrug resistant and toxigenic MRSA clone ST9 suggests that comprehensive surveillance of S. aureus infection should be implemented in the management of animal husbandry products.

  19. Cross-Talk between Staphylococcus aureus and Other Staphylococcal Species via the agr Quorum Sensing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Canovas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are associated with both humans and animals. While most are non-pathogenic colonizers, Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing severe infections. S. aureus virulence is controlled by the agr quorum sensing system responding to secreted auto-inducing peptides (AIPs sensed by AgrC, a two component histidine kinase. agr loci are found also in other staphylococcal species and for Staphylococcus epidermidis, the encoded AIP represses expression of agr regulated virulence genes in S. aureus. In this study we aimed to better understand the interaction between staphylococci and S. aureus, and show that this interaction may eventually lead to the identification of new anti-virulence candidates to target S. aureus infections. Here we show that culture supernatants of 37 out of 52 staphylococcal isolates representing 17 different species inhibit S. aureus agr. The dog pathogen, Staphylococcus schleiferi, expressed the most potent inhibitory activity and was active against all four agr classes found in S. aureus. By employing a S. aureus strain encoding a constitutively active AIP receptor we show that the activity is mediated via agr. Subsequent cloning and heterologous expression of the S. schleiferi AIP in S. aureus demonstrated that this molecule was likely responsible for the inhibitory activity, and further proof was provided when pure synthetic S. schleiferi AIP was able to completely abolish agr induction of an S. aureus reporter strain. To assess impact on S. aureus virulence, we co-inoculated S. aureus and S. schleiferi in vivo in the Galleria mellonella wax moth larva, and found that expression of key S. aureus virulence factors was abrogated. Our data show that the S. aureus agr locus is highly responsive to other staphylococcal species suggesting that agr is an inter-species communication system. Based on these results we speculate that interactions between S. aureus and other colonizing staphylococci

  20. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Detection of ST772 Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (Bengal Bay clone and ST22 S. aureus isolates with a genetic variant of elastin binding protein in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Pokhrel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic characteristics were analysed for recent clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA respectively in Kathmandu, Nepal. MRSA isolates harbouring Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genes were classified into ST1, ST22 and ST88 with SCCmec-IV and ST772 with SCCmec-V (Bengal Bay clone, while PVL-positive MSSA into ST22, ST30 and ST772. ST22 isolates (PVL-positive MRSA and MSSA, PVL-negative MRSA possessed a variant of elastin binding protein gene (ebpS with an internal deletion of 180 bp, which was similar to that reported for ST121 S. aureus previously outside Nepal. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ebpS variant in ST22 might have occurred independently of ST121 strains. This is the first report of ST772 PVL-positive MRSA in Nepal and detection of the deletion variant of ebpS in ST22 S. aureus.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Endocarditis-Associated Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethercott, Cara; Mabbett, Amanda N.; Totsika, Makrina; Peters, Paul; Ortiz, Juan C.; Nimmo, Graeme R.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening infection of the heart endothelium and valves. Staphylococcus aureus is a predominant cause of severe IE and is frequently associated with infections in health care settings and device-related infections. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and virulence gene microarrays are frequently used to classify S. aureus clinical isolates. This study examined the utility of these typing tools to investigate S. aureus epidemiology associated with IE. Ninety-seven S. aureus isolates were collected from patients diagnosed with (i) IE, (ii) bloodstream infection related to medical devices, (iii) bloodstream infection not related to medical devices, and (iv) skin or soft-tissue infections. The MLST clonal complex (CC) for each isolate was determined and compared to the CCs of members of the S. aureus population by eBURST analysis. The spa type of all isolates was also determined. A null model was used to determine correlations of IE with CC and spa type. DNA microarray analysis was performed, and a permutational analysis of multivariate variance (PERMANOVA) and principal coordinates analysis were conducted to identify genotypic differences between IE and non-IE strains. CC12, CC20, and spa type t160 were significantly associated with IE S. aureus. A subset of virulence-associated genes and alleles, including genes encoding staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins, fibrinogen-binding protein, and a leukocidin subunit, also significantly correlated with IE isolates. MLST, spa typing, and microarray analysis are promising tools for monitoring S. aureus epidemiology associated with IE. Further research to determine a role for the S. aureus IE-associated virulence genes identified in this study is warranted. PMID:23616460

  3. Molecular characterization of endocarditis-associated Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethercott, Cara; Mabbett, Amanda N; Totsika, Makrina; Peters, Paul; Ortiz, Juan C; Nimmo, Graeme R; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Walker, Mark J; Schembri, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening infection of the heart endothelium and valves. Staphylococcus aureus is a predominant cause of severe IE and is frequently associated with infections in health care settings and device-related infections. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and virulence gene microarrays are frequently used to classify S. aureus clinical isolates. This study examined the utility of these typing tools to investigate S. aureus epidemiology associated with IE. Ninety-seven S. aureus isolates were collected from patients diagnosed with (i) IE, (ii) bloodstream infection related to medical devices, (iii) bloodstream infection not related to medical devices, and (iv) skin or soft-tissue infections. The MLST clonal complex (CC) for each isolate was determined and compared to the CCs of members of the S. aureus population by eBURST analysis. The spa type of all isolates was also determined. A null model was used to determine correlations of IE with CC and spa type. DNA microarray analysis was performed, and a permutational analysis of multivariate variance (PERMANOVA) and principal coordinates analysis were conducted to identify genotypic differences between IE and non-IE strains. CC12, CC20, and spa type t160 were significantly associated with IE S. aureus. A subset of virulence-associated genes and alleles, including genes encoding staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins, fibrinogen-binding protein, and a leukocidin subunit, also significantly correlated with IE isolates. MLST, spa typing, and microarray analysis are promising tools for monitoring S. aureus epidemiology associated with IE. Further research to determine a role for the S. aureus IE-associated virulence genes identified in this study is warranted.

  4. New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infection in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-J; Huang, Y-C

    2014-07-01

    Not only is Asia the most populous region in the world, but inappropriate therapy, including self-medication with over-the-counter antimicrobial agents, is a common response to infectious diseases. The high antibiotic selective pressure among the overcrowded inhabitants creates an environment that is suitable for the rapid development and efficient spread of numerous multidrug-resistant pathogens. Indeed, Asia is among the regions with the highest prevalence rates of healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) in the world. Most hospitals in Asia are endemic for multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), with an estimated proportion from 28% (in Hong Kong and Indonesia) to >70% (in Korea) among all clinical S. aureus isolates in the early 2010s. Isolates with reduced susceptibility or a high level of resistance to glycopeptides have also been increasingly identified in the past few years. In contrast, the proportion of MRSA among community-associated S. aureus infections in Asian countries varies markedly, from 35%. Two pandemic HA-MRSA clones, namely multilocus sequence type (ST) 239 and ST5, are disseminated internationally in Asia, whereas the molecular epidemiology of CA-MRSA in Asia is characterized by clonal heterogeneity, similar to that in Europe. In this review, the epidemiology of S. aureus in both healthcare facilities and communities in Asia is addressed, with an emphasis on the prevalence, clonal structure and antibiotic resistant profiles of the MRSA strains. The novel MRSA strains from livestock animals have been considered to constitute a public health threat in western countries. The emerging livestock-associated MRSA strains in Asia are also included in this review. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  5. Model-independent determination of the strain distribution for a SiGe/Si superlattice using X-ray diffractometry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikulin, A.Y.; Stevenson, A.W.; Hashizume, H.

    1996-01-01

    The strain distribution in a Si 0.9 Ge 0.l/Si superlattice is determined from x-ray diffractometry data with a 25 Angstroms depth resolution. A logarithmic dispersion relation is used to determine the phase of the structure factor with information available a priori on the sample structure. Phase information is obtained from the observed reflection intensity via a logarithmic Hilbert transform and the a priori information is used to select the zeros to be included in the solution. The reconstructed lattice strain profile clearly resolves SiGe and Si layers of 90 - 160 Angstroms thickness alternately stacked on a silicon substrate. The SiGe layer is found to have a lattice spacing in the surface-normal direction significantly smaller than predicted by Vegard's law. The result is supported by very good agreement of the simulated rocking curve profile with the observation. 18 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  6. Two Neisseria meningitidis strains with different ability to stimulate toll-like receptor 4 through the MyD88-independent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T.H.; Paludan, Søren Riis; Kilian, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis causes acute severe diseases, including sepsis and meningitis, and more benign manifestations such as chronic meningococcemia or colonization of the upper respiratory tract. The inflammatory response, which contributes to the pathogenesis of meningococcal disease......, is initiated by pattern recognition receptors, among which Toll-like receptors (TLR)s have been ascribed a particularly important role. We have previously demonstrated that N. meningitidis induce proinflammatory cytokine expression through TLR2 and TLR4. Here we characterize the molecular basis...... for differential activation of the inflammatory response by two N. meningitidis strains. This difference was due to differential ability to activate signal transduction through TLR4, as HEK293 cells expressing TLR4 produced significantly different levels of interleukin-8 in response to these strains. At the level...

  7. Low dose vaccination with attenuated Francisella tularensis strain SchuS4 mutants protects against tularemia independent of the route of vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeke Rockx-Brouwer

    Full Text Available Tularemia, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Interest in tularemia has increased over the last decade due to its history as a biological weapon. In particular, development of novel vaccines directed at protecting against pneumonic tularemia has been an important goal. Previous work has demonstrated that, when delivered at very high inoculums, administration of live, highly attenuated strains of virulent F. tularensis can protect against tularemia. However, lower vaccinating inoculums did not offer similar immunity. One concern of using live vaccines is that the host may develop mild tularemia in response to infection and use of high inoculums may contribute to this issue. Thus, generation of a live vaccine that can efficiently protect against tularemia when delivered in low numbers, e.g. <100 organisms, may address this concern. Herein we describe the ability of three defined, attenuated mutants of F. tularensis SchuS4, deleted for FTT0369c, FTT1676, or FTT0369c and FTT1676, respectively, to engender protective immunity against tularemia when delivered at concentrations of approximately 50 or fewer bacteria. Attenuated strains for use as vaccines were selected by their inability to efficiently replicate in macrophages in vitro and impaired replication and dissemination in vivo. Although all strains were defective for replication in vitro within macrophages, protective efficacy of each attenuated mutant was correlated with their ability to modestly replicate and disseminate in the host. Finally, we demonstrate the parenteral vaccination with these strains offered superior protection against pneumonic tularemia than intranasal vaccination. Together our data provides proof of principle that low dose attenuated vaccines may be a viable goal in development of novel vaccines directed against tularemia.

  8. Emergence in Asian Countries of Staphylococcus aureus with Reduced Susceptibility to Vancomycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Suh, Ji Yoeun; Ko, Kwan Soo; Ito, Teruyo; Kapi, Maria; Kiem, Sungmin; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Oh, Won Sup; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains in Asian countries, a total of 1,357 clinical isolates of MRSA collected from 12 Asian countries were screened by using brain heart infusion agar plates containing 4 mg of vancomycin per liter. The presence of strains that were heterointermediately resistant to vancomycin (hVISA) was confirmed by population analysis. Of 347 (25.6%) MRSA isolates that grew on the screening agar plates, 58 isolates (4.3%) were hVISA. hVISA strains were found in India, South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. However, neither vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus nor vancomycin-resistant S. aureus isolates were found among MRSA isolates from Asian countries in this survey. PMID:15561884

  9. Complication of radiation therapy among patients with positive S. aureus culture from genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulski, Zefiryn; Urbaniak, Iwona; Roszak, Andrzej; Grabiec, Alicja; Talaga, Zofia; Klimczak, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Aim The main goal of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of positive Staphylococcus aureus culture from the genital tract on patients receiving radiation therapy, suffering from carcinoma of the uterus. The other aim was to observe radiation therapy complications. Background Radiation therapy of patients suffering from cervical cancer can be connected with inflammation of the genitourinary tract. Materials and methods In years 2006–2010 vaginal swabs from 452 patients were examined. 39 women with positive S. aureus cultures were analysed. Results Complications and interruptions during radiation therapy were observed in 7 (18.9%) of 37 patients with positive vaginal S. aureus culture. One of them, a 46-year-old woman developed pelvic inflammatory disease. None of the six patients who received palliative radiotherapy showed interruption in this treatment. Isolated S. aureus strains were classified into 13 sensitivity patterns, of which 8 were represented by 1 strain, two by 2 strains and three by 13, 8 and 6 strains. One strain was diagnosed as methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Conclusions The results of the present study show that S. aureus may generally be isolated from the genital tract of female patients with neoplastic disease of uterus but is not often observed as inflammation factor of this tract. Comparison of species’ resistance patterns may be used in epidemiological studies in order to discover the source of infections and therefore be of profound significance in the prevention of nosocomial infections. PMID:24377025

  10. Substituted dihydronaphthalenes as efflux pump inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thota, Niranjan; Reddy, Mallepally V; Kumar, Ashwani

    2010-01-01

    A new series of 3-(substituted-3,4-dihydronaphthyl)-2-propenoic acid amides has been prepared through convergent synthetic strategies and tested in combination with ciprofloxacin against NorA overexpressing Staphylococcus aureus 1199B as test strain for potentiating of the drug activity. Out of 24...... compounds evaluated, 12 compounds potentiated the activity of ciprofloxacin and resulted in 2-16 fold reduction in the MIC (4-0.5 microg/mL) of the drug. The failure of these efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) to potentiate the activity of ciprofloxacin when tested against NorA knock out S. aureus SA-K1758...

  11. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk and milk filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the monitoring of Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in raw milk and milk filters, its antibiotic resistance and detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Samples of raw cow´s milk and milk filters were collected in the period from 2012 till 2014, from 50 dairy farms in the Czech Republic. The total of 261 samples (164 samples of raw milk and 97 milk filters were cultivated on Baird-Parker agar. Both the typical and atypical colonies were examined by plasmacoagulase test and PCR method was used for detection of species specific fragment SA442 and mecA gene. Standard disk diffusion method was used to determinate resistance to antimicrobial agents. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was detected on 25 farms (50%. The antimicrobial resistance showed differences between the farms. Total of 58 samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, of which were 37 (14.2% isolated from raw milk samples and 21 (8.1% from milk filters. From these samples we isolated 62 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 41 isolates bacteria S. aureus from raw milk (66.1% and 21 isolates S. aureus from milk filters (33.9%. The presence of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates was low, most of them were resistant to amoxicilin. According to the results obtained by the PCR method for the methicillin - resistant S. aureus (MRSA, the mecA gene was present in 6 strains (9.7%, 4 isolates obtained from milk samples (6.5% and 2 isolates from milk filters (3.2%.  These isolates can be considered as a possible source of resistance genes, which can be spread through the food chain. Nowadays, a globally unfavourable increasing trend of prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococci strains especially Staphylococcus aureus is being observed worldwide. The improper hygiene and poor farm management practices contributed to the presence of S. aureus in the milk. This may have contributed to the high level of S. aureus isolated

  12. Phenotype, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility of Swedish and Thai oral isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Blomqvist

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated phenotypes, virulence genotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains in order to get more information on whether oral infections with this bacterium are associated with certain subtypes or related to an over-growth of the S. aureus variants normally found in the oral cavity of healthy carriers. Materials and methods: A total number of 157 S. aureus strains were investigated. Sixty-two strains were isolated from Swedish adults with oral infections, 25 strains were from saliva of healthy Swedish dental students, and 45 strains were from tongue scrapings of HIV-positive subjects in Thailand, and 25 Thai strains from non-HIV controls. The isolates were tested for coagulase, nitrate, arginine, and hemolysin, and for the presence of the virulence genes: hlg, clfA, can, sdrC, sdrD, sdrE, map/eap (adhesins and sea, seb, sec, tst, eta, etb, pvl (toxins. MIC90 and MIC50 were determined by E-test against penicillin V, oxacillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, and cefoxitin. Results: While the hemolytic phenotype was significantly (p<0.001 more common among the Thai strains compared to Swedish strains, the virulence genes were found in a similar frequency in the S. aureus strains isolated from all four subject groups. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genotype was found in 73–100% of the strains. More than 10% of the strains from Swedish oral infections and from Thai HIV-positives showed low antibiotic susceptibility, most commonly for clindamycin. Only three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA strains were identified, two from oral infections and one from a Thai HIV patient. Conclusions: S. aureus is occasionally occurring in the oral cavity in both health and disease in Sweden and Thailand. It is therefore most likely that S. aureus in opportunistic oral infections originate from the oral microbiota. S. aureus should be considered in case of oral

  13. Inhibitory effects of flavonoids on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus that overexpresses efflux protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Laênia Angélica Andrade; Dos Santos Rodrigues, Jéssica Bezerra; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Siqueira-Júnior, José P

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of glycone (myricitrin, hesperidin and phloridzin) and aglycone flavonoids (myricetin, hesperetin and phloretin) in inhibiting biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 and S. aureus SA1199B that overexpress the msrA and norA efflux protein genes, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC 50 - defined as the lowest concentration that resulted in ≥50% inhibition of biofilm formation) of flavonoids were determined using microdilution in broth procedures. The flavonoids showed MIC >1024 μg/mL against S. aureus RN4220 and S. aureus SA1199B; however, these compounds at lower concentrations (1-256 μg/mL) showed inhibitory effects on biofilm formation by these strains. Aglycone flavonoids showed lower MBIC 50 values than their respective glycone forms. The lowest MBIC 50 values (1 and 4 μg/mL) were observed against S. aureus RN4220. Myricetin, hesperetin and phloretin exhibited biofilm formation inhibition >70% for S. aureus RN4220, and lower biofilm formation inhibition against S. aureus SA1199B. These results indicate that sub-MICs of the tested flavonoids inhibit biofilm formation by S. aureus strains that overexpress efflux protein genes. These effects are more strongly established by aglycone flavonoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are natural hosts of specific Staphylococcus aureus lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no animal model known that mimics natural nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in humans. We investigated whether rhesus macaques are natural nasal carriers of S. aureus. Nasal swabs were taken from 731 macaques. S. aureus isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa repeat sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, and compared with human strains. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by several PCRs. Thirty-nine percent of 731 macaques were positive for S. aureus. In general, the macaque S. aureus isolates differed from human strains as they formed separate PFGE clusters, 50% of the isolates were untypeable by agr genotyping, 17 new spa types were identified, which all belonged to new sequence types (STs. Furthermore, 66% of macaque isolates were negative for all superantigen genes. To determine S. aureus nasal colonization, three nasal swabs from 48 duo-housed macaques were taken during a 5 month period. In addition, sera were analyzed for immunoglobulin G and A levels directed against 40 staphylococcal proteins using a bead-based flow cytometry technique. Nineteen percent of the animals were negative for S. aureus, and 17% were three times positive. S. aureus strains were easily exchanged between macaques. The antibody response was less pronounced in macaques compared to humans, and nasal carrier status was not associated with differences in serum anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. In conclusion, rhesus macaques are natural hosts of S. aureus, carrying host-specific lineages. Our data indicate that rhesus macaques are useful as an autologous model for studying S. aureus nasal colonization and infection prevention.

  15. Survey and properties of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Japanese-style desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Yuko; Kidokoro, Shiho; Murata, Masatsune

    2006-07-01

    We surveyed the contamination of 315 Japanese- and western-style desserts and 247 human hands by Staphylococcus aureus and other staphylococcal bacteria. The most frequently isolated staphylococcal bacterium was S. warneri, followed by S. aureus. Only 1.9% of western-style desserts were contaminated by S. aureus strains, while 19.4% and 13.0% of Japanese-style desserts and human hands respectively were contaminated. Ninety-four isolates of S. aureus were characterized as to their biological properties and enterotoxigenicity. Although staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the cultured broth of all S. aureus isolates, the reversed passive latex agglutination method and the polymerase chain reaction showed only 39 (41.5%) and 40 (42.6%) samples respectively as SE-positive. The predominant type of SE was SEB (67.5%), and eight strains produced SEA. None of the S. aureus strains had penicillin-binding protein 2', showing that methicillin-resistant S. aureus was not present in the samples.

  16. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Stimulation of Osteoblasts Mediates Staphylococcus Aureus Induced Bone Resorption and Osteoclastogenesis through Enhanced RANKL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Ali; Lindholm, Catharina; Lerner, Ulf H

    2016-01-01

    Severe Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections pose an immense threat to population health and constitute a great burden for the health care worldwide. Inter alia, S. aureus septic arthritis is a disease with high mortality and morbidity caused by destruction of the infected joints and systemic bone loss, osteoporosis. Toll-Like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune cell receptors recognizing a variety of microbial molecules and structures. S. aureus recognition via TLR2 initiates a signaling cascade resulting in production of various cytokines, but the mechanisms by which S. aureus causes rapid and excessive bone loss are still unclear. We, therefore, investigated how S. aureus regulates periosteal/endosteal osteoclast formation and bone resorption. S. aureus stimulation of neonatal mouse parietal bone induced ex vivo bone resorption and osteoclastic gene expression. This effect was associated with increased mRNA and protein expression of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) without significant change in osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression. Bone resorption induced by S. aureus was abolished by OPG. S. aureus increased the expression of osteoclastogenic cytokines and prostaglandins in the parietal bones but the stimulatory effect of S. aureus on bone resorption and Tnfsf11 mRNA expression was independent of these cytokines and prostaglandins. Stimulation of isolated periosteal osteoblasts with S. aureus also resulted in increased expression of Tnfsf11 mRNA, an effect lost in osteoblasts from Tlr2 knockout mice. S. aureus stimulated osteoclastogenesis in isolated periosteal cells without affecting RANKL-stimulated resorption. In contrast, S. aureus inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in bone marrow macrophages. These data show that S. aureus enhances bone resorption and periosteal osteoclast formation by increasing osteoblast RANKL production through TLR2. Our study indicates the importance of using different in vitro approaches for studies of how S

  17. Genetic control of near-UV (300-400 nm) sensitivity independent of the recA gene in strains of Escherichia coli K12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuveson, R.W.; Jonas, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Stationary cells of isogenic pairs of Escherichia coli K12 strains presumably differing only in the recA function, were inactivated with near-UV (300-400 nm) radiation. Based on near-UV inactivation kinetics, the strains can be divided into two discrete categories in which near-UV sensitivity does not necessarily correlate with far-UV sensitivity conferred by two different recA alleles. Lack of overlap between near-UV and far-UV (recA) sensitivity can be explained by assuming that a different chromosomal gene (nur) controls near-UV sensitivity. Support for this hypothesis came from a mating experiment in which four selected recombinants, isogenic with respect to auxotrophic markers, were identified exhibiting all four possible combinations of far-UV (recA1 vs recA + ) and near-UV sensitivity (nur vs nur + ). Transduction with phase P1 showed that introduction of the recA1 allele into a recA + recipient did not affect the near-UV sensitivity of the recipient. Additional matings together with transduction experiments suggested that the nur gene is located at a position on the E. coli linkage map clearly separable from recA (minute 58). (author)

  18. Nasal Carriage Rate of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Health Care Workers at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, S; Pant, N D; Bhandari, R; Shrestha, K L; Shrestha, C D; Adhikari, N; Poudel, A

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections. Due to its multidrug resistant nature; infections due to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are often very difficult to treat. Colonized health care workers are the important sources of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The objectives of this study were to determine the nasal carriage rate of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among health care workers at Kathmandu Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Nepal and to assess their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. A cross sectional study was conducted among 252 health care workers from July to November 2013. Mannitol salt agar was used to culture the nasal swabs. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were confirmed by using cefoxitin disc and by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin by agar dilution method. Of 252 healthcare workers, 46(18.3%) were positive for Staphylococcus aureus among which 19(41.3%) were Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers. Overall rate of nasal carriage of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 7.5% (19/252).The higher percentages of lab personnel were nasal carriers of S. aureus (31.6%) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (10.5%).The percentages of nasal carriage of S. aureus (35.7%) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (14.3%) were highest in the health care workers from post operative department. Higher percentage of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were susceptible toward amikacin (100%) and vancomycin (100%) followed by cotrimoxazole (84.2%). High rates of nasal carriage of S. aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were observed among the healthcare workers, which indicate the need of

  19. Staphylococcus aureus carriage among participants at the 13th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nulens, E.; Gould, I.; MacKenzie, F.; Deplano, A.; Cookson, B.; Alp, E.; Bouza, E.; Voss, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the rate of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among attendees of the 13th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID), particularly with regard to methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains. The 31.4% rate of Staphylococcus aureus

  20. Proteome-wide antigen discovery of novel protective vaccine candidates against Staphylococcus aureus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karina Juhl; Mattsson, Andreas Holm; Pilely, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    -five different S. aureus proteins were identified, recombinantly expressed, and tested for protection in a lethal sepsis mouse model using S. aureus strain MRSA252 as the challenge organism. We found that 13 of the 35 recombinant peptides yielded significant protection and that 12 of these antigens were highly...

  1. Subinhibitory concentrations of perilla oil affect the expression of secreted virulence factor genes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazhang Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity of staphylococcus aureus is dependent largely upon its ability to secrete a number of virulence factors, therefore, anti-virulence strategy to combat S. aureus-mediated infections is now gaining great interest. It is widely recognized that some plant essential oils could affect the production of staphylococcal exotoxins when used at subinhibitory concentrations. Perilla [Perilla frutescens (L. Britton], a natural medicine found in eastern Asia, is primarily used as both a medicinal and culinary herb. Its essential oil (perilla oil has been previously demonstrated to be active against S. aureus. However, there are no data on the influence of perilla oil on the production of S. aureus exotoxins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of perilla oil against S. aureus strains. Hemolysis, tumour necrosis factor (TNF release, Western blot, and real-time RT-PCR assays were performed to evaluate the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of perilla oil on exotoxins production in S. aureus. The data presented here show that perilla oil dose-dependently decreased the production of α-toxin, enterotoxins A and B (the major staphylococcal enterotoxins, and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1 in both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The production of α-toxin, SEA, SEB, and TSST-1 in S. aureus was decreased by perilla oil. These data suggest that perilla oil may be useful for the treatment of S. aureus infections when used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics, which can increase exotoxins production by S. aureus at subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, perilla oil could be rationally applied in food systems as a novel food preservative both to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and to repress the production of exotoxins, particularly staphylococcal enterotoxins.

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Multidrug Resistance and Phage Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus in Pyoderma Cases

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    Sanjay M. Wavare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyoderma is common in India and other tropical countries. Staphylococcus aureus is the commonest causative agent ofpyoderma. Aims and Objectives: To know the antibiotic susceptibility and bacteriophage pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from pyoderma infection. Materials and Methods: One hundred clinically diagnosed pyoderma cases were investigated bacteriologically. A total of 59 isolates of S. aureus were subjected to antibioticsusceptibility testing by Kirby Bauer’s disk diffusion method and phage typing by routine test dilution X 100 bacteriophages. Results: Most of the strains were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin and were susceptible to gentamicin, streptomycin and erythromycin. Multidrug resistance was also high among these strains. Regarding the phage types, Phage type 52 (15 strains, 96 (8 strains and 71(16strains were predominant among the typed strains (55.95% of S. aureus. The most common group was mixed phage group (17% followed by phage group I (13.55%. Conclusion: Knowledge of antibioticsusceptibility pattern is essential to give proper antibiotic therapy and avoid unnecessary medication with non-effective drugs, which may increase resistance. Gentamicin, streptomycin and erythromycin are the drugs of choice in that order. Association of phage typing and antibiotic sensitivity of S. aureus showed the predominance of phage group III with greater frequency of penicillin resistance.

  3. Antimicrobials from human skin commensal bacteria protect against Staphylococcus aureus and are deficient in atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Chen, Tiffany H.; Narala, Saisindhu; Chun, Kimberly A.; Two, Aimee M.; Yun, Tong; Shafiq, Faiza; Kotol, Paul F.; Bouslimani, Amina; Melnik, Alexey V.; Latif, Haythem; Kim, Ji-Nu; Lockhart, Alexandre; Artis, Keli; David, Gloria; Taylor, Patricia; Streib, Joanne; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Grier, Alex; Gill, Steven R.; Zengler, Karsten; Hata, Tissa R.; Leung, Donald Y. M.; Gallo, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    The microbiome can promote or disrupt human health by influencing both adaptive and innate immune functions. We tested whether bacteria that normally reside on human skin participate in host defense by killing Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen commonly found in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and an important factor that exacerbates this disease. High-throughput screening for antimicrobial activity against S.aureus was performed on isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) collected from the skin of healthy and AD subjects. CoNS strains with antimicrobial activity were common on the normal population but rare on AD subjects. A low frequency of strains with antimicrobial activity correlated with colonization by S.aureus. The antimicrobial activity was identified as previously unknown antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by CoNS species including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus hominis. These AMPs were strain-specific, highly potent, selectively killed S.aureus, and synergized with the human AMP LL-37. Application of these CoNS strains to mice confirmed their defense function in vivo relative to application of nonactive strains. Strikingly, reintroduction of antimicrobial CoNS strains to human subjects with AD decreased colonization by S.aureus. These findings show how commensal skin bacteria protect against pathogens and demonstrate how dysbiosis of the skin microbiome can lead to disease. PMID:28228596

  4. Prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Clinical Samples of Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College Hospital and Research Centre (TMMCH & RC, Moradabad (UP, India

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    Bina Pani Gupta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the emerging and prevalent pathogen causing serious infections in community and hospital associated diseases. S. aureus resistant to methicillin is nowadays a big and expanding problem of concern in India. Amongst the different pathogens, S. aureus is being studied for prevalence of infections and drug resistance behavior. The present study describes the dominance of Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in the clinical samples of TMU, Moradabad, India. The study showed the isolation of 450 cultures of S. aureus from different samples. Amongst which, 234 isolates of S. aureus were from pus, 164 isolates were from blood, 15 isolates were from respiratory fluid samples, 33 isolates were from urine samples and 04 isolates were from ear swabs and nasal swabs. These strains of S. aureus were screened for characteristic coagulase assay. The strains were found to be coagulase positive and coagulases negative both. It was observed that, amongst, 450 isolates of Staphylococci, 185 (41.11% strains were coagulase positive and 265 (58.88% were coagulase negative. A total of 142 (76.75% of the coagulase positive staphylococci strains shows resistance to methicillin and 202 (76.22% coagulase negative strains showed methicillin resistance. Methicillin resistance was consistent when tested with other antibiotics in coagulase positive strains but when studied about coagulase negative strains, about 12.5% strains showed sensitivity with other antibiotics although they were found resistant when checked with methicillin. It was determined that, on an average, 85 (18.88% Staphylococci strains were resistant.

  5. Staphylococcus aureus Toxins and Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Role in Pathogenesis and Interest in Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Ngba Essebe, Christelle; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Infection of foot ulcers is a common, often severe and costly complication in diabetes. Diabetic foot infections (DFI) are mainly polymicrobial, and Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent pathogen isolated. The numerous virulence factors and toxins produced by S. aureus during an infection are well characterized. However, some particular features could be observed in DFI. The aim of this review is to describe the role of S. aureus in DFI and the implication of its toxins in the establishment of the infection. Studies on this issue have helped to distinguish two S. aureus populations in DFI: toxinogenic S. aureus strains (harboring exfoliatin-, EDIN-, PVL- or TSST-encoding genes) and non-toxinogenic strains. Toxinogenic strains are often present in infections with a more severe grade and systemic impact, whereas non-toxinogenic strains seem to remain localized in deep structures and bone involving diabetic foot osteomyelitis. Testing the virulence profile of bacteria seems to be a promising way to predict the behavior of S. aureus in the chronic wounds. PMID:27399775

  6. Study on biofilm-forming properties of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj, Yasmeen; Essa, Farhan; Aziz, Faisal; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2012-05-14

    The purpose of this study was to observe the formation of biofilm, an important virulence factor, by isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in Pakistan by different conventional methods and through electron microscopy. We screened 115 strains of S. aureus isolated from different clinical specimens by tube method (TM), air-liquid interface coverslip assay method, Congo red agar (CRA) method, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Out of 115 S. aureus isolates, 63 (54.78%) showed biofilm formation by tube method. Biofilm forming bacteria were further categorized as high producers (n = 23, 20%) and moderate producers (n = 40, 34.78%). TM coordinated well with the coverslip assay for strong biofilm-producing strains in 19 (16.5%) isolates. By coverslip method, weak producers were difficult to differentiate from biofilm negative isolates. Screening on CRA showed biofilm formation only in four (3.47%) strains. Scanning electron micrographs showed the biofilm-forming strains of S. aureus arranged in a matrix on the propylene surface and correlated well with the TM. Biofilm production is a marker of virulence for clinically relevant staphylococcal infections. It can be studied by various methods but screening on CRA is not recommended for investigation of biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. Electron micrograph images correlate well with the biofilm production as observed by TM.

  7. Regression of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy or strain is associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients independent of blood pressure reduction - A LIFE review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Casper N; Devereux, Richard B; Okin, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    ECG strain improves prediction of CV events and that regression of ECG LVH during antihypertensive treatment is associated with better outcome, independent of blood pressure reduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibacterial Action of Curcumin against Staphylococcus aureus: A Brief Review

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    Sin-Yeang Teow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, the major constituent of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae family or turmeric, commonly used for cooking in Asian cuisine, is known to possess a broad range of pharmacological properties at relatively nontoxic doses. Curcumin is found to be effective against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. As demonstrated by in vitro experiment, curcumin exerts even more potent effects when used in combination with various other antibacterial agents. Hence, curcumin which is a natural product derived from plant is believed to have profound medicinal benefits and could be potentially developed into a naturally derived antibiotic in the future. However, there are several noteworthy challenges in the development of curcumin as a medicine. S. aureus infections, particularly those caused by the multidrug-resistant strains, have emerged as a global health issue and urgent action is needed. This review focuses on the antibacterial activities of curcumin against both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. We also attempt to highlight the potential challenges in the effort of developing curcumin into a therapeutic antibacterial agent.

  9. Antibiotic-mediated selection of quorum-sensing-negative Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulander, Wilhelm Erik Axel; Varming, Anders Nissen; Bæk, Kristoffer Torbjørn

    2012-01-01

    of glycopeptide resistance greater than those of other strains. We show here that agr-negative strains have a fitness advantage over agr-positive strains in the presence of sublethal concentrations of some antibiotics and that the fitness defect of agr-positive cells is caused by antibiotic-mediated expression...... expression. We demonstrate that the presence of the agr locus imposes a fitness cost on S. aureus that is mediated by the expression of RNAIII. Further, we show that exposure to sublethal levels of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, mupirocin, and rifampin, each targeting separate cellular functions, markedly...... increases the agr-mediated fitness cost by inducing the expression of RNAIII. Thus, the extensive use of antibiotics in hospitals may explain why agr-negative variants are frequently isolated from hospital-acquired S. aureus infections but rarely found among community-acquired S. aureus strains. Importantly...

  10. Preventing Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" among Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many, Patricia S.

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) was once thought to be a bacterium causing infections in only hospitalized patients. However, a new strain of MRSA has emerged among healthy individuals who have not had any recent exposure to a hospital or to medical procedures. This new strain is known as "community-associated…

  11. Screening of virulence genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Viana Martín

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen able to cause disease in both humans and animals. In rabbits, this bacterium infects animals of different ages, producing several purulent lesions. The ability of S. aureus to cause disease depends on a combination of virulence factors. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the distribution of bacterial virulence determinants in 69 S. aureus isolates from rabbits. Some virulence factors (7 adhesins, 1 toxin and 1 protease were positive in all rabbit S. aureus isolates analysed, while others (1 adhesin and 10 toxins were always negative. The remaining virulence factors were more variable among isolates. An association between genotype and the different profiles of virulence factors was observed, but not with the type of lesion (P<0.05. One strain of each genotype was further analysed by multilocus sequence typing, generating ST121, ST96 and ST2951, determining a greater number of enterotoxins in ST121 isolates compared to ST96 and ST2951 isolates, which could justify the different pathogenicity between strains

  12. Novel structurally designed vaccine for S. aureus α-hemolysin: protection against bacteremia and pneumonia.

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    Rajan P Adhikari

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a human pathogen associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI and life threatening sepsis and pneumonia. Efforts to develop effective vaccines against S. aureus have been largely unsuccessful, in part due to the variety of virulence factors produced by this organism. S. aureus alpha-hemolysin (Hla is a pore-forming toxin expressed by most S. aureus strains and reported to play a key role in the pathogenesis of SSTI and pneumonia. Here we report a novel recombinant subunit vaccine candidate for Hla, rationally designed based on the heptameric crystal structure. This vaccine candidate, denoted AT-62aa, was tested in pneumonia and bacteremia infection models using S. aureus strain Newman and the pandemic strain USA300 (LAC. Significant protection from lethal bacteremia/sepsis and pneumonia was observed upon vaccination with AT-62aa along with a Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant-Stable Emulsion (GLA-SE that is currently in clinical trials. Passive transfer of rabbit immunoglobulin against AT-62aa (AT62-IgG protected mice against intraperitoneal and intranasal challenge with USA300 and produced significant reduction in bacterial burden in blood, spleen, kidney, and lungs. Our Hla-based vaccine is the first to be reported to reduce bacterial dissemination and to provide protection in a sepsis model of S. aureus infection. AT62-IgG and sera from vaccinated mice effectively neutralized the toxin in vitro and AT62-IgG inhibited the formation of Hla heptamers, suggesting antibody-mediated neutralization as the primary mechanism of action. This remarkable efficacy makes this Hla-based vaccine a prime candidate for inclusion in future multivalent S. aureus vaccine. Furthermore, identification of protective epitopes within AT-62aa could lead to novel immunotherapy for S. aureus infection.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus: methicillin-susceptible S. aureus to methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Susan J; Tice, Alan

    2010-09-15

    The evolution of methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has demanded serious review of antimicrobial use and development of new agents and revised approaches to prevent and overcome drug resistance. Depending on local conditions and patient risk factors, empirical therapy of suspected S. aureus infection may require coverage of drug-resistant organisms with newer agents and novel antibiotic combinations. The question of treatment with inappropriate antibiotics raises grave concerns with regard to methicillin-resistant S. aureus selection, overgrowth, and increased virulence. Several strategies to reduce the nosocomial burden of resistance are suggested, including shortened hospital stays and outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy of the most serious infections.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in Ukraine: antibacterial resistance and virulence factor encoding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netsvyetayeva, Irina; Fraczek, Mariusz; Piskorska, Katarzyna; Golas, Marlena; Sikora, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Andrzej; Swoboda-Kopec, Ewa; Marusza, Wojciech; Palmieri, Beniamino; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2014-03-05

    The number of studies regarding the incidence of multidrug resistant strains and distribution of genes encoding virulence factors, which have colonized the post-Soviet states, is considerably limited. The aim of the study was (1) to assess the Staphylococcus (S.) aureus nasal carriage rate, including Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains in adult Ukrainian population, (2) to determine antibiotic resistant pattern and (3) the occurrence of Panton Valentine Leukocidine (PVL)-, Fibronectin-Binding Protein A (FnBPA)- and Exfoliative Toxin (ET)-encoding genes. Nasal samples for S. aureus culture were obtained from 245 adults. The susceptibility pattern for several classes of antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion method according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) guidelines. The virulence factor encoding genes, mecA, lukS-lukF, eta, etb, etd, fnbA, were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The S. aureus nasal carriage rate was 40%. The prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage in adults was 3.7%. LukS-lukF genes were detected in over 58% of the strains. ET-encoding genes were detected in over 39% of the strains and the most prevalent was etd. The fnbA gene was detected in over 59% of the strains. All MRSA isolates tested were positive for the mecA gene. LukS-lukF genes and the etd gene were commonly co-present in MRSA, while lukS-lukF genes and the fnbA gene were commonly co-present in Methicillin Sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. No significant difference was detected between the occurrence of lukS-lukF genes (P > 0.05) and the etd gene (P > 0.05) when comparing MRSA and MSSA. The occurrence of the fnbA gene was significantly more frequent in MSSA strains (P aureus is a common cause of infection. The prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage in our cohort of patients from Ukraine was 40.4%. We found that 9.1% of the strains were classified as MRSA and all MRSA isolates tested positive for the mecA gene

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Staphylococcus aureus AMRF1 (ST22) and AMRF2 (ST672), Ocular Methicillin-Resistant Isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Velusamy, Nithya

    2014-03-20

    Sequence type 22 (ST22) and ST672 are the two major emerging clones of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in India. ST672 strains were found to cause severe ocular infections. We report the draft genome sequences of two emerging strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, AMRF1 (ST22) and AMRF2 (ST672), isolated from patients with ocular infections.

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Staphylococcus aureus AMRF1 (ST22) and AMRF2 (ST672), Ocular Methicillin-Resistant Isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Velusamy, Nithya; Prakash, Logambiga; Neelamegam, Sivakumar; Antony, Aju; Prajna, Lalitha; Mohankumar, Vidyarani; Devarajan, Bharanidharan

    2014-01-01

    Sequence type 22 (ST22) and ST672 are the two major emerging clones of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in India. ST672 strains were found to cause severe ocular infections. We report the draft genome sequences of two emerging strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, AMRF1 (ST22) and AMRF2 (ST672), isolated from patients with ocular infections.

  17. The Plasmin-Sensitive Protein Pls in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Is a Glycoprotein.

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    Isabelle Bleiziffer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most bacterial glycoproteins identified to date are virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria, i.e. adhesins and invasins. However, the impact of protein glycosylation on the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus remains incompletely understood. To study protein glycosylation in staphylococci, we analyzed lysostaphin lysates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains by SDS-PAGE and subsequent periodic acid-Schiff's staining. We detected four (>300, ∼250, ∼165, and ∼120 kDa and two (>300 and ∼175 kDa glycosylated surface proteins with strain COL and strain 1061, respectively. The ∼250, ∼165, and ∼175 kDa proteins were identified as plasmin-sensitive protein (Pls by mass spectrometry. Previously, Pls has been demonstrated to be a virulence factor in a mouse septic arthritis model. The pls gene is encoded by the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec type I in MRSA that also encodes the methicillin resistance-conferring mecA and further genes. In a search for glycosyltransferases, we identified two open reading frames encoded downstream of pls on the SCCmec element, which we termed gtfC and gtfD. Expression and deletion analysis revealed that both gtfC and gtfD mediate glycosylation of Pls. Additionally, the recently reported glycosyltransferases SdgA and SdgB are involved in Pls glycosylation. Glycosylation occurs at serine residues in the Pls SD-repeat region and modifying carbohydrates are N-acetylhexosaminyl residues. Functional characterization revealed that Pls can confer increased biofilm formation, which seems to involve two distinct mechanisms. The first mechanism depends on glycosylation of the SD-repeat region by GtfC/GtfD and probably also involves eDNA, while the second seems to be independent of glycosylation as well as eDNA and may involve the centrally located G5 domains. Other previously known Pls properties are not related to the sugar modifications. In conclusion, Pls is a glycoprotein and

  18. Staphylococcus aureus produces membrane-derived vesicles that induce host cell death.

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    Mamata Gurung

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria produce outer membrane vesicles that play a role in the delivery of virulence factors to host cells. However, little is known about the membrane-derived vesicles (MVs produced by gram-positive bacteria. The present study examined the production of MVs from Staphylococcus aureus and investigated the delivery of MVs to host cells and subsequent cytotoxicity. Four S. aureus strains tested, two type strains and two clinical isolates, produced spherical nanovesicles during in vitro culture. MVs were also produced during in vivo infection of a clinical S. aureus isolate in a mouse pneumonia model. Proteomic analysis showed that 143 different proteins were identified in the S. aureus-derived MVs. S. aureus MVs were interacted with the plasma membrane of host cells via a cholesterol-rich membrane microdomain and then delivered their component protein A to host cells within 30 min. Intact S. aureus MVs induced apoptosis of HEp-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas lysed MVs neither delivered their component into the cytosol of host cells nor induced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, this study is the first report that S. aureus MVs are an important vehicle for delivery of bacterial effector molecules to host cells.

  19. The Frequency of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Endocervix of Infertile Women in Northwest Iran

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    Akhi Mohammad Taghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infertility is one of the major social issues. Due to the asymptomatic cervical infection associated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, the majority of patients remain undiagnosed. The present study intended to assess the frequency of S. aureus isolated from infertile women’s endocervix in northwest Iran. Materials and Methods In a descriptive cross sectional study, specimens were randomly collected during vagina examination using a sterile speculum and swabbing. After performance of antibiotic susceptibility testing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to identify methicillin-resistance S. aureus (MRSA and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1. Results About 26 (26% and 9 (9% women’s urogenital tracts were colonized by S. aureus and Candida spp., respectively, of which three (11.5% patients were infected with fungi and S. aureus, simultaneously. Antibiotic susceptibility results showed high activity of vancomycin and co-trimoxazole on isolates. Regarding PCR results, mecA sequences were detected in 7 (26.9% strains, whilst the tst gene encoding TSST-1 was not detected in any of clinical strains. Conclusion The prevalence of S. aureus was very high in infertile women. Therefore, it demands all patients undergoing infertility treatment to be investigated thoroughly for this type of infection.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Europe and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Oliveira, A. P.; Watts, J. L.; Salmon, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for 811 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in 11 countries. The countries and number of isolates included Denmark (105), England (92), Finland (95), Germany (103), Iceland (22), Ireland (42), Norway (101), Sweden...... antimicrobial agents tested regardless of country. Given the differences in antimicrobial use in various countries, the widespread adoption of mastitis control programs to prevent infections limits the exposure of S. aureus infected animals to antimicrobial drugs....

  1. Preclinical Efficacy of Clumping Factor A in Prevention of Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xue; Wang, Xiaogang; Thompson, Christopher D.; Park, Saeyoung; Park, Wan Beom; Lee, Jean C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections has become increasingly difficult because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates. Development of a vaccine to prevent staphylococcal infections remains a priority. To determine whether clumping factor A (ClfA) is a good target protein for inclusion in a multivalent vaccine, we evaluated its efficacy in a variety of relevant staphylococcal infection models, challenging with different S. aureus strains. ClfA adsorbed to Alhydrogel...

  2. The Collagen-Binding Adhesin Is a Virulence Factor in Staphylococcus aureus Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhem, Marcus N.; Lech, Elizabeth M.; Patti, Joseph M.; McDevitt, Damien; Höök, Magnus; Jones, Dan B.; Wilhelmus, Kirk R.

    2000-01-01

    A collagen-binding strain of Staphylococcus aureus produced suppurative inflammation in a rabbit model of soft contact lens-associated bacterial keratitis more often than its collagen-binding-negative isogenic mutant. Reintroduction of the cna gene on a multicopy plasmid into the mutant helped it regain its corneal adherence and infectivity. The topical application of a collagen-binding peptide before bacterial challenge decreased S. aureus adherence to deepithelialized corneas. These data suggest that the collagen-binding adhesin is involved in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infection of the cornea. PMID:10816547

  3. Ability of Staphylococcus aureus coagulase genotypes to resist neutrophil bactericidal activity and phagocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Scott, N. L.; Sordillo, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the functional capabilities of neutrophils against different Staphylococcus aureus genotypes isolated from cows with mastitis. Six strains of S. aureus were chosen for use in the study, two with a common genotype, two with an intermediate genotype, and two with a rare......; rare type, 10.5/cell). These findings suggest that one of the reasons for the variation in prevalence of different genotypes of S. aureus in the mammary gland is due to the superior ability of some types to resist phagocytosis and/or killing by bovine neutrophils...

  4. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm removal by targeting biofilm-associated extracellular proteins

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    Sudhir K Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Methods: Biofilm assay was done in 96-well microtitre plate to evaluate the effect of proteinase K on biofilms of bovine mastitis S. Aureus isolates. Extracellular polymeric substances were extracted and evaluated for their composition (protein, polysaccharides and extracellular DNA, before and after the proteinase K treatment. Results: Biofilm assay showed that 2 μg/ml proteinase K significantly inhibited biofilm development in bap-positive S. aureus V329 as well as other S. aureus isolates (SA7, SA10, SA33, SA352, but not in bap-mutant M556 and SA392 (a weak biofilm-producing strain. Proteinase K treatment on S. aureus planktonic cells showed that there was no inhibition of planktonic growth up to 32 μg/ml of proteinase K. Proteinase K treatment on 24 h old preformed biofilms showed an enhanced dispersion of bap-positive V329 and SA7, SA10, SA33 and SA352 biofilms; however, proteinase K did not affect the bap-mutant S. aureus M556 and SA392 biofilms. Biofilm compositions study before and after proteinase K treatment indicated that Bap might also be involved in eDNA retention in the biofilm matrix that aids in biofilm stability. When proteinase K was used in combination with antibiotics, a synergistic effect in antibiotic efficacy was observed against all biofilm-forming S. aureus isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: Proteinase K inhibited biofilms growth in S. aureus bovine mastitis isolates but did not affect their planktonic growth. An enhanced dispersion of preformed S. aureus biofilms was observed on proteinase K treatment. Proteinase K treatment with antibiotics showed a synergistic effect against S. aureus biofilms. The study suggests that dispersing S. aureus by protease can be of use while devising strategies againstS. aureus biofilms.

  5. Curcumin Reverse Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

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    Su-Hyun Mun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., was shown to possess superior potency to resensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA to antibiotics. Previous studies have shown the synergistic activity of curcumin with β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics. Further, to understand the anti-MRSA mechanism of curcumin, we investigated the potentiated effect of curcumin by its interaction in diverse conditions. The mechanism of anti-MRSA action of curcumin was analyzed by the viability assay in the presence of detergents, ATPase inhibitors and peptidoglycan (PGN from S. aureus, and the PBP2a protein level was analyzed by western blotting. The morphological changes in the curcumin-treated MRSA strains were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. We analyzed increased susceptibility to MRSA isolates in the presence of curcumin. The optical densities at 600 nm (OD600 of the suspensions treated with the combinations of curcumin with triton X-100 and Tris were reduced to 63% and 59%, respectively, compared to curcumin without treatment. N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD and sodium azide (NaN3 were reduced to 94% and 55%, respectively. When peptidoglycan (PGN from S. aureus was combined with curcumin, PGN (0–125 μg/mL gradually blocked the antibacterial activity of curcumin (125 μg/mL; however, at a concentration of 125 µg/mL PGN, it did not completely block curcumin. Curcumin has a significant effect on the protein level of PBP2a. The TEM images of MRSA showed damage of the cell wall, disruption of the cytoplasmic contents, broken cell membrane and cell lysis after the treatment of curcumin. These data indicate a remarkable antibacterial effect of curcumin, with membrane permeability enhancers and ATPase inhibitors, and curcumin did not directly bind to PGN on the cell wall. Further, the antimicrobial action of curcumin involved in the PBP2a-mediated resistance mechanism was

  6. Staphylococcus aureus Alters Growth Activity, Autolysis, and Antibiotic Tolerance in a Human Host-Adapted Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lineage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenlund Michelsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Anne-Mette; Bojer, Martin Saxtorph

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among members of polymicrobial infections or between pathogens and the commensal flora may determine disease outcomes. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are important opportunistic human pathogens and are both part of the polymicrobial infection communities in human...... hosts. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro interaction between S. aureus and a collection of P. aeruginosa isolates representing different evolutionary steps of a dominant lineage, DK2, that have evolved through decades of growth in chronically infected patients. While the early adapted P....... aeruginosa DK2 strains outcompeted S. aureus during coculture on agar plates, we found that later P. aeruginosa DK2 strains showed a commensal-like interaction, where S. aureus was not inhibited by P. aeruginosa and the growth activity of P. aeruginosa was enhanced in the presence of S. aureus. This effect...

  7. Changes of Antimicrobial Resistance among Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated in 8 Consecutive Years in the First Bethune Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Chunguang; Yao, Hanxin; Xu, Jiancheng

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 1469 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from sputum 705 (18.0%), secretions 206 (14.0%), pus 177 (12.0%) during the past 8 years. The rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were between 50.8% and 83.3% during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus had increased. Monitoring the antimicrobial resistance to Staphylococcus aureus should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  8. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and of methicillin-resistant S. aureus clonal complexes in bulk tank milk from dairy cattle herds in Lombardy Region (Northern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortimiglia, C; Luini, M; Bianchini, V; Marzagalli, L; Vezzoli, F; Avisani, D; Bertoletti, M; Ianzano, A; Franco, A; Battisti, A

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most important causative agent of subclinical mastitis in cattle resulting in reduced milk production and quality. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains has a clear zoonotic relevance, especially in the case of occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) from dairy cattle herds in the Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) and to identify the main MRSA circulating genotypes. MRSA strains were characterized by susceptibility testing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and SCCmec typing. A total 844 BTM samples were analysed and S. aureus and MRSA were detected in 47·2% and 3·8% of dairy herds, respectively. MLST showed that the majority (28/32) of isolates belonged to the typical livestock-associated lineages: ST398, ST97 and ST1. Interestingly, in this study we report for the first time the new ST3211, a single locus variant of ST(CC)22, with the newly described 462 aroE allele. Our study indicates high diffusion of S. aureus mastitis and low, but not negligible, prevalence of MRSA in the considered area, suggesting the need for planning specific control programmes for bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus, especially when MRSA is implicated.

  9. Genotypes and enterotoxicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the hands and nasal cavities of flight-catering employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M; Björkroth, K J; Asplund, K; Mäki-Petäys, N; Korkeala, H J

    2000-11-01

    Hand and nasal samples of flight-catering staff were collected from 1995 to 1997 to find employees carrying Staphylococcus aureus. Altogether 153 hand samples and 136 nose samples were taken. Nasal sampling showed a higher prevalence of S. aureus among food handlers (29%) than hand sampling (9%). A high proportion of the strains (46%) were enterotoxigenic, and a considerable amount of food handlers carried enterotoxigenic S. aureus, 6% and 12% according to hand and nasal sampling, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis macrorestriction profiles revealed a total of 32 different types associated with the 35 employees carrying S. aureus. In most cases, the same type colonized both the hand and nose of a person. Despite the wide variety of types found, one strain colonized five persons and the second most common strain was associated with four food handlers. The predominant toxin produced was B, which was produced by the most common strain. The results showed that nasal sampling is a good way to detect S. aureus carriers, whereas hand sampling may fail to reveal carriers. The high proportion of enterotoxigenic strains show that a food handler harboring S. aureus must be considered a potential source of enterotoxigenic strains for airline meals.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus induces IL-8 expression through its lipoproteins in the human intestinal epithelial cell, Caco-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok-Seong; Noh, Su Young; Park, Ok-Jin; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can cause the intestinal inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of S. aureus infection in the intestine. In the present study, we investigated whether S. aureus could stimulate human intestinal epithelial cells triggering inflammation. When the human intestinal epithelial cell-line, Caco-2, and the primary colon cells were stimulated with ethanol-inactivated S. aureus, IL-8 expression was induced in a dose-dependent manner. The inactivated S. aureus preferentially stimulated Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 rather than TLR4. Lipoproteins, lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PGN) are considered as potential TLR2 ligands of S. aureus. Interestingly, S aureus lipoproteins and Pam2CSK4 mimicking Gram-positive bacterial lipoproteins, but not LTA and PGN of S. aureus, significantly induced IL-8 expression in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, lipoprotein-deficient S. aureus mutant strain failed to induce IL-8 production. Collectively, these results suggest that S. aureus stimulates the human intestinal epithelial cells to induce the chemokine IL-8 production through its lipoproteins, potentially contributing the development of intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Sepsis with Staphylococcus aureus in immunocompromised patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrache, Simona Magdalena; Miftode, Egidia; Vâţă, A; Petrovici, Cristina Mirela; Dorneanu, Olivia; Luca, V

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze clinical and biological characteristics of immunocompromised patients with staphylococcal sepsis and to compare with the same data in non-immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis of sepsis was made based on Bone criteria. MiniAPI system ID 32 STAPH was used for identification and antibiotic susceptibility was assessed by ATB STAPH method and by E-test for oxacillin and vancomycin. Among the 147 patients with Staphylococcus aureus sepsis--66.67% had concomitant immunosuppressive conditions (diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, renal failure, corticotherapy, etc). We have found a significant correlation between the immunosuppressed status and MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) involvement (p = 0.0018) and also, between this group of patients and treatment failure (p = 0.0012). Because of the high rate of MRSA involvement in systemic infections in the Eastern region of Romania first intention treatment of patients with staphylococcal infections and conditions of immunosuppression must include antibiotics effective against methicillin-resistant strains.

  12. Antibacterial mechanism of fraxetin against Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, HAITING; ZOU, DAN; XIE, KUNPEING; XIE, MINGJIE

    2014-01-01

    Fraxetin is one of the main constituents of the traditional medicinal plant Fraxinus rhynchophylla. The inhibitory effect of fraxetin on various bacterial strains has been extensively reported, however, its mechanism of action on bacterial cells remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the antibacterial mechanism of fraxetin on Staphylococcus aureus was systematically investigated by examining its effect on cell membranes, protein synthesis, nucleic acid content and topoisomerase activity. The results indicated that fraxetin increased the permeability of the cell membrane but did not render it permeable to macromolecules, such as DNA and RNA. Additionally, the quantity of protein, DNA and RNA decreased to 55.74, 33.86 and 48.96%, respectively following treatment with fraxetin for 16 h. The activity of topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II were also markedly inhibited as fraxetin concentration increased. The result of the ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry demonstrated that the DNA characteristics exhibited a blue shift and hypochromic effect following treatment with fraxetin. These results indicated that fraxetin had a marked inhibitory effect on S.aureus proliferation. Further mechanistic studies showed that fraxetin could disrupt nucleic acid and protein synthesis by preventing topoisomerase from binding to DNA. PMID:25189268

  13. Staphylococcus aureus seroproteomes discriminate ruminant isolates causing mild or severe mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Maréchal Caroline

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of mastitis in ruminants. In ewe mastitis, symptoms range from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. S. aureus factors or host-factors contributing to the different outcomes are not completely elucidated. In this study, experimental mastitis was induced on primiparous ewes using two S. aureus strains, isolated from gangrenous (strain O11 or subclinical (strain O46 mastitis. Strains induced drastically distinct clinical symptoms when tested in ewe and mice experimental mastitis. Notably, they reproduced mild (O46 or severe (O11 mastitis in ewes. Ewe sera were used to identify staphylococcal immunoreactive proteins commonly or differentially produced during infections of variable severity and to define core and accessory seroproteomes. Such SERological Proteome Analysis (SERPA allowed the identification of 89 immunoreactive proteins, of which only 52 (58.4% were previously identified as immunogenic proteins in other staphylococcal infections. Among the 89 proteins identified, 74 appear to constitute the core seroproteome. Among the 15 remaining proteins defining the accessory seroproteome, 12 were specific for strain O11, 3 were specific for O46. Distribution of one protein specific for each mastitis severity was investigated in ten other strains isolated from subclinical or clinical mastitis. We report here for the first time the identification of staphylococcal immunogenic proteins common or specific to S. aureus strains responsible for mild or severe mastitis. These findings open avenues in S. aureus mastitis studies as some of these proteins, expressed in vivo, are likely to account for the success of S. aureus as a pathogen of the ruminant mammary gland.

  14. Effect of lactation therapy on Staphylococcus aureus transmission dynamics in two commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, John W; Zadoks, Ruth N; Schukken, Ynte H

    2013-02-11

    Treatment of subclinical mastitis during lactation can have both direct (individual animal level) and indirect (population level) effects. With a few exceptions, prior research has focused on evaluating the direct effects of mastitis treatment, and to date no controlled field trials have been conducted to test whether beneficial indirect effects of lactation treatment strategies targeting subclinical mastitis can be demonstrated on commercial dairy farms. Furthermore, there is limited knowledge on the impact of such interventions on the population dynamics of specific bacterial strains. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that lactation therapy targeting S. aureus subclinical intramammary infection reduces transmission of S. aureus strains within dairy herds. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to determine strain specific infection dynamics in treated and control groups in a split herd trial conducted on 2 commercial dairy farms. The direct effect of 8 days intramammary lactation therapy with pirlimycin hydrochloride was demonstrated by an increased proportion of cure and a reduction in duration of infection in quarters receiving treatment compared to untreated controls. The indirect effect of lactation therapy was demonstrated by reduction of new S. aureus intramammary infections (IMI) caused by the dominant strain type in both herds. Strain typing of representative isolates taken over the duration of all IMI, including pre- and post-treatment isolates, provided more precise estimates of new infection, cure, and re-infection rates. New S. aureus infections in recovered susceptible quarters and the emergence of a new strain type in one herd influenced incidence measures. In addition to demonstrating positive direct effects of lactation therapy, this study provides evidence that treatment of subclinical S. aureus mastitis during lactation can have indirect effects including preventing new IMI and

  15. Effect of lactation therapy on Staphylococcus aureus transmission dynamics in two commercial dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barlow John W

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of subclinical mastitis during lactation can have both direct (individual animal level and indirect (population level effects. With a few exceptions, prior research has focused on evaluating the direct effects of mastitis treatment, and to date no controlled field trials have been conducted to test whether beneficial indirect effects of lactation treatment strategies targeting subclinical mastitis can be demonstrated on commercial dairy farms. Furthermore, there is limited knowledge on the impact of such interventions on the population dynamics of specific bacterial strains. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that lactation therapy targeting S. aureus subclinical intramammary infection reduces transmission of S. aureus strains within dairy herds. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST were used to determine strain specific infection dynamics in treated and control groups in a split herd trial conducted on 2 commercial dairy farms. Results The direct effect of 8 days intramammary lactation therapy with pirlimycin hydrochloride was demonstrated by an increased proportion of cure and a reduction in duration of infection in quarters receiving treatment compared to untreated controls. The indirect effect of lactation therapy was demonstrated by reduction of new S. aureus intramammary infections (IMI caused by the dominant strain type in both herds. Strain typing of representative isolates taken over the duration of all IMI, including pre- and post-treatment isolates, provided more precise estimates of new infection, cure, and re-infection rates. New S. aureus infections in recovered susceptible quarters and the emergence of a new strain type in one herd influenced incidence measures. Conclusion In addition to demonstrating positive direct effects of lactation therapy, this study provides evidence that treatment of subclinical S. aureus mastitis during lactation can

  16. Activity of Daptomycin Alone and in Combination with Rifampin and Gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus Assessed by Time-Kill Methodology▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    The synergistic effects of daptomycin plus gentamicin or rifampin were tested against 50 Staphylococcus aureus strains, with daptomycin MICs ranging between 0.25 and 8 μg/ml. Daptomycin sub-MICs combined with gentamicin concentrations lower than the MIC yielded synergy in 34 (68%) of the 50 strains. Daptomycin combined with rifampin yielded synergy in one vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strain only, and virtually all synergy occurred between daptomycin and gentamicin. PMID:17220402

  17. Alterations in the transcriptome and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus grown in the presence of diclofenac

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) which has been shown to increase the susceptibility of various bacteria to antimicrobials and demonstrated to have broad antimicrobial activity. This study describes transcriptome alterations in S. aureus strain COL grown with diclofenac and characterizes the effects of this NSAID on antibiotic susceptibility in laboratory, clinical and diclofenac reduced-susceptibility (DcRS) S. aureus strains. Methods Transcriptional alterations in response to growth with diclofenac were measured using S. aureus gene expression microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by agar diffusion MICs and gradient plate analysis. Ciprofloxacin accumulation was measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Results Growth of S. aureus strain COL with 80 μg/ml (0.2 × MIC) of diclofenac resulted in the significant alteration by ≥2-fold of 458 genes. These represented genes encoding proteins for transport and binding, protein and DNA synthesis, and the cell envelope. Notable alterations included the strong down-regulation of antimicrobial efflux pumps including mepRAB and a putative emrAB/qacA-family pump. Diclofenac up-regulated sigB (σB), encoding an alternative sigma factor which has been shown to be important for antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus aureus microarray metadatabase (SAMMD) analysis further revealed that 46% of genes differentially-expressed with diclofenac are also σB-regulated. Diclofenac altered S. aureus susceptibility to multiple antibiotics in a strain-dependent manner. Susceptibility increased for ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and norfloxacin, decreased for oxacillin and vancomycin, and did not change for tetracycline or chloramphenicol. Mutation to DcRS did not affect susceptibility to the above antibiotics. Reduced ciprofloxacin MICs with diclofenac in strain BB255, were not associated with increased drug accumulation. Conclusions The results of

  18. Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream isolates in Taiwan, 2010.

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    Chih-Jung Chen

    Full Text Available The information of molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is essential for control and treatment of diseases caused by this medically important pathogen. A total of 577 clinical MRSA bloodstream isolates from six major hospitals in Taiwan were determined for molecular types, carriage of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL and sasX genes and susceptibilities to 9 non-beta-lactam antimicrobial agents. A total of 17 genotypes were identified in 577 strains by pulsotyping. Five major pulsotypes, which included type A (26.2%, belonging to sequence type (ST 239, carrying type III staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec, type F (18.9%, ST5-SCCmecII, type C (18.5%, ST59-SCCmecIV, type B (12.0%, ST239-SCCmecIII and type D (10.9%, ST59-SCCmecVT/IV, prevailed in each of the six sampled hospitals. PVL and sasX genes were respectively carried by ST59-type D strains and ST239 strains with high frequencies (93.7% and 99.1%, respectively but rarely detected in strains of other genotypes. Isolates of different genotypes and from different hospitals exhibited distinct antibiograms. Multi-resistance to ≥3 non-beta-lactams was more common in ST239 isolates (100% than in ST5 isolates (97.2%, P = 0.0347 and ST59 isolates (8.2%, P<0.0001. Multivariate analysis further indicated that the genotype, but not the hospital, was an independent factor associated with muti-resistance of the MRSA strains. In conclusion, five common MRSA clones with distinct antibiograms prevailed in the major hospitals in Taiwan in 2010. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of invasive MRSA was mainly determined by the clonal distribution.

  19. Bactericidal antibiotic-phytochemical combinations against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhone Myint Kyaw

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection is a global concern nowadays. Due to its multi-drug resistant nature, treatment with conventional antibiotics does not assure desired clinical outcomes. Therefore, there is a need to find new compounds and/or alternative methods to get arsenal against the pathogen. Combination therapies using conventional antibiotics and phytochemicals fulfill both requirements. In this study, the efficacy of different phytochemicals in combination with selected antibiotics was tested against 12 strains of S. aureus (ATCC MRSA 43300, ATCC methicillin sensitive S. aureus or MSSA 29213 and 10 MRSA clinical strains collected from National University Hospital, Singapore. Out of the six phytochemicals used, tannic acid was synergistic with fusidic acid, minocycline, cefotaxime and rifampicin against most of strains tested and additive with ofloxacin and vancomycin. Quercetin showed synergism with minocycline, fusidic acid and rifampicin against most of the strains. Gallic acid ethyl ester showed additivity against all strains in combination with all antibiotics under investigation except with vancomycin where it showed indifference effect. Eugenol, menthone and caffeic acid showed indifference results against all strains in combination with all antibiotics. Interestingly, no antagonism was observed within these interactions. Based on the fractional inhibitory concentration indices, synergistic pairs were further examined by time-kill assays to confirm the accuracy and killing rate of the combinations over time. The two methods concurred with each other with 92% accuracy and the combinatory pairs were effective throughout the 24 hours of assay. The study suggests a possible incorporation of effective phytochemicals in combination therapies for MRSA infections.

  20. Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.

  1. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Stefania; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lindsay, Jodi A

    2012-01-01

    decisions with regard to harmonisation of typing methods. A stratified, three-level organisation of testing laboratories was proposed: local; regional; and national. The functions of, and testing methodology used by, each laboratory were defined. The group consensus was to recommend spa and staphylococcal......This article reviews recent findings on the global epidemiology of healthcare-acquired/associated (HA), community-acquired/associated (CA) and livestock-associated (LA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and aims to reach a consensus regarding the harmonisation of typing methods...... cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing as the preferred methods. Both are informative in defining particular strain characteristics and utilise standardised nomenclatures, making them applicable globally. Effective communication between each of the different levels and between national centres was viewed...

  2. Use of resistant mutants to study the interaction of triton X-100 with Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Raychaudhuri, D; Chatterjee, A N

    1985-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus mutants resistant to the nonionic detergent Triton X-100, isolated from the wild-type strain H and the autolysin-deficient strain RUS3, could grow and divide in broth containing 5% (vol/vol) Triton X-100, while growth of the parental strains was markedly inhibited above the critical micellar concentration (0.02%) of the detergent. Growth-inhibitory concentrations of Triton X-100 killed wild-type cells without demonstrable cellular lysis. Triton X-100 stimulated autolysin...

  3. Plasmid profiles and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukoya, D K; Asielue, J O; Olasupo, N A; Ikea, J K

    1995-06-01

    In an investigation into the problems of infections due to Staphylococcus aureus in Nigeria, 100 strains were isolated from various hospitals in Lagos. The strains were screened for the presence of plasmids and for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Plasmids were extracted by modification of the method of Takahashi and Nagono[1]. The plasmids were diverse in nature. The strains were found to be highly resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics.

  4. Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from personnel in a poultry hatchery and in broiler parent farms with those isolated from skeletal disease in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J D; McCullagh, J J; McNamee, P T; Smyth, J A; Ball, H J

    1999-09-15

    Personnel from one broiler hatchery, and workers on 18 separate broiler parent farms which supply the hatchery, were tested for hand and nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. In both locations, nasal carriage of S. aureus was more common than hand carriage. A total of 63 S. aureus strains were characterised by biotyping, protein A analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Of these, 36 were recovered from broiler hatchery personnel, 14 from broiler parent farm personnel and 13 from cases of skeletal disease in commercial broilers. Biotyping and protein A analysis indicated that none of the strains recovered from hatchery personnel were of the poultry biotype, but that two strains recovered from the hands of two broiler parent farm personnel could be grouped together with 12/13 of strains recovered from skeletal disease in broilers, as poultry biotypes. PFGE-typing could not distinguish 9/13 strains recovered from skeletal disease in broilers and one of the strains from the broiler parent farm personnel from isolate 24 (I. 24), which is the predominant S. aureus strain type associated with clinical disease in N. Ireland broiler flocks. The present study found no evidence of nasal carriage of S. aureus strains of poultry biotype by humans. The finding of hand carriage by broiler parent farm personnel, suggests that handling by personnel may contribute to the dissemination of I. 24 or other S. aureus strains associated with skeletal disease in broilers.

  5. Anti-Staphylococcus aureus action of three Caatinga fruits evaluated by electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luís Cláudio Nascimento; Sandes, Jana Messias; de Paiva, Maurício Magalhães; de Araújo, Janete Magali; de Figueiredo, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of Anadenanthera colubrina, Libidibia ferrea and Pityrocarpa moniliformis fruit extracts against clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The samples were active for all S. aureus strains (minimum inhibitory concentration: 0.38-3.13 mg mL⁻¹), including the multiresistant strain. The morphological changes suggested the cell wall as the main action target. The treated-cells also lose their ability to form aggregates. The analysis suggests cell wall impairment, which causes the loss of viability and death. This study showed for the first time the morphologic alterations involved in the anti-S. aureus action of fruits of A. colubrina, L. ferrea and P. moniliformis. These findings indicated that these fruit extracts are sources of bioactive compounds that can be used as antibacterial agents.

  6. Norlichexanthone Reduces Virulence Gene Expression and Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldry, Mara; Nielsen, Anita; Bojer, Martin S.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen and antibiotic resistant, community-associated strains, such as the methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain USA300, continue to spread. To avoid resistance, anti-virulence therapy has been proposed where toxicity is targeted rather than...... viability. Previously we have shown that norlichexanthone, a small non-reduced tricyclic polyketide produced by fungi and lichens, reduces expression of hla encoding α-hemolysin as well as the regulatory RNAIII of the agr quorum sensing system in S. aureus 8325-4. The aim of the present study was to further...... SaeRS system. Our data show that norlichexanthone treatment reduces expression of key virulence factors in CA-MRSA strain USA300 via AgrA binding and represses biofilm formation....

  7. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Suo, Yujuan; Zhang, Daofeng; Jin, Fangning; Zhao, Hang; Shi, Chunlei

    2018-01-01

    Staphyloxanthin (STX), a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus , is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to clarify the genetic and virulent differences between the two groups. Here, 132 S. aureus isolates were divided into two phenotype groups depending on the absorbance (OD 450 ) of the extracted carotenoids. Then, all isolates were subjected to spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and then the detection of presence of 30 virulence factors and the gene integrity of crtN and crtM . Furthermore, 24 typical S. aureus isolates and 4 S. argenteus strains were selected for the murine infection assay of in vivo virulence, in which the histological observation and enumeration of CFUs were carried out. These isolates were distributed in 26 sequence types (STs) and 49 spa types. The pigmented isolates were scattered in 25 STs, while the non-pigmented isolates were more centralized, which mainly belonged to ST20 (59%) and ST25 (13%). Among the 54 non-pigmented isolates, about 20% carried intact crtN and crtM genes. The in vivo assay suggested that comparing with pigmented S. aureus , non-pigmented S. aureus and S. argenteus strains did not show a reduced virulence in murine sepsis models. Therefore, it suggested that there were no significant genetic and virulent differences between pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus .

  8. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphyloxanthin (STX, a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus, is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to clarify the genetic and virulent differences between the two groups. Here, 132 S. aureus isolates were divided into two phenotype groups depending on the absorbance (OD450 of the extracted carotenoids. Then, all isolates were subjected to spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, and then the detection of presence of 30 virulence factors and the gene integrity of crtN and crtM. Furthermore, 24 typical S. aureus isolates and 4 S. argenteus strains were selected for the murine infection assay of in vivo virulence, in which the histological observation and enumeration of CFUs were carried out. These isolates were distributed in 26 sequence types (STs and 49 spa types. The pigmented isolates were scattered in 25 STs, while the non-pigmented isolates were more centralized, which mainly belonged to ST20 (59% and ST25 (13%. Among the 54 non-pigmented isolates, about 20% carried intact crtN and crtM genes. The in vivo assay suggested that comparing with pigmented S. aureus, non-pigmented S. aureus and S. argenteus strains did not show a reduced virulence in murine sepsis models. Therefore, it suggested that there were no significant genetic and virulent differences between pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus.

  9. Genome-wide association study reveals a locus for nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Danish crossbred pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is an important human opportunistic pathogen residing on skin and mucosae of healthy people. Pigs have been identified as a source of human colonization and infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and novel measures are needed to control......-pathogen interaction seems to be independent of S. aureus genotype. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest it may be possible to select pigs genetically resistant to S. aureus nasal colonization as a tool to control transmission of livestock-associated MRSA to humans....

  10. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in cattle, sheep, goat, and pig rearing in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Klimešová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and resistant strains in livestock. In this study, 114 different samples from three cattle farms (84 from two farms of dairy cows and 30 from one farm of suckler cows, 132 samples from one sheep farm, 120 samples from one goat farm, and 82 samples from three pig farms were examined. Strains identified as Staphylococcus aureus were further analysed by the polymerase chain reaction method for detection of the mecA gene and for confirmation of the sequence type 398. Positive incidence of Staphylococcus aureus was confirmed in farms of suckler cows, sheep, goats and pigs. The incidence of methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was confirmed at a goat farm, with all strains belonging to the sequence type 398. Repetitive element palindromic-polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to compare the relatedness of selected human and animal S. aureus strains at the goat and sheep farms. The obtained data from repetitive element-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed significant clonal similarity among the tested isolates and indicated the possibility of mutual transmission between animals or animal and human and possible transfer in the food chain.

  11. Genomic evolution of Staphylococcus aureus isolates colonizing the nares and progressing to bacteremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne B Benoit

    Full Text Available Nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus is a key risk factor for bacteremia. The objective of this study is to identify genomic modifications occurring in nasal carriage strains of S. aureus as they progress to bacteremia in a cohort of hospitalized patients.Eight patients with S. aureus bacteremia were identified. Genomic sequences of the bloodstream isolates were compared with 57 nasal isolates collected longitudinally prior to the occurrence of bacteremia, which covered a timespan of up to 326 days before bacteremia.Within each subject, nasal colonizing strains were closely related to bacteremia strains. Within a subject, the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs observed between time points was greater than within a single time point. Co-colonization and strain replacement were observed in one case. In all cases colonization progressed to bacteremia without addition of new virulence genes. In one case, a mutation in the accessory gene regulator gene caused abrogation of agr function.S. aureus evolves in the human nares at a variable rate. Progression of S. aureus nasal colonization to nosocomial infection is seldom associated with acquisition of new virulence determinants. Mutation in the agr gene with abrogation of function was associated with progression to bacteremia in one case.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus fermentum against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mi-Sun; Lim, Hae-Soon; Oh, Jong-Suk; Lim, You-Jin; Wuertz-Kozak, Karin; Harro, Janette M; Shirtliff, Mark E; Achermann, Yvonne

    2017-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has become a major public health threat. While lactobacilli were recently found useful in combating various pathogens, limited data exist on their therapeutic potential for S. aureus infections. The aim of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus salivarius was able to produce bactericidal activities against S. aureus and to determine whether the inhibition was due to a generalized reduction in pH or due to secreted Lactobacillus product(s). We found an 8.6-log10 reduction of planktonic and a 6.3-log10 reduction of biofilm S. aureus. In contrast, the previously described anti-staphylococcal effects of L. fermentum only caused a 4.0-log10 reduction in planktonic S. aureus cells, with no effect on biofilm S. aureus cells. Killing of S. aureus was partially pH dependent, but independent of nutrient depletion. Cell-free supernatant that was pH neutralized and heat inactivated or proteinase K treated had significantly reduced killing of L. salivarius than with pH-neutralized supernatant alone. Proteomic analysis of the L. salivarius secretome identified a total of five secreted proteins including a LysM-containing peptidoglycan binding protein and a protein peptidase M23B. These proteins may represent potential novel anti-staphylococcal agents that could be effective against S. aureus biofilms. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Molecular Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Patients with Autosomal Dominant Hyper IgE Syndrome

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    Inka Sastalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome (AD-HIES is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3. This immune disorder is clinically characterized by increased susceptibility to cutaneous and sinopulmonary infections, in particular with Candida and Staphylococcus aureus. It has recently been recognized that the skin microbiome of patients with AD-HIES is altered with an overrepresentation of certain Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive staphylococci. However, these alterations have not been characterized at the species- and strain-level. Since S. aureus infections are influenced by strain-specific expression of virulence factors, information on colonizing strain characteristics may provide insights into host-pathogen interactions and help guide management strategies for treatment and prophylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the immunodeficiency of AD-HIES selects for unique strains of colonizing S. aureus. Using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, protein A (spa typing, and PCR-based detection of toxin genes, we performed a detailed analysis of the S. aureus isolates (n = 13 found on the skin of twenty-one patients with AD-HIES. We found a low diversity of sequence types, and an abundance of strains that expressed methicillin resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, and staphylococcal enterotoxins K and Q (SEK, SEQ. Our results indicate that patients with AD-HIES may often carry antibiotic-resistant strains that harbor key virulence factors.

  14. Detection of Intracellular Adhesion (ica and Biofilm Formation Genes in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Clinical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadije Rezaie Keikhaie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nosocomial infections that result in the formation of biofilms on the surfaces of biomedical implants are a leading cause of sepsis and are often associated with colonization of the implants by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Biofilm formation is thought to require two sequential steps: adhesion of cells to a solid substrate followed by cell-cell adhesion, creating multiple layers of cells. Intercellular adhesion requires the polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA, which is composed of linear β-1, 6-linked glucosaminylglycans and can be synthesized in vitro from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine by products of the intercellular adhesion (ica locus. We have investigated a variety of Staphylococcus aureus strains and find that all strains tested contain the ica locus and that several can form biofilms in vitro. Material and Method: A total of 31 clinical S. aureus isolates were collected from Zabol, Iran. In vitro biofilm formation ability was determined by microliter tissue culture plates. All clinical isolates were examined for determination the ica locus by using PCR method. Result: The results of this study showed that 40 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 12 strains carrying the gene Cocos icaA (30% and 8 strains carrying the gene icaD (20% and the number of five strains (12.5% containing both genes ica A and has been ica D. Conclusions:  S. aureus clinical isolates have different ability to form biofilm. This may be caused by the differences in the expression of biofilm related genes, genetic make-up and physiological conditions.

  15. Characterisation of virulence genes in methicillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a paediatric population in a university hospital of Medellín, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez,Judy Natalia; Ocampo,Ana María; Vanegas,Johanna Marcela; Rodríguez,Erika Andrea; Garcés,Carlos Guillermo; Patiño,Luz Adriana; Ospina,Sigifredo; Correa,Margarita María

    2011-01-01

    Virulence and antibiotic resistance are significant determinants of the types of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and paediatric groups remain among the most commonly affected populations. The goal of this study was to characterise virulence genes of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from a paediatric population of a Colombian University Hospital during 2009. Sixty MSSA and MRSA isolates were obtained from paediatric...

  16. Evaluation of Ceftobiprole in a Rabbit Model of Aortic Valve Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant and Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Henry F.

    2005-01-01

    Ceftobiprole is a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin that binds with high affinity to PBP 2a, the methicillin-resistance determinant of staphylococci, and is active against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Ceftobiprole was compared to vancomycin in a rabbit model of methicillin-resistant S. aureus aortic valve endocarditis. Ceftobiprole and vancomycin were equally effective against endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain 76, whereas ceftobipro...

  17. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with hyperproduction of alpha-toxin in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Liang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The virulence factor α-toxin (hla is needed by Staphylococcus aureus in order to cause infections in both animals and humans. Although the complicated regulation of hla expression has been well studied in human S. aureus isolates, the mechanisms of of hla regulation in bovine S. aureus isolates remain undefined. In this study, we found that many bovine S. aureus isolates, including the RF122 strain, generate dramatic amounts of α-toxin in vitro compared with human clinical S. aureus isolates, including MRSA WCUH29 and MRSA USA300. To elucidate potential regulatory mechanisms, we analyzed the hla promoter regions and identified predominant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at positions -376, -483, and -484 from the start codon in α-toxin hyper-producing isolates. Using site-directed mutagenesis and hla promoter-gfp-luxABCDE dual reporter approaches, we demonstrated that the SNPs contribute to the differential control of hla expression among bovine and human S. aureus isolates. Using a DNA affinity assay, gel-shift assays and a null mutant, we identified and revealed that an hla positive regulator, SarZ, contributes to the involvement of the SNPs in mediating hla expression. In addition, we found that the bovine S. aureus isolate RF122 exhibits higher transcription levels of hla positive regulators, including agrA, saeR, arlR and sarZ, but a lower expression level of hla repressor rot compared to the human S. aureus isolate WCUH29. Our results indicate α-toxin hyperproduction in bovine S. aureus is a multifactorial process, influenced at both the genomic and transcriptional levels. Moreover, the identification of predominant SNPs in the hla promoter region may provide a novel method for genotyping the S. aureus isolates.

  18. Evaluation of approaches to monitor Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor expression during human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Rozemeijer

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen of medical significance, using multiple virulence factors to cause disease. A prophylactic S. aureus 4-antigen (SA4Ag vaccine comprising capsular polysaccharide (types 5 and 8 conjugates, clumping factor A (ClfA and manganese transporter C (MntC is under development. This study was designed to characterize S. aureus isolates recovered from infected patients and also to investigate approaches for examining expression of S. aureus vaccine candidates and the host response during human infection. Confirmation of antigen expression in different disease states is important to support the inclusion of these antigens in a prophylactic vaccine. Hospitalized patients with diagnosed S. aureus wound (27 or bloodstream (24 infections were enrolled. Invasive and nasal carriage S. aureus isolates were recovered and characterized for genotypic diversity. S. aureus antigen expression was evaluated directly by real-time, quantitative, reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR analysis and indirectly by serology using a competitive Luminex immunoassay. Study isolates were genotypically diverse and all had the genes encoding the antigens present in the SA4Ag vaccine. S. aureus nasal carriage was detected in 55% of patients, and in those subjects 64% of the carriage isolates matched the invasive strain. In swab samples with detectable S. aureus triosephosphate isomerase housekeeping gene expression, RNA transcripts encoding the S. aureus virulence factors ClfA, MntC, and capsule polysaccharide were detected by qRT-PCR. Antigen expression was indirectly confirmed by increases in antibody titer during the course of infection from acute to convalescent phase. Demonstration of bacterial transcript expression together with immunological response to the SA4Ag antigens in a clinically relevant patient population provides support for inclusion of these antigens in a prophylactic vaccine.

  19. Evaluation of approaches to monitor Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor expression during human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, Wouter; Fink, Pamela; Rojas, Eduardo; Jones, C Hal; Pavliakova, Danka; Giardina, Peter; Murphy, Ellen; Liberator, Paul; Jiang, Qin; Girgenti, Douglas; Peters, Remco P H; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Kluytmans, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen of medical significance, using multiple virulence factors to cause disease. A prophylactic S. aureus 4-antigen (SA4Ag) vaccine comprising capsular polysaccharide (types 5 and 8) conjugates, clumping factor A (ClfA) and manganese transporter C (MntC) is under development. This study was designed to characterize S. aureus isolates recovered from infected patients and also to investigate approaches for examining expression of S. aureus vaccine candidates and the host response during human infection. Confirmation of antigen expression in different disease states is important to support the inclusion of these antigens in a prophylactic vaccine. Hospitalized patients with diagnosed S. aureus wound (27) or bloodstream (24) infections were enrolled. Invasive and nasal carriage S. aureus isolates were recovered and characterized for genotypic diversity. S. aureus antigen expression was evaluated directly by real-time, quantitative, reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis and indirectly by serology using a competitive Luminex immunoassay. Study isolates were genotypically diverse and all had the genes encoding the antigens present in the SA4Ag vaccine. S. aureus nasal carriage was detected in 55% of patients, and in those subjects 64% of the carriage isolates matched the invasive strain. In swab samples with detectable S. aureus triosephosphate isomerase housekeeping gene expression, RNA transcripts encoding the S. aureus virulence factors ClfA, MntC, and capsule polysaccharide were detected by qRT-PCR. Antigen expression was indirectly confirmed by increases in antibody titer during the course of infection from acute to convalescent phase. Demonstration of bacterial transcript expression together with immunological response to the SA4Ag antigens in a clinically relevant patient population provides support for inclusion of these antigens in a prophylactic vaccine.

  20. Antibiotic resistant pattern of methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients durining 2009-2010, Ahvaz, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Parhizgari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important nosocomial infecting agents resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Nowadays, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA is considered one of the main causes of nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to identify the antibiotic resistance pattern of methicicllin- resistant and susceptible strains in Ahwaz, Iran. Methods: In the present cross - sectional study, a number of 255 clinically suspected cases of Staphylococcus aureus were collected during a 19 month period. The bacteria were investigated using standard biochemical tests such as catalase, mannitol fermentation, coagulase and Dnase. Sensitive strains were confirmed by disk diffusion method compared to commonly used antibiotics. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tests. Results: of 255 suspected cases, 180 were confirmed as S.aureus, a total of 59 strains of S. aureus (2/37 percent were resistant to methicillin. Resistance to S. aureus strains resistant to methicillin included: chloramphenicol (3.38%, rifampin (45.76%, norfloxacin (89.83%, gentamicin (89.83%, ciprofloxacin, (91.52%, azithromycin, (88.13%, cotrimoxazole (86.44% and all isolates strains were sensitive to vancomycin and nitrofurantoin. A total of 10 different patterns of antibiotic resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were identified. Conclusion: Expression of new resistance factor in nosocomial infection is one of the major challenges in treating these infections. This study showed a high prevalence of resistance against some class of antibiotics in MRSA isolated from Imam Khomeini and Golestan hospital of Ahwaz, Iran. Key words: Nosocomial infection, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Antibiotic Resistant Pattern

  1. Human Staphylococcus aureus lineages among Zoological Park residents in Greece

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    E. Drougka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a part of the microbiota flora in many animal species. The clonal spread of S. aureus among animals and personnel in a Zoological Park was investigated. Samples were collected from colonized and infected sites among 32 mammals, 11 birds and eight humans. The genes mecA, mecC, lukF/lukS-PV (encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL and tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 were investigated by PCR. Clones were defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST, spa type and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE. Seven S. aureus isolates were recovered from four animals and one from an employee. All were mecA, mecC and tst–negative, whereas, one carried the PVL genes and was isolated from an infected Squirrel monkey. Clonal analysis revealed the occurrence of seven STs, eight PFGE and five spa types including ones of human origin. Even though a variety of genotypes were identified among S. aureus strains colonizing zoo park residents, our results indicate that colonization with human lineages has indeed occurred.

  2. Infertility as a consequence of spermagglutinating Staphylococcus aureus colonization in genital tract of female mice.

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    Siftjit Kaur

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown Staphylococcus aureus to be one of the most prevalent organism in male and female genital tract but most practitioners dismiss it as mere contamination which is assumed to be of no significance. However, it is now suggested that the presence of this organism should not be ignored, as incubation of spermatozoa with S. aureus results in reduced sperm motility. Although S. aureus has been reported to cause immobilization of spermatozoa, however, its role in infertility has yet to be elucidated. The present study was designed to establish a spermagglutinating strain of S. aureus isolated from the cervix of a woman with unexplained infertility, in mouse and evaluate its effect on fertility outcome. Female Balb/c mice were inoculated intravaginally with different doses of S. aureus (10(4, 10(6 or 10(8cfu/20 µl for 10 consecutive days. Microbial colonization monitored every 3(rd day by vaginal cultures, revealed that strain could efficiently colonize mouse vagina. Mating on day 12, with proven breeder males led to 100% decrease in fertility as compared to control. Even a single dose of 10(6 or 10(8cfu could lead to vaginal colonization which persisted for 10 days followed by gradual clearing till 21 days, vaginal cultures were negative thereafter. Female mice mated on day 7 (culture positive, were rendered infertile, however, the mice mated on day 22 (culture negative, retained fertility and delivered pups indicating its role in provoking infertility. Further, except infertility, no other clinical manifestation could be seen apparently or histologically. However, when a non-spermagglutinating/immobilizing standard strain of S. aureus MTCC6625 was inoculated intravaginally at 10(8cfu for 10 days followed by mating on day 12, fertility was observed in all the female mice. This supports the hypothesis that infertility observed in the former groups was as a result of colonization with spermagglutinating strain of S. aureus.

  3. Neutrophil depletion causes a fatal defect in murine pulmonary Staphylococcus aureus clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Charles M; Perrone, Erin E; McConnell, Kevin W; Dunne, W Michael; Boody, Barrett; Brahmbhatt, Tejal; Diacovo, M Julia; Van Rooijen, Nico; Hogue, Lisa A; Cannon, Carolyn L; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2008-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of healthcare-associated pneumonia. Despite the significant morbidity and mortality associated with the disease, animal models of S. aureus pneumonia are rare. We examined the pathogenicity of four different strains of S. aureus (both methicillin-sensitive and -resistant as well as Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive and -negative) in four strains of immunocompetent inbred and outbred mice (FVB/N, C57Bl/6, BALB/c, ND4; n = 148). The immunological basis for the development of murine S. aureus pneumonia was then determined by selectively depleting neutrophils, lymphocytes, or pulmonary macrophages prior to the onset of infection. An additional cohort of animals was rendered immunosuppressed by induction of abdominal sepsis via cecal ligation and puncture 2, 4, or 7 d prior to the onset of pneumonia. Nearly all immunocompetent mice survived, regardless of which strain of S. aureus was used or which strain of mouse was infected. Among animals with immune depletion or prior immunosuppression, survival was decreased only following neutrophil depletion (26% versus 90% alive at 7 d, P < 0.0001). Compared to immunocompetent animals, neutrophil-depleted mice with S. aureus pneumonia had delayed pulmonary bacterial clearance at 16 and 40 h but had no difference in levels of bacteremia. Neutrophil-depleted mice also had elevated levels of pulmonary monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (822 pg/mL versus 150 pg/mL, P < 0.05). In contrast, pulmonary histological appearance was similar in both groups as was dry/wet lung weight. These results suggest that neutrophils play a critical role in the host response to S. aureus pneumonia, and the survival differences observed in neutrophil-depleted mice are associated with alterations in bacterial clearance and pulmonary cytokine response.

  4. Prevalence of coagulase gene polymorphism in Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Dangler, C. A.; Sordillo, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate polymorphism of the coagulase gene of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis. One hundred eighty-seven strains of S. aureus were isolated from bovine mastitic milk samples obtained from 187 different Danish dairy farms. The isolates were characterised......% of the isolates. The ease of analysing coagulase gene polymorphisms among a large number of strains, and the multiple distinct polymorphic patterns generated, supports the use of this technique in epidemiological investigations of bovine mastitis. The predominating variants may have predelection for causing...

  5. Global spread of mouse-adapted Staphylococcus aureus lineages CC1, CC15, and CC88 among mouse breeding facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, Daniel M; Grumann, Dorothee; Schulz, Daniel; Gumz, Janine; Trübe, Patricia; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen; Johnson, Sarah; Nicklas, Werner; Kirsch, Petra; Martelet, Karine; Brandt, Jens van den; Berg, Sabine; Bröker, Barbara M; Wiles, Siouxsie; Holtfreter, Silva

    2017-11-20

    We previously reported that laboratory mice from all global vendors are frequently colonized with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Genotyping of a snap sample of murine S. aureus isolates from Charles River, US, showed that mice were predominantly colonized with methicillin-sensitive CC88 strains. Here, we expanded our view and investigated whether laboratory mice from other global animal facilities are colonized with similar strains or novel S. aureus lineages, and whether the murine S. aureus isolates show features of host adaptation. In total, we genotyped 230 S. aureus isolates from various vendor facilities of laboratory mice around the globe (Charles River facilities in the USA, Canada, France, and Germany; another US facility) and university- or company-associated breeding facilities in Germany, China and New Zealand. Spa typing was performed to analyse the clonal relationship of the isolates. Moreover, multiplex PCRs were performed for human-specific virulence factors, the immune-evasion cluster (IEC) and superantigen genes (SAg). We found a total of 58 different spa types that clustered into 15 clonal complexes (CCs). Three of these S. aureus lineages had spread globally among laboratory mice and accounted for three quarters of the isolates: CC1 (13.5%), CC15 (14.3%), and CC88 (47.0%). Compared to human colonizing isolates of the same lineages, the murine isolates frequently lacked IEC genes and SAg genes on mobile genetic elements, implying long-term adaptation to the murine host. In conclusion, laboratory mice from various vendors are colonized with host-adapted S. aureus-strains of a few lineages, predominantly the CC88 lineage. S. aureus researchers must be cautioned that S. aureus colonization might be a relevant confounder in infection and vaccination studies and are therefore advised to screen their mice before experimentation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  6. Frequency of enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, and biofilm formation genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cows with mastitis in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, F N; Belo, N O; Costa, E A; Andrade, G I; Pereira, L S; Carvalho, I A; Santos, R L

    2018-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is among the microorganisms more frequently associated with subclinical bovine mastitis. S. aureus may produce several virulence factors. This study aimed at determining the frequency of virulence factors such as enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and ica adhesion genes. In addition, we assessed antimicrobial drug resistance in S. aureus isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis. A total of 88 cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis were sampled, resulting in 38 S. aureus isolates, from which 25 (65.78%) carried toxin genes, including seb, sec, sed, tst, and icaD adhesion gene. These S. aureus isolates belong to 21 ribotypes and three S. aureus strains belonged to the same ribotype producing ica adhesion gene. Approximately 90% of S. aureus strains obtained in our study demonstrated multiple resistance to different antimicrobial agents. The most efficacious antimicrobial agents against the isolates were gentamicin, amoxicillin, and norfloxacin. Gentamicin was the most efficacious agent inhibiting 78.95% of the S. aureus isolates. The least efficacious were penicillin, streptomycin, and ampicillin. Our results can help in understanding the relationship between virulence factors and subclinical mastitis caused by S. aureus. Further research about diversity of S. aureus isolates and genes responsible for the pathogenicity of subclinical mastitis is essential.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcal Strains Isolated from Various Pathological Products

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    Laura-Mihaela SIMON

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The optimal choice of antimicrobial therapy is an important problem in hospital environment in which the selection of resistant and virulent strains easy occurs. S. aureus and especially MRSA(methicillin-resistant S. aureus creates difficulties in both treatment and prevention of nosocomial infections. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the sensitivity and the resistance to chemotherapy of staphylococci strains isolated from various pathological products. Material and Method: We identified Staphylococccus species after morphological appearance, culture properties, the production of coagulase, hemolisines and the enzyme activity. The susceptibility tests were performed on Mueller-Hinton medium according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The strains were: MSSA (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (74%, MRSA (8%, MLS B (macrolides, lincosamides and type B streptogramines resistance (12% and MRSA and MLS B (6%. MRSA strains were more frequently isolated from sputum. MRSA associated with the MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from pus. MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from sputum and throat secretions. All S. aureus strains were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Conclusions: All staphylococcal infections require resistance testing before treatment. MLS B shows a high prevalence among strains of S. aureus. The association between MLS B and MRSA remains a major problem in Romania.

  8. Elevated Enterotoxin A Expression and Formation in Staphylococcus aureus and Its Association with Prophage Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Rong; Zeaki, Nikoleta; Wallin-Carlquist, Nina; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Schelin, Jenny; Rådström, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus strains producing the bacteriophage-encoded staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) were divided into two groups, high- and low-SEA-producing strains, based on the amount of SEA produced. After growth under favorable conditions in batch cultures, 10 of the 21 strains tested produced more than 1,000 ng/ml SEA, and 9 strains produced less than 10 ng/ml SEA; two enterotoxigenic strains, MRSA252 and Newman, produced intermediate levels of SEA (around 450 ng/ml). The differences i...

  9. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    S. aureus is associated with many clinical syndromes including tenosynovitis, omphalitis, femoral head necrosis, .... Markey, 2008) where occurrence of multidrug ... Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in. Denmark. Veterinary.

  10. Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in suppurative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1299, p<0.05) and Methicillin resistance was confirmed by PCR. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent and more resistant in inpatients. There is a higher risk of acquiring drug resistant staphylococcus aureus infection in ...

  11. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA); Staph - MRSA; Staphylococcal - MRSA ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). www.cdc.gov/mrsa/index.html . Updated ...

  12. Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin-dependent induction of host cell death by membrane-derived vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Thay

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide spectrum of infections in humans, ranging from superficial cutaneous infections, infections in the circum-oral region, to life-threatening bacteremia. It was recently demonstrated that Gram-positive organisms such as S. aureus liberate membrane-derived vesicles (MVs, which analogously to outer membrane vesicles (OMVs of Gram-negative bacteria can play a role in delivering virulence factors to host cells. In the present study we have shown that cholesterol-dependent fusion of S. aureus MVs with the plasma membrane represents a route for delivery of a key virulence factor, α-toxin (α-hemolysin; Hla to human cells. Most S. aureus strains produce this 33-kDa pore-forming protein, which can lyse a wide range of human cells, and induce apoptosis in T-lymphocytes. Our results revealed a tight association of biologically active α-toxin with membrane-derived vesicles isolated from S. aureus strain 8325-4. Concomitantly, α-toxin contributed to HeLa cell cytotoxicity of MVs, and was the main vesicle-associated protein responsible for erythrocyte lysis. In contrast, MVs obtained from an isogenic hla mutant were significantly attenuated with regards to both causing lysis of erythrocytes and death of HeLa cells. This is to our knowledge the first recognition of an S. aureus MV-associated factor contributing to host cell cytotoxicity.

  13. Effects of Fermented Sumach on the Formation of Slime Layer of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Sahra Kırmusaoğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is one of the most commonly isolated bacterial pathogens in hospitals, and the most frequent cause of nosocomial infections. Nosocomial staphylococcal foreign-body infections related to biofilm formation are a serious threat, demanding new therapeutic and preventive strategies. Implantation of intravenous catheters and surgical implantation of prosthetic implants carry a risk of infection. In order to prevent all these effects of biofilms, a study was designed to observe the possible antibacterial effect of sumach (Rhus coriaria on the biofilm formation of S. aureus. Material and Methods: The influence of varying concentrations of sumach on the formation of biofilms by 13 strains of Staphylococcus aureus was tested by a microelisa assay. Results: The significant differences between varying concentrations of sumach (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 µl/ml were observed in four methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and nine methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA (p<0.05. In bacteria, a dose-related decrease in the formation of slime, which is a major virulence factor of staphylococcal infections, was observed. Conclusion: In our study, using 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 µl/ml of sumach, thirteen strains lost, 17%, 22%, 28% and 48% respectively of their capacity to produce biofilms. Sumach, which is a herbal product, can decrease the formation of biofilm, which is a major virulence factor in staphylococcal infections.

  14. Poor survival of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on inanimate objects in the public spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domon, Hisanori; Uehara, Yoshio; Oda, Masataka; Seo, Hiromi; Kubota, Noriko; Terao, Yutaka

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus on shopping baskets in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. Multilocus sequence typing was performed to determine the genotypes of S. aureus isolates, and then a polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect staphylococcal enterotoxins and antibiotic resistance genes. In addition, desiccation tolerance of S. aureus isolates was evaluated in vitro. Forty-six (6.2%) S. aureus isolates were collected from 740 shopping baskets, though only one MRSA strain was identified. In multilocus sequence typing findings, ten sequence types and 24 singletons were classified, which were divided into ten clonal complexes and six singletons. The most frequent staphylococcal enterotoxin gene was seg (30.4%). Our in vitro findings demonstrated that 70% of the S. aureus isolates, including the MRSA strain, became undetectable at 12 h after desiccation at an appropriate cell density, while the others remained viable for up to 24 h. Thus, it is difficult for MRSA organisms to survive on dry surfaces found in public areas. We speculated that inanimate objects in the community are unlikely to be a potential source for transmission of MRSA and that S. aureus on such objects outside of hospital settings is not a public health threat. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Sequence diversities of serine-aspartate repeat genes among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from different hosts presumably by horizontal gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huping Xue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Horizontal gene transfer (HGT is recognized as one of the major forces for bacterial genome evolution. Many clinically important bacteria may acquire virulence factors and antibiotic resistance through HGT. The comparative genomic analysis has become an important tool for identifying HGT in emerging pathogens. In this study, the Serine-Aspartate Repeat (Sdr family has been compared among different sources of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus to discover sequence diversities within their genomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four sdr genes were analyzed for 21 different S. aureus strains and 218 mastitis-associated S. aureus isolates from Canada. Comparative genomic analyses revealed that S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis (RF122 and mastitis isolates in this study, ovine mastitis (ED133, pig (ST398, chicken (ED98, and human methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA (TCH130, MRSA252, Mu3, Mu50, N315, 04-02981, JH1 and JH9 were highly associated with one another, presumably due to HGT. In addition, several types of insertion and deletion were found in sdr genes of many isolates. A new insertion sequence was found in mastitis isolates, which was presumably responsible for the HGT of sdrC gene among different strains. Moreover, the sdr genes could be used to type S. aureus. Regional difference of sdr genes distribution was also indicated among the tested S. aureus isolates. Finally, certain associations were found between sdr genes and subclinical or clinical mastitis isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Certain sdr gene sequences were shared in S. aureus strains and isolates from different species presumably due to HGT. Our results also suggest that the distributional assay of virulence factors should detect the full sequences or full functional regions of these factors. The traditional assay using short conserved regions may not be accurate or credible. These findings have important implications with regard to animal husbandry practices that may

  16. spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from healthy humans, pigs and dogs in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakweba, Abdul Sekemani; Muhairwa, Amandus Pachificus; Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Guardabassi, Luca; Mtambo, Madundo M A; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2016-02-28

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in humans and animals. Here we report for the first time the prevalence of nasal carriage, spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus in a Tanzanian livestock community. Nasal swabs were taken from 100 humans, 100 pigs and 100 dogs in Morogoro Municipal. Each swab was enriched in Mueller Hinton broth with 6.5% NaCl and subcultured on chromogenic agar for S. aureus detection. Presumptive S. aureus colonies were confirmed to the species level by nuc PCR and analysed by spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined by disc diffusion method. S. aureus was isolated from 22% of humans, 4% of pigs and 11% of dogs. A total of 21 spa types were identified: 13, 7 and 1 in human, dogs, and pigs, respectively. Three spa types (t314, t223 and t084) were shared between humans and dogs. A novel spa type (t10779) was identified in an isolate recovered from a colonized human. Antimicrobials tested revealed resistance to ampicillin in all isolates, moderate resistances to other antimicrobials with tetracycline resistance being the most frequent. S. aureus carrier frequencies in dogs and humans were within the expected range and low in pigs. The S. aureus spa types circulating in the community were generally not shared by different hosts and majority of types belonged to known clones. Besides ampicillin resistance, moderate levels of antimicrobial resistance were observed irrespective of the host species from which the strains were isolated.

  17. A simplified multiplex PCR assay for fast and easy discrimination of globally distributed staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Ghaznavi Rad (Ehsanollah); N.S. Mariana (Nor Shamsudin); Z. Sekawi (Zamberi); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); V. Neela (Vasanthakumari)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA multiplex PCR assay was developed for the identification of major types and subtypes of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. The method uses a novel 9 valent multiplex PCR plus two primer pairs for S. aureus

  18. A Caenorhabditis elegans Host Model Correlates with Invasive Disease Caused by Staphylococcus aureus Recovered during an Outbreak in Neonatal Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyu Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caenorhabditis elegans has previously been used as a host model to determine the virulence of clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. In the present study, methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA strains associated with an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU were investigated using the C elegans model.

  19. Molecular Studies on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, Z.S.; Mohamed, H.A.; Abu Shady, H.M.; Abu Shady, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The present study of the MecA gene in our clinical isolates has been detected and verified by antibiotic disc diffusion test and nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Part of the product of the second PCR was also sequenced. The results indicated 97.7% similarity between the sequences of the mecA gene isolated from an Egyptian Staphylococcus aureus strain and that compared from Staphylococcus aureus strain no. GI46628 cited at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) database under accession number Y00688 in the region from nucleotide 467 to 875. The effect of gamma-radiation on these isolates was observed by plotting the dose survival curves of these isolates and determining their D10 values. Their D10 values were found to be ranged from 0.44 to 0.66 kGy. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were also carried out after exposure of Oxacillin-susceptible isolate to sub -lethal doses of γ-radiation.Results indicated that Staphylococcus aureus isolates which were sensitive to oxacillin discs were found by PCR to harbor the mecA gene in their genomes. Also, exposure of a sensitive isolate to sublethal doses of gamma radiation led to the emergence of a oxacillin-resistant variant which could be a serious problem in case of using sub-lethal doses of radiation for the sterilization of medical products

  20. Nigribactin, a Novel Siderophore from Vibrio nigripulchritudo, Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anita; Månsson, Maria; Wietz, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen that employs a number of virulence factors as part of its pathogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to explore marine bacteria as a source of compounds that modulate virulence gene expression in S. aureus. During the global marine Galathea...... 3 expedition, a strain collection was established comprising bacteria that express antimicrobial activity against Vibrio anguillarum and/or Staphylococcus aureus. Within this collection we searched colony material, culture supernatants, and cell extracts for virulence modulating activity showing......, enterobactin, failed to influence S. aureus virulence gene expression. This study shows that marine microorganisms produce compounds with potential use in therapeutic strategies targeting virulence rather than viability of human pathogens....

  1. Antibody-Based Agents in the Management of Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speziale, Pietro; Rindi, Simonetta

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen that can cause a wide spectrum of diseases, including sepsis, pneumonia, arthritis, and endocarditis. Ineffective treatment of a number of staphylococcal infections with antibiotics is due to the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant strains following decades of antibiotic usage. This has generated renewed interest within the scientific community in alternative therapeutic agents, such as anti-S. aureus antibodies. Although the role of antibodies in the management of S. aureus diseases is controversial, the success of this pathogen in neutralizing humoral immunity clearly indicates that antibodies offer the host extensive protection. In this review, we report an update on efforts to develop antibody-based agents, particularly monoclonal antibodies, and their therapeutic potential in the passive immunization approach to the treatment and prevention of S. aureus infections. PMID:29533985

  2. A Case of Childhood Lichen Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Byung Yoon; Park, Kyung Chan; Youn, Sang Woong

    2009-01-01

    Lichen aureus is a rare type of chronic pigmented purpuric dermatosis. The eruptions consist of discrete or confluent golden to brownish lichenoid macules and papules, and are usually asymptomatic. Lichen aureus commonly occurs in young adults, but less frequently in children. We report the first case of multiple lichen aureus occurring in a Korean child.

  3. Factors Associated with Worse Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Persistent Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Junge

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF. However, it is not clear which factors are associated with worse lung function in patients with persistent S. aureus airway cultures. Our main hypothesis was that patients with high S. aureus density in their respiratory specimens would more likely experience worsening of their lung disease than patients with low bacterial loads.Therefore, we conducted an observational prospective longitudinal multi-center study and assessed the association between lung function and S. aureus bacterial density in respiratory samples, co-infection with other CF-pathogens, nasal S. aureus carriage, clinical status, antibiotic therapy, IL-6- and IgG-levels against S. aureus virulence factors.195 patients from 17 centers were followed; each patient had an average of 7 visits. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and generalized linear mixed models. Our main hypothesis was only supported for patients providing throat specimens indicating that patients with higher density experienced a steeper lung function decline (p<0.001. Patients with exacerbations (n = 60, S. aureus small-colony variants (SCVs, n = 84 and co-infection with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 44 had worse lung function (p = 0.0068; p = 0.0011; p = 0.0103. Patients with SCVs were older (p = 0.0066 and more often treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (p = 0.0078. IL-6 levels positively correlated with decreased lung function (p<0.001, S. aureus density in sputa (p = 0.0016, SCVs (p = 0.0209, exacerbations (p = 0.0041 and co-infections with S. maltophilia (p = 0.0195 or A. fumigatus (p = 0.0496.In CF-patients with chronic S. aureus cultures, independent risk factors for worse lung function are high bacterial density in throat cultures, exacerbations, elevated IL-6 levels, presence of S. aureus SCVs and co-infection with S. maltophilia.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00669760.

  4. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  5. Anti-infective properties of Lactobacillus fermentum against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Parvathi; Nisha, N; Dinesh, Kavitha R; Kumar, Anil V; Biswas, Raja

    2011-01-01

    Surgical wounds and implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are often difficult to treat because of limited susceptibility of several of these strains to conventional antibiotics. As a result, there is a constant need for new alternative drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, a probiotic bacterium, which we have isolated from colonic biopsies. The inhibition of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa growth was evaluated by coincubating with L. fermentum strains. Growth inhibition was tested for several of their clinical isolates using agar well diffusion assays. For biofilm assay S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were grown on the glass slides and in 96-well plates in presence of 2.5 μg/ml culture filtrate of L. fermentum. Biofilms were photographed using confocal microscope or stained with 0.1% crystal violet. Reduction in the cytotoxicity of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa was observed in presence of 2.5 μg/ml L. fermentum-spent media. Using in vitroexperiments, we showed that L. fermentum-secreted compound(s) inhibits the growth, cytotoxicity and biofilm formation of several S. aureus and P. aeruginosa strains. Compound(s) present in the culture supernatant of L. fermentum may have promising applications in treating hospital-acquired infections. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE GROWTH DYNAMICS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN MODEL MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Studeničová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As the strains of S. aureus growing during fermentation of raw milk cheeses are exposed to the competitive growth of lactic acid bacteria and their metabolites, in this work, we characterized the growth of the strain S. aureus 2064 isolated from such environment against of water activity values and incubation temperature. Water activity of the tested media was adjusted by NaCl in the range from 0 % to 20.72 % and the experiments were carried out at 37 °C. It was found that the strain under study showed growth until NaCl concentration of 19.95 % in PCA broth. The complete growth cessation of S. aureus 2064 was observed at NaCl concentration higher than 20.72 %. The effect of water activity on the S. aureus 2064 lag-phase duration was described by the modified Davey model with discrepancy of 24.6 %. The growth rate dependence on water activity was described more precisely and reliably by Gibson model that provided the following validation indices: bias factor 0.999 and discrepancy factor 9.6 %. Based on the results we can conclude that secondary models used in this work were suitable to predict growth of S. aureus 2064, originally the ewes´cheese isolate.doi:10.5219/179

  7. Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the oral cavity of patients with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellappally, Sajith; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Alqahtani, Amer; Dalati, M H N; Anil, Sukumaran; Khan, Aftab Ahmed; Harikrishna Varma, P R

    2017-09-01

    Oral streptococci are the major group of microbes isolated from oral microflora. They represent frequent pathogens of infective endocarditis (IE), and it is assumed that in most of the cases oral streptococci are acquired via mucosa layer of oral cavity. Staphylococcus aureus is also frequently isolated from IE as it accounts for 20%-30% of all cases. Vancomycin has been the most reliable therapeutic agent against infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The main objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of S. aureus species in dental caries specimens. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of S. aureus to four antibiotics namely vancomycin, linezolid, teicoplanin, and daptomycin was performed. Detection of vancomycin resistance was conducted using polymerase chain reaction. Among the tested 150 strains, 98 were MRSA and of that 54 were vancomycin sensitive and 27 were resistant. All 98 MRSA strains were positive for mecA and 36 yielded pvl, whereas 13 carried vanA and only 2 were positive for vanB. Majority of the isolates showed sensitivity toward daptomycin and linezolid. Strains of S. aureus exhibiting decreased susceptibility to different antibiotics like vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid severely compromise the therapeutic alternatives and require a considerable amount of time, public awareness, and integrative health-care strategies to prevent the emergence of resistance to these compounds.

  8. Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated Smoked Fish Pinekuhe from Traditionally Processed from Sangihe District

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    Ely John Karimela

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinekuhe  is the local name for smoked scad fish (Decapterus sp., a traditionally processed fish product from Sangihe Islands whose taste, aroma and form are typical and unique. In this research aims of physiological and biochemical characteristics with pathogenicity isolated S. aureus which the isolated from the product smoked scad fish (Decapterus rusellii Pinekuhe it was produce and prepared by the local fisherman in Sangihe Island Regency. The isolated that have gathered from this researched was 111 product isolate from the smoke fish Pinekuhe which grown from media MSA. Its had isolated already through thetest of physiological comprise, Gram staining and from the test of biochemical e.g., from the test Catalase, Voges-Proskauer, and Fermentation carbohydrate tests (Glucose and Manitol. The characteristics of pathogenicity S. aureus had been done and used by making of Coagulase, Nuklease Thermostabil productionand deoksiribonuklease (DNase. The result of this research showing that had still 111 isolating strains that still ingroup which consists of 108 isolated Staphylococcus and from 108 strains to 68 strains that had been test in identifying, as of Staphylococcus aureus with characteristics of Gram positif coccus, catalase positif,Voges-Proskauer positif, and to Fermentation Glucose and Manitol. The 68 isolate S. aureus that characterize from Phatogen principles product Coagulase test, Nuklease Thermostabil and deoksiribonuklease (DNase. S. aureus is dominant (62% contaminate smoked fish Pinekuhe processed traditional of Sangihe island.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus growth and enterotoxin production in different types of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdana Janštová, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess Staphylococcus aureus growth and the time of first detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins type A, B and C (SEA, SEB, SEC in different type of milk, depending on the strain and storage conditions. Raw, pasteurized, and UHT milk were inoculated with three strains of S. aureus, and growth patterns were determined by the plate method in accordance with EN ISO 6888-1. Baird-Parker agar medium was used for the detection of S. aureus and the Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA used with a miniVIDAS analyzer tested the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins. The results of model experiments showed the dependence of the growth rate and subsequent production of staphylococcal enterotoxins on incubation (storage temperature, S. aureus strain, and type of milk. A significant finding was that the growth of S. aureus and production of enterotoxins in raw milk was inhibited by natural microflora, and production of enterotoxins was therefore not detected in raw milk within 102 hours of storage either at 15 °C or 22 °C. The highest risk of SEs production is associated with secondary contamination of pasteurized and UHT milk when stored at room temperature, where production was first detected after 12 hours of incubation.

  10. Biofilm Formation of Staphylococcus aureus on Various Surfaces and Their Resistance to Chlorine Sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Su; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Sook-Young; Lee, Sun-Young

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of material types (polystyrene, polypropylene, glass, and stainless steel) and glucose addition on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation, and the relationship between biofilm formation measured by crystal violet (CV) staining and the number of biofilm cells determined by cell counts was studied. We also evaluated the efficacy of chlorine sanitizer on inhibiting various different types of S. aureus biofilms on the surface of stainless steel. Levels of biofilm formation of S. aureus were higher on hydrophilic surfaces (glass and stainless steel) than on hydrophobic surfaces (polypropylene and polystyrene). With the exception of biofilm formed on glass, the addition of glucose in broth significantly increased the biofilm formation of S. aureus on all surfaces and for all tested strains (P ≤ 0.05). The number of biofilm cells was not correlated with the biomass of the biofilms determined using the CV staining method. The efficacy of chlorine sanitizer against biofilm of S. aureus was not significantly different depending on types of biofilm (P > 0.05). Therefore, further studies are needed in order to determine an accurate method quantifying levels of bacterial biofilm and to evaluate the resistance of bacterial biofilm on the material surface. Biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus on the surface was different depending on the surface characteristics and S. aureus strains. There was low correlation between crystal violet staining method and viable counts technique for measuring levels of biofilm formation of S. aureus on the surfaces. These results could provide helpful information for finding and understanding the quantification method and resistance of bacterial biofilm on the surface. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in European Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Hotzel, Helmut; Peters, Martin; Guenther, Sebastian; Lazaris, Alexandros; Loncaric, Igor; Müller, Elke; Reissig, Annett; Ruppelt-Lorz, Antje; Shore, Anna C.; Walter, Birgit; Coleman, David C.; Ehricht, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known colonizer and cause of infection among animals and it has been described from numerous domestic and wild animal species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in a convenience sample of European wildlife and to review what previously has been observed in the subject field. 124 S. aureus isolates were collected from wildlife in Germany, Austria and Sweden; they were characterized by DNA microarray hybridization and, for isolates with novel hybridization patterns, by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates were assigned to 29 clonal complexes and singleton sequence types (CC1, CC5, CC6, CC7, CC8, CC9, CC12, CC15, CC22, CC25, CC30, CC49, CC59, CC88, CC97, CC130, CC133, CC398, ST425, CC599, CC692, CC707, ST890, CC1956, ST2425, CC2671, ST2691, CC2767 and ST2963), some of which (ST2425, ST2691, ST2963) were not described previously. Resistance rates in wildlife strains were rather low and mecA-MRSA isolates were rare (n = 6). mecC-MRSA (n = 8) were identified from a fox, a fallow deer, hares and hedgehogs. The common cattle-associated lineages CC479 and CC705 were not detected in wildlife in the present study while, in contrast, a third common cattle lineage, CC97, was found to be common among cervids. No Staphylococcus argenteus or Staphylococcus schweitzeri-like isolates were found. Systematic studies are required to monitor the possible transmission of human- and livestock-associated S. aureus/MRSA to wildlife and vice versa as well as the possible transmission, by unprotected contact to animals. The prevalence of S. aureus/MRSA in wildlife as well as its population structures in different wildlife host species warrants further investigation. PMID:27992523

  12. FOOD MICROORGANISMS INFLUENCING THE GROWTH OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRAVES, R R; FRAZIER, W C

    1963-11-01

    Some 870 cultures of predominating micro-organisms were isolated from market samples of hamburger, fresh pork sausage, fresh fish fillets, stewing beef, frozen chicken pot pie, frozen corn, frozen peas, and pasteurized and raw milk, before and after storage at different temperatures. The isolates were screened for their ability to influence the growth of Staphylococcus aureus strain 196E by means of spot-plate tests on APT and nutrient agars at 25 C. The 438 cultures that influenced the growth of S. aureus were retested on spot plates at 15, 30, and 42 C. After elimination of replicates, the 143 remaining cultures were classified into species, genera, or groups, and 14 different cultures were tested for their influence on the growth of S. aureus in APT broth at 25 C. Over half of the effective cultures inhibited S. aureus and less than half were stimulatory. Pork sausage had the highest proportion of inhibitory cultures, and stewing beef had the lowest. APT agar was better than nutrient agar for screening, and incubation at 15 C gave more effector organisms than at 30 and 42 C. Most of the lactic acid bacteria were inhibitory, but other groups of bacteria contained more stimulatory cultures than inhibitory ones. The three Escherichia coli cultures were stimulatory, but most other Escherichia cultures were inhibitory. Aerobacter and Paracolobactrum isolates were mostly stimulatory. Cultures of other kinds of bacteria were more or less evenly distributed between inhibitory ones and stimulatory ones. Genera containing mostly inhibitory bacteria were Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, and Lactobacillus. Inhibitory species were E. freundii and E. intermedia. Tests with S. aureus in broth indicated that all cultures inhibitory according to spot plates were inhibitory in broth, but stimulation on spot plates did not always indicate the same phenomenon in broth.

  13. Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in European Wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Monecke

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known colonizer and cause of infection among animals and it has been described from numerous domestic and wild animal species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in a convenience sample of European wildlife and to review what previously has been observed in the subject field. 124 S. aureus isolates were collected from wildlife in Germany, Austria and Sweden; they were characterized by DNA microarray hybridization and, for isolates with novel hybridization patterns, by multilocus sequence typing (MLST. The isolates were assigned to 29 clonal complexes and singleton sequence types (CC1, CC5, CC6, CC7, CC8, CC9, CC12, CC15, CC22, CC25, CC30, CC49, CC59, CC88, CC97, CC130, CC133, CC398, ST425, CC599, CC692, CC707, ST890, CC1956, ST2425, CC2671, ST2691, CC2767 and ST2963, some of which (ST2425, ST2691, ST2963 were not described previously. Resistance rates in wildlife strains were rather low and mecA-MRSA isolates were rare (n = 6. mecC-MRSA (n = 8 were identified from a fox, a fallow deer, hares and hedgehogs. The common cattle-associated lineages CC479 and CC705 were not detected in wildlife in the present study while, in contrast, a third common cattle lineage, CC97, was found to be common among cervids. No Staphylococcus argenteus or Staphylococcus schweitzeri-like isolates were found. Systematic studies are required to monitor the possible transmission of human- and livestock-associated S. aureus/MRSA to wildlife and vice versa as well as the possible transmission, by unprotected contact to animals. The prevalence of S. aureus/MRSA in wildlife as well as its population structures in different wildlife host species warrants further investigation.

  14. Laboratory Mice Are Frequently Colonized with Staphylococcus aureus and Mount a Systemic Immune Response—Note of Caution for In vivo Infection Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniel; Grumann, Dorothee; Trübe, Patricia; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen; Johnson, Sarah; Reppschläger, Kevin; Gumz, Janine; Sundaramoorthy, Nandakumar; Michalik, Stephan; Berg, Sabine; van den Brandt, Jens; Fister, Richard; Monecke, Stefan; Uy, Benedict; Schmidt, Frank; Bröker, Barbara M.; Wiles, Siouxsie; Holtfreter, Silva

    2017-01-01

    Whether mice are an appropriate model for S. aureus infection and vaccination studies is a matter of debate, because they are not considered as natural hosts of S. aureus. We previously identified a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain, which caused infections in laboratory mice. This raised the question whether laboratory mice are commonly colonized with S. aureus and whether this might impact on infection experiments. Publicly available health reports from commercial vendors revealed that S. aureus colonization is rather frequent, with rates as high as 21% among specific-pathogen-free mice. In animal facilities, S. aureus was readily transmitted from parents to offspring, which became persistently colonized. Among 99 murine S. aureus isolates from Charles River Laboratories half belonged to the lineage CC88 (54.5%), followed by CC15, CC5, CC188, and CC8. A comparison of human and murine S. aureus isolates revealed features of host adaptation. In detail, murine strains lacked hlb-converting phages and superantigen-encoding mobile genetic elements, and were frequently ampicillin-sensitive. Moreover, murine CC88 isolates coagulated mouse plasma faster than human CC88 isolates. Importantly, S. aureus colonization clearly primed the murine immune system, inducing a systemic IgG response specific for numerous S. aureus proteins, including several vaccine candidates. Phospholipase C emerged as a promising test antigen for monitoring S. aureus colonization in laboratory mice. In conclusion, laboratory mice are natural hosts of S. aureus and therefore, could provide better infection models than previously assumed. Pre-exposure to the bacteria is a possible confounder in S. aureus infection and vaccination studies and should be monitored. PMID:28512627

  15. Laboratory Mice Are Frequently Colonized with Staphylococcus aureus and Mount a Systemic Immune Response—Note of Caution for In vivo Infection Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Holtfreter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether mice are an appropriate model for S. aureus infection and vaccination studies is a matter of debate, because they are not considered as natural hosts of S. aureus. We previously identified a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain, which caused infections in laboratory mice. This raised the question whether laboratory mice are commonly colonized with S. aureus and whether this might impact on infection experiments. Publicly available health reports from commercial vendors revealed that S. aureus colonization is rather frequent, with rates as high as 21% among specific-pathogen-free mice. In animal facilities, S. aureus was readily transmitted from parents to offspring, which became persistently colonized. Among 99 murine S. aureus isolates from Charles River Laboratories half belonged to the lineage CC88 (54.5%, followed by CC15, CC5, CC188, and CC8. A comparison of human and murine S. aureus isolates revealed features of host adaptation. In detail, murine strains lacked hlb-converting phages and superantigen-encoding mobile genetic elements, and were frequently ampicillin-sensitive. Moreover, murine CC88 isolates coagulated mouse plasma faster than human CC88 isolates. Importantly, S. aureus colonization clearly primed the murine immune system, inducing a systemic IgG response specific for numerous S. aureus proteins, including several vaccine candidates. Phospholipase C emerged as a promising test antigen for monitoring S. aureus colonization in laboratory mice. In conclusion, laboratory mice are natural hosts of S. aureus and therefore, could provide better infection models than previously assumed. Pre-exposure to the bacteria is a possible confounder in S. aureus infection and vaccination studies and should be monitored.

  16. ESCHERICHIA COLI AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The bio-effects of the ethanol extracts from the leaf and stem of Momordica charantia were studied with the view to ascertain the medical usefulness ascribed to the plant by the locals. The plant parts, stem and leaf, revealed remarkable activity against Escherichia coli and Staphlococcus aureus. The leaves ...

  17. Identifying conditions for elimination and epidemic potential of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nursing homes

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    Nataliya G. Batina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residents of nursing homes are commonly colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA but there is a limited understanding of the dynamics and determinants of spread in this setting. To address this gap, we sought to use mathematical modeling to assess the epidemic potential of MRSA in nursing homes and to determine conditions under which non-USA300 and USA300 MRSA could be eliminated or reduced in the facilities. Methods Model parameters were estimated from data generated during a longitudinal study of MRSA in 6 Wisconsin nursing homes. The data included subject colonization status with strain-specific MRSA collected every 3 months for up to 1 year. Deterministic and stochastic co-colonization and single-strain models were developed to describe strain-specific dynamics of MRSA in these facilities. Basic reproduction numbers of strain-independent MRSA, non-USA300 and USA300 MRSA were estimated numerically. The impact of antibiotic use in the past 3 months on the prevalence of strain-specific MRSA and associated basic reproduction numbers were evaluated. Results Our models predicted that MRSA would persist in Wisconsin nursing homes, and non-USA300 would remain the dominant circulating strain. MRSA eradication was theoretically achievable by elimination of MRSA-positive admissions over the course of years. Substantial reductions in MRSA prevalence could be attained through marked increase in clearance rates or reduction in MRSA-positive admissions sustained over years. The basic reproduction number of strain-independent MRSA was 0.18 (95 % CI = 0.13–0.23. Recent antibiotic use increased the prevalence of strain-specific MRSA and associated basic reproduction numbers, but was unlikely to lead to an outbreak. Conclusions Based on our model, MRSA elimination from nursing homes, while theoretically possible, was unlikely to be achieved in practice. Decolonization therapy that can sustain higher

  18. Role of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, Hanna; Smoragiewicz, Wanda

    2013-12-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multidrug-resistant micro-organism and is the principal nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Following initial in vitro experiments demonstrating that Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285(®) and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R(®) commercial strains exhibit antibacterial activity against clinical MRSA isolates, we conducted a literature search to find any evidence of probiotic efficacy in decolonisation or treatment of S. aureus infection. As summarised below, many strains of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria isolated from a variety of sources inhibited the growth of S. aureus and clinical isolates of MRSA in vitro. The most active strains were Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Propionibacterium acnes, Lactobacillus paracasei, L. acidophilus, L. casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactococcus lactis. Their effects were mediated both by direct cell competitive exclusion as well as production of acids or bacteriocin-like inhibitors. L. acidophilus also inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation and lipase production. In vitro antimicrobial activity did not necessarily assure efficacy in vivo in animal infectious models, e.g. S. aureus 8325-4 was most sensitive in vitro to L. acidophilus, whilst in vivo Bifidobacterium bifidum best inhibited experimental intravaginal staphylococcosis in mice. On the other hand, L. plantarum, which showed the highest inhibition activity against S. aureus in vitro, was also very effective topically in preventing skin wound infection with S. aureus in mice. Very few clinical data were found on the interactions between probiotics and MRSA, but the few identified clinical cases pointed to the feasibility of elimination or reduction of MRSA colonisation with probiotic use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  19. [Influence of Mueller-Hinton broth on the in vitro activities of cefuzoname, flomoxef, imipenem, and minocycline against Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, S; Tonohata, A

    1990-05-01

    The influence of Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth (from BBL Microbiology Systems, and Difco Laboratories) of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of cefuzoname (CZON), flomoxef (FMOX), imipenem (IPM), and minocycline (MINO) for 100 strains of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. Antibacterial activity of MINO was stronger than any other antibiotics. MICs of CZON for 16 strains (14 of 50 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 2 of 50 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus) were greater than or equal to 4-fold greater when tested in BBL MH broth than when tested in Difco MH broth, thus, different media altered categories of some strains (8 of 50 MRSA) from susceptible to resistant. MICs of FMOX in the BBL MH broth for 12 of 50 MRSA strains rose greater than or equal to 4-fold compared to the Difco MH broth. On the other hand, MICs of IPM and MINO were affected very little by the different brand of MH broth used.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of some sulfonamide derivatives on clinical isolates of Staphylococus aureus

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    Bekdemir Yunus

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is a non-motile, gram positive, non-sporforming, facultative anaerobic microorganism. It is one of the important bacteria as a potential pathogen specifically for nosocomial infections. The sulfonamide derivative medicines are preferred to cure infection caused by S. aureus due to methicillin resistance. Methods Antimicrobial activity of four sulfonamide derivatives have been investigated against 50 clinical isolates of S. aureus and tested by using MIC and disc diffusion methods. 50 clinical isolate which collected from specimens of patients who are given medical treatment in Ondokuz Mayis University Medical School Hospital. A control strain of S. aureus ATCC 29213 was also tested. Results The strongest inhibition was observed in the cases of I [N-(2-hydroxy-4-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid], and II [N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid] against S. aureus. Compound I [N-(2-hydroxy-4-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid] showed higher effect on 21 S. aureus MRSAisolates than oxacillin antibiotic. Introducing an electron withdrawing on the ring increased the antimicrobial activity remarkably. Conclusion This study may help to suggest an alternative possible leading compound for development of new antimicrobial agents against MRSA and MSSA resistant S. aureus. It was also shown here that that clinical isolates of 50 S. aureus have various resistance patterns against to four sulfonamide derivatives. It may also be emphasized here that in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing results for S. aureus need standardization with further studies and it should also have a correlation with in vivo therapeutic response experiments.

  1. NaOCl effect on biofilm produced by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the milking environment and mastitis infected cows

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    Poliana de Castro Melo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms constitute a physical barrier, protecting the encased bacteria from detergents and sanitizers. The objective of this work was to analyze the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl against strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw milk of cows with subclinical mastitis and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the milking environment (blowers and milk conducting tubes. The results revealed that, in the presence of NaOCl (150ppm, the number of adhered cells of the twelve S. aureus strains was significantly reduced. When the same strains were evaluated in biofilm condition, different results were obtained. It was found that, after a contact period of five minutes with NaOCl (150ppm, four strains (two strains from milk , one from the blowers and one from a conductive rubber were still able to grow. Although with the increasing contact time between the bacteria and the NaOCl (150ppm, no growth was detected for any of the strains. Concerning the efficiency of NaOCl on total biofilm biomass formation by each S. aureus strain, a decrease was observed when these strains were in contact with 150 ppm NaOCl for a total period of 10 minutes. This study highlights the importance of a correct sanitation protocol of all the milk processing units which can indeed significantly reduce the presence of microorganisms, leading to a decrease of cow´s mastitis and milk contamination.

  2. Induced resistance to the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, Orjan; Haukland, Hanne H; Jenssen, Håvard; Krämer, Manuela; Sandvik, Kjersti; Ulvatne, Hilde; Vorland, Lars H

    2005-06-20

    This study was designed to investigate inducible intrinsic resistance against lactoferricin B in Staphylococcus aureus. Serial passage of seven S. aureus strains in medium with increasing concentrations of peptide resulted in an induced resistance at various levels in all strains. The induced resistance was unstable and decreased relatively rapidly during passages in peptide free medium but the minimum inhibitory concentration remained elevated after thirty passages. Cross-resistance to penicillin G and low-level cross-resistance to the antimicrobial peptides indolicidin and Ala(8,13,18)-magainin-II amide [corrected] was observed. No cross-resistance was observed to the human cathelicidin LL-37. In conclusion, this study shows that S. aureus has intrinsic resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial peptides that can be induced upon exposure, and that this may confer low-level cross-resistance to other antimicrobial peptides.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors identified by using a high-throughput Caenorhabditis elegans-killing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begun, Jakob; Sifri, Costi D; Goldman, Samuel; Calderwood, Stephen B; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2005-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that is also able to kill the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We constructed a 2,950-member Tn917 transposon insertion library in S. aureus strain NCTC 8325. Twenty-one of these insertions exhibited attenuated C. elegans killing, and of these, 12 contained insertions in different genes or chromosomal locations. Ten of these 12 insertions showed attenuated killing phenotypes when transduced into two different S. aureus strains, and 5 of the 10 mutants correspond to genes that have not been previously identified in signature-tagged mutagenesis studies. These latter five mutants were tested in a murine renal abscess model, and one mutant harboring an insertion in nagD exhibited attenuated virulence. Interestingly, Tn917 was shown to have a very strong bias for insertions near the terminus of DNA replication.

  4. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus among coagulase positive staphylococci from animal origin based on conventional and molecular methods

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    Nikolina Velizarova Rusenova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to detect Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus among other coagulase positive staphylococci from animal origin by using conventional methods (biochemical tests and latex agglutination and a molecular method, based on the nuc gene, as the gold standard and to assess the usefulness of these methods. For this purpose, total of 344 staphylococcal isolates were collected and analysed. A total of 156 isolates suspicious for S. aureus were detected by a conventional biochemical method – 88 from cows, 18 from goats, 7 from pigs, 17 from poultry, 7 from rabbits and 19 from dogs. The majority of S. aureus strains gave typical biochemical reactions with the exception of 30 (19.2% and 25 (16% that were VP negative and weak positive in fermenting mannitol, respectively. Twelve strains were found to be non-haemolytic (7.7% and four strains did not ferment trehalose (2.6%. Other staphylococci were identified as S. pseudintermedius (n = 103, S. hyicus (n = 23 and the rest were coagulase-negative staphylococci. Latex agglutination test resulted in rapid positive reactions with S. aureus with exception of 5 strains (3.2% from cow mastitis milk. Positive agglutination reactions were also established with S. pseudintermedius, and S. hyicus. PCR confirmed all strains that were preliminary identified as S. aureus by amplification of 270 bp fragment of nuc gene specific for this species. The atypical reactions in certain strains established in this study have shown that the precise detection of S. aureus from animal origin should be done by combination of conventional and molecular methods.

  5. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk produced in dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil

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    Helena Fagundes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in milk produced in 37 farms located in the regions of Ribeirão Preto and São Carlos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Two-hundred and eight samples of milk from individual cows showing subclinical mastitis, and 37 samples of bulk tank milk were analyzed. S. aureus strains were detected in 18 (7.3% milk samples: 14 (6.7% from samples of individual cows, and 4 (10.8% from bulk tank milk. Two individual milk samples (14.3% and two bulk milk samples contained enterotoxigenic S. aureus. PFGE analysis revealed the genetic heterogeneity of the strains isolated from raw milk, which presented to 13 S. aureus patterns. Results confirmed the potential transmission of staphylococcal food poisoning to consumers via milk of cows affected by subclinical mastitis, mainly when raw milk is ingested.

  6. Prevalence and Characterization of Oxacillin Susceptible mecA-Positive Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Bovine Mastitis in India.

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    Hiral Mistry

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis caused by multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a huge problem reported worldwide, resulting in prolonged antibiotic treatment and death of livestock. The current study is focused on surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility along with genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the pathogenic S. aureus strains causing mastitis in India. One hundred and sixty seven milk samples were collected from mastitis-affected cows from different farms in India resulting in thirty nine isolated S. aureus strains. Antibiotic sensitivity profiling revealed the majority of the strains (n = 24 to be multidrug resistant and eleven strains showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (MICs = 2μg/ml. All strains were oxacillin sensitive, but 19 strains were positive for the mecA gene, which revealed the occurrence of oxacillin susceptible mecA positive strains (OS-MRSA for the first time from India. Additionally, 32 strains were positive for the pvl gene, a virulence determinant; of these 17 were also OS-MRSA strains. Molecular characterization based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST, spa typing, agr typing and SCCmec classification revealed strains belonging to different groups. Moreover, strains showed spa types (t2526, t9602 and MLST sequence types, ST-72, ST-88 and ST-239 which have been earlier reported in human infections. The prevalence of OS-MRSA strains indicates the importance of including both the genetic and phenotypic tests in characterizing S. aureus strains. Increased genotypic variability with strain related to human infections and pvl positive isolates indicates a worrisome situation with the possibility of bilateral transfer.

  7. Prevalence and Characterization of Oxacillin Susceptible mecA-Positive Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Bovine Mastitis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiral; Sharma, Paresh; Mahato, Sudipta; Saravanan, R; Kumar, P Anand; Bhandari, Vasundhra

    2016-01-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a huge problem reported worldwide, resulting in prolonged antibiotic treatment and death of livestock. The current study is focused on surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility along with genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the pathogenic S. aureus strains causing mastitis in India. One hundred and sixty seven milk samples were collected from mastitis-affected cows from different farms in India resulting in thirty nine isolated S. aureus strains. Antibiotic sensitivity profiling revealed the majority of the strains (n = 24) to be multidrug resistant and eleven strains showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (MICs = 2μg/ml). All strains were oxacillin sensitive, but 19 strains were positive for the mecA gene, which revealed the occurrence of oxacillin susceptible mecA positive strains (OS-MRSA) for the first time from India. Additionally, 32 strains were positive for the pvl gene, a virulence determinant; of these 17 were also OS-MRSA strains. Molecular characterization based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, agr typing and SCCmec classification revealed strains belonging to different groups. Moreover, strains showed spa types (t2526, t9602) and MLST sequence types, ST-72, ST-88 and ST-239 which have been earlier reported in human infections. The prevalence of OS-MRSA strains indicates the importance of including both the genetic and phenotypic tests in characterizing S. aureus strains. Increased genotypic variability with strain related to human infections and pvl positive isolates indicates a worrisome situation with the possibility of bilateral transfer.

  8. Prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in food industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, G; Dambrosio, A; Ioanna, F; Balbino, S; Barbuti, G; De Giglio, O; Diella, G; Lovero, G; Rutigliano, S; Scarafile, G; Baldassarre, A; Vimercati, L; Musti, M; Montagna, M T

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen spread not only in the hospital environment but also in the community and amongst livestock (LA-MRSA). LA-MRSA can be transmitted to humans that live in close contact with MRSA-colonized animals, and human colonization and/or infection has been reported worldwide, particularly among those involved with livestock farming. In this study the authors evaluated the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA among healthy carriers who worked in the food industry in Apulia, Southern Italy. Nasal swabs were taken from pasta and pork industry workers. All swab samples were subjected to tests for the isolation, identification and typing of S. aureus and MRSA strains. The identification of the strains was confirmed by molecular assessment using multiplex-PCR for the amplification of the nuc and mecA genes. The strains identified as MRSA were then subjected to a PCR protocol for the characterization of sequence type ST398. In total 26.3% of examined nasal swabs were positive for S. aureus, 8.2% of them were methicillin resistant strains and 28.5% of MRSA isolates were characterized as ST398. The MRSA prevalence among pork factory workers was 3% , whereas among the pasta operators the prevalence was 11.5. The presence of S. aureus and MRSA among food workers represents a public health risk. Further, considering the dissemination of S. aureus and MRSA among non-nosocomial environments, including communities and livestock, careful surveillance and continuous monitoring of the emergence of MRSA is fundamental for safeguarding public health.

  9. Clonal profile, virulence and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sheep milk

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    Katheryne Benini Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the clonal profile, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance, particularly oxacillin resistance, of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sheep milk. Milk samples were collected from all teats for the California Mastitis Test (CMT, somatic cell count, identification of S. aureus, investigation in these strains of genes encoding toxins (sea, seb, sec, sed, tst, biofilm (icaA, icaC, icaD, bap, leukocidin (luk-PV oxacillin resistance by mecA gene detection and susceptibility testing (12 antibiotics. Messenger RNA expression was evaluated by RT-PCR in isolates carrying toxin and biofilm genes. Biofilm formation was also evaluated phenotypically by adherence to polystyrene plates. The clonal profile of S. aureus was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 473 milk samples were collected from 242 animals on three farms and 20 S. aureus strains were isolated and none carried the mecA gene. The two sec gene-positive isolates and the isolates carrying the tst and luk-PV genes were positive by RT-PCR. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the three flocks studied showed high susceptibility to the drugs tested and none was biofilm producer, indicating that biofilm formation was not a virulence factor causing infection by these strains. The typing of 17 S. aureus isolates revealed the presence of a common clone on the three farms studied, and the presence and expression of the sec and tst genes in one strain of this clone suggest the possible acquisition of virulence genes by this clone, a fact that is important for animal health and food hygiene.

  10. Clonal profile, virulence and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sheep milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Katheryne Benini; Faccioli-Martins, Patricia Yoshida; Riboli, Danilo Flávio Moraes; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; Fernandes, Simone; Oliveira, Aline A; Dantas, Ariane; Zafalon, Luiz Francisco; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the clonal profile, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance, particularly oxacillin resistance, of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sheep milk. Milk samples were collected from all teats for the California Mastitis Test (CMT), somatic cell count, identification of S. aureus, investigation in these strains of genes encoding toxins (sea, seb, sec, sed, tst), biofilm (icaA, icaC, icaD, bap), leukocidin (luk-PV) oxacillin resistance by mecA gene detection and susceptibility testing (12 antibiotics). Messenger RNA expression was evaluated by RT-PCR in isolates carrying toxin and biofilm genes. Biofilm formation was also evaluated phenotypically by adherence to polystyrene plates. The clonal profile of S. aureus was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 473 milk samples were collected from 242 animals on three farms and 20 S. aureus strains were isolated and none carried the mecA gene. The two sec gene-positive isolates and the isolates carrying the tst and luk-PV genes were positive by RT-PCR. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the three flocks studied showed high susceptibility to the drugs tested and none was biofilm producer, indicating that biofilm formation was not a virulence factor causing infection by these strains. The typing of 17 S. aureus isolates revealed the presence of a common clone on the three farms studied, and the presence and expression of the sec and tst genes in one strain of this clone suggest the possible acquisition of virulence genes by this clone, a fact that is important for animal health and food hygiene.

  11. Clonal profile, virulence and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sheep milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Katheryne Benini; Faccioli-Martins, Patricia Yoshida; Riboli, Danilo Flávio Moraes; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; Fernandes, Simone; Oliveira, Aline A.; Dantas, Ariane; Zafalon, Luiz Francisco; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the clonal profile, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance, particularly oxacillin resistance, of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sheep milk. Milk samples were collected from all teats for the California Mastitis Test (CMT), somatic cell count, identification of S. aureus, investigation in these strains of genes encoding toxins (sea, seb, sec, sed, tst), biofilm (icaA, icaC, icaD, bap), leukocidin (luk-PV) oxacillin resistance by mecA gene detection and susceptibility testing (12 antibiotics). Messenger RNA expression was evaluated by RT-PCR in isolates carrying toxin and biofilm genes. Biofilm formation was also evaluated phenotypically by adherence to polystyrene plates. The clonal profile of S. aureus was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 473 milk samples were collected from 242 animals on three farms and 20 S. aureus strains were isolated and none carried the mecA gene. The two sec gene-positive isolates and the isolates carrying the tst and luk-PV genes were positive by RT-PCR. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the three flocks studied showed high susceptibility to the drugs tested and none was biofilm producer, indicating that biofilm formation was not a virulence factor causing infection by these strains. The typing of 17 S. aureus isolates revealed the presence of a common clone on the three farms studied, and the presence and expression of the sec and tst genes in one strain of this clone suggest the possible acquisition of virulence genes by this clone, a fact that is important for animal health and food hygiene. PMID:26273271

  12. Preclinical Efficacy of Clumping Factor A in Prevention of Staphylococcus aureus Infection

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    Xue Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections has become increasingly difficult because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates. Development of a vaccine to prevent staphylococcal infections remains a priority. To determine whether clumping factor A (ClfA is a good target protein for inclusion in a multivalent vaccine, we evaluated its efficacy in a variety of relevant staphylococcal infection models, challenging with different S. aureus strains. ClfA adsorbed to Alhydrogel and mixed with Sigma Adjuvant System was more immunogenic and stimulated a more robust Th17 response than ClfA administered with alum alone. ClfA immunization induced the production of functional antibodies in rabbits and mice that blocked S. aureus binding to fibrinogen and were opsonic for S. aureus strains that produced little or no capsular polysaccharide. Mice immunized with ClfA showed a modest reduction in the bacterial burden recovered from subcutaneous abscesses provoked by S. aureus USA300 strain LAC. In addition, the ClfA vaccine reduced lethality in a sepsis model following challenge with strain Newman, but not ST80. Vaccination with ClfA did not protect against surgical wound infection, renal abscess formation, or bacteremia. Passive immunization with antibodies to ClfA did not protect against staphylococcal bacteremia in mice or catheter-induced endocarditis in rats. Some enhancement of bacteremia was observed by ClfA immunization or passive administration of ClfA antibodies when mice were challenged by the intraperitoneal route. Although rodent models of staphylococcal infection have their limitations, our data do not support the inclusion of ClfA in an S. aureus multivalent vaccine.

  13. Preclinical Efficacy of Clumping Factor A in Prevention of Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Wang, Xiaogang; Thompson, Christopher D.; Park, Saeyoung; Park, Wan Beom

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections has become increasingly difficult because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates. Development of a vaccine to prevent staphylococcal infections remains a priority. To determine whether clumping factor A (ClfA) is a good target protein for inclusion in a multivalent vaccine, we evaluated its efficacy in a variety of relevant staphylococcal infection models, challenging with different S. aureus strains. ClfA adsorbed to Alhydrogel and mixed with Sigma Adjuvant System was more immunogenic and stimulated a more robust Th17 response than ClfA administered with alum alone. ClfA immunization induced the production of functional antibodies in rabbits and mice that blocked S. aureus binding to fibrinogen and were opsonic for S. aureus strains that produced little or no capsular polysaccharide. Mice immunized with ClfA showed a modest reduction in the bacterial burden recovered from subcutaneous abscesses provoked by S. aureus USA300 strain LAC. In addition, the ClfA vaccine reduced lethality in a sepsis model following challenge with strain Newman, but not ST80. Vaccination with ClfA did not protect against surgical wound infection, renal abscess formation, or bacteremia. Passive immunization with antibodies to ClfA did not protect against staphylococcal bacteremia in mice or catheter-induced endocarditis in rats. Some enhancement of bacteremia was observed by ClfA immunization or passive administration of ClfA antibodies when mice were challenged by the intraperitoneal route. Although rodent models of staphylococcal infection have their limitations, our data do not support the inclusion of ClfA in an S. aureus multivalent vaccine. PMID:26838725

  14. Single- and multistep resistance selection studies on the activity of retapamulin compared to other agents against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; Clark, Catherine; Credito, Kim; McGhee, Pamela; Dewasse, Bonifacio; Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2006-02-01

    Retapamulin had the lowest rate of spontaneous mutations by single-step passaging and the lowest parent and selected mutant MICs by multistep passaging among all drugs tested for all Staphylococcus aureus strains and three Streptococcus pyogenes strains which yielded resistant clones. Retapamulin has a low potential for resistance selection in S. pyogenes, with a slow and gradual propensity for resistance development in S. aureus.

  15. Transcriptomic and metabolic responses of Staphylococcus aureus in mixed culture with Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus durans in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdenkova, Kamila; Alibayov, Babek; Karamonova, Ludmila; Purkrtova, Sabina; Karpiskova, Renata; Demnerova, Katerina

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major food-borne pathogen due to the production of enterotoxin and is particularly prevalent in contaminated milk and dairy products. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as biocontrol agents in fermented foods which can inhibit pathogenic flora. In our work, we investigated the influence of three strains of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus durans) on the relative expression of three enterotoxin genes (sea, sec, sell) and eight virulence and/or regulatory genes (sarA, saeS, codY, srrA, rot, hld/RNAIII, agrA/RNAII, sigB) in two S. aureus strains (MW2 and Sa1612) in TSB and reduced-fat milk (1.5 %) at 30 °C over a 24-h period. The tested LAB and S. aureus strains proved to be mutually non-competitive or only slightly competitive during co-cultivation. In addition, under the above-mentioned conditions, differential gene expression between the S. aureus MW2 and Sa1612 strains was well documented. S. aureus growth was changed in mixed culture with LAB; however, its effect on the repression of sea and sec expression correlated with production of these virulence factors. In comparison, the presence of LAB strains generally inhibited the expression of sec, sell, sarA, seaS, agrA/RNAII and hld/RNAIII genes. The effect of LAB strains presence on the expression of sea, codY, srrA, rot and sigB genes was medium, time, LAB and S. aureus strain specific. SEA and SEC production was significantly reduced in milk compared to TSB in pure culture. After the 24-h cultivation, S. aureus MW2 and Sa1612 SEC production was 187 and 331 times lower in milk compared to TSB, respectively (0.07 and 0.39 ng/mL in milk, versus 13.1 and 129.2 ng/mL in TSB, respectively). At the same time S. aureus MW2 and Sa1612 SEA production was 77 and 68 times lower in milk compared to TSB, respectively (0.99 and 0.17 ng/mL in milk, versus 76.4 and 11.5 ng/mL in TSB, respectively). This study has revealed new insights into the

  16. Evaluation of expression of NorA efflux pump in ciprofloxacin resistant Staphylococcus aureus against hexahydroquinoline derivative by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Masoud; Salami, Seyed Alireza; Amini, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide variety of infections worldwide. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus is one of most common causes of nosocomial and community acquired infections. The fluoroquinolones are an important class of antibiotics that used to treat infections caused by S. aureus. Today, a significant increase in the rate of ciprofloxacin resistance in methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains is concerning. The norA efflux pump is considered as contributors to antibiotic resistance. Here, we aimed to evaluate the expression of norA efflux pump in the presence of hexahydroquinoline derivative in methicillin and ciprofloxacin resistant S. aureus. We were determined minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin and hexahydroquinoline derivative and their combination by broth microdilution method against ciprofloxacin resistant S. aureus. The expression of the norA efflux pump gene was evaluated by quantitative Real-time PCR. This study showed that minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin in the presence of hexahydroquinoline derivative in comparison to ciprofloxacin were decreased. Quantitative Real-time PCR identified the increased expression of norA efflux pump gene in methicillin and ciprofloxacin resistant S. aureus strain. The increased expression of norA efflux pump gene may have resulted in the effort of S. aureus to survive. The results showed that the hexahydroquinoline derivative enhanced the antibacterial effect of ciprofloxacin against methicillin and ciprofloxacin resistant S. aureus. Therefore, the derivatives may be used as inhibitors of antibiotic resistance for combination therapy.

  17. Molecular detection of the carriers of Staphylococcus aureus golden in referred to the Imam Ali Clinic in Shahrekord, Iran

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    Maryam Reisi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct for the molecular detection of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus (Golden staph carriers among patients referred to the Imam Ali Clinic, Shahrekord, Iran. Methods: This sectional-descriptive study was conducted with 200 persons with suspected upper respiratory tract infections, who were referred to the Imam Ali Clinic in Shahrekord, Iran, in 2012. After culturing the nasal swab samples in mannitol salt agar and blood agar, S. aureus colonies were confirmed by biochemical methods. To determine the susceptibility of S. aureus strains isolated, molecular methods were used. Results: Among the 200 investigated samples, 60 cases (30%, comprising 25 men (41.66% and 35 women (58.33%, were found to be S. aureus carriers. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the frequency of the S. aureus strain isolated from the nasal swabs of patients with respiratory tract infections admitted to the Imam Ali Clinic in Shahrekord, Iran, was remarkable. Thus, knowing detection of S. aureus carriers, who are at a risk of spreading nosocomial infection among the staff, is vital to control and prevent nosocomial infections.

  18. Effect of peracetic acid on biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from dairy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H I; Cappato, L P; Corassin, C H; Cruz, A G; Oliveira, C A F

    2016-03-01

    This research investigated the removal of adherent cells of 4 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 1 Listeria monocytogenes strain (previously isolated from dairy plants) from polystyrene microtiter plates using peracetic acid (PAA, 0.5%) for 15, 30, 60, and 120 s, and the inactivation of biofilms formed by those strains on stainless steel coupons using the same treatment times. In the microtiter plates, PAA removed all S. aureus at 15 s compared with control (no PAA treatment). However, L. monocytogenes biofilm was not affected by any PAA treatment. On the stainless steel surface, epifluorescence microscopy using LIVE/DEAD staining (BacLight, Molecular Probes/Thermo Fisher Scientific, Eugene, OR) showed that all strains were damaged within 15 s, with almost 100% of cells inactivated after 30 s. Results of this trial indicate that, although PAA was able to inactivate both S. aureus and L. monocytogenes monospecies biofilms on stainless steel, it was only able to remove adherent cells of S. aureus from polystyrene microplates. The correct use of PAA is critical for eliminating biofilms formed by S. aureus strains found in dairy plants, although further studies are necessary to determine the optimal PAA treatment for removing biofilms of L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from Humans and a Comparison with ?solates of Animal Origin, in North Dakota, United States

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    Velasco, Valeria; Buyukcangaz, Esra; Sherwood, Julie S.; Stepan, Ryan M.; Koslofsky, Ryan J.; Logue, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Different clones of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus have been found in humans as well as in animals and retail meat. However, more information about the genetic characteristics and similarities between strains is needed. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Staphylococcus aureus from humans, and to compare their characteristics with isolates of animal origin. A total of 550 nasal swabs were taken from healthy humans, and ...

  20. Evaluation of phenotypic and genotypic methods for epidemiological typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, H. C.; Rosdahl, V. T.

    1995-01-01

    The value of five different typing methods (antibiogram typing, biotyping, phage typing, plasmid profiling and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA (ribotyping)), in discriminating 105 Staphylococcus aureus strains from bovine milk samples obtained....... The combination of phage, bio- or ribotyping or all three methods in combination are considered to be an efficient combination of typing methods for epidemiological investigation of S. aureus mastitis....

  1. Evidence for Human Adaptation and Foodborne Transmission of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Stegger, Marc; Andersen, Paal S.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the evolution and epidemiology of a novel live-stock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain, which colonizes and infects urban-dwelling Danes even without a Danish animal reservoir. Genetic evidence suggests both poultry and human adaptation, with poultry meat...

  2. Lung and pharyngeal abscess caused by enterotoxin G- and I-producing Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, S Y; Hattotuwa, K L; Teare, L

    2012-05-01

    We report a particularly serious case of extensive meticillin sensitive Staphylococcal lung and pharyngeal abscess. Our patient had no significant risk factors for severe infection. The detection of enterotoxin G and I here suggest that when present together, these toxins work synergistically to produce a more virulent strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Comparative molecular analysis substantiates zoonotic potential of equine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walther, Birgit; Monecke, Stefan; Ruscher, Claudia; Friedrich, Alexander W; Ehricht, Ralf; Slickers, Peter; Soba, Alexandra; Wleklinski, Claus-G; Wieler, Lothar H; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    Despite the increasing importance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in veterinary medicine, knowledge about the epidemiology of the pathogen in horses is still poor. The phylogenetic relationship of strains of human and equine origins has been addressed before, usually by

  4. Inhibition of Virulence Gene Expression in Staphylococcus aureus by Novel Depsipeptides from a Marine Photobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Nielsen, Anita; Kjærulff, Louise

    2011-01-01

    , the effector molecule of agr. A marine Photobacterium produced compounds interfering with agr in S. aureus strain 8325-4, and bioassay-guided fractionation of crude extracts led to the isolation of two novel cyclodepsipeptides, designated solonamide A and B. Northern blot analysis confirmed the agr interfering...

  5. Characterization of a Staphylococcus aureus surface virulence factor that promotes resistance to oxidative killing and infectious endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malachowa, Natalia; Kohler, Petra L; Schlievert, Patrick M; Chuang, Olivia N; Dunny, Gary M; Kobayashi, Scott D; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Bohach, Gregory A; Seo, Keun Seok

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a prominent human pathogen and a leading cause of community- and hospital-acquired bacterial infections worldwide. Herein, we describe the identification and characterization of the S. aureus 67.6-kDa hypothetical protein, named for the surface factor promoting resistance to oxidative killing (SOK) in this study. Sequence analysis showed that the SOK gene is conserved in all sequenced S. aureus strains and homologous to the myosin cross-reactive antigen of Streptococcus pyogenes. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analysis showed that SOK was copurified with membrane fractions and was exposed on the surface of S. aureus Newman and RN4220. Comparative analysis of wild-type S. aureus and an isogenic deletion strain indicated that SOK contributes to both resistance to killing by human neutrophils and to oxidative stress. In addition, the S. aureus sok deletion strain showed dramatically reduced aortic valve vegetation and bacterial cell number in a rabbit endocarditis model. These results, plus the suspected role of the streptococcal homologue in certain diseases such as acute rheumatic fever, suggest that SOK plays an important role in cardiovascular and other staphylococcal infections.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus adherence to Candida albicans hyphae is mediated by the hyphal adhesin Als3p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brian M; Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina S; Krom, Bastiaan P; Schlecht, Lisa Marie; Zhou, Han; Hoyer, Lois L; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2012-12-01

    The bacterium Staphylococcus (St.) aureus and the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans are currently among the leading nosocomial pathogens, often co-infecting critically ill patients, with high morbidity and mortality. Previous investigations have demonstrated preferential adherence of St. aureus to C. albicans hyphae during mixed biofilm growth. In this study, we aimed to characterize the mechanism behind this observed interaction. C. albicans adhesin-deficient mutant strains were screened by microscopy to identify the specific receptor on C. albicans hyphae recognized by St. aureus. Furthermore, an immunoassay was developed to validate and quantify staphylococcal binding to fungal biofilms. The findings from these experiments implicated the C. albicans adhesin agglutinin-like sequence 3 (Als3p) in playing a major role in the adherence process. This association was quantitatively established using atomic force microscopy, in which the adhesion force between single cells of the two species was significantly reduced for a C. albicans mutant strain lacking als3. Confocal microscopy further confirmed these observations, as St. aureus overlaid with a purified recombinant Als3 N-terminal domain fragment (rAls3p) exhibited robust binding. Importantly, a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae heterologously expressing Als3p was utilized to further confirm this adhesin as a receptor for St. aureus. Although the parental strain does not bind bacteria, expression of Als3p on the cell surface conferred upon the yeast the ability to strongly bind St. aureus. To elucidate the implications of these in vitro findings in a clinically relevant setting, an ex vivo murine model of co-infection was designed using murine tongue explants. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed extensive hyphal penetration of the epithelium typical of C. albicans mucosal infection. Interestingly, St. aureus bacterial cells were only seen within the epithelial tissue when associated with the invasive

  7. Bacteriophage ΦSA012 Has a Broad Host Range against Staphylococcus aureus and Effective Lytic Capacity in a Mouse Mastitis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetomo Iwano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial infection in dairy cattle. It is the most costly disease in the dairy industry because of the high use of antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causative agents of bovine mastitis and antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, new strategies to control bacterial infection are required in the dairy industry. One potential strategy is bacteriophage (phage therapy. In the present study, we examined the host range of previously isolated S. aureus phages ΦSA012 and ΦSA039 against S. aureus strains isolated from mastitic cows. These phages could kill all S. aureus (93 strains from 40 genotypes and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (six strains from six genotypes strains tested. Using a mouse mastitis model, we demonstrated that ΦSA012 reduced proliferation of S. aureus and inflammation in the mammary gland. Furthermore, intravenous or intraperitoneal phage administration reduced proliferation of S. aureus in the mammary glands. These results suggest that broad host range phages ΦSA012 is potential antibacterial agents for dairy production medicine.

  8. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among secondary school students at Duhok City-Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Habeeb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA widely distributed in hospitals around the world. There is strong relationship between disease development and S. aureus nasal carriage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiology of nasal colonization with S. aureus and MRSA in the community of Duhok city, Iraq. Methods: 489 students aged 16 to18 years were included. Nasal swab samples were collected followed by antimicrobial susceptibility test. MRSA isolates were selected and investigated for the mecA gene. Also the prevalence of PantonValentine Leukocidin (PVL gene was also studied. Results: A total of 90 (18.4% out of 489 (18.4% of the students were found to be colonized by S. aureus . Only 10 (2.04% of the students were found to be MRSA carrier. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to Vancomycin. PLV gene was detected in one MRSA strain. Conclusion: This is the first study investigating S. aureus colonization in students in the Duhok city. Nasal carriage of S. aureus and MRSA is comparable with reports from elsewhere. Fortunately, all trains included in our study were sensitive to vancomycin. Further research is needed to examine the SCCmec elements and the evolution of MRSA over the time. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(2: 59-63

  9. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage could be a risk for development of clinical infections in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Selva Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although nasal carriage has been described as a risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infections in humans, there is a scarcity of studies about S. aureus nasal carriers in animals. In rabbits, S. aureus is one of the most important pathogens responsible for a number of different types of infections. This study was designed to determine the extent of staphylococcal nasal carriage and to establish whether a relationship exists between nasal carriage and development of lesions. One hundred and sixteen rabbits with and without chronic signs of staphylococcosis from 6 industrial rabbitries were monitored. Nasal swabs for microbiological assessments were obtained from all animals. Microbiological results showed that 56% of the animals carried S. aureus in their nasal cavities with significantly higher incidence in animals with staphylococcal-related lesions (84.2% compared to apparently healthy animals (28.8%. Additionally, the S. aureus strains isolated from the nasal cavity and lesions were clonally related in 91.7% of animals. This suggests that nasal carriage of S. aureus in rabbits could be a risk for development of clinical infections.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus carriage rates and antibiotic resistance patterns in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delost, Gregory R; Delost, Maria E; Armile, James; Lloyd, Jenifer

    2016-04-01

    Overuse of antibiotics has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, which are occurring more frequently within the community. We sought to determine whether long-term antibiotic therapy for acne alter the carriage rate and antibiotic resistance profiles of S aureus. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, quasiexperimental study. Samples of anterior nares were obtained from dermatology patients given a diagnosis of acne vulgaris (n = 263) who were treated with antibiotics (n = 142) or who were not treated with antibiotics (n = 121). Specimens were tested for the presence of S aureus by growth on mannitol salt agar and then isolated on 5% sheep blood agar. Identification was confirmed based on colonial morphology, Gram stain, catalase, and coagulase testing. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the VITEK 2 system (bioMerieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France). The S aureus carriage rate was significantly lower in patients with acne treated with antibiotics (6.3%) compared with those not treated with antibiotics (15.7%; P = .016). The percentage of S aureus isolates resistant to 1 or more antibiotics did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (P = .434). Cross-sectional study, patient compliance, and effects of prior acne treatments are limitations. Treatment of patients with acne using antibiotics decreases the S aureus carriage rate but does not significantly alter the antibiotic resistance rates. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Secreted Immunomodulatory Proteins of Staphylococcus aureus Activate Platelets and Induce Platelet Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsker, Ulrike; Palankar, Raghavendra; Wesche, Jan; Kohler, Thomas P; Prucha, Josephine; Burchhardt, Gerhard; Rohde, Manfred; Schmidt, Frank; Bröker, Barbara M; Mamat, Uwe; Pané-Farré, Jan; Graf, Anica; Ebner, Patrick; Greinacher, Andreas; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2018-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can cause bloodstream infections associated with infective endocarditis (IE) and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC). Both complications involve platelets. In view of an increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains, new approaches to control systemic S. aureus infection are gaining importance. Using a repertoire of 52 recombinant S. aureus proteins in flow cytometry-based platelet activation and aggregation assays, we identified, in addition to the extracellular adherence protein Eap, three secreted staphylococcal proteins as novel platelet activating proteins. Eap and the chemotaxis inhibitory protein of S. aureus (CHIPS), the formyl peptide receptor-like 1 inhibitory protein (FLIPr) and the major autolysin Atl induced P-selectin expression in washed platelets and platelet-rich plasma. Similarly, AtlA, CHIPS and Eap induced platelet aggregation in whole blood. Fluorescence microscopy illustrated that P-selectin expression is associated with calcium mobilization and re-organization of the platelet actin cytoskeleton. Characterization of the functionally active domains of the major autolysin AtlA and Eap indicates that the amidase domain of Atl and the tandem repeats 3 and 4 of Eap are crucial for platelet activation. These results provide new insights in S. aureus protein interactions with platelets and identify secreted proteins as potential treatment targets in case of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus infection. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  12. Modeling the level of contamination of Staphylococcus aureus in ready-to-eat kimbab in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Gyung-Jin; Hong, Chong-Hae; Oh, Deog-Hwan; Ha, Sang-Do; Park, Ki-Hwan; Todd, Ewen C D

    2006-06-01

    The risk of Staphylococcus aureus in ready-to-eat kimbab (rice rolled in laver) sold in Korea was evaluated by a mathematical modeling approach. Four nodes were constructed from preparation at retail to consumption. A predictive microbial growth model and survey data were combined with probabilistic modeling to simulate the level of S. aureus in a single kimbab at the time of consumption. We estimated the mean level of S. aureus to be 2.92 log CFU/g for a typical kimbab (150 to 200 g each) at the time of consumption. Our model also showed that 29.73% of the kimbabs had > or = 100,000 S. aureus CFU/g, which poses some risk of illness, since some level of enterotoxin would be expected from toxigenic strains. However, because of the lack of dose-response models for staphylococcal enterotoxin, the final level of S. aureus in the kimbabs could not be used to estimate how many people would become ill from eating them. Correlation sensitivity results showed that consumer eating patterns and initial contamination levels at retail stores were the most significant risk factors for illness and that temperature control under 10 degrees C was a critical control point in kimbab retail establishments to prevent the growth of S. aureus.

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic evaluation of fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aligholi, Marzieh; Mirsalehian, Akbar; Halimi, Shahnaz; Imaneini, Hossein; Taherikalani, Morovat; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Asadollahi, Parisa; Mohajer, Babak; Abdollahi, Alireza; Emaneini, Mohammad

    2011-09-01

    Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antibiotics widely used in the treatment of bacterial infections such as Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Resistance to these antibiotics is increasing. The occurrence of mutations in the grlA and gyrA loci were evaluated in 69 fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus isolates from 2 teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Out of the 165 S. aureus isolates, 87 (52.7%) were resistant to methicillin and 69 (41.8%) were resistant to fluoroquinolone. Fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus isolates had a mutation at codon 80 in the grlA gene and different mutational combinations in the gyrA gene. These mutational combinations included 45 isolates at codons 84 and 86, 23 isolates at codons 84, 86 and 106 and 1 isolate at codons 84, 86 and 90. Fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus isolates were clustered into 33 PFGE types. The findings of this study show that the fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus strains isolated in the teaching hospitals in Tehran had multiple mutations in the QRDRs region of both grlA and gyrA genes.

  14. Epidemiology and antibiotic sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in children in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Krisztina; Tóthpál, Adrienn; Kardos, Szilvia; Dobay, Orsolya

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage rate in healthy children all over Hungary and to specify some risk factors, the antibiotic resistance patterns of the bacteria, and their genetic relatedness. In total, 878 children (aged 3-6 years) were screened at 21 day-care centers in 16 different cities in Hungary, between February 2009 and December 2011. Samples taken from both nostrils were cultured on blood agar, and suspected S. aureus isolates were identified by β-hemolysis, catalase positivity, clump test, and nucA PCR. Methicillin-resistant strains were screened by mecA and mecC PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by agar dilution or gradient test strips. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used for genotyping. S. aureus carriage rate was found to be 21.3%, which correlates well with international data. We found no statistically significant correlation between the gender or the sibling status and S. aureus carriage. All isolates were sensitive to oxacillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and mupirocin. The resistance rates for erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline were 7.5%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 3.7%, and 4.3%, respectively. The isolates showed very high genetic diversity. In summary, carried S. aureus isolates are more sensitive to antibiotics compared with clinical isolates in Hungary, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage rate is very low yet.

  15. Toxigenic profile of methicillin-sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from special groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Camila Sena Martins; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco; Witzel, Claudia Lima; Silveira, Mônica; Bonesso, Mariana Fávero; Marques, Silvio Alencar; Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da

    2016-02-16

    Staphylococcus aureus is characterized by its pathogenicity and high prevalence, causing disease in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals due to its easy dissemination. This fact is aggravated by the widespread dissemination of S. aureus carrying toxigenic genes. The objective of this study was to determine the toxigenic profile of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in patients with purulent skin and/or soft tissue infections seen at the Dermatology Department of the University Hospital of the Botucatu Medical School, asymptomatic adults older than 60 years living in nursing homes, and prison inmates of the Avaré Detention Center. PCR was used for the detection of the mecA gene, enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, and sec), exfoliative toxins A and B (eta and etb), toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (tst), panton-valentine leukocidin (lukS-PV and lukF-PV), and alpha- and delta-hemolysins or cytotoxins (hla and hld). The results showed a significant prevalence of toxigenic genes among S. aureus isolates from asymptomatic individuals, with the observation of a higher prevalence of cytotoxin genes. However, the panton-valentine leukocidin gene was only detected in MSSA isolated from patients with skin infections and the tst gene was exclusively found in MSSA isolated from prison inmates. The present study demonstrated a significant prevalence of toxigenic genes in MSSA and MRSA strains isolated from asymptomatic S. aureus carriers. There was a higher prevalence of cytotoxin genes.

  16. Combining use of a panel of ssDNA aptamers in the detection of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoxiao; Li, Shaohua; Chen, Liucun; Ding, Hongmei; Xu, Hua; Huang, Yanping; Li, Jie; Liu, Nongle; Cao, Weihong; Zhu, Yanjun; Shen, Beifen; Shao, Ningsheng

    2009-08-01

    In this article, a panel of ssDNA aptamers specific to Staphylococcus aureus was obtained by a whole bacterium-based SELEX procedure and applied to probing S. aureus. After several rounds of selection with S. aureus as the target and Streptococcus and S. epidermidis as counter targets, the highly enriched oligonucleic acid pool was sequenced and then grouped under different families on the basis of the homology of the primary sequence and the similarity of the secondary structure. Eleven sequences from different families were selected for further characterization by confocal imaging and flow cytometry analysis. Results showed that five aptamers demonstrated high specificity and affinity to S. aureus individually. The five aptamers recognize different molecular targets by competitive experiment. Combining these five aptamers had a much better effect than the individual aptamer in the recognition of different S. aureus strains. In addition, the combined aptamers can probe single S. aureus in pyogenic fluids. Our work demonstrates that a set of aptamers specific to one bacterium can be used in combination for the identification of the bacterium instead of a single aptamer.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, M A; Liñares, J; Martín, R

    1997-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are among the most common nosocomial pathogens. The most significant mechanism of resistance to methicillin in this-species is the acquisition of a genetic determinant (mecA gene). However, resistance seems to have a more complex molecular basis, since additional chromosomal material is involved in such resistance. Besides, overproduction of penicillinase and/or alterations in the PBPs can contribute to the formation of resistance phenotypes. Genetic and environmental factors leading to MRSA are reviewed.

  18. Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)/vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains from Korean Hospitals. Yun Hee Choi, Seung Sik Cho, Jaya Ram Simkhada, Chi Nam Seong, Hyo Jeong Lee, Hong Seop Moon, Jin Cheol Yoo ...

  19. The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenney, Adam; Holt, Deborah; Ritika, Roselyn; Southwell, Paul; Pravin, Shalini; Buadromo, Eka; Carapetis, Jonathan; Tong, Steven; Steer, Andrew

    2014-03-24

    There are few data describing the microbiology and genetic typing of Staphylococcus aureus that cause infections in developing countries. In this study we observed S. aureus infections in Pacific Island nation of Fiji in both the community and hospital setting with an emphasis on clonal complex (CC) genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility. S. aureus was commonly found in impetigo lesions of school children and was recovered from 57% of impetigo lesions frequently in conjunction with group A streptococcal infection. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) comprised 7% (20/299) of isolates and were all non-multi-resistant and all genotyped as CC1. In contrast, there was a diverse selection of 17 CCs among the 105 genotyped methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA) strains. Isolates of the rare, phylogenetically divergent and non-pigmented CC75 lineage (also called S. argenteus) were found in Fiji.From hospitalized patients the available 36 MRSA isolates from a 9-month period were represented by five CCs. The most common CCs were CC1 and CC239. CC1 is likely to be a community-acquired strain, reflecting what was found in the school children, whereas the CC239 is the very successful multi-drug resistant MRSA nosocomial lineage. Of 17 MSSA isolates, 59% carried genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. The S. aureus bacteraemia incidence rate of 50 per 100,000 population is among the highest reported in the literature and likely reflects the high overall burden of staphylococcal infections in this population. S. aureus is an important cause of disease in Fiji and there is considerable genotypic diversity in community skin infections in Fijian schoolchildren. Community acquired- (CA)- MRSA is present at a relatively low prevalence (6.7%) and was solely to CC1 (CA-MRSA). The globally successful CC239 is also a significant pathogen in Fiji.

  20. Intracellular persisting Staphylococcus aureus is the major pathogen in recurrent tonsillitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas E Zautner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two major indications for tonsillectomy are recurrent tonsillitis (RT and peritonsillar abscess (PTA. Unlike PTAs, which are primarily treated surgically, RT is often cured by tonsillectomy only after a series of failed drug therapy attempts. Although the bacteriological background of RT has been studied, the reason for the lack of success of conservative therapeutic approaches is not well understood. METHODS: In a prospective study, tonsil specimens from 130 RT patients and 124 PTA patients were examined for the presence of extra- and intracellular bacteria using antibiotic protection assays. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from RT patients were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa-typing and MSCRAMM-gene-PCR. Their ability for biofilm formation was tested and their cell invasiveness was confirmed by a flow cytometric invasion assay (FACS, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and immunohistochemistry. FINDINGS: S. aureus was the predominant species (57.7% in RT patients, whereas Streptococcus pyogenes was most prevalent (20.2% in PTA patients. Three different assays (FACS, FISH, antibiotic protection assay showed that nearly all RT-associated S. aureus strains were located inside tonsillar cells. Correspondingly, the results of the MSCRAMM-gene-PCRs confirmed that 87% of these S. aureus isolates were invasive strains and not mere colonizers. Based upon PFGE analyses of genomic DNA and on spa-gene typing the vast majority of the S. aureus isolates belonged to different clonal lineages. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that intracellular residing S. aureus is the most common cause of RT and indicate that S. aureus uses this location to survive the effects of antibiotics and the host immune response. A German translation of the Abstract is provided as supplementary material (Abstract S1.