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  1. Enhanced Bioactivity and Bacteriostasis of Surface Fluorinated Polyetheretherketone.

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    Chen, Meiling; Ouyang, Liping; Lu, Tao; Wang, Heying; Meng, Fanhao; Yang, Yan; Ning, Congqin; Ma, Jingzhi; Liu, Xuanyong

    2017-05-24

    Although polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been considered as a potential orthopedic and dental application material due to its similar elastic modulus as bones, inferior osseointegration and bacteriostasis of PEEK hampers its clinical application. In this work, fluorinated PEEK was constructed via plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) followed by hydrofluoric acid treatment to ameliorate the osseointegration and antibacterial properties of PEEK. The surface microstructure, composition, and hydrophilicity of all samples were investigated. Rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) were cultured on their surfaces to estimate bioactivity. The fluorinated PEEK can enhance the cell adhesion, cell spreading, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity compared to pristine PEEK. Furthermore, the fluorinated PEEK surface exhibits good bacteriostatic effect against Porphyromonas gingivalis, which is one of the major periodontal pathogens. In summary, we provide an effective route to introduce fluorine and the results reveal that the fluorinated PEEK can enhance the osseointegration and bacteriostasis, which provides a potential candidate for dental implants.

  2. Protective effects of tenuigenin on Staphylococcus aureus-induced pneumonia in mice.

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    Yu, Bin; Qiao, Jiutao; Shen, Yongbin; Li, Lianyong

    2017-09-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in infants and young children. Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is one of the most important bacteria that leads to pneumonia. Tenuigenin (TGN), a major active component isolated from the root of the Chinese herb Polygala tenuifolia, has been known to have anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of TGN on S.aureus-induced pneumonia in mice. The results showed that TGN significantly attenuated S.aureus-induced lung histopathological changes. TGN also inhibited lung wet/dry (W/D) ratio, and inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β production. Furthermore, S.aureus-induced NF-κB activation was significantly inhibited by the treatment of TGN. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that TGN protected against S.aureus-induced pneumonia by inhibiting NF-κB activation. TGN might be a potential agent in the treatment of pneumonia induced by S.aureus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A pig model of acute Staphylococcus aureus induced pyemia

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    Nielsen, O. L.; Iburg, T.; Aalbæk, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus constitutes an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, and the incidence of this disease-entity is increasing. In this paper we describe the initial microbial dynamics and lesions in pigs experimentally infected with S. aureus....... aureus isolated from man and an extension of the timeframe aiming at inducing sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock....

  4. Epithelial Cell Gene Expression Induced by Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus

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    Xianglu Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available HEp-2 cell monolayers were cocultured with intracellular Staphylococcus aureus, and changes in gene expression were profiled using DNA microarrays. Intracellular S. aureus affected genes involved in cellular stress responses, signal transduction, inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, and cholesterol biosynthesis. Transcription of stress response and signal transduction-related genes including atf3, sgk, map2k1, map2k3, arhb, and arhe was increased. In addition, elevated transcription of proinflammatory genes was observed for tnfa, il1b, il6, il8, cxcl1, ccl20, cox2, and pai1. Genes involved in proapoptosis and fibrosis were also affected at transcriptional level by intracellular S. aureus. Notably, intracellular S. aureus induced strong transcriptional down-regulation of several cholesterol biosynthesis genes. These results suggest that epithelial cells respond to intracellular S. aureus by inducing genes affecting immunity and in repairing damage caused by the organism, and are consistent with the possibility that the organism exploits an intracellular environment to subvert host immunity and promote colonization.

  5. Reversible antibiotic tolerance induced in Staphylococcus aureus by concurrent drug exposure

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    Haaber, Jakob Krause; Friberg, Cathrine; McCreary, Mark

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to beta-lactam antibiotics has led to increasing use of the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin as a life-saving treatment for major S. aureus infections. Coinfection by an unrelated bacterial species may necessitate concurrent treatment with a second...... antibiotic that targets the coinfecting pathogen. While investigating factors that affect bacterial antibiotic sensitivity, we discovered that susceptibility of S. aureus to vancomycin is reduced by concurrent exposure to colistin, a cationic peptide antimicrobial employed to treat infections by Gram......-negative pathogens. We show that colistin-induced vancomycin tolerance persists only as long as the inducer is present and is accompanied by gene expression changes similar to those resulting from mutations that produce stably inherited reduction of vancomycin sensitivity (vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus [VISA...

  6. Induced resistance to the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B in Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Samuelsen, Orjan; Haukland, Hanne H; Jenssen, Håvard; Krämer, Manuela; Sandvik, Kjersti; Ulvatne, Hilde; Vorland, Lars H

    2005-06-20

    This study was designed to investigate inducible intrinsic resistance against lactoferricin B in Staphylococcus aureus. Serial passage of seven S. aureus strains in medium with increasing concentrations of peptide resulted in an induced resistance at various levels in all strains. The induced resistance was unstable and decreased relatively rapidly during passages in peptide free medium but the minimum inhibitory concentration remained elevated after thirty passages. Cross-resistance to penicillin G and low-level cross-resistance to the antimicrobial peptides indolicidin and Ala(8,13,18)-magainin-II amide [corrected] was observed. No cross-resistance was observed to the human cathelicidin LL-37. In conclusion, this study shows that S. aureus has intrinsic resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial peptides that can be induced upon exposure, and that this may confer low-level cross-resistance to other antimicrobial peptides.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus produces membrane-derived vesicles that induce host cell death.

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    Mamata Gurung

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria produce outer membrane vesicles that play a role in the delivery of virulence factors to host cells. However, little is known about the membrane-derived vesicles (MVs produced by gram-positive bacteria. The present study examined the production of MVs from Staphylococcus aureus and investigated the delivery of MVs to host cells and subsequent cytotoxicity. Four S. aureus strains tested, two type strains and two clinical isolates, produced spherical nanovesicles during in vitro culture. MVs were also produced during in vivo infection of a clinical S. aureus isolate in a mouse pneumonia model. Proteomic analysis showed that 143 different proteins were identified in the S. aureus-derived MVs. S. aureus MVs were interacted with the plasma membrane of host cells via a cholesterol-rich membrane microdomain and then delivered their component protein A to host cells within 30 min. Intact S. aureus MVs induced apoptosis of HEp-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas lysed MVs neither delivered their component into the cytosol of host cells nor induced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, this study is the first report that S. aureus MVs are an important vehicle for delivery of bacterial effector molecules to host cells.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus induces IL-8 expression through its lipoproteins in the human intestinal epithelial cell, Caco-2.

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    Kang, Seok-Seong; Noh, Su Young; Park, Ok-Jin; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can cause the intestinal inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of S. aureus infection in the intestine. In the present study, we investigated whether S. aureus could stimulate human intestinal epithelial cells triggering inflammation. When the human intestinal epithelial cell-line, Caco-2, and the primary colon cells were stimulated with ethanol-inactivated S. aureus, IL-8 expression was induced in a dose-dependent manner. The inactivated S. aureus preferentially stimulated Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 rather than TLR4. Lipoproteins, lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PGN) are considered as potential TLR2 ligands of S. aureus. Interestingly, S aureus lipoproteins and Pam2CSK4 mimicking Gram-positive bacterial lipoproteins, but not LTA and PGN of S. aureus, significantly induced IL-8 expression in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, lipoprotein-deficient S. aureus mutant strain failed to induce IL-8 production. Collectively, these results suggest that S. aureus stimulates the human intestinal epithelial cells to induce the chemokine IL-8 production through its lipoproteins, potentially contributing the development of intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Secreted Immunomodulatory Proteins of Staphylococcus aureus Activate Platelets and Induce Platelet Aggregation.

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    Binsker, Ulrike; Palankar, Raghavendra; Wesche, Jan; Kohler, Thomas P; Prucha, Josephine; Burchhardt, Gerhard; Rohde, Manfred; Schmidt, Frank; Bröker, Barbara M; Mamat, Uwe; Pané-Farré, Jan; Graf, Anica; Ebner, Patrick; Greinacher, Andreas; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2018-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can cause bloodstream infections associated with infective endocarditis (IE) and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC). Both complications involve platelets. In view of an increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains, new approaches to control systemic S. aureus infection are gaining importance. Using a repertoire of 52 recombinant S. aureus proteins in flow cytometry-based platelet activation and aggregation assays, we identified, in addition to the extracellular adherence protein Eap, three secreted staphylococcal proteins as novel platelet activating proteins. Eap and the chemotaxis inhibitory protein of S. aureus (CHIPS), the formyl peptide receptor-like 1 inhibitory protein (FLIPr) and the major autolysin Atl induced P-selectin expression in washed platelets and platelet-rich plasma. Similarly, AtlA, CHIPS and Eap induced platelet aggregation in whole blood. Fluorescence microscopy illustrated that P-selectin expression is associated with calcium mobilization and re-organization of the platelet actin cytoskeleton. Characterization of the functionally active domains of the major autolysin AtlA and Eap indicates that the amidase domain of Atl and the tandem repeats 3 and 4 of Eap are crucial for platelet activation. These results provide new insights in S. aureus protein interactions with platelets and identify secreted proteins as potential treatment targets in case of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus infection. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  10. MRI Visualization of Staphyloccocus aureus-Induced Infective Endocarditis in Mice

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    Ring, Janine; Hoerr, Verena; Tuchscherr, Lorena; Kuhlmann, Michael T.; Löffler, Bettina; Faber, Cornelius

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe and often fatal disease, lacking a fast and reliable diagnostic procedure. The purpose of this study was to establish a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus-induced IE and to develop a MRI technology to characterize and diagnose IE. To establish the mouse model of hematogenous IE, aortic valve damage was induced by placing a permanent catheter into right carotid artery. 24 h after surgery, mice were injected intravenously with either iron particle-labeled or unlabeled S. aureus (strain 6850). To distinguish the effect of IE from mere tissue injury or recruited macrophages, subgroups of mice received sham surgery prior to infection (n = 17), received surgery without infection (n = 8), or obtained additionally injection of free iron particles to label macrophages (n = 17). Cardiac MRI was performed 48 h after surgery using a self-gated ultra-short echo time (UTE) sequence (TR/TE, 5/0.31 ms; in-plane/slice, 0.125/1 mm; duration, 12∶08 min) to obtain high-resolution, artifact-free cinematographic images of the valves. After MRI, valves were either homogenized and plated on blood agar plates for determination of bacterial titers, or sectioned and stained for histology. In the animal model, both severity of the disease and mortality increased with bacterial numbers. Infection with 105 S. aureus bacteria reliably caused endocarditis with vegetations on the valves. Cinematographic UTE MRI visualised the aortic valve over the cardiac cycle and allowed for detection of bacterial vegetations, while mere tissue trauma or labeled macrophages were not detected. Iron labeling of S. aureus was not required for detection. MRI results were consistent with histology and microbial assessment. These data showed that S. aureus-induced IE in mice can be detected by MRI. The established mouse model allows for investigation of the pathophysiology of IE, testing of novel drugs and may serve for the development of a clinical diagnostic

  11. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Stimulation of Osteoblasts Mediates Staphylococcus Aureus Induced Bone Resorption and Osteoclastogenesis through Enhanced RANKL

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    Kassem, Ali; Lindholm, Catharina; Lerner, Ulf H

    2016-01-01

    Severe Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections pose an immense threat to population health and constitute a great burden for the health care worldwide. Inter alia, S. aureus septic arthritis is a disease with high mortality and morbidity caused by destruction of the infected joints and systemic bone loss, osteoporosis. Toll-Like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune cell receptors recognizing a variety of microbial molecules and structures. S. aureus recognition via TLR2 initiates a signaling cascade resulting in production of various cytokines, but the mechanisms by which S. aureus causes rapid and excessive bone loss are still unclear. We, therefore, investigated how S. aureus regulates periosteal/endosteal osteoclast formation and bone resorption. S. aureus stimulation of neonatal mouse parietal bone induced ex vivo bone resorption and osteoclastic gene expression. This effect was associated with increased mRNA and protein expression of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) without significant change in osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression. Bone resorption induced by S. aureus was abolished by OPG. S. aureus increased the expression of osteoclastogenic cytokines and prostaglandins in the parietal bones but the stimulatory effect of S. aureus on bone resorption and Tnfsf11 mRNA expression was independent of these cytokines and prostaglandins. Stimulation of isolated periosteal osteoblasts with S. aureus also resulted in increased expression of Tnfsf11 mRNA, an effect lost in osteoblasts from Tlr2 knockout mice. S. aureus stimulated osteoclastogenesis in isolated periosteal cells without affecting RANKL-stimulated resorption. In contrast, S. aureus inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in bone marrow macrophages. These data show that S. aureus enhances bone resorption and periosteal osteoclast formation by increasing osteoblast RANKL production through TLR2. Our study indicates the importance of using different in vitro approaches for studies of how S

  12. Mechanisms of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia-induced intestinal epithelial apoptosis.

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    Perrone, Erin E; Jung, Enjae; Breed, Elise; Dominguez, Jessica A; Liang, Zhe; Clark, Andrew T; Dunne, W Michael; Burd, Eileen M; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2012-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia-induced sepsis is a common cause of morbidity in the intensive care unit. Although pneumonia is initiated in the lungs, extrapulmonary manifestations occur commonly. In light of the key role the intestine plays in the pathophysiology of sepsis, we sought to determine whether MRSA pneumonia induces intestinal injury. FVB/N mice were subjected to MRSA or sham pneumonia and killed 24 h later. Septic animals had a marked increase in intestinal epithelial apoptosis by both hematoxylin-eosin and active caspase 3 staining. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus-induced intestinal apoptosis was associated with an increase in the expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bid and Bax and the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL in the mitochondrial pathway. In the receptor-mediated pathway, MRSA pneumonia induced an increase in Fas ligand but decreased protein levels of Fas, FADD, pFADD, TNF-R1, and TRADD. To assess the functional significance of these changes, MRSA pneumonia was induced in mice with genetic manipulations in proteins in either the mitochondrial or receptor-mediated pathways. Both Bid-/- mice and animals with intestine-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 had decreased intestinal apoptosis compared with wild-type animals. In contrast, Fas ligand-/- mice had no alterations in apoptosis. To determine if these findings were organism-specific, similar experiments were performed in mice subjected to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced gut apoptosis, but unlike MRSA, this was associated with increased Bcl-2 and TNF-R1 and decreased Fas. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus pneumonia thus induces organism-specific changes in intestinal apoptosis via changes in both the mitochondrial and receptor-mediated pathways, although the former may be more functionally significant.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus-induced G2/M phase transition delay in host epithelial cells increases bacterial infective efficiency.

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    Ludmila Alekseeva

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile, opportunistic pathogen and the etiological agent of a wide range of infections in humans and warm-blooded animals. The epithelial surface is its principal site of colonization and infection. In this work, we investigated the cytopathic effect of S. aureus strains from human and animal origins and their ability to affect the host cell cycle in human HeLa and bovine MAC-T epithelial cell lines. S. aureus invasion slowed down cell proliferation and induced a cytopathic effect, resulting in the enlargement of host cells. A dramatic decrease in the number of mitotic cells was observed in the infected cultures. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an S. aureus-induced delay in the G2/M phase transition in synchronous HeLa cells. This delay required the presence of live S. aureus since the addition of the heat-killed bacteria did not alter the cell cycle. The results of Western blot experiments showed that the G2/M transition delay was associated with the accumulation of inactive cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1, a key inducer of mitosis entry, and with the accumulation of unphosphorylated histone H3, which was correlated with a reduction of the mitotic cell number. Analysis of S. aureus proliferation in asynchronous, G1- and G2-phase-enriched HeLa cells showed that the G2 phase was preferential for bacterial infective efficiency, suggesting that the G2 phase delay may be used by S. aureus for propagation within the host. Taken together, our results divulge the potential of S. aureus in the subversion of key cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, and shed light on the biological significance of S. aureus-induced host cell cycle alteration.

  14. [Effects of venom from Sclerodermus sichuanensis Xiao on pupa of Tenebrio molitor].

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    Zhuo, Zhi-Hang; Yang, Wei; Qin, Huan; Yang, Chun-Ping; Yang, Hua; Xu, Dan-Ping

    2013-11-01

    To explore the regulatory mechanisms of parasitism of Sclerodermus sichuanensis on Tenebrio molitor, the methods of natural parasitism and venom injection were adopted to investigate the effects of the venom from S. sichuanensis on the pupa of T. molitor in the parasitic process. Under venom injection, the paralytic degree of the pupa had a positive correlation with the concentration of injected venom, and the number of recovered pupa had a negative correlation with the injected venom concentration. The T. molitor pupa was in slight and reversible paralysis when injected with 0.01 VRE (venom reservoir equivalent) of venom, and in non-reversible and complete paralysis when 0.2 VRE was injected. The pupa died massively and appeared a wide range of melanization when injected with soil bacterial suspension alone, but the melanization delayed and the mortality declined significantly when the mixed liquor of bacterium and venom was injected. The bacteriostasis of the venom on Staphylococcus aureus was significantly stronger than that on Escherichia coli. Within a definite range of temperature, the paralytic activity decreased significantly with increasing temperature, the bacteriostasis on S. aureus increased significantly, while that on E. coli was opposite. This study showed that the venom from S. sichuanensis had the effects of paralysis, bacteriostasis, inhibiting exuviations, and delaying melanization.

  15. Combination of Erythromycin and Curcumin Alleviates Staphylococcus aureus Induced Osteomyelitis in Rats

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    Zubin Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Both erythromycin and curcumin can suppress S. aureus growth, but their roles in osteomyelitis are barely studied. We aim to explore the activities of erythromycin and curcumin against chronical osteomyelitis induced by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Chronicle implant-induced osteomyelitis was established by MRSA infection in male Wistar rats. Four weeks after bacterial inoculation, rats received no treatment, erythromycin monotherapy, curcumin monotherapy, or erythromycin plus curcumin twice daily for 2 weeks. Bacterial levels, bone infection status, inflammatory signals and side effects were evaluated. Rats tolerated all treatments well, with no death or side effects such as, diarrhea and weight loss. Two days after treatment completion, erythromycin monotherapy did not suppress bacterial growth and had no effect in bone infection, although it reduced serum pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-6. Curcumin monotherapy slightly suppressed bacterial growth, alleviated bone infection and reduced TNF-α and IL-6. Erythromycin and curcumin combined treatment markedly suppressed bacterial growth, substantially alleviated bone infection and reduced TNF-α and IL-6. Combination of erythromycin and curcumin lead a much stronger efficiency against MRSA induced osteomyelitis in rats than monotherapy. Our study suggests that erythromycin and curcumin could be a new combination for treating MRSA induced osteomyelitis.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus Adapts to Oxidative Stress by Producing H2O2-Resistant Small-Colony Variants via the SOS Response

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    Painter, Kimberley L.; Strange, Elizabeth; Bamford, Kathleen B.; Armstrong-James, Darius

    2015-01-01

    The development of chronic and recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections is associated with the emergence of slow-growing mutants known as small-colony variants (SCVs), which are highly tolerant of antibiotics and can survive inside host cells. However, the host and bacterial factors which underpin SCV emergence during infection are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that exposure of S. aureus to sublethal concentrations of H2O2 leads to a specific, dose-dependent increase in the population frequency of gentamicin-resistant SCVs. Time course analyses revealed that H2O2 exposure caused bacteriostasis in wild-type cells during which time SCVs appeared spontaneously within the S. aureus population. This occurred via a mutagenic DNA repair pathway that included DNA double-strand break repair proteins RexAB, recombinase A, and polymerase V. In addition to triggering SCV emergence by increasing the mutation rate, H2O2 also selected for the SCV phenotype, leading to increased phenotypic stability and further enhancing the size of the SCV subpopulation by reducing the rate of SCV reversion to the wild type. Subsequent analyses revealed that SCVs were significantly more resistant to the toxic effects of H2O2 than wild-type bacteria. With the exception of heme auxotrophs, gentamicin-resistant SCVs displayed greater catalase activity than wild-type bacteria, which contributed to their resistance to H2O2. Taken together, these data reveal a mechanism by which S. aureus adapts to oxidative stress via the production of a subpopulation of H2O2-resistant SCVs with enhanced catalase production. PMID:25690100

  17. MicroRNA-24 Modulates Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Macrophage Polarization by Suppressing CHI3L1.

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    Jingjing, Zhang; Nan, Zhang; Wei, Wu; Qinghe, Guo; Weijuan, Wang; Peng, Wang; Xiangpeng, Wang

    2017-06-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in host innate anti-Staphylococcus aureus defense, which is tightly regulated by multiple factors, including microRNAs. A recent study showed that miR-24 plays an important role in macrophage polarization. Here, we investigated the biological function of miR-24 in S. aureus-stimulated macrophages. The results revealed that miR-24 expression was significantly decreased in both human and mouse macrophage cell lines with S. aureus stimulation in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, miR-24 overexpression significantly decreased the production of M1 phenotype markers, such as IL-6, iNOS, TNF-α, CD86, and CD80, whereas it increased the production of M2 markers, such as Arg1, CCL17, CCL22, CD163, and CD206, in S. aureus-stimulated macrophages. Conversely, knockdown of miR-24 promoted M1 macrophage polarization but diminished M2 macrophage polarization in S. aureus-stimulated macrophages. Furthermore, CHI3L1 was predicted as a target gene of miR-24 using bioinformatics software and identified by luciferase reporter assay. Additionally, miR-24 overexpression inhibited CHI3L1 expression and downregulated the downstream MAPK pathway in S. aureus-stimulated macrophages. Finally, CHI3L1 overexpression rescued macrophage polarization and MAPK pathway inhibition induced by miR-24 mimic transfection in S. aureus-stimulated macrophages. In conclusion, the data suggest that miR-24 serves as a molecular regulator in S. aureus-induced macrophage polarization through targeting of CHI3L1 and regulation of the MAPK pathway, which may provide a promising therapeutic target for S. aureus-related infections and inflammatory diseases.

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces pigment production and enhances virulence in a white phenotypic variant of Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Antonic, Vlado; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Zhang, Binxue; Izadjoo, Mina J; Alavi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Staphyloxanthin is a virulence factor which protects Staphylococcus aureus in stress conditions. We isolated two pigment variants of S. aureus and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a single wound infection. S. aureus variants displayed white and yellow colony phenotypes. The sequence of the operons for staphyloxanthin synthesis indicated that coding and promoter regions were identical between the two pigment variants. Quorum sensing controls pigment synthesis in some bacteria. It is also shown that P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecules affect S. aureus transcription. We explored whether the co-infecting P. aeruginosa can affect pigment production in the white S. aureus variant. In co-culture experiments between the white variants and a selected number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, only P. aeruginosa induced pigment production in the white variant. Gene expression analysis of the white variant did not indicate upregulation of the crtM and other genes known to be involved in pigment production (sigB, sarA, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene [FPP-synthase], hfq). In contrast, transcription of the catalase gene was significantly upregulated after co-culture. P. aeruginosa-induced pigment synthesis and catalase upregulation correlated with increased resistance to polymyxin B, hydrogen peroxide, and the intracellular environment of macrophages. Our data indicate the presence of silent but functional staphyloxanthin synthesis machinery in a white phenotypic variant of S. aureus which is activated by a co-infecting P. aeruginosa via inter-species communication. Another S. aureus virulence factor, catalase is also induced by this co-infecting bacterium. The resulting phenotypic changes are directly correlated with resistance of the white variant to stressful conditions.

  19. Subinhibitory concentrations of imipenem induce increased resistance to methicillin and imipenem in vitro in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, B A; McClatchey, K D; Schaberg, D R

    1984-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant (MR) Staphylococcus aureus that was susceptible to less than 0.75 micrograms of imipenem per ml demonstrated inducible resistance. MR S. aureus preincubated with 0.05 microgram of imipenem per ml grew in medium with an imipenem concentration of 32 micrograms/ml, and methicillin MICs increased 20-fold. Non-MR S. aureus exhibited no induction. Preincubation with methicillin produced no effect. Induction appeared to be a unique interaction of imipenem with MR S. aureus.

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces pigment production and enhances virulence in a white phenotypic variant of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Antonic V

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vlado Antonic,1–3 Alexander Stojadinovic,3–5 Binxue Zhang,1–3 Mina J Izadjoo,1–3,5 Mohammad Alavi1–3 1Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Diagnostic and Translational Research Center, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 3Combat Wound Initiative Program, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA; 5Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Staphyloxanthin is a virulence factor which protects Staphylococcus aureus in stress conditions. We isolated two pigment variants of S. aureus and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a single wound infection. S. aureus variants displayed white and yellow colony phenotypes. The sequence of the operons for staphyloxanthin synthesis indicated that coding and promoter regions were identical between the two pigment variants. Quorum sensing controls pigment synthesis in some bacteria. It is also shown that P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecules affect S. aureus transcription. We explored whether the co-infecting P. aeruginosa can affect pigment production in the white S. aureus variant. In co-culture experiments between the white variants and a selected number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, only P. aeruginosa induced pigment production in the white variant. Gene expression analysis of the white variant did not indicate upregulation of the crtM and other genes known to be involved in pigment production (sigB, sarA, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene [FPP-synthase], hfq. In contrast, transcription of the catalase gene was significantly upregulated after co-culture. P. aeruginosa-induced pigment synthesis and catalase upregulation correlated with increased resistance to polymyxin B, hydrogen peroxide, and the intracellular environment of macrophages. Our data indicate the presence of silent but functional staphyloxanthin synthesis machinery in a white phenotypic variant

  1. Mild Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection Improves the Course of Subsequent Endogenous S. aureus Bacteremia in Mice.

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    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and evaluate protection in relation to anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. Skin infections once or twice by a clinical S. aureus isolate (isolate P or S. aureus strain 8325-4 were induced in mice free of S. aureus and anti-staphylococcal antibodies. Five weeks later, immunoglobulin G (IgG levels in blood against 25 S. aureus antigens were determined, and LD50 or LD100 bacteremia caused by S. aureus isolate P was induced. S. aureus skin infections led to elevated levels of anti-staphylococcal IgG in blood. One skin infection improved the course of subsequent severe endogenous bacteremia only. A second skin infection further improved animal survival rate, which was associated with increased pre-bacteremia IgG levels against Efb, IsaA, LukD, LukE, Nuc, PrsA and WTA. In conclusion, S. aureus isolate P skin infection in mice reduces the severity of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia only. Although cellular immune effects cannot be rules out, anti-staphylococcal IgG against specified antigens may contribute to this effect.

  2. Probiotic Lactobacilli Modulate Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Activation of Conventional and Unconventional T cells and NK cells

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    Maria A Johansson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are probiotic commensal bacteria and potent modulators of immunity. When present in the gut or supplemented as probiotics, they beneficially modulate ex vivo immune responsiveness. Further, factors derived from several lactobacilli strains act immune regulato-ry in vitro. In contrast, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is known to induce excessive T cell activation. In this study we aimed to investigate S. aureus-induced activation of human muco-sal associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells, γδ T cells, NK cells, as well as of conventional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vitro. Further, we investigated if lactobacilli-derived factors could modulate their activation.PBMC were cultured with S. aureus 161:2 cell free supernatant (CFS, staphylococcal en-terotoxin A or CD3/CD28-beads alone or in combination with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus GG-CFS or Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri DSM 17938-CFS, and activation of T and NK cells was evaluated. S. aureus-CFS induced IFN-γ and CD107a expression as well as proliferation. Co-stimulation with lactobacilli-CFS dampened lymphocyte activation in all cell types analysed. Pre-incubation with lactobacilli-CFS was enough to reduce subsequent activation and the ab-sence of APC or APC-derived IL-10 did not prevent lactobacilli-mediated dampening. Final-ly, lactate selectively dampened activation of unconventional T cells and NK cells. In summary, we show that molecules present in the lactobacilli-CFS are able to directly dampen in vitro activation of conventional and unconventional T cells and of NK cells. This study provides novel insights on the immune modulatory nature of probiotic lactobacilli and suggests a role for lactobacilli in modulation of induced T and NK cell activation.

  3. [Investigation on the process of sapindus saponin purified with macroporous adsorption resin and screening of its bacteriostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong; Lei, Peng; Han, Yu-mei; Yan, Dan

    2010-02-01

    To study the technological parameters of the purification process of saponins with macroporous adsorption resin. The adsorptive characteristics and elutive parameters of the process were studied by taking the elutive and purified ratio of saponins as markers. Bacteriostasis activity of each parts eluted was evaluated by the mean of cup-plate method. 13.6 mL of the extraction of sapindus saponin (crude drugs 0.01 g/mL) was purified with a column of macroporous adsorption resin (phi15 mm x H90 mm, dry weight 2.5 g) and washed with 3BV of distilled water, then eluted with 3BV of 30% ethanol and 3BV of 70% ethanol, most of saponins were collected in the 70% ethanol. With macroporous adsorption resin adsorbing and purifying, the elutive ratio of saponins was 93.8% and the purity reached 250.1%. So this process of applying macroporous adsorption resin to adsorb and purify saponins is feasible, and supplies reference to the purification of other types of saponin.

  4. A Surfactant-Induced Functional Modulation of a Global Virulence Regulator from Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Sukhendu Mandal

    Full Text Available Triton X-100 (TX-100, a useful non-ionic surfactant, reduced the methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus significantly. Many S. aureus proteins were expressed in the presence of TX-100. SarA, one of the TX-100-induced proteins, acts as a global virulence regulator in S. aureus. To understand the effects of TX-100 on the structure, and function of SarA, a recombinant S. aureus SarA (rSarA and its derivative (C9W have been investigated in the presence of varying concentrations of this surfactant using various probes. Our data have revealed that both rSarA and C9W bind to the cognate DNA with nearly similar affinity in the absence of TX-100. Interestingly, their DNA binding activities have been significantly increased in the presence of pre-micellar concentration of TX-100. The increase of TX-100 concentrations to micellar or post-micellar concentration did not greatly enhance their activities further. TX-100 molecules have altered the secondary and tertiary structures of both proteins to some extents. Size of the rSarA-TX-100 complex appears to be intermediate to those of rSarA and TX-100. Additional analyses show a relatively moderate interaction between C9W and TX-100. Binding of TX-100 to C9W has, however, occurred by a cooperative pathway particularly at micellar and higher concentrations of this surfactant. Taken together, TX-100-induced structural alteration of rSarA and C9W might be responsible for their increased DNA binding activity. As TX-100 has stabilized the somewhat weaker SarA-DNA complex effectively, it could be used to study its structure in the future.

  5. Interleukin-33 Receptor (ST2 Deficiency Improves the Outcome of Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Septic Arthritis

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    Larissa Staurengo-Ferrari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The ST2 receptor is a member of the Toll/IL-1R superfamily and interleukin-33 (IL-33 is its agonist. Recently, it has been demonstrated that IL-33/ST2 axis plays key roles in inflammation and immune mediated diseases. Here, we investigated the effect of ST2 deficiency in Staphylococcus aureus-induced septic arthritis physiopathology. Synovial fluid samples from septic arthritis and osteoarthritis individuals were assessed regarding IL-33 and soluble (s ST2 levels. The IL-33 levels in samples from synovial fluid were significantly increased, whereas no sST2 levels were detected in patients with septic arthritis when compared with osteoarthritis individuals. The intra-articular injection of 1 × 107 colony-forming unity/10 μl of S. aureus American Type Culture Collection 6538 in wild-type (WT mice induced IL-33 and sST2 production with a profile resembling the observation in the synovial fluid of septic arthritis patients. Data using WT, and ST2 deficient (−/− and interferon-γ (IFN-γ−/− mice showed that ST2 deficiency shifts the immune balance toward a type 1 immune response that contributes to eliminating the infection due to enhanced microbicide effect via NO production by neutrophils and macrophages. In fact, the treatment of ST2−/− bone marrow-derived macrophage cells with anti-IFN-γ abrogates the beneficial phenotype in the absence of ST2, which confirms that ST2 deficiency leads to IFN-γ expression and boosts the bacterial killing activity of macrophages against S. aureus. In agreement, WT cells achieved similar immune response to ST2 deficiency by IFN-γ treatment. The present results unveil a previously unrecognized beneficial effect of ST2 deficiency in S. aureus-induced septic arthritis.

  6. Human SAP is a novel peptidoglycan recognition protein that induces complement- independent phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jang-Hyun; Kurokawa, Kenji; Jung, Dong-Jun; Kim, Min-Jung; Kim, Chan-Hee; Fujimoto, Yukari; Fukase, Koichi; Coggeshall, K. Mark; Lee, Bok Luel

    2014-01-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for many community-acquired and hospital-associated infections and is associated with high mortality. Concern over the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains has renewed interest in the elucidation of host mechanisms that defend against S. aureus infection. We recently demonstrated that human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binds to S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA), a cell wall glycopolymer, a discovery that prompted further screening to identify additional serum proteins that recognize S. aureus cell wall components. In this report, we incubated human serum with 10 different S. aureus mutants and determined that serum amyloid P component (SAP) bound specifically to a WTA-deficient S. aureus ΔtagO mutant, but not to tagO-complemented, WTA-expressing cells. Biochemical characterization revealed that SAP recognizes bacterial peptidoglycan as a ligand and that WTA inhibits this interaction. Although SAP binding to peptidoglycan was not observed to induce complement activation, SAP-bound ΔtagO cells were phagocytosed by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in an Fcγ receptor-dependent manner. These results indicate that SAP functions as a host defense factor, similar to other peptidoglycan recognition proteins and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors. PMID:23966633

  7. alpha-Toxin is a mediator of Staphylococcus aureus-induced cell death and activates caspases via the intrinsic death pathway independently of death receptor signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bantel, H; Sinha, B; Domschke, W; Peters, Georg; Schulze-Osthoff, K; Jänicke, R U

    2001-01-01

    Infections with Staphylococcus aureus, a common inducer of septic and toxic shock, often result in tissue damage and death of various cell types. Although S. aureus was suggested to induce apoptosis, the underlying signal transduction pathways remained elusive. We show that caspase activation and

  8. Monoclonal antibodies protect from Staphylococcal Enterotoxin K (SEK) induced toxic shock and sepsis by USA300 Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Jorge L; Varshney, Avanish K; Pechuan, Ximo; Dutta, Kaushik; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Fries, Bettina C

    2017-08-18

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading infectious cause of life-threatening disease in humans, yet there is currently no vaccine to combat this bacterium. The pathogenesis of S. aureus is mediated by a diverse array of protein toxins including a large family of secreted pyrogenic superantigens. Neutralization of superantigens, including SEB and TSST-1, has proven to be protective in several animal models of toxic shock and sepsis. We demonstrate, for the first time, that a far more prevalent staphylococcal superantigen, SEK, can also induce lethal shock in mice. Additionally, we describe monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that inhibit SEK-induced mitogenicity as well as protect against SEK-induced lethality, and enhance survival from S. aureus septicemia in murine models. MAb-4G3 (IgG2b), mAb-5G2 (IgG1), and mAb-9H2 (IgG1), all inhibit SEK-induced proliferation and cytokine production of human immune cells. We then demonstrate that passive immunization with a combination of mAb-4G3 and mAb-5G4, 2 mAbs that do not compete for epitope(s) on SEK, significantly enhance survival in a murine model of SEK-induced toxic shock (p = 0.006). In the setting of sepsis, passive immunization with this combination of mAbs also significantly enhances survival in mice after challenge with CA-MRSA strain USA300 (p = 0.03). Furthermore, septic mice that received mAb treatment in conjunction with vancomycin exhibit less morbidity than mice treated with vancomycin alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that the contribution of SEK to S. aureus pathogenesis may be greater than previously appreciated, and that adjunctive therapy with passive immunotherapy against SEs may be beneficial.

  9. Variation among Staphylococcus aureus membrane vesicle proteomes affects cytotoxicity of host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyejin; Oh, Man Hwan; Jun, So Hyun; Kim, Seung Il; Choi, Chi Won; Kwon, Hyo Il; Na, Seok Hyeon; Kim, Yoo Jeong; Nicholas, Asiimwe; Selasi, Gati Noble; Lee, Je Chul

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus secretes membrane-derived vesicles (MVs), which can deliver virulence factors to host cells and induce cytopathology. However, the cytopathology of host cells induced by MVs derived from different S. aureus strains has not yet been characterized. In the present study, the cytotoxic activity of MVs from different S. aureus isolates on host cells was compared and the proteomes of S. aureus MVs were analyzed. The MVs purified from S. aureus M060 isolated from a patient with staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome showed higher cytotoxic activity toward host cells than that shown by MVs from three other clinical S. aureus isolates. S. aureus M060 MVs induced HEp-2 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, but the cytotoxic activity of MVs was completely abolished by treatment with proteinase K. In a proteomic analysis, the MVs from three S. aureus isolates not only carry 25 common proteins, but also carry ≥60 strain-specific proteins. All S. aureus MVs contained δ-hemolysin (Hld), γ-hemolysin, leukocidin D, and exfoliative toxin C, but exfoliative toxin A (ETA) was specifically identified in S. aureus M060 MVs. ETA was delivered to HEp-2 cells via S. aureus MVs. Both rETA and rHld induced cytotoxicity in HEp-2 cells. In conclusion, MVs from clinical S. aureus isolates differ with respect to cytotoxic activity in host cells, and these differences may result from differences in the MV proteomes. Further proteogenomic analysis or mutagenesis of specific genes is necessary to identify cytotoxic factors in S. aureus MVs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The SaeR/S gene regulatory system induces a pro-inflammatory cytokine response during Staphylococcus aureus infection.

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    Robert L Watkins

    Full Text Available Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus accounts for a large portion of the increased staphylococcal disease incidence and can cause illness ranging from mild skin infections to rapidly fatal sepsis syndromes. Currently, we have limited understanding of S. aureus-derived mechanisms contributing to bacterial pathogenesis and host inflammation during staphylococcal disease. Herein, we characterize an influential role for the saeR/S two-component gene regulatory system in mediating cytokine induction using mouse models of S. aureus pathogenesis. Invasive S. aureus infection induced the production of localized and systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interferon gamma (IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-6 and IL-2. In contrast, mice infected with an isogenic saeR/S deletion mutant demonstrated significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Additionally, secreted factors influenced by saeR/S elicited pro-inflammatory cytokines in human blood ex vivo. Our study further demonstrated robust saeR/S-mediated IFN-γ production during both invasive and subcutaneous skin infections. Results also indicated a critical role for saeR/S in promoting bacterial survival and enhancing host mortality during S. aureus peritonitis. Taken together, this study provides insight into specific mechanisms used by S. aureus during staphylococcal disease and characterizes a relationship between a bacterial global regulator of virulence and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators.

  11. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Treated With Punicalagin, a Natural Antibiotic From Pomegranate That Disrupts Iron Homeostasis and Induces SOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bret; Islam, Nazrul; Xu, Yunfeng; Beard, Hunter S; Garrett, Wesley M; Gu, Ganyu; Nou, Xiangwu

    2018-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial, food-borne pathogen of humans, can contaminate raw fruits and vegetables. While physical and chemical methods are available to control S. aureus, scientists are searching for inhibitory phytochemicals from plants. One promising compound from pomegranate is punicalagin, a natural antibiotic. To get a broader understanding of the inhibitory effect of punicalagin on S. aureus growth, high-throughput mass spectrometry and quantitative isobaric labeling was used to investigate the proteome of S. aureus after exposure to a sublethal dose of punicalagin. Nearly half of the proteins encoded by the small genome were interrogated, and nearly half of those exhibited significant changes in accumulation. Punicalagin treatment altered the accumulation of proteins and enzymes needed for iron acquisition, and it altered amounts of enzymes for glycolysis, citric acid cycling, protein biosynthesis, and purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis. Punicalagin treatment also induced an SOS cellular response to damaged DNA. Transcriptional comparison of marker genes shows that the punicalagin-induced iron starvation and SOS responses resembles those produced by EDTA and ciprofloxacin. These results show that punicalagin adversely alters bacterial growth by disrupting iron homeostasis and that it induces SOS, possibly through DNA biosynthesis inhibition. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. IL-22/STAT3-Induced Increases in SLURP1 Expression within Psoriatic Lesions Exerts Antimicrobial Effects against Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Yasuhiro Moriwaki

    Full Text Available SLURP1 is the causal gene for Mal de Meleda (MDM, an autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma and transgressive keratosis. Moreover, although SLURP1 likely serves as an important proliferation/differentiation factor in keratinocytes, the possible relation between SLURP1 and other skin diseases, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, has not been studied, and the pathophysiological control of SLURP1 expression in keratinocytes is largely unknown.Our aim was to examine the involvement of SLURP1 in the pathophysiology of psoriasis using an imiquimod (IMQ-induced psoriasis model mice and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs.SLURP1 expression was up-regulated in the skin of IMQ-induced psoriasis model mice. In NHEKs stimulated with the inflammatory cytokines IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α, which are reportedly expressed in psoriatic lesions, SLURP1 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated by IL-22 but not the other two cytokines. The stimulatory effect of IL-22 was completely suppressed in NHEKs treated with a STAT3 inhibitor or transfected with siRNA targeting STAT3. Because IL-22 induces production of antimicrobial proteins in epithelial cells, the antibacterial activity of SLURP1 was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, which is known to be associated with disease severity in psoriasis. SLURP1 significantly suppressed the growth of S. aureus.These results indicate SLURP1 participates in pathophysiology of psoriasis by regulating keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, and by suppressing the growth of S. aureus.

  13. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Stephen J.; Leech, John M.; O’Keeffe, Kate M.; Mac Aogáin, Micheál; O’Halloran, Dara P.; Lacey, Keenan A.; Tavakol, Mehri; Hearnden, Claire H.; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Humphreys, Hilary; Fennell, Jérôme P.; van Wamel, Willem J.; Foster, Timothy J.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Lavelle, Ed C.; Rogers, Thomas R.; McLoughlin, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans. PMID:26539822

  14. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, Aisling F

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans.

  15. Membrane Destruction and DNA Binding of Staphylococcus aureus Cells Induced by Carvacrol and Its Combined Effect with a Pulsed Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lang-Hong; Wang, Man-Sheng; Zeng, Xin-An; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Gong, De-Ming; Huang, Yan-Bo

    2016-08-17

    Carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, CAR) is an antibacterial ingredient that occurs naturally in the leaves of the plant Origanum vulgare. The antimicrobial mechanism of CAR against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 was investigated in the study. Analysis of the membrane fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that exposure to CAR at low concentrations induced a marked increase in the level of unbranched fatty acids (from 34.90 ± 1.77% to 62.37 ± 4.26%). Moreover, CAR at higher levels severely damaged the integrity and morphologies of the S. aureus cell membrane. The DNA-binding properties of CAR were also investigated using fluorescence, circular dichroism, molecular modeling, and atomic-force microscopy. The results showed that CAR bound to DNA via the minor-groove mode, mildly perturbed the DNA secondary structure, and induced DNA molecules to be aggregated. Furthermore, a combination of CAR with a pulsed-electric field was found to exhibit strong synergistic effects on S. aureus.

  16. Evaluation of constitutive and inducible resistance to clindamycin in clinical samples of Staphylococcus aureus from a tertiary hospital

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    Angelita Bottega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA have become common in hospitals and the community environment, and this wide resistance has limited patient treatment. Clindamycin (CL represents an important alternative therapy for infections caused by S. aureus. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using standard methods may not detect inducible CL resistance. This study was performed to detect the phenotypes of resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (MLSB antibiotics, including CL, in clinical samples of S. aureus from patients at a tertiary hospital in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods One hundred and forty clinical isolates were submitted to the disk diffusion induction test (D-test with an erythromycin (ER disk positioned at a distance of 20mm from a CL disk. The results were interpreted according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. Results In this study, 29 (20.7% of the 140 S. aureus samples were resistant to methicillin (MRSA, and 111 (79.3% were susceptible to methicillin (MSSA. The constitutive resistance phenotype (cMLSB was observed in 20 (14.3% MRSA samples and in 5 (3.6% MSSA samples, whereas the inducible resistance phenotype (iMLSB was observed in 3 (2.1% MRSA samples and in 8 (5.8% MSSA samples. Conclusions The D-test is essential for detecting the iMLSB phenotype because the early identification of this phenotype allows clinicians to choose an appropriate treatment for patients. Furthermore, this test is simple, easy to perform and inexpensive.

  17. Inducible clindamycin and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary care hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, R P; Shrestha, S; Barakoti, A; Amatya, R

    2017-07-11

    Staphylococcus aureus, an important nosocomial pathogen, is frequently associated with infections in human. The management of the infections by it especially methicillin resistant ones is often difficult because methicillin resistant S. aureus is usually resistant to multiple antibiotics. Macrolide-lincosamide streptogramin B family of antibiotics is commonly used to treat such infections as an alternative to vancomycin. This study was conducted over the period of one and half year from November 2013-April 2015 in Microbiology laboratory of Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal to find the incidence of different phenotypes of MLS B resistance among S. aureus from clinical samples and their association with methicillin resistance. Two hundred seventy isolates of S. aureus were included in the study. Methicillin resistance was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion method and inducible clindamycin resistance by erythromycin and clindamycin disc approximation test (D-test). Of the 270 clinical isolates of S. aureus, 25.1% (68/270) were MRSA. Erythromycin and clindamycin resistance was seen in 54.4% (147/270) and 41.8% (113/270) isolates respectively. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin were higher in MRSA as compared to MSSA (erythromycin-resistance: 88.2% Vs 39.1% and clindamycin-resistance: 79.4% Vs 41.8%). The overall prevalence of i MLS B and c MLS B phenotype was 11.48% (31/270) and 29.25% (79/270) respectively. Both i MLS B and c MLS B phenotypes predominated in MRSA strains. Detection rate of MRSA in our study shows the necessity to improve in healthcare practices and to formulate new policy for the control of MRSA infections. Clindamycin resistance in the form of i MLS B and c MLS B especially among MRSA emphasizes the need of D-test to be performed routinely in our set up while using clindamycin as an alternative choice to anti-staphylococcal antibiotics like vancomycin and linezolid in the treatment of staphylococcal infections.

  18. Mode of action of Buddleja cordata verbascoside against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, J G; de Liverant, J G; Martínez, A; Martínez, G; Muñoz, J L; Arciniegas, A; Romo de Vivar, A

    1999-07-01

    We evaluate the mode of action of verbascoside obtained from Buddleja cordata against Staphylococcus aureus by killing kinetics and incorporation of precursors methods. Verbascoside induced lethal effect on S. aureus, by affecting protein synthesis and inhibiting leucine incorporation.

  19. Internalization of Staphylococcus aureus in Lymphocytes Induces Oxidative Stress and DNA Fragmentation: Possible Ameliorative Role of Nanoconjugated Vancomycin

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    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated pathogen causing bloodstream infections, skin and soft tissue infections and pneumonia. Lymphocyte is an important immune cell. The aim of the present paper was to test the ameliorative role of nanoconjugated vancomycin against Vancomycin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (VSSA and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA infection-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes. VSSA and VRSA infections were developed in Swiss mice by intraperitoneal injection of 5×106 CFU/mL bacterial solutions. Nanoconjugated vancomycin was adminstrated to VSSA- and VRSA-infected mice at its effective dose for 10 days. Vancomycin was adminstrated to VSSA- and VRSA-infected mice at a similar dose, respectively, for 10 days. Vancomycin and nanoconjugated vancomycin were adminstrated to normal mice at their effective doses for 10 days. The result of this study reveals that in vivo VSSA and VRSA infection significantly increases the level of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, oxidized glutathione level, nitrite generation, nitrite release, and DNA damage and decreases the level of reduced glutathione, antioxidant enzyme status, and glutathione-dependent enzymes as compared to control group, which were increased or decreased significantly near to normal in nanoconjugated vancomycin-treated group. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of nanoconjugated vancomycin against VSSA and VRSA infection-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes.

  20. Increased Susceptibility of Humanized NSG Mice to Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection.

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    Ching Wen Tseng

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections worldwide. Mice are the most commonly used animals for modeling human staphylococcal infections. However a supra-physiologic S. aureus inoculum is required to establish gross murine skin pathology. Moreover, many staphylococcal factors, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL elaborated by community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA, exhibit selective human tropism and cannot be adequately studied in mice. To overcome these deficiencies, we investigated S. aureus infection in non-obese diabetic (NOD/severe combined immune deficiency (SCID/IL2rγnull (NSG mice engrafted with human CD34+ umbilical cord blood cells. These "humanized" NSG mice require one to two log lower inoculum to induce consistent skin lesions compared with control mice, and exhibit larger cutaneous lesions upon infection with PVL+ versus isogenic PVL- S. aureus. Neutrophils appear important for PVL pathology as adoptive transfer of human neutrophils alone to NSG mice was sufficient to induce dermonecrosis following challenge with PVL+ S. aureus but not PVL- S. aureus. PMX53, a human C5aR inhibitor, blocked PVL-induced cellular cytotoxicity in vitro and reduced the size difference of lesions induced by the PVL+ and PVL- S. aureus, but PMX53 also reduced recruitment of neutrophils and exacerbated the infection. Overall, our findings establish humanized mice as an important translational tool for the study of S. aureus infection and provide strong evidence that PVL is a human virulence factor.

  1. Regulation of Expression of Oxacillin-Inducible Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Staphylococcus aureus

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    Kyle R. Baum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell wall-active antibiotics cause induction of a locus that leads to elevated synthesis of two methionine sulfoxide reductases (MsrA1 and MsrB in Staphylococcus aureus. To understand the regulation of this locus, reporter strains were constructed by integrating a DNA fragment consisting of the msrA1/msrB promoter in front of a promoterless lacZ gene in the chromosome of wild-type and MsrA1-, MsrB-, MsrA1/MsrB-, and SigB-deficient methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strain SH1000 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain COL. These reporter strains were cultured in TSB and the cellular levels of β-galactosidase activity in these cultures were assayed during different growth phases. β-galactosidase activity assays demonstrated that the lack of MsrA1, MsrB, and SigB upregulated the msrA1/msrB promoter in S. aureus strain SH1000. In S. aureus strain COL, the highest level of β-galactosidase activity was observed under the conditions when both MsrA1 and MsrB proteins were absent. The data suggest that the msrA1/msrB locus, in part, is negatively regulated by MsrA1, MsrB, and SigB in S. aureus.

  2. Subinhibitory quinupristin/dalfopristin attenuates virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszczol, Carmen; Bernardo, Katussevani; Krönke, Martin; Krut, Oleg

    2006-09-01

    The semi-synthetic streptogramin quinupristin/dalfopristin antibiotic exerts potent bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus. We investigated whether, like other bactericidal antibiotics used at subinhibitory concentrations, quinupristin/dalfopristin enhances release of toxins by Gram-positive cocci. The activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin on exotoxin release by S. aureus was investigated by 2D SDS-PAGE combined with MALDI-TOF/MS analysis and by western blotting. We show that quinupristin/dalfopristin at subinhibitory concentrations reduces the release of S. aureus factors that induce tumour necrosis factor secretion in macrophages. Furthermore, quinupristin/dalfopristin but not linezolid attenuated S. aureus-mediated killing of infected host cells. When added to S. aureus cultures at different stages of bacterial growth, quinupristin/dalfopristin reduced in a dose-dependent manner the release of specific virulence factors (e.g. autolysin, protein A, alpha- and beta-haemolysins, lipases). In contrast, other presumably non-toxic exoproteins remained unchanged. The results of the present study suggest that subinhibitory quinupristin/dalfopristin inhibits virulence factor release by S. aureus, which might be especially helpful for the treatment of S. aureus infections, where both bactericidal as well as anti-toxin activity may be advantageous.

  3. Potential role of Saudi red propolis in alleviating lung damage induced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus virulence in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddiq, Amna Ali; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the protective impact of aqueous extract of Saudi red propolis against rat lung damage induced by the pathogenic bacteria namely methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 6538 strain. Infected rats were received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of bacterial suspension at a dose of 1 X 10(6) CFU / 100g body weight. Results showed that oral administration of an aqueous extract of propolis (50mg/100g body weight) daily for two weeks to infected rats simultaneously with bacterial infection, effectively ameliorated the alteration of oxidative stress biomarker, malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the antioxidant markers, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), in lungs of infected rats compared with infected untreated ones. Also, the used propolis extract successfully modulated the alterations in proinflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in serum. In addition, the propolis extract successfully modulated the oxidative DNA damage and the apoptosis biomarker, caspase 3, in lungs of S aureus infected rats compared with infected untreated animals. The biochemical results were supported by histo-pathological observation of lung tissues. In conclusion, the beneficial prophylactic role of the aqueous extract of Saudi red propolis against lung damage induced by methicillin resistant S aureus may be related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiapoptosis of its active constituents.

  4. Low pH Enhances the Action of Maximin H5 against Staphylococcus aureus and Helps Mediate Lysylated Phosphatidylglycerol-Induced Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Sarah R; Morton, Leslie Hg; Harris, Frederick; Phoenix, David A

    2016-07-12

    Maximin H5 (MH5) is an amphibian antimicrobial peptide specifically targeting Staphylococcus aureus. At pH 6, the peptide showed an improved ability to penetrate (ΔΠ = 6.2 mN m(-1)) and lyse (lysis = 48%) Staphylococcus aureus membrane mimics, which incorporated physiological levels of lysylated phosphatidylglycerol (Lys-PG, 60%), compared to that at pH 7 (ΔΠ = 5.6 mN m(-1) and lysis = 40% at pH 7) where levels of Lys-PG are lower (40%). The peptide therefore appears to have optimal function at pH levels known to be optimal for the organism's growth. MH5 killed S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration of 90 μM) via membranolytic mechanisms that involved the stabilization of α-helical structure (approximately 45-50%) and showed similarities to the "Carpet" mechanism based on its ability to increase the rigidity (Cs(-1) = 109.94 mN m(-1)) and thermodynamic stability (ΔGmix = -3.0) of physiologically relevant S. aureus membrane mimics at pH 6. On the basis of theoretical analysis, this mechanism might involve the use of a tilted peptide structure, and efficacy was noted to vary inversely with the Lys-PG content of S. aureus membrane mimics for each pH studied (R(2) ∼ 0.97), which led to the suggestion that under biologically relevant conditions, low pH helps mediate Lys-PG-induced resistance in S. aureus to MH5 antibacterial action. The peptide showed a lack of hemolytic activity (<2% hemolysis) and merits further investigation as a potential template for development as an antistaphylococcal agent in medically and biotechnically relevant areas.

  5. Novel patterns of ultraviolet mutagenesis and Weigle reactivation in Staphylococcus aureus and phage phi II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.K.; Hart, M.G.R.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of u.v. irradiation on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus and its phage phi11 were studied. The recA and uvr mutations affected their survival like synonymous mutations in Escherichia coli. Weigle reactivation (W-reactivation) of phi11 occurred in wild-type S. aureus and in a uvr mutant. Reactivation was recA-dependent and was accompanied by u.v.-induced mutagenesis in a temperature-sensitive mutant of phi11. Bacterial mutation to streptomycin resistance was induced by u.v. and was also recA-dependent. In S. aureus, as in E. coli, u.v. was a more effective mutagen in the uvr genetic background. However, a dose-squared response for u.v.-induced mutation of wild-type and uvr strains of S. aureus to streptomycin resistance, and of a trp auxotroph to tryptophan independence, was found only with u.v. doses below 1 J m -2 . In relation to the Uvr mechanism of DNA repair, u.v. mutagenesis in S. aureus may involve both repairable and non-repairable lesions. As in E. Coli, the uvr genetic background reduced the u.v. dose required for maximal W-reactivation of u.v.-irradiated phage. However, there was no enhancement of W-reactivation by post-irradiation broth incubation of S. aureus. The results are compatible with a non-inducible mechanism for this phenomenon. (author)

  6. Response of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus to Amicoumacin A

    OpenAIRE

    Lama, Amrita; Pané-Farré, Jan; Chon, Tai; Wiersma, Anna M.; Sit, Clarissa S.; Vederas, John C.; Hecker, Michael; Nakano, Michiko M.

    2012-01-01

    Amicoumacin A exhibits strong antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), hence we sought to uncover its mechanism of action. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of S. aureus COL in response to amicoumacin A showed alteration in transcription of genes specifying several cellular processes including cell envelope turnover, cross-membrane transport, virulence, metabolism, and general stress response. The most highly induced gene was lrgA, encoding an antiho...

  7. Staphylococcus aureus: methicillin-susceptible S. aureus to methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Susan J; Tice, Alan

    2010-09-15

    The evolution of methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has demanded serious review of antimicrobial use and development of new agents and revised approaches to prevent and overcome drug resistance. Depending on local conditions and patient risk factors, empirical therapy of suspected S. aureus infection may require coverage of drug-resistant organisms with newer agents and novel antibiotic combinations. The question of treatment with inappropriate antibiotics raises grave concerns with regard to methicillin-resistant S. aureus selection, overgrowth, and increased virulence. Several strategies to reduce the nosocomial burden of resistance are suggested, including shortened hospital stays and outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy of the most serious infections.

  8. A porcine model of haematogenous brain infectionwith staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2012-01-01

    A PORCINE MODEL OF HAEMATOGENOUS BRAIN INFECTION WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Astrup Lærke1, Agerholm Jørgen1, Nielsen Ole1, Jensen Henrik1, Leifsson Páll1, Iburg Tine2. 1: Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark boye@life.ku.dk 2: National Veterinary Institute......, Uppsala, Sweden Introduction Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a common cause of sepsis and brain abscesses in man and a frequent cause of porcine pyaemia. Here we present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus-induced brain infection. Materials and Methods Four pigs had two intravenous catheters...... thromboemboli (two pigs). The venous catheter was used for blood sampling before, during and after inoculation. The pigs were euthanized either 24 or 48 hours after inoculation. The brains were collected and examined histologically. Results We describe unifocal suppurative encephalitis 48 hours after...

  9. Revealing fosfomycin primary effect on Staphylococcus aureus transcriptome: modulation of cell envelope biosynthesis and phosphoenolpyruvate induced starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruden Kristina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is a highly adaptable human pathogen and there is a constant search for effective antibiotics. Fosfomycin is a potent irreversible inhibitor of MurA, an enolpyruvyl transferase that uses phosphoenolpyruvate as substrate. The goal of this study was to identify the pathways and processes primarily affected by fosfomycin at the genome-wide transcriptome level to aid development of new drugs. Results S. aureus ATCC 29213 cells were treated with sub-MIC concentrations of fosfomycin and harvested at 10, 20 and 40 minutes after treatment. S. aureus GeneChip statistical data analysis was complemented by gene set enrichment analysis. A visualization tool for mapping gene expression data into biological pathways was developed in order to identify the metabolic processes affected by fosfomycin. We have shown that the number of significantly differentially expressed genes in treated cultures increased with time and with increasing fosfomycin concentration. The target pathway - peptidoglycan biosynthesis - was upregulated following fosfomycin treatment. Modulation of transport processes, cofactor biosynthesis, energy metabolism and nucleic acid biosynthesis was also observed. Conclusions Several pathways and genes downregulated by fosfomycin have been identified, in contrast to previously described cell wall active antibiotics, and was explained by starvation response induced by phosphoenolpyruvate accumulation. Transcriptomic profiling, in combination with meta-analysis, has been shown to be a valuable tool in determining bacterial response to a specific antibiotic.

  10. 5-Aminolevulinic acid induced photodynamic inactivation on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Hsieh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop a simple and fast screening technique to directly evaluate the bactericidal effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-mediated photodynamic inactivation (PDI and to determine the optimal antibacterial conditions of ALA concentrations and the total dosage of light in vitro. The effects of PDI on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of various concentrations of ALA (1.0 mM, 2.5 mM, 5.0 mM, 10.0 mM were examined. All bacterial strains were exponentially grown in the culture medium at room temperature in the dark for 60 minutes and subsequently irradiated with 630 ± 5 nm using a light-emitting diode (LED red light device for accumulating the light doses up to 216 J/cm2. Both bacterial species were susceptible to the ALA-induced PDI. Photosensitization using 1.0 mM ALA with 162 J/cm2 light dose was able to completely reduce the viable counts of S. aureus. A significant decrease in the bacterial viabilities was observed for P. aeruginosa, where 5.0 mM ALA was photosensitized by accumulating the light dose of 162 J/cm2. We demonstrated that the use of microplate-based assays—by measuring the apparent optical density of bacterial colonies at 595 nm—was able to provide a simple and reliable approach for quickly choosing the parameters of ALA-mediated PDI in the cell suspensions.

  11. 5-Aminolevulinic acid induced photodynamic inactivation on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chien-Ming; Huang, Yen-Hao; Chen, Chueh-Pin; Hsieh, Bo-Chuan; Tsai, Tsuimin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a simple and fast screening technique to directly evaluate the bactericidal effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated photodynamic inactivation (PDI) and to determine the optimal antibacterial conditions of ALA concentrations and the total dosage of light in vitro. The effects of PDI on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of various concentrations of ALA (1.0 mM, 2.5 mM, 5.0 mM, 10.0 mM) were examined. All bacterial strains were exponentially grown in the culture medium at room temperature in the dark for 60 minutes and subsequently irradiated with 630 ± 5 nm using a light-emitting diode (LED) red light device for accumulating the light doses up to 216 J/cm 2 . Both bacterial species were susceptible to the ALA-induced PDI. Photosensitization using 1.0 mM ALA with 162 J/cm 2 light dose was able to completely reduce the viable counts of S. aureus. A significant decrease in the bacterial viabilities was observed for P. aeruginosa, where 5.0 mM ALA was photosensitized by accumulating the light dose of 162 J/cm 2 . We demonstrated that the use of microplate-based assays-by measuring the apparent optical density of bacterial colonies at 595 nm-was able to provide a simple and reliable approach for quickly choosing the parameters of ALA-mediated PDI in the cell suspensions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Short communication: Antimicrobial efficacy of intramammary treatment with a novel biphenomycin compound against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Escherichia coli-induced mouse mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demon, Dieter; Breyne, Koen; Schiffer, Guido; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Bovine mastitis undermines udder health, jeopardizes milk production, and entails prohibitive costs, estimated at $2 billion per year in the dairy industry of the United States. Despite intensive research, the dairy industry has not managed to eradicate the 3 major bovine mastitis-inducing pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Escherichia coli. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of a newly formulated biphenomycin compound (AIC102827) was assessed against intramammary Staph. aureus, Strep. uberis, and E. coli infections, using an experimental mouse mastitis model. Based on its effective and protective doses, AIC102827 applied into the mammary gland was most efficient to treat Staph. aureus, but also adequately reduced growth of Strep. uberis or E. coli, indicating its potential as a broad-spectrum candidate to treat staphylococcal, streptococcal, and coliform mastitis in dairy cattle. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus seroproteomes discriminate ruminant isolates causing mild or severe mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Maréchal Caroline

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of mastitis in ruminants. In ewe mastitis, symptoms range from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. S. aureus factors or host-factors contributing to the different outcomes are not completely elucidated. In this study, experimental mastitis was induced on primiparous ewes using two S. aureus strains, isolated from gangrenous (strain O11 or subclinical (strain O46 mastitis. Strains induced drastically distinct clinical symptoms when tested in ewe and mice experimental mastitis. Notably, they reproduced mild (O46 or severe (O11 mastitis in ewes. Ewe sera were used to identify staphylococcal immunoreactive proteins commonly or differentially produced during infections of variable severity and to define core and accessory seroproteomes. Such SERological Proteome Analysis (SERPA allowed the identification of 89 immunoreactive proteins, of which only 52 (58.4% were previously identified as immunogenic proteins in other staphylococcal infections. Among the 89 proteins identified, 74 appear to constitute the core seroproteome. Among the 15 remaining proteins defining the accessory seroproteome, 12 were specific for strain O11, 3 were specific for O46. Distribution of one protein specific for each mastitis severity was investigated in ten other strains isolated from subclinical or clinical mastitis. We report here for the first time the identification of staphylococcal immunogenic proteins common or specific to S. aureus strains responsible for mild or severe mastitis. These findings open avenues in S. aureus mastitis studies as some of these proteins, expressed in vivo, are likely to account for the success of S. aureus as a pathogen of the ruminant mammary gland.

  14. Molecular basis of virulence in Staphylococcus aureus mastitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Le Maréchal

    Full Text Available S. aureus is one of the main pathogens involved in ruminant mastitis worldwide. The severity of staphylococcal infection is highly variable, ranging from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. This work represents an in-depth characterization of S. aureus mastitis isolates to identify bacterial factors involved in severity of mastitis infection.We employed genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to comprehensively compare two clonally related S. aureus strains that reproducibly induce severe (strain O11 and milder (strain O46 mastitis in ewes. Variation in the content of mobile genetic elements, iron acquisition and metabolism, transcriptional regulation and exoprotein production was observed. In particular, O11 produced relatively high levels of exoproteins, including toxins and proteases known to be important in virulence. A characteristic we observed in other S. aureus strains isolated from clinical mastitis cases.Our data are consistent with a dose-dependant role of some staphylococcal factors in the hypervirulence of strains isolated from severe mastitis. Mobile genetic elements, transcriptional regulators, exoproteins and iron acquisition pathways constitute good targets for further research to define the underlying mechanisms of mastitis severity.

  15. Preconditioning with Lipopolysaccharide or Lipoteichoic Acid Protects against Staphylococcus aureus Mammary Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Breyne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most causative agents of mastitis and is associated with chronic udder infections. The persistency of the pathogen is believed to be the result of an insufficient triggering of local inflammatory signaling. In this study, the preclinical mastitis model was used, aiming to evaluate if lipopolysaccharide (LPS or lipoteichoic acid (LTA preconditioning could aid the host in more effectively clearing or at least limiting a subsequent S. aureus infection. A prototypic Gram-negative virulence factor, i.e., LPS and Gram-positive virulence factor, i.e., LTA were screened whether they were able to boost the local immune compartment. Compared to S. aureus-induced inflammation, both toxins had a remarkable high potency to efficiently induce two novel selected innate immunity biomarkers i.e., lipocalin 2 (LCN2 and chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1. When combining mammary inoculation of LPS or LTA prior to a local S. aureus infection, we were able to modulate the innate immune response, reduce local bacterial loads, and induce either LCN2 or CHI3L1 at 24 h post-infection. Clodronate depletion of mammary macrophages also identified that macrophages contribute only to a limited extend to the LPS/LTA-induced immunomodulation upon S. aureus infection. Based on histological neutrophil influx evaluation, concomitant local cytokine profiles and LCN2/CHI3L1 patterns, the macrophage-independent signaling plays a major role in the LPS- or LTA-pretreated S. aureus-infected mouse mammary gland. Our results highlight the importance of a vigilant microenvironment during the innate immune response of the mammary gland and offer novel insights for new approaches concerning effective immunomodulation against a local bacterial infection.

  16. Brain infection following experimental Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Sepsis is a major problem in humans and both the incidence and mortality is increasing. Multiple microabcesses can be found in the brain of septic patients. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sepsis and brain abscesses. S. aureus is also a frequent cause...... of spontaneous porcine pyemia including endocarditis and associated brain lesions. We present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus induced brain infection. Materials and Methods: Twelve pigs received an intravenous injection of S. aureus of 108 CFU/kg body weight once at 0h or twice at 0h and 12h. Four...... pigs were kept as controls. The pigs were euthanized in groups of four at either 6, 12, 24 or 48 h post infection. The brain was collected from all the animals and examined histologically. Results: All the inoculated pigs developed sepsis and 7 out of 12 animals had microabscesses in the prosencephalon...

  17. Photoreactivation of ultraviolet-irradiation damage in Staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, B. Jr.; Allen, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    This study reports the capacity of Staphylococcus aureus strain 7 - 8 to undergo photoenzymatic repair of UV-irradiation induced damage and compares it to the photoreactivation (PR) response of Escherichia coli strain B. Staphylococcus aureaus showed greater inhibition by UV irradiation than E. coli, consistent with its higher adenine and thymine content of DNA. Staphylococcus aureus showed an enhanced rate of photoreactivation with no lag in initiation of the PR response at low PR doses compared to E. coli. Maximum PR capacity of both cultures was about equal and occurred in cultures incubated at 23 - 25 0 . The PR responses at 11 - 12 and 35 - 37 0 for S. aureus and E. coli differed although both were capable of PR at each of these temperatures. The PR response of E. coli was directly related to the dosage of PR light (J/m 2 ); however, the photoenzymatic capacity of S. aureus was not directly responsive to continued decrease in light intensity. The capacity of S. aureus to undergo liquid holding recovery (LHR) occurred at 23 - 25 0 (not at 11 - 12 0 or 35 - 37 0 ), whereas E. coli underwent LHR at 11 - 12 0 and 23 - 25 0 but not at 35 - 37 0 . The LHR response of S. aureus was somewhat more effective than E. coli and did not show the direct response to increased liquid-holding period as did E. coli. (author)

  18. Clumping factor A-mediated virulence during Staphylococcus aureus infection is retained despite fibrinogen depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmqvist, Niklas; Josefsson, Elisabet; Tarkowski, Andrzej

    2004-02-01

    Clumping factor A (ClfA), a fibrinogen-binding protein expressed on the Staphylococcus aureus cell surface, has previously been shown to act as a virulence factor in experimental septic arthritis. Although the interaction between ClfA and fibrinogen is assumed to be of importance for the virulence of S. aureus, this has not been demonstrated in any in vivo model of infection. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of this interaction to ClfA-mediated virulence in murine S. aureus-induced arthritis. Ancrod, a serine protease with thrombin-like activity, was used to induce in vivo depletion of fibrinogen in mice. Ancrod treatment significantly aggravated septic arthritis following inoculation with a ClfA-expressing strain (Newman) compared to control treatment. Also, ancrod treatment tended to enhance the arthritis induced by a clfA mutant strain (DU5876), indicating that fibrinogen depletion exacerbates septic arthritis in a ClfA-independent manner. Most importantly, the ClfA-expressing strain was much more arthritogenic than the isogenic clfA mutant, following inoculation of fibrinogen-depleted mice. This finding indicates that the interaction between ClfA and free fibrinogen is not required for ClfA-mediated functions contributing to S. aureus virulence. It is conceivable that ClfA contributes to the virulence of S. aureus through interactions with other host ligands than fibrinogen.

  19. Enhancement of photodynamic inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms by disruptive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gándara, Lautaro; Mamone, Leandro; Bohm, Gabriela Cervini; Buzzola, Fernanda; Casas, Adriana

    2017-11-01

    Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers and visible light. On the one hand, near-infrared treatment (NIRT) has also bactericidal and dispersal effects on biofilms. In addition, dispersal biological tools such as enzymes have also been employed in antibiotic combination treatments. The aim of this work was to use alternative approaches to increase the PDI efficacy, employing combination therapies aimed at the partial disruption of the biofilms, thus potentially increasing photosensitizer or oxygen penetration and interaction with bacteria. To that end, we applied toluidine blue (TB)-PDI treatment to Staphylococcus aureus biofilms previously treated with NIRT or enzymes and investigated the outcome of the combined therapies. TB employed at 0.5 mM induced per se 2-log drop in S. aureus RN6390 biofilm viability. Each NIRT (980-nm laser) and PDI (635-nm laser) treatment induced a further reduction of 1-log of viable counts. The combination of successive 980- and 635-nm laser treatments on TB-treated biofilms induced additive effects, leading to a 4.5-log viable count decrease. Proteinase K treatment applied to S. aureus of the Newman strain induced an additive effect on PDI mortality, leading to an overall 4-log decrease in S. aureus viability. Confocal scanning laser microscopy after biofilm staining with a fluorescent viability test and scanning electron microscopy observations were correlated with colony counts. The NIRT dose employed (227 J/cm 2 ) led to an increase from 21 to 47 °C in the buffer temperature of the biofilm system, and this NIRT dose also induced 100% keratinocyte death. Further work is needed to establish conditions under which biofilm dispersal occurs at lower NIRT doses.

  20. Diminished Virulence of an Alpha-Toxin Mutant of Staphylococcus aureus in Experimental Brain Abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Kielian, Tammy; Cheung, Ambrose; Hickey, William F.

    2001-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major etiologic agents of brain abscesses in humans, occasionally leading to focal neurological deficits and even death. The objective of the present study was to identify key virulence determinants contributing to the pathogenesis of S. aureus in the brain using a murine brain abscess model. The importance of virulence factor production in disease development was demonstrated by the inability of heat-inactivated S. aureus to induce proinflammatory cytokine...

  1. Commercial Biocides Induce Transfer of Prophage Φ13 from Human Strains of Staphylococcus aureus to Livestock CC398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanyue; Nielsen, Lene N; Hvitved, Annemette; Haaber, Jakob K; Wirtz, Christiane; Andersen, Paal S; Larsen, Jesper; Wolz, Christiane; Ingmer, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Human strains of Staphylococcus aureus commonly carry the bacteriophage ΦSa3 that encodes immune evasion factors. Recently, this prophage has been found in livestock-associated, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 strains where it may promote human colonization. Here, we have addressed if exposure to biocidal products induces phage transfer, and find that during co-culture, Φ13 from strain 8325, belonging to ΦSa3 group, is induced and transferred from a human strain to LA-MRSA CC398 when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of commercial biocides containing hydrogen peroxide. Integration of ΦSa3 in LA-MRSA CC398 occurs at multiple positions and the integration site influences the stability of the prophage. We did not observe integration in hlb encoding β-hemolysin that contains the preferred ΦSa3 attachment site in human strains, and we demonstrate that this is due to allelic variation in CC398 strains that disrupts the phage attachment site, but not the expression of β-hemolysin. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide present in biocidal products stimulate transfer of ΦSa3 from human to LA-MRSA CC398 strains and that in these strains prophage stability depends on the integration site. Knowledge of ΦSa3 transfer and stability between human and livestock strains may lead to new intervention measures directed at reducing human infection by LA-MRSA strains.

  2. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Lumbini Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Palpa, Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Shristi; Bajracharya, Kishor; Adhikari, Janak; Pant, Sushama Suresh; Adhikari, Bipin

    2017-06-02

    Multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus is common in both tertiary and primary health care settings. Emergence of methicillin resistance in S. aureus (MRSA) along with macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin B (MLSB) has made treatment of Staphylococcal infection more challenging. The main objective of this study was to detect MRSA, MLSB (inducible; MLSBi and constitutive; MLSBc) resistant S. aureus using phenotypic methods and to determine their antibiogram. Various samples were collected from 1981 patients who attended Lumbini Medical College and Teaching Hospital (LMCTH) during the period of 6 months from September 2015 to February 2016. Out of a total of 1981 samples, 133 S. aureus were isolated. Cefoxitin was used to detect MRSA by the disk diffusion test. Inducible clindamycin resistance (MLSBi) was detected by the D-zone test. The antibiotic profile of all isolates was tested by a modified Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. Among 133 S. aureus, there were 58 (43.6%) MRSA, 34 (25.6%) MLSBi and 30 (22.6%) MLSBc. Of a total of 64 MLSB, a significant proportion (62.5%) was MRSA (p aureus, MRSA showed significant resistance to 9 (p resistance to multiple antibiotics (p resistance profiles from this study can optimize the treatment of multi-drug resistant S. aureus.

  3. Distinct pathogenesis and host responses during infection of C. elegans by P. aeruginosa and S. aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irazoqui, Javier E; Troemel, Emily R; Feinbaum, Rhonda L; Luhachack, Lyly G; Cezairliyan, Brent O; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2010-07-01

    The genetically tractable model host Caenorhabditis elegans provides a valuable tool to dissect host-microbe interactions in vivo. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus utilize virulence factors involved in human disease to infect and kill C. elegans. Despite much progress, virtually nothing is known regarding the cytopathology of infection and the proximate causes of nematode death. Using light and electron microscopy, we found that P. aeruginosa infection entails intestinal distention, accumulation of an unidentified extracellular matrix and P. aeruginosa-synthesized outer membrane vesicles in the gut lumen and on the apical surface of intestinal cells, the appearance of abnormal autophagosomes inside intestinal cells, and P. aeruginosa intracellular invasion of C. elegans. Importantly, heat-killed P. aeruginosa fails to elicit a significant host response, suggesting that the C. elegans response to P. aeruginosa is activated either by heat-labile signals or pathogen-induced damage. In contrast, S. aureus infection causes enterocyte effacement, intestinal epithelium destruction, and complete degradation of internal organs. S. aureus activates a strong transcriptional response in C. elegans intestinal epithelial cells, which aids host survival during infection and shares elements with human innate responses. The C. elegans genes induced in response to S. aureus are mostly distinct from those induced by P. aeruginosa. In contrast to P. aeruginosa, heat-killed S. aureus activates a similar response as live S. aureus, which appears to be independent of the single C. elegans Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) protein. These data suggest that the host response to S. aureus is possibly mediated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Because our data suggest that neither the P. aeruginosa nor the S. aureus-triggered response requires canonical TLR signaling, they imply the existence of unidentified mechanisms for pathogen detection in C. elegans, with

  4. Distinct pathogenesis and host responses during infection of C. elegans by P. aeruginosa and S. aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier E Irazoqui

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetically tractable model host Caenorhabditis elegans provides a valuable tool to dissect host-microbe interactions in vivo. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus utilize virulence factors involved in human disease to infect and kill C. elegans. Despite much progress, virtually nothing is known regarding the cytopathology of infection and the proximate causes of nematode death. Using light and electron microscopy, we found that P. aeruginosa infection entails intestinal distention, accumulation of an unidentified extracellular matrix and P. aeruginosa-synthesized outer membrane vesicles in the gut lumen and on the apical surface of intestinal cells, the appearance of abnormal autophagosomes inside intestinal cells, and P. aeruginosa intracellular invasion of C. elegans. Importantly, heat-killed P. aeruginosa fails to elicit a significant host response, suggesting that the C. elegans response to P. aeruginosa is activated either by heat-labile signals or pathogen-induced damage. In contrast, S. aureus infection causes enterocyte effacement, intestinal epithelium destruction, and complete degradation of internal organs. S. aureus activates a strong transcriptional response in C. elegans intestinal epithelial cells, which aids host survival during infection and shares elements with human innate responses. The C. elegans genes induced in response to S. aureus are mostly distinct from those induced by P. aeruginosa. In contrast to P. aeruginosa, heat-killed S. aureus activates a similar response as live S. aureus, which appears to be independent of the single C. elegans Toll-Like Receptor (TLR protein. These data suggest that the host response to S. aureus is possibly mediated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. Because our data suggest that neither the P. aeruginosa nor the S. aureus-triggered response requires canonical TLR signaling, they imply the existence of unidentified mechanisms for pathogen detection in C

  5. Eugenol reduces the expression of virulence-related exoproteins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiazhang; Feng, Haihua; Lu, Jing; Xiang, Hua; Wang, Dacheng; Dong, Jing; Wang, Jianfeng; Wang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Juxiong; Deng, Xuming

    2010-09-01

    Eugenol, an essential oil component in plants, has been demonstrated to possess activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. This study examined the influence that subinhibitory concentrations of eugenol may have on the expression of the major exotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. The results from a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release assay and a hemolysin assay indicated that S. aureus cultured with graded subinhibitory concentrations of eugenol (16 to 128 microg/ml) dose dependently decreased the TNF-inducing and hemolytic activities of culture supernatants. Western blot analysis showed that eugenol significantly reduced the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), SEB, and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (the key exotoxins to induce TNF release), as well as the expression of alpha-hemolysin (the major hemolysin to cause hemolysis). In addition, this suppression was also evaluated at the transcriptional level via real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis. The transcriptional analysis indicated that 128 microg/ml of eugenol remarkably repressed the transcription of the S. aureus sea, seb, tst, and hla genes. According to these results, eugenol has the potential to be rationally applied on food products as a novel food antimicrobial agent both to inhibit the growth of bacteria and to suppress the production of exotoxins by S. aureus.

  6. Low Fluid Shear Culture of Staphylococcus Aureus Represses hfq Expression and Induces an Attachment-Independent Biofilm Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark; Castro, S. L.; Nickerson, C. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, experiences fluctuations in fluid shear during infection and colonization of a human host. Colonization frequently occurs at mucus membrane sites such as in the gastrointestinal tract where the bacterium may experience low levels of fluid shear. The response of S. aureus to low fluid shear remains unclear. Methods: S. aureus was cultured to stationary phase using Rotating-Wall Vessel (RWV) bioreactors which produce a physiologically relevant low fluid shear environment. The bacterial aggregates that developed in the RWV were evaluated by electron microscopy as well as for antibiotic resistance and other virulence-associated stressors. Genetic expression profiles for the low-shear cultured S. aureus were determined by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Planktonic S. aureus cultures in the low-shear environment formed aggregates completely encased in high amounts of extracellular polymeric substances. In addition, these aggregates demonstrated increased antibiotic resistance indicating attachment-independent biofilm formation. Carotenoid production in the low-shear cultured S. aureus was significantly decreased, and these cultures displayed an increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and killing by whole blood. The hfq gene, associated with low-shear growth in Gram negative organisms, was also found to be down-regulated in S. aureus. Conclusions: Collectively, this data suggests that S. aureus decreases virulence characteristics in favor of a biofilm-dwelling colonization phenotype in response to a low fluid shear environment. Furthermore, the identification of an Hfq response to low-shear culture in S. aureus, in addition to the previously reported responses in Gram negative organisms, strongly suggests an evolutionarily conserved response to mechanical stimuli among structurally diverse prokaryotes.

  7. Adenosine derived from Staphylococcus aureus-engulfed macrophages functions as a potent stimulant for the induction of inflammatory cytokines in mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ying Jie; Kim, Chan-Hee; Ryu, Kyoung-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to isolate novel mast cell-stimulating molecules from Staphylococcus aureus. Water-soluble extract of S. aureus cell lysate strongly induced human interleukin- 8 in human mast cell line-1 and mouse interleukin-6 in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. The active...... adenosine receptor blocker, verified that purified adenosine can induce interleukin-8 production via adenosine receptors on mast cells. Moreover, adenosine was purified from S. aureusengulfed RAW264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line, used to induce phagocytosis of S. aureus. These results show a novel...

  8. Capturing of staphylococcus aureus onto an interface containing graft chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.; Furusaki, Shintaro; Saito, Kyoichi; Sugo, Takanobu; Makuuchi, Keizo.

    1995-01-01

    A microbial-cell-capturing material was prepared by radiation-induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate onto a polyethylene-based fiber before the introduction of diethylamine. The prepared fiber was tested against a Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli solution. The results showed that the grafted-type fiber had a capturing rate constant 1000-fold higher than the commercial crosslinked-type bead for S. aureus and that an activation energy of 39 kJ/mol was obtained for the microbial-cell-capturing action. (author)

  9. Detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Vancomycin for Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Pus/Wound Swab Samples of the Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghabendra Adhikari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of cefoxitin disc diffusion method and oxacillin broth microdilution method for detection of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA, taking presence of mecA gene as reference. In addition, inducible clindamycin resistance and beta-lactamase production were studied and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of vancomycin for S. aureus isolates was determined. A total of 711 nonrepeated pus/wound swab samples from different anatomic locations were included in the study. The Staphylococcus aureus was identified on the basis of colony morphology, Gram’s stain, and biochemical tests. A total of 110 (15.47% S. aureus isolates were recovered, of which 39 (35.50% isolates were identified as MRSA by cefoxitin disc diffusion method. By oxacillin broth microdilution method, 31.82% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found to be MRSA. However, mecA gene was present in only 29.1% of the isolates. Further, beta-lactamase production was observed in 71.82% of the isolates, while inducible clindamycin resistance was found in 10% of S. aureus isolates. The MIC value of vancomycin for S. aureus ranged from 0.016 μg/mL to 1 μg/mL. On the basis of the absolute sensitivity (100%, both phenotypic methods could be employed for routine diagnosis of MRSA in clinical microbiology laboratory; however cefoxitin disc diffusion could be preferred over MIC method considering time and labour factor.

  10. Lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus induces lung endothelial cell barrier dysfunction: role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Barton Pai

    Full Text Available Tunneled central venous catheters (TCVCs are used for dialysis access in 82% of new hemodialysis patients and are rapidly colonized with Gram-positive organism (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm, a source of recurrent infections and chronic inflammation. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA, a cell wall ribitol polymer from Gram-positive organisms, mediates inflammation through the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2. The effect of LTA on lung endothelial permeability is not known. We tested the hypothesis that LTA from Staphylococcus aureus induces alterations in the permeability of pulmonary microvessel endothelial monolayers (PMEM that result from activation of TLR2 and are mediated by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS. The permeability of PMEM was assessed by the clearance rate of Evans blue-labeled albumin, the activation of the TLR2 pathway was assessed by Western blot, and the generation of RONS was measured by the fluorescence of oxidized dihydroethidium and a dichlorofluorescein derivative. Treatment with LTA or the TLR2 agonist Pam((3CSK((4 induced significant increases in albumin permeability, IκBα phosphorylation, IRAK1 degradation, RONS generation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activation (as measured by the p-eNOS(ser1177:p-eNOS(thr495 ratio. The effects on permeability and RONS were effectively prevented by co-administration of the superoxide scavenger Tiron, the peroxynitrite scavenger Urate, or the eNOS inhibitor L-NAME and these effects as well as eNOS activation were reduced or prevented by pretreatment with an IRAK1/4 inhibitor. The results indicate that the activation of TLR2 and the generation of ROS/RNS mediates LTA-induced barrier dysfunction in PMEM.

  11. Antibiotic tolerance and the alternative lifestyles of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Long M G; Conlon, Brian P; Kidd, Stephen P

    2017-02-28

    Staphylococcus aureus has an incredible ability to survive, either by adapting to environmental conditions or defending against exogenous stress. Although there are certainly important genetic traits, in part this ability is provided by the breadth of modes of growth S. aureus can adopt. It has been proposed that while within their host, S. aureus survives host-generated and therapeutic antimicrobial stress via alternative lifestyles: a persister sub-population, through biofilm growth on host tissue or by growing as small colony variants (SCVs). Key to an understanding of chronic and relapsing S. aureus infections is determining the molecular basis for its switch to these quasi-dormant lifestyles. In a multicellular biofilm, the metabolically quiescent bacterial community additionally produces a highly protective extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Furthermore, there are bacteria within a biofilm community that have an altered physiology potentially equivalent to persister cells. Recent studies have directly linked the cellular ATP production by persister cells as their key feature and the basis for their tolerance of a range of antibiotics. In clinical settings, SCVs of S. aureus have been observed for many years; when cultured, these cells form non-pigmented colonies and are approximately ten times smaller than their counterparts. Various genotypic factors have been identified in attempts to characterize S. aureus SCVs and different environmental stresses have been implicated as important inducers. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. Antibiotic-mediated selection of quorum-sensing-negative Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulander, Wilhelm Erik Axel; Varming, Anders Nissen; Bæk, Kristoffer Torbjørn

    2012-01-01

    of glycopeptide resistance greater than those of other strains. We show here that agr-negative strains have a fitness advantage over agr-positive strains in the presence of sublethal concentrations of some antibiotics and that the fitness defect of agr-positive cells is caused by antibiotic-mediated expression...... expression. We demonstrate that the presence of the agr locus imposes a fitness cost on S. aureus that is mediated by the expression of RNAIII. Further, we show that exposure to sublethal levels of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, mupirocin, and rifampin, each targeting separate cellular functions, markedly...... increases the agr-mediated fitness cost by inducing the expression of RNAIII. Thus, the extensive use of antibiotics in hospitals may explain why agr-negative variants are frequently isolated from hospital-acquired S. aureus infections but rarely found among community-acquired S. aureus strains. Importantly...

  13. Cross-Talk between Staphylococcus aureus and Other Staphylococcal Species via the agr Quorum Sensing System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canovas de la Nuez, Jaime; Baldry, Mara; Bojer, Martin S

    2016-01-01

    -inducing peptides (AIPs) sensed by AgrC, a two component histidine kinase. agr loci are found also in other staphylococcal species and for Staphylococcus epidermidis, the encoded AIP represses expression of agr regulated virulence genes in S. aureus. In this study we aimed to better understand the interaction...... between staphylococci and S. aureus, and show that this interaction may eventually lead to the identification of new anti-virulence candidates to target S. aureus infections. Here we show that culture supernatants of 37 out of 52 staphylococcal isolates representing 17 different species inhibit S. aureus...... suggesting that agr is an inter-species communication system. Based on these results we speculate that interactions between S. aureus and other colonizing staphylococci will significantly influence the ability of S. aureus to cause infection, and we propose that other staphylococci are potential sources...

  14. Preclinical Efficacy of Clumping Factor A in Prevention of Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections has become increasingly difficult because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates. Development of a vaccine to prevent staphylococcal infections remains a priority. To determine whether clumping factor A (ClfA is a good target protein for inclusion in a multivalent vaccine, we evaluated its efficacy in a variety of relevant staphylococcal infection models, challenging with different S. aureus strains. ClfA adsorbed to Alhydrogel and mixed with Sigma Adjuvant System was more immunogenic and stimulated a more robust Th17 response than ClfA administered with alum alone. ClfA immunization induced the production of functional antibodies in rabbits and mice that blocked S. aureus binding to fibrinogen and were opsonic for S. aureus strains that produced little or no capsular polysaccharide. Mice immunized with ClfA showed a modest reduction in the bacterial burden recovered from subcutaneous abscesses provoked by S. aureus USA300 strain LAC. In addition, the ClfA vaccine reduced lethality in a sepsis model following challenge with strain Newman, but not ST80. Vaccination with ClfA did not protect against surgical wound infection, renal abscess formation, or bacteremia. Passive immunization with antibodies to ClfA did not protect against staphylococcal bacteremia in mice or catheter-induced endocarditis in rats. Some enhancement of bacteremia was observed by ClfA immunization or passive administration of ClfA antibodies when mice were challenged by the intraperitoneal route. Although rodent models of staphylococcal infection have their limitations, our data do not support the inclusion of ClfA in an S. aureus multivalent vaccine.

  15. Preclinical Efficacy of Clumping Factor A in Prevention of Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Wang, Xiaogang; Thompson, Christopher D.; Park, Saeyoung; Park, Wan Beom

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections has become increasingly difficult because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates. Development of a vaccine to prevent staphylococcal infections remains a priority. To determine whether clumping factor A (ClfA) is a good target protein for inclusion in a multivalent vaccine, we evaluated its efficacy in a variety of relevant staphylococcal infection models, challenging with different S. aureus strains. ClfA adsorbed to Alhydrogel and mixed with Sigma Adjuvant System was more immunogenic and stimulated a more robust Th17 response than ClfA administered with alum alone. ClfA immunization induced the production of functional antibodies in rabbits and mice that blocked S. aureus binding to fibrinogen and were opsonic for S. aureus strains that produced little or no capsular polysaccharide. Mice immunized with ClfA showed a modest reduction in the bacterial burden recovered from subcutaneous abscesses provoked by S. aureus USA300 strain LAC. In addition, the ClfA vaccine reduced lethality in a sepsis model following challenge with strain Newman, but not ST80. Vaccination with ClfA did not protect against surgical wound infection, renal abscess formation, or bacteremia. Passive immunization with antibodies to ClfA did not protect against staphylococcal bacteremia in mice or catheter-induced endocarditis in rats. Some enhancement of bacteremia was observed by ClfA immunization or passive administration of ClfA antibodies when mice were challenged by the intraperitoneal route. Although rodent models of staphylococcal infection have their limitations, our data do not support the inclusion of ClfA in an S. aureus multivalent vaccine. PMID:26838725

  16. Commercial Biocides Induce Transfer of Prophage Φ13 from Human Strains of Staphylococcus aureus to Livestock CC398

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyue Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human strains of Staphylococcus aureus commonly carry the bacteriophage ΦSa3 that encodes immune evasion factors. Recently, this prophage has been found in livestock-associated, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA CC398 strains where it may promote human colonization. Here, we have addressed if exposure to biocidal products induces phage transfer, and find that during co-culture, Φ13 from strain 8325, belonging to ΦSa3 group, is induced and transferred from a human strain to LA-MRSA CC398 when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of commercial biocides containing hydrogen peroxide. Integration of ΦSa3 in LA-MRSA CC398 occurs at multiple positions and the integration site influences the stability of the prophage. We did not observe integration in hlb encoding β-hemolysin that contains the preferred ΦSa3 attachment site in human strains, and we demonstrate that this is due to allelic variation in CC398 strains that disrupts the phage attachment site, but not the expression of β-hemolysin. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide present in biocidal products stimulate transfer of ΦSa3 from human to LA-MRSA CC398 strains and that in these strains prophage stability depends on the integration site. Knowledge of ΦSa3 transfer and stability between human and livestock strains may lead to new intervention measures directed at reducing human infection by LA-MRSA strains.

  17. Relationship and susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus aureus infection diabetic foot ulcers with Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Aza Bahadeen

    2013-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the main cause of diabetic foot infection with the patient's endogenous flora as the principal source. Nasal carriage of S. aureus has been identified as an important risk factor for the acquisition of diabetic foot infections. The study assessment the associations of S. aureus with methicillin resistant S. aureus were isolation from diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage of the same patients and their antibiotic susceptibility profile. Diagnosis of S. aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus were carried out by using standard procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles were determent by breakpoint dilution method. Out of 222 S. aureus isolation, 139 (62.61%) were isolated from the diabetic foot and 83 (37.39%) from the nasal carriage. Seventy one (30.87%) of the patients were S. aureus infection diabetic foot with nasal carriage. Among diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage patients, 40.85% of S. aureus were considered as methicillin resistant S. aureus. Rifampicin (96.40%) and Levofloxacin (91.44%) were active against S. aureus. Patients at strong risk for methicillin resistant S. aureus nasal carriage and subsequent diabetic foot infection with high resistance to antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spontaneous methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, William D; Sheele, Johnathan M

    2018-05-01

    Spontaneous methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) meningitis is extremely rare and has a high mortality rate. We report a case of MRSA meningitis in an otherwise healthy young adult female with no recent trauma or neurosurgical interventions. Despite antibiotics she suffered a vasculitis-induced cerebral vascular ischemic event. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Filaments in curved streamlines: rapid formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm streamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin Kim, Minyoung; Drescher, Knut; Shun Pak, On; Stone, Howard A; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are surface-associated conglomerates of bacteria that are highly resistant to antibiotics. These bacterial communities can cause chronic infections in humans by colonizing, for example, medical implants, heart valves, or lungs. Staphylococcus aureus, a notorious human pathogen, causes some of the most common biofilm-related infections. Despite the clinical importance of S. aureus biofilms, it remains mostly unknown how physical effects, in particular flow, and surface structure influence biofilm dynamics. Here we use model microfluidic systems to investigate how environmental factors, such as surface geometry, surface chemistry, and fluid flow affect biofilm development of S. aureus. We discovered that S. aureus rapidly forms flow-induced, filamentous biofilm streamers, and furthermore if surfaces are coated with human blood plasma, streamers appear within minutes and clog the channels more rapidly than if the channels are uncoated. To understand how biofilm streamer filaments reorient in flows with curved streamlines to bridge the distances between corners, we developed a mathematical model based on resistive force theory of slender filaments. Understanding physical aspects of biofilm formation of S. aureus may lead to new approaches for interrupting biofilm formation of this pathogen. (paper)

  20. Relationship between Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin-Intermediate S. aureus, High Vancomycin MIC, and Outcome in Serious S. aureus Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Natasha E.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2012-01-01

    Vancomycin has been used successfully for over 50 years for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections, particularly those involving methicillin-resistant S. aureus. It has proven remarkably reliable, but its efficacy is now being questioned with the emergence of strains of S. aureus that display heteroresistance, intermediate resistance, and, occasionally, complete vancomycin resistance. More recently, an association has been established between poor outcome and infections with strain...

  1. Bacterial Nitric Oxide Synthase Is Required for the Staphylococcus aureus Response to Heme Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdel, Matthew C; Dutter, Brendan F; Sulikowski, Gary A; Skaar, Eric P

    2016-08-12

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Within the vertebrate host, S. aureus requires heme as a nutrient iron source and as a cofactor for multiple cellular processes. Although required for pathogenesis, excess heme is toxic. S. aureus employs a two-component system, the heme sensor system (HssRS), to sense and protect against heme toxicity. Upon activation, HssRS induces the expression of the heme-regulated transporter (HrtAB), an efflux pump that alleviates heme toxicity. The ability to sense and respond to heme is critical for the pathogenesis of numerous Gram-positive organisms, yet the mechanism of heme sensing remains unknown. Compound '3981 was identified in a high-throughput screen as an activator of staphylococcal HssRS that triggers HssRS independently of heme accumulation. '3981 is toxic to S. aureus; however, derivatives of '3981 were synthesized that lack toxicity while retaining HssRS activation, enabling the interrogation of the heme stress response without confounding toxic effects of the parent molecule. Using '3981 derivatives as probes of the heme stress response, numerous genes required for '3981-induced activation of HssRS were uncovered. Specifically, multiple genes involved in the production of nitric oxide were identified, including the gene encoding bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS). bNOS protects S. aureus from oxidative stress imposed by heme. Taken together, this work identifies bNOS as crucial for the S. aureus heme stress response, providing evidence that nitric oxide synthesis and heme sensing are intertwined.

  2. Mixed Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus Induced Inflammation and Ameliorate Intestinal Microflora in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dayong; Gong, Shengjie; Shu, Jingyan; Zhu, Jianwei; Rong, Fengjun; Zhang, Zhenye; Wang, Di; Gao, Liangfeng; Qu, Tianming; Liu, Hongyan; Chen, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Objective . Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that causes intestinal infection. We examined the immunomodulatory function of single and mixed Lactobacillus plantarum strains, as well as their impacts on the structure of the microbiome in mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus . The experiment was divided into three groups: protection, treatment, and control. Serum IFN- γ and IL-4 levels, as well as intestinal sIgA levels, were measured during and 1 week after infection with Staphylococcus aureus with and without Lactobacillus plantarum treatment. We used 16s rRNA tagged sequencing to analyze microbiome composition. IFN- γ /IL-4 ratio decreased significantly from infection to convalescence, especially in the mixed Lactobacillus plantarum group. In the mixed Lactobacillus plantarum group the secretion of sIgA in the intestine of mice (9.4-9.7 ug/mL) was significantly higher than in the single lactic acid bacteria group. The dominant phyla in mice are Firmicutes , Bacteroidetes , and Proteobacteria . Treatment with mixed lactic acid bacteria increased the anti-inflammatory factor and the secretion of sIgA in the intestine of mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus and inhibited inflammation.

  3. Comparative Efficacy of Ceftaroline with Linezolid against Staphylococcus Aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, A.; Munir, T.; Rehman, S.; Najeeb, S.; Gilani, M.; Latif, M.; Ansari, M.; Saad, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of ceftaroline with linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. Methodology: Clinical samples from respiratory tract, blood, pus and various catheter tips routinely received in the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi were innoculated on blood and MacConkey agar. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test and coagulase test. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using cefoxitin disc (30g) and the isolates were considered methicillin resistant if the zone of inhibition around cefoxitin disc was /sup 2/ 21 mm. Bacterial suspensions of 56 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 50 MRSA isolates were prepared, which were standardized equal to 0.5 McFarland's turbidity standard and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of ceftaroline and linezolid disc (Oxoid, UK), according to manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37 Degree C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Diameters of inhibition zone were measured and interpretated as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Out of 106 isolates all of the 56 Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were sensitive to ceftaroline and linezolid. However, out of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (96%) were sensitive to ceftaroline whereas, 49 (98%) were sensitive to linezolid. Conclusion: Ceftaroline is equally effective as linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  4. PCR-based Approaches for the Detection of Clinical Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jiang; Ji, Yinduo

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that can cause a variety of infections, including superficial and systematic infections, in humans and animals. The persistent emergence of multidrug resistant S. aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus, has caused dramatically economic burden and concerns in the public health due to limited options of treatment of MRSA infections. In order to make a correct choice of treatment for physicians and understand the prevalence of MRSA, it is extremely critical to precisely and timely diagnose the pathogen that induces a specific infection of patients and to reveal the antibiotic resistant profile of the pathogen. In this review, we outlined different PCR-based approaches that have been successfully utilized for the rapid detection of S. aureus, including MRSA and MSSA, directly from various clinical specimens. The sensitivity and specificity of detections were pointed out. Both advantages and disadvantages of listed approaches were discussed. Importantly, an alternative approach is necessary to further confirm the detection results from the molecular diagnostic assays. PMID:27335617

  5. The therapeutic effect of Chlorogenic acid against Staphylococcus aureus infection through Sortase A inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eWang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and wide spread of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus requires the development of new therapeutic agents with alternative modes of action. Anti-virulence strategies are hoped to meet that need. Sortase A (SrtA has attracted great interest as a potential drug target to treat infections caused by S. aureus, as many of the surface proteins displayed by SrtA function as virulence factors by mediating bacterial adhesion to specific organ tissues, invasion of host cells, and evasion of the host-immune responses. It has been suggested that inhibitors of SrtA might be promising candidates for the treatment and/or prevention of S. aureus infections. In this study, we report that Chlorogenic acid (CHA, a natural compound that lacks significant anti–S. aureus activity, inhibit the activity of SrtA in vitro (IC50=33.86±5.55μg/ml and the binding of S. aureus to fibrinogen (Fg. Using molecular dynamics simulations and mutagenesis assays, we further demonstrate that CHA binds to the binding sites of C184 and G192 in the SrtA. In vivo studies demonstrated that CHA prevent mice from S. aureus-induced renal abscess, resulting in a significant survival advantage. These findings indicate that CHA is a promising therapeutic compound against SrtA during S. aureus infections.

  6. Applying Convergent Immunity to Innovative Vaccines Targeting Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Michael R.; Filler, Scott G.; Schmidt, Clint S.; Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Edwards, John E.; Hennessey, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent perspectives forecast a new paradigm for future “third generation” vaccines based on commonalities found in diverse pathogens or convergent immune defenses to such pathogens. For Staphylococcus aureus, recurring infections and a limited success of vaccines containing S. aureus antigens imply that native antigens induce immune responses insufficient for optimal efficacy. These perspectives exemplify the need to apply novel vaccine strategies to high-priority pathogens. One such approach can be termed convergent immunity, where antigens from non-target organisms that contain epitope homologs found in the target organism are applied in vaccines. This approach aims to evoke atypical immune defenses via synergistic processes that (1) afford protective efficacy; (2) target an epitope from one organism that contributes to protective immunity against another; (3) cross-protect against multiple pathogens occupying a common anatomic or immunological niche; and/or (4) overcome immune subversion or avoidance strategies of target pathogens. Thus, convergent immunity has a potential to promote protective efficacy not usually elicited by native antigens from a target pathogen. Variations of this concept have been mainstays in the history of viral and bacterial vaccine development. A more far-reaching example is the pre-clinical evidence that specific fungal antigens can induce cross-kingdom protection against bacterial pathogens. This trans-kingdom protection has been demonstrated in pre-clinical studies of the recombinant Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (rAls3) where it was shown that a vaccine containing rAls3 provides homologous protection against C. albicans, heterologous protection against several other Candida species, and convergent protection against several strains of S. aureus. Convergent immunity reflects an intriguing new approach to designing and developing vaccine antigens and is considered here in the context of vaccines to target S

  7. Applying Convergent Immunity to Innovative Vaccines Targeting Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Yeaman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent perspectives forecast a new paradigm for future 3rd generation vaccines based on commonalities found in diverse pathogens or convergent immune defenses to such pathogens. For Staphylococcus aureus, recurring infections and a limited success of vaccines containing S. aureus antigens imply that native antigens induce immune responses insufficient for optimal efficacy. These perspectives exemplify the need to apply novel vaccine strategies to high priority pathogens. One such approach can be termed convergent immunity, where antigens from non-target organisms that contain epitope homologues found in the target organism are applied in vaccines. This approach aims to evoke atypical immune defenses via synergistic processes that 1 afford protective efficacy; 2 target an epitope from one organism that contributes to protective immunity against another; 3 cross-protect against multiple pathogens occupying a common anatomic or immunologic niche; and/or 4 overcome immune subversion or avoidance strategies of target pathogens. Thus, convergent immunity has a potential to promote protective efficacy not usually elicited by native antigens from a target pathogen. Variations of this concept have been mainstays in the history of viral and bacterial vaccine development. A more far-reaching example is the pre–clinical evidence that specific fungal antigens can induce cross-kingdom protection against bacterial pathogens. This trans-kingdom protection has been demonstrated in preclinical studies of the recombinant Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (rAls3 where it was shown that a vaccine containing rAls3 provides homologous protection against C. albicans, heterologous protection against several other Candida species, and convergent protection against several strains of S. aureus. Convergent immunity reflects an intriguing new approach to designing and developing vaccine antigens and is considered here in the context of vaccines to target

  8. Cross-Talk between Staphylococcus aureus and Other Staphylococcal Species via the agr Quorum Sensing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Canovas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are associated with both humans and animals. While most are non-pathogenic colonizers, Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing severe infections. S. aureus virulence is controlled by the agr quorum sensing system responding to secreted auto-inducing peptides (AIPs sensed by AgrC, a two component histidine kinase. agr loci are found also in other staphylococcal species and for Staphylococcus epidermidis, the encoded AIP represses expression of agr regulated virulence genes in S. aureus. In this study we aimed to better understand the interaction between staphylococci and S. aureus, and show that this interaction may eventually lead to the identification of new anti-virulence candidates to target S. aureus infections. Here we show that culture supernatants of 37 out of 52 staphylococcal isolates representing 17 different species inhibit S. aureus agr. The dog pathogen, Staphylococcus schleiferi, expressed the most potent inhibitory activity and was active against all four agr classes found in S. aureus. By employing a S. aureus strain encoding a constitutively active AIP receptor we show that the activity is mediated via agr. Subsequent cloning and heterologous expression of the S. schleiferi AIP in S. aureus demonstrated that this molecule was likely responsible for the inhibitory activity, and further proof was provided when pure synthetic S. schleiferi AIP was able to completely abolish agr induction of an S. aureus reporter strain. To assess impact on S. aureus virulence, we co-inoculated S. aureus and S. schleiferi in vivo in the Galleria mellonella wax moth larva, and found that expression of key S. aureus virulence factors was abrogated. Our data show that the S. aureus agr locus is highly responsive to other staphylococcal species suggesting that agr is an inter-species communication system. Based on these results we speculate that interactions between S. aureus and other colonizing staphylococci

  9. Morphology-Independent Virulence of Candida Species during Polymicrobial Intra-abdominal Infections with Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Evelyn E; Peters, Brian M; Fidel, Paul L; Noverr, Mairi C

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal polymicrobial infections cause significant morbidity and mortality. An experimental mouse model of Candida albicans-Staphylococcus aureus intra-abdominal infection (IAI) results in 100% mortality by 48 to 72 h postinoculation, while monomicrobial infections are avirulent. Mortality is associated with robust local and systemic inflammation without a requirement for C. albicans morphogenesis. However, the contribution of virulence factors coregulated during the yeast-to-hypha transition is unknown. This also raised the question of whether other Candida species that are unable to form hyphae are as virulent as C. albicans during polymicrobial IAI. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of non-albicans Candida (NAC) species with various morphologies and C. albicans transcription factor mutants (efg1/efg1 and cph1/cph1) to induce synergistic mortality and the accompanying inflammation. Results showed that S. aureus coinoculated with C. krusei or C. tropicalis was highly lethal, similar to C. albicans, while S. aureus-C. dubliniensis, S. aureus-C. parapsilosis, and S. aureus-C. glabrata coinoculations resulted in little to no mortality. Local and systemic interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were significantly elevated during symptomatic and/or lethal coinfections, and hypothermia strongly correlated with mortality. Coinoculation with C. albicans strains deficient in the transcription factor Efg1 but not Cph1 reversed the lethal outcome. These results support previous findings and demonstrate that select Candida species, without reference to any morphological requirement, induce synergistic mortality, with IL-6 and PGE2 acting as key inflammatory factors. Mechanistically, signaling pathways controlled by Efg1 are critical for the ability of C. albicans to induce mortality from an intra-abdominal polymicrobial infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Habituation of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus to Origanum vulgare L. essential oil does not induce direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to salts and organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adassa Gama Tavares

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains that were isolated from foods were investigated for their ability to develop direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to sodium chloride (NaCl, potassium chloride (KCl, lactic acid (LA and acetic acid (AA after habituation in sublethal amounts (1/2 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/2 MIC and 1/4 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/4 MIC of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO. The habituation of S. aureus to 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC of OVEO did not induce direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested strains, as assessed by modulation of MIC values. Otherwise, exposing the strains to OVEO at sublethal concentrations maintained or increased the sensitivity of the cells to the tested stressing agents because the MIC values of OVEO, NaCl, KCl, LA and AA against the cells that were previously habituated to OVEO remained the same or decreased when compared with non-habituated cells. These data indicate that OVEO does not have an inductive effect on the acquisition of direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents that are typically used in food preservation.

  11. Phage Conversion for β-Lactam Antibiotic Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Duck; Park, Jong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Temperate phages have been suggested to carry virulence factors and other lysogenic conversion genes that play important roles in pathogenicity. In this study, phage TEM123 in wild-type Staphylococcus aureus from food sources was analyzed with respect to its morphology, genome sequence, and antibiotic resistance conversion ability. Phage TEM123 from a mitomycin C-induced lysate of S. aureus was isolated from foods. Morphological analysis under a transmission electron microscope revealed that it belonged to the family Siphoviridae. The genome of phage TEM123 consisted of a double-stranded DNA of 43,786 bp with a G+C content of 34.06%. A bioinformatics analysis of the phage genome identified 43 putative open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encoded a protein that was nearly identical to the metallo-β-lactamase enzymes that degrade β-lactam antibiotics. After transduction to S. aureus with phage TEM123, the metallo-β-lactamase gene was confirmed in the transductant by PCR and sequencing analyses. In a β-lactam antibiotic susceptibility test, the transductant was more highly resistant to β-lactam antibiotics than S. aureus S133. Phage TEM123 might play a role in the transfer of β-lactam antibiotic resistance determinants in S. aureus. Therefore, we suggest that the prophage of S. aureus with its exotoxin is a risk factor for food safety in the food chain through lateral gene transfer.

  12. Dual Roles of FmtA in Staphylococcus aureus Cell Wall Biosynthesis and Autolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Aneela

    2012-01-01

    The fmtA gene is a member of the Staphylococcus aureus core cell wall stimulon. The FmtA protein interacts with β-lactams through formation of covalent species. Here, we show that FmtA has weak d-Ala-d-Ala-carboxypeptidase activity and is capable of covalently incorporating C14-Gly into cell walls. The fluorescence microscopy study showed that the protein is localized to the cell division septum. Furthermore, we show that wall teichoic acids interact specifically with FmtA and mediate recruitment of FmtA to the S. aureus cell wall. Subjection of S. aureus to FmtA concentrations of 0.1 μM or less induces autolysis and biofilm production. This effect requires the presence of wall teichoic acids. At FmtA concentrations greater than 0.2 μM, autolysis and biofilm formation in S. aureus are repressed and growth is enhanced. Our findings indicate dual roles of FmtA in S. aureus growth, whereby at low concentrations, FmtA may modulate the activity of the major autolysin (AtlA) of S. aureus and, at high concentrations, may participate in synthesis of cell wall peptidoglycan. These two roles of FmtA may reflect dual functions of FmtA in the absence and presence of cell wall stress, respectively. PMID:22564846

  13. Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria as a prognosticator for outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinstein Robert A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When Staphylococcus aureus is isolated in urine, it is thought to usually represent hematogenous spread. Because such spread might have special clinical significance, we evaluated predictors and outcomes of S. aureus bacteriuria among patients with S. aureus bacteremia. Methods A case-control study was performed at John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County among adult inpatients during January 2002-December 2006. Cases and controls had positive and negative urine cultures, respectively, for S. aureus, within 72 hours of positive blood culture for S. aureus. Controls were sampled randomly in a 1:4 ratio. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Results Overall, 59% of patients were African-American, 12% died, 56% of infections had community-onset infections, and 58% were infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA. Among 61 cases and 247 controls, predictors of S. aureus bacteriuria on multivariate analysis were urological surgery (OR = 3.4, p = 0.06 and genitourinary infection (OR = 9.2, p = 0.002. Among patients who died, there were significantly more patients with bacteriuria than among patients who survived (39% vs. 17%; p = 0.002. In multiple Cox regression analysis, death risks in bacteremic patients were bacteriuria (hazard ratio 2.9, CI 1.4-5.9, p = 0.004, bladder catheter use (2.0, 1.0-4.0, p = 0.06, and Charlson score (1.1, 1.1-1.3, p = 0.02. Neither length of stay nor methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection was a predictor of S. aureus bacteriuria or death. Conclusions Among patients with S. aureus bacteremia, those with S. aureus bacteriuria had 3-fold higher mortality than those without bacteriuria, even after adjustment for comorbidities. Bacteriuria may identify patients with more severe bacteremia, who are at risk of worse outcomes.

  14. Environment-Mediated Accumulation of Diacyl Lipoproteins over Their Triacyl Counterparts in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Kenji; Kim, Min-Su; Ichikawa, Rie; Ryu, Kyoung-Hwa; Dohmae, Naoshi

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are believed to exist in only one specific lipid-modified structure, such as the diacyl form or the triacyl form, in each bacterium. In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, recent extensive matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis revealed that S. aureus lipoproteins exist in the α-aminoacylated triacyl form. Here, we discovered conditions that induce the accumulation of diacyl lipoproteins that lack α-aminoacylation in S. aureus. The accumulation of diacyl lipoproteins required a combination of conditions, including acidic pH and a post-logarithmic-growth phase. High temperatures and high salt concentrations additively accelerated the accumulation of the diacyl lipoprotein form. Following a post-logarithmic-growth phase where S. aureus MW2 cells were grown at pH 6, SitC lipoprotein was found almost exclusively in its diacyl structure rather than in its triacyl structure. This is the first report showing that the environment mediates lipid-modified structural alterations of bacterial lipoproteins. PMID:22467779

  15. The bactericidal mechanism of action against Staphylococcus aureus for AgO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wenning, E-mail: shenwenning@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, No. 5 South Jinhua Road, Xi' an 710048 (China); Li, Pin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, No. 5 South Jinhua Road, Xi' an 710048 (China); Feng, Hui [Shaanxi Institute of Zoology, Xi' an 710032 (China); Ge, Yanfeng; Liu, Zheng; Feng, Lajun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, No. 5 South Jinhua Road, Xi' an 710048 (China)

    2017-06-01

    To identify the mechanistic effects of AgO nanoparticles on Gram-positive bacteria, S. aureus cells suspended in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and deionized water were separately treated using AgO nanoparticles at different concentrations. The phase composition changes of the bactericide after killing S. aureus and the cellular responses of S. aureus to AgO were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results show that AgO nanoparticles could kill S. aureus suspended in PBS and deionized water. The bactericidal effect of AgO bactericide against S. aureus in water was better than that in PBS, due to the formation of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} from the reaction between AgO and PBS. AgO nanoparticles exerted their bactericidal activity by multiple processes. AgO nanoparticles adhered to the surface of S. aureus cells firstly, then induced physical alterations in cell morphology and released silver ions, leading to initial injuries of cell membrane. Once membrane damage occurred, they entered the cells, and damaged the intracellular materials, eventually causing severe morphological and structural injuries to the cells and leakage of cytoplasm. - Highlights: • S. aureus in water was more sensitive to AgO than in PBS, since AgO reacted with PBS and formed Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • After killing S. aureus in water, AgO did not changed. • AgO particles attached to cell surface then interacted with the cells, resulting in the increase of released silver contents. • Cell membrane damages by AgO nanoparticles were supported by the leakages of K{sup +}, proteins and DNA. • Serious cell morphological and structural changes were caused by AgO nanoparticles.

  16. The bactericidal mechanism of action against Staphylococcus aureus for AgO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wenning; Li, Pin; Feng, Hui; Ge, Yanfeng; Liu, Zheng; Feng, Lajun

    2017-01-01

    To identify the mechanistic effects of AgO nanoparticles on Gram-positive bacteria, S. aureus cells suspended in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and deionized water were separately treated using AgO nanoparticles at different concentrations. The phase composition changes of the bactericide after killing S. aureus and the cellular responses of S. aureus to AgO were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results show that AgO nanoparticles could kill S. aureus suspended in PBS and deionized water. The bactericidal effect of AgO bactericide against S. aureus in water was better than that in PBS, due to the formation of Ag 3 PO 4 from the reaction between AgO and PBS. AgO nanoparticles exerted their bactericidal activity by multiple processes. AgO nanoparticles adhered to the surface of S. aureus cells firstly, then induced physical alterations in cell morphology and released silver ions, leading to initial injuries of cell membrane. Once membrane damage occurred, they entered the cells, and damaged the intracellular materials, eventually causing severe morphological and structural injuries to the cells and leakage of cytoplasm. - Highlights: • S. aureus in water was more sensitive to AgO than in PBS, since AgO reacted with PBS and formed Ag 3 PO 4 . • After killing S. aureus in water, AgO did not changed. • AgO particles attached to cell surface then interacted with the cells, resulting in the increase of released silver contents. • Cell membrane damages by AgO nanoparticles were supported by the leakages of K + , proteins and DNA. • Serious cell morphological and structural changes were caused by AgO nanoparticles.

  17. Bacteriostatic enterochelin-specific immunoglobulin from normal human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.G.; Yancey, R.J.; Lankford, C.E.; Earhart, C.F.

    1980-02-01

    Heat-inactivated normal human serum produces iron-reversible bacteriostasis of a number of microorganisms. This inhibitory effect was abolished by adsorption of serum with ultraviolet-killed cells of species that produce the siderophore enterochelin. Bacteriostasis also was alleviated by asorption of serum with 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine, a degradation product of enterochelin, bound to the insoluble matrix AH-Sepharose 4B. Our results indicate that enterochelin-specific immunoglobulins exist in normal human serum. These immunoglobulins may act synergistically with transferrin to effect bacteriostasis of enterochelin-producing pathogens.

  18. Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus invasion into bovine mammary epithelial cells by contact with live Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Damien S; Rault, Lucie; Berkova, Nadia; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2013-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that is responsible for mastitis in dairy herds. S. aureus mastitis is difficult to treat and prone to recurrence despite antibiotic treatment. The ability of S. aureus to invade bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) is evoked to explain this chronicity. One sustainable alternative to treat or prevent mastitis is the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as mammary probiotics. In this study, we tested the ability of Lactobacillus casei strains to prevent invasion of bMEC by two S. aureus bovine strains, RF122 and Newbould305, which reproducibly induce acute and moderate mastitis, respectively. L. casei strains affected adhesion and/or internalization of S. aureus in a strain-dependent manner. Interestingly, L. casei CIRM-BIA 667 reduced S. aureus Newbould305 and RF122 internalization by 60 to 80%, and this inhibition was confirmed for two other L. casei strains, including one isolated from bovine teat canal. The protective effect occurred without affecting bMEC morphology and viability. Once internalized, the fate of S. aureus was not affected by L. casei. It should be noted that L. casei was internalized at a low rate but survived in bMEC cells with a better efficiency than that of S. aureus RF122. Inhibition of S. aureus adhesion was maintained with heat-killed L. casei, whereas contact between live L. casei and S. aureus or bMEC was required to prevent S. aureus internalization. This first study of the antagonism of LAB toward S. aureus in a mammary context opens avenues for the development of novel control strategies against this major pathogen.

  19. Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus Invasion into Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells by Contact with Live Lactobacillus casei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Damien S.; Rault, Lucie; Berkova, Nadia; Le Loir, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that is responsible for mastitis in dairy herds. S. aureus mastitis is difficult to treat and prone to recurrence despite antibiotic treatment. The ability of S. aureus to invade bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) is evoked to explain this chronicity. One sustainable alternative to treat or prevent mastitis is the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as mammary probiotics. In this study, we tested the ability of Lactobacillus casei strains to prevent invasion of bMEC by two S. aureus bovine strains, RF122 and Newbould305, which reproducibly induce acute and moderate mastitis, respectively. L. casei strains affected adhesion and/or internalization of S. aureus in a strain-dependent manner. Interestingly, L. casei CIRM-BIA 667 reduced S. aureus Newbould305 and RF122 internalization by 60 to 80%, and this inhibition was confirmed for two other L. casei strains, including one isolated from bovine teat canal. The protective effect occurred without affecting bMEC morphology and viability. Once internalized, the fate of S. aureus was not affected by L. casei. It should be noted that L. casei was internalized at a low rate but survived in bMEC cells with a better efficiency than that of S. aureus RF122. Inhibition of S. aureus adhesion was maintained with heat-killed L. casei, whereas contact between live L. casei and S. aureus or bMEC was required to prevent S. aureus internalization. This first study of the antagonism of LAB toward S. aureus in a mammary context opens avenues for the development of novel control strategies against this major pathogen. PMID:23183972

  20. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  1. Staphylococcus aureus α-Toxin Induces Actin Filament Remodeling in Human Airway Epithelial Model Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesemer, Sabine; Eiffler, Ina; Schönberg, Alfrun; Müller, Christian; Hochgräfe, Falko; Beule, Achim G; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

    2018-04-01

    Exposure of cultured human airway epithelial model cells (16HBE14o-, S9) to Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin (hemolysin A, Hla) induces changes in cell morphology and cell layer integrity that are due to the inability of the cells to maintain stable cell-cell or focal contacts and to properly organize their actin cytoskeletons. The aim of this study was to identify Hla-activated signaling pathways involved in regulating the phosphorylation level of the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin. We used recombinant wild-type hemolysin A (rHla) and a variant of Hla (rHla-H35L) that is unable to form functional transmembrane pores to treat immortalized human airway epithelial cells (16HBE14o-, S9) as well as freshly isolated human nasal tissue. Our results indicate that rHla-mediated changes in cofilin phosphorylation require the formation of functional Hla pores in the host cell membrane. Formation of functional transmembrane pores induced hypophosphorylation of cofilin at Ser3, which was mediated by rHla-induced attenuation of p21-activated protein kinase and LIM kinase activities. Because dephosphorylation of pSer3-cofilin results in activation of this actin-depolymerizing factor, treatment of cells with rHla resulted in loss of actin stress fibers from the cells and destabilization of cell shape followed by the appearance of paracellular gaps in the cell layers. Activation of protein kinase A or activation of small GTPases (Rho, Rac, Cdc42) do not seem to be involved in this response.

  2. Influence of the vaginal microbiota on toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 production by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Roderick A; Miller, Wayne L; Gloor, Gregory B; McCormick, John K; Hammond, Jo-Anne; Burton, Jeremy P; Reid, Gregor

    2013-03-01

    Menstrual toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a serious illness that afflicts women of premenopausal age worldwide and arises from vaginal infection by Staphylococcus aureus and concurrent production of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). Studies have illustrated the capacity of lactobacilli to reduce S. aureus virulence, including the capacity to suppress TSST-1. We hypothesized that an aberrant microbiota characteristic of pathogenic bacteria would induce the increased production of TSST-1 and that this might represent a risk factor for the development of TSS. A S. aureus TSST-1 reporter strain was grown in the presence of vaginal swab contents collected from women with a clinically healthy vaginal status, women with an intermediate status, and those diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Bacterial supernatant challenge assays were also performed to test the effects of aerobic vaginitis (AV)-associated pathogens toward TSST-1 production. While clinical samples from healthy and BV women suppressed toxin production, in vitro studies demonstrated that Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus spp. significantly induced TSST-1 production, while some Lactobacillus spp. suppressed it. The findings suggest that women colonized by S. aureus and with AV, but not BV, may be more susceptible to menstrual TSS and would most benefit from prophylactic treatment.

  3. Oligopeptide Targeting Sortase A as Potential Anti-infective Therapy for Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sortase A (SrtA-catalyzed anchorage of surface proteins in most Gram-positive bacteria is indispensable for their virulence, suggesting that this transpeptidase is a promising target for antivirulence therapy. Here, an oligopeptide, LPRDA, was identified as an effective inhibitor of SrtA via virtual screening based on the LPXTG substrate sequence, and it was found to inhibit SrtA activity in vitro and in vivo (IC50 = 10.61 μM by competitively occupying the active site of SrtA. Further, the oligopeptide treatment had no anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity, but it provided protection against S. aureus-induced mastitis in a mouse model. These findings indicate that the oligopeptide could be used as an effective anti-infective agent for the treatment of infection caused by S. aureus or other Gram-positive bacteria via the targeting of SrtA.

  4. Efficacy of clindamycin in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braden, T.D.; Johnson, C.A.; Wakenell, P.; Tvedten, H.W.; Mostosky, U.V.

    1988-01-01

    The efficacy of clindamycin in the treatment of experimentally induced, posttraumatic Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis was studied in dogs. At the end of the experiment, bacteria could not be isolated from bone marrow of 15 of 16 (93.7%) dogs treated with clindamycin, whereas bacteria could not be isolated from similar specimens obtained from 6 of 13 (46.1%) untreated dogs. None of the 16 dogs treated with clindamycin had histopathologic evidence of osteomyelitis at the end of the experiment. Five of the 13 untreated control dogs had histopathologic evidence of osteomyelitis. The recovery rate was 31% in untreated dogs, whereas 94% of dogs treated with clindamycin recovered from osteomyelitis. Clindamycin, 11 mg/kg of body weight, given orally, q 12 h, for 28 days, was efficacious in the treatment of experimentally induced, posttraumatic S aureus osteomyelitis in dogs

  5. MF59- and Al(OH3-adjuvanted Staphylococcus aureus (4C-Staph vaccines induce sustained protective humoral and cellular immune responses, with a critical role for effector CD4 T cells at low antibody titers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMonaci

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is an important opportunistic pathogen that may cause invasive life-threatening infections like sepsis and pneumonia. Due to increasing antibiotic-resistance, the development of an effective vaccine against S. aureus is needed. Although a correlate of protection against staphylococcal diseases is not yet established, several findings suggest that both antibodies and CD4 T cells might contribute to optimal immunity. In this study, we show that adjuvanting a multivalent vaccine (4C-Staph with MF59, an oil-in-water emulsion licensed in human vaccines, further potentiated antigen-specific IgG titers and CD4 T cell responses compared to alum and conferred protection in the peritonitis model of S. aureus infection. Moreover, we showed that MF59- and alum-adjuvanted 4C-Staph vaccines induced persistent antigen-specific humoral and T cell responses, and protected mice from infection up to 4 months after immunization. Furthermore, 4C-Staph formulated with MF59 was used to investigate which immune compartment is involved in vaccine-induced protection. Using CD4 T cell-depleted mice or B cell deficient mice, we demonstrated that both T and B cell responses contributed to 4C-Staph vaccine-mediated protective immunity. However, the role of CD4 T cells seemed more evident in the presence of low antibody responses. This study provides preclinical data further supporting the use of the adjuvanted 4C-Staph vaccines against S. aureus diseases, and provides critical insights on the correlates of protective immunity necessary to combat this pathogen.

  6. Influence of the Vaginal Microbiota on Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1 Production by Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    MacPhee, Roderick A.; Miller, Wayne L.; Gloor, Gregory B.; McCormick, John K.; Hammond, Jo-Anne; Burton, Jeremy P.; Reid, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Menstrual toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a serious illness that afflicts women of premenopausal age worldwide and arises from vaginal infection by Staphylococcus aureus and concurrent production of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). Studies have illustrated the capacity of lactobacilli to reduce S. aureus virulence, including the capacity to suppress TSST-1. We hypothesized that an aberrant microbiota characteristic of pathogenic bacteria would induce the increased production of TSST-1 and...

  7. Comparative evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of sulfadiazine-trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin and florfenicol on Staphylococcus aureus-induced arthritis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, N; Shomali, T; Namazi, F; Marzban, M; Mohammadi, M; Boroojeni, A Motamedi

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and veterinary pathogen that causes economic loss in the poultry industry. This study aimed to compare therapeutic efficacy of 4 commonly used antibiotics in poultry on S. aureus-induced arthritis in broilers. Sixty broilers, 8 weeks of age, were assigned at random into 7 groups as follows: (1) negative control (n = 5); (2) vehicle control (n = 5); (3) sulfadiazine-trimethoprim, 250 ml/1000 l drinking water (n = 10); (4) oxytetracycline 20%, 1 mg/l drinking water (n = 10); (5) florfenicol 10%, 1/1000 v/v in drinking water (n = 10); (6) enrofloxacin 10%, 1/1000 v/v in drinking water (n = 10) and (7) positive control (n = 10). Birds in group 2 were injected with 1 ml of sterile TSB medium into the right tibiotarsal joint on d 0 while other birds (except group 1) were challenged with 1 ml of 1.2 × 10(10) CFU/ml suspension of S. aureus bacteria. Antibiotic therapy was started from d 4 post challenge and continued for 5 d. At the end, birds were weighed and clinical severity of arthritis was determined. After blood collection, birds were slaughtered and tibiotarsal and hip joints were evaluated grossly. The content of inflammatory exudates of tibiotarsal joint and the degree of femoral head necrosis were recorded. Mucin clot test and histopathological evaluation were performed on right tibiotarsal joint. Serum interleukin 6 was also assayed. Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim had higher therapeutic efficiency with regard to most of the assayed criteria, whereas none of the antibiotics significantly affected femoral head necrosis and body weight. These data will help clinicians to have better antibiotic choice in field conditions.

  8. Subinhibitory concentrations of thymol reduce enterotoxins A and B and alpha-hemolysin production in Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazhang Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeting bacterial virulence factors is now gaining interest as an alternative strategy to develop new types of anti-infective agents. It has been shown that thymol, when used at low concentrations, can inhibit the TSST-1 secretion in Staphylococcus aureus. However, there are no data on the effect of thymol on the production of other exotoxins (e.g., alpha-hemolysin and enterotoxins by S. aureus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Secretion of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB in both methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates cultured with graded subinhibitory concentrations of thymol was detected by immunoblot analysis. Hemolysin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF release assays were performed to elucidate the biological relevance of changes in alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB secretion induced by thymol. In addition, the influence of thymol on the transcription of hla, sea, and seb (the genes encoding alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB, respectively was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Thymol inhibited transcription of hla, sea and seb in S. aureus, resulting in a reduction of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB secretion and, thus, a reduction in hemolytic and TNF-inducing activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Subinhibitory concentrations of thymol decreased the production of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB in both MSSA and MRSA in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that thymol may be useful for the treatment of S. aureus infections when used in combination with beta-lactams and glycopeptide antibiotics, which induce expression of alpha-hemolysin and enterotoxins at subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, the structure of thymol may potentially be used as a basic structure for development of drugs aimed against these bacterial virulence factors.

  9. Intracellular activity of clinical concentrations of phenothiazines including thioridiazine against phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Diane; Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Amaral, Leonard

    2002-07-01

    The effect of thioridazine (TZ) was studied on the killing activity of human peripheral blood monocyte derived macrophages (HPBMDM) and of human macrophage cell line THP-1 at extracellular concentrations below those achievable clinically. These macrophages have nominal killing activity against bacteria and therefore, would not influence any activity that the compounds may have against intracellular localised Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicated that whereas TZ has an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the strains of S. aureus of 18, 0.1 mg/l of TZ in the medium completely inhibits the growth of S. aureus that has been phagocytosed by macrophages. The latter concentration was non-toxic to macrophages, did not cause cellular expression of activation marker CD69 nor induction of CD3+ T cell production of IFN-gamma, but blocked cellular proliferation and down-regulated the production of T cell-derived cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-5). These results suggest that TZ induces intracellular bactericidal activities independent of the capacity to generate Type 1 responses against S. aureus.

  10. Converting a Staphylococcus aureus toxin into effective cyclic pseudopeptide antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecki, Olivia; Mosbah, Amor; Baudy Floc'h, Michèle; Felden, Brice

    2015-03-19

    Staphylococcus aureus produces peptide toxins that it uses to respond to environmental cues. We previously characterized PepA1, a peptide toxin from S. aureus, that induces lytic cell death of both bacterial and host cells. That led us to suggest that PepA1 has an antibacterial activity. Here, we demonstrate that exogenously provided PepA1 has activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We also see that PepA1 is significantly hemolytic, thus limiting its use as an antibacterial agent. To overcome these limitations, we converted PepA1 into nonhemolytic derivatives. Our most promising derivative is a cyclic heptapseudopeptide with inconsequential toxicity to human cells, enhanced stability in human sera, and sharp antibacterial activity. Mechanistically, linear and helical PepA1 derivatives form pores at the bacterial and erythrocyte surfaces, while the cyclic peptide induces bacterial envelope reorganization, with insignificant action on the erythrocytes. Our work demonstrates that bacterial toxins might be an attractive starting point for antibacterial drug development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Amphibian antimicrobial peptide fallaxin analogue FL9 affects virulence gene expression and DNA replication in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschalk, Sanne; Gottlieb, Caroline Trebbien; Vestergaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    antimicrobials. In the present study, the analogue FL9, based on the amphibian AMP fallaxin, was studied to elucidate its mode of action and antibacterial activity against the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Our data showed that FL9 may have a dual mode of action against S. aureus. At concentrations around...... and at alkaline pH, while it was compromised by acidic pH and exposure to serum. Furthermore, at subinhibitory concentrations of FL9, S. aureus responded by increasing the expression of two major virulence factor genes, namely the regulatory rnaIII and hla, encoding α-haemolysin. In addition, the S. aureus...... the MIC, FL9 bound DNA, inhibited DNA synthesis and induced the SOS DNA damage response, whereas at concentrations above the MIC the interaction between S. aureus and FL9 led to membrane disruption. The antibacterial activity of the peptide was maintained over a wide range of NaCl and MgCl2 concentrations...

  12. Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin-dependent induction of host cell death by membrane-derived vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Thay

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide spectrum of infections in humans, ranging from superficial cutaneous infections, infections in the circum-oral region, to life-threatening bacteremia. It was recently demonstrated that Gram-positive organisms such as S. aureus liberate membrane-derived vesicles (MVs, which analogously to outer membrane vesicles (OMVs of Gram-negative bacteria can play a role in delivering virulence factors to host cells. In the present study we have shown that cholesterol-dependent fusion of S. aureus MVs with the plasma membrane represents a route for delivery of a key virulence factor, α-toxin (α-hemolysin; Hla to human cells. Most S. aureus strains produce this 33-kDa pore-forming protein, which can lyse a wide range of human cells, and induce apoptosis in T-lymphocytes. Our results revealed a tight association of biologically active α-toxin with membrane-derived vesicles isolated from S. aureus strain 8325-4. Concomitantly, α-toxin contributed to HeLa cell cytotoxicity of MVs, and was the main vesicle-associated protein responsible for erythrocyte lysis. In contrast, MVs obtained from an isogenic hla mutant were significantly attenuated with regards to both causing lysis of erythrocytes and death of HeLa cells. This is to our knowledge the first recognition of an S. aureus MV-associated factor contributing to host cell cytotoxicity.

  13. The intramammary efficacy of first generation cephalosporins against Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demon, Dieter; Ludwig, Carolin; Breyne, Koen; Guédé, David; Dörner, Julia-Charlotte; Froyman, Robrecht; Meyer, Evelyne

    2012-11-09

    Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in cattle causes important financial losses in the dairy industry due to lower yield and bad milk quality. Although S. aureus is susceptible to many antimicrobials in vitro, treatment often fails to cure the infected udder. Hence, comprehensive evaluation of antimicrobials against S. aureus mastitis is desirable to direct treatment strategies. The mouse mastitis model is an elegant tool to evaluate antimicrobials in vivo while circumventing the high costs associated with bovine experiments. An evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of the intramammary (imam) applied first generation cephalosporins cefalexin, cefalonium, cefapirin and cefazolin, was performed using the S. aureus mouse mastitis model. In vivo determination of the effective dose 2log(10) (ED(2log10)), ED(4log10), protective dose 50 (PD(50)) and PD(100) in mouse mastitis studies, support that in vitro MIC data of the cephalosporins did not fully concur with the in vivo clinical outcome. Cefazolin was shown to be the most efficacious first generation cephalosporin to treat S. aureus mastitis whereas the MIC data indicate that cefalonium and cefapirin were more active in vitro. Changing the excipient for imam application from mineral oil to miglyol 812 further improved the antimicrobial efficacy of cefazolin, confirming that the excipient can influence the in vivo efficacy. Additionally, statistical analysis of the variation of S. aureus-infected, excipient-treated mice from fourteen studies emphasizes the strength of the mouse mastitis model as a fast, cost-effective and highly reproducible screening tool to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial compounds against intramammary S. aureus infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA); Staph - MRSA; Staphylococcal - MRSA ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). www.cdc.gov/mrsa/index.html . Updated ...

  15. Genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in Buruli ulcer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Ama Amissah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Previous studies have shown that wounds of BU patients are colonized with M. ulcerans and several other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, which may interfere with wound healing. The present study was therefore aimed at investigating the diversity and topography of S. aureus colonizing BU patients during treatment.We investigated the presence, diversity, and spatio-temporal distribution of S. aureus in 30 confirmed BU patients from Ghana during treatment. S. aureus was isolated from nose and wound swabs, and by replica plating of wound dressings collected bi-weekly from patients. S. aureus isolates were characterized by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting (MLVF and spa-typing, and antibiotic susceptibility was tested.Nineteen (63% of the 30 BU patients tested positive for S. aureus at least once during the sampling period, yielding 407 S. aureus isolates. Detailed analysis of 91 isolates grouped these isolates into 13 MLVF clusters and 13 spa-types. Five (26% S. aureus-positive BU patients carried the same S. aureus genotype in their anterior nares and wounds. S. aureus isolates from the wounds of seven (37% patients were distributed over two different MLVF clusters. Wounds of three (16% patients were colonized with isolates belonging to two different genotypes at the same time, and five (26% patients were colonized with different S. aureus types over time. Five (17% of the 30 included BU patients tested positive for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA.The present study showed that the wounds of many BU patients were contaminated with S. aureus, and that many BU patients from the different communities carried the same S. aureus genotype during treatment. This calls for improved wound care and hygiene.

  16. Genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in Buruli ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amissah, Nana Ama; Glasner, Corinna; Ablordey, Anthony; Tetteh, Caitlin S; Kotey, Nana Konama; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip S; Rossen, John W; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2015-02-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Previous studies have shown that wounds of BU patients are colonized with M. ulcerans and several other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, which may interfere with wound healing. The present study was therefore aimed at investigating the diversity and topography of S. aureus colonizing BU patients during treatment. We investigated the presence, diversity, and spatio-temporal distribution of S. aureus in 30 confirmed BU patients from Ghana during treatment. S. aureus was isolated from nose and wound swabs, and by replica plating of wound dressings collected bi-weekly from patients. S. aureus isolates were characterized by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) and spa-typing, and antibiotic susceptibility was tested. Nineteen (63%) of the 30 BU patients tested positive for S. aureus at least once during the sampling period, yielding 407 S. aureus isolates. Detailed analysis of 91 isolates grouped these isolates into 13 MLVF clusters and 13 spa-types. Five (26%) S. aureus-positive BU patients carried the same S. aureus genotype in their anterior nares and wounds. S. aureus isolates from the wounds of seven (37%) patients were distributed over two different MLVF clusters. Wounds of three (16%) patients were colonized with isolates belonging to two different genotypes at the same time, and five (26%) patients were colonized with different S. aureus types over time. Five (17%) of the 30 included BU patients tested positive for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The present study showed that the wounds of many BU patients were contaminated with S. aureus, and that many BU patients from the different communities carried the same S. aureus genotype during treatment. This calls for improved wound care and hygiene.

  17. A Case of Childhood Lichen Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Byung Yoon; Park, Kyung Chan; Youn, Sang Woong

    2009-01-01

    Lichen aureus is a rare type of chronic pigmented purpuric dermatosis. The eruptions consist of discrete or confluent golden to brownish lichenoid macules and papules, and are usually asymptomatic. Lichen aureus commonly occurs in young adults, but less frequently in children. We report the first case of multiple lichen aureus occurring in a Korean child.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strain diversity underlying pediatric atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Allyson L; Deming, Clay; Cassidy, Sara K B; Harrison, Oliver J; Ng, Weng-Ian; Conlan, Sean; Belkaid, Yasmine; Segre, Julia A; Kong, Heidi H

    2017-07-05

    The heterogeneous course, severity, and treatment responses among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD; eczema) highlight the complexity of this multifactorial disease. Prior studies have used traditional typing methods on cultivated isolates or sequenced a bacterial marker gene to study the skin microbial communities of AD patients. Shotgun metagenomic sequence analysis provides much greater resolution, elucidating multiple levels of microbial community assembly ranging from kingdom to species and strain-level diversification. We analyzed microbial temporal dynamics from a cohort of pediatric AD patients sampled throughout the disease course. Species-level investigation of AD flares showed greater Staphylococcus aureus predominance in patients with more severe disease and Staphylococcus epidermidis predominance in patients with less severe disease. At the strain level, metagenomic sequencing analyses demonstrated clonal S. aureus strains in more severe patients and heterogeneous S. epidermidis strain communities in all patients. To investigate strain-level biological effects of S. aureus , we topically colonized mice with human strains isolated from AD patients and controls. This cutaneous colonization model demonstrated S. aureus strain-specific differences in eliciting skin inflammation and immune signatures characteristic of AD patients. Specifically, S. aureus isolates from AD patients with more severe flares induced epidermal thickening and expansion of cutaneous T helper 2 (T H 2) and T H 17 cells. Integrating high-resolution sequencing, culturing, and animal models demonstrated how functional differences of staphylococcal strains may contribute to the complexity of AD disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Commercial biocides induce transfer of prophage Φ13 from human strains of Staphylococcus aureus to livestock CC398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yuanyue; Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Hvitved, Annemette

    2017-01-01

    Human strains of Staphylococcus aureus commonly carry the bacteriophage ΦSa3 that encodes immune evasion factors. Recently, this prophage has been found in livestock-associated, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 strains where it may promote human colonization. Here, we have addressed...

  20. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CP Bhatt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureushas emerged as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens. It invokes a tremendous financial burden and enhanced morbidity and mortality due to difficult to treat systemic infections.Aim of this study was to determine antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: Different clinical specimens were collected and processed for routine culture and antibiotic sensitivity test by standard microbiology techniques. Results: Out of 1173 samples received for microbiological examination, 100 were found to be S. aureus with 19% cases were Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Fourteen MRSA were found from inpatient and 5 were from outpatient. MRSA was found higher in female than male and maximum number (31.5% was found in age group 0-10 years. Staphylococcus aureus was 100% sensitive to Vancomycin followed by Amikacin (90%, Gentamycin (83%, and tetracycline (81%. On urine isolates Nitrofurantoin(91.6% was drug of choice. All the isolates were resistant to Penicillin G. In case of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus showed 100% sensitive to Vancomycin followed by Amikacin (84.2%, Tetracycline (63.1%, Ciprofloxacin (42% and Gentamycin (36.8%. Among urine isolates Nitrofutantoin showed 87.5% sensitive followed by Norfloxacin (75%. Conclusion: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was found 19% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. It was most common in females, hospitalized patients and young age group. Vancomycin seems to be drug of choice followed by Amikacin. It would be helpful to formulating and monitoring the antibiotic policy and ensure proper empiric treatment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i7.10297 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2014 Vol. 4, 548-551   

  1. Expression of virulence factors by Staphylococcus aureus grown in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oogai, Yuichi; Matsuo, Miki; Hashimoto, Masahito; Kato, Fuminori; Sugai, Motoyuki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2011-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces many virulence factors, including toxins, immune-modulatory factors, and exoenzymes. Previous studies involving the analysis of virulence expression were mainly performed by in vitro experiments using bacterial medium. However, when S. aureus infects a host, the bacterial growth conditions are quite different from those in a medium, which may be related to the different expression of virulence factors in the host. In this study, we investigated the expression of virulence factors in S. aureus grown in calf serum. The expression of many virulence factors, including hemolysins, enterotoxins, proteases, and iron acquisition factors, was significantly increased compared with that in bacterial medium. In addition, the expression of RNA III, a global regulon for virulence expression, was significantly increased. This effect was partially restored by the addition of 300 μM FeCl₃ into serum, suggesting that iron depletion is associated with the increased expression of virulence factors in serum. In chemically defined medium without iron, a similar effect was observed. In a mutant with agr inactivated grown in serum, the expression of RNA III, psm, and sec4 was not increased, while other factors were still induced in the mutant, suggesting that another regulatory factor(s) is involved. In addition, we found that serum albumin is a major factor for the capture of free iron to prevent the supply of iron to bacteria grown in serum. These results indicate that S. aureus expresses virulence factors in adaptation to the host environment.

  2. Fibrinogen binding sites P336 and Y338 of clumping factor A are crucial for Staphylococcus aureus virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, Elisabet; Higgins, Judy; Foster, Timothy J; Tarkowski, Andrej

    2008-05-21

    We have earlier shown that clumping factor A (ClfA), a fibrinogen binding surface protein of Staphylococcus aureus, is an important virulence factor in septic arthritis. When two amino acids in the ClfA molecule, P(336) and Y(338), were changed to serine and alanine, respectively, the fibrinogen binding property was lost. ClfAP(336)Y(338) mutants have been constructed in two virulent S. aureus strains Newman and LS-1. The aim of this study was to analyze if these two amino acids which are vital for the fibrinogen binding of ClfA are of importance for the ability of S. aureus to generate disease. Septic arthritis or sepsis were induced in mice by intravenous inoculation of bacteria. The clfAP(336)Y(338) mutant induced significantly less arthritis than the wild type strain, both with respect to severity and frequency. The mutant infected mice developed also a much milder systemic inflammation, measured as lower mortality, weight loss, bacterial growth in kidneys and lower IL-6 levels. The data were verified with a second mutant where clfAP(336) and Y(338) were changed to alanine and serine respectively. When sepsis was induced by a larger bacterial inoculum, the clfAP(336)Y(338) mutants induced significantly less septic death. Importantly, immunization with the recombinant A domain of ClfAP(336)SY(338)A mutant but not with recombinant ClfA, protected against septic death. Our data strongly suggest that the fibrinogen binding activity of ClfA is crucial for the ability of S. aureus to provoke disease manifestations, and that the vaccine potential of recombinant ClfA is improved by removing its ability to bind fibrinogen.

  3. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Enhances the Proinflammatory Effects of Staphylococcus aureus Gamma-Toxin on the Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Aaron N; Breshears, Laura M; Kistler, Charles K; Finnegan, Patrick M; Torres, Victor J; Schlievert, Patrick M; Peterson, Marnie L

    2017-06-28

    Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) produces many different exotoxins including the gamma-toxins, HlgAB and HlgCB. Gamma-toxins form pores in both leukocyte and erythrocyte membranes, resulting in cell lysis. The genes encoding gamma-toxins are present in most strains of S. aureus, and are commonly expressed in clinical isolates recovered from menstrual Toxic Shock Syndrome (mTSS) patients. This study set out to investigate the cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of gamma-toxins on vaginal epithelial surfaces. We found that both HlgAB and HlgCB were cytotoxic to cultured human vaginal epithelial cells (HVECs) and induced cytokine production at sub-cytotoxic doses. Cytokine production induced by gamma-toxin treatment of HVECs was found to involve epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and mediated by shedding of EGFR ligands from the cell surface. The gamma-toxin subunits displayed differential binding to HVECs (HlgA 93%, HlgB 97% and HlgC 28%) with both components (HlgAB or HlgCB) required for maximum detectable binding and significant stimulation of cytokine production. In studies using full thickness ex vivo porcine vaginal mucosa, HlgAB or HlgCB stimulated a dose-dependent cytokine response, which was reduced significantly by inhibition of EGFR signaling. The effects of gamma-toxins on porcine vaginal tissue and cultured HVECs were validated using ex vivo human ectocervical tissue. Collectively, these studies have identified the EGFR-signaling pathway as a key component in gamma-toxin-induced proinflammatory changes at epithelial surfaces and highlight a potential therapeutic target to diminish toxigenic effects of S. aureus infections.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... and in the nose in all cases, and between visits in 90% of cases. Ten different CC types were identified, no association with severity was found, and toxin-producing strains were not found more frequently in patients with HE than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Staphylococcus aureus was present on hands in almost half...

  5. Porcine models of non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) and infective endocarditis (IE) caused by Staphylococcus aureus: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Johanna G; Jensen, Henrik E; Johansen, Louise K; Kochl, Janne; Koch, Jørgen; Aalbaek, Bent; Nielsen, Ole L; Leifsson, Páll S

    2013-05-01

    Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) and, in particular, infective endocarditis (IE), are serious and potentially life-threatening diseases. An increasingly important agent of human IE is Staphylococcus aureus, which typically causes an acute endocarditis with high mortality. The study aim was to evaluate the pig as a model for non-bacterial as well as S. aureus-associated endocarditis, as these models would have several advantages compared to other laboratory animal models. Fourteen animals underwent surgery with placement of a plastic catheter in the left side of the heart. Six of the pigs did not receive a bacterial inoculation and were used to study the development of NBTE. The remaining eight pigs were inoculated intravenously once or twice with S. aureus, 10(5)-10(7) cfu/kg body weight. Two bacterial strains were used: S54F9 (porcine) and NCTC8325-4 (human). Clinical examination, echocardiography and bacterial blood cultures were used to diagnose and monitor the development of endocarditis. Animals were euthanized at between two and 15 days after catheter placement, and tissue samples were collected for bacteriology and histopathology. Pigs inoculated with 10(7) cfu/kg of S. aureus strain S54F9 developed clinical, echocardiographic and pathologic signs of IE. All other pigs, except one, developed NBTE. Serial blood cultures withdrawn after inoculation were positive in animals with IE, and negative in all other animals. S. aureus endocarditis was successfully induced in pigs with an indwelling cardiac catheter after intravenous inoculation of 10(7) cfu/kg of S. aureus strain S54F9. The model simulates typical pathological, clinical and diagnostic features seen in the human disease. Furthermore, NBTE was induced in all but one of the pigs without IE. Thus, the pig model can be used in future studies of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of NBTE and S. aureus endocarditis.

  6. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Is Required for Mast Cell-Mediated Host Immunity Against Cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Ouyang, Wei; Xia, Jingyan; Sun, Xiaoru; Zhao, Liying; Xu, Feng

    2018-05-08

    Mast cells (MCs) play a key role in immune process response to invading pathogens. This study assessed the involvement of MCs in controlling Staphylococcus aureus infection in a cutaneous infection model of MC-deficient (KitW-sh/W-sh) mice. KitW-sh/W-sh mice developed significantly larger skin lesions after the cutaneous S. aureus challenge, when compared to wild-type (WT) mice, while MC dysfunction reduced the inflammation response to S. aureus. The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in skin tissues were significantly decreased in KitW-sh/W-sh mice upon infection. Moreover, the exogenous administration of MCs or recombinant TNF-α effectively restored the immune response against S. aureus in KitW-sh/W-sh mice via the recruitment of neutrophils to the infected site. These results indicate that the effects of MC deficiency are largely attributed to the decrease in production of TNF-α in cutaneous S. aureus infection. In addition, S. aureus-induced MC activation was dependent on the c-kit receptor-activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/P65-nuclear factor (NF-κB) pathway, which was confirmed by treatment with Masitinib (a c-kit receptor inhibitor), Wortmannin (a PI3K inhibitor), and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (a NF-κB inhibitor), respectively. The present study identifies the critical role of MCs in the host defense against S. aureus infection.

  7. Novel Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Device-Related Infections Using Fibrinolytic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, S; O'Gara, J P; O'Neill, E

    2018-02-01

    Staphylococcal infections involving biofilms represent a significant challenge in the treatment of patients with device-related infections. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms have been shown to be SaeRS regulated and dependent on the coagulase-catalyzed conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin on surfaces coated with human plasma. Here we investigated the treatment of staphylococcal biofilm device-related infections by digesting the fibrin biofilm matrix with and without existing antimicrobials. The fibrinolytic agents plasmin, streptokinase, and nattokinase, and TrypLE, a recombinant trypsin-like protease, were used to digest and treat S. aureus biofilms grown in vitro using in vivo -like static biofilm assays with and without antimicrobials. Cytotoxicity, the potential to induce a cytokine response in whole human blood, and the risk of induction of tolerance to fibrinolytic agents were investigated. A rat model of intravascular catheter infection was established to investigate the efficacy of selected fibrinolytic agents in vivo Under biomimetic conditions, the fibrinolytic agents effectively dispersed established S. aureus biofilms and, in combination with common antistaphylococcal antimicrobials, effectively killed bacterial cells being released from the biofilm. These fibrinolytic agents were not cytotoxic and did not affect the host immune response. The rat model of infection successfully demonstrated the activity of the selected fibrinolytic agents alone and in combination with antimicrobials on established biofilms in vivo TrypLE and nattokinase most successfully removed adherent cells from plasma-coated surfaces and significantly improved the efficacy of existing antimicrobials against S. aureus biofilms in vitro and in vivo These biofilm dispersal agents represent a viable future treatment option for S. aureus device-related infections. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Risk factors assessment for nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus and its methicillin resistant strains among pre-clinical medical students of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Shamshul; Gautam, Rajendra; Shrestha, Sony; Ansari, Safiur Rahman; Subedi, Shankar Nanda; Chhetri, Muni Raj

    2016-04-12

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), a normal flora of nasal cavity, can cause minor to life threatening invasive diseases and nosocomial infections. Methicillin resistant strains of S. aureus are causing a great challenge for treatment options. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus, its methicillin resistant strains and risk factors in medical students prior to clinical exposure. The bacterial growth of S. aureus from nasal swab culture was identified by using standard microbiological methods recommended by American Society for Microbiology. Modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility testing and methicillin resistance was confirmed using cefoxitin and oxacillin disks. D-zone test method was used to determine the inducible clindamycin resistance. Among 200 participants, nasal carriage of S. aureus was detected from 30 (15%) subjects. Upper respiratory tract infections significantly (P aureus and their methicillin resistant strains. All of the isolates were reported to be susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. S. aureus strains detected from 8 (4%) students were confirmed to be methicillin resistant. The result of our study demands for strict policy to screen all the students for nasal carriage of S. aureus and its MRSA strains to minimize the transmission of this organism from community to hospital settings.

  9. METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus often pose therapeutic dilemma to the clinicians because of the multi resistant nature of these strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Outbreaks of both nosocomial and community acquired infections are also frequent and difficult to control.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Quality Control Strain Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treangen, Todd J; Maybank, Rosslyn A; Enke, Sana; Friss, Mary Beth; Diviak, Lynn F; Karaolis, David K R; Koren, Sergey; Ondov, Brian; Phillippy, Adam M; Bergman, Nicholas H; Rosovitz, M J

    2014-11-06

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923 is commonly used as a control strain for susceptibility testing to antibiotics and as a quality control strain for commercial products. We present the completed genome sequence for the strain, consisting of the chromosome and a 27.5-kb plasmid. Copyright © 2014 Treangen et al.

  11. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    S. aureus is associated with many clinical syndromes including tenosynovitis, omphalitis, femoral head necrosis, .... Markey, 2008) where occurrence of multidrug ... Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in. Denmark. Veterinary.

  12. Fibrinogen binding sites P336 and Y338 of clumping factor A are crucial for Staphylococcus aureus virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Josefsson

    Full Text Available We have earlier shown that clumping factor A (ClfA, a fibrinogen binding surface protein of Staphylococcus aureus, is an important virulence factor in septic arthritis. When two amino acids in the ClfA molecule, P(336 and Y(338, were changed to serine and alanine, respectively, the fibrinogen binding property was lost. ClfAP(336Y(338 mutants have been constructed in two virulent S. aureus strains Newman and LS-1. The aim of this study was to analyze if these two amino acids which are vital for the fibrinogen binding of ClfA are of importance for the ability of S. aureus to generate disease. Septic arthritis or sepsis were induced in mice by intravenous inoculation of bacteria. The clfAP(336Y(338 mutant induced significantly less arthritis than the wild type strain, both with respect to severity and frequency. The mutant infected mice developed also a much milder systemic inflammation, measured as lower mortality, weight loss, bacterial growth in kidneys and lower IL-6 levels. The data were verified with a second mutant where clfAP(336 and Y(338 were changed to alanine and serine respectively. When sepsis was induced by a larger bacterial inoculum, the clfAP(336Y(338 mutants induced significantly less septic death. Importantly, immunization with the recombinant A domain of ClfAP(336SY(338A mutant but not with recombinant ClfA, protected against septic death. Our data strongly suggest that the fibrinogen binding activity of ClfA is crucial for the ability of S. aureus to provoke disease manifestations, and that the vaccine potential of recombinant ClfA is improved by removing its ability to bind fibrinogen.

  13. [Septicaemia in piglets associated with a positive finding of a methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graage, R; Ganter, M; Verspohl, J; Strommenger, B; Waldmann, K-H; Baumgärtner, W; Hennig-Pauka, I

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus has been associated with septicaemia, mastitis, vaginitis, metritis, osteomyelitis, and endocarditis. This case report demonstrates S. aureus-induced septicaemia in suckling pig- lets. Three days after birth, littermates displayed severe ecchymosis and cyanosis, with a 50% mortality rate. The surviving littermates were cross-fostered, but died 1 day later. Other piglets, which were allowed to suck at the sow, developed similar clinical signs. Haematological findings were anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia; therefore, neither isohaemolytic anaemia nor septicaemia could be excluded as differential diagnoses. At necropsy, petechial bleeding on inner organ surfaces and free blood in body cavities were found. Bacteriological examination of the sow's milk and of the spleen of one piglet detected a methicillin-resistent S. aureus strain (MRSA CC398), which was in all likelihood the cause of the disease. Potential differential diagnoses are discussed.

  14. Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob; Penadés, José R; Ingmer, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen with remarkable adaptive powers. Antibiotic-resistant clones rapidly emerge mainly by acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes from other S. aureus strains or even from other genera. Transfer is mediated by a diverse complement of mobile genetic...... of plasmids that can be transferred by conjugation and the efficiency with which transduction occurs. Here, we review the main routes of antibiotic resistance gene transfer in S. aureus in the context of its biology as a human commensal and a life-threatening pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus cells...... are effective in exchanging mobile genetic elements, including antibiotic-resistance genes.During colonization or infection of host organisms, the exchange appears to be particularly effective.Bacteriophage-mediated transfer involves both transduction and autotransduction, which may enable lysogenic S. aureus...

  15. Methicillin-Susceptible, Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Panesso , Diana; Planet , Paul J.; Diaz , Lorena; Hugonnet , Jean-Emannuel; Tran , Truc T.; Narechania , Apurva; Munita , José M.; Rincon , Sandra; Carvajal , Lina P.; Reyes , Jinnethe; Londono , Alejandra; Smith , Hannah; Sebra , Robert; Deikus , Gintaras; Weinstock , George M

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We report characterization of a methicillin-susceptible, vancomycin-resistant bloodstream isolate of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from a patient in Brazil. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus would indicate that this resistance trait might be poised to disseminate more rapidly among S. aureus and represents a major public health threat.

  16. Antimicrobial efficacy of Syzygium antisepticum plant extract against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus and its application potential with cooked chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenqian; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2018-06-01

    For the past decades, there has been a growing demand for natural antimicrobials in the food industry. Plant extracts have attracted strong research interests due to their wide-spectrum antimicrobial activities, but only a limited number have been investigated thoroughly. The present study aimed at identifying a novel anti-staphylococcal plant extract, to validate its activity in a food model, and to investigate on its composition and antimicrobial mechanism. Four plant extracts were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in vitro, with Syzygium antisepticum leaf extract showing the strongest antimicrobial activity (MIC = 0.125 mg/mL). Relatively high total phenolic content (276.3 mg GAE/g extract) and antioxidant activities (90.2-138.0 mg TE/g extract) were measured in S. antisepticum extract. Food validation study revealed that higher extract concentration (32 mg/mL) was able to inhibit or reduce staphylococcal growth in cooked chicken, but caused color change on meat surface. By GC-MS, β-caryophyllene (12.76 area%) was identified as the dominant volatile compound in extract. Both crude extract and pure β-caryophyllene induced membrane damages in S. aureus. These results suggested good anti-staphylococcal properties of S. antisepticum plant extract, identified its major volatile composition and its membrane-damaging antimicrobial mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among food service workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Lavín, María Paula; Oyarzo, Carolina; Escudero, Carlos; Cerda-Leal, Fabiola; Valenzuela, Francisco J

    2017-12-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus produces 11 serotypes of endotoxins that may cause food poisoning. Aim To determine the prevalence of type A enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus carriage among food service workers in Chillan, Chile. Material and Methods Pharyngeal swabs were obtained from 100 food service workers and were cultured in Agar plates. After identifying the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, DNA was extracted to identify type A toxin by conventional PCR. Results Thirty eight percent of samples were colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. Among these, 26% were toxin A producers. Conclusions Half of the sampled workers carried Staphylococcus aureus and a quarter of these produced type A enterotoxin.

  18. Quantitative Proteomic Analyses of Staphylococcus aureus Treated with Punicalagin, a Natural Antibiotic from Pomegranate that Disrupts Iron Homeostasis and Induces SOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial, food-borne pathogen of humans, can contaminate raw fruits and vegetables. While physical and chemical methods are available to control S. aureus, scientists are searching for inhibitory phytochemicals from plants. One promising compound from pomegranate is punica...

  19. Petrifilm rapid S. aureus Count Plate method for rapid enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, K M; Lindberg, K G

    2001-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for Staphylococcus aureus in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method, was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 (Staphylococcus aureus in Foods). Nine foods-instant nonfat dried milk, dry seasoned vegetable coating, frozen hash browns, frozen cooked chicken patty, frozen ground raw pork, shredded cheddar cheese, fresh green beans, pasta filled with beef and cheese, and egg custard-were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated test sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable for pasta filled with beef and cheese; frozen hash browns; cooked chicken patty; egg custard; frozen ground raw pork; and instant nonfat dried milk. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method were similar to those of the standard method.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Endocarditis-Associated Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethercott, Cara; Mabbett, Amanda N.; Totsika, Makrina; Peters, Paul; Ortiz, Juan C.; Nimmo, Graeme R.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening infection of the heart endothelium and valves. Staphylococcus aureus is a predominant cause of severe IE and is frequently associated with infections in health care settings and device-related infections. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and virulence gene microarrays are frequently used to classify S. aureus clinical isolates. This study examined the utility of these typing tools to investigate S. aureus epidemiology associated with IE. Ninety-seven S. aureus isolates were collected from patients diagnosed with (i) IE, (ii) bloodstream infection related to medical devices, (iii) bloodstream infection not related to medical devices, and (iv) skin or soft-tissue infections. The MLST clonal complex (CC) for each isolate was determined and compared to the CCs of members of the S. aureus population by eBURST analysis. The spa type of all isolates was also determined. A null model was used to determine correlations of IE with CC and spa type. DNA microarray analysis was performed, and a permutational analysis of multivariate variance (PERMANOVA) and principal coordinates analysis were conducted to identify genotypic differences between IE and non-IE strains. CC12, CC20, and spa type t160 were significantly associated with IE S. aureus. A subset of virulence-associated genes and alleles, including genes encoding staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins, fibrinogen-binding protein, and a leukocidin subunit, also significantly correlated with IE isolates. MLST, spa typing, and microarray analysis are promising tools for monitoring S. aureus epidemiology associated with IE. Further research to determine a role for the S. aureus IE-associated virulence genes identified in this study is warranted. PMID:23616460

  1. Molecular characterization of endocarditis-associated Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethercott, Cara; Mabbett, Amanda N; Totsika, Makrina; Peters, Paul; Ortiz, Juan C; Nimmo, Graeme R; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Walker, Mark J; Schembri, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening infection of the heart endothelium and valves. Staphylococcus aureus is a predominant cause of severe IE and is frequently associated with infections in health care settings and device-related infections. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and virulence gene microarrays are frequently used to classify S. aureus clinical isolates. This study examined the utility of these typing tools to investigate S. aureus epidemiology associated with IE. Ninety-seven S. aureus isolates were collected from patients diagnosed with (i) IE, (ii) bloodstream infection related to medical devices, (iii) bloodstream infection not related to medical devices, and (iv) skin or soft-tissue infections. The MLST clonal complex (CC) for each isolate was determined and compared to the CCs of members of the S. aureus population by eBURST analysis. The spa type of all isolates was also determined. A null model was used to determine correlations of IE with CC and spa type. DNA microarray analysis was performed, and a permutational analysis of multivariate variance (PERMANOVA) and principal coordinates analysis were conducted to identify genotypic differences between IE and non-IE strains. CC12, CC20, and spa type t160 were significantly associated with IE S. aureus. A subset of virulence-associated genes and alleles, including genes encoding staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins, fibrinogen-binding protein, and a leukocidin subunit, also significantly correlated with IE isolates. MLST, spa typing, and microarray analysis are promising tools for monitoring S. aureus epidemiology associated with IE. Further research to determine a role for the S. aureus IE-associated virulence genes identified in this study is warranted.

  2. Impact of currently marketed tampons and menstrual cups on Staphylococcus aureus growth and TSST-1 production in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonfoux, Louis; Chiaruzzi, Myriam; Badiou, Cédric; Baude, Jessica; Tristan, Anne; Thioulouse, Jean; Muller, Daniel; Prigent Combaret, Claire; Lina, Gérard

    2018-04-20

    Fifteen currently marketed intravaginal protection products (11 types of tampon and four menstrual cups) were tested by the modified tampon sac method to determine their effect on Staphylococcus aureus growth and toxic shock toxin 1 (TSST-1) production. Most tampons reduced S. aureus growth and TSST-1 production, with differences based on brand and composition, and S. aureus growth was higher in de-structured than in unaltered tampons. We observed higher S. aureus growth and toxin production in menstrual cups than in tampons, potentially due to the additional air introduced to the bag by cups, with differences based on cup composition and size. Importance Menstrual toxic shock syndrome is a rare but severe disease. It occurs in healthy women vaginally colonized by Staphylococcus aureus producing toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 using intravaginal protection such as tampons or menstrual cups. Intravaginal protection induces TSS production by collecting catamenial products which act as a growth medium for S. aureus Previous studies have evaluated the impact of tampon composition on S. aureus producing toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, but they are not recent and did not include menstrual cups. This study demonstrates that highly reproducible results for S. aureus growth and TSST-1 production can be obtained using a simple protocol that reproduces the physiological conditions of tampon and cup usage as closely as possible, providing recommendations for tampon or cup use to both manufacturers and consumers. Notably, our results do not show that menstrual cups are safer than tampons and suggest that they require similar precautions. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. The Staphyloccous aureus Eap protein activates expression of proinflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, Thomas J; Sierro, Sophie; Brown, Eric L; Phillips, Rodney E; Sewell, Andrew K; Massey, Ruth C

    2008-05-01

    The extracellular adhesion protein (Eap) secreted by the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is known to have several effects on human immunity. We have recently added to knowledge of these roles by demonstrating that Eap enhances interactions between major histocompatibility complex molecules and human leukocytes. Several studies have indicated that Eap can induce cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To date, there has been no rigorous attempt to identify the breadth of cytokines produced by Eap stimulation or to identify the cell subsets that respond. Here, we demonstrate that Eap induces the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) by CD14(+) leukocytes (monocytes and macrophages) within direct ex vivo PBMC populations (note that granulocytes are also CD14(+) but are largely depleted from PBMC preparations). Anti-intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54) antibodies inhibited this induction and implicated a role for this known Eap binding protein in cellular activation. IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion by murine cells exposed to Eap was also observed. The activation of CD14(+) cells by Eap suggests that it could play a significant role in both septic shock and fever, two of the major pathological features of S. aureus infections.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus lipoproteins trigger human corneal epithelial innate response through toll-like receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Kumar, Ashok; Gui, Jian-Fang; Yu, Fu-Shin X

    2008-05-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins (LP) are a family of cell wall components found in a wide variety of bacteria. In this study, we characterized the response of HUCL, a telomerase-immortalized human corneal epithelial cell (HCEC) line, to LP isolated from Staphylococcus (S) aureus. S. aureus LP (saLP) prepared by Triton X-114 extraction stimulated the activation of NF-kappaB, JNK, and P38 signaling pathways in HUCL cells. The extracts failed to stimulate NF-kappaB activation in HUCL cells after lipoprotein lipase treatment and in cell lines expressing TLR4 or TLR9, but not TLR2, indicating lipoprotein nature of the extracts. saLP induced the up-regulation of a variety of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, IL-8, ICAM-1), antimicrobial molecules (hBD-2, LL-37, and iNOS), and homeostasis genes (Mn-SOD) at both the mRNA level and protein level. Similar inflammatory response to saLP was also observed in primarily cultured HCECs using the production of IL-6 as readout. Moreover, TLR2 neutralizing antibody blocked the saLP-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and hBD2 in HUCL cells. Our findings suggest that saLP activates TLR2 and triggers innate immune response in the cornea to S. aureus infection via production of proinflammatory cytokines and defense molecules.

  5. Repurposing the Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Diflunisal as an Osteoprotective, Antivirulence Therapy for Staphylococcus aureus Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Andrew S; Spoonmore, Thomas J; Wilde, Aimee D; Putnam, Nicole E; Hammer, Neal D; Snyder, Daniel J; Guelcher, Scott A; Skaar, Eric P; Cassat, James E

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis is a common and debilitating invasive infection of bone. Treatment of osteomyelitis is confounded by widespread antimicrobial resistance and the propensity of bacteria to trigger pathological changes in bone remodeling that limit antimicrobial penetration to the infectious focus. Adjunctive therapies that limit pathogen-induced bone destruction could therefore limit morbidity and enhance traditional antimicrobial therapies. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) compound diflunisal in limiting S. aureus cytotoxicity toward skeletal cells and in preventing bone destruction during staphylococcal osteomyelitis. Diflunisal is known to inhibit S. aureus virulence factor production by the accessory gene regulator (agr) locus, and we have previously demonstrated that the Agr system plays a substantial role in pathological bone remodeling during staphylococcal osteomyelitis. Consistent with these observations, we find that diflunisal potently inhibits osteoblast cytotoxicity caused by S. aureus secreted toxins independently of effects on bacterial growth. Compared to commonly used NSAIDs, diflunisal is uniquely potent in the inhibition of skeletal cell death in vitro Moreover, local delivery of diflunisal by means of a drug-eluting, bioresorbable foam significantly limits bone destruction during S. aureus osteomyelitis in vivo Collectively, these data demonstrate that diflunisal potently inhibits skeletal cell death and bone destruction associated with S. aureus infection and may therefore be a useful adjunctive therapy for osteomyelitis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Laboratory Mice Are Frequently Colonized with Staphylococcus aureus and Mount a Systemic Immune Response—Note of Caution for In vivo Infection Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniel; Grumann, Dorothee; Trübe, Patricia; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen; Johnson, Sarah; Reppschläger, Kevin; Gumz, Janine; Sundaramoorthy, Nandakumar; Michalik, Stephan; Berg, Sabine; van den Brandt, Jens; Fister, Richard; Monecke, Stefan; Uy, Benedict; Schmidt, Frank; Bröker, Barbara M.; Wiles, Siouxsie; Holtfreter, Silva

    2017-01-01

    Whether mice are an appropriate model for S. aureus infection and vaccination studies is a matter of debate, because they are not considered as natural hosts of S. aureus. We previously identified a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain, which caused infections in laboratory mice. This raised the question whether laboratory mice are commonly colonized with S. aureus and whether this might impact on infection experiments. Publicly available health reports from commercial vendors revealed that S. aureus colonization is rather frequent, with rates as high as 21% among specific-pathogen-free mice. In animal facilities, S. aureus was readily transmitted from parents to offspring, which became persistently colonized. Among 99 murine S. aureus isolates from Charles River Laboratories half belonged to the lineage CC88 (54.5%), followed by CC15, CC5, CC188, and CC8. A comparison of human and murine S. aureus isolates revealed features of host adaptation. In detail, murine strains lacked hlb-converting phages and superantigen-encoding mobile genetic elements, and were frequently ampicillin-sensitive. Moreover, murine CC88 isolates coagulated mouse plasma faster than human CC88 isolates. Importantly, S. aureus colonization clearly primed the murine immune system, inducing a systemic IgG response specific for numerous S. aureus proteins, including several vaccine candidates. Phospholipase C emerged as a promising test antigen for monitoring S. aureus colonization in laboratory mice. In conclusion, laboratory mice are natural hosts of S. aureus and therefore, could provide better infection models than previously assumed. Pre-exposure to the bacteria is a possible confounder in S. aureus infection and vaccination studies and should be monitored. PMID:28512627

  7. Laboratory Mice Are Frequently Colonized with Staphylococcus aureus and Mount a Systemic Immune Response—Note of Caution for In vivo Infection Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Holtfreter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether mice are an appropriate model for S. aureus infection and vaccination studies is a matter of debate, because they are not considered as natural hosts of S. aureus. We previously identified a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain, which caused infections in laboratory mice. This raised the question whether laboratory mice are commonly colonized with S. aureus and whether this might impact on infection experiments. Publicly available health reports from commercial vendors revealed that S. aureus colonization is rather frequent, with rates as high as 21% among specific-pathogen-free mice. In animal facilities, S. aureus was readily transmitted from parents to offspring, which became persistently colonized. Among 99 murine S. aureus isolates from Charles River Laboratories half belonged to the lineage CC88 (54.5%, followed by CC15, CC5, CC188, and CC8. A comparison of human and murine S. aureus isolates revealed features of host adaptation. In detail, murine strains lacked hlb-converting phages and superantigen-encoding mobile genetic elements, and were frequently ampicillin-sensitive. Moreover, murine CC88 isolates coagulated mouse plasma faster than human CC88 isolates. Importantly, S. aureus colonization clearly primed the murine immune system, inducing a systemic IgG response specific for numerous S. aureus proteins, including several vaccine candidates. Phospholipase C emerged as a promising test antigen for monitoring S. aureus colonization in laboratory mice. In conclusion, laboratory mice are natural hosts of S. aureus and therefore, could provide better infection models than previously assumed. Pre-exposure to the bacteria is a possible confounder in S. aureus infection and vaccination studies and should be monitored.

  8. A compound magnetic field generating system for targeted killing of Staphylococcus aureus by magnetotactic bacteria in a microfluidic chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Linjie; Chen, Changyou [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioelectromagnetism, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); France-China Bio-Mineralization and Nano-Structures Laboratory, Beijing (China); Wang, Pingping; Chen, Chuanfang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioelectromagnetism, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); France-China Bio-Mineralization and Nano-Structures Laboratory, Beijing (China); Wu, Long-Fei [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioelectromagnetism, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Laboratoire de Chimie Bactérienne, UMR7283, Aix-Marseille University, Institut de Microbiologie de la Méditerranée, CNRS, Marseille (France); Song, Tao, E-mail: songtao@mail.iee.ac.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioelectromagnetism, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); France-China Bio-Mineralization and Nano-Structures Laboratory, Beijing (China)

    2017-04-01

    A compound magnetic field generating system was built to kill Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) in a microfluidic chip in this paper. The system was consisted of coil pairs, a switch circuit, a control program and controllable electrical sources. It could produce a guiding magnetic field (gMF) of ±1 mT along arbitrary direction in the horizontal plane, a rotating magnetic field (rMF) and a swing magnetic field (sMF, 2 Hz, 10 mT) by controlling the currents. The gMF was used to guide MTB swimming to the S. aureus pool in the microfluidic chip, and then the rMF enhanced the mixture of S. aureus and MTB cells, therefore beneficial to the attachments of them. Finally, the sMF was used to induce the death of S. aureus via MTB. The results showed that MTB could be navigated by the gMF and that 47.1% of S. aureus were killed when exposed to the sMF. It provides a new solution for the targeted treatment of infected diseases and even cancers. - Highlights: • We built a system which generated a compound magnetic field in one device. • The compoud magnetic field includes guiding, rotating and swing magnetic fields. • MTB was guided and S. aureus attached to MTB was killed in the same device.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus and healthcare-associated infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkelenkamp, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Many medical procedures breach or suppress patients’ natural defences, leaving them vulnerable to infections which would not occur in healthy humans: “healthcare-associated infections”. Healthcare-associated infections caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are probably the most

  10. The sensitivity status of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community acquired Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from various infectious sites in two private laboratories in Kano-city, Nigeria. A total of 247 (11%) Staphylococcu aureus isolates were recovered from all infectious sites except cerebro-spinal fluid. The least Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found in urine ...

  11. Transcriptional and functional analysis of the effects of magnolol: inhibition of autolysis and biofilms in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dacheng; Jin, Qi; Xiang, Hua; Wang, Wei; Guo, Na; Zhang, Kaiyu; Tang, Xudong; Meng, Rizeng; Feng, Haihua; Liu, Lihui; Wang, Xiaohong; Liang, Junchao; Shen, Fengge; Xing, Mingxun; Deng, Xuming; Yu, Lu

    2011-01-01

    The targeting of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm structures are now gaining interest as an alternative strategy for developing new types of antimicrobial agents. Magnolol (MOL) shows inhibitory activity against S. aureus biofilms and Triton X-100-induced autolysis in vitro, although there are no data regarding the molecular mechanisms of MOL action in bacteria. The molecular basis of the markedly reduced autolytic phenotype and biofilm inhibition triggered by MOL were explored using transcriptomic analysis, and the transcription of important genes were verified by real-time RT-PCR. The inhibition of autolysis by MOL was evaluated using quantitative bacteriolytic assays and zymographic analysis, and antibiofilm activity assays and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to elucidate the inhibition of biofilm formation caused by MOL in 20 clinical isolates or standard strains. The reduction in cidA, atl, sle1, and lytN transcript levels following MOL treatment was consistent with the induced expression of their autolytic repressors lrgA, lrgB, arlR, and sarA. MOL generally inhibited or reversed the expression of most of the genes involved in biofilm production. The growth of S. aureus strain ATCC 25923 in the presence of MOL dose-dependently led to decreases in Triton X-100-induced autolysis, extracellular murein hydrolase activity, and the amount of extracellular DNA (eDNA). MOL may impede biofilm formation by reducing the expression of cidA, a murein hydrolase regulator, to inhibit autolysis and eDNA release, or MOL may directly repress biofilm formation. MOL shows in vitro antimicrobial activity against clinical and standard S. aureus strains grown in planktonic and biofilm cultures, suggesting that the structure of MOL may potentially be used as a basis for the development of drugs targeting biofilms.

  12. Transcriptional and functional analysis of the effects of magnolol: inhibition of autolysis and biofilms in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacheng Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The targeting of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm structures are now gaining interest as an alternative strategy for developing new types of antimicrobial agents. Magnolol (MOL shows inhibitory activity against S. aureus biofilms and Triton X-100-induced autolysis in vitro, although there are no data regarding the molecular mechanisms of MOL action in bacteria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The molecular basis of the markedly reduced autolytic phenotype and biofilm inhibition triggered by MOL were explored using transcriptomic analysis, and the transcription of important genes were verified by real-time RT-PCR. The inhibition of autolysis by MOL was evaluated using quantitative bacteriolytic assays and zymographic analysis, and antibiofilm activity assays and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to elucidate the inhibition of biofilm formation caused by MOL in 20 clinical isolates or standard strains. The reduction in cidA, atl, sle1, and lytN transcript levels following MOL treatment was consistent with the induced expression of their autolytic repressors lrgA, lrgB, arlR, and sarA. MOL generally inhibited or reversed the expression of most of the genes involved in biofilm production. The growth of S. aureus strain ATCC 25923 in the presence of MOL dose-dependently led to decreases in Triton X-100-induced autolysis, extracellular murein hydrolase activity, and the amount of extracellular DNA (eDNA. MOL may impede biofilm formation by reducing the expression of cidA, a murein hydrolase regulator, to inhibit autolysis and eDNA release, or MOL may directly repress biofilm formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MOL shows in vitro antimicrobial activity against clinical and standard S. aureus strains grown in planktonic and biofilm cultures, suggesting that the structure of MOL may potentially be used as a basis for the development of drugs targeting biofilms.

  13. Poly-N-acetylglucosamine production in Staphylococcus aureus is essential for virulence in murine models of systemic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropec, Andrea; Maira-Litran, Tomas; Jefferson, Kimberly K; Grout, Martha; Cramton, Sarah E; Götz, Friedrich; Goldmann, Donald A; Pier, Gerald B

    2005-10-01

    The contribution of the Staphylococcus aureus surface polysaccharide poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) to virulence was evaluated in three mouse models of systemic infection: bacteremia, renal abscess formation, and lethality following high-dose intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection. Deletion of the intercellular adhesin (ica) locus that encodes the biosynthetic enzymes for PNAG production in S. aureus strains Mn8, Newman, and NCTC 10833 resulted in mutant strains with significantly reduced abilities to maintain bacterial levels in blood following intravenous or i.p. injection, to spread systemically to the kidneys following i.p. injection, or to induce a moribund/lethal state following i.p. infection. In the bacteremia model, neither growth phase nor growth medium used to prepare the S. aureus inoculum affected the conclusion that PNAG production was needed for full virulence. As the SarA regulatory protein has been shown to affect ica transcription, PNAG synthesis, and biofilm formation, we also evaluated S. aureus strains Mn8 and 10833 deleted for the sarA gene in the renal infection model. A decrease in PNAG production was seen in sarA mutants using immunoblots of cell surface extracts but was insufficient to reduce the virulence of sarA-deleted strains in this model. S. aureus strains deleted for the ica genes were much more susceptible to antibody-independent opsonic killing involving human peripheral blood leukocytes and rabbit complement. Thus, PNAG confers on S. aureus resistance to killing mediated by these innate host immune mediators. Overall, PNAG production by S. aureus appears to be a critical virulence factor as assessed in murine models of systemic infection.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Endocarditis-Associated Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Nethercott, Cara; Mabbett, Amanda N.; Totsika, Makrina; Peters, Paul; Ortiz, Juan C.; Nimmo, Graeme R.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Walker, Mark J.; Schembri, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening infection of the heart endothelium and valves. Staphylococcus aureus is a predominant cause of severe IE and is frequently associated with infections in health care settings and device-related infections. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and virulence gene microarrays are frequently used to classify S. aureus clinical isolates. This study examined the utility of these typing tools to investigate S. aureus epidemiology associated ...

  15. Staphylococcus aureus Central Nervous System Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Jesus G; Cain, Alexandra N; Mason, Edward O; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Hultén, Kristina G

    2017-10-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are uncommon in pediatric patients. We review the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment in 68 patients with a S. aureus CNS infection evaluated at Texas Children's Hospital. Cases of CNS infection in children with positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures or spinal epidural abscess (SEA) for S. aureus at Texas Children's Hospital from 2001 to 2013 were reviewed. Seventy cases of S. aureus CNS infection occurred in 68 patients. Forty-nine cases (70%) were secondary to a CNS device, 5 (7.1%) were postoperative meningitis, 9 (12.8%) were hematogenous meningitis and 7 (10%) were SEAs. Forty-seven (67.2%) were caused by methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 23 (32.8%) by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Community-acquired infections were more often caused by MRSA that was clone USA300/pvl. Most patients were treated with nafcillin (MSSA) or vancomycin (MRSA) with or without rifampin. Among patients with MRSA infection, 50% had a serum vancomycin trough obtained with the median level being 10.6 μg/mL (range: 5.4-15.7 μg/mL). Only 1 death was associated with S. aureus infection. The epidemiology of invasive of S. aureus infections continues to evolve with MSSA accounting for most of the infections in this series. The majority of cases were associated with neurosurgical procedures; however, hematogenous S. aureus meningitis and SEA occurred as community-acquired infections in patients without predisposing factors. Patients with MRSA CNS infections had a favorable response to vancomycin, but the beneficial effect of combination therapy or targeting vancomycin trough concentrations of 15-20 μg/mL remains unclear.

  16. The human nasal microbiota and Staphylococcus aureus carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N Frank

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colonization of humans with Staphylococcus aureus is a critical prerequisite of subsequent clinical infection of the skin, blood, lung, heart and other deep tissues. S. aureus persistently or intermittently colonizes the nares of approximately 50% of healthy adults, whereas approximately 50% of the general population is rarely or never colonized by this pathogen. Because microbial consortia within the nasal cavity may be an important determinant of S. aureus colonization we determined the composition and dynamics of the nasal microbiota and correlated specific microorganisms with S. aureus colonization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nasal specimens were collected longitudinally from five healthy adults and a cross-section of hospitalized patients (26 S. aureus carriers and 16 non-carriers. Culture-independent analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the nasal microbiota of healthy subjects consists primarily of members of the phylum Actinobacteria (e.g., Propionibacterium spp. and Corynebacterium spp., with proportionally less representation of other phyla, including Firmicutes (e.g., Staphylococcus spp. and Proteobacteria (e.g. Enterobacter spp. In contrast, inpatient nasal microbiotas were enriched in S. aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis and diminished in several actinobacterial groups, most notably Propionibacterium acnes. Moreover, within the inpatient population S. aureus colonization was negatively correlated with the abundances of several microbial groups, including S. epidermidis (p = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The nares environment is colonized by a temporally stable microbiota that is distinct from other regions of the integument. Negative association between S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and other groups suggests microbial competition during colonization of the nares, a finding that could be exploited to limit S. aureus colonization.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus shifts towards commensalism in response to Corynebacterium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Ramsey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus–human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence towards a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species.

  18. Dermoscopy of lichen aureus Dermatoscopia do liquen aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Santin Portela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lichen aureus (also called "lichen purpuricus" is an uncommon subtype of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. Clinically characterized by rust macules, papules or plaques, it is a chronic disease which more often affects young adults and is localized mainly on the lower extremities. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical and histopathological features. Dermoscopy findings are useful to confirm clinical diagnosis.O líquen aureus (também denominado "liquen purpuricus" é um subtipo pouco comum entre as dermatoses purpúricas pigmentadas. Clinicamente caracterizado por máculas, pápulas ou placas de coloração ferruginosa, é doença crônica, que acomete mais frequentemente adultos jovens e localiza-se principalmente nos membros inferiores. O diagnóstico pode ser feito a partir das características clínicas e histopatológicas, sendo os achados dermatoscópicos úteis para corroborar o diagnóstico clínico.

  19. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    The present PhD research was aimed at analysing the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China. Between 2000 and 2005 we found that patients from a single Chinese hospital showed increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), resistance against rifampicin doubled to 68%. Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is frequent in China. Two predominant S. aureus lineages, ST6 and ST943, were identified causing outbreaks of SFP in Southern China...

  20. Antibacterial Effect of Autologous Platelet-Rich Gel Derived from Subjects with Diabetic Dermal Ulcers In Vitro

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    Lihong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autologous platelet-rich gel (APG is an effective method to improve ulcer healing. However, the mechanisms are not clear. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial effect of APG in vitro. Methods. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP, platelet-poor plasma (PPP and APG were prepared from whole blood of sixteen diabetic patients with dermal ulcers. Antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated by bacteriostasis assay of APG, PRP, and APG-APO (APG combined with apocynin, with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS and PPP as the control group. Results. (1 Compared to the PBS and PPP, the APG and APG-APO groups showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 between APG and APG-APO. (2 Compared to PBS, APG, APG-APO, and PRP showed obvious antibacterial effects against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No significant difference (P>0.05 was revealed among the three groups. Compared to the PPP group, they did not show antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P>0.05. Conclusions. APG has antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus mediated by platelet activation in the diabetic patients with dermal ulcer, and does not present obvious antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Combination of APG and antibiotics may have synergistic antibacterial effect.

  1. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus isolates in a hospital of shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Ouyang, Lin; Luo, Lingfei; Liu, Jiqian; Song, Chiping; Li, Cuizhen; Yan, Hongjing; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-24

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are now common both in the health care setting and in the community. Active surveillance is critical for MRSA control and prevention. Specimens of patients (200 patients with 1119 specimens) as well as medical staff and hospital setting (1000 specimens) were randomly sampled in a level 2 hospital in Shanghai from September 2011 to August 2012. Isolation, cultivation and identification of S. aureus were performed. Totally, 67 S. aureus strains were isolated. 32 S. aureus strains were isolated from patient samples; 13 (13/32, 40.6%) of the 32 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; sputum sample and patients in the department of general internal medicine were the most frequent specimen and patient group for S. aureus strains isolation. Remaining 35 S. aureus strains were isolated from the medical staff and hospital setting; 20 (20/35, 57.1%) of the 35 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; specimens sampled from doctors and nurses' hands and nose and hospital facilities were the most frequent samples to isolate S. aureus. Resistant and virulent genes detection showed that, all 33 MRSA strains were mecA positive which accounts for 49.3% of the 67 S. aureus strains; 38 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene positive which accounts for 56.7% of the 67 S. aureus strains; and 17 (17/67, 25.4%) isolates are mecA and PVL genes dual positive. Multidrug-resistant strains of MRSA and PVL positive S. aureus are common in patients, medical staff and hospital setting, the potential health threat is worthy of our attention.

  2. Changes in Holstein cow milk and serum proteins during intramammary infection with three different strains of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Robert Claude

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogens to cause mastitis in dairy cattle. Intramammary infection of dairy cows with S. aureus is often subclinical, due to the pathogen's ability to evade the innate defense mechanisms, but this can lead to chronic infection. A sub-population of S. aureus, known as small colony variant (SCV, displays atypical phenotypic characteristics, causes persistent infections, and is more resistant to antibiotics than parent strains. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the host immune response will be different for SCV than its parental or typical strains of S. aureus. In this study, the local and systemic immune protein responses to intramammary infection with three strains of S. aureus, including a naturally occurring bovine SCV strain (SCV Heba3231, were characterized. Serum and casein-depleted milk cytokine levels (interleukin-8, interferon-γ, and transforming growth factor-β1, as well as serum haptoglobin concentrations were monitored over time after intramammary infection with each of the three S. aureus strains. Furthermore, comparative proteomics was used to evaluate milk proteome profiles during acute and chronic phases of S. aureus intramammary infection. Results Serum IL-8, IFN-γ, and TGF-β1 responses differed in dairy cows challenged with different strains of S. aureus. Changes in overall serum haptoglobin concentrations were observed for each S. aureus challenge group, but there were no significant differences observed between groups. In casein-depleted milk, strain-specific differences in the host IFN-γ response were observed, but inducible IL-8 and TGF-β1 concentrations were not different between groups. Proteomic analysis of the milk following intramammary infection revealed unique host protein expression profiles that were dependent on the infecting strain as well as phase of infection. Notably, the protein, component-3 of the proteose peptone (CPP3, was

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among a community-based diabetes population in Foshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jialing; Xu, Ping; Peng, Yang; Lin, Dongxin; Ou, Qianting; Zhang, Ting; Bai, Chan; Ye, Xiaohua; Zhou, Junli; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2017-05-01

    Evidence suggests that diabetes might cause an increase in colonization of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in community settings. We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and influencing factors of S. aureus and MRSA nasal colonization among a community-based diabetes population, and to identify the characteristics of the isolated strains. A total of 956 participants from 11 community settings were included in the study. Of the 529 diabetes participants, 46 were colonized with S. aureus and 22 were colonized with MRSA. Of the 427 non-diabetes participants, 25 were colonized with S. aureus and 12 were colonized with MRSA. Men (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.99, P = 0.047) were less likely to have S. aureus nasal colonization, and those with well-controlled blood glucose (odds ratio 2.04, 95% confidence interval 1.01-4.13, P = 0.047) among the diabetes population were more likely to have S. aureus nasal colonization. The proportion of multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains in the diabetes population (52.17%) was higher than that in the non-diabetes population (28.00%; χ 2 = 3.848, P = 0.050). The most common clonal complex type and Staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec type of MRSA in diabetes population was clonal complex 5 (40.91%) and type IV (27.27%), respectively. The proportion of Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene in MRSA strains was 17.65%. There was great sequence type diversity in MRSA strains. The prevalence of MRSA in the community-based diabetes population was moderate, and the high proportions of multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains and diverse molecular characteristics in the diabetes population should be noticed. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance and mecA characterization of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and non-S. aureus of beef meat origin in Egypt

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    Kamelia Mahmoud Osman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA have been found in various farm animal species throughout the world. Yet, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA, methicillin-susceptible non-S. aureus (MS-NSA and methicillin-resistant non-S. aureus (MR-NSA were not investigated. Therefore, we persued to determine the diversity in theirphenotypic virulence assay, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profile and molecular characterisation in one of the food chains in Egypt. Samples were collected during 2013 from beef meat at retail. Twenty seven isolates comprising five species (S. hyicus, S. aureus, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, S. intermedius and S. lentus were characterized for their antibiotic resistance phenotypic profile and antibiotic resistance genes (mecA, cfr, gyrA, gyrB and grlA. Out of the 27 Staphylococcus isolates only one isolate was resistant to the 12 antibiotics representing nine classes. Raw beef meat sold across the Great Cairo zone, contains 66.7% of MRS, with highest prevalence was reported in S. aureus (66.7%, while the MRS non-S. aureus strains constituted 66.7% from which S. hyicus (60%, S. intermedius (33.3%, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans (100% and S. lentus (100% were MRS. Seven S. aureus, six S. hyicus, four S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, three S. intermedius and one S. lentus isolates although being resistant to oxacillin yet, 11/27 (40.7% carried the mecA gene. At the same time, the cfr gene was present in 2 of the nine S. aureus isolates, and totally undetectable in S. hyicus, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, S. intermedius and S. lentus. Although global researches largely focused into MRSA and MR-NSA in animals on pigs, the analysis of our results stipulates that buffaloes and cattle could be MRSA dispersers and that this theme is not specific to pigs. Detection of MSSA virulence determinants is a must, as although oxacillin resistance may be absent yet, the MSSA may carry the virulence determinants which could

  5. Expression, purification, and activity assay of peptide deformylase from Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xuchun; Hu, Jinwei; Wang, Lijuan; Zhu, Zhifeng; Xu, Qiong; Lv, Junqiang; Fu, Zheng; Sun, Yajun; Sun, Jia; Lin, Gang; Lu, Rong; Yao, Zhi

    2011-11-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is considered an attractive target for screening novel antibiotics. The PDF from Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are representative of the gram-negative species type of PDF (type I PDF) and the gram-positive species type of PDF (type II PDF), respectively. They could be used for screening broad-spectrum antibiotics. Herein, we cloned the def gene by PCR, inserted it into plasmid pET-22b-def, and transformed the plasmid into E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells, then the cells were induced by IPTG to express PDF. E. coli Ni(2+)-PDF was extracted and purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. S. aureus PDFs were extracted and purified using the MagExtractor kit. The nickel form of S. aureus PDF was obtained by adding NiCl(2) to all reagents used for purification. Iron-enriched S. aureus PDF was obtained by adding FeCl(3) to the growth medium for E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells and adding FeCl(3) and catalase to all reagents used for purification. The activities of PDFs were analyzed, compared, and grouped according to the experimental conditions that produced optimal activity, and we used actinonin as an inhibitor of PDF and calculated the IC(50) value. We obtained high expression of E. coli and S. aureus PDF with high activity and stability. The function of PDFs was inhibited by actinonin in a dose-dependent manner. Results may be helpful for future mechanistic investigations of PDF as well as high-throughput screening for other PDF inhibitors.

  6. Colonization of nursing professionals by Staphylococcus aureus La colonización de los profesionales de enfermería por Staphylococcus aureus A colonização dos profissionais de enfermagem por Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josely Pinto de Moura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in the saliva of the nursing team of a teaching hospital in the interior of São Paulo State. Three saliva samples were collected from 351 individuals with an interval of two months between each collection. All ethical aspects were considered. In 867 (82.3% cultures there was no identification of Staphylococcus aureus in the saliva, in 88 (17.7% cultures Staphylococcus aureus was isolated, 26 (2.5% of which were resistant to methicillin. The prevalence of professionals colonized by Staphylococcus aureus was 41.0% (144/351, of which 7.1% (25/351 were characterized as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Transient carriers represented 81.2% and persistent carriers 18.8%. Resistance to mupirocin was 73.1% of MRSA and 9.3% of MSSA. The results demonstrate that it is the nurse and nursing technician that are the professional categories most susceptible to MRSA. Broader discussion on the thematic and interventions are needed.Se trata de un estudio transversal que tuvo como objetivo investigar la presencia de Staphylococcus aureus en la saliva del equipo de enfermería de un hospital escuela del interior del estado de Sao Paulo. Fueron recolectadas tres muestras de saliva de 351 individuos con intervalo de dos meses. Todos los aspectos éticos fueron contemplados. En 867 (82,3% culturas no hubo identificación de Staphylococcus aureus en la saliva, en 88 (17,7% culturas fue aislado Staphylococcus aureus, siendo 26 (2,5% resistentes a la meticilina. La prevalencia de profesionales colonizados por Staphylococcus aureus fue de 41,0% (144/351, de los cuales 7,1% (25/351 fueron caracterizados como Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a la meticilina. Los portadores transitorios representaron 81,2% y los persistentes 18,8%. La resistencia a la mupirocina fue de 73,1% entre los resistentes a la meticilina y 9,3% en los sensibles a la meticilina. Los resultados

  7. Strain Specific Phage Treatment for Staphylococcus aureus Infection Is Influenced by Host Immunity and Site of Infection.

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    Nathan B Pincus

    Full Text Available The response to multi-drug resistant bacterial infections must be a global priority. While mounting resistance threatens to create what the World Health Organization has termed a "post-antibiotic era", the recent discovery that antibiotic use may adversely impact the microbiome adds further urgency to the need for new developmental approaches for anti-pathogen treatments. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, in particular, has declared itself a serious threat within the United States and abroad. A potential solution to the problem of antibiotic resistance may not entail looking to the future for completely novel treatments, but instead looking into our history of bacteriophage therapy. This study aimed to test the efficacy, safety, and commercial viability of the use of phages to treat Staphylococcus aureus infections using the commercially available phage SATA-8505. We found that SATA-8505 effectively controls S. aureus growth and reduces bacterial viability both in vitro and in a skin infection mouse model. However, this killing effect was not observed when phage was cultured in the presence of human whole blood. SATA-8505 did not induce inflammatory responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cultures. However, phage did induce IFN gamma production in primary human keratinocyte cultures and induced inflammatory responses in our mouse models, particularly in a mouse model of chronic granulomatous disease. Our findings support the potential efficacy of phage therapy, although regulatory and market factors may limit its wider investigation and use.

  8. Strain Specific Phage Treatment for Staphylococcus aureus Infection Is Influenced by Host Immunity and Site of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Nathan B; Reckhow, Jensen D; Saleem, Danial; Jammeh, Momodou L; Datta, Sandip K; Myles, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    The response to multi-drug resistant bacterial infections must be a global priority. While mounting resistance threatens to create what the World Health Organization has termed a "post-antibiotic era", the recent discovery that antibiotic use may adversely impact the microbiome adds further urgency to the need for new developmental approaches for anti-pathogen treatments. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in particular, has declared itself a serious threat within the United States and abroad. A potential solution to the problem of antibiotic resistance may not entail looking to the future for completely novel treatments, but instead looking into our history of bacteriophage therapy. This study aimed to test the efficacy, safety, and commercial viability of the use of phages to treat Staphylococcus aureus infections using the commercially available phage SATA-8505. We found that SATA-8505 effectively controls S. aureus growth and reduces bacterial viability both in vitro and in a skin infection mouse model. However, this killing effect was not observed when phage was cultured in the presence of human whole blood. SATA-8505 did not induce inflammatory responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cultures. However, phage did induce IFN gamma production in primary human keratinocyte cultures and induced inflammatory responses in our mouse models, particularly in a mouse model of chronic granulomatous disease. Our findings support the potential efficacy of phage therapy, although regulatory and market factors may limit its wider investigation and use.

  9. Lysionotin attenuates Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity by inhibiting α-toxin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zihao; Shi, Dongxue; Liu, Huanyu; Shen, Ziying; Zha, Yonghong; Li, Wenhua; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Jianfeng

    2017-09-01

    α-Toxin, one of the best known pore-forming proteins produced by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), is a critical virulence factor in multiple infections. The necessity of α-toxin for S. aureus pathogenicity suggests that this toxin is an important target for the development of a potential treatment strategy. In this study, we showed that lysionotin, a natural compound, can inhibit the hemolytic activity of culture supernatants by S. aureus by reducing α-toxin expression. Using real-time PCR analysis, we showed that transcription of hla (the gene encoding α-toxin) and agr (the locus regulating hla) was significantly inhibited by lysionotin. Lactate dehydrogenase and live/dead assays indicated that lysionotin effectively protected human alveolar epithelial cells against S. aureus, and in vivo studies also demonstrated that lysionotin can protect mice from pneumonia caused by S. aureus. These findings suggest that lysionotin is an efficient inhibitor of α-toxin expression and shows significant protection against S. aureus in vitro and in vivo. This study supports a potential strategy for the treatment of S. aureus infection by inhibiting the expression of virulence factors and indicates that lysionotin may be a potential treatment for S. aureus pneumonia.

  10. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300.......To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  11. Nasal Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among college student athletes in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kai Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Of 259 college students in northern Taiwan surveyed, nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA was 22.4% and 1.54%, respectively and no significant difference was found between athlete students and non-athlete students. Three of four MRSA isolates belonged to sequence type 59, the endemic community clone.

  12. Silver nanoparticles for the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Miguel Ángel Ortiz-Gila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe un gran ecosistema microbiano en la cavidad oral donde Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus se puede encontrar, causando patologías orales tales como quelitis angular, las paperas y la mucositis estafilocócica. Estas enfermedades producidas por S. aureus en la cavidad oral son consecuencia de los factores de virulencia, toxinas y multiresistencia a los antibióticos, lo que contribuye a la infección. La colonización en la cavidad oral por S. aureus en pacientes sanos es de 24% a 36%. Sin embargo, la incidencia aumenta a 48% en pacientes con prótesis debido a la formación de biofilms en la superficie de las dentaduras postizas. Actualmente, no existe ningún tratamiento para infecciones orales sin el uso de antibióticos. Investigaciones recientes indican que las nanopartículas de plata (AgNPs son un material o estrategia para eliminar S. aureus debido a su efecto antibacteriano. Sin embargo, el mecanismo del efecto inhibidor de los iones de Ag sobre S. aureus es sólo parcialmente conocida y muy poco se ha informado. Por lo tanto, el propósito de la presente revisión sistemática es determinar las estrategias y retos de la utilización de biomateriales antimicrobianos con AgNPs frente a las infecciones orales de S. aureus.

  13. Communications of Staphylococcus aureus and non-aureus Staphylococcus species from bovine intramammary infections and teat apex colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser S.; Klaas, Ilka Christine; Svennesen, Line

    2018-01-01

    The role of non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) in the risk of acquisition of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus is vague and still under debate. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the distribution patterns of NAS species from milk and teat skin in dairy herds with au...

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Anthraquinone from Aloe on Spiced Pig Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingyi; Li, Xiao; Cui, Yuqian; Pang, Meixia; Wang, Fang; Qi, Jinghua

    2017-12-01

    [Objective] To optimize the extraction of anthraquinone from Aloe by ultrasonic extraction and its antibacterialactivity. [Method]The influences of different extraction time and ethanol concentration, on anthraquinone contentwere evaluated by asingle factor experiment. And anthraquinone content was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The bacteriostasis of anthraquinone on spiced pig head’s common putrefying bacteria: Staphylococcus, Serratieae, Bacillus, Proteus and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were studied by oxford plate assay system. [Result]The best extraction time was 30 minutes and the best ethanol concentration was 80%. The antibacterial activity of the Aloe anthraquinone on Staphylococcus Aureus, Bacillus Proteus is obviously, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.0625 g/mL, 0.05 g/mL, 0.125 g/mL respectively and no inhibitory effect on Serratieae. [Conclusions] The anthraquinones from Aloe can inhibit a part Of spoilage bacteria inspiced pig heads.

  15. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ethiopia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetie, Setegn; Tarekegn, Fentahun; Moges, Feleke; Amsalu, Anteneh; Birhan, Wubet; Huruy, Kahsay

    2016-11-21

    The burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern worldwide; however the overall epidemiology of multidrug resistant strains is neither coordinated nor harmonized, particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcos aureus and its antibiotic resistance pattern in Ethiopia at large. PubMed, Google Scholar, and lancet databases were searched and a total of 20 studies have been selected for meta-analysis. Six authors have independently extracts data on the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analysis was achieved by using Open meta-analyst (version 3.13) and Comprehensive meta-analysis (version 3.3) softwares. The overall prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its antibiotic resistance pattern were pooled by using the forest plot, table and figure with 95% CI. The pooled prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 32.5% (95% CI, 24.1 to 40.9%). Moreover, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were found to be highly resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, and amoxicillin, with a pooled resistance ratio of 99.1, 98.1, 97.2 and 97.1%, respectively. On the other hand, comparably low levels of resistance ratio were noted to vancomycin, 5.3%. The overall burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is considerably high, besides these strains showed extreme resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin and amoxicillin. In principle, appropriate use of antibiotics, applying safety precautions are the key to reduce the spread of multidrug resistant strains, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in particular.

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in suppurative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1299, p<0.05) and Methicillin resistance was confirmed by PCR. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent and more resistant in inpatients. There is a higher risk of acquiring drug resistant staphylococcus aureus infection in ...

  17. Radiosynthesis and biological evaluation of the 99mTc-tricarbonyl moxifloxacin dithiocarbamate complex as a potential Staphylococcus aureus infection radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Syed Qaiser; Khan, Muhammad Rafiullah

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation, radiosynthesis of the 99m Tc-tricarbonyl moxifloxacin dithiocarbamate complex ( 99m Tc(CO) 3 -MXND) and its biological evaluation in male Wister rats (MWR) artificially infected with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was assessed. The 99m Tc(CO) 3 -MXND complex was radiochemically examined in terms of stability in saline and in serum and biologically its in-vitro binding with S. aureus and percent absorption in MWR models. Radiochemically the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -MXND complex showed more than 90% stability in saline up to 240 min and in serum 14.95% undesirable species was appeared within 16 h. In-vitro the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -MXND complex showed saturated binding with S. aureus. In MWR artificially infected with live S. aureus the complex showed about six fold higher uptakes in the infected muscle as compared to the normal muscle. However, insignificant change in the uptake of 99m Tc(CO) 3 -MXND complex in the infected and inflamed or normal muscle was observed in the MWR infected with heat killed S. aureus. The 99m Tc(CO) 3 -MXND complex disappeared from the circulatory system and appeared in the urinary system within 60-90 min followed by excretion through normal route of urinary system. Based on the elevated and stable radiochemical succumb in saline, serum, saturated in-vitro binding with S. aureus and higher accumulation in the target organ of the MWR, we recommend the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -MXND complex for radio-localization of the infection induced by S. aureus in human.

  18. A prospective cohort study of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in neonates: the role of maternal carriage and phenotypic and molecular characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jialing; Wu, Chuanan; Yan, Chunrong; Ou, Qianting; Lin, Dongxin; Zhou, Junli; Ye, Xiaohua; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2018-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), in mothers can cause serious outcomes in neonates. We aimed to elucidate the associations of S. aureus and MRSA carriage between mothers and neonates. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted between August and November 2015 in two hospitals in Shenzhen, China. Chinese pregnant women and their neonates who met the inclusion criteria were included in this study; samples and relevant information were collected. We assessed maternal–neonatal associations by using Poisson regression models. Results Overall, 1834 mothers and their neonates were included in this study. The prevalence of isolate carriage among the mothers was as follows: S. aureus (nasal, 25.8%; vaginal, 7.3%; and nasal and vaginal, 3.3%) and MRSA (nasal, 5.7%; vaginal, 1.7%; and nasal and vaginal, 0.5%). The incidences of S. aureus and MRSA carriage among neonates were 3.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Of the 21 maternal–neonatal pairs with S. aureus carriage, 14 were concordant pairs with the same phenotypic and molecular characteristics. After adjustment, the relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between the S. aureus carriage of neonates and nasal S. aureus carriage, vaginal S. aureus carriage, and both nasal and vaginal S. aureus carriage of mothers were 2.8 (95% CI, 1.6–4.8), 7.1 (95% CI, 4.1–12.4), and 9.6 (95% CI, 4.2–22.4), respectively. Conclusion S. aureus carriage in mothers increases the risk for neonates. PMID:29731644

  19. Staphylococcus aureus detection in the mouth of housekeepers Detección de Staphylococcus aureus en la boca de trabajadores de la limpieza hospitalaria Detecção de Staphylococcus aureus na boca de trabalhadores da limpeza hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Drehmer de Almeida Cruz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in hospital housekeepers, and their knowledge and beliefs regarding this problem. Three saliva samples were collected and a questionnaire regarding knowledge and beliefs was applied. Of the 92 workers, 63 (68.5% participated in the study; 20 were not and 43 were colonized; 13 by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 30 by methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Persistent carrier status of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 15.4% of cases. Low knowledge and perception of occupational risk were observed. The mouth was identified as an important reservoir of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Analyzing knowledge and beliefs, as well as the state of carrier, is an important strategy to be added to educational actions for the prevention of workers' colonization.Este estudio evaluó la prevalencia de la colonización por Staphylococcus aureus en trabajadores de limpieza hospitalaria, y su conocimiento y creencias acerca de la problemática. Fueron recolectadas tres muestras de saliva y aplicado un cuestionario referente al conocimiento y creencias. De 92 trabajadores, 63 (68,5% participaron del estudio; 20 se presentaron no colonizados y 43 colonizados; 13 para Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina y 30 para Staphylococcus aureus sensibles a la meticilina. El estado de portador persistente por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina fue detectado en 15,4% de los casos. Bajo conocimiento y percepción del riesgo ocupacional fueron observados. La boca fue identificada como importante reservatorio de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina. Analizar el conocimiento y creencias juntamente con la investigación del estado de portador es una importante estrategia a ser agregada a las acciones educativas para la prevención de la colonización de trabajadores.Este estudo avaliou a prevalência da coloniza

  20. Proteases in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus confer reduced susceptibility to lactoferricin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvatne, Hilde; Haukland, Hanne Husom; Samuelsen, Ørjan; Krämer, Manuela; Vorland, Lars H

    2002-10-01

    Lactoferricin B is a cationic antimicrobial peptide derived from the N-terminal part of bovine lactoferrin. The effect of bacterial proteases on the antibacterial activity of lactoferricin B towards Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated using various protease inhibitors and protease-deficient E. coli mutants. Sodium-EDTA, a metalloprotease inhibitor, was the most efficient inhibitors in both species, but combinations of sodium-EDTA with other types of protease inhibitor gave a synergic effect. The results indicate that several groups of proteases are involved in resistance to lactoferricin B in both E. coli and S. aureus. We also report that genetic inactivation of the heat shock-induced serine protease DegP increased the susceptibility to lactoferricin B in E. coli, suggesting that this protease, at least, is involved in reduced susceptibility to lactoferricin B.

  1. Development of the immune response in pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus (part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Abaturov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature review presents modern data on the pathogen-associated molecular structures of Staphylococcus aureus and its role in the occurrence of pneumonia: activation and modulation of the immune response, oxidative and metabolic stress, apoptosis. Particular attention is paid to the factors of virulence of the pathogen, which can induce an inflammatory process without activating the image-recognition receptors.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and around therapeutic whirlpools in college athletic training rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A

    2015-04-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Cross-sectional study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F(2,238) = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses.

  3. Human factor in Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Nouwen (Jan); H.A.M. Boelens (Hélène); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPersistent nasal carriers and noncarriers of Staphylococcus aureus were inoculated with a mixture of different S. aureus strains. The majority of noncarriers and nearly all persistent carriers returned to their original carrier state after artificial inoculation. Furthermore, the

  4. Amphibian antimicrobial peptide fallaxin analogue FL9 affects virulence gene expression and DNA replication in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Sanne; Gottlieb, Caroline T; Vestergaard, Martin; Hansen, Paul R; Gram, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne; Thomsen, Line E

    2015-12-01

    The rapid rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens is causing increased health concerns, and consequently there is an urgent need for novel antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which have been isolated from a wide range of organisms, represent a very promising class of novel antimicrobials. In the present study, the analogue FL9, based on the amphibian AMP fallaxin, was studied to elucidate its mode of action and antibacterial activity against the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Our data showed that FL9 may have a dual mode of action against S. aureus. At concentrations around the MIC, FL9 bound DNA, inhibited DNA synthesis and induced the SOS DNA damage response, whereas at concentrations above the MIC the interaction between S. aureus and FL9 led to membrane disruption. The antibacterial activity of the peptide was maintained over a wide range of NaCl and MgCl(2) concentrations and at alkaline pH, while it was compromised by acidic pH and exposure to serum. Furthermore, at subinhibitory concentrations of FL9, S. aureus responded by increasing the expression of two major virulence factor genes, namely the regulatory rnaIII and hla, encoding α-haemolysin. In addition, the S. aureus-encoded natural tolerance mechanisms included peptide cleavage and the addition of positive charge to the cell surface, both of which minimized the antimicrobial activity of FL9. Our results add new information about FL9 and its effect on S. aureus, which may aid in the future development of analogues with improved therapeutic potential.

  5. Influence of growth media on the sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cationic biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Florian; Goroncy-Bermes, Peter; Sand, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the influence of culturing Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa under different growth conditions on their inactivation by the cationic active compounds benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine digluconate and octenidine dihydrochloride was investigated. Cells were grown in non-agitated tryptone soya broth as well as on tryptone soya agar according to national and international standards for evaluating chemical disinfectants. In quantitative suspension tests, cells of both test organisms grown on agar were significantly more sensitive to all three biocides than cells grown in broth. The differences in antimicrobial activity were greater in the case of S. aureus than in the case of P. aeruginosa. With S. aureus cultures, differences in the reduction factor of up to 5 log steps were found, with P. aeruginosa up to 2.5 log steps. The results of our uptake tests performed with S. aureus and octenidine dihydrochloride indicated that the growth conditions and the associated different stress factors either had an influence on the composition of the cell surface of this test organism or induced the formation of an efflux system. Cells of S. aureus cultured in broth took up only one-fifth of the amount of biocide molecules compared to cells from agar cultures. These data correlated with the results of the suspension tests. A low uptake of biocides apparently led to a reduced killing rate. In contrast to S. aureus, no significant differences in the uptake of octenidine dihydrochloride by cells of P. aeruginosa could be observed. These cells took up the same amount of the antimicrobial substance, whether on agar or in broth. In view of these results, possible consequences should be considered prior to changing test regulations.

  6. Determinants of carriage of resistant Staphylococcus aureus among S. aureus carriers in the Indonesian population inside and outside hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.S. Lestari (Endang Sri); D.O. Duerink (Offra); U. Hadi (Usman); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte); N.J.D. Nagelkerke (Nico); K. Kuntaman (Kuntaman); H. Wahjono (Hendro); W. Gardjito (Widjoseno); A. Soejoenoes (Ariawan); P. van den Broek (Peterhans); M. Keuter (Monique); I.C. Gyssens (Inge); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To identify determinants of carriage of resistant Staphylococcus aureus in both hospitalized patients and individuals from the community in two urban centres in Indonesia. METHODS: Staphylococcus aureus cultures and data on recent antibiotic use, demographic, socioeconomic,

  7. Staphylococcus aureus in the community: colonization versus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections have increased dramatically in the community, yet S. aureus nasal colonization has remained stable. The objectives of this study were to determine if S. aureus colonization is a useful proxy measure to study disease transmission and infection in community settings, and to identify potential community reservoirs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Randomly selected households in Northern Manhattan, completed a structured social network questionnaire and provided nasal swabs that were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to identify S. aureus colonizing strains. The main outcome measures were: 1 colonization with S. aureus; and 2 recent serious skin infection. Risk factor analyses were conducted at both the individual and the household levels; logistic regression models identified independent risks for household colonization and infection. RESULTS: 321 surveyed households contained 914 members. The S. aureus prevalence was 25% and MRSA was 0.4%. More than 40% of households were colonized. Recent antibiotic use was the only significant correlate for household colonization (p = .002. Seventy-eight (24% households reported serious skin infection. In contrast with colonization, five of the six risk factors that increased the risk of skin infection in the household at the univariate level remained independently significant in multivariable analysis: international travel, sports participation, surgery, antibiotic use and towel sharing. S. aureus colonization was not significantly associated with serious skin infection in any analysis. Among multiperson households with more than one person colonized, 50% carried the same strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of association between S. aureus nasal colonization and serious skin infection underscores the need to explore alternative venues or body sites that may be crucial to transmission. Moreover, the magnitude of colonization and

  8. eap Gene as novel target for specific identification of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muzaffar; von Eiff, Christof; Sinha, Bhanu; Joost, Insa; Herrmann, Mathias; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten

    2008-02-01

    The cell surface-associated extracellular adherence protein (Eap) mediates adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to host extracellular matrix components and inhibits inflammation, wound healing, and angiogenesis. A well-characterized collection of S. aureus and non-S. aureus staphylococcal isolates (n = 813) was tested for the presence of the Eap-encoding gene (eap) by PCR to investigate the use of the eap gene as a specific diagnostic tool for identification of S. aureus. Whereas all 597 S. aureus isolates were eap positive, this gene was not detectable in 216 non-S. aureus staphylococcal isolates comprising 47 different species and subspecies of coagulase-negative staphylococci and non-S. aureus coagulase-positive or coagulase-variable staphylococci. Furthermore, non-S. aureus isolates did not express Eap homologs, as verified on the transcriptional and protein levels. Based on these data, the sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed PCR targeting the eap gene were both 100%. Thus, the unique occurrence of Eap in S. aureus offers a promising tool particularly suitable for molecular diagnostics of this pathogen.

  9. Duplex Identification of Staphylococcus aureus by Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tianjun; Wang, Libo; Zhao, Kexu; Ge, Yu; He, Meng; Li, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the top common pathogen causing infections and food poisoning. Identification of S. aureus is crucial for the disease diagnosis and regulation of food hygiene. Herein, we report an aptamer-AuNPs based method for duplex identification of S. aureus. Using AuNPs as an indicator, SA23, an aptamer against S. aureus, can well identify its target from Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, we find citrate-coated AuNPs can strongly bind to S. aureus, but not bind to Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, which leads to different color changes in salt solution. This colorimetric response is capable of distinguishing S. aureus from S. enteritidis and P. mirabilis. Thus, using the aptasensor and AuNPs together, S. aureus can be accurately identified from the common pathogens. This duplex identification system is a promising platform for simple visual identification of S. aureus. Additionally, in the aptasensing process, bacteria are incubated with aptamers and then be removed before the aptamers adding to AuNPs, which may avoid the interactions between bacteria and AuNPs. This strategy can be potentially applied in principle to detect other cells by AuNPs-based aptasensors.

  10. Factors determining Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility to photoantimicrobial chemotherapy: RsbU activity, staphyloxanthin level and membrane fluidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kossakowska-Zwierucho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Photoantimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT constitutes a particular type of stress condition, in which bacterial cells induce a pleiotropic and as yet unexplored effect. In light of this, the key master regulators are of putative significance to the overall phototoxic outcome. In Staphylococcus aureus, the alternative sigma factor σB controls the expression of genes involved in the response to environmental stress. We show that aberration of any sigB operon genes in S. aureus USA300 isogenic mutants causes a pronounced sensitization (>5 log10 reduction in CFU drop to PACT with selected photosensitizers, namely protoporphyrin diarginate, zinc phthalocyanine and rose bengal. This effect is partly due to aberration-coupled staphyloxanthin synthesis inhibition. We identified frequent mutations in RsbU, a σB activator, in PACT-vulnerable clinical isolates of S. aureus, resulting in σB activity impairment. Locations of significant changes in protein structure (IS256 insertion, early STOP codon occurrence, substitutions A230T and A276D were shown in a theoretical model of S. aureus RsbU. As a phenotypic hallmark of PACT-vulnerable S. aureus strains, we observed an increased fluidity of bacterial cell membrane, which is a result of staphyloxanthin content and other yet unidentified factors. Our research indicates σB as a promising target of adjunctive antimicrobial therapy and suggests that enhanced cell membrane fluidity may be an adjuvant strategy in photoantimicrobial chemotherapy.

  11. A Staphylococcus aureus TIR domain protein virulence factor blocks TLR2-mediated NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarian, Fatemeh; van Sorge, Nina M; Sangvik, Maria; Beasley, Federico C; Henriksen, Jørn R; Sollid, Johanna U E; van Strijp, Jos A G; Nizet, Victor; Johannessen, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), crucial molecules in the induction of host defense responses, requires adaptor proteins that contain a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces several innate immune-evasion molecules that interfere with the host's innate immune response. A database search analysis suggested the presence of a gene encoding a homologue of the human TIR domain in S. aureus MSSA476 which was named staphylococcal TIR domain protein (TirS). Ectopic expression of TirS in human embryonic kidney, macrophage and keratinocyte cell lines interfered with signaling through TLR2, including MyD88 and TIRAP, NF-κB and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Moreover, the presence of TirS reduced the levels of cytokines MCP-1 and G-CSF secreted in response to S. aureus. The effects on NF-κB pathway were confirmed using S. aureus MSSA476 wild type, an isogenic mutant MSSA476ΔtirS, and complemented MSSA476ΔtirS +pTirS in a Transwell system where bacteria and host cells were physically separated. Finally, in a systematic mouse infection model, TirS promoted bacterial accumulation in several organs 4 days postinfection. The results of this study reveal a new S. aureus virulence factor that can interfere with PAMP-induced innate immune signaling in vitro and bacterial survival in vivo. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm removal by targeting biofilm-associated extracellular proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir K Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Methods: Biofilm assay was done in 96-well microtitre plate to evaluate the effect of proteinase K on biofilms of bovine mastitis S. Aureus isolates. Extracellular polymeric substances were extracted and evaluated for their composition (protein, polysaccharides and extracellular DNA, before and after the proteinase K treatment. Results: Biofilm assay showed that 2 μg/ml proteinase K significantly inhibited biofilm development in bap-positive S. aureus V329 as well as other S. aureus isolates (SA7, SA10, SA33, SA352, but not in bap-mutant M556 and SA392 (a weak biofilm-producing strain. Proteinase K treatment on S. aureus planktonic cells showed that there was no inhibition of planktonic growth up to 32 μg/ml of proteinase K. Proteinase K treatment on 24 h old preformed biofilms showed an enhanced dispersion of bap-positive V329 and SA7, SA10, SA33 and SA352 biofilms; however, proteinase K did not affect the bap-mutant S. aureus M556 and SA392 biofilms. Biofilm compositions study before and after proteinase K treatment indicated that Bap might also be involved in eDNA retention in the biofilm matrix that aids in biofilm stability. When proteinase K was used in combination with antibiotics, a synergistic effect in antibiotic efficacy was observed against all biofilm-forming S. aureus isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: Proteinase K inhibited biofilms growth in S. aureus bovine mastitis isolates but did not affect their planktonic growth. An enhanced dispersion of preformed S. aureus biofilms was observed on proteinase K treatment. Proteinase K treatment with antibiotics showed a synergistic effect against S. aureus biofilms. The study suggests that dispersing S. aureus by protease can be of use while devising strategies againstS. aureus biofilms.

  13. Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinigalliano Christopher D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant S. aureus, MRSA, are human colonizing bacteria that commonly cause opportunistic infections primarily involving the skin in otherwise healthy individuals. These infections have been linked to close contact and sharing of common facilities such as locker rooms, schools and prisons Waterborne exposure and transmission routes have not been traditionally associated with S. aureus infections. Coastal marine waters and beaches used for recreation are potential locations for the combination of high numbers of people with close contact and therefore could contribute to the exposure to and infection by these organisms. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and characteristics of the shedding of methicillin sensitive S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA by human bathers in marine waters. Results Nasal cultures were collected from bathers, and water samples were collected from two sets of pools designed to isolate and quantify MSSA and MRSA shed by adults and toddlers during exposure to marine water. A combination of selective growth media and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to identify and perform limited characterization of the S. aureus isolated from the water and the participants. Twelve of 15 MRSA isolates collected from the water had identical genetic characteristics as the organisms isolated from the participants exposed to that water while the remaining 3 MRSA were without matching nasal isolates from participants. The amount of S. aureus shed per person corresponded to 105 to 106 CFU per person per 15-minute bathing period, with 15 to 20% of this quantity testing positive for MRSA. Conclusions This is the first report of a comparison of human colonizing organisms with bacteria from human exposed marine water attempting to confirm that participants shed their own colonizing MSSA and MRSA into their bathing milieu. These findings clearly

  14. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mette Theilgaard

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nares and skin surfaces of several animal species, including man. S. aureus can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial soft tissue and skin infections to severe and deadly systemic infections. Traditionally S....... aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been associated with hospitals, but during the past decades MRSA has emerged in the community and now a new branch of MRSA has been found in association with livestock (LA-MRSA). A specific lineage (multilocus sequence type 398 (ST398...

  15. Research advance in rapid detection of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihong Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive, coccus-shaped facultative anaerobe and a member of the Staphylococcaceae family. In recent years, alimentary toxicosis caused by S. aureus is a very serious problem worldwide, which constitutes a great threat to public health. In this review, we tried to summarize the conventional methods and newly developed rapid detection techniques of S. aureus (traditional detection method, biochemical detection, immunology method, molecular biology, and biosensor method for their principles, advantages, disadvantages, and applications. Furthermore, the future perspectives of S. aureus detection methods were forecasted at last.

  16. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    The present PhD research was aimed at analysing the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China. Between 2000 and 2005 we found that patients from a single Chinese hospital showed increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), resistance

  17. Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in apparently healthy ... treatment failures is vital. Keywords: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Nasal swabs, Multidrug resistance, Rational .... defined as resistance to three or more classes of antibiotics other than the ...

  18. Staphylococcus aureus and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and Around Therapeutic Whirlpools in College Athletic Training Rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. Results: We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F2,238 = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Conclusions: Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses. PMID:25710853

  19. [TLR2 modulates Staphylococcus aureus-induced inflammatory response and autophagy in macrophages through PI3K signaling pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Fang, Lei; Wang, Jiong; Liu, Rongyu

    2017-09-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular mechanisms of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) taking part in inflammatory response in Staphylococcus aureus (SA)-induced asthma. Methods We established the cell inflammatory response model through stimulating mouse RAW264.7 macrophages with SA. The TLR2, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), nuclear factor κBp65 (NF-κBp65), phospho-NF-κBp65, beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B) were detected by Western blot analysis after treatment with TLR2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA), and the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were determined by ELISA. In addition, the number of autolysosomes was observed by the laser scanning confocal microscope. Results SA-stimulated macrophages activated various signaling pathways including TLR2. TLR2 siRNA markedly repressed the expressions of PI3K, phospho-NF-κBp65, the autophagy protein beclin-1 and LC3B as well as the number of autolysosomes and the production of TNF- and IL-6. We also demonstrated that 3-MA had the same effect on autophagy and inflammation as TLR2 siRNA did. Conclusion TLR2 modulates SA-induced inflammatory response and autophagy in macrophages through PI3K signaling pathway.

  20. In silico analysis for identifying potential vaccine candidates against Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Delfani, Somayeh; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Mobarez, Ashraf Mohabati; Emaneini, Mohammad; Amani, Jafar; Sedighian, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important causes of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The increasing incidence of multiple antibiotic-resistant S. aureus strains and the emergence of vancomycin resistant S. aureus strains have placed renewed interest on alternative means of prevention and control of infection. S. aureus produces a variety of virulence factors, so a multi-subunit vaccine will be more successful for preventing S. aureus infections than a mono-subuni...

  1. Communications of Staphylococcus aureus and non-aureus Staphylococcus species from bovine intramammary infections and teat apex colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmod, Yasser S; Klaas, Ilka Christine; Svennesen, Line; Pedersen, Karl; Ingmer, Hanne

    2018-05-16

    The role of non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) in the risk of acquisition of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus is vague and still under debate. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the distribution patterns of NAS species from milk and teat skin in dairy herds with automatic milking systems, and (2) examine if the isolated NAS influences the expression of S. aureus virulence factors controlled by the accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing system. In 8 herds, 14 to 20 cows with elevated somatic cell count were randomly selected for teat skin swabbing and aseptic quarter foremilk samples from right hind and left front quarters. Teat skin swabs were collected using the modified wet-dry method and milk samples were taken aseptically for bacterial culture. Colonies from quarters with suspicion of having NAS in milk or teat skin samples (or both) were subjected to MALDI-TOF assay for species identification. To investigate the interaction between S. aureus and NAS, 81 isolates NAS were subjected to a qualitative β-galactosidase reporter plate assay. In total, 373 NAS isolates were identified representing 105 from milk and 268 from teat skin of 284 quarters (= 142 cows). Sixteen different NAS species were identified, 15 species from teat skin and 10 species from milk. The most prevalent NAS species identified from milk were Staphylococcus epidermidis (50%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (15%), and Staphylococcus chromogenes (11%), accounting for 76%. Meanwhile, the most prevalent NAS species from teat skin were Staphylococcus equorum (43%), S. haemolyticus (16%), and Staphylococcus cohnii (14%), accounting for 73%. Using reporter gene fusions monitoring transcriptional activity of key virulence factors and regulators, we found that out of 81 supernatants of NAS isolates, 77% reduced expression of hla, encoding a-hemolysin, 70% reduced expression of RNAIII, the key effector molecule of agr, and 61% reduced expression of spa encoding

  2. Host Physiologic Changes Induced by Influenza A Virus Lead to Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Dispersion and Transition from Asymptomatic Colonization to Invasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Reddinger

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous opportunistic human pathogen and a major health concern worldwide, causing a wide variety of diseases from mild skin infections to systemic disease. S. aureus is a major source of severe secondary bacterial pneumonia after influenza A virus infection, which causes widespread morbidity and mortality. While the phenomenon of secondary bacterial pneumonia is well established, the mechanisms behind the transition from asymptomatic colonization to invasive staphylococcal disease following viral infection remains unknown. In this report, we have shown that S. aureus biofilms, grown on an upper respiratory epithelial substratum, disperse in response to host physiologic changes related to viral infection, such as febrile range temperatures, exogenous ATP, norepinephrine, and increased glucose. Mice that were colonized with S. aureus and subsequently exposed to these physiologic stimuli or influenza A virus coinfection developed pronounced pneumonia. This study provides novel insight into the transition from colonization to invasive disease, providing a better understanding of the events involved in the pathogenesis of secondary staphylococcal pneumonia.

  3. Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus using chitosan quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2018-01-01

    Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using chitosan modified quantum dots (CTS@CdS QDs) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide is reported. The method is based on the intrinsic positive catalase activity of S. aureus. CTS@CdS quantum dots provide high dispersion in aqueous media with high fluorescence emission. Staphylococcus aureus causes a selective quenching of the fluorescence emission of CTS@CdS QDs in the presence of H2O2 compared to other pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The intrinsic enzymatic character of S. aureus (catalase positive) offers selective and fast biosensing. The present method is highly selective for positive catalase species and requires no expensive reagents such as antibodies, aptamers or microbeads. It could be extended for other species that are positive catalase.

  4. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Quach

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP, which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and -resistant (MRSA clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71 within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS S. aureus strains (n = 20 within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice.

  5. Antibiotic Resistance Profiling of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Clinical Specimens in a Tertiary Hospital from 2010 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain C. Juayang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MRSA infection can affect a wide array of individuals that may lead to treatment failure. Also, the infection has the potential to spread from one area to another particularly health care facilities or communities eventually causing minor outbreaks. With this premise, the study aimed to describe MRSA infections using the hospital-based data of a tertiary hospital in Bacolod City, Philippines, from 2010 to 2012. Specifically, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus isolated from clinical specimens and to put emphasis on the prevalence of MRSA and Inducible Clindamycin Resistance. A total of 94 cases from 2010 to 2012 were diagnosed to have S. aureus infection using conventional bacteriologic methods. From these cases, 38 (40.6% were identified as MRSA and 37 (39.4% were inducible clindamycin resistant. Wounds and abscesses were considered to be the most common specimens with MRSA infections having 71.05% while blood was the least with 5.3%. For drug susceptibility, out of the 94 S. aureus cases, including MRSA, 100% were susceptible to linezolid making it the drug of choice for this study. It was then followed by tetracycline having a mean susceptibility of 95%;, while penicillin G was ineffective with 94 cases having 0% susceptibility.

  6. Therapeutic relevance of penicillin-induced hypersensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus to killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, C; Georgopoulos, A; Laber, G; Schütze, E

    1984-01-01

    There is an overwhelming body of evidence that certain Staphylococcus aureus strains become more sensitive to killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes after their growth in media containing subinhibitory concentrations of penicillin. However, it is not clear to what extent this phenomenon contributes to the curative effect of penicillin in vivo. To explore its therapeutic relevance, we evaluated the interaction of staphylococci pretreated with penicillin in vitro with leukocytes in cell-proof ...

  7. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant S aureus strains isolated from hospital effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Santi M; Ghosh, Ananta K; Pati, Bikas R

    2015-12-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) strains were examined in hospital effluents. Most S aureus strains are resistant to methicillin (MRSA), followed by tetracycline. Approximately 15% of MRSA strains are also resistant to vancomycin (VRSA). All VRSA strains developed a VanR/VanS-regulated 2-component system of VanA-type resistance in their genome. Results indicate that there is a possibility of developing resistance to aminoglycosides by VRSA strains in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Response of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to amicoumacin A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Lama

    Full Text Available Amicoumacin A exhibits strong antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, hence we sought to uncover its mechanism of action. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of S. aureus COL in response to amicoumacin A showed alteration in transcription of genes specifying several cellular processes including cell envelope turnover, cross-membrane transport, virulence, metabolism, and general stress response. The most highly induced gene was lrgA, encoding an antiholin-like product, which is induced in cells undergoing a collapse of Δψ. Consistent with the notion that LrgA modulates murein hydrolase activity, COL grown in the presence of amicoumacin A showed reduced autolysis, which was primarily caused by lower hydrolase activity. To gain further insight into the mechanism of action of amicoumacin A, a whole genome comparison of wild-type COL and amicoumacin A-resistant mutants isolated by a serial passage method was carried out. Single point mutations generating codon substitutions were uncovered in ksgA (encoding RNA dimethyltransferase, fusA (elongation factor G, dnaG (primase, lacD (tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, and SACOL0611 (a putative glycosyl transferase. The codon substitutions in EF-G that cause amicoumacin A resistance and fusidic acid resistance reside in separate domains and do not bring about cross resistance. Taken together, these results suggest that amicoumacin A might cause perturbation of the cell membrane and lead to energy dissipation. Decreased rates of cellular metabolism including protein synthesis and DNA replication in resistant strains might allow cells to compensate for membrane dysfunction and thus increase cell survivability.

  9. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in palliative care: A prospective study of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in a hospital-based palliative care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Oliver; Strapatsas, Tobias; Alefelder, Christof; Grebe, Scott Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a common organism in hospitals worldwide and is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the prevalence in palliative care patients. Furthermore, there is no standardized screening protocol or treatment for patients for whom therapy concentrates on symptom control. Examining the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in palliative care patients as well as the level of morbidity and mortality. We performed a prospective study where methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening was undertaken in 296 consecutive patients within 48 h after admission to our palliative care unit. Medical history was taken, clinical examination was performed, and the Karnofsky Performance Scale and Palliative Prognostic Score were determined. Prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was compared to data of general hospital patients. In total, 281 patients were included in the study having a mean age of 69.7 years (standard deviation = 12.9 years) and an average Karnofsky Performance Scale between 30% and 40%. The mean length of stay was 9.7 days (standard deviation = 7.6 days). A total of 24 patients were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus positive on the first swab. Median number of swabs was 2. All patients with a negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus swab upon admission remained Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus negative in all subsequent swabs. Our study suggests that the prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among patients in an in-hospital palliative care unit is much higher than in other patient populations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Bovine origin Staphylococcus aureus: A new zoonotic agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Relangi Tulasi; Jayakumar, Kannan; Kumar, Pavitra

    2017-10-01

    The study aimed to assess the nature of animal origin Staphylococcus aureus strains. The study has zoonotic importance and aimed to compare virulence between two different hosts, i.e., bovine and ovine origin. Conventional polymerase chain reaction-based methods used for the characterization of S. aureus strains and chick embryo model employed for the assessment of virulence capacity of strains. All statistical tests carried on R program, version 3.0.4. After initial screening and molecular characterization of the prevalence of S. aureus found to be 42.62% in bovine origin samples and 28.35% among ovine origin samples. Meanwhile, the methicillin-resistant S. aureus prevalence is found to be meager in both the hosts. Among the samples, only 6.8% isolates tested positive for methicillin resistance. The biofilm formation quantified and the variation compared among the host. A Welch two-sample t -test found to be statistically significant, t=2.3179, df=28.103, and p=0.02795. Chicken embryo model found effective to test the pathogenicity of the strains. The study helped to conclude healthy bovines can act as S. aureus reservoirs. Bovine origin S. aureus strains are more virulent than ovine origin strains. Bovine origin strains have high probability to become zoonotic pathogen. Further, gene knock out studies may be conducted to conclude zoonocity of the bovine origin strains.

  11. Molecular typing of Staphylococcus aureus based on coagulase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, Faizan; Taku, Anil; Bhat, Mohd Altaf; Badroo, Gulzar Ahmad; Mudasir, Mir; Sofi, Tanveer Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to study the coagulase gene-based genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus , isolated from different samples of cattle using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and their sequence-based phylogenetic analysis. A total of 192 different samples from mastitic milk, nasal cavity, and pus from skin wounds of cattle from Military Dairy Farm, Jammu, India, were screened for the presence of S. aureus . The presumptive isolates were confirmed by nuc gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The confirmed S. aureus isolates were subjected to coagulase ( coa ) gene PCR. Different coa genotypes observed were subjected to RFLP using restriction enzymes Hae111 and Alu1 , to obtain the different restriction patterns. One isolate from each restriction pattern was sequenced. These sequences were aligned for maximum homology using the Bioedit softwareandsimilarity in the sequences was inferred with the help of sequence identity matrix. Of 192 different samples,39 (20.31%) isolates of S. aureus were confirmed by targeting nuc gene using PCR. Of 39 S. aureus isolates, 25 (64.10%) isolates carried coa gene. Four different genotypes of coa gene, i.e., 514 bp, 595 bp, 757 bp, and 802 bp were obtained. Two coa genotypes, 595 bp (15 isolates) and 802 bp (4 isolates), were observed in mastitic milk. 514 bp (2 isolates) and 757 bp (4 isolates) coa genotypes were observed from nasal cavity and pus from skin wounds, respectively. On RFLP using both restriction enzymes, four different restriction patterns P1, P2, P3, and P4 were observed. On sequencing, four different sequences having unique restriction patterns were obtained. The most identical sequences with the value of 0.810 were found between isolate S. aureus 514 (nasal cavity) and S. aureus 595 (mastitic milk), and thus, they are most closely related. While as the most distant sequences with the value of 0.483 were found between S. aureus 514 and S. aureus 802 isolates. The study, being localized

  12. Identification and characterization of sigma, a novel component of the Staphylococcus aureus stress and virulence responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey N Shaw

    Full Text Available S. aureus is a highly successful pathogen that is speculated to be the most common cause of human disease. The progression of disease in S. aureus is subject to multi-factorial regulation, in response to the environments encountered during growth. This adaptive nature is thought to be central to pathogenesis, and is the result of multiple regulatory mechanisms employed in gene regulation. In this work we describe the existence of a novel S. aureus regulator, an as yet uncharacterized ECF-sigma factor (sigma(S, that appears to be an important component of the stress and pathogenic responses of this organism. Using biochemical approaches we have shown that sigma(S is able to associates with core-RNAP, and initiate transcription from its own coding region. Using a mutant strain we determined that sigma(S is important for S. aureus survival during starvation, extended exposure to elevated growth temperatures, and Triton X-100 induced lysis. Coculture studies reveal that a sigma(S mutant is significantly outcompeted by its parental strain, which is only exacerbated during prolonged growth (7 days, or in the presence of stressor compounds. Interestingly, transcriptional analysis determined that under standard conditions, S. aureus SH1000 does not initiate expression of sigS. Assays performed hourly for 72 h revealed expression in typically background ranges. Analysis of a potential anti-sigma factor, encoded downstream of sigS, revealed it to have no obvious role in the upregulation of sigS expression. Using a murine model of septic arthritis, sigS-mutant infected animals lost significantly less weight, developed septic arthritis at significantly lower levels, and had increased survival rates. Studies of mounted immune responses reveal that sigS-mutant infected animals had significantly lower levels of IL-6, indicating only a weak immunological response. Finally, strains of S. aureus lacking sigS were far less able to undergo systemic dissemination

  13. Regulation of the pT181 encoded tetracycline resistance gene in Straphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojumdar, M.

    1986-01-01

    pT181 is a naturally-occurring 4437 basepair (bp) plasmid isolated from Staphylococcus aureus which encodes inducible resistance to tetracycline (Tc). The DNA sequence data has identified three open reading frames (ORFs). The largest ORF B, has been found to be responsible for the Tc resistance phenotype of pT181. Since most Tc resistance systems appear to be regulated by an effector protein and a repressor protein, several Bal 31 deletion mutants of pT181 were constructed and analyzed in an effort to identify the elements involved in Tc resistance. Two transcomplementing groups of mutants were identified within the tet gene. The mechanism of Tc resistance was studied by assaying the accumulation of [7- 3 H] Tc by Tc sensitive cells, and uninduced and induced pT181-containing cells. A sharp decrease in accumulation of the drug after an initial increase was observed in Tc induced pT181-containing cells. In vivo labeling of Bacillus subtilis minicells containing pT181 was performed with 35 S-methionine to identify the polypeptide product of the tet gene. A Tc-inducible protein having a molecular weight of approximately 50,000 daltons was detected only in B. subtilis minicells carrying pT181. Cell fractionation studies of S. aureus cells with and without pT181 showed that an approximately 28,000 daltons Tc-inducible protein was present in membranes of pT181 containing cells. The amount of TET protein in Tc induced minicells was about fifteen-fold higher than that in uninduced minicells. RNA prepared from stationary phase cells analyzed by Northern blot hybridization showed that the steady-state level of the tet mRNA in induced pT181-containing cells was bout four-fold higher than that in uninduced pT181-containing cells. When RNA synthesis was blocked with rifampicin, tet mRAN was found to be much more stable in Tc induced cells as compared to that in uninduced cells over a 30 min period

  14. Short communication: Effects of lactose and milk on the expression of biofilm-associated genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ting; Chen, Xiaolin; Shang, Fei

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the main etiological organism responsible for bovine mastitis. The ability of S. aureus to form biofilms plays an important role in the pathogenesis of mastitis. Biofilm formation in S. aureus is associated with the production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) protein and several other proteins. Several environmental factors, including glucose, osmolarity, oleic acid, temperature, and anaerobiosis, have been reported to affect biofilm formation in S. aureus. This study investigated the influence of lactose and milk on the biofilm formation capacity of 2 clinical bovine isolates of S. aureus. We found that lactose increased biofilm formation predominantly by inducing PIA production, whereas milk increased biofilm formation through PIA as well as by increasing the production of other biofilm-associated proteins, which might be mediated by the transcriptional regulators intercellular adhesion regulator (icaR) and repressor of biofilm (rbf). Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus, including meticillin-resistant S aureus, in nine European countries: a cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, C.D.J. den; Bijnen, E.M.E. van; Paget, W.J.; Pringle, M.; Goossen, H.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Information about the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus resistance to antimicrobial drugs has mainly been obtained from invasive strains, although the commensal microbiota is thought to be an important reservoir of resistance. We aimed to compare the prevalence of nasal S aureus

  16. A model of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, R S; Davis, W H; Farris, K B; Campeau, R J; Mulvihill, D M; Shane, S M

    1990-11-01

    We studied the occurrence, magnitude, and kinetics of bacteremia and the resultant osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in an avian model of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Thirty-day-old male broiler chicks were inoculated i.v. with 10(5), 10(6), or 10(7) cfu of strain Duntravis, a beta-hemolytic, coagulase-producing, capsular type 8 isolate from the synovial fluid of a 2-year-old black boy. Bacteremia occurred in 80%, 90%, and 100% of animals inoculated with 10(5), 10(6), or 10(7) cfu, respectively. The magnitude of bacteremia in surviving, bacteremic animals increased for 96 hours after inoculation and then decreased after a plateau phase. Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis occurred only in chicks that were continuously bacteremic. The occurrence of osteomyelitis was uniform among continuously bacteremic animals and developed 1 to 23 hours after inoculation. Chickens are susceptible to systemic infections with S. aureus. Bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and septic arthritis may be induced in healthy chickens without prior manipulations that depress their resistance.

  17. Survey and properties of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Japanese-style desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Yuko; Kidokoro, Shiho; Murata, Masatsune

    2006-07-01

    We surveyed the contamination of 315 Japanese- and western-style desserts and 247 human hands by Staphylococcus aureus and other staphylococcal bacteria. The most frequently isolated staphylococcal bacterium was S. warneri, followed by S. aureus. Only 1.9% of western-style desserts were contaminated by S. aureus strains, while 19.4% and 13.0% of Japanese-style desserts and human hands respectively were contaminated. Ninety-four isolates of S. aureus were characterized as to their biological properties and enterotoxigenicity. Although staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the cultured broth of all S. aureus isolates, the reversed passive latex agglutination method and the polymerase chain reaction showed only 39 (41.5%) and 40 (42.6%) samples respectively as SE-positive. The predominant type of SE was SEB (67.5%), and eight strains produced SEA. None of the S. aureus strains had penicillin-binding protein 2', showing that methicillin-resistant S. aureus was not present in the samples.

  18. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Essential Oil Exerts Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Macrophage Mediated Immune Response to Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, D; Gismondi, A; Basso, A; Canuti, L; Braglia, R; Canini, A; Mariani, F; Cappelli, G

    2016-01-01

    Different studies described the antibacterial properties of Lavandula angustifolia (Mill.) essential oil and its anti-inflammatory effects. Besides, no data exist on its ability to activate human macrophages during the innate response against Staphylococcus aureus. The discovery of promising regulators of macrophage-mediated inflammatory response, without side effects, could be useful for the prevention of, or as therapeutic remedy for, various inflammation-mediated diseases. This study investigated, by transcriptional analysis, how a L. angustifolia essential oil treatment influences the macrophage response to Staphylococcus aureus infection. The results showed that the treatment increases the phagocytic rate and stimulates the containment of intracellular bacterial replication by macrophages. Our data showed that this stimulation is coupled with expression of genes involved in reactive oxygen species production (i.e., CYBB and NCF4). Moreover, the essential oil treatment balanced the inflammatory signaling induced by S. aureus by repressing the principal pro-inflammatory cytokines and their receptors and inducing the heme oxygenase-1 gene transcription. These data showed that the L. angustifolia essential oil can stimulate the human innate macrophage response to a bacterium which is responsible for one of the most important nosocomial infection and might suggest the potential development of this plant extract as an anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory coadjutant drug.

  19. Root cause analysis of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Nadia; Mehdi, Naima; Izhar, Mateen

    2015-10-01

    To find the important risk factors and sources of bacteraemia in patients suffering from methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. The descriptive study was carried out at Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, from October 2010 to August 2011. Blood cultures were processed to isolate methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. A questionnaire was completed by the participating patients suffering from bacteraemia. Information about risk factors present at the time and risk factors that served as the source of bacteraemia were noted. Total 4058 blood cultures were processed and 669(16.5%) were positive. Of them, 194(29%) cultures were found to be positive for staphylococci. Out of these 194 blood cultures, coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated from 117(60%), and 77(40%) were positive for S. aureus. Out of these 77 samples, 26(34%) were found to be methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus and 51(66%) were methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. The overall frequency of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus was 1.25%; 7.62% out of positive blood culture; 26.28% out of total staphylococci; and 66% out of total S. aureus. As for the source of infection, central venous pressure line 11(21.6%), post-influenza pneumonia 9(17.6%), peripheral intravenous line 8(15.7%) and dialysis line 7(13.7%) were major reasons. Taking care of aseptic measures while insertion, frequent change and early removal of the central venous and dialysis lines is of critical significance.

  20. Targeting Staphylococcus aureus Toxins: A Potential form of Anti-Virulence Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cin Kong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen and the leading cause of a wide range of severe clinical infections. The range of diseases reflects the diversity of virulence factors produced by this pathogen. To establish an infection in the host, S. aureus expresses an inclusive set of virulence factors such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and other surface proteins that allow the pathogen to survive under extreme conditions and are essential for the bacteria’s ability to spread through tissues. Expression and secretion of this array of toxins and enzymes are tightly controlled by a number of regulatory systems. S. aureus is also notorious for its ability to resist the arsenal of currently available antibiotics and dissemination of various multidrug-resistant S. aureus clones limits therapeutic options for a S. aureus infection. Recently, the development of anti-virulence therapeutics that neutralize S. aureus toxins or block the pathways that regulate toxin production has shown potential in thwarting the bacteria’s acquisition of antibiotic resistance. In this review, we provide insights into the regulation of S. aureus toxin production and potential anti-virulence strategies that target S. aureus toxins.

  1. Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh cow milk in settled ... produced alpha haemolysin, 45.5% (n=25) produced beta haemolysin and ... resistant strains of S. aureus of animal and human biotypes and can serve as ...

  2. Simple method for correct enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, J.; Cohn, M. T.; Petersen, A.

    2016-01-01

    culture. When grown in such liquid cultures, the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is characterized by its aggregation of single cells into clusters of variable size. Here, we show that aggregation during growth in the laboratory standard medium tryptic soy broth (TSB) is common among clinical...... and laboratory S. aureus isolates and that aggregation may introduce significant bias when applying standard enumeration methods on S. aureus growing in laboratory batch cultures. We provide a simple and efficient sonication procedure, which can be applied prior to optical density measurements to give...

  3. Antibacterial activity of anthraquinone from cassia seed on spiced pig head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L. Y.; Li, X.; Cui, Y. Q.; Pang, M. X.; Wang, F.; Qi, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    [Objective] To optimize the extraction of anthraquinone from cassia seed by ultrasonic extraction and its antibacterial activity. [Method] The influences of different extraction time and ethanol concentration, on anthraquinone content were evaluated by a single factor experiment. And anthraquinone content was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The bacteriostasis of anthraquinone on spiced pig head’s common putrefying bacteria: Staphylococcus, Serratieae, Bacillus, Proteus and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were studied by oxford plate assay system. [Result] The best extraction time was 30 minutes and the best ethanol concentration was 80%. The antibacterial activity of the cassia seed anthraquinone on Staphylococcus Aureus, Bacillus Proteus is obviously, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.125 g/mL, 0.125 g/mL, 1 g/mL respectively and no inhibitory effect on Serratieae. [Conclusions] The anthraquinones from Cassia seed can inhibit a part of spoilage bacteria in spiced pig heads.

  4. Research advance in rapid detection of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Xihong Zhao; Caijiao Wei; Junliang Zhong; Shiwei Jin

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive, coccus-shaped facultative anaerobe and a member of the Staphylococcaceae family. In recent years, alimentary toxicosis caused by S. aureus is a very serious problem worldwide, which constitutes a great threat to public health. In this review, we tried to summarize the conventional methods and newly developed rapid detection techniques of S. aureus (traditional detection method, biochemical detection, immunology method, molecular biology, and biosensor...

  5. Detection of Macrolide, Lincosamide and Streptogramin Resistance among Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunagiri Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in incidence of Methicillin Resistant Staphyloccocus aureus (MRSA and its extraordinary potential to develop antimicrobial resistance has highlighted the need for better agents to treat such infections. This has led to a renewed interest in use of new drugs for treatment with clindamycin and quinuprsitin-dalfopristin being the preferred choice for treatment. Aim & Objectives: This study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of MacrolideLincosamide-Streptogramin (MLS resistance among clinical isolates of MRSA.Material and Methods:Two hundred and thirty clinical isolates of S. aureus were subjected to routine antibiotic susceptibility testing including cefoxitin, erythromycin and quinupristindalfopristin. Inducible resistance to clindamycin was tested by 'D' test as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Results: Out of all S. aureus isolates, 93.91% were identified as MRSA. In the disc diffusion testing, 81.5% of isolates showed erythromycin resistance. Among these, the prevalence of constitutive (cMLS , inducible (iMLS b b and MS-phenotype were 35.80%, 31.82% and 32.39% respectively by the D-test method. 77.8% of isolates were resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC ranged from 4–32 µg/ml. 89.20% of isolates were resistant to both quinupristin-dalfopristin and erythromycin of which 35.03%, 35.67% and 29.30% belonged to iMLS , cMLS and MS phenotype respectively. Conclusion: The emergence of quinupristindalfopristin resistance and MLS phenotypes brings b about the need for the simple and reliable D-test in routine diagnosis and further susceptibility testing for proper antimicrobial therapy.

  6. Active immunization with an octa-valent Staphylococcus aureus antigen mixture in models of S. aureus bacteremia and skin infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Proteomic studies with different Staphylococcus aureus isolates have shown that the cell surface-exposed and secreted proteins IsaA, LytM, Nuc, the propeptide of Atl (pro-Atl and four phenol-soluble modulins α (PSMα are invariantly produced by this pathogen. Therefore the present study was aimed at investigating whether these proteins can be used for active immunization against S. aureus infection in mouse models of bacteremia and skin infection. To this end, recombinant His-tagged fusions of IsaA, LytM, Nuc and pro-Atl were isolated from Lactococcus lactis or Escherichia coli, while the PSMα1-4 peptides were chemically synthesized. Importantly, patients colonized by S. aureus showed significant immunoglobulin G (IgG responses against all eight antigens. BALB/cBYJ mice were immunized subcutaneously with a mixture of the antigens at day one (5 μg each, and boosted twice (25 μg of each antigen with 28 days interval. This resulted in high IgG responses against all antigens although the response against pro-Atl was around one log lower compared to the other antigens. Compared to placebo-immunized mice, immunization with the octa-valent antigen mixture did not reduce the S. aureus isolate P load in blood, lungs, spleen, liver, and kidneys in a bacteremia model in which the animals were challenged for 14 days with a primary load of 3 × 10(5 CFU. Discomfort scores and animal survival rates over 14 days did not differ between immunized mice and placebo-immunized mice upon bacteremia with S. aureus USA300 (6 × 10(5 CFU. In addition, this immunization did not reduce the S. aureus isolate P load in mice with skin infection. These results show that the target antigens are immunogenic in both humans and mice, but in the used animal models do not result in protection against S. aureus infection.

  7. Assessing the potential for raw meat to influence human colonization with Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Carrel, Margaret; Zhao, Chang; Thapaliya, Dipendra; Bitterman, Patrick; Kates, Ashley E.; Hanson, Blake M.; Smith, Tara C.

    2017-01-01

    The role of household meat handling and consumption in the transfer of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) from livestock to consumers is not well understood. Examining the similarity of S. aureus colonizing humans and S. aureus in meat from the stores in which those individuals shop can provide insight into the role of meat in human S. aureus colonization. S. aureus isolates were collected from individuals in rural and urban communities in Iowa (n?=?3347) and contemporaneously from meat produc...

  8. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus infection by aptamers directly radiolabeled with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Sara Roberta dos; Rodrigues Corrêa, Cristiane; Branco de Barros, André Luís; Serakides, Rogéria; Fernandes, Simone Odília

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aptamers are oligonucleotides that have high affinity and specificity for their molecular targets which are emerging as a new class of molecules for radiopharmaceuticals development. In this study, aptamers selected to Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated for bacterial infection identification. Methods: Anti S. aureus aptamers were labeled with 99m Tc by the direct method. The radiolabel yield and complex stability were assessed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Three groups of Swiss mice containing 6 animals each were used. The first group was infected intramuscularly in the right thigh with S. aureus. The second group was infected in the same way with C. albicans and the third group was injected with zymosan to induce aseptic inflammation. After 24 h, radiolabeled aptamers (22.2 MBq) were injected by the tail vein. The mice were euthanized 4 h post injection and tissue sample activities measured in a gamma counter. Results: The 99m Tc labeled aptamers were stable in saline, plasma and cystein excess. Radiolabeled aptamers showed increased uptake in the kidneys for all groups indicating a main renal excretion, which is consistent with the hydrophilic nature and small size of aptamers. The radiopharmaceutical showed rapid blood clearance indicated by a reduced dose (% ID/g) in the blood. The biodistribution showed that aptamers were able to identify the infection foci caused by S. aureus displaying a target/non-target ratio of 4.0 ± 0.5. This ratio for mice infected with C. albicans was 2.0 ± 0.4 while for mice with aseptic inflammation was 1.2 ± 0.2. Histology confirmed the presence of infection in groups 1 and 2, and inflammation in group 3. Conclusions: The biodistibution study demonstrated a statistically higher uptake in the S. aureus foci relative to inflammation and C. albicans infected areas. These results highlight the potential of aptamers labeled directly with 99m Tc for bacterial infection diagnosis by scintigraphy

  9. Intercenter reproducibility of binary typing for Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Willem B.; Snoeijers, Sandor; van der Werken-Libregts, Christel; Tuip, Anita; van der Zee, Anneke; Egberink, Diane; de Proost, Monique; Bik, Elisabeth; Lunter, Bjorn; Kluytmans, Jan; Gits, Etty; van Duyn, Inge; Heck, Max; van der Zwaluw, Kim; Wannet, Wim; Noordhoek, Gerda T.; Mulder, Sije; Renders, Nicole; Boers, Miranda; Zaat, Sebastiaan; van der Riet, Daniëlle; Kooistra, Mirjam; Talens, Adriaan; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; van der Reyden, Tanny; Veenendaal, Dick; Bakker, Nancy; Cookson, Barry; Lynch, Alisson; Witte, Wolfgang; Cuny, Christa; Blanc, Dominique; Vernez, Isabelle; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Fiett, Janusz; Struelens, Marc; Deplano, Ariane; Landegent, Jim; Verbrugh, Henri A.; van Belkum, Alex

    2002-01-01

    The reproducibility of the binary typing (BT) protocol developed for epidemiological typing of Staphylococcus aureus was analyzed in a biphasic multicenter study. In a Dutch multicenter pilot study, 10 genetically unique isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were characterized by the BT

  10. The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laupland, K.B.; Lyytikäinen, O.; Søgaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) has been changing, international comparisons are lacking. We sought to determine the incidence of S. aureus BSI and assess trends over time and by region. Population-based surveillance w...

  11. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants in diabetic foot infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Cervantes-García

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is one of the major pathogens causing chronic infections. The ability of S. aureus to acquire resistance to a diverse range of antimicrobial compounds results in limited treatment options, particularly in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. A mechanism by which S. aureus develops reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials is through the formation of small colony variants (SCVs. Infections by SCVs of S. aureus are an upcoming problem due to difficulties in laboratory diagnosis and resistance to antimicrobial therapy. Methods: A prospective study was performed on 120 patients diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. The study was carried out from July 2012 to December 2013 in Hospital General de Mexico. The samples were cultured in blood agar, mannitol salt agar, and MacConkey agar media, and incubated at 37°C in aerobic conditions. Results: We describe the first known cases of diabetic foot infections caused by MRSA-SCVs in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. In all of our cases, the patients had not received any form of gentamicin therapy. Conclusions: The antibiotic therapy commonly used in diabetic patients with infected diabetic foot ulcers fails in the case of MRSA-SCVs because the intracellular location protects S. aureus-SCVs from the host's defenses and also helps them resist antibiotics. The cases studied in this article add to the spectrum of persistent and relapsing infections attributed to MRSA-SCVs and emphasizes that these variants may also play a relevant role in diabetic foot infections.

  12. Induction of type I interferon signaling determines the relative pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane Parker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous success of S. aureus as a human pathogen has been explained primarily by its array of virulence factors that enable the organism to evade host immunity. Perhaps equally important, but less well understood, is the importance of the intensity of the host response in determining the extent of pathology induced by S. aureus infection, particularly in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. We compared the pathogenesis of infection caused by two phylogenetically and epidemiologically distinct strains of S. aureus whose behavior in humans has been well characterized. Induction of the type I IFN cascade by strain 502A, due to a NOD2-IRF5 pathway, was the major factor in causing severe pneumonia and death in a murine model of pneumonia and was associated with autolysis and release of peptidogylcan. In contrast to USA300, 502A was readily eliminated from epithelial surfaces in vitro. Nonetheless, 502A caused significantly increased tissue damage due to the organisms that were able to invade systemically and trigger type I IFN responses, and this was ameliorated in Ifnar⁻/⁻ mice. The success of USA300 to cause invasive infection appears to depend upon its resistance to eradication from epithelial surfaces, but not production of specific toxins. Our studies illustrate the important and highly variable role of type I IFN signaling within a species and suggest that targeted immunomodulation of specific innate immune signaling cascades may be useful to prevent the excessive morbidity associated with S. aureus pneumonia.

  13. Topical Prostaglandin E Analog Restores Defective Dendritic Cell–Mediated Th17 Host Defense Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in the Skin of Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Dejani, Naiara N.; Brandt, Stephanie L.; Piñeros, Annie; Glosson-Byers, Nicole L.; Wang, Sue; Son, Young Min; Medeiros, Alexandra I.; Serezani, C. Henrique

    2016-01-01

    People with diabetes are more prone to Staphylococcus aureus skin infection than healthy individuals. Control of S. aureus infection depends on dendritic cell (DC)–induced T-helper 17 (Th17)–mediated neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance. DC ingestion of infected apoptotic cells (IACs) drive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion to generate Th17 cells. We speculated that hyperglycemia inhibits skin DC migration to the lymph nodes and impairs the Th17 differentiation that accounts for poo...

  14. A meta-analysis of the rates of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S aureus contamination on the surfaces of environmental objects that health care workers frequently touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dongxin; Ou, Qianting; Lin, Jialing; Peng, Yang; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2017-04-01

    Health care workers may potentially spread Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) to patients by contaminated high-touch items. We aimed to determine the pooled rates of S aureus and MRSA contamination and influencing factors. A literature search of the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Ovid, and Scopus databases was performed. Pooled contamination rates were determined using random effect models. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted to identify factors potentially influencing the rates of S aureus and MRSA contamination. Sensitivity and publication bias analyses were performed. Thirty-eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled contamination rates were 15.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.8%-21.1%) for S aureus and 5.0% (95% CI, 2.7%-7.7%) for MRSA. The subgroup analyses indicated that the pooled rate of S aureus contamination was significantly higher for studies conducted in South America, in developing countries, and during 2010-2015. The pooled rate of MRSA contamination was significantly higher for studies conducted in Africa. The meta-regression analysis suggested that the pooled rate of S aureus contamination was lower for studies conducted in developed countries (odds ratio, 0.664; 95% CI, 0.509-0.867; P = .004). No bias was found in the publication of the rates of S aureus and MRSA contamination. S aureus and MRSA contamination statuses of high-touch items are worrisome and should be paid greater attention. Developing country status was a risk factor for S aureus contamination. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nasal carriage of methicilli-resistant staphylococcus aureus with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus isolates were collected from anterior nares of fifty healthy adults in Zaria and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns determined. Seventy-two percent (72%) of the isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus, while 20% were methicillin-susceptible. The isolates were generally resistant to multiple ...

  16. Breast Milk Is a Potential Reservoir for Livestock-Associated Staphylococcus aureus and Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk is the first choice in feeding newborn infants and provides multiple benefits for their growth and development. Staphylococcus aureus usually exists in breast milk and is considered one of the most important causative infective agents. To be effective in preventing and controlling S. aureus infections among infants, the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and molecular characteristics of S. aureus isolated from 1102 samples of breast milk between 2015 and 2016 in Shanghai, China. Out of 71 S. aureus strains isolated, 15 (21.1%, 15/71 were MRSA and all the strains were characterized by spa typing, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, SCCmec typing, antibiotic resistance testing and virulence-associated genes. A total of 18 distinct sequence types (STs and 36 spa types were identified within the 71 isolates, among which the most frequently represented was ST398 (19.7%, 14/71, followed by ST7 (18.3%, 13/71, ST59 (16.9%, 12/71. The three predominant STs accounted for more than one half of all S. aureus isolates. The most prevalent spa types were t091 (12.7%, 9/71, followed by t571 (8.5%, 6/71, t189 (7.0%, 5/71, t034 (5.6%, 4/71, t437 (5.6%, 4/71, and t701 (4.2%, 3/71. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec IV and V, accounting for 66.7 and 33.3% respectively. Notably, 23 (32.4% S. aureus strains were multidrug resistance (MDR, including 4 (5.6% MRSA and 19 (26.8% MSSA strains, and MDR isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin. All isolates exhibited simultaneous carriage of at least 5 of 33 possible virulence genes and the most prevalent genes detected were icaA (100%, clfA (100%, hla (100%, sdrC (94.4%, hlg2 (88.7%, lukE (57.8%. 39 (54.9%, 39/71 isolates, including 9 (12.7% of MRSA isolates, harbored ≥10 tested virulence genes evaluated in this study. The pvl gene was detected in 8 strains, which represented 5 different STs, with ST59 being the most one. Overall, our findings showed that S. aureus

  17. Associations between resistance phenotype and gene expression in response to serial exposure to oxacillin and ciprofloxacin in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M J; Ahn, J

    2017-12-01

    This study was designed to delineate the relationship between resistance phenotypes and gene expression in wild-type (SA WT ), oxacillin-induced (SA OXA ), ciprofloxacin-induced (SA CIP ) and clinically acquired antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SA CA ) exposed to oxacillin (β-lactam) and ciprofloxacin (fluoroquinolone). The phenotypic response and gene expression were varied with the antibiotic exposure. SA WT was highly resistant to oxacillin (MIC = 8 μg ml -1 ) after serial exposure to oxacillin, while the oxacillin susceptibility was not changed in SA WT when exposed to ciprofloxacin (MIC = 0·25 μg ml -1 ). The clinical isolate, SA CA , was highly resistant to all classes of antibiotics used in this study. The increased resistance of SA OXA and SA CIP to penicillinase-labile penicillins was attributed to the production of β-lactamase, which is in good agreement with the overexpression of blaZ (>2-fold). The overexpression of efflux pump-related genes (norA, norB, norC, mdeA, mepR, mgrA and lmrS) was associated with the increased resistance of SA CIP and SA CA to aminoglycosides and quinolones. This study confirmed that the linkage between resistance phenotypes and molecular genotypes highly varied depending on intrinsic resistance profile, response to antibiotic exposure and genes conferring resistance. This study provides useful information for understanding the mechanisms of methicillin resistance in S. aureus in association with phenotypic and genotypic resistance determinants. The improvement in current standards is essential to accurately detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in consideration of various resistance phenotypes and genotypes. The varied and distinctive expression patterns of antibiotic resistance-related genes were observed in S. aureus exposed to oxacillin and ciprofloxacin. It is worth noting the relationship between resistance phenotype and resistance genotype in terms of MIC values and expression of

  18. Environmental contamination with Staphylococcus aureus at a large, Midwestern university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapaliya, Dipendra; Taha, Mohammed; Dalman, Mark R; Kadariya, Jhalka; Smith, Tara C

    2017-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can cause minor to severe life-threatening infections. The changing epidemiology of S. aureus is of public health concern due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Environmental surfaces play a crucial role in the transmission of S. aureus. The objective of this study was to examine environmental contamination and molecular characteristics of S. aureus in health professional-associated (HPA) and non-health professional-associated (NHPA) buildings at a large university. A total of 152 environmental surface samples were collected from two HPA and two NHPA campus buildings. Bacterial culture and diagnostics were done using standard microbiology methods. Polymerase chain reaction was conducted to detect mecA and PVL genes. All isolates were spa typed. A subset of isolates was characterized via multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). All S. aureus isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The overall contamination of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 22.4% (34/152) and 5.9% (9/152) respectively. Similar prevalence of contamination was found in HPA and NHPA buildings. A total of 17 different spa types were detected among 34 S. aureus isolates. The majority of the MRSA isolates belonged to clonal complex (CC) 8. One isolate was positive for PVL. Eleven different sequence types (STs) were detected from 17 tested isolates. ST8 was the most common. Twelve isolates (35.3%) were MDR. Almost 27% (9/34) of the isolates were MRSA. The highest contamination of S. aureus was found in high hand-touch areas such as door knobs, suggesting that human interaction in crowded environments such as academic institutions plays a crucial role in S. aureus/MRSA transmission via inanimate objects. Additionally, more than one-third of the isolates were MDR. These data reinforce the need to implement effective prevention strategies outside the healthcare setting to decrease the incidence of drug-resistant S. aureus infections

  19. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Yujuan Suo; Daofeng Zhang; Fangning Jin; Hang Zhao; Chunlei Shi

    2018-01-01

    Staphyloxanthin (STX), a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus, is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to...

  20. Evaluation of a lysostaphin-fusion protein as a dry-cow therapy for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoernig, K J; Donovan, D M; Pithua, P; Williams, F; Middleton, J R

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a recombinant lysostaphin fused to a protein transduction domain (rLYS-PTD) as a dry-cow therapy for the treatment of experimentally induced chronic, subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Twenty-two Holstein dairy cows were experimentally infected with Staph. aureus in a single pair of diagonal mammary quarters approximately 45d before dry off. Staphylococcus aureus-infected mammary quarters of cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups at dry off: (1) 279mg of rLYS-PTD in 50mL of vehicle (n=11 cows; 22 quarters) or (2) 50mL of vehicle solution (n=11 cows; 22 quarters) by intramammary infusion. All cows were followed for 30d postpartum to determine cure rates using bacteriologic culture, somatic cell counts, and clinical mastitis scores. No cures were recorded in either the treatment or control groups. Milk somatic cell count, bacterial colony counts, and mastitis scores did not significantly differ between treatment groups. In conclusion, rLYS-PTD was not an effective dry-cow therapeutic for chronic, subclinical Staph. aureus mastitis at the tested dose and formulation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in children: a formidable foe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus remains one of the most common causes of bacteraemia in children. In order to evade and overcome the immune responses of its host and any antimicrobial therapies aimed at destroying it, this organism, through various mechanisms, continues to evolve. Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a ...

  2. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-01-26

    Jan 26, 2011 ... Key words: Staphylococcus aureus, antibiotic sensitivity, Nigeria, Kano ... infection have an increased colonization risks [8]. ... confirmed Staphylococcus aureus isolates was prepared in peptone water to ... 5 g methicillin discs (oxoid, USA) were aseptically placed on the surface of the inoculated plates and ...

  3. Detection of some virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Mastitis is one of the common diseases of dairy cattle and an inflammatory ... Key words: Bovine mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus, virulence factors, ... frequent cause of subclinical intramammary infections in ... genotypes has not been investigated. ... genes in S. aureus, we were particularly interested in the.

  4. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantosti, Annalisa; Sanchini, Andrea; Monaco, Monica

    2007-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can exemplify better than any other human pathogen the adaptive evolution of bacteria in the antibiotic era, as it has demonstrated a unique ability to quickly respond to each new antibiotic with the development of a resistance mechanism, starting with penicillin and methicillin, until the most recent, linezolid and daptomycin. Resistance mechanisms include enzymatic inactivation of the antibiotic (penicillinase and aminoglycoside-modification enzymes), alteration of the target with decreased affinity for the antibiotic (notable examples being penicillin-binding protein 2a of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and D-Ala-D-Lac of peptidoglycan precursors of vancomycin-resistant strains), trapping of the antibiotic (for vancomycin and possibly daptomycin) and efflux pumps (fluoroquinolones and tetracycline). Complex genetic arrays (staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec elements or the vanA operon) have been acquired by S. aureus through horizontal gene transfer, while resistance to other antibiotics, including some of the most recent ones (e.g., fluoroquinolones, linezolid and daptomycin) have developed through spontaneous mutations and positive selection. Detection of the resistance mechanisms and their genetic basis is an important support to antibiotic susceptibility surveillance in S. aureus.

  5. Acetic acid increases the phage-encoded enterotoxin A expression in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Ayla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of acetic acid, a common food preservative, on the bacteriophage-encoded enterotoxin A (SEA expression and production in Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in pH-controlled batch cultures carried out at pH 7.0, 6.5, 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Also, genomic analysis of S. aureus strains carrying sea was performed to map differences within the gene and in the temperate phage carrying sea. Results The sea expression profile was similar from pH 7.0 to 5.5, with the relative expression peaking in the transition between exponential and stationary growth phase and falling during stationary phase. The levels of sea mRNA were below the detection limit at pH 5.0 and 4.5, confirmed by very low SEA levels at these pH values. The level of relative sea expression at pH 6.0 and 5.5 were nine and four times higher, respectively, in the transitional phase than in the exponential growth phase, compared to pH 7.0 and pH 6.5, where only a slight increase in relative expression in the transitional phase was observed. Furthermore, the increase in sea expression levels at pH 6.0 and 5.5 were observed to be linked to increased intracellular sea gene copy numbers and extracellular sea-containing phage copy numbers. The extracellular SEA levels increased over time, with highest levels produced at pH 6.0 in the four growth phases investigated. Using mitomycin C, it was verified that SEA was at least partially produced as a consequence of prophage induction of the sea-phage in the three S. aureus strains tested. Finally, genetic analysis of six S. aureus strains carrying the sea gene showed specific sea phage-groups and two versions of the sea gene that may explain the different sea expression and production levels observed in this study. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the increased sea expression in S. aureus caused by acetic acid induced the sea-encoding prophage, linking SEA production to the lifecycle of the phage.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus CC398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Lance B.; Stegger, Marc; Hasman, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Since its discovery in the early 2000s, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) has become a rapidly emerging cause of human infections, most often associated with livestock exposure. We applied whole-genome sequence typing to characterize a diverse collection...... of CC398 isolates (n = 89), including MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from animals and humans spanning 19 countries and four continents. We identified 4,238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the 89 core genomes. Minimal homoplasy (consistency index = 0.9591) was detected...... among parsimony-informative SNPs, allowing for the generation of a highly accurate phylogenetic reconstruction of the CC398 clonal lineage. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that MSSA from humans formed the most ancestral clades. The most derived lineages were composed predominantly of livestock...

  7. Population structure analyses of Staphylococcus aureus at Tygerberg Hospital, South Africa, reveals a diverse population, a high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes, and unique local methicillin-resistant S. aureus clones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosthuysen, W. F.; Orth, H.; Lombard, C. J.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    Studies reporting on the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in South Africa have focused only on methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). This study describes the population structure of S. aureus, including methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolated from patients at Tygerberg

  8. Invasive Staphylococcus aureus infection in an African adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus remains an important cause of mortality, in the community and health care set-ups. S. aureus strains with genes encoding lethal toxins and culture negative sepsis augment the diagnostic challenge in resource limited settings. With a growing rate of resistance to the causative bacteria and atypical ...

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage inpatients in a tertiary care hospital's chest clinic in Turkey. ... of the participants and risk factors for carriage. Fisher's exact test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. A P < 0.05 ...

  10. Dehydrosqualene Desaturase as a Novel Target for Anti-Virulence Therapy against Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Peng; Davies, Julian; Kao, Richard Yi Tsun

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S.?aureus (MRSA), is a life-threatening pathogen in hospital- and community-acquired infections. The golden-colored carotenoid pigment of S.?aureus, staphyloxanthin, contributes to the resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and host neutrophil-based killing. Here, we describe a novel inhibitor (NP16) of S.?aureus pigment production that reduces the survival of S.?aureus under oxidative stress conditions. Carotenoid componen...

  11. Immunomodulatory effects of pCramoll and rCramoll on peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) infected and non-infected with Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luís Cláudio Nascimento; Alves, Neyla Maria Pereira; de Castro, Maria Carolina Accioly Brelaz; Pereira, Valéria Rêgo Alves; da Paz, Nathalia Varejão Nogueira; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; de Figueiredo, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) play important roles in host defense against Staphylococcus aureus and other pathogens. In this study we evaluated the potentials of native (pCramoll or Cramoll 1,4) and recombinant (rCramoll) lectins from seeds of Cratylia mollis as immunomodulatory tools on mice PECs infected and non-infected with S. aureus. Both lectins significantly enhanced nitric oxide, superoxide and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α). pCramoll and rCramoll downregulated the induction of TNF-α and IL-6 and upregulated the expression of IL-1β, IFN-γ in S. aureus infected PECs. Phagocytic activity of S. aureus was also enhanced in 27.1% and 22.47% by pCramoll and rCramoll, respectively. Our results showed that pCramoll induced stronger effects than rCramoll, which could be explained by the different hemagglutinating activities of C. mollis isolectins and nature fragmentation, although the biologic meaning should be studied in detail using in vivo models. Future works will be focused on the molecular mechanisms involved in these actions, using in vitro and in vivo models, to support the use of these lectins as biotechnological tool in immunological studies.

  12. Misidentification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals in Tripoli, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed O.; Abuzweda, Abdulbaset R.; Alghazali, Mohamed H.; Elramalli, Asma K.; Amri, Samira G.; Aghila, Ezzeddin Sh.; Abouzeed, Yousef M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pathogen of exceptional concern. It is responsible for life-threatening infections in both the hospital and the community. Aims To determine the frequency of MRSA misidentification in hospitals in Tripoli, Libya using current testing methods. Methods One hundred and seventy S. aureus isolates previously identified as MRSA were obtained from three hospitals in Tripoli. All isolates were reidentified by culturing on mannitol salt agar, API 20 Staph System and retested for resistance to methicillin using the cefoxitin disk diffusion susceptibility test and PBP2a. D-tests and vancomycin E-tests (Van-E-tests) were also performed for vancomycin-resistant isolates. Results Of the 170 isolates examined, 86 (51%) were confirmed as MRSA (i.e. 49% were misidentified as MRSA). Fifteen (17%) of the confirmed MRSA strains exhibited inducible clindamycin resistance. Of the 86 confirmed MRSA isolates, 13 (15%) were resistant to mupirocin, 53 (62%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 41 (48%) were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and none were resistant to linezolid. Although disc-diffusion testing indicated that 23 (27%) of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin, none of the isolates were vancomycin-resistant by Van-E-test. Conclusions Misidentification of nosocomial S. aureus as MRSA is a serious problem in Libyan hospitals. There is an urgent need for the proper training of microbiology laboratory technicians in standard antimicrobial susceptibility procedures and the implementation of quality control programs in microbiology laboratories of Libyan hospitals. PMID:21483574

  13. First report of sasX-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Ito, Teruyo; Han, Xiao; Ito, Ayumu; Matsuo, Miki; Uehara, Yuki; Baba, Tadashi; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2017-09-01

    SasX is a known virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus involved in colonisation and immune evasion of the bacterium. The sasX gene, which is located on the ϕSPβ prophage, is frequently found in the sequence type (ST) 239 S. aureus lineage, which is the predominant healthcare-associated clone in Asian countries. In Japan, ST239 clones have rarely been identified, and sasX-positive strains have not been reported to date. Here, we report the first identification of 18 sasX-positive methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains in Japanese hospitals between 2009 and 2011. All sasX-positive isolates belonged to an ST239-staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type III (ST239-III) lineage. However, we were unable to identify additional sasX-positive MRSA strains from 2012 to 2016, indicating that the small epidemic of sasX-positive isolates observed in this study was temporary. The sequence surrounding sasX in the strain TOHH628 lacked 51 genes that encode phage packaging and structural proteins, and no bacteriophage was induced by mitomycin C. Additionally, in the TOHH628 strain, the region (64.6 kb) containing sasX showed high identity to the ϕSPβ-like element (71.3 kb) of the Taiwanese MRSA strain Z172. The data strongly suggest that the present sasX-positive isolates found in Japanese hospitals were transmitted incidentally from other countries. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Portación y caracterización de Staphylococcus aureus en manipuladores de alimentos Carriage and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in food handlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela B Jordá

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus es una causa de intoxicaciones alimentarias por su capacidad de producir enterotoxinas. Los manipuladores de alimentos que portan S. aureus productores de enterotoxinas pueden provocar intoxicaciones alimentarias. Se estudiaron muestras tomadas de fosas nasales de 88 manipuladores de alimentos en la provincia de Misiones. El 37,5 % de los individuos analizados eran portadores de S. aureus. Mediante técnicas de amplificación (PCR, se detectaron genes que codifican la producción de enterotoxinas en 13 de los 33 aislamientos obtenidos (39,4 % y en el 14,7 % de los manipuladores. De estos aislamientos, 10 portaban el gen sea y 3 el gen sec. El estudio de sensibilidad a los antibióticos mostró un 100 % de sensibilidad a teicoplanina, gentamiclna y rifampicina; 2 aislamientos fueron resistentes a clindamicina y a eritromicina y 4 resultaron resistentes a la meticilina. Estos resultados son un alerta e indicarían la necesidad de desarrollar medidas racionales para reducir el riesgo potencial de intoxicaciones alimentarias.Staphylococcus aureus causes food poisoning due to its ability to produce enterotoxins. Food handlers carrying enterotoxin-producing S. aureus can contaminate food, thus leading to food poisoning. Samples were obtained from 88 food handlers in the Province of Misiones, Argentina. S. aureus was isolated from nasal swaps and PCR amplification was performed for genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins. A total of 37.5 % food handlers were positive for S. aureus. Expression of enterotoxin genes was found in 13 of the 33 (39.4 % S. aureus isolates studied, accounting for 14.7 % of food handlers. Gene sea was detected in 10 isolates followed by gene sec in 3 isolates. All isolates were susceptible to teicoplanin, gentamicin and rifampicin. Four isolates were resistant to methicillin whereas 2 isolates were resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin. These results constitute a critical alert and indicate the need

  15. Gene expression-based classifiers identify Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hee Ahn

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes a spectrum of human infection. Diagnostic delays and uncertainty lead to treatment delays and inappropriate antibiotic use. A growing literature suggests the host's inflammatory response to the pathogen represents a potential tool to improve upon current diagnostics. The hypothesis of this study is that the host responds differently to S. aureus than to E. coli infection in a quantifiable way, providing a new diagnostic avenue. This study uses Bayesian sparse factor modeling and penalized binary regression to define peripheral blood gene-expression classifiers of murine and human S. aureus infection. The murine-derived classifier distinguished S. aureus infection from healthy controls and Escherichia coli-infected mice across a range of conditions (mouse and bacterial strain, time post infection and was validated in outbred mice (AUC>0.97. A S. aureus classifier derived from a cohort of 94 human subjects distinguished S. aureus blood stream infection (BSI from healthy subjects (AUC 0.99 and E. coli BSI (AUC 0.84. Murine and human responses to S. aureus infection share common biological pathways, allowing the murine model to classify S. aureus BSI in humans (AUC 0.84. Both murine and human S. aureus classifiers were validated in an independent human cohort (AUC 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. The approach described here lends insight into the conserved and disparate pathways utilized by mice and humans in response to these infections. Furthermore, this study advances our understanding of S. aureus infection; the host response to it; and identifies new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues.

  16. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are natural hosts of specific Staphylococcus aureus lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no animal model known that mimics natural nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in humans. We investigated whether rhesus macaques are natural nasal carriers of S. aureus. Nasal swabs were taken from 731 macaques. S. aureus isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa repeat sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, and compared with human strains. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by several PCRs. Thirty-nine percent of 731 macaques were positive for S. aureus. In general, the macaque S. aureus isolates differed from human strains as they formed separate PFGE clusters, 50% of the isolates were untypeable by agr genotyping, 17 new spa types were identified, which all belonged to new sequence types (STs. Furthermore, 66% of macaque isolates were negative for all superantigen genes. To determine S. aureus nasal colonization, three nasal swabs from 48 duo-housed macaques were taken during a 5 month period. In addition, sera were analyzed for immunoglobulin G and A levels directed against 40 staphylococcal proteins using a bead-based flow cytometry technique. Nineteen percent of the animals were negative for S. aureus, and 17% were three times positive. S. aureus strains were easily exchanged between macaques. The antibody response was less pronounced in macaques compared to humans, and nasal carrier status was not associated with differences in serum anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. In conclusion, rhesus macaques are natural hosts of S. aureus, carrying host-specific lineages. Our data indicate that rhesus macaques are useful as an autologous model for studying S. aureus nasal colonization and infection prevention.

  17. Thioridazine Induces Major Changes in Global Gene Expression and Cell Wall Composition in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsing, Mette; Klitgaard, Janne Kudsk; Atilano, Magda L.

    2013-01-01

    and the transcriptomic response of S. aureus to known inhibitors of cell wall synthesis suggests that TDZ disturbs PGN biosynthesis at a stage that precedes transpeptidation by penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). In support of this notion, dramatic changes in the muropeptide profile of USA300 were observed following....... In the present study, we have examined the effect of a subinhibitory concentration of TDZ on antimicrobial resistance, the global transcriptome, and the cell wall composition of MRSA USA300. We show that TDZ is able to sensitize the bacteria to several classes of antimicrobials targeting the late stages...... a major impact on the cell wall biosynthesis pathway in S. aureus and provides new insights into how MRSA may be sensitized towards β-lactam antibiotics....

  18. Opposing roles of Toll-like receptor and cytosolic DNA-STING signaling pathways for Staphylococcus aureus cutaneous host defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip O Scumpia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Successful host defense against pathogens requires innate immune recognition of the correct pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs to trigger the appropriate gene program tailored to the pathogen. While many PRR pathways contribute to the innate immune response to specific pathogens, the relative importance of each pathway for the complete transcriptional program elicited has not been examined in detail. Herein, we used RNA-sequencing with wildtype and mutant macrophages to delineate the innate immune pathways contributing to the early transcriptional response to Staphylococcus aureus, a ubiquitous microorganism that can activate a wide variety of PRRs. Unexpectedly, two PRR pathways-the Toll-like receptor (TLR and Stimulator of Interferon Gene (STING pathways-were identified as dominant regulators of approximately 95% of the genes that were potently induced within the first four hours of macrophage infection with live S. aureus. TLR signaling predominantly activated a pro-inflammatory program while STING signaling activated an antiviral/type I interferon response with live but not killed S. aureus. This STING response was largely dependent on the cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic guanosine-adenosine synthase (cGAS. Using a cutaneous infection model, we found that the TLR and STING pathways played opposite roles in host defense to S. aureus. TLR signaling was required for host defense, with its absence reducing interleukin (IL-1β production and neutrophil recruitment, resulting in increased bacterial growth. In contrast, absence of STING signaling had the opposite effect, enhancing the ability to restrict the infection. These results provide novel insights into the complex interplay of innate immune signaling pathways triggered by S. aureus and uncover opposing roles of TLR and STING in cutaneous host defense to S. aureus.

  19. Murine macrophage response from peritoneal cavity requires signals mediated by chemokine receptor CCR-2 during Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Ajeya; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2016-02-01

    C-C chemokine receptor-2 (CCR-2) is a cognate receptor for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and recent studies revealed that MCP-1-CCR-2 signaling is involved in several inflammatory diseases characterized by macrophage infiltration. Currently, there is no study on the involvement of CCR-2 in the killing of S. aureus by macrophages of Swiss albino mice, and its substantial role in host defense against S. aureus infection in murine macrophages is still unclear. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the functional and interactive role of CCR-2 and MCP-1 in regulating peritoneal macrophage responses with respect to acute S. aureus infection. We found that phagocytosis of S. aureus can serve as an important stimulus for MCP-1 production by peritoneal macrophages, which is dependent directly or indirectly on cytokines, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. Neutralization of CCR-2 in macrophages leads to increased production of IL-10 and decreased production of IFN-γ and IL-6. In CCR-2 blocked macrophages, pretreatment with specific blocker of NF-κB or p38-MAPK causes elevation in MCP-1 level and subsequent downregulation of CCR-2 itself. We speculate that CCR-2 is involved in S. aureus-induced MCP-1 production via NF-κB or p38-MAPK signaling. We also hypothesized that unnaturally high level of MCP-1 that build up upon CCR-2 neutralization might allow promiscuous binding to one or more other chemokine receptors, a situation that would not occur in CCR-2 non-neutralized condition. This may be the plausible explanation for such observed Th-2 response in CCR-2 blocked macrophages infected with S. aureus in the present study.

  20. Identification of the ClpX Regulon in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsbak, Lotte; Thomsen, Line Elnif; Ingmer, Hanne

    Staphyloccous aureus is a major human pathogen capable of causing a wide spectrum of infections ranging from superficial wound infections to life-threatening endocarditis and toxic shock syndrome. Essential for S. aureus virulence is a large number of cell-surface-associated proteins and secreted...... we show here that almost 400 genes (15%) are influenced by the clpX deletion. Furthermore, ClpX not only regulates many virulence factors, but rather serves as a global regulator of central functions for S. aureus lifestyle and pathogenicity....

  1. CCR-2 neutralization augments murine fresh BMC activation by Staphylococcus aureus via two distinct mechanisms: at the level of ROS production and cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Ajeya; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2017-05-01

    CCR-2 signaling regulates recruitment of monocytes from the bone marrow into the bloodstream and then to sites of infection. We sought to determine whether CCL-2/CCR-2 signaling is involved in the killing of Staphylococcus aureus by murine bone marrow cells (BMCs). The intermittent link of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-NF-κB/p38-MAPK-mediated CCL-2 production in CCR-2 signaling prompted us to determine whether neutralization of CCR-2 augments the response of murine fresh BMCs (FBMCs) after S. aureus infection. It was observed that anti-CCR-2 Ab-treated FBMCs released fewer ROS on encountering S. aureus infection than CCR-2 non-neutralized FBMCs, also correlating with reduced killing of S. aureus in CCR-2 neutralized FBMCs. Staphylococcal catalase and SOD were also found to play a role in protecting S. aureus from the ROS-mediated killing of FBMC. S. aureus infection of CCR-2 intact FBMCs pre-treated with either NF-κB or p-38-MAPK blocker induced less CCL-2, suggesting that NF-κB or p-38-MAPK is required for CCL-2 production by FBMCs. Moreover, blocking of CCR-2 along with NF-κB or p-38-MAPK resulted in elevated CCL-2 production and reduced CCR-2 expression. Inhibition of CCR-2 impairs the response of murine BMCs to S. aureus infection by attenuation ROS production and modulating the cytokine response.

  2. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Suo, Yujuan; Zhang, Daofeng; Jin, Fangning; Zhao, Hang; Shi, Chunlei

    2018-01-01

    Staphyloxanthin (STX), a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus , is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to clarify the genetic and virulent differences between the two groups. Here, 132 S. aureus isolates were divided into two phenotype groups depending on the absorbance (OD 450 ) of the extracted carotenoids. Then, all isolates were subjected to spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and then the detection of presence of 30 virulence factors and the gene integrity of crtN and crtM . Furthermore, 24 typical S. aureus isolates and 4 S. argenteus strains were selected for the murine infection assay of in vivo virulence, in which the histological observation and enumeration of CFUs were carried out. These isolates were distributed in 26 sequence types (STs) and 49 spa types. The pigmented isolates were scattered in 25 STs, while the non-pigmented isolates were more centralized, which mainly belonged to ST20 (59%) and ST25 (13%). Among the 54 non-pigmented isolates, about 20% carried intact crtN and crtM genes. The in vivo assay suggested that comparing with pigmented S. aureus , non-pigmented S. aureus and S. argenteus strains did not show a reduced virulence in murine sepsis models. Therefore, it suggested that there were no significant genetic and virulent differences between pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus .

  3. Dehydrosqualene Desaturase as a Novel Target for Anti-Virulence Therapy against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, is a life-threatening pathogen in hospital- and community-acquired infections. The golden-colored carotenoid pigment of S. aureus, staphyloxanthin, contributes to the resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS and host neutrophil-based killing. Here, we describe a novel inhibitor (NP16 of S. aureus pigment production that reduces the survival of S. aureus under oxidative stress conditions. Carotenoid components analysis, enzyme inhibition, and crtN mutational studies indicated that the molecular target of NP16 is dehydrosqualene desaturase (CrtN. S. aureus treated with NP16 showed increased susceptibility to human neutrophil killing and to innate immune clearance in a mouse infection model. Our study validates CrtN as a novel druggable target in S. aureus and presents a potent and effective lead compound for the development of virulence factor-based therapy against S. aureus.

  4. Colonization and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus on endothelial cell layers under flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønnemose, Rasmus Birkholm; Antoinette Asferg, Cecilie; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and known for causing vascular infections such as sepsis and infective endocarditis. It has previously been proposed that S. aureus succeed in colonization of the endothelial wall by specific surface attachment likely followed by biofilm formation....... Furthermore, S. aureus is known to invade human cells, which has been proposed to promote persistence through immune and antibiotic evasion. In the current study, we sought to investigate endothelial colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation by S. aureus using a newly developed in vitro flow chamber model....... We show that under physiological shear rates, S. aureus utilizes cellular invasion to enable the following surface colonization and biofilm formation. These observations might help explain the success of S. aureus as a bloodstream pathogen and guide further studies in S. aureus pathogenesis...

  5. Global analysis of the impact of linezolid onto virulence factor production in S. aureus USA300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Florian; Pané-Farré, Jan; Schlüter, Rabea; Schaffer, Marc; Fuchs, Stephan; Bernhardt, Jörg; Riedel, Katharina; Otto, Andreas; Völker, Uwe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Hecker, Michael; Mäder, Ulrike; Becher, Dörte

    2016-05-01

    The translation inhibitor linezolid is an antibiotic of last resort against Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin resistant strains of the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Linezolid is reported to inhibit production of extracellular virulence factors, but the molecular cause is unknown. To elucidate the physiological response of S. aureus to linezolid in general and the inhibition of virulence factor synthesis in particular a holistic study was performed. Linezolid was added to exponentially growing S. aureus cells and the linezolid stress response was analyzed with transcriptomics and quantitative proteomics methods. In addition, scanning and transmission electron microscopy experiments as well as fluorescence microscopy analyses of the cellular DNA and membrane were performed. As previously observed in studies on other translation inhibitors, S. aureus adapts its protein biosynthesis machinery to the reduced translation efficiency. For example the synthesis of ribosomal proteins was induced. Also unexpected results like a decline in the amount of extracellular and membrane proteins were obtained. In addition, cell shape and size changed after linezolid stress and cell division was diminished. Finally, the chromosome was condensed after linezolid stress and lost contact to the membrane. These morphological changes cannot be explained by established theories. A new hypothesis is discussed, which suggests that the reduced amount of membrane and extracellular proteins and observed defects in cell division are due to the disintegration of transertion complexes by linezolid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus fermentum against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mi-Sun; Lim, Hae-Soon; Oh, Jong-Suk; Lim, You-Jin; Wuertz-Kozak, Karin; Harro, Janette M; Shirtliff, Mark E; Achermann, Yvonne

    2017-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has become a major public health threat. While lactobacilli were recently found useful in combating various pathogens, limited data exist on their therapeutic potential for S. aureus infections. The aim of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus salivarius was able to produce bactericidal activities against S. aureus and to determine whether the inhibition was due to a generalized reduction in pH or due to secreted Lactobacillus product(s). We found an 8.6-log10 reduction of planktonic and a 6.3-log10 reduction of biofilm S. aureus. In contrast, the previously described anti-staphylococcal effects of L. fermentum only caused a 4.0-log10 reduction in planktonic S. aureus cells, with no effect on biofilm S. aureus cells. Killing of S. aureus was partially pH dependent, but independent of nutrient depletion. Cell-free supernatant that was pH neutralized and heat inactivated or proteinase K treated had significantly reduced killing of L. salivarius than with pH-neutralized supernatant alone. Proteomic analysis of the L. salivarius secretome identified a total of five secreted proteins including a LysM-containing peptidoglycan binding protein and a protein peptidase M23B. These proteins may represent potential novel anti-staphylococcal agents that could be effective against S. aureus biofilms. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Comparison of five tests for identification of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Luijendijk (Ad); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractFive different laboratory tests for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus were compared. Analyses of 271 presumptive S. aureus strains, supplemented with 59 well-defined methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates, were performed. Only the

  8. Pathophysiological mechanisms of Staphylococcus non-aureus bone and joint infection: interspecies homogeneity and specific behaviour of S. pseudintermedius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Maali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Implicated in more than 60% of bone and joint infections (BJIs, Staphylococci have a particular tropism for osteoarticular tissue and lead to difficult-to-treat clinical infections. To date, Staphylococcus aureus internalization in non-professional phagocytic cells (NPPCs is a well-explored virulence mechanism involved in BJI chronicity. Conversely, the pathophysiological pathways associated with Staphylococcus non-aureus (SNA BJIs have scarcely been studied despite their high prevalence. In this study, fifteen reference strains from 15 different SNA species were compared in terms of (i adhesion to human fibronectin based on adhesion microplate assays and (ii internalization ability, intracellular persistence and cytotoxicity based on an in vitro infection model using human osteoblasts. Compared to S. aureus, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was the only species that significantly adhered to human fibronectin. This species was also associated with high (even superior to S. aureus internalization ability, intracellular persistence and cytotoxicity. These findings were confirmed using a panel of 17 different S. pseudintermedius isolates. Additionally, S. pseudintermedius internalization by osteoblasts was completely abolished in β1 integrin-deficient murine osteoblasts. These results suggest the involvement of β1 integrin in the invasion process, although this mechanism was previously restricted to S. aureus. In summary, our results suggest that internalization into NPPCs is not a classical pathophysiologic mechanism of SNA BJIs. S. pseudintermedius appears to be an exception, and its ability to invade and subsequently induce cytotoxicity in NPPCs could explain its severe and necrotic forms of infection, notably in dogs, which exhibit a high prevalence of S. pseudintermedius infection.

  9. Study of Gentamicin Effect on Staphylococcus Aureus in the Presence of Electromagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Tanomand

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Nowadays  the  medical,  therapeutic  and  pharmacological  application  of  magnetic  fields  (MF  and  its  biological  effect  has  raised  question  about  the  safety  of  MF.  This  study  aimed  at  scrutinizing the effect of static MF on the resistance of S. aureus to antibiotic.  Materials and Methods: This prospective, case–control study was conducted to evaluate the effect of  low intensity (0.5 mT static MF on the growth rate and the antibiotic resistance of S. aureus sensitive to  gentamicin. The studied bacterium is a nosocomial type and the growth rate was calculated by colony  counting to understand the effect of MF on it. In the next stage, the rate of bacterial growth along with  the different concentration of antibiotic was studied and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC  and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were determined.  Results: It is concluded that the 0.5 mT MF didn't affect the growth rate of S. aureus after 24 and 48 hours.  The 0.5 mT MF induced a 50 percent decline of MIC and MBC of gentamicin after a 48 hour incubation (MIC  = 4 6g /cc, MBC = 8 6g /cc in the case group vs. MIC = 8 6g /cc, MBC = 16 6g /cc in the control group.  Conclusion: Low–intensity MF didn't affect the bacterial growth rate. However, the bactericidal effects  of gentamicin were greater in the presence of MF. It is possible to apply the static MF for enhancing the  effect of antibiotic on S. aureus.

  10. Dehydrosqualene Desaturase as a Novel Target for Anti-Virulence Therapy against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Davies, Julian; Kao, Richard Yi Tsun

    2017-09-05

    Staphylococcus aureus , especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a life-threatening pathogen in hospital- and community-acquired infections. The golden-colored carotenoid pigment of S. aureus , staphyloxanthin, contributes to the resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and host neutrophil-based killing. Here, we describe a novel inhibitor (NP16) of S. aureus pigment production that reduces the survival of S. aureus under oxidative stress conditions. Carotenoid components analysis, enzyme inhibition, and crtN mutational studies indicated that the molecular target of NP16 is dehydrosqualene desaturase (CrtN). S. aureus treated with NP16 showed increased susceptibility to human neutrophil killing and to innate immune clearance in a mouse infection model. Our study validates CrtN as a novel druggable target in S. aureus and presents a potent and effective lead compound for the development of virulence factor-based therapy against S. aureus IMPORTANCE S. aureus staphyloxanthin contributes substantially to pathogenesis by interfering with host immune clearance mechanisms, but it has little impact on ex vivo survival of the bacterium. Agents blocking staphyloxanthin production may discourage the establishment and maintenance of bacterial infection without exerting selective pressure for antimicrobial resistance. Our newly discovered CrtN inhibitor, NP16, may offer an effective strategy for combating S. aureus infections. Copyright © 2017 Gao et al.

  11. New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infection in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-J; Huang, Y-C

    2014-07-01

    Not only is Asia the most populous region in the world, but inappropriate therapy, including self-medication with over-the-counter antimicrobial agents, is a common response to infectious diseases. The high antibiotic selective pressure among the overcrowded inhabitants creates an environment that is suitable for the rapid development and efficient spread of numerous multidrug-resistant pathogens. Indeed, Asia is among the regions with the highest prevalence rates of healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) in the world. Most hospitals in Asia are endemic for multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), with an estimated proportion from 28% (in Hong Kong and Indonesia) to >70% (in Korea) among all clinical S. aureus isolates in the early 2010s. Isolates with reduced susceptibility or a high level of resistance to glycopeptides have also been increasingly identified in the past few years. In contrast, the proportion of MRSA among community-associated S. aureus infections in Asian countries varies markedly, from 35%. Two pandemic HA-MRSA clones, namely multilocus sequence type (ST) 239 and ST5, are disseminated internationally in Asia, whereas the molecular epidemiology of CA-MRSA in Asia is characterized by clonal heterogeneity, similar to that in Europe. In this review, the epidemiology of S. aureus in both healthcare facilities and communities in Asia is addressed, with an emphasis on the prevalence, clonal structure and antibiotic resistant profiles of the MRSA strains. The novel MRSA strains from livestock animals have been considered to constitute a public health threat in western countries. The emerging livestock-associated MRSA strains in Asia are also included in this review. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  12. Metastatic Spreading of Community Acquired Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old woman presented to the Fondazione IRCCS “Cà Granda” Ospedale Maggiore, a tertiary care university hospital in Milan (Italy, with skin lesions, fever, myalgia, joint pain and swelling, and a one-week history of low back pain. The diagnosis was Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus bacteraemia spreading to skin, bones, and joints and a lumbosacral epidural abscess L5-S2. Neither initial focus nor predisposing conditions were apparent. The antibiotic therapy was prolonged for six-weeks with the resolution of fever, skin lesions, articular inflammation, and the epidural abscess. Community-acquired S. aureus infections can affect patients without traditional healthcare-associated risk factors, and community acquisition is a risk-factor for the development of complications. Raised awareness of S. aureus bacteraemia, also in patients without healthcare-associated risk factors, is important in the diagnosis, management, and control of this infection, because failure to recognise patients with serious infection and lack of understanding of empirical antimicrobial selection are associated with a high mortality rate in otherwise healthy people.

  13. NH125 kills methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus persisters by lipid bilayer disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooseong; Fricke, Nico; Conery, Annie L; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Vlahovska, Petia M; Ausubel, Frederick M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2016-01-01

    NH125, a known WalK inhibitor kills MRSA persisters. However, its precise mode of action is still unknown. The mode of action of NH125 was investigated by comparing its spectrum of antimicrobial activity and its effects on membrane permeability and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) with walrycin B, a WalR inhibitor and benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride (16-BAC), a cationic surfactant. NH125 killed persister cells of a variety of Staphylococcus aureus strains. Similar to 16-BAC, NH125 killed MRSA persisters by inducing rapid membrane permeabilization and caused the rupture of GUVs, whereas walrycin B did not kill MRSA persisters or induce membrane permeabilization and did not affect GUVs. NH125 kills MRSA persisters by interacting with and disrupting membranes in a detergent-like manner.

  14. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphyloxanthin (STX, a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus, is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to clarify the genetic and virulent differences between the two groups. Here, 132 S. aureus isolates were divided into two phenotype groups depending on the absorbance (OD450 of the extracted carotenoids. Then, all isolates were subjected to spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, and then the detection of presence of 30 virulence factors and the gene integrity of crtN and crtM. Furthermore, 24 typical S. aureus isolates and 4 S. argenteus strains were selected for the murine infection assay of in vivo virulence, in which the histological observation and enumeration of CFUs were carried out. These isolates were distributed in 26 sequence types (STs and 49 spa types. The pigmented isolates were scattered in 25 STs, while the non-pigmented isolates were more centralized, which mainly belonged to ST20 (59% and ST25 (13%. Among the 54 non-pigmented isolates, about 20% carried intact crtN and crtM genes. The in vivo assay suggested that comparing with pigmented S. aureus, non-pigmented S. aureus and S. argenteus strains did not show a reduced virulence in murine sepsis models. Therefore, it suggested that there were no significant genetic and virulent differences between pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus.

  15. Immunisation With Immunodominant Linear B Cell Epitopes Vaccine of Manganese Transport Protein C Confers Protection against Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jie Yang

    Full Text Available Vaccination strategies for Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA infections have attracted much research attention. Recent efforts have been made to select manganese transport protein C, or manganese binding surface lipoprotein C (MntC, which is a metal ion associated with pathogen nutrition uptake, as potential candidates for an S. aureus vaccine. Although protective humoral immune responses to MntC are well-characterised, much less is known about detailed MntC-specific B cell epitope mapping and particularly epitope vaccines, which are less-time consuming and more convenient. In this study, we generated a recombinant protein rMntC which induced strong antibody response when used for immunisation with CFA/IFA adjuvant. On the basis of the results, linear B cell epitopes within MntC were finely mapped using a series of overlapping synthetic peptides. Further studies indicate that MntC113-136, MntC209-232, and MntC263-286 might be the original linear B-cell immune dominant epitope of MntC, furthermore, three-dimensional (3-d crystal structure results indicate that the three immunodominant epitopes were displayed on the surface of the MntC antigen. On the basis of immunodominant MntC113-136, MntC209-232, and MntC263-286 peptides, the epitope vaccine for S. aureus induces a high antibody level which is biased to TH2 and provides effective immune protection and strong opsonophagocytic killing activity in vitro against MRSA infection. In summary, the study provides strong proof of the optimisation of MRSA B cell epitope vaccine designs and their use, which was based on the MntC antigen in the development of an MRSA vaccine.

  16. Phototoxic effect of conjugates of plasmon-resonance nanoparticles with indocyanine green dye on Staphylococcus aureus induced by IR laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchina, E S; Tuchin, Valerii V; Khlebtsov, B N; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2011-01-01

    The effect of IR laser radiation (λ = 805 - 808 nm) on the bacteria of the strain Staphylococcus aureus 209 P, incubated in indocyanine green solutions, is studied, as well as that of colloid gold nanoshells, nanocages and their conjugates with indocyanine green. It is found that the S. aureus 209 P cells are equally subjected to the IR laser radiation (λ = 805 nm) after preliminary sensitisation with indocyanine green and gold nanoparticles separately and with conjugates of nanoparticles and indocyanine green. The enhancement of photodynamic and photothermal effects by 5 % is observed after 30 min of laser illumination (λ = 808 nm) of bacteria, treated with conjugates of indocyanine green and nanocages. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  17. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and of methicillin-resistant S. aureus clonal complexes in bulk tank milk from dairy cattle herds in Lombardy Region (Northern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortimiglia, C; Luini, M; Bianchini, V; Marzagalli, L; Vezzoli, F; Avisani, D; Bertoletti, M; Ianzano, A; Franco, A; Battisti, A

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most important causative agent of subclinical mastitis in cattle resulting in reduced milk production and quality. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains has a clear zoonotic relevance, especially in the case of occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) from dairy cattle herds in the Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) and to identify the main MRSA circulating genotypes. MRSA strains were characterized by susceptibility testing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and SCCmec typing. A total 844 BTM samples were analysed and S. aureus and MRSA were detected in 47·2% and 3·8% of dairy herds, respectively. MLST showed that the majority (28/32) of isolates belonged to the typical livestock-associated lineages: ST398, ST97 and ST1. Interestingly, in this study we report for the first time the new ST3211, a single locus variant of ST(CC)22, with the newly described 462 aroE allele. Our study indicates high diffusion of S. aureus mastitis and low, but not negligible, prevalence of MRSA in the considered area, suggesting the need for planning specific control programmes for bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus, especially when MRSA is implicated.

  18. Lucky number seven: RNase 7 can prevent Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, John S; Xuan, Caiyun; Miller, Lloyd S

    2010-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus colonization is a major risk factor for infection. In this issue, Simanski et al. demonstrate that the antimicrobial peptide RNase 7 is essential for preventing S. aureus colonization in human skin. These findings suggest that therapeutic interventions aimed at targeting RNase 7 production in the skin may be a novel strategy to protect against S. aureus infections.

  19. Nasal carriage of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nasal Staphylococcus aureus is a major source of community and hospital associated staphylococcal infections. This study determined the prevalence of nasal S. aureus isolates and investigated their antimicrobial resistance profile in healthy volunteers. Methods: Nasal specimens of healthy volunteers in ...

  20. Staphylococcus aureus colonization in atopic eczema and its association with filaggrin gene mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, M. L.; Edslev, S. M.; Andersen, P. S.

    2017-01-01

    was to assess differences in S. aureus colonization in patients with AD with and without filaggrin gene mutations. The secondary aim was to assess disease severity in relation to S. aureus colonization. Exploratory analyses were performed to investigate S. aureus genetic lineages in relation to filaggrin gene...... were characterized with respect to disease severity (Scoring Atopic Dermatitis) and FLG mutations (n = 88). Fisher's exact test was used to analyse differences in S. aureus colonization in relation to FLG mutations. Results: Of the 101 patients included, 74 (73%) were colonized with S. aureus....... Of the colonized patients, 70 (95%) carried only one CC type in all three different sampling sites. In lesional skin, S. aureus was found in 24 of 31 patients with FLG mutations vs. 24 of 54 wild-type patients (P = 0·0004). Staphylococcus aureusCC1 clonal lineage was more prevalent in patients with FLG mutations...

  1. The molecular changing mechanism of Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Hemiawati Satari

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the molecular changing of S.aureus, which is resistant to Ampicillin-Sulbactam and then become resistant to Methicillin as a result of improper dosage. The study was conducted by isolating Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant and Methicillin Resistant S.aureus (MRSA, afterwards an amplification process was performed by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. to isolate the betalactamase enzyme regulator and PBP 2a genes. The result of this research showed that there were a deletion of few amino acids from the regulator gene, and a suspicion that the DNA sequence had been substituted from PBP 2 gene into PBP 2a (gen mec. This process had formed MRSA.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Transmitted between Patients with Buruli Ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amissah, Nana Ama; Chlebowicz, Monika A; Ablordey, Anthony; Sabat, Artur J; Tetteh, Caitlin S; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip S; Friedrich, Alex W; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Rossen, John W; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2015-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The wounds of most BU patients are colonized with different microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus. This study investigated possible patient-to-patient transmission events of S. aureus during wound care in a health care center. S. aureus isolates from different BU patients with overlapping visits to the clinic were whole-genome sequenced and analyzed by a gene-by-gene approach using SeqSphere(+) software. In addition, sequence data were screened for the presence of genes that conferred antibiotic resistance. SeqSphere(+) analysis of whole-genome sequence data confirmed transmission of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin susceptible S. aureus among patients that took place during wound care. Interestingly, our sequence data show that the investigated MRSA isolates carry a novel allele of the fexB gene conferring chloramphenicol resistance, which had thus far not been observed in S. aureus.

  3. Low Efficacy of Antibiotics Against Staphylococcus aureus Airway Colonization in Ventilated Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulik, Lukas; Hudcova, Jana; Craven, Donald E; Nagy, Gabor; Nagy, Eszter

    2017-04-15

    Airway-colonization by Staphylococcus aureus predisposes to the development of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Despite extensive antibiotic treatment of intensive care unit patients, limited data are available on the efficacy of antibiotics on bacterial airway colonization and/or prevention of infections. Therefore, microbiologic responses to antibiotic treatment were evaluated in ventilated patients. Results of semiquantitative analyses of S. aureus burden in serial endotracheal-aspirate (ETA) samples and VAT/VAP diagnosis were correlated to antibiotic treatment. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of relevant antibiotics using serially collected isolates were evaluated. Forty-eight mechanically ventilated patients who were S. aureus positive by ETA samples and treated with relevant antibiotics for at least 2 consecutive days were included in the study. Vancomycin failed to reduce methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) burden in the airways. Oxacillin was ineffective for MSSA colonization in approximately 30% of the patients, and responders were typically coadministered additional antibiotics. Despite antibiotic exposure, 15 of the 39 patients (approximately 38%) colonized only by S. aureus and treated with appropriate antibiotic for at least 2 days still progressed to VAP. Importantly, no change in antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus isolates was observed during treatment. Staphylococcus aureus colonization levels inversely correlated with the presence of normal respiratory flora. Antibiotic treatment is ineffective in reducing S. aureus colonization in the lower airways and preventing VAT or VAP. Staphylococcus aureus is in competition for colonization with the normal respiratory flora. To improve patient outcomes, alternatives to antibiotics are urgently needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of

  4. Persistent environmental contamination with USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other pathogenic strain types in households with S. aureus skin infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eells, Samantha J; David, Michael Z; Taylor, Alexis; Ortiz, Nancy; Kumar, Neha; Sieth, Julia; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Daum, Robert S; Miller, Loren G

    2014-11-01

    To understand the genotypic spectrum of environmental contamination of Staphylococcus aureus in households and its persistence. Prospective longitudinal cohort investigation. Index participants identified at 2 academic medical centers. Adults and children with S. aureus skin infections and their household contacts in Los Angeles and Chicago. Household fomites were surveyed for contamination at baseline and 3 months. All isolates underwent genetic typing. We enrolled 346 households, 88% of which completed the 3-month follow-up visit. S. aureus environmental contamination was 49% at baseline and 51% at 3 months. Among households with a USA300 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) body infection isolate, environmental contamination with an indistinguishable MRSA strain was 58% at baseline and 63% at 3 months. Baseline factors associated with environmental contamination by the index subject's infection isolate were body colonization by any household member with the index subject's infection isolate at baseline (odds ratio [OR], 10.93 [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.75-20.79]), higher housing density (OR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.10-1.96]), and more frequent household fomite cleaning (OR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.16-2.27]). Household environmental contamination with the index subject's infection strain at 3 months was associated with USA300 MRSA and a synergistic interaction between baseline environmental contamination and body colonization by any household member with the index subject's infection strain. We found that infecting S. aureus isolates frequently persisted environmentally in households 3 months after skin infection. Presence of pathogenic S. aureus strain type in the environment in a household may represent a persistent reservoir that places household members at risk of future infection.

  5. Diabetic mouse model of orthopaedic implant-related Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovati, Arianna B; Drago, Lorenzo; Monti, Lorenzo; De Vecchi, Elena; Previdi, Sara; Banfi, Giuseppe; Romanò, Carlo L

    2013-01-01

    Periprosthetic bacterial infections represent one of the most challenging orthopaedic complications that often require implant removal and surgical debridement and carry high social and economical costs. Diabetes is one of the most relevant risk factors of implant-related infection and its clinical occurrence is growing worldwide. The aim of the present study was to test a model of implant-related infection in the diabetic mouse, with a view to allow further investigation on the relative efficacy of prevention and treatment options in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. A cohort of diabetic NOD/ShiLtJ mice was compared with non-diabetic CD1 mice as an in vivo model of S. aureus orthopaedic infection of bone and soft tissues after femur intramedullary pin implantation. We tested control and infected groups with 1×10(3) colony-forming units of S. aureus ATCC 25923 strain injected in the implant site. At 4 weeks post-inoculation, host response to infection, microbial biofilm formation, and bone damage were assessed by traditional diagnostic parameters (bacterial culture, C-reactive protein and white blood cell count), histological analysis and imaging techniques (micro computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy). Unlike the controls and the CD1 mice, all the diabetic mice challenged with a single inoculum of S. aureus displayed severe osteomyelitic changes around the implant. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the diabetic mouse can be successfully used in a model of orthopaedic implant-related infection. Furthermore, the same bacteria inoculum induced periprosthetic infection in all the diabetic mice but not in the controls. This animal model of implant-related infection in diabetes may be a useful tool to test in vivo treatments in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals.

  6. Diabetic mouse model of orthopaedic implant-related Staphylococcus aureus infection.

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    Arianna B Lovati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic bacterial infections represent one of the most challenging orthopaedic complications that often require implant removal and surgical debridement and carry high social and economical costs. Diabetes is one of the most relevant risk factors of implant-related infection and its clinical occurrence is growing worldwide. The aim of the present study was to test a model of implant-related infection in the diabetic mouse, with a view to allow further investigation on the relative efficacy of prevention and treatment options in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. METHODOLOGY: A cohort of diabetic NOD/ShiLtJ mice was compared with non-diabetic CD1 mice as an in vivo model of S. aureus orthopaedic infection of bone and soft tissues after femur intramedullary pin implantation. We tested control and infected groups with 1×10(3 colony-forming units of S. aureus ATCC 25923 strain injected in the implant site. At 4 weeks post-inoculation, host response to infection, microbial biofilm formation, and bone damage were assessed by traditional diagnostic parameters (bacterial culture, C-reactive protein and white blood cell count, histological analysis and imaging techniques (micro computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Unlike the controls and the CD1 mice, all the diabetic mice challenged with a single inoculum of S. aureus displayed severe osteomyelitic changes around the implant. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the diabetic mouse can be successfully used in a model of orthopaedic implant-related infection. Furthermore, the same bacteria inoculum induced periprosthetic infection in all the diabetic mice but not in the controls. This animal model of implant-related infection in diabetes may be a useful tool to test in vivo treatments in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of some sulfonamide derivatives on clinical isolates of Staphylococus aureus

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    Bekdemir Yunus

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is a non-motile, gram positive, non-sporforming, facultative anaerobic microorganism. It is one of the important bacteria as a potential pathogen specifically for nosocomial infections. The sulfonamide derivative medicines are preferred to cure infection caused by S. aureus due to methicillin resistance. Methods Antimicrobial activity of four sulfonamide derivatives have been investigated against 50 clinical isolates of S. aureus and tested by using MIC and disc diffusion methods. 50 clinical isolate which collected from specimens of patients who are given medical treatment in Ondokuz Mayis University Medical School Hospital. A control strain of S. aureus ATCC 29213 was also tested. Results The strongest inhibition was observed in the cases of I [N-(2-hydroxy-4-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid], and II [N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid] against S. aureus. Compound I [N-(2-hydroxy-4-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid] showed higher effect on 21 S. aureus MRSAisolates than oxacillin antibiotic. Introducing an electron withdrawing on the ring increased the antimicrobial activity remarkably. Conclusion This study may help to suggest an alternative possible leading compound for development of new antimicrobial agents against MRSA and MSSA resistant S. aureus. It was also shown here that that clinical isolates of 50 S. aureus have various resistance patterns against to four sulfonamide derivatives. It may also be emphasized here that in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing results for S. aureus need standardization with further studies and it should also have a correlation with in vivo therapeutic response experiments.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus and the ecology of the nasal microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cindy M; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome can play a key role in host susceptibility to pathogens, including in the nasal cavity, a site favored by Staphylococcus aureus. However, what determines our resident nasal microbiota-the host or the environment-and can interactions among nasal bacteria determine S. aureus...

  9. Effect of temperature on antibacterial activity of lidocaine to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Y; Seki, K; Ikigai, H; Nishihara, S; Ueno, H; Murota, K; Masuda, S

    1988-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the antibacterial activity of lidocaine to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated in vitro. At 10 C at which S. aureus organisms do not grow and might be metabolically inactive, the antibacterial activity of lidocaine to S. aureus was not observed in a concentration of 1%, which was quite antibacterial to S. aureus at 37 C. On the other hand, at 40 C a conspicuously increased antibacterial activity to S. aureus of lidocaine was observed in a concentration of 0.25% which was not antibacterial to S. aureus organisms at 37 C. Similar results were obtained when P. aeruginosa organisms were examined in place of S. aureus, although P. aeruginosa was found to be less susceptible to lidocaine than S. aureus. The clinical significance of the thermal effect on the antibacterial activity of lidocaine was discussed in brief.

  10. Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Fowler, V G

    2013-01-01

    on S. aureus carriage in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins, which indicated no significant heritability that could account for the observed S. aureus carriage. In the present study, we performed a questionnaire-based study of S. aureus colonization on the same cohort of 2,196 Danish middle......-aged and elderly twins to identify specific risk factors for S. aureus nasal colonization, including analyzing the paired twins (n = 478) that were discordant for S. aureus colonization. We found associations between risk factors and S. aureus nasal colonization among middle-aged and elderly twins, including age......, male gender, psoriasis, and atopic diseases. Also, present living on a farm is clearly associated with S. aureus colonization, while smoking had a borderline statistically significant protective effect....

  11. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

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    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2013. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methodResults: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  12. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

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    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2014. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.Results: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  13. Antibacterial Action of Curcumin against Staphylococcus aureus: A Brief Review

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    Sin-Yeang Teow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, the major constituent of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae family or turmeric, commonly used for cooking in Asian cuisine, is known to possess a broad range of pharmacological properties at relatively nontoxic doses. Curcumin is found to be effective against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. As demonstrated by in vitro experiment, curcumin exerts even more potent effects when used in combination with various other antibacterial agents. Hence, curcumin which is a natural product derived from plant is believed to have profound medicinal benefits and could be potentially developed into a naturally derived antibiotic in the future. However, there are several noteworthy challenges in the development of curcumin as a medicine. S. aureus infections, particularly those caused by the multidrug-resistant strains, have emerged as a global health issue and urgent action is needed. This review focuses on the antibacterial activities of curcumin against both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. We also attempt to highlight the potential challenges in the effort of developing curcumin into a therapeutic antibacterial agent.

  14. A sensitive gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric aptasensor for Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinglei; Wu, Shijia; Duan, Nuo; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Xia, Yu; Chen, Jie; Ding, Zhansheng; Wang, Zhouping

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric aptasensor for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using tyramine signal amplification (TSA) technology has been developed. First, the biotinylated aptamer specific for S. aureus was immobilized on the surface of the wells of the microtiter plate via biotin-avidin binding. Then, the target bacteria (S. aureus), biotinylated-aptamer-streptavidin-HRP conjugates, biotinylated tyramine, hydrogen peroxide and avidin-catalase were successively introduced into the wells of the microtiter plate. After that, the existing catalase consumed the hydrogen peroxide. Finally, the freshly prepared gold (III) chloride trihydrate was added, the color of the reaction production would be changed and the absorbance at 550 nm could be measured with a plate reader. Under optimized conditions, there was a linear relationship between the absorbance at 550 nm and the concentration of S. aureus over the range from 10 to 10(6) cfu mL(-1) (with an R² of 0.9947). The limit of the developed method was determined to be 9 cfu mL(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t437

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasner, C; Pluister, G; Westh, H

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) belonging to the multilocus sequence type clonal complex 59 (MLST CC59) is the predominant community-associated MRSA clone in Asia. This clone, which is primarily linked with the spa type t437, has so far only been reported in low numbers among...... included. Most isolates were shown to be monophyletic with 98% of the isolates belonging to the single MLVA complex 621, to which nearly all included isolates from China also belonged. More importantly, all MLST-typed isolates belonged to CC59. Our study implies that the European S. aureus t437 population...

  16. Incidence, trends and demographics of Staphylococcus aureus infections in Auckland, New Zealand, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Deborah A; Lim, Alwin; Thomas, Mark G; Baker, Michael G; Roberts, Sally A; Fraser, John D; Ritchie, Stephen R

    2013-12-03

    New Zealand has a higher incidence of Staphylococcus aureus disease than other developed countries, with significant sociodemographic variation in incidence rates. In contrast to North America, the majority of disease is due to methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), although relatively little is known about the comparative demographics of MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections in New Zealand. Our objectives were to describe the trends, incidence and patient demographics of all S. aureus infections in patients presenting to our institution between 2001 and 2011, and compare the epidemiology of MSSA and MRSA infections. We identified all patients with S. aureus infections over the study period. A unique S. aureus infection was defined as the first positive S. aureus culture taken from the same patient within a thirty-day period. Standard definitions were used to classify episodes into community- or healthcare-associated S. aureus infection. There were 16,249 S. aureus infections over the study period. The incidence increased significantly over the study period from 360 to 412 per 100,000 population (P New Zealand. The significant increase in community-associated S. aureus infections is of public health importance. Future studies should investigate the reasons underlying this concerning trend.

  17. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Tehran

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    Shahin Najar-Peerayeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and some genetic characteristics of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. Methods: A total of 414 isolates of S. aureus were collected from clinical specimens from hospitals in Tehran. Vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA was determined by brain heart infusion agar containing 4 μg/mL vancomycin screening plate and confirmed via E-test. VISA isolates were analysed for vanA, vanB, mecA, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types, surface protein A (Spa types and agr specific groups. Results: Brain heart infusion agar containing 4 μg/mL vancomycin screening tests revealed that 17.14% (n = 71 of S. aureus isolates were VISA phenotype. Ten of the 71 isolates were confirmed by E-test method (minimal inhibitory concentration was 4 to 8 μg/mL. All VISA isolates were susceptible to linezolid and 6 isolates (60% were methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Five isolates belonged to agr Group II, 4 belonged to agr Group I and 1 belonged to agr Group III. Spa type t030, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec Type III were dominant among VISA isolates. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence of the global dissemination of VISA isolates and emphasizes to vancomycin susceptibility testing prior to antibiotic therapy.

  18. The Antibacterial Activity of Date Syrup Polyphenols against S. aureus and E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, Hajer; Maddocks, Sarah E; Morris, R Keith; Kanekanian, Ara D

    2016-01-01

    Plant-derived products such as date syrup (DS) have demonstrated antibacterial activity and can inhibit bacteria through numerous different mechanisms, which may be attributed to bioactive compounds including plant-derived phenolic molecules. DS is rich in polyphenols and this study hypothesized that DS polyphenols demonstrate inherent antimicrobial activity, which cause oxidative damage. This investigation revealed that DS has a high content of total polyphenols (605 mg/100 g), and is rich in tannins (357 mg/100 g), flavonoids (40.5 mg/100 g), and flavanols (31.7 mg/100 g) that are known potent antioxidants. Furthermore, DS, and polyphenols extracted from DS, the most abundant bioactive constituent of DS are bacteriostatic to both Gram positive and Gram negative Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. It has further been shown that the extracted polyphenols independently suppress the growth of bacteria at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 30 and 20 mg/mL for E. coli and S. aureus, and have observed that DS behaves as a prooxidant by generating hydrogen peroxide that mediates bacterial growth inhibition as a result of oxidative stress. At sub-lethal MIC concentrations DS demonstrated antioxidative activity by reducing hydrogen peroxide, and at lethal concentrations DS demonstrated prooxidant activity that inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. The high sugar content naturally present in DS did not significantly contribute to this effect. These findings highlight that DS's antimicrobial activity is mediated through hydrogen peroxide generation in inducing oxidative stress in bacteria.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Transmitted between Patients with Buruli Ulcer.

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    Nana Ama Amissah

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The wounds of most BU patients are colonized with different microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus.This study investigated possible patient-to-patient transmission events of S. aureus during wound care in a health care center. S. aureus isolates from different BU patients with overlapping visits to the clinic were whole-genome sequenced and analyzed by a gene-by-gene approach using SeqSphere(+ software. In addition, sequence data were screened for the presence of genes that conferred antibiotic resistance.SeqSphere(+ analysis of whole-genome sequence data confirmed transmission of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA and methicillin susceptible S. aureus among patients that took place during wound care. Interestingly, our sequence data show that the investigated MRSA isolates carry a novel allele of the fexB gene conferring chloramphenicol resistance, which had thus far not been observed in S. aureus.

  20. Sodium Octanoate Modulates the Innate Immune Response of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells through the TLR2/P38/JNK/ERK1/2 Pathway: Implications during Staphylococcus aureus Internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva-Murillo, Nayeli; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2017-01-01

    Bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) contribute to mammary gland defense against invading pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus (intracellular facultative), which is recognized by TLR2. In a previous report, we showed that sodium octanoate [NaO, a medium chain fatty acid (C8)] induces (0.25 mM) or inhibits (1 mM) S. aureus internalization into bMECs and differentially regulates the innate immune response (IIR). However, the molecular mechanisms have not been described, which was the aim of this study. The results showed that α5β1 integrin membrane abundance (MA) was increased in 0.25 mM NaO-treated cells, but TLR2 or CD36 MA was not modified. When these receptors were blocked individually, 0.25 mM NaO-increased S. aureus internalization was notably reduced. Interestingly, in this condition, the IIR of the bMECs was impaired because MAPK (p38, JNK, and ERK1/2) phosphorylation and the activation of transcription factors related to these pathways were decreased. In addition, the 1 mM NaO treatment induced TLR2 MA, but neither the integrin nor CD36 MA was modified. The reduction in S. aureus internalization induced by 1 mM NaO was increased further when TLR2 was blocked. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of the MAPKs increased, and 13 transcriptional factors related to the IIR were slightly activated (CBF, CDP, c-Myb, AP-1, Ets-1/Pea-3, FAST-1, GAS/ISRE, AP-2, NFAT-1, OCT-1, RAR/DR-5, RXR/DR-1, and Stat-3). Moreover, the 1 mM NaO treatment up-regulated gene expression of IL-8 and RANTES and secretion of IL-1β. Notably, when 1 mM NaO-treated bMECs were challenged with S. aureus , the gene expression of IL-8 and IL-10 increased, while IL-1β secretion was reduced. In conclusion, our results showed that α5β1 integrin, TLR2 and CD36 are involved in 0.25 mM NaO-increased S. aureus internalization in bMECs. In addition, 1 mM NaO activates bMECs via the TLR2 signaling pathways (p38, JNK, and ERK1/2), which improves IIR before S. aureus invasion. Additionally

  1. Resistência à mupirocina entre isolados de Staphylococcus aureus de profissionais de enfermagem Resistencia al mupirocin en cepas aisladas de Staphylococcus aureus de profesionales de enfermería Mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in samples belonging to professional nurses

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    Josely Pinto de Moura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a colonização por Staphylococcus aureus sensíveis e resistentes à meticilina na saliva de profissionais de enfermagem e o perfil de resistência à mupirocina. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas três amostras da saliva de 356 (94,2% profissionais participantes da pesquisa, totalizando 1.068 amostras processadas. Todos os aspectos éticos foram contemplados. A análise microbiológica compreendeu a identificação fenotípica, segundo normas do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. RESULTADOS: Foram obtidos 73 indivíduos colonizados por Staphylococcus aureus na primeira coleta, 48 na segunda e 37 na terceira, somando 158 isolados de Staphylococcus aureus. Desses, 24 (15,2% eram resistentes à oxacilina e 30 resistentes à mupirocina (18,9%. A resistência à mupirocina foi observada de forma pronunciada nos Staphylococcus aureus metacilina resistente (MRSA; dos 24 MRSA, 17 (70,8% apresentaram-se resistentes a este antimicrobiano. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicaram que a resistência à mupirocina é um importante problema, pois esse antibiótico é um excelente aliado nas medidas de controle das infecções de serviços de saúde.OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la colonización por Staphylococcus aureus sensibles y resistentes al meticilín en la saliva de profesionales de enfermería y, reconocer el perfil de resistencia a la mupirocina. MÉTODOS: Fueron recolectadas tres muestras de saliva de 356 (94,2% profesionales participantes de la investigación, totalizando 1.068 muestras procesadas. Todos los aspectos éticos fueron contemplados. El análisis microbiológico comprendió la identificación fenotípica, según normas del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. RESULTADOS: Fueron obtenidos 73 individuos colonizados por Staphylococcus aureus en la primera recolección, 48 en la segunda y 37 en la tercera, sumando 158 muestras aisladas de Staphylococcus aureus. De esas, 24 (15,2% eran resistentes a la oxacilina y 30

  2. Bacteriocins of Non-aureus Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Domonique A.; Barkema, Herman W.; Naushad, Sohail

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), the bacteria most commonly isolated from the bovine udder, potentially protect the udder against infection by major mastitis pathogens due to bacteriocin production. In this study, we determined the inhibitory capability of 441 bovine NAS isolates (comprising 26 species) against bovine Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, inhibiting isolates were tested against a human methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolate using a cross-streaking method. We determined the presence of bacteriocin clusters in NAS whole genomes using genome mining tools, BLAST, and comparison of genomes of closely related inhibiting and noninhibiting isolates and determined the genetic organization of any identified bacteriocin biosynthetic gene clusters. Forty isolates from 9 species (S. capitis, S. chromogenes, S. epidermidis, S. pasteuri, S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri, S. simulans, S. warneri, and S. xylosus) inhibited growth of S. aureus in vitro, 23 isolates of which, from S. capitis, S. chromogenes, S. epidermidis, S. pasteuri, S. simulans, and S. xylosus, also inhibited MRSA. One hundred five putative bacteriocin gene clusters encompassing 6 different classes (lanthipeptides, sactipeptides, lasso peptides, class IIa, class IIc, and class IId) in 95 whole genomes from 16 species were identified. A total of 25 novel bacteriocin precursors were described. In conclusion, NAS from bovine mammary glands are a source of potential bacteriocins, with >21% being possible producers, representing potential for future characterization and prospective clinical applications. IMPORTANCE Mastitis (particularly infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus) costs Canadian dairy producers $400 million/year and is the leading cause of antibiotic use on dairy farms. With increasing antibiotic resistance and regulations regarding use, there is impetus to explore bacteriocins (bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides) for treatment and prevention of bacterial infections

  3. Decrease of Staphylococcus aureus Virulence by Helcococcus kunzii in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngba Essebe, Christelle; Visvikis, Orane; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Vergne, Anne; Cattoir, Vincent; Lecoustumier, Alain; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Social bacterial interactions are considered essential in numerous infectious diseases, particularly in wounds. Foot ulcers are a common complication in diabetic patients and these ulcers become frequently infected. This infection is usually polymicrobial promoting cell-to-cell communications. Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent pathogen isolated. Its association with Helcococcus kunzii , commensal Gram-positive cocci, is frequently described. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of co-infection on virulence of both H. kunzii and S. aureus strains in a Caenorhabditis elegans model. To study the host response, qRT-PCRs targeting host defense genes were performed. We observed that H. kunzii strains harbored a very low (LT50: 5.7 days ± 0.4) or an absence of virulence (LT50: 6.9 days ± 0.5). In contrast, S. aureus strains (LT50: 2.9 days ± 0.4) were significantly more virulent than all H. kunzii ( P aureus strains were associated, H. kunzii significantly reduced the virulence of the S. aureus strain in nematodes (LT50 between 4.4 and 5.2 days; P aureus led to a strong induction of defense genes ( lys-5, sodh-1 , and cyp-37B1 ) while H. kunzii did not. No statistical difference of host response genes expression was observed when C. elegans were infected with either S. aureus alone or with S. aureus + H. kunzii . Moreover, two well-characterized virulence factors ( hla and agr ) present in S. aureus were down-regulated when S. aureus were co-infected with H. kunzii . This study showed that H. kunzii decreased the virulence of S. aureus without modifying directly the host defense response. Factor(s) produced by this bacterium modulating the staphylococci virulence must be investigated.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Depke, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that colonizes about 20% of the human population. Intriguingly, this Gram-positive bacterium can survive and thrive under a wide range of different conditions, both inside and outside the human body. Here, we investigated the transcriptional adaptation of...

  5. Construction of Stable Fluorescent Reporter Plasmids for Use in Staphylococcus aureus

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    Michelle D. Rodriguez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, the genes encoding three different fluorescent proteins were cloned into the stably maintained Staphylococcus aureus shuttle vector pKK30. The resulting plasmids were transformed into two S. aureus strains; SH1000 and RN4220. Stability assays illustrated that the three recombinant plasmids retained near 100% maintenance in vitro for 160 generations. S. aureus strain SH1000 expressing green fluorescent protein was then inoculated in an ovine model and in vivo stability for 6 days was demonstrated. In essence, these reporter plasmids represent a useful set of tools for dynamic imaging studies in S. aureus. These three reporter plasmids are available through BEI Resources.

  6. Construction of Stable Fluorescent Reporter Plasmids for Use in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Michelle D; Paul, Zubin; Wood, Charles E; Rice, Kelly C; Triplett, Eric W

    2017-01-01

    Here, the genes encoding three different fluorescent proteins were cloned into the stably maintained Staphylococcus aureus shuttle vector pKK30. The resulting plasmids were transformed into two S. aureus strains; SH1000 and RN4220. Stability assays illustrated that the three recombinant plasmids retained near 100% maintenance in vitro for 160 generations. S. aureus strain SH1000 expressing green fluorescent protein was then inoculated in an ovine model and in vivo stability for 6 days was demonstrated. In essence, these reporter plasmids represent a useful set of tools for dynamic imaging studies in S. aureus . These three reporter plasmids are available through BEI Resources.

  7. One-year mortality in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Olaison, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in-hospital mortality and 12-month mortality in patients with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) compared to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infective endocarditis (IE). We used a prospective cohort study of 66 consecutive CoNS and 170 S. aureus IE...

  8. Natural mutations in a Staphylococcus aureus virulence regulator attenuate cytotoxicity but permit bacteremia and abscess formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudip; Lindemann, Claudia; Young, Bernadette C.; Muller, Julius; Österreich, Babett; Ternette, Nicola; Winkler, Ann-Cathrin; Paprotka, Kerstin; Reinhardt, Richard; Allen, Elizabeth; Flaxman, Amy; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Rollier, Christine S.; van Diemen, Pauline; Blättner, Sebastian; Remmele, Christian W.; Selle, Martina; Dittrich, Marcus; Müller, Tobias; Vogel, Jörg; Ohlsen, Knut; Crook, Derrick W.; Massey, Ruth; Wilson, Daniel J.; Rudel, Thomas; Wyllie, David H.; Fraunholz, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen, which causes severe blood and tissue infections that frequently emerge by autoinfection with asymptomatically carried nose and skin populations. However, recent studies report that bloodstream isolates differ systematically from those found in the nose and skin, exhibiting reduced toxicity toward leukocytes. In two patients, an attenuated toxicity bloodstream infection evolved from an asymptomatically carried high-toxicity nasal strain by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the transcription factor repressor of surface proteins (rsp). Here, we report that rsp knockout mutants lead to global transcriptional and proteomic reprofiling, and they exhibit the greatest signal in a genome-wide screen for genes influencing S. aureus survival in human cells. This effect is likely to be mediated in part via SSR42, a long-noncoding RNA. We show that rsp controls SSR42 expression, is induced by hydrogen peroxide, and is required for normal cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity. Rsp inactivation in laboratory- and bacteremia-derived mutants attenuates toxin production, but up-regulates other immune subversion proteins and reduces lethality during experimental infection. Crucially, inactivation of rsp preserves bacterial dissemination, because it affects neither formation of deep abscesses in mice nor survival in human blood. Thus, we have identified a spontaneously evolving, attenuated-cytotoxicity, nonhemolytic S. aureus phenotype, controlled by a pleiotropic transcriptional regulator/noncoding RNA virulence regulatory system, capable of causing S. aureus bloodstream infections. Such a phenotype could promote deep infection with limited early clinical manifestations, raising concerns that bacterial evolution within the human body may contribute to severe infection. PMID:27185949

  9. Antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Abia State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The S. aureus. isolates varied in their antibiotic susceptibility pattern when tested for their sensitivity to 16 antibiotics. Eighty percent of the isolates were resistant to more than one antimicrobial agent. All the isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid and 100% sensitivity to rifampicin. Key words: Staphylococcus aureus, ...

  10. Evaluation of aptamers labelled with {sup 99m}Tc for identification of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria; Avaliacao de aptameros marcados com {sup 99m}Tc para identificacao de focos infecciosos de Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    dos Santos, Sara Roberta

    2014-06-01

    the aptamers labeled with {sup 99m}Tc were able to identify the infection foci caused by S. aureus displaying a target/non-target ratio of 4,035 ± 0.46 after 4 h. Mice infected with C. albicans presented a target/non-target ratio of 2.02 ± 0.42 while mice with aseptic inflammation induced by zymosan showed a target/non-target ratio of 1,146 ± 0,226. Scintigraphic images revealed a high uptake of the radiopharmaceutical by the kidneys and fast elimination by the bladder. The images also showed higher uptake in the right thigh (infected) in relation to the left (control) for the S. aureus infected mice. In the control groups (C. albicans e zymosan) was not possible to visualize any difference. The results indicate the radiolabeled aptamers as a promising alternative for the development of radiopharmaceuticals for infection. (author)

  11. Concomitant genotyping revealed diverse spreading between methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Mao; Lin, Chien-Yu; Ho, Mao-Wang; Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lu, Jang-Jih

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile bacterium, which can lead to various infectious diseases. Various molecular typing methods are applied to the evolution and epidemiology surveys of S. aureus, mostly for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). However, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) is still an important pathogen, but their molecular typing is evaluated infrequently. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, and detection of five virulent genes for 95 MRSA and 56 MSSA isolates (July-December 2008 and July 2008-December 2009, respectively) during an overlapping period were performed. More diversity was found in MSSA isolates (23 pulsotypes and 25 spa types, excluding 4 new-type and 1 nontypable isolates for spa typing) than in MRSA isolates (19 pulsotypes and 16 spa types, excluding 1 new-type and 1 nontypable isolates for spa typing). By spa typing, t002 (n = 30), t037 (n = 23), t437 (n = 21), t234 (n = 3), t1081 (n = 3), and t1094 (n = 3) were the six major MRSA clones. For MSSA isolates, t189 (n = 13), t437 (n = 4), t084 (n = 3), t213 (n = 3), t701 (n = 3), and t7200 (n = 3) were the six major types. Combining PFGE and spa typing, there were five combinations (pulsotype + spa type) that contained both MRSA and MSSA isolates (pulsotype 9-t437, pulsotype 15-t037, pulsotype 19-t002, pulsotype 21-t002, and pulsotype 28-t1081). For all 151 S. aureus or 95 MRSA isolates, the PFGE typing had more discrimination power, but spa typing had larger discrimination index for 56 MSSA isolates. In conclusion, there were different predominant MRSA and MSSA clones clinically. Continuing longitudinal tracking of molecular typing is necessary for elucidating the evolution of this important clinical pathogen. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Immunological role of nasal staphylococcus aureus carriage in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yousif Atia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus exerts immunomodulatory effect in patients with atopic dermatitis and it may contribute to airway inflammation and allergic response in patients with allergic rhinitis. We Aim to investigate the frequency of nasal S.aureus carriage in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis and its possible influence on their symptoms and immune markers. We chosed 20 non smoker patients with house dust mite (HDM allergy causing allergic rhinitis and 20 non smoker healthy subjects matched for age and sex. For all subjects rhinoscopy was done, skin prick test, nasal culture for S.aureus, nasal interleukin 4,nasal total IgE, serum total IgE and serum specific IgE(SSIgE for HDM. Nasal S.aureus was detected in 16/20 patients (80% and 5/20 (25% in healthy subjects with highly significant statistical difference plt0.01. Correlation of nasal staph.aureus count and different systemic and local immune markers revealed highly significant positive correlation between nasal S.aureus count and serum total IgE (r = 0.78, plt0.01 and significant positive correlation with SSIgE (HDM (r = 0.53, plt0.05, nasal total IgE (r = 0.39, plt0.05 and nasal IL-4 (r = 0.55, plt0.05. Nasal staph.aureus actively modulated the immune reaction in persistent allergic rhinitis patients by promoting local IgE production, so we recommend early detection and treatment of S.aureus carriage in patients

  13. Frequency of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Rahimi-Alang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is one of the most important pathogen in hospitals. Healthcare personnel are the main source of nosocomial infections and identification and control of MRSA carriers can reduce incidence of infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MRSA and their antibiotic susceptibility profile among healthcare workers in Gorgan.Materials and Method: 333 healthcare workers were participated in this cross-sectional study in 2009. Samples were taken with sterile cotton swabs from both anterior nares and hands. Swabs were plated immediately on to the mannitol salt agar. Suspected colonies were confirmed as S. aureus by Gram staining, catalase, coagulase and DNase tests. Minimum inhibition concentration by micro dilution broth method was used to determine methicillin resistant strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility to other antibiotics was performed according to NCCLS guidelines by disc diffusion method.Result: Frequency of S.aureus and MRSA carriers among healthcare workers was 24% and 3% respectively. The highest rate of S. aureus and MRSA carriers were observed in operating room staff. Resistance to penicillin was seen in 97.5% of isolates and all strains were sensitive to vancomycin.Conclusions: Frequency of S. aureus and MRSA in healthcare workers was median and rather low respectively. Continual monitoring and control of carriers can reduce distribution of this organism and their infections

  14. Prevalence of nasal portal of Staphylococcus aureus in disabled children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Molin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colonization of the nasal mucosa by Staphylococcus aureus set a carrier state. Which is recognized as a potential source of infection and a high risk factor for subsequent invasive infections. The prevalence of nasal carriage of this germ in disabled children in Paraguay is not known, thus contributing to the knowledge of their frequency and evaluate the profile of sensitivity to common antimicrobials was conducted this study, from May to July 2015.  Objective: to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and profile of antimicrobial resistance in disabled children. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study in which 80 nasal swabs of children, who attended the service laboratory of SENADIS (Secretaria Nacional por los Derechos Humanos de las Personas con Discapacidad. The identification and sensitivity of germ was accomplished by conventional testing.  Results: 80 pediatric patients, 46 boys and 34 girls. 18 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were obtained, corresponding to a prevalence of 22,5%. Susceptibility testing indicated that 14 strains were MSSA (Methicillin – Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and 4 RMSA ( Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in a population with its own characteristics provides valuable data for the epidemiology, reflecting the need for continued vigilance and take steps to reduce associated infections. The detection of RMAR evidences their progress; it is important to evaluate the empirical treatment to primary care.

  15. Virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Buruli ulcer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amissah, Nana Ama; Chlebowicz, Monika A; Ablordey, Anthony; Tetteh, Caitlin S; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip S; Friedrich, Alex W; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Stienstra, Ymkje; Rossen, John W

    2017-06-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. BU wounds may also be colonized with other microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus. This study aimed to characterize the virulence factors of S. aureus isolated from BU patients. Previously sequenced genomes of 21 S. aureus isolates from BU patients were screened for the presence of virulence genes. The results show that all S. aureus isolates harbored on their core genomes genes for known virulence factors like α-hemolysin, and the α- and β-phenol soluble modulins. Besides the core genome virulence genes, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), i.e. prophages, genomic islands, pathogenicity islands and a Staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) were found to carry different combinations of virulence factors, among them genes that are known to encode factors that promote immune evasion, superantigens and Panton-Valentine Leucocidin. The present observations imply that the S. aureus isolates from BU patients harbor a diverse repertoire of virulence genes that may enhance bacterial survival and persistence in the wound environment and potentially contribute to delayed wound healing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  16. Occurrence and distribution of Staphylococcus aureus lineages among zoo animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Chrobak, Dorota; Moodley, Arshnee

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge of the occurrence and diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in animals is largely biased in favour MRSA and domestic animals. In order to generate novel information on the ecology and population structure of this bacterial species in the animal kingdom, we investigated...... the occurrence and genotypic diversity of S. aureus in a range of animal species kept at the Copenhagen Zoo. We sampled 146 animals belonging to 25 mammalian species and 21 reptiles belonging to six species. A total of 59 S. aureus isolates were found in 10 of the 25 mammalian species tested. All isolates were...... MSSA belonging to fourteen spa types, including three novel spa types. MLST revealed the occurrence of seven STs. The study of the ecology of commensal S. aureus in captive wild animals revealed that ST133 has a broader host range than previously thought....

  17. Evaluation of Approaches to Monitor Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Factor Expression during Human Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rozemeijer, Wouter; Fink, Pamela; Rojas, Eduardo; Jones, C. Hal; Pavliakova, Danka; Giardina, Peter; Murphy, Ellen; Liberator, Paul; Jiang, Qin; Girgenti, Douglas; Peters, Remco P. H.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Jansen, Kathrin U.; Anderson, Annaliesa S.; Kluytmans, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen of medical significance, using multiple virulence factors to cause disease. A prophylactic S. aureus 4-antigen (SA4Ag) vaccine comprising capsular polysaccharide (types 5 and 8) conjugates, clumping factor A (ClfA) and manganese transporter C (MntC) is under development. This study was designed to characterize S. aureus isolates recovered from infected patients and also to investigate approaches for examining expression of S. aureus vaccine candid...

  18. Study of nosocomial isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with special reference to methicillin resistant S. aureus in a tertiary care hospital in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B; Pokhrel, B; Mohapatra, T

    2009-06-01

    To find out the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nosocomial infection and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), clinical samples from nosocomially infected patients were processed by following standard methodology in microbiology laboratory, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. Of 149 S. aureus isolates, skin infection isolates contributed a major part 72.5% making nosocomial infection by S. aureus most prevalent in skin infection followed by lower respiratory tract infection 11.41% and urinary tract infection 8.7%. Overall MRSA prevalence was 45.0%. MRSA prevalence was 42.6% in skin infection, 82.3% in lower respiratory tract infection and 30.8% in urinary tract infection. MRSA infection was found associated with lower respiratory tract infection only. Highest occurrence of nosocomial infection was observed in female surgical ward, surgical out patient department, orthopedic ward, male surgical ward and maternity ward. MRSA isolation was high from lower respiratory tract of patients admitted in intensive care unit, coronary care unit, Sub-acute intensive care unit, intermediate coronary care unit, neurology ward and post-operative ward. Whereas methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) occurrence was higher in patients admitted in orthopedic, Surgical out patient department, and female surgical ward. The occurrence of MRSA did not differ with age but MRSA was found associated with male patients and MSSA was associated with female patients. Since MRSA prevalence was high, regular surveillance of MRSA and nosocomial infections should be done and universal precautions to control nosocomial infections should be followed.

  19. UJI ZONA HAMBAT EKSTRAK DAUN PUTRI MALU (Mimosa pudica TERHADAP BAKTERI Staphylococcus aureus DAN Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA SECARA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Ririn Chandrika Sari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Resistensi Staphylococcus aureus dan MRSA terhadap antibiotika spektrum luas mendorong berbagai penelitian untuk menemukan senyawa aktif yang sensitif dan efektif dalam menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek penghambatan ekstrak daun putri malu (Mimosa pudica terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan MRSA.Penelitian terhadap aktivitas antimikrobial ekstrak daun putri malu dilakukan dengan metode agar difusi cakram dengan menggunakan metode Kirby-Bauer.Suspensi bakteri disesuaikan dengan standar kekeruhan Mc Farland 0.5. Biakan bakteri dalam cawan petri masing-masing diberikan 6 perlakuan, yaitu kontrol positif (amoxicillin atau vancomycin, kontrol negatif (alkohol, serta ekstrak daun putri malu dengan konsentrasi 25 mcg/ml, 50 mcg/ml, 75 mcg/ml dan 100 mcg/ml. Pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus dihambat secara signifikan oleh ekstrak daun putri malu, dengan efek inhibisi pada semua konsentrasi secara signifikan lebih baik dibandingkan dengan kontrol positif (p<0.05. Zona inhibisi Staphylococcus aureus pada konsentrasi 25 mcg/ml adalah 28.86 mm dan telah memenuhi kriteria sebagai antimikrobial sensitif berdasarkan Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI. Inhibisi pertumbuhan MRSA secara signifikan terjadi pada semua konsentrasi ekstrak daun putri malu dibandingkan dengan kontrol negatif (p=0.00. Zona inhibisi terbesar ditemukan pada konsentrasi 100 mcg/ml dengan diameter sebesar 14.16 mm dan memiliki efek antimikrobial sebanding dengan vancomycin dalam menghambat pertumbuhan MRSA (p=0.186. Hasil uji agar difusi cakram menunjukkan bahwa senyawa aktif dalam ekstrak daun putri malu memiliki aktivitas antimikrobial yang tinggi terhadap Staphylococcus aureus dan MRSA secara in vitro.

  20. PRODUKSI IGY SPESIFIK STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS DARI ISOLAT ASAL KASUS STAPHYLOCOCCOSIS PADA KELINCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwardhani Cahyaningsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aims to produce immunoglobulin Y (Ig-Y Staphylococcus aureus isolates origin staphylococcosis case in rabbits. Vaccination is done several times using Staphylococcus aureus active in 109 cfu/ml. Injecting the chicken is done four weeks in a row, the first week is done by intravenous injection of S. aureus antigens, the second week of the injection sub cutan S. aureus emulsified with Freund's complete adjuvant, followed by the third and fourth week of the injection of S. aureus antigen emulsified with incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Egg samples were taken after four weeks of the last injection for identification, purification, and determination of specific IgY against S. aureus in egg yolk. IgY specificity qualitatively tests performed by the AGP test (To Gel Precipitation. IgY extraction is done using PEG - Ammonium sulfate, purified IgY concentration calculated by the method of Bradford. The results showed that IgY began to be detected in egg yolk at week six after immunization, with the average levels of IgY is 1.7 mg/ml.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus CC30 Lineage and Absence of sed,j,r-Harboring Plasmid Predict Embolism in Infective Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Rasigade

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus induces severe infective endocarditis (IE where embolic complications are a major cause of death. Risk factors for embolism have been reported such as a younger age or larger IE vegetations, while methicillin resistance conferred by the mecA gene appeared as a protective factor. It is unclear, however, whether embolism is influenced by other S. aureus characteristics such as clonal complex (CC or virulence pattern. We examined clinical and microbiological predictors of embolism in a prospective multicentric cohort of 98 French patients with monomicrobial S. aureus IE. The genomic contents of causative isolates were characterized using DNA array. To preserve statistical power, genotypic predictors were restricted to CC, secreted virulence factors and virulence regulators. Multivariate regularized logistic regression identified three independent predictors of embolism. Patients at higher risk were younger than the cohort median age of 62.5 y (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05–0.36. S. aureus characteristics predicting embolism were a CC30 genetic background (adjusted OR 9.734; 95% CI 1.53–192.8 and the absence of pIB485-like plasmid-borne enterotoxin-encoding genes sed, sej, and ser (sedjr; adjusted OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.004–0.457. CC30 S. aureus has been repeatedly reported to exhibit enhanced fitness in bloodstream infections, which might impact its ability to cause embolism. sedjr-encoded enterotoxins, whose superantigenic activity is unlikely to protect against embolism, possibly acted as a proxy to others genes of the pIB485-like plasmid found in genetically unrelated isolates from mostly embolism-free patients. mecA did not independently predict embolism but was strongly associated with sedjr. This mecA-sedjr association might have driven previous reports of a negative association of mecA and embolism. Collectively, our results suggest that the influence of S. aureus genotypic features

  2. Study on biofilm-forming properties of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj, Yasmeen; Essa, Farhan; Aziz, Faisal; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2012-05-14

    The purpose of this study was to observe the formation of biofilm, an important virulence factor, by isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in Pakistan by different conventional methods and through electron microscopy. We screened 115 strains of S. aureus isolated from different clinical specimens by tube method (TM), air-liquid interface coverslip assay method, Congo red agar (CRA) method, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Out of 115 S. aureus isolates, 63 (54.78%) showed biofilm formation by tube method. Biofilm forming bacteria were further categorized as high producers (n = 23, 20%) and moderate producers (n = 40, 34.78%). TM coordinated well with the coverslip assay for strong biofilm-producing strains in 19 (16.5%) isolates. By coverslip method, weak producers were difficult to differentiate from biofilm negative isolates. Screening on CRA showed biofilm formation only in four (3.47%) strains. Scanning electron micrographs showed the biofilm-forming strains of S. aureus arranged in a matrix on the propylene surface and correlated well with the TM. Biofilm production is a marker of virulence for clinically relevant staphylococcal infections. It can be studied by various methods but screening on CRA is not recommended for investigation of biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. Electron micrograph images correlate well with the biofilm production as observed by TM.

  3. Evaluation of aptamers labelled with 99mTc for identification of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    dos Santos, Sara Roberta

    2014-01-01

    with 99m Tc were able to identify the infection foci caused by S. aureus displaying a target/non-target ratio of 4,035 ± 0.46 after 4 h. Mice infected with C. albicans presented a target/non-target ratio of 2.02 ± 0.42 while mice with aseptic inflammation induced by zymosan showed a target/non-target ratio of 1,146 ± 0,226. Scintigraphic images revealed a high uptake of the radiopharmaceutical by the kidneys and fast elimination by the bladder. The images also showed higher uptake in the right thigh (infected) in relation to the left (control) for the S. aureus infected mice. In the control groups (C. albicans e zymosan) was not possible to visualize any difference. The results indicate the radiolabeled aptamers as a promising alternative for the development of radiopharmaceuticals for infection. (author)

  4. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk and milk filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the monitoring of Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in raw milk and milk filters, its antibiotic resistance and detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Samples of raw cow´s milk and milk filters were collected in the period from 2012 till 2014, from 50 dairy farms in the Czech Republic. The total of 261 samples (164 samples of raw milk and 97 milk filters were cultivated on Baird-Parker agar. Both the typical and atypical colonies were examined by plasmacoagulase test and PCR method was used for detection of species specific fragment SA442 and mecA gene. Standard disk diffusion method was used to determinate resistance to antimicrobial agents. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was detected on 25 farms (50%. The antimicrobial resistance showed differences between the farms. Total of 58 samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, of which were 37 (14.2% isolated from raw milk samples and 21 (8.1% from milk filters. From these samples we isolated 62 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 41 isolates bacteria S. aureus from raw milk (66.1% and 21 isolates S. aureus from milk filters (33.9%. The presence of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates was low, most of them were resistant to amoxicilin. According to the results obtained by the PCR method for the methicillin - resistant S. aureus (MRSA, the mecA gene was present in 6 strains (9.7%, 4 isolates obtained from milk samples (6.5% and 2 isolates from milk filters (3.2%.  These isolates can be considered as a possible source of resistance genes, which can be spread through the food chain. Nowadays, a globally unfavourable increasing trend of prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococci strains especially Staphylococcus aureus is being observed worldwide. The improper hygiene and poor farm management practices contributed to the presence of S. aureus in the milk. This may have contributed to the high level of S. aureus isolated

  5. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from slaughter pigs in northeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Xiaomei; Yu, Xiaojie; Tao, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Binghua; Dong, Rui; Xue, Chengyu; Grundmann, Hajo; Zhang, Jianzhong

    To describe the prevalence and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that colonize pigs at slaughterhouses in northeastern China, nose swabs were collected from pigs in two slaughterhouses in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China in 2009.S. aureus isolates were characterized by

  6. Calcium and Magnesium Ions Are Membrane-Active against Stationary-Phase Staphylococcus aureus with High Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuntao; Yang, Lihua

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is notorious for its ability to acquire antibiotic-resistance, and antibiotic-resistant S. aureus has become a wide-spread cause of high mortality rate. Novel antimicrobials capable of eradicating S. aureus cells including antibiotic-resistant ones are thus highly desired. Membrane-active bactericides and species-specific antimicrobials are two promising sources of novel anti-infective agents for fighting against bacterial antibiotic-resistance. We herein show that Ca2+ and Mg2+, two alkaline-earth-metal ions physiologically essential for diverse living organisms, both disrupt model S. aureus membranes and kill stationary-phase S. aureus cells, indicative of membrane-activity. In contrast to S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis exhibit unaffected survival after similar treatment with these two cations, indicative of species-specific activity against S. aureus. Moreover, neither Ca2+ nor Mg2+ lyses mouse red blood cells, indicative of hemo-compatibility. This works suggests that Ca2+ and Mg2+ may have implications in targeted eradication of S. aureus pathogen including the antibiotic-resistant ones.

  7. Sepse por Staphylococus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirida na comunidade no sul do Brasil Sepsis due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Cristina Gelatti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina foi inicialmente descrito como um típico microrganismo adquirido em infecções nosocomiais. No entanto, nos últimos anos Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirido na comunidade é causa de infecções de pele e tecidos moles, mas infecções graves como pneumonia e sepse podem ocorrer. Este relato descreve um caso de sepse em criança, complicado com pneumonia secundária a lesão em partes moles por Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirido na comunidade no Sul do Brasil. O paciente foi atendido em Unidade de Emergência com história de ferimento provocado por trauma em membro inferior que evoluiu para celulite, pneumonia e sepse.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was initially described as a typical microorganism acquired in nosocomial infections. However, over recent years, community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been a cause of skin and soft-tissue infections. Serious infections such as pneumonia and sepsis can also occur. This report describes a case of sepsis in a child that was complicated by pneumonia secondary to soft tissue lesions that were due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in southern Brazil. The patient was attended at the Emergency Unit with a history of injury caused by lower-limb trauma that evolved to cellulitis, pneumonia and sepsis.

  8. Repression of branched-chain amino acid synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by isoleucine via CodY, and by a leucine-rich attenuator peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Julienne C; King, Alyssa N; Grigg, Jason C; Sheldon, Jessica R; Edgell, David R; Murphy, Michael E P; Brinsmade, Shaun R; Heinrichs, David E

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus requires branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, valine) for protein synthesis, branched-chain fatty acid synthesis, and environmental adaptation by responding to their availability via the global transcriptional regulator CodY. The importance of BCAAs for S. aureus physiology necessitates that it either synthesize them or scavenge them from the environment. Indeed S. aureus uses specialized transporters to scavenge BCAAs, however, its ability to synthesize them has remained conflicted by reports that it is auxotrophic for leucine and valine despite carrying an intact BCAA biosynthetic operon. In revisiting these findings, we have observed that S. aureus can engage in leucine and valine synthesis, but the level of BCAA synthesis is dependent on the BCAA it is deprived of, leading us to hypothesize that each BCAA differentially regulates the biosynthetic operon. Here we show that two mechanisms of transcriptional repression regulate the level of endogenous BCAA biosynthesis in response to specific BCAA availability. We identify a trans-acting mechanism involving isoleucine-dependent repression by the global transcriptional regulator CodY and a cis-acting leucine-responsive attenuator, uncovering how S. aureus regulates endogenous biosynthesis in response to exogenous BCAA availability. Moreover, given that isoleucine can dominate CodY-dependent regulation of BCAA biosynthesis, and that CodY is a global regulator of metabolism and virulence in S. aureus, we extend the importance of isoleucine availability for CodY-dependent regulation of other metabolic and virulence genes. These data resolve the previous conflicting observations regarding BCAA biosynthesis, and reveal the environmental signals that not only induce BCAA biosynthesis, but that could also have broader consequences on S. aureus environmental adaptation and virulence via CodY.

  9. Repression of branched-chain amino acid synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by isoleucine via CodY, and by a leucine-rich attenuator peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julienne C Kaiser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus requires branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, valine for protein synthesis, branched-chain fatty acid synthesis, and environmental adaptation by responding to their availability via the global transcriptional regulator CodY. The importance of BCAAs for S. aureus physiology necessitates that it either synthesize them or scavenge them from the environment. Indeed S. aureus uses specialized transporters to scavenge BCAAs, however, its ability to synthesize them has remained conflicted by reports that it is auxotrophic for leucine and valine despite carrying an intact BCAA biosynthetic operon. In revisiting these findings, we have observed that S. aureus can engage in leucine and valine synthesis, but the level of BCAA synthesis is dependent on the BCAA it is deprived of, leading us to hypothesize that each BCAA differentially regulates the biosynthetic operon. Here we show that two mechanisms of transcriptional repression regulate the level of endogenous BCAA biosynthesis in response to specific BCAA availability. We identify a trans-acting mechanism involving isoleucine-dependent repression by the global transcriptional regulator CodY and a cis-acting leucine-responsive attenuator, uncovering how S. aureus regulates endogenous biosynthesis in response to exogenous BCAA availability. Moreover, given that isoleucine can dominate CodY-dependent regulation of BCAA biosynthesis, and that CodY is a global regulator of metabolism and virulence in S. aureus, we extend the importance of isoleucine availability for CodY-dependent regulation of other metabolic and virulence genes. These data resolve the previous conflicting observations regarding BCAA biosynthesis, and reveal the environmental signals that not only induce BCAA biosynthesis, but that could also have broader consequences on S. aureus environmental adaptation and virulence via CodY.

  10. The antimicrobial lysine-peptoid hybrid LP5 inhibits DNA replication and induces the SOS response in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschalk, Sanne; Ifrah, Dan; Lerche, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    the growth of S. aureus without ATP leakage. Instead, LP5 bound DNA and inhibited macromolecular synthesis. The binding to DNA also led to inhibition of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and caused induction of the SOS response. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that LP5 may have a dual mode of action against...

  11. Health and economic burden of post-partum Staphylococcus aureus breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch-Elliman, Westyn; Lee, Grace M; Golen, Toni H; Gold, Howard S; Baldini, Linda M; Wright, Sharon B

    2013-01-01

    To determine the health and economic burdens of post-partum Staphylococcus aureus breast abscess. We conducted a matched cohort study (N = 216) in a population of pregnant women (N = 32,770) who delivered at our center during the study period from 10/1/03-9/30/10. Data were extracted from hospital databases, or via chart review if unavailable electronically. We compared cases of S. aureus breast abscess to controls matched by delivery date to compare health services utilization and mean attributable medical costs in 2012 United States dollars using Medicare and hospital-based estimates. We also evaluated whether resource utilization and health care costs differed between cases with methicillin-resistant and -susceptible S. aureus isolates. Fifty-four cases of culture-confirmed post-partum S. aureus breast abscess were identified. Breastfeeding cessation (41%), milk fistula (11.1%) and hospital readmission (50%) occurred frequently among case patients. Breast abscess case patients had high rates of health services utilization compared to controls, including high rates of imaging and drainage procedures. The mean attributable cost of post-partum S. aureus breast abscess ranged from $2,340-$4,012, depending on the methods and data sources used. Mean attributable costs were not significantly higher among methicillin-resistant vs. -susceptible S. aureus cases. Post-partum S. aureus breast abscess is associated with worse health and economic outcomes for women and their infants, including high rates of breastfeeding cessation. Future study is needed to determine the optimal treatment and prevention of these infections.

  12. Health and economic burden of post-partum Staphylococcus aureus breast abscess.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westyn Branch-Elliman

    Full Text Available To determine the health and economic burdens of post-partum Staphylococcus aureus breast abscess.We conducted a matched cohort study (N = 216 in a population of pregnant women (N = 32,770 who delivered at our center during the study period from 10/1/03-9/30/10. Data were extracted from hospital databases, or via chart review if unavailable electronically. We compared cases of S. aureus breast abscess to controls matched by delivery date to compare health services utilization and mean attributable medical costs in 2012 United States dollars using Medicare and hospital-based estimates. We also evaluated whether resource utilization and health care costs differed between cases with methicillin-resistant and -susceptible S. aureus isolates.Fifty-four cases of culture-confirmed post-partum S. aureus breast abscess were identified. Breastfeeding cessation (41%, milk fistula (11.1% and hospital readmission (50% occurred frequently among case patients. Breast abscess case patients had high rates of health services utilization compared to controls, including high rates of imaging and drainage procedures. The mean attributable cost of post-partum S. aureus breast abscess ranged from $2,340-$4,012, depending on the methods and data sources used. Mean attributable costs were not significantly higher among methicillin-resistant vs. -susceptible S. aureus cases.Post-partum S. aureus breast abscess is associated with worse health and economic outcomes for women and their infants, including high rates of breastfeeding cessation. Future study is needed to determine the optimal treatment and prevention of these infections.

  13. Fresh garlic extract inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation under chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panan Ratthawongjirakul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are the leading aetiological pathogens of nosocomial infections worldwide. These bacteria form biofilms on both biotic and abiotic surfaces causing biofilm-associated infections. Within the biofilm, these bacteria might develop persistent and antimicrobial resistant characteristics resulting in chronic infections and treatment failures. Garlic exhibits broad pharmaceutical properties and inhibitory activities against S. aureus. We investigated the effects of aqueous fresh garlic extract on biofilm formation in S. aureus ATCC25923 and MRSA strains under chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic conditions. The viable bacteria and biofilm levels were quantified through colony count and crystal violet staining, respectively. The use of fresh garlic extract under both conditions significantly inhibited biofilm formation in S. aureus strains ATCC25923 and MRSA. Garlic could be developed as either a prophylactic or therapeutic agent to manage S. aureus biofilm-associated infections.

  14. Evaluation of approaches to monitor Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor expression during human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Rozemeijer

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen of medical significance, using multiple virulence factors to cause disease. A prophylactic S. aureus 4-antigen (SA4Ag vaccine comprising capsular polysaccharide (types 5 and 8 conjugates, clumping factor A (ClfA and manganese transporter C (MntC is under development. This study was designed to characterize S. aureus isolates recovered from infected patients and also to investigate approaches for examining expression of S. aureus vaccine candidates and the host response during human infection. Confirmation of antigen expression in different disease states is important to support the inclusion of these antigens in a prophylactic vaccine. Hospitalized patients with diagnosed S. aureus wound (27 or bloodstream (24 infections were enrolled. Invasive and nasal carriage S. aureus isolates were recovered and characterized for genotypic diversity. S. aureus antigen expression was evaluated directly by real-time, quantitative, reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR analysis and indirectly by serology using a competitive Luminex immunoassay. Study isolates were genotypically diverse and all had the genes encoding the antigens present in the SA4Ag vaccine. S. aureus nasal carriage was detected in 55% of patients, and in those subjects 64% of the carriage isolates matched the invasive strain. In swab samples with detectable S. aureus triosephosphate isomerase housekeeping gene expression, RNA transcripts encoding the S. aureus virulence factors ClfA, MntC, and capsule polysaccharide were detected by qRT-PCR. Antigen expression was indirectly confirmed by increases in antibody titer during the course of infection from acute to convalescent phase. Demonstration of bacterial transcript expression together with immunological response to the SA4Ag antigens in a clinically relevant patient population provides support for inclusion of these antigens in a prophylactic vaccine.

  15. Evaluation of approaches to monitor Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor expression during human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, Wouter; Fink, Pamela; Rojas, Eduardo; Jones, C Hal; Pavliakova, Danka; Giardina, Peter; Murphy, Ellen; Liberator, Paul; Jiang, Qin; Girgenti, Douglas; Peters, Remco P H; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Kluytmans, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen of medical significance, using multiple virulence factors to cause disease. A prophylactic S. aureus 4-antigen (SA4Ag) vaccine comprising capsular polysaccharide (types 5 and 8) conjugates, clumping factor A (ClfA) and manganese transporter C (MntC) is under development. This study was designed to characterize S. aureus isolates recovered from infected patients and also to investigate approaches for examining expression of S. aureus vaccine candidates and the host response during human infection. Confirmation of antigen expression in different disease states is important to support the inclusion of these antigens in a prophylactic vaccine. Hospitalized patients with diagnosed S. aureus wound (27) or bloodstream (24) infections were enrolled. Invasive and nasal carriage S. aureus isolates were recovered and characterized for genotypic diversity. S. aureus antigen expression was evaluated directly by real-time, quantitative, reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis and indirectly by serology using a competitive Luminex immunoassay. Study isolates were genotypically diverse and all had the genes encoding the antigens present in the SA4Ag vaccine. S. aureus nasal carriage was detected in 55% of patients, and in those subjects 64% of the carriage isolates matched the invasive strain. In swab samples with detectable S. aureus triosephosphate isomerase housekeeping gene expression, RNA transcripts encoding the S. aureus virulence factors ClfA, MntC, and capsule polysaccharide were detected by qRT-PCR. Antigen expression was indirectly confirmed by increases in antibody titer during the course of infection from acute to convalescent phase. Demonstration of bacterial transcript expression together with immunological response to the SA4Ag antigens in a clinically relevant patient population provides support for inclusion of these antigens in a prophylactic vaccine.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus in Some Brazilian Dairy Industries: Changes of Contamination and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Karen Kiesbye; Chaul, Luiza T.; Lee, Sarah H. I.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, a major food-poisoning pathogen, is a common contaminant in dairy industries worldwide, including in Brazil. We determined the occurrence of S. aureus in five dairies in Brazil over 8 months. Of 421 samples, 31 (7.4%) were positive for S. aureus and prevalence varied from 0.......8% of strains being sensitive to all antibiotic classes and no Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were found. The enterotoxin-encoding genes involved in food-poisoning, e.g., sea, sed, see, and seg were targeted by PCR. The two toxin-encoding genes, sed and see, were not detected. Only three strains...... contamination....

  17. Induction of virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus by pulmonary surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kenichi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Yasukawa, Jyunichiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2014-04-01

    We performed a genomewide analysis using a next-generation sequencer to investigate the effect of pulmonary surfactant on gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus, a clinically important opportunistic pathogen. RNA sequence (RNA-seq) analysis of bacterial transcripts at late log phase revealed 142 genes that were upregulated >2-fold following the addition of pulmonary surfactant to the culture medium. Among these genes, we confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis that mRNA amounts for genes encoding ESAT-6 secretion system C (EssC), an unknown hypothetical protein (NWMN_0246; also called pulmonary surfactant-inducible factor A [PsiA] in this study), and hemolysin gamma subunit B (HlgB) were increased 3- to 10-fold by the surfactant treatment. Among the major constituents of pulmonary surfactant, i.e., phospholipids and palmitate, only palmitate, which is the most abundant fatty acid in the pulmonary surfactant and a known antibacterial substance, stimulated the expression of these three genes. Moreover, these genes were also induced by supplementing the culture with detergents. The induction of gene expression by surfactant or palmitate was not observed in a disruption mutant of the sigB gene, which encodes an alternative sigma factor involved in bacterial stress responses. Furthermore, each disruption mutant of the essC, psiA, and hlgB genes showed attenuation of both survival in the lung and host-killing ability in a murine pneumonia model. These findings suggest that S. aureus resists membrane stress caused by free fatty acids present in the pulmonary surfactant through the regulation of virulence gene expression, which contributes to its pathogenesis within the lungs of the host animal.

  18. Effects of Low-Dose Amoxicillin on Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynek, Kevin D; Callahan, Mary T; Shimkevitch, Anton V; Farmer, Jackson T; Endres, Jennifer L; Marchand, Mélodie; Bayles, Kenneth W; Horswill, Alexander R; Kaplan, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies showed that sub-MIC levels of β-lactam antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Here, we investigated this process by measuring the effects of sub-MIC amoxicillin on biofilm formation by the epidemic community-associated MRSA strain USA300. We found that sub-MIC amoxicillin increased the ability of USA300 cells to attach to surfaces and form biofilms under both static and flow conditions. We also found that USA300 biofilms cultured in sub-MIC amoxicillin were thicker, contained more pillar and channel structures, and were less porous than biofilms cultured without antibiotic. Biofilm formation in sub-MIC amoxicillin correlated with the production of extracellular DNA (eDNA). However, eDNA released by amoxicillin-induced cell lysis alone was evidently not sufficient to stimulate biofilm. Sub-MIC levels of two other cell wall-active agents with different mechanisms of action-d-cycloserine and fosfomycin-also stimulated eDNA-dependent biofilm, suggesting that biofilm formation may be a mechanistic adaptation to cell wall stress. Screening a USA300 mariner transposon library for mutants deficient in biofilm formation in sub-MIC amoxicillin identified numerous known mediators of S. aureus β-lactam resistance and biofilm formation, as well as novel genes not previously associated with these phenotypes. Our results link cell wall stress and biofilm formation in MRSA and suggest that eDNA-dependent biofilm formation by strain USA300 in low-dose amoxicillin is an inducible phenotype that can be used to identify novel genes impacting MRSA β-lactam resistance and biofilm formation. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Heme Recognition By a Staphylococcus Aureus IsdE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, J.C.; Vermeiren, C.L.; Heinrichs, D.E.; Murphy, M.E.P.

    2009-06-03

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen and a leading cause of hospital acquired infections. Because the free iron concentration in the human body is too low to support growth, S. aureus must acquire iron from host sources. Heme iron is the most prevalent iron reservoir in the human body and a predominant source of iron for S. aureus. The iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system removes heme from host heme proteins and transfers it to IsdE, the cognate substrate-binding lipoprotein of an ATP-binding cassette transporter, for import and subsequent degradation. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the soluble portion of the IsdE lipoprotein in complex with heme. The structure reveals a bi-lobed topology formed by an N- and C-terminal domain bridged by a single {alpha}-helix. The structure places IsdE as a member of the helical backbone metal receptor superfamily. A six-coordinate heme molecule is bound in the groove established at the domain interface, and the heme iron is coordinated in a novel fashion for heme transporters by Met{sup 78} and His{sup 229}. Both heme propionate groups are secured by H-bonds to IsdE main chain and side chain groups. Of these residues, His{sup 299} is essential for IsdE-mediated heme uptake by S. aureus when growth on heme as a sole iron source is measured. Multiple sequence alignments of homologues from several other Gram-positive bacteria, including the human pathogens pyogenes, Bacillus anthracis, and Listeria monocytogenes, suggest that these other systems function equivalently to S. aureus IsdE with respect to heme binding and transport.

  20. Characterization of a mouse-adapted Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Holtfreter

    Full Text Available More effective antibiotics and a protective vaccine are desperately needed to combat the 'superbug' Staphylococcus aureus. While in vivo pathogenicity studies routinely involve infection of mice with human S. aureus isolates, recent genetic studies have demonstrated that S. aureus lineages are largely host-specific. The use of such animal-adapted S. aureus strains may therefore be a promising approach for developing more clinically relevant animal infection models. We have isolated a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain (JSNZ which caused a severe outbreak of preputial gland abscesses among male C57BL/6J mice. We aimed to extensively characterize this strain on a genomic level and determine its virulence potential in murine colonization and infection models. JSNZ belongs to the MLST type ST88, rare among human isolates, and lacks an hlb-converting phage encoding human-specific immune evasion factors. Naive mice were found to be more susceptible to nasal and gastrointestinal colonization with JSNZ than with the human-derived Newman strain. Furthermore, naïve mice required antibiotic pre-treatment to become colonized with Newman. In contrast, JSNZ was able to colonize mice in the absence of antibiotic treatment suggesting that this strain can compete with the natural flora for space and nutrients. In a renal abscess model, JSNZ caused more severe disease than Newman with greater weight loss and bacterial burden. In contrast to most other clinical isolates, JSNZ can also be readily genetically modified by phage transduction and electroporation. In conclusion, the mouse-adapted strain JSNZ may represent a valuable tool for studying aspects of mucosal colonization and for screening novel vaccines and therapies directed at preventing colonization.

  1. Incidence, trends and demographics of Staphylococcus aureus infections in Auckland, New Zealand, 2001–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background New Zealand has a higher incidence of Staphylococcus aureus disease than other developed countries, with significant sociodemographic variation in incidence rates. In contrast to North America, the majority of disease is due to methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), although relatively little is known about the comparative demographics of MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections in New Zealand. Methods Our objectives were to describe the trends, incidence and patient demographics of all S. aureus infections in patients presenting to our institution between 2001 and 2011, and compare the epidemiology of MSSA and MRSA infections. We identified all patients with S. aureus infections over the study period. A unique S. aureus infection was defined as the first positive S. aureus culture taken from the same patient within a thirty-day period. Standard definitions were used to classify episodes into community- or healthcare-associated S. aureus infection. Results There were 16,249 S. aureus infections over the study period. The incidence increased significantly over the study period from 360 to 412 per 100,000 population (P New Zealand. The significant increase in community-associated S. aureus infections is of public health importance. Future studies should investigate the reasons underlying this concerning trend. PMID:24299298

  2. Detection and identification of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus causes foodborne diseases if consumed in contaminated milk products. Rapid detection and characterization of foodborne pathogen S. aureus is crucial for epidemiological investigations and food safety surveillance. It is still a challenge to detect and identify bacterial pathogens quickly and ...

  3. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: recent developments in biofilm dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Jessica L; Horswill, Alexander R

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections and represents a significant burden on the healthcare system. S. aureus attachment to medical implants and host tissue, and the establishment of a mature biofilm, play an important role in the persistence of chronic infections. The formation of a biofilm, and encasement of cells in a polymer-based matrix, decreases the susceptibility to antimicrobials and immune defenses, making these infections difficult to eradicate. During infection, dispersal of cells from the biofilm can result in spread to secondary sites and worsening of the infection. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the pathways behind biofilm dispersal in S. aureus, with a focus on enzymatic and newly described broad-spectrum dispersal mechanisms. Additionally, we explore potential applications of dispersal in the treatment of biofilm-mediated infections.

  4. Bacteriocins of Non-aureus Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Domonique A; Barkema, Herman W; Naushad, Sohail; De Buck, Jeroen

    2017-09-01

    Non- aureus staphylococci (NAS), the bacteria most commonly isolated from the bovine udder, potentially protect the udder against infection by major mastitis pathogens due to bacteriocin production. In this study, we determined the inhibitory capability of 441 bovine NAS isolates (comprising 26 species) against bovine Staphylococcus aureus Furthermore, inhibiting isolates were tested against a human methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolate using a cross-streaking method. We determined the presence of bacteriocin clusters in NAS whole genomes using genome mining tools, BLAST, and comparison of genomes of closely related inhibiting and noninhibiting isolates and determined the genetic organization of any identified bacteriocin biosynthetic gene clusters. Forty isolates from 9 species ( S. capitis , S. chromogenes , S. epidermidis , S. pasteuri , S. saprophyticus , S. sciuri , S. simulans , S. warneri , and S. xylosus ) inhibited growth of S. aureus in vitro , 23 isolates of which, from S. capitis , S. chromogenes , S. epidermidis , S. pasteuri , S. simulans , and S. xylosus , also inhibited MRSA. One hundred five putative bacteriocin gene clusters encompassing 6 different classes (lanthipeptides, sactipeptides, lasso peptides, class IIa, class IIc, and class IId) in 95 whole genomes from 16 species were identified. A total of 25 novel bacteriocin precursors were described. In conclusion, NAS from bovine mammary glands are a source of potential bacteriocins, with >21% being possible producers, representing potential for future characterization and prospective clinical applications. IMPORTANCE Mastitis (particularly infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus ) costs Canadian dairy producers $400 million/year and is the leading cause of antibiotic use on dairy farms. With increasing antibiotic resistance and regulations regarding use, there is impetus to explore bacteriocins (bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides) for treatment and prevention of bacterial

  5. Control of Copper Resistance and Inorganic Sulfur Metabolism by Paralogous Regulators in Staphylococcus aureus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossoehme, Nicholas; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Ma, Zhen; Adams, Keith W.; Cowart, Darin M.; Scott, Robert A.; Skaar, Eric P.; Giedroc, David P.

    2011-01-01

    All strains of Staphylococcus aureus encode a putative copper-sensitive operon repressor (CsoR) and one other CsoR-like protein of unknown function. We show here that NWMN_1991 encodes a bona fide Cu(I)-inducible CsoR of a genetically unlinked copA-copZ copper resistance operon in S. aureus strain Newman. In contrast, an unannotated open reading frame found between NWMN_0027 and NWMN_0026 (denoted NWMN_0026.5) encodes a CsoR-like regulator that represses expression of adjacent genes by binding specifically to a pair of canonical operator sites positioned in the NWMN_0027–0026.5 intergenic region. Inspection of these regulated genes suggests a role in assimilation of inorganic sulfur from thiosulfate and vectorial sulfur transfer, and we designate NWMN_0026.5 as CstR (CsoR-like sulfur transferase repressor). Expression analysis demonstrates that CsoR and CstR control their respective regulons in response to distinct stimuli with no overlap in vivo. Unlike CsoR, CstR does not form a stable complex with Cu(I); operator binding is instead inhibited by oxidation of the intersubunit cysteine pair to a mixture of disulfide and trisulfide linkages by a likely metabolite of thiosulfate assimilation, sulfite. CsoR is unreactive toward sulfite under the same conditions. We conclude that CsoR and CstR are paralogs in S. aureus that function in the same cytoplasm to control distinct physiological processes. PMID:21339296

  6. Control of copper resistance and inorganic sulfur metabolism by paralogous regulators in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossoehme, Nicholas; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E; Ma, Zhen; Adams, Keith W; Cowart, Darin M; Scott, Robert A; Skaar, Eric P; Giedroc, David P

    2011-04-15

    All strains of Staphylococcus aureus encode a putative copper-sensitive operon repressor (CsoR) and one other CsoR-like protein of unknown function. We show here that NWMN_1991 encodes a bona fide Cu(I)-inducible CsoR of a genetically unlinked copA-copZ copper resistance operon in S. aureus strain Newman. In contrast, an unannotated open reading frame found between NWMN_0027 and NWMN_0026 (denoted NWMN_0026.5) encodes a CsoR-like regulator that represses expression of adjacent genes by binding specifically to a pair of canonical operator sites positioned in the NWMN_0027-0026.5 intergenic region. Inspection of these regulated genes suggests a role in assimilation of inorganic sulfur from thiosulfate and vectorial sulfur transfer, and we designate NWMN_0026.5 as CstR (CsoR-like sulfur transferase repressor). Expression analysis demonstrates that CsoR and CstR control their respective regulons in response to distinct stimuli with no overlap in vivo. Unlike CsoR, CstR does not form a stable complex with Cu(I); operator binding is instead inhibited by oxidation of the intersubunit cysteine pair to a mixture of disulfide and trisulfide linkages by a likely metabolite of thiosulfate assimilation, sulfite. CsoR is unreactive toward sulfite under the same conditions. We conclude that CsoR and CstR are paralogs in S. aureus that function in the same cytoplasm to control distinct physiological processes.

  7. Contribution of SecDF to Staphylococcus aureus resistance and expression of virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger-Bächi Brigitte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SecDF is an accessory factor of the conserved Sec protein translocation machinery and belongs to the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND family of multidrug exporters. SecDF has been shown in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to be involved in the export of proteins. RND proteins can mediate resistance against various substances and might be of relevance in antimicrobial therapy. The role of RND proteins in Staphylococcus aureus has not yet been determined. Results Markerless deletion mutants were constructed to analyze the impact of the so far uncharacterized RND proteins in S. aureus. While the lack of Sa2056 and Sa2339 caused no phenotype regarding growth and resistance, the secDF mutant resulted in a pleiotropic phenotype. The secDF mutant was cold sensitive, but grew normally in rich medium at 37°C. Resistance to beta-lactams, glycopeptides and the RND substrates acriflavine, ethidium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate was reduced. The secDF mutant showed an aberrant cell separation and increased spontaneous and Triton X-100 induced autolysis, although the amounts of penicillin-binding proteins in the membrane were unchanged. The impact of secDF deletion on transcription and expression of specific virulence determinants varied: While coagulase transcription and activity were reduced, the opposite was observed for the autolysin Atl. A reduction of the transcription of the cell wall anchored protein A (spa was also found. The accumulation of SpA in the membrane and lowered amounts in the cell wall pointed to an impaired translocation. Conclusions The combination of different effects of secDF deletion on transcription, regulation and translocation lead to impaired cell division, reduced resistance and altered expression of virulence determinants suggesting SecDF to be of major relevance in S. aureus. Thus SecDF could be a potential target for the control and eradication of S. aureus in the future.

  8. Exploring the contribution of efflux on the resistance to fluoroquinolones in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Costa, Sofia SANTOS

    2011-10-27

    Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance mediated by efflux systems is still poorly characterized in Staphylococcus aureus, despite the description of several efflux pumps (EPs) for this bacterium. In this work we used several methodologies to characterize the efflux activity of 52 S. aureus isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin collected in a hospital in Lisbon, Portugal, in order to understand the role played by these systems in the resistance to fluoroquinolones. Results Augmented efflux activity was detected in 12 out of 52 isolates and correlated with increased resistance to fluoroquinolones. Addition of efflux inhibitors did not result in the full reversion of the fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype, yet it implied a significant decrease in the resistance levels, regardless of the type(s) of mutation(s) found in the quinolone-resistance determining region of grlA and gyrA genes, which accounted for the remaining resistance that was not efflux-mediated. Expression analysis of the genes coding for the main efflux pumps revealed increased expression only in the presence of inducing agents. Moreover, it showed that not only different substrates can trigger expression of different EP genes, but also that the same substrate can promote a variable response, according to its concentration. We also found isolates belonging to the same clonal type that showed different responses towards drug exposure, thus evidencing that highly related clinical isolates may diverge in the efflux-mediated response to noxious agents. The data gathered by real-time fluorometric and RT-qPCR assays suggest that S. aureus clinical isolates may be primed to efflux antimicrobial compounds. Conclusions The results obtained in this work do not exclude the importance of mutations in resistance to fluoroquinolones in S. aureus, yet they underline the contribution of efflux systems for the emergence of high-level resistance. All together, the results presented in this study show the potential

  9. Virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Buruli ulcer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amissah, Nana Ama; Chlebowicz, Monika A.; Ablordey, Anthony; Tetteh, Caitlin S.; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Friedrich, Alex W.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Stienstra, Ymkje; Rossen, John W.

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. BU wounds may also be colonized with other microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus. This study aimed to characterize the virulence factors of S. aureus isolated from BU patients.

  10. Cemaran Staphylococcus aureus dan Pseudomonas aerogenosa Pada Stetoskop dirumah Sakit

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    leka lutpiatina

    2017-10-01

    The result of the research was found contamination of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aerogenosa on steteskop. The site home condition of the research data was 66.7% cleaned daily, the storage method was placed on the table 70% and the duration of using the set home more than 1 year as much as 70%. The conclusion of stethoscope at Banjarbaru Hospital was contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus by 70% and Pseudomonas aerogenosa by 17%. The suggestion of research can be continued by knowing the existence of Staphylococcus aureus resistant antibiotic and Pseudomonas aerogenous antibiotic resistant at steteskop at Hospital.

  11. GAMMA Radiation Effect On Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 19095) in Cheese MINAS FRESCALIRRADIATED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral Gurgel, M.S.C.C. DO; Spoto, M.H.F.; Domarco, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Milk is an excellent medium of culture for development of Staphylococcus aureus. Gamma radiation can be an alternative method to guarantee the safety of the contaminated cheeses. The objective of this research was determine the effects of the gamma radiation on the resistance of S.aureus (ATCC 19095) in cheese M inas Frescal i rradiated. The cheeses elaborated in the Laboratory of Food Irradiation of CENA/USP, were contaminated during their production with 10 6 CFU/mL of culture of S.aureus (ATCC 19095). The cheeses were irradiated with 0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 kGy, maintained under refrigeration condition (5 0C ) and analyzed at 1, 7 and 14 days of storage. The evaluation microbiology was made through the S.aureus survival analysis using Baird Parker selective medium and confirmative test of coagulase, catalase and fermentation aerobics of the manitol. The capacity of enterotoxins production by irradiated S.aureus was detected by the method of Passive Reverse Agglutination Latex. Results showed that 3 kGy is enough to destroy the S.aureus and 2 kGy to inhibited its toxins production

  12. Humanized Mouse Models of Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane Parker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a successful human pathogen that has adapted itself in response to selection pressure by the human immune system. A commensal of the human skin and nose, it is a leading cause of several conditions: skin and soft tissue infection, pneumonia, septicemia, peritonitis, bacteremia, and endocarditis. Mice have been used extensively in all these conditions to identify virulence factors and host components important for pathogenesis. Although significant effort has gone toward development of an anti-staphylococcal vaccine, antibodies have proven ineffective in preventing infection in humans after successful studies in mice. These results have raised questions as to the utility of mice to predict patient outcome and suggest that humanized mice might prove useful in modeling infection. The development of humanized mouse models of S. aureus infection will allow us to assess the contribution of several human-specific virulence factors, in addition to exploring components of the human immune system in protection against S. aureus infection. Their use is discussed in light of several recently reported studies.

  13. Detection and identification of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... detection and identification of S. aureus in raw milk demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. Key words: Microarray .... sterile after screening for S. aureus contamination according to the procedure described by Wang ... methods, the microarray method is high throughput, specific, and sensitive and also ...

  14. Unraveling the dynamics of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bootsma, M.C.; Bonten, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Since the first description of the community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain USA300 [1] in the 1990s, this pathogen has emerged worldwide [2]. Within a decade, USA300 has become the most prevalent cause of community-acquired S. aureus infections in many

  15. Distribution of capsular and surface polysaccharide serotypes of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eiff, Christof; Taylor, Kimberly L; Mellmann, Alexander; Fattom, Ali I; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten

    Because of its ability to cause serious and fatal infections, Staphylococcus aureus remains one of the most feared microorganisms. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has long been a common pathogen in healthcare facilities, but within the past decade, it has emerged as a problematic pathogen in

  16. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Modulation of pulmonary defense mechanisms by acute exposures to nitrogen dioxide. [Staphylococcus aureus; Proteus mirabilis; Pasteurella pneumotropica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakab, G.J.

    1987-02-01

    The effect of acute exposures to NO/sub 2/ on the antibacterial defenses of the murine lung was assessed following inhalation challenges with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella pneumotropica. With S. aureus pulmonary antibacterial defenses were suppressed at NO/sub 2/ levels of 4.0 ppm and greater. Exposure to 10.0 ppm enhanced the intrapulmonary killing of P. mirabilis which correlated with an increase in the phagocytic cell populations lavaged from the lungs; at 20.0 ppm bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis was impaired. Pulmonary antibacterial defenses against P. pneumotropica were impaired at 10.0 ppm which correlated with a decrease in the retrieved phagocytic lung cell population. Reversing the order of treatment (ie., NO/sub 2/ exposure prior to bacterial challenge) raised the threshold concentration for NO/sub 2/-induced impairment of intrapulmonary bacterial killing. With S. aureus the effect was not observed at 5.0 ppm but at 10.0 ppm and with P. mirabilis not at 20.0 ppm but at 30.0 ppm intrapulmonary killing was enhanced. Exposures up to 20.0 ppm of NO/sub 2/ did not effect the physical translocation mechanisms of the lung as quantitated by declines in pulmonary radiotracer activity following aerogenic challenge with /sup 32/P-labeled staphylococci.

  18. Quality control of direct molecular diagnostics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belkum, Alex; Niesters, Hubert G M; MacKay, William G; van Leeuwen, Willem B

    Ten samples containing various amounts of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and combinations thereof were distributed to 51 laboratories for molecular diagnostics testing. Samples containing

  19. Long-term mortality after Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed, Casper; Larsen, Anders R

    2014-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases.......Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases....

  20. Daya Hambat Ekstrak Aloe Vera terhadap pertumbuhan Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat, drg.Sp,Pros

    2011-01-01

    Dari hasil penelitian , maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak Aloe Vera dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Stafhylococcus aureus, dan kadar hambat minimal ekstrak Aloe Vera adalah pada konsentrasi 25%. Tujuan Penelitan Ini adalah untuk mengetahui efektifitas ekstrak Aloe vera dalam menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Stafhylococcus aureus dan daya hambat menimal, (DHM) terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri tersebut. Metode yang digunakan adalah pertumbuhan ekstrak Aloe vera, penegnceran ekstrak , pemur...

  1. Staphylococcus aureus utilizes host-derived lipoprotein particles as sources of exogenous fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delekta, Phillip C; Shook, John C; Lydic, Todd A; Mulks, Martha H; Hammer, Neal D

    2018-03-26

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a threat to global health. Consequently, much effort has focused on the development of new antimicrobials that target novel aspects of S. aureus physiology. Fatty acids are required to maintain cell viability, and bacteria synthesize fatty acids using the type II fatty acid synthesis pathway (FASII). FASII is significantly different from human fatty acid synthesis, underscoring the therapeutic potential of inhibiting this pathway. However, many Gram-positive pathogens incorporate exogenous fatty acids, bypassing FASII inhibition and leaving the clinical potential of FASII inhibitors uncertain. Importantly, the source(s) of fatty acids available to pathogens within the host environment remains unclear. Fatty acids are transported throughout the body by lipoprotein particles in the form of triglycerides and esterified cholesterol. Thus, lipoproteins, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) represent a potentially rich source of exogenous fatty acids for S. aureus during infection. We sought to test the ability of LDLs to serve as a fatty acid source for S. aureus and show that cells cultured in the presence of human LDLs demonstrate increased tolerance to the FASII inhibitor, triclosan. Using mass spectrometry, we observed that host-derived fatty acids present in the LDLs are incorporated into the staphylococcal membrane and that tolerance to triclosan is facilitated by the fatty acid kinase A, FakA, and Geh, a triacylglycerol lipase. Finally, we demonstrate that human LDLs support the growth of S. aureus fatty acid auxotrophs. Together, these results suggest that human lipoprotein particles are a viable source of exogenous fatty acids for S. aureus during infection. IMPORTANCE Inhibition of bacterial fatty acid synthesis is a promising approach to combating infections caused by S. aureus and other human pathogens. However, S. aureus incorporates exogenous fatty acids into its phospholipid bilayer. Therefore, the

  2. Femtosecond laser surface texturing of titanium as a method to reduce the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and biofilm formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Alexandre [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Bordeaux University, Institute of Chemistry & Biology of Membranes & Nanoobjects (CBMN UMR 5248, CNRS), European Institute of Chemistry and Biology, 2 Rue Robert Escarpit, 33607 Pessac (France); Elie, Anne-Marie [Bordeaux University, CBMN UMR 5248, CNRS, Bordeaux Science Agro, 1 Rue du G. de Gaulle, 33170 Gradignan (France); Plawinski, Laurent [Bordeaux University, Institute of Chemistry & Biology of Membranes & Nanoobjects (CBMN UMR 5248, CNRS), European Institute of Chemistry and Biology, 2 Rue Robert Escarpit, 33607 Pessac (France); Serro, Ana Paula [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, CQE-Centro de Química Estrutural, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Botelho do Rego, Ana Maria [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, CQFM-Centro de Química-Física Molecular and Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology - IN, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Almeida, Amélia [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Urdaci, Maria C. [Bordeaux University, CBMN UMR 5248, CNRS, Bordeaux Science Agro, 1 Rue du G. de Gaulle, 33170 Gradignan (France); Durrieu, Marie-Christine [Bordeaux University, Institute of Chemistry & Biology of Membranes & Nanoobjects (CBMN UMR 5248, CNRS), European Institute of Chemistry and Biology, 2 Rue Robert Escarpit, 33607 Pessac (France); Vilar, Rui, E-mail: rui.vilar@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The short-term adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus onto femtosecond laser textured surfaces of titanium was investigated. • The laser textured surfaces consist of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and nanopillars. • The laser treatment enhances the hydrophilicity and the surface free energy of the material. • The laser treatment reduces significantly the adhesion of S. aureus and biofilm formation. • Femtosecond laser surface texturing of titanium is a simple and promising method for endowing dental and orthopedic implants with antibacterial properties. - Abstract: The aim of the present work was to investigate the possibility of using femtosecond laser surface texturing as a method to reduce the colonization of Grade 2 Titanium alloy surfaces by Staphylococcus aureus and the subsequent formation of biofilm. The laser treatments were carried out with a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system with a central wavelength of 1030 nm and a pulse duration of 500 fs. Two types of surface textures, consisting of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and nanopillars, were produced. The topography, chemical composition and phase constitution of these surfaces were investigated by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Surface wettability was assessed by the sessile drop method using water and diiodomethane as testing liquids. The response of S. aureus put into contact with the laser treated surfaces in controlled conditions was investigated by epifluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy 48 h after cell seeding. The results achieved show that the laser treatment reduces significantly the bacterial adhesion to the surface as well as biofilm formation as compared to a reference polished surfaces and suggest that femtosecond laser texturing is a simple and promising method

  3. The CsoR-like sulfurtransferase repressor (CstR) is a persulfide sensor in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Justin L; Shen, Jiangchuan; Bruce, Kevin E; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E; Peng, Hui; Skaar, Eric P; Giedroc, David P

    2014-12-01

    How cells regulate the bioavailability of utilizable sulfur while mitigating the effects of hydrogen sulfide toxicity is poorly understood. CstR [Copper-sensing operon repressor (CsoR)-like sulfurtransferase repressor] represses the expression of the cst operon encoding a putative sulfide oxidation system in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we show that the cst operon is strongly and transiently induced by cellular sulfide stress in an acute phase and specific response and that cst-encoded genes are necessary to mitigate the effects of sulfide toxicity. Growth defects are most pronounced when S. aureus is cultured in chemically defined media with thiosulfate (TS) as a sole sulfur source, but are also apparent when cystine is used or in rich media. Under TS growth conditions, cells fail to grow as a result of either unregulated expression of the cst operon in a ΔcstR strain or transformation with a non-inducible C31A/C60A CstR that blocks cst induction. This suggests that the cst operon contributes to cellular sulfide homeostasis. Tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry reveals derivatization of CstR by both inorganic tetrasulfide and an organic persulfide, glutathione persulfide, to yield a mixture of Cys31-Cys60' interprotomer cross-links, including di-, tri- and tetrasulfide bonds, which allosterically inhibit cst operator DNA binding by CstR. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. FOOD MICROORGANISMS INFLUENCING THE GROWTH OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRAVES, R R; FRAZIER, W C

    1963-11-01

    Some 870 cultures of predominating micro-organisms were isolated from market samples of hamburger, fresh pork sausage, fresh fish fillets, stewing beef, frozen chicken pot pie, frozen corn, frozen peas, and pasteurized and raw milk, before and after storage at different temperatures. The isolates were screened for their ability to influence the growth of Staphylococcus aureus strain 196E by means of spot-plate tests on APT and nutrient agars at 25 C. The 438 cultures that influenced the growth of S. aureus were retested on spot plates at 15, 30, and 42 C. After elimination of replicates, the 143 remaining cultures were classified into species, genera, or groups, and 14 different cultures were tested for their influence on the growth of S. aureus in APT broth at 25 C. Over half of the effective cultures inhibited S. aureus and less than half were stimulatory. Pork sausage had the highest proportion of inhibitory cultures, and stewing beef had the lowest. APT agar was better than nutrient agar for screening, and incubation at 15 C gave more effector organisms than at 30 and 42 C. Most of the lactic acid bacteria were inhibitory, but other groups of bacteria contained more stimulatory cultures than inhibitory ones. The three Escherichia coli cultures were stimulatory, but most other Escherichia cultures were inhibitory. Aerobacter and Paracolobactrum isolates were mostly stimulatory. Cultures of other kinds of bacteria were more or less evenly distributed between inhibitory ones and stimulatory ones. Genera containing mostly inhibitory bacteria were Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, and Lactobacillus. Inhibitory species were E. freundii and E. intermedia. Tests with S. aureus in broth indicated that all cultures inhibitory according to spot plates were inhibitory in broth, but stimulation on spot plates did not always indicate the same phenomenon in broth.

  5. Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in European Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Hotzel, Helmut; Peters, Martin; Guenther, Sebastian; Lazaris, Alexandros; Loncaric, Igor; Müller, Elke; Reissig, Annett; Ruppelt-Lorz, Antje; Shore, Anna C.; Walter, Birgit; Coleman, David C.; Ehricht, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known colonizer and cause of infection among animals and it has been described from numerous domestic and wild animal species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in a convenience sample of European wildlife and to review what previously has been observed in the subject field. 124 S. aureus isolates were collected from wildlife in Germany, Austria and Sweden; they were characterized by DNA microarray hybridization and, for isolates with novel hybridization patterns, by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates were assigned to 29 clonal complexes and singleton sequence types (CC1, CC5, CC6, CC7, CC8, CC9, CC12, CC15, CC22, CC25, CC30, CC49, CC59, CC88, CC97, CC130, CC133, CC398, ST425, CC599, CC692, CC707, ST890, CC1956, ST2425, CC2671, ST2691, CC2767 and ST2963), some of which (ST2425, ST2691, ST2963) were not described previously. Resistance rates in wildlife strains were rather low and mecA-MRSA isolates were rare (n = 6). mecC-MRSA (n = 8) were identified from a fox, a fallow deer, hares and hedgehogs. The common cattle-associated lineages CC479 and CC705 were not detected in wildlife in the present study while, in contrast, a third common cattle lineage, CC97, was found to be common among cervids. No Staphylococcus argenteus or Staphylococcus schweitzeri-like isolates were found. Systematic studies are required to monitor the possible transmission of human- and livestock-associated S. aureus/MRSA to wildlife and vice versa as well as the possible transmission, by unprotected contact to animals. The prevalence of S. aureus/MRSA in wildlife as well as its population structures in different wildlife host species warrants further investigation. PMID:27992523

  6. Virulence Factors of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in an Iranian Referral Children's Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouni, Farah; Mahmoudi, Shima; Bahador, Abbas; Pourakbari, Babak; Sadeghi, Reihaneh Hosseinpour; Ashtiani, Mohammad Taghi Haghi; Nikmanesh, Bahram; Mamishi, Setareh

    2014-04-01

    The clinical importance of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is attributed to notable virulence factors, surface proteins, toxins, and enzymes as well as the rapid development of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of virulence factors produced by S. aureus strains isolated from children in an Iranian referral children's hospital. The presence of genes encoding for the enterotoxins A (sea), B (seb), C (sec), D (sed), TSST-1 (tsst), exfoliative toxin A (eta), and exfoliative toxin B (etb) were detected by Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers. In addition, the standardized Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method was performed on Mueller-Hinton agar. In total, 133 S. aureus isolates were obtained from different patients. Of these S. aureus isolates, 64 (48%) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and all of these tested positive for the mecA gene. Regarding the classical enterotoxin genes, sea gene (40.6%) was the most prevalent followed by seb (19.6%), tsst (12.8%), eta (11.3%), etb (9%), sed (4.5%), and sec (3%). Among methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates, seb and tsst were the more prevalent toxins in comparison with MRSA isolates (p  0.05). In our study enterotoxin A was produced by 40.6% of the isolates (48% from MRSA and 33% from MSSA isolates) which was higher than in previous reports. According to our results, strict hygiene and preventative measures during food processing are highly recommended.

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and infection among patients with diabetic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Lin, Nai-Yu; Huang, Yu-Yao; Hsieh, Chi-Chun; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2018-06-04

    To evaluate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage in patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) in Taiwan, and to assess the concordance between colonizing and clinical MRSA isolates from the patients. A total of 354 nasal specimens were collected from 112 to 242 diabetic patients with and without foot ulcer, respectively. MRSA clinical isolates from DFU wound cultures were collected for comparison. Nasal carriage rate of S. aureus and MRSA was similar between diabetic patients with and without foot ulcer (15.2% vs. 16.9% for S. aureus and 5.4% vs. 1.7% for MRSA). Nasal S. aureus colonization was an independent predictor for wound S. aureus infection (Odds ratio [OR]: 5.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-17.59), so did nasal MRSA colonization (OR: 19.09, 95% CI: 2.12-171.91). The levels of glycated hemoglobin, and the usage with immunosuppressant agent were associated with S. aureus nasal colonization while oral hypoglycemic agent usage a protective factor. Sequence type 59/staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec IV or V, the local endemic community-associated clone, accounted for 42% and 70% of the clinical and colonizing isolates, respectively. Six of 10 patients with paired colonizing and clinical isolates, either MRSA or methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, had a genetically identical strain from a single patient. Less than one-fifth of patients with DFU have nasal S. aureus, including MRSA, colonization; however, the colonization is significantly associated with S. aureus diabetic foot infection. Screening for S. aureus colonizing status in DFU patients might have a potential clinical implication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Is Effective against both Extra- and Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noore, Jabeen; Noore, Adly

    2013-01-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics and the challenges posed by intracellular bacteria, which may be responsible for chronic and recurrent infections, have driven the need for advanced antimicrobial drugs for effective elimination of both extra- and intracellular pathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine the killing efficacy of cationic antimicrobial peptide LL-37 compared to conventional antibiotics against extra- and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial killing assays and an infection model of osteoblasts and S. aureus were studied to determine the bacterial killing efficacy of LL-37 and conventional antibiotics against extra- and intracellular S. aureus. We found that LL-37 was effective in killing extracellular S. aureus at nanomolar concentrations, while lactoferricin B was effective at micromolar concentrations and doxycycline and cefazolin at millimolar concentrations. LL-37 was surprisingly more effective in killing the clinical strain than in killing an ATCC strain of S. aureus. Moreover, LL-37 was superior to conventional antibiotics in eliminating intracellular S. aureus. The kinetic studies further revealed that LL-37 was fast in eliminating both extra- and intracellular S. aureus. Therefore, LL-37 was shown to be very potent and prompt in eliminating both extra- and intracellular S. aureus and was more effective in killing extra- and intracellular S. aureus than commonly used conventional antibiotics. LL-37 could potentially be used to treat chronic and recurrent infections due to its effectiveness in eliminating not only extracellular but also intracellular pathogens. PMID:23274662

  9. Development of a multicomponent Staphylococcus aureus vaccine designed to counter multiple bacterial virulence factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Annaliesa S.; Miller, Alita A.; Donald, Robert G.K.; Scully, Ingrid L.; Nanra, Jasdeep S.; Cooper, David; Jansen, Kathrin U.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of healthcare-associated infections and is responsible for a substantial burden of disease in hospitalized patients. Despite increasingly rigorous infection control guidelines, the prevalence and corresponding negative impact of S. aureus infections remain considerable. Difficulties in controlling S. aureus infections as well as the associated treatment costs are exacerbated by increasing rates of resistance to available antibiotics. Despite ongoing efforts over the past 20 years, no licensed S. aureus vaccine is currently available. However, learnings from past clinical failures of vaccine candidates and a better understanding of the immunopathology of S. aureus colonization and infection have aided in the design of new vaccine candidates based on multiple important bacterial pathogenesis mechanisms. This review outlines important considerations in designing a vaccine for the prevention of S. aureus disease in healthcare settings. PMID:22922765

  10. Assessing the potential for raw meat to influence human colonization with Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Zhao, Chang; Thapaliya, Dipendra; Bitterman, Patrick; Kates, Ashley E; Hanson, Blake M; Smith, Tara C

    2017-09-07

    The role of household meat handling and consumption in the transfer of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) from livestock to consumers is not well understood. Examining the similarity of S. aureus colonizing humans and S. aureus in meat from the stores in which those individuals shop can provide insight into the role of meat in human S. aureus colonization. S. aureus isolates were collected from individuals in rural and urban communities in Iowa (n = 3347) and contemporaneously from meat products in stores where participants report purchasing meat (n = 913). The staphylococcal protein A (spa) gene was sequenced for all isolates to determine a spa type. Morisita indices and Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance Using Distance Matrices (PERMANOVA) were used to determine the relationship between spa type composition among human samples and meat samples. spa type composition was significantly different between households and meat sampled from their associated grocery stores. spa types found in meat were not significantly different regardless of the store or county in which they were sampled. spa types in people also exhibit high similarity regardless of residential location in urban or rural counties. Such findings suggest meat is not an important source of S. aureus colonization in shoppers.

  11. A sensitive assay for Staphylococcus aureus nucleases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, J K; Vakil, B V; Patil, M S; Pandey, V N; Pradhan, D S [Bhabha Atomic Reserach Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry Div.

    1989-10-01

    A sensitive assay for staphylococcal nuclease involving incubation of the enzyme sample with heat-denatured ({sup 3}H) thymidine labelled DNA from E.coli, precipitation with trichloroacetic acid and measurement of the radioactivity of acid-soluble nucleotides released has been developed. The assay is sensitive enough to be used for comparing the levels of nucleases elaborated by different strains of S. aureus as well as for determining the extent of contamination of S. aureus in food and water samples even at levels at which the conventional spectrophotometric and toluidine blue-DNA methods are totally inadequate. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs ., 3 tabs.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus redirects central metabolism to increase iron availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Friedman

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is significantly influenced by the iron status of the host. However, the regulatory impact of host iron sources on S. aureus gene expression remains unknown. In this study, we combine multivariable difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry with multivariate statistical analyses to systematically cluster cellular protein response across distinct iron-exposure conditions. Quadruplicate samples were simultaneously analyzed for alterations in protein abundance and/or post-translational modification state in response to environmental (iron chelation, hemin treatment or genetic (Deltafur alterations in bacterial iron exposure. We identified 120 proteins representing several coordinated biochemical pathways that are affected by changes in iron-exposure status. Highlighted in these experiments is the identification of the heme-regulated transport system (HrtAB, a novel transport system which plays a critical role in staphylococcal heme metabolism. Further, we show that regulated overproduction of acidic end-products brought on by iron starvation decreases local pH resulting in the release of iron from the host iron-sequestering protein transferrin. These findings reveal novel strategies used by S. aureus to acquire scarce nutrients in the hostile host environment and begin to define the iron and heme-dependent regulons of S. aureus.

  13. Antimicrobial Mechanisms of Macrophages and the Immune Evasion Strategies of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannagan, Ronald S.; Heit, Bryan; Heinrichs, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Habitually professional phagocytes, including macrophages, eradicate microbial invaders from the human body without overt signs of infection. Despite this, there exist select bacteria that are professional pathogens, causing significant morbidity and mortality across the globe and Staphylococcus aureus is no exception. S. aureus is a highly successful pathogen that can infect virtually every tissue that comprises the human body causing a broad spectrum of diseases. The profound pathogenic capacity of S. aureus can be attributed, in part, to its ability to elaborate a profusion of bacterial effectors that circumvent host immunity. Macrophages are important professional phagocytes that contribute to both the innate and adaptive immune response, however from in vitro and in vivo studies, it is evident that they fail to eradicate S. aureus. This review provides an overview of the antimicrobial mechanisms employed by macrophages to combat bacteria and describes the immune evasion strategies and some representative effectors that enable S. aureus to evade macrophage-mediated killing. PMID:26633519

  14. Structurally designed attenuated subunit vaccines for S. aureus LukS-PV and LukF-PV confer protection in a mouse bacteremia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Karauzum

    Full Text Available Previous efforts towards S. aureus vaccine development have largely focused on cell surface antigens to induce opsonophagocytic killing aimed at providing sterile immunity, a concept successfully applied to other Gram-positive pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, these approaches have largely failed, possibly in part due to the remarkable diversity of the staphylococcal virulence factors such as secreted immunosuppressive and tissue destructive toxins. S. aureus produces several pore-forming toxins including the single subunit alpha hemolysin as well as bicomponent leukotoxins such as Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, gamma hemolysins (Hlg, and LukED. Here we report the generation of highly attenuated mutants of PVL subunits LukS-PV and LukF-PV that were rationally designed, based on an octameric structural model of the toxin, to be deficient in oligomerization. The attenuated subunit vaccines were highly immunogenic and showed significant protection in a mouse model of S. aureus USA300 sepsis. Protection against sepsis was also demonstrated by passive transfer of rabbit immunoglobulin raised against LukS-PV. Antibodies to LukS-PV inhibited the homologous oligomerization of LukS-PV with LukF-PV as well heterologous oligomerization with HlgB. Importantly, immune sera from mice vaccinated with the LukS mutant not only inhibited the PMN lytic activity produced by the PVL-positive USA300 but also blocked PMN lysis induced by supernatants of PVL-negative strains suggesting a broad protective activity towards other bicomponent toxins. These findings strongly support the novel concept of an anti-virulence, toxin-based vaccine intended for prevention of clinical S. aureus invasive disease, rather than achieving sterile immunity. Such a multivalent vaccine may include attenuated leukotoxins, alpha hemolysin, and superantigens.

  15. Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Latin America Tratamento de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina na América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Luna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The global spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA means it is now a pathogen of worldwide public health concern. Within Latin America, MRSA is highly prevalent, with the proportion of S. aureus isolates that are methicillin-resistant on the rise, yet resources for managing the infection are limited. While several guidelines exist for the treatment of MRSA infections, many are written for the North American or European setting and need adaptation for use in Latin America. In this article, we aim to emphasize the importance of appropriate treatment of MRSA in the healthcare and community settings of Latin America. We present a summary of the available guidelines and antibiotics, and discuss particular considerations for clinicians treating MRSA in Latin AmericaA propagação global de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA significa que se trata agora de um patógeno de interesse para a saúde pública mundial. Na América Latina, o MRSA é altamente prevalente, com a proporção de S. aureus resistente à meticilina em ascensão, no entanto os recursos para o tratamento da infecção são limitados. Embora existam várias diretrizes para o tratamento de infecções por MRSA, muitas são elaboradas para a América do Norte ou a Europa e precisam ser adaptadas para sua utilização na América Latina. Neste artigo, procuramos destacar a importância do tratamento adequado do MRSA nas unidades de saúde e na comunidade na América Latina. Apresentamos um resumo das diretrizes e dos antibióticos disponíveis, e discutimos considerações específicas para os médicos que tratam de MRSA na América Latina.

  16. Molecular Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Bovine Mastitis between 2014 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianming; Lu, Huiying; Wang, Xing; Gao, Qianqian; Dai, Yingxin; Shang, Jun; Li, Min

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is highly pathogenic and can cause diseases in both humans and domestic animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. This study aimed to investigate the molecular profile, antimicrobial resistance, and genotype/phenotype correlation of 212 S. aureus isolates recovered from cases of bovine mastitis from 2014 to 2015 in the Shanghai and Zhejiang areas of China. Nineteen sequence types (STs) were determined by multi-locus sequence typing, while the dominant ST was ST97, followed by ST520, ST188, ST398, ST7, and ST9. Within 14 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates and 198 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates, ST97 was the predominant MSSA clone and ST9-MRSA-SCCmecXII-spa t899 was the most common MRSA clone. The MRSA strains showed much higher rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics than did MSSA strains. Compared with other MSSA strains, MSSA ST398 was more resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin. No isolates were resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin, or linezolid. The molecular profiles of the virulence genes varied in different strains. ST520 strains carried seg-sei-sem-sen-seo genes, and ST9 and ST97 harbored sdrD-sdrE genes. Virulence phenotype analysis showed diversity in different clones. Biofilm formation ability was significantly enhanced in ST188 and ST7, and red blood cell lysis capacity was relatively strong in all S. aureus strains of animal origin except ST7. Our results indicate that MSSA was the predominant S. aureus strain causing bovine mastitis in eastern regions of China. However, the presence of multidrug resistant and toxigenic MRSA clone ST9 suggests that comprehensive surveillance of S. aureus infection should be implemented in the management of animal husbandry products.

  17. Frequency of Reduced Vancomycin Susceptibility among Clinical Staphylococcus aureus Isolated in Ahvaz Iran

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    Mojtaba Moosavian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:   One   of   the   most   important   agents   in   hospital-acquired   infections   is Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA infections with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin has recently been more difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible presence of vancomycin intermediate S. aureus (VISA and vancomycin- resistant S. aureus (VRSA and also to determine the frequency of MRSA in clinical specimens.Methods: In this study, 195 S. aureus isolates were collected from the patients were examined. All of the isolates were identified using standard biochemical tests.  Susceptibility of S. aureus isolates against 10 antibiotics was detected by disk diffusion method and was followed by E-test and vancomycin screen agar methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of vancomycin was determined according to the CLSI guidelines.  Also, detection of mecA gene was performed by PCR and finally, the results were compared.Results: All of the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin (i.e. MIC range of vancomycin was between 0.25-2 µg/ml. Out of 195 S. aureus isolates, 99 isolates (50.8% were resistant to methicillin, and mecA gene was detected in 96 isolates. These results also showed that the highest and lowest resistance rate of isolates was to penicillin (96.9% and chloramphenicol (0%, respectively.Conclusion: Our findings showed that vancomycin can still be used as a valuable drug for treatment of S. aureus infections in our region. However, periodic evaluation of vancomycin MIC of S. aureus isolates is critical for monitoring MRSA and preventing the spread of VISA or VRSA among patients.

  18. Intracellular persisting Staphylococcus aureus is the major pathogen in recurrent tonsillitis.

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    Andreas E Zautner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two major indications for tonsillectomy are recurrent tonsillitis (RT and peritonsillar abscess (PTA. Unlike PTAs, which are primarily treated surgically, RT is often cured by tonsillectomy only after a series of failed drug therapy attempts. Although the bacteriological background of RT has been studied, the reason for the lack of success of conservative therapeutic approaches is not well understood. METHODS: In a prospective study, tonsil specimens from 130 RT patients and 124 PTA patients were examined for the presence of extra- and intracellular bacteria using antibiotic protection assays. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from RT patients were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa-typing and MSCRAMM-gene-PCR. Their ability for biofilm formation was tested and their cell invasiveness was confirmed by a flow cytometric invasion assay (FACS, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and immunohistochemistry. FINDINGS: S. aureus was the predominant species (57.7% in RT patients, whereas Streptococcus pyogenes was most prevalent (20.2% in PTA patients. Three different assays (FACS, FISH, antibiotic protection assay showed that nearly all RT-associated S. aureus strains were located inside tonsillar cells. Correspondingly, the results of the MSCRAMM-gene-PCRs confirmed that 87% of these S. aureus isolates were invasive strains and not mere colonizers. Based upon PFGE analyses of genomic DNA and on spa-gene typing the vast majority of the S. aureus isolates belonged to different clonal lineages. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that intracellular residing S. aureus is the most common cause of RT and indicate that S. aureus uses this location to survive the effects of antibiotics and the host immune response. A German translation of the Abstract is provided as supplementary material (Abstract S1.

  19. The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections in Fiji.

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    Jenney, Adam; Holt, Deborah; Ritika, Roselyn; Southwell, Paul; Pravin, Shalini; Buadromo, Eka; Carapetis, Jonathan; Tong, Steven; Steer, Andrew

    2014-03-24

    There are few data describing the microbiology and genetic typing of Staphylococcus aureus that cause infections in developing countries. In this study we observed S. aureus infections in Pacific Island nation of Fiji in both the community and hospital setting with an emphasis on clonal complex (CC) genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility. S. aureus was commonly found in impetigo lesions of school children and was recovered from 57% of impetigo lesions frequently in conjunction with group A streptococcal infection. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) comprised 7% (20/299) of isolates and were all non-multi-resistant and all genotyped as CC1. In contrast, there was a diverse selection of 17 CCs among the 105 genotyped methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA) strains. Isolates of the rare, phylogenetically divergent and non-pigmented CC75 lineage (also called S. argenteus) were found in Fiji.From hospitalized patients the available 36 MRSA isolates from a 9-month period were represented by five CCs. The most common CCs were CC1 and CC239. CC1 is likely to be a community-acquired strain, reflecting what was found in the school children, whereas the CC239 is the very successful multi-drug resistant MRSA nosocomial lineage. Of 17 MSSA isolates, 59% carried genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. The S. aureus bacteraemia incidence rate of 50 per 100,000 population is among the highest reported in the literature and likely reflects the high overall burden of staphylococcal infections in this population. S. aureus is an important cause of disease in Fiji and there is considerable genotypic diversity in community skin infections in Fijian schoolchildren. Community acquired- (CA)- MRSA is present at a relatively low prevalence (6.7%) and was solely to CC1 (CA-MRSA). The globally successful CC239 is also a significant pathogen in Fiji.

  20. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a controversial food-borne pathogen.

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    Sergelidis, D; Angelidis, A S

    2017-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of severe healthcare-associated (HA) infections. Although during the last decade the incidence of HA invasive infections has dropped, the incidence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections has risen among the general population. Moreover, CA-MRSA, livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) and HA-MRSA (HA-MRSA) can be found in foods intended for human consumption. Several studies from different geographical areas have reported the presence of enterotoxin genes in several MRSA food isolates. Molecular typing studies have revealed genetic relatedness of these enterotoxigenic isolates with isolates incriminated in human infections. The contamination sources for foods, especially animal-origin foods, may be livestock as well as humans involved in animal husbandry and food-processing. Under favourable environmental conditions for growth and enterotoxin production, enterotoxigenic S. aureus isolates present in foods can cause staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP), irrespective of the contamination origin. Owing to the typically moderate clinical manifestations of SFP, the S. aureus strains responsible for SFP (cases or outbreaks) are frequently either not identified or not further characterized. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is rarely performed, because administration of antimicrobial therapy is not required in the vast majority of cases. Staphylococcal food poisoning is the result of consumption of foods with preformed enterotoxins. Hence, similar to methicillin-sensitive enterotoxigenic S. aureus, enterotoxigenic MRSA can also act as food-borne pathogens upon favourable conditions for growth and enterotoxin production. The severity of the intoxication is not related to the antimicrobial resistance profile of the causative S. aureus strain and therefore MRSA food-borne outbreaks are not expected to be more severe. This review evaluates the potential of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus

  1. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with hyperproduction of alpha-toxin in Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Xudong Liang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The virulence factor α-toxin (hla is needed by Staphylococcus aureus in order to cause infections in both animals and humans. Although the complicated regulation of hla expression has been well studied in human S. aureus isolates, the mechanisms of of hla regulation in bovine S. aureus isolates remain undefined. In this study, we found that many bovine S. aureus isolates, including the RF122 strain, generate dramatic amounts of α-toxin in vitro compared with human clinical S. aureus isolates, including MRSA WCUH29 and MRSA USA300. To elucidate potential regulatory mechanisms, we analyzed the hla promoter regions and identified predominant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at positions -376, -483, and -484 from the start codon in α-toxin hyper-producing isolates. Using site-directed mutagenesis and hla promoter-gfp-luxABCDE dual reporter approaches, we demonstrated that the SNPs contribute to the differential control of hla expression among bovine and human S. aureus isolates. Using a DNA affinity assay, gel-shift assays and a null mutant, we identified and revealed that an hla positive regulator, SarZ, contributes to the involvement of the SNPs in mediating hla expression. In addition, we found that the bovine S. aureus isolate RF122 exhibits higher transcription levels of hla positive regulators, including agrA, saeR, arlR and sarZ, but a lower expression level of hla repressor rot compared to the human S. aureus isolate WCUH29. Our results indicate α-toxin hyperproduction in bovine S. aureus is a multifactorial process, influenced at both the genomic and transcriptional levels. Moreover, the identification of predominant SNPs in the hla promoter region may provide a novel method for genotyping the S. aureus isolates.

  2. Factors Associated with Worse Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Persistent Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Sibylle Junge

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF. However, it is not clear which factors are associated with worse lung function in patients with persistent S. aureus airway cultures. Our main hypothesis was that patients with high S. aureus density in their respiratory specimens would more likely experience worsening of their lung disease than patients with low bacterial loads.Therefore, we conducted an observational prospective longitudinal multi-center study and assessed the association between lung function and S. aureus bacterial density in respiratory samples, co-infection with other CF-pathogens, nasal S. aureus carriage, clinical status, antibiotic therapy, IL-6- and IgG-levels against S. aureus virulence factors.195 patients from 17 centers were followed; each patient had an average of 7 visits. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and generalized linear mixed models. Our main hypothesis was only supported for patients providing throat specimens indicating that patients with higher density experienced a steeper lung function decline (p<0.001. Patients with exacerbations (n = 60, S. aureus small-colony variants (SCVs, n = 84 and co-infection with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 44 had worse lung function (p = 0.0068; p = 0.0011; p = 0.0103. Patients with SCVs were older (p = 0.0066 and more often treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (p = 0.0078. IL-6 levels positively correlated with decreased lung function (p<0.001, S. aureus density in sputa (p = 0.0016, SCVs (p = 0.0209, exacerbations (p = 0.0041 and co-infections with S. maltophilia (p = 0.0195 or A. fumigatus (p = 0.0496.In CF-patients with chronic S. aureus cultures, independent risk factors for worse lung function are high bacterial density in throat cultures, exacerbations, elevated IL-6 levels, presence of S. aureus SCVs and co-infection with S. maltophilia.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00669760.

  3. Aleitamento materno e colonização mucocutânea pelo Staphylococcus aureus na criança com dermatite atópica Breastfeeding and mucosal and cutaneous colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in atopic children

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    Raissa Massaia Londero Chemello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Não há consenso quanto ao efeito do aleitamento materno no desenvolvimento da dermatite atópica. É necessário aprofundar conhecimentos sobre possíveis fatores envolvidos nessa relação, como a influência do aleitamento materno na colonização do paciente atópico pelo Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. OBJETIVO: Avaliar uma potencial associação entre aleitamento materno e colonização pelo S. aureus nas crianças atópicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo 79 crianças atópicas de 4-24 meses, de ambos os sexos, em acompanhamento no Ambulatório de Dermatologia Sanitária de Porto Alegre, e 72 mães. Registraram-se dados clinicoepidemiológicos e de alimentação das crianças. Pesquisou-se a presença do S. aureus em swab nasal e cutâneo nas crianças e swab nasal das respectivas mães. Para análise dos dados, realizaram-se os testes qui-quadrado de Pearson e exato de Fischer. RESULTADOS: Entre as crianças amamentadas, S. aureus foi encontrado nas cavidades nasais de oito (25,8% e na pele (fossas cubitais de quatro (12,9%. Entre as não amamentadas, encontrou-se S. aureus nas cavidades nasais de dez (20,8% e na pele de 11 (22,9%. Entre as mães, 16 (22,2% apresentaram crescimento de S. aureus no material proveniente do swab nasal. Não se observou associação significativa entre aleitamento materno e colonização pelo S. aureus das cavidades nasais ou da pele das crianças. Entretanto, houve concordância entre a colonização pelo S. aureus nas cavidades nasais das mães e nas cavidades nasais e/ou na pele dos filhos. Das 72 duplas, houve concordância em 56 (77,8%. CONCLUSÃO: O aleitamento materno parece não influenciar a colonização mucocutânea pelo S. aureus em crianças com dermatite atópicaBACKGROUND: Studies on the effects of breastfeeding on the development of Atopic Dermatitis (AD have shown controversial results. The importance of this condition deserves further studies; in particular, it

  4. Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus colonization in healthy Venezuelan children

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, B.; Araque, M.; van der Gaast-de Jongh, C.; Escalona, F.; Correa, M.; Morillo-Puente, S.; Vielma, S.; Hermans, P. W. M.

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We investigated both the colonization and co-colonization characteristics for these pathogens among 250 healthy children from 2 to 5?years of age in Merida, Venezuela, in 2007. The prevalence of S. pneumoniae colonization, S. aureus colonization, and S. pneumoniae?S. aureus co-colonization was 28%, 56%, and 16%, respectively. Pneumococcal serotypes 6B (14%), 19F (12%), 23F (12%), 15 (9%), 6...

  5. Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in Ready-to-Eat Foods: Detection of S. aureus Contamination and a High Prevalence of Virulence Genes

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    Suat Moi Puah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of food poisoning. Its pathogenicity results from the possession of virulence genes that produce different toxins which result in self-limiting to severe illness often requiring hospitalization. In this study of 200 sushi and sashimi samples, S. aureus contamination was confirmed in 26% of the food samples. The S. aureus isolates were further characterized for virulence genes and antibiotic susceptibility. A high incidence of virulence genes was identified in 96.2% of the isolates and 20 different virulence gene profiles were confirmed. DNA amplification showed that 30.8% (16/52 of the S. aureus carried at least one SE gene which causes staphylococcal food poisoning. The most common enterotoxin gene was seg (11.5% and the egc cluster was detected in 5.8% of the isolates. A combination of hla and hld was the most prevalent coexistence virulence genes and accounted for 59.6% of all isolates. Antibiotic resistance studies showed tetracycline resistance to be the most common at 28.8% while multi-drug resistance was found to be low at 3.8%. In conclusion, the high rate of S. aureus in the sampled sushi and sashimi indicates the need for food safety guidelines.

  6. Factors associated with worse lung function in cystic fibrosis patients with persistent staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, S. (Sibylle); Görlich, D. (Dennis); Reijer, M.D. (Martijn Den); B. Wiedemann (Baerbel); B. Tümmler (Burkhard); H. Ellemunter; Dübbers, A. (Angelika); Küster, P. (Peter); M. Ballmann; Koerner-Rettberg, C. (Cordula); Große-Onnebrink, J. (Jörg); Heuer, E. (Eberhardt); Sextro, W. (Wolfgang); Mainz, J.G. (Jochen G.); Hammermann, J. (Jutta); Riethmüller, J. (Joachim); Graepler-Mainka, U.M. (Ute M.); Staab, D. (Doris); Wollschläger, B. (Bettina); Szczepanski, R. (Rüdiger); A. Schuster (Antje); Tegtmeyer, F.-K. (Friedrich-Karl); Sutharsan, S. (Sivagurunathan); Wald, A. (Alexandra); Nofer, J.-R. (Jerzy-Roch); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); Becker, K. (Karsten); Peters, G. (Georg); Kahl, B.C. (Barbara C.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, it is not clear which factors are associated with worse lung function in patients with persistent S. aureus airway cultures. Our main hypothesis was that patients with high S. aureus density in

  7. Increasing rate of daptomycin non-susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with atopic dermatitis

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    Izabela Błażewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide that is bactericidal against Staphylococcus aureus , including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA strains. Daptomycin exerts its antimicrobial effect by a calcium-dependent interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane resulting in depolarization, ion loss and rapid cell death. Unfortunately, loss of daptomycin susceptibility in S. aureus in the clinical setting has been noted. Aim : To evaluate the susceptibility profile to daptomycin among S. aureus strains isloted from patients with atopic dermatitis (AD. Another point was to correlate the results obtained by broth microdilution method and Etest, which is commonly applied in clinical setting. Material and methods : One hundred patients with the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis were microbiologically assessed for the carriage of S. aureus . Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using broth-microdilution (BMD and Etests for daptomycin. Results : Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from the majority of our patients, either from the skin (73% or the anterior nares (75%. Six of the 100 nasal swabs (6% and 5 of the 100 skin swabs (5% were positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. A total of 81 of 148 (54.7% daptomycin non-susceptible isolates of S. aureus were identified by BMD. Only 19 of 81 were also classified as non-susceptible by Etest. Conclusions : Clinicians and microbiologists should be aware of the possibility of the emergence of daptomycin non-susceptibility (or increase in minimal inhibitory concentration during prolonged therapy and closely monitor the susceptibility of persisting isolates that might be recovered during therapy.

  8. [Change in drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Liu, Yan; Luo, Yan-Ping; Liu, Chang-Ting

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the change in drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (SAU) in the PLA general hospital from January 2008 to December 2012, and to provide solid evidence to support the rational use of antibiotics for clinical applications. The SAU strains isolated from clinical samples in the hospital were collected and subjected to the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. The results were assessed based on the 2002 American National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines. SAU strains were mainly isolated from sputum, urine, blood and wound excreta and distributed in penology, neurology wards, orthopedics and surgery ICU wards. Except for glycopeptide drugs, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) had a higher drug resistance rate than those of the other drugs and had significantly more resistance than methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (P resistance, we discovered a gradual increase in drug resistance to fourteen test drugs during the last five years. Drug resistance rate of SAU stayed at a higher level over the last five years; moreover, the detection ratio of MRSA keeps rising year by year. It is crucial for physicians to use antibiotics rationally and monitor the change in drug resistance in a dynamic way.

  9. Human Staphylococcus aureus lineages among Zoological Park residents in Greece

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    E. Drougka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a part of the microbiota flora in many animal species. The clonal spread of S. aureus among animals and personnel in a Zoological Park was investigated. Samples were collected from colonized and infected sites among 32 mammals, 11 birds and eight humans. The genes mecA, mecC, lukF/lukS-PV (encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL and tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 were investigated by PCR. Clones were defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST, spa type and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE. Seven S. aureus isolates were recovered from four animals and one from an employee. All were mecA, mecC and tst–negative, whereas, one carried the PVL genes and was isolated from an infected Squirrel monkey. Clonal analysis revealed the occurrence of seven STs, eight PFGE and five spa types including ones of human origin. Even though a variety of genotypes were identified among S. aureus strains colonizing zoo park residents, our results indicate that colonization with human lineages has indeed occurred.

  10. Use of juglone as antibacterial and potential efflux pump inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmantar, Tarek; Miladi, Hanene; Kouidhi, Bochra; Chaabouni, Yassine; Ben Slama, Rihab; Bakhrouf, Amina; Mahdouani, Kacem; Chaieb, Kamel

    2016-12-01

    In this study the minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) of tetracycline (Tet), erythromycin (Ery) and benzalkonium chloride (BC) in absence and in presence of a sub-MIC of juglone (Jug) were determined. In addition, the Ethidium bromide (EtBr) efflux assay was performed to assess the effect of Jug on EtBr cells accumulation. Our results showed a selective antimicrobial activity of Jug against the tested strains. A synergistic effect of Jug, drugs (Tet and Ery) and disinfectant (BC) was noticed with a reduction rate varied from 2 to 16-fold. In addition, the efflux of EtBr was inhibited depending on the Jug concentration. In the presence of Jug, a decrease in loss of EtBr from bacteria was observed. The concentration inducing 50 % of EtBr efflux inhibition after 15 min was about 182 μg ml -1 for S. aureus ATCC 25923, 236 μg ml -1 for S. aureus B193 and 195 μg ml -1  for S. aureus B456. It appears from this study that Jug may be used as a natural source for resistance-modifying activity in same bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Concurrent infectious mononucleosis and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

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    Wang, Li Jun; Du, Xiao Qin; Nyirimigabo, Eric; Shou, Song Tao

    2014-04-01

    It is rare to see a concurrent infection with infectious mononucleosis and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Tianjin, China. Until now, there is still no any single recorded case of concurrent infectious mononucleosis and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

  12. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Brown (Aisling F.); A.G. Murphy (Alison G.); S.J. Lalor (Stephen J.); J.M. Leech (John M.); K.M. O’Keeffe (Kate M.); M. Mac Aogáin (Micheál); D.P. O’Halloran (Dara P.); K.A. Lacey (Keenan A.); M. Tavakol (Mehri); C.H. Hearnden (Claire H.); D. Fitzgerald-Hughes (Deirdre); H. Humphreys (Hilary); J.P. Fennell (Jérôme P.); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); T.J. Foster (Timothy J.); J.A. Geoghegan (Joan A.); E.C. Lavelle (Ed C.); T.R. Rogers (Thomas R.); R.M. McLoughlin (Rachel M.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we

  13. Structural Basis for Linezolid Binding Site Rearrangement in the Staphylococcus aureus Ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousoff, Matthew J; Eyal, Zohar; Radjainia, Mazdak; Ahmed, Tofayel; Bamert, Rebecca S; Matzov, Donna; Bashan, Anat; Zimmerman, Ella; Mishra, Satabdi; Cameron, David; Elmlund, Hans; Peleg, Anton Y; Bhushan, Shashi; Lithgow, Trevor; Yonath, Ada

    2017-05-09

    An unorthodox, surprising mechanism of resistance to the antibiotic linezolid was revealed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) in the 70S ribosomes from a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus This high-resolution structural information demonstrated that a single amino acid deletion in ribosomal protein uL3 confers linezolid resistance despite being located 24 Å away from the linezolid binding pocket in the peptidyl-transferase center. The mutation induces a cascade of allosteric structural rearrangements of the rRNA that ultimately results in the alteration of the antibiotic binding site. IMPORTANCE The growing burden on human health caused by various antibiotic resistance mutations now includes prevalent Staphylococcus aureus resistance to last-line antimicrobial drugs such as linezolid and daptomycin. Structure-informed drug modification represents a frontier with respect to designing advanced clinical therapies, but success in this strategy requires rapid, facile means to shed light on the structural basis for drug resistance (D. Brown, Nat Rev Drug Discov 14:821-832, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd4675). Here, detailed structural information demonstrates that a common mechanism is at play in linezolid resistance and provides a step toward the redesign of oxazolidinone antibiotics, a strategy that could thwart known mechanisms of linezolid resistance. Copyright © 2017 Belousoff et al.

  14. Preliminary study of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infection in Manaus Hospital, Amazonia Region, Brazil Estudo preliminar das infeccões por Staphylococcus aureus na comunidade de um Hospital em Manaus, Região do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Jesus M. Egido

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is considered a public health problem with a strong potential for dissemination and high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this study we describe bacteriological and epidemiological characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus in Manaus (Amazon region. During the one-year study period (2000-2001, sixteen cases of acute pyogenic multiple abscess were evaluated. Community-acquired S. aureus was identified as causative agent in 10 (62.5% patients. The strains tested with antimicrobials by discs diffusion method, exhibited a high rate of sensitivity to cephalexin (100%, erythromycin (90%. Oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was 90%. No isolate was resistant to Vancomycin. To our knowledge, no series of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus in Manaus hospital has been published. Our partial results showed a high rate of antimicrobial sensitivity among community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus in the hospital of Tropical Medicine Institute of Manaus, Amazon Region.O Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina é considerado como um problema na saúde publica por seu grande potencial de disseminação e altas porcentagens de morbidade e mortalidade. No estudo descrevemos as características bacteriológicas e epidemiológicas do Staphylococcus aureus na cidade de Manaus. No período de um ano (2000-2001 avaliou-se dezesseis casos de abscessos piogênicos múltiplos. Em 10 (62,5% doentes o agente causal foi identificado como Staphylococcus aureus adquirido na comunidade O estudo das bacterias isoladas frente aos diferentes antimicrobianos, seguindo o método de difusão em disco, mostrou boa sensibilidade a cefalexina (100% e eritromicina (90%. Noventa porcento dos Staphylococcus aureus isolados foram sensíveis ao oxacilina. Nenhum dos isolados mostrou ser resistente a Vancomicina. Não temos informações sobre publicações dos Staphylococcus aureus adquiridos na comunidade em hospitais de Manaus

  15. The role of the Staphylococcal VraTSR regulatory system on vancomycin resistance and vanA operon expression in vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Nadia K; Yin, Shaohui; Boyle-Vavra, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin is often the preferred treatment for invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. With the increase in incidence of MRSA infections, the use of vancomycin has increased and, as feared, isolates of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) have emerged. VRSA isolates have acquired the entercoccal vanA operon contained on transposon (Tn) 1546 residing on a conjugal plasmid. VraTSR is a vancomycin and β-lactam-inducible three-component regulatory system encoded on the S. aureus chromosome that modulates the cell-wall stress response to cell-wall acting antibiotics. Mutation in vraTSR has shown to increase susceptibility to β-lactams and vancomycin in clinical VISA strains and in recombinant strain COLVA-200 which expresses a plasmid borne vanA operon. To date, the role of VraTSR in vanA operon expression in VRSA has not been demonstrated. In this study, the vraTSR operon was deleted from the first clinical VRSA strain (VRS1) by transduction with phage harvested from a USA300 vraTSR operon deletion strain. The absence of the vraTSR operon and presence of the vanA operon were confirmed in the transductant (VRS1Δvra) by PCR. Broth MIC determinations, demonstrated that the vancomycin MIC of VRS1Δvra (64 µg/ml) decreased by 16-fold compared with VRS1 (1024 µg/ml). The effect of the vraTSR operon deletion on expression of the van gene cluster (vanA, vanX and vanR) was examined by quantitative RT-PCR using relative quantification. A 2-5-fold decreased expression of the vanA operon genes occured in strain VRS1Δvra at stationary growth phase compared with the parent strain, VRS1. Both vancomycin resistance and vancomycin-induced expression of vanA and vanR were restored by complementation with a plasmid harboring the vraTSR operon. These findings demonstrate that expression in S. aureus of the horizontally acquired enterococcal vanA gene cluster is enhanced by the staphylococcal three-component cell wall stress regulatory

  16. Optimization of a Laboratory-Developed Test Utilizing Roche Analyte-Specific Reagents for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus, and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Species▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Maitry S.; Paule, Suzanne M.; Hacek, Donna M.; Thomson, Richard B.; Kaul, Karen L.; Peterson, Lance R.

    2008-01-01

    Nasal and perianal swab specimens were tested for detection of Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species (VRE) using a laboratory-developed real-time PCR test and microbiological cultures. The real-time PCR and culture results for S. aureus were similar. PCR had adequate sensitivity, but culture was more specific for the detection of VRE.

  17. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Inhibits the Toxic Effects of Staphylococcus aureus on Epidermal Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammedsaeed, Walaa; McBain, Andrew J.; Cruickshank, Sheena M.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the potential benefits of the topical application of probiotic bacteria or material derived from them. We have investigated whether a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, can inhibit Staphylococcus aureus infection of human primary keratinocytes in culture. When primary human keratinocytes were exposed to S. aureus, only 25% of the keratinocytes remained viable following 24 h of incubation. However, in the presence of 108 CFU/ml of live L. rhamnosus GG, the viability of the infected keratinocytes increased to 57% (P = 0.01). L. rhamnosus GG lysates and spent culture fluid also provided significant protection to keratinocytes, with 65% (P = 0.006) and 57% (P = 0.01) of cells, respectively, being viable following 24 h of incubation. Keratinocyte survival was significantly enhanced regardless of whether the probiotic was applied in the viable form or as cell lysates 2 h before or simultaneously with (P = 0.005) or 12 h after (P = 0.01) S. aureus infection. However, spent culture fluid was protective only if added before or simultaneously with S. aureus. With respect to mechanism, both L. rhamnosus GG lysate and spent culture fluid apparently inhibited adherence of S. aureus to keratinocytes by competitive exclusion, but only viable bacteria or the lysate could displace S. aureus (P = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). Furthermore, growth of S. aureus was inhibited by either live bacteria or lysate but not spent culture fluid. Together, these data suggest at least two separate activities involved in the protective effects of L. rhamnosus GG against S. aureus, growth inhibition and reduction of bacterial adhesion. PMID:25015889

  18. Detection of Methicillin Resistance and Various Virulence Factors in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Nasal Carriers

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    Hatice Türk Dağı

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococus aureus can be found as a commensal on skin and nasal flora or it may cause local and invasive infections. S. aureus has a large number of virulence factors. Aims: To investigate the methicillin resistance and frequency of various virulence factors in S. aureus nasal isolates. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: Nasal samples collected from university students were cultured in media. S. aureus was identified by conventional methods and the Staphyloslide latex test (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, USA. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were conducted, and the methicillin resistance was determined. The mecA, nuc, pvl and staphylococcal toxin genes were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: S. aureus was isolated in 104 of 600 (17.3% nasal samples. In total, 101 (97.1% S. aureus isolates were methicillin-sensitive and the remaining 3 (2.9% were methicillin-resistant. Furthermore, all but five isolates carried at least one staphylococcal enterotoxin gene, with seg being predominant. The tst and eta genes were determined in 29 (27.9%, and 3 (2.9% isolates, respectively. None of the S. aureus isolates harbored see, etb, and pvl genes. Conclusion: A moderate rate of S. aureus carriage and low frequency of MRSA were detected in healthy students. S. aureus isolates had a high prevalence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes and the tst gene. In this study, a large number of virulence factors were examined in S. aureus nasal isolates, and the data obtained from this study can be used for monitoring the prevalence of virulence genes in S. aureus strains isolated from nasal carriers.

  19. Dialysis catheter-related septicaemia--focus on Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Ladefoged, S D; Kolmos, H J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dialysis catheters are a common cause of nosocomial septicaemia in haemodialysis units usually due to staphylococci, of which Staphylococcus aureus is the most pathogenic. In this study, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of dialysis catheter-related infections were studied, and methods...... to infection were measured. After catheter insertion, all patients were screened for nasal carriage of S. aureus, and a culture was taken from the skin overlying the catheter insertion site. Once a week, cultures were taken from the insertion site and from the hub, and aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures were...... drawn from the catheter. If clinical signs of septicaemia occurred, peripheral blood cultures were also performed, when it was possible. RESULTS: The incidence of septicaemia was 49% (21/43) in patients, and 56% of all cases were caused by S. aureus. The mortality was 14% (3/21) and the incidence...

  20. The Staphylococcus aureus α-Acetolactate Synthase ALS Confers Resistance to Nitrosative Stress

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    Sandra M. Carvalho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a worldwide pathogen that colonizes the human nasal cavity and is a major cause of respiratory and cutaneous infections. In the nasal cavity, S. aureus thrives with high concentrations of nitric oxide (NO produced by the innate immune effectors and has available for growth slow-metabolizing free hexoses, such as galactose. Here, we have used deep sequencing transcriptomic analysis (RNA-Seq and 1H-NMR to uncover how S. aureus grown on galactose, a major carbon source present in the nasopharynx, survives the deleterious action of NO. We observed that, like on glucose, S. aureus withstands high concentrations of NO when using galactose. Data indicate that this resistance is, most likely, achieved through a distinct metabolism that relies on the increased production of amino acids, such as glutamate, threonine, and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs. Moreover, we found that under NO stress the S. aureus α-acetolactate synthase (ALS enzyme, which converts pyruvate into α-acetolactate, plays an important role. ALS is proposed to prevent intracellular acidification, to promote the production of BCAAs and the activation of the TCA cycle. Additionally, ALS is shown to contribute to the successful infection of murine macrophages. Furthermore, ALS contributes to the resistance of S. aureus to beta-lactam antibiotics such as methicillin and oxacillin.

  1. Interactions of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in polymicrobial wound infection.

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    Irena Pastar

    Full Text Available Understanding the pathology resulting from Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa polymicrobial wound infections is of great importance due to their ubiquitous nature, increasing prevalence, growing resistance to antimicrobial agents, and ability to delay healing. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 is the leading cause of community-associated bacterial infections resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. We utilized a well-established porcine partial thickness wound healing model to study the synergistic effects of USA300 and P. aeruginosa on wound healing. Wound re-epithelialization was significantly delayed by mixed-species biofilms through suppression of keratinocyte growth factor 1. Pseudomonas showed an inhibitory effect on USA300 growth in vitro while both species co-existed in cutaneous wounds in vivo. Polymicrobial wound infection in the presence of P. aeruginosa resulted in induced expression of USA300 virulence factors Panton-Valentine leukocidin and α-hemolysin. These results provide evidence for the interaction of bacterial species within mixed-species biofilms in vivo and for the first time, the contribution of virulence factors to the severity of polymicrobial wound infections.

  2. Subinhibitory concentrations of perilla oil affect the expression of secreted virulence factor genes in Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Jiazhang Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity of staphylococcus aureus is dependent largely upon its ability to secrete a number of virulence factors, therefore, anti-virulence strategy to combat S. aureus-mediated infections is now gaining great interest. It is widely recognized that some plant essential oils could affect the production of staphylococcal exotoxins when used at subinhibitory concentrations. Perilla [Perilla frutescens (L. Britton], a natural medicine found in eastern Asia, is primarily used as both a medicinal and culinary herb. Its essential oil (perilla oil has been previously demonstrated to be active against S. aureus. However, there are no data on the influence of perilla oil on the production of S. aureus exotoxins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of perilla oil against S. aureus strains. Hemolysis, tumour necrosis factor (TNF release, Western blot, and real-time RT-PCR assays were performed to evaluate the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of perilla oil on exotoxins production in S. aureus. The data presented here show that perilla oil dose-dependently decreased the production of α-toxin, enterotoxins A and B (the major staphylococcal enterotoxins, and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1 in both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The production of α-toxin, SEA, SEB, and TSST-1 in S. aureus was decreased by perilla oil. These data suggest that perilla oil may be useful for the treatment of S. aureus infections when used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics, which can increase exotoxins production by S. aureus at subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, perilla oil could be rationally applied in food systems as a novel food preservative both to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and to repress the production of exotoxins, particularly staphylococcal enterotoxins.

  3. Preparation, characterization and efficacy of lysostaphin-chitosan gel against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, Sai; Nimal, T R; Baranwal, Gaurav; Suresh, Maneesha K; C P, Anju; Anil Kumar, V; Gopi Mohan, C; Jayakumar, R; Biswas, Raja

    2018-04-15

    Lysostaphin (LST) is a bacteriocin that cleaves within the pentaglycine cross bridge of Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan. Previous studies have reported the high efficiency of LST even against multi drug resistant S. aureus including methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In this study, we have developed a new chitosan based hydrogel formulation of LST to exploit its anti-staphylococcal activity. The atomic interactions of LST with chitosan were studied by molecular docking studies. The rheology and the antibacterial properties of the developed LSTC gel were evaluated. The developed LST containing chitosan hydrogel (LSTC gel) was flexible, flows smoothly and remains stable at physiological temperature. The in vitro studies by agar well diffusion and ex vivo studies in porcine skin model exhibited a reduction in S. aureus survival by ∼3 Log 10 CFU/mL in the presence of LSTC gel. The cytocompatibility of the gel was tested in vitro using macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line and in vivo in Drosophila melanogaster. A gradual disruption of S. aureus biofilms with the increase of LST concentrations in the LSTC gel was observed which was confirmed by SEM analysis. We conclude that LSTC gel could be highly effectual and advantageous over antibiotics in treating staphylococcal-topical and biofilm infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus growth and enterotoxin production in different types of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdana Janštová, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess Staphylococcus aureus growth and the time of first detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins type A, B and C (SEA, SEB, SEC in different type of milk, depending on the strain and storage conditions. Raw, pasteurized, and UHT milk were inoculated with three strains of S. aureus, and growth patterns were determined by the plate method in accordance with EN ISO 6888-1. Baird-Parker agar medium was used for the detection of S. aureus and the Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA used with a miniVIDAS analyzer tested the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins. The results of model experiments showed the dependence of the growth rate and subsequent production of staphylococcal enterotoxins on incubation (storage temperature, S. aureus strain, and type of milk. A significant finding was that the growth of S. aureus and production of enterotoxins in raw milk was inhibited by natural microflora, and production of enterotoxins was therefore not detected in raw milk within 102 hours of storage either at 15 °C or 22 °C. The highest risk of SEs production is associated with secondary contamination of pasteurized and UHT milk when stored at room temperature, where production was first detected after 12 hours of incubation.

  5. Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in European Wildlife.

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    Stefan Monecke

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known colonizer and cause of infection among animals and it has been described from numerous domestic and wild animal species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in a convenience sample of European wildlife and to review what previously has been observed in the subject field. 124 S. aureus isolates were collected from wildlife in Germany, Austria and Sweden; they were characterized by DNA microarray hybridization and, for isolates with novel hybridization patterns, by multilocus sequence typing (MLST. The isolates were assigned to 29 clonal complexes and singleton sequence types (CC1, CC5, CC6, CC7, CC8, CC9, CC12, CC15, CC22, CC25, CC30, CC49, CC59, CC88, CC97, CC130, CC133, CC398, ST425, CC599, CC692, CC707, ST890, CC1956, ST2425, CC2671, ST2691, CC2767 and ST2963, some of which (ST2425, ST2691, ST2963 were not described previously. Resistance rates in wildlife strains were rather low and mecA-MRSA isolates were rare (n = 6. mecC-MRSA (n = 8 were identified from a fox, a fallow deer, hares and hedgehogs. The common cattle-associated lineages CC479 and CC705 were not detected in wildlife in the present study while, in contrast, a third common cattle lineage, CC97, was found to be common among cervids. No Staphylococcus argenteus or Staphylococcus schweitzeri-like isolates were found. Systematic studies are required to monitor the possible transmission of human- and livestock-associated S. aureus/MRSA to wildlife and vice versa as well as the possible transmission, by unprotected contact to animals. The prevalence of S. aureus/MRSA in wildlife as well as its population structures in different wildlife host species warrants further investigation.

  6. Emergence in Asian Countries of Staphylococcus aureus with Reduced Susceptibility to Vancomycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Suh, Ji Yoeun; Ko, Kwan Soo; Ito, Teruyo; Kapi, Maria; Kiem, Sungmin; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Oh, Won Sup; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains in Asian countries, a total of 1,357 clinical isolates of MRSA collected from 12 Asian countries were screened by using brain heart infusion agar plates containing 4 mg of vancomycin per liter. The presence of strains that were heterointermediately resistant to vancomycin (hVISA) was confirmed by population analysis. Of 347 (25.6%) MRSA isolates that grew on the screening agar plates, 58 isolates (4.3%) were hVISA. hVISA strains were found in India, South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. However, neither vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus nor vancomycin-resistant S. aureus isolates were found among MRSA isolates from Asian countries in this survey. PMID:15561884

  7. Antibody-Based Agents in the Management of Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speziale, Pietro; Rindi, Simonetta

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen that can cause a wide spectrum of diseases, including sepsis, pneumonia, arthritis, and endocarditis. Ineffective treatment of a number of staphylococcal infections with antibiotics is due to the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant strains following decades of antibiotic usage. This has generated renewed interest within the scientific community in alternative therapeutic agents, such as anti-S. aureus antibodies. Although the role of antibodies in the management of S. aureus diseases is controversial, the success of this pathogen in neutralizing humoral immunity clearly indicates that antibodies offer the host extensive protection. In this review, we report an update on efforts to develop antibody-based agents, particularly monoclonal antibodies, and their therapeutic potential in the passive immunization approach to the treatment and prevention of S. aureus infections. PMID:29533985

  8. The Frequency of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Endocervix of Infertile Women in Northwest Iran

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    Akhi Mohammad Taghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infertility is one of the major social issues. Due to the asymptomatic cervical infection associated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, the majority of patients remain undiagnosed. The present study intended to assess the frequency of S. aureus isolated from infertile women’s endocervix in northwest Iran. Materials and Methods In a descriptive cross sectional study, specimens were randomly collected during vagina examination using a sterile speculum and swabbing. After performance of antibiotic susceptibility testing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to identify methicillin-resistance S. aureus (MRSA and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1. Results About 26 (26% and 9 (9% women’s urogenital tracts were colonized by S. aureus and Candida spp., respectively, of which three (11.5% patients were infected with fungi and S. aureus, simultaneously. Antibiotic susceptibility results showed high activity of vancomycin and co-trimoxazole on isolates. Regarding PCR results, mecA sequences were detected in 7 (26.9% strains, whilst the tst gene encoding TSST-1 was not detected in any of clinical strains. Conclusion The prevalence of S. aureus was very high in infertile women. Therefore, it demands all patients undergoing infertility treatment to be investigated thoroughly for this type of infection.

  9. Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in different animal species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuny, Christiane; Friedrich, Alexander; Kozytska, Svetlana; Layer, Franziska; Nübel, Ulrich; Ohlsen, Knut; Strommenger, Birgit; Walther, Birgit; Wieler, Lothar; Witte, Wolfgang

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in animals such as horses, pet animals and productive livestock has raised questions of a probable human origin and in more general of host specificity of S. aureus. Particular clonal lineages are obviously specific for humans (e.g.

  10. Are Nasal Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus More Likely To Become Colonized or Infected with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus on Admission to a Hospital?▿

    OpenAIRE

    Krebes, Juliane; Al-Ghusein, Hasan; Feasey, Nick; Breathnach, Aodhan; Lindsay, Jodi A.

    2010-01-01

    Of 840 patients at hospital admission, 2.7% were positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 22.3% were positive for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). During the next 8 months, 4.8% of the MSSA-positive patients acquired MRSA with no lineage association. A total of 5.2% of noncarriers acquired MRSA. We find no evidence that colonized hosts are more susceptible to acquiring MRSA.

  11. Faecal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the hospital and community setting: a systematic review

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    Shantelle eClaassen-Weitz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and rationale: Staphylococcus aureus faecal carriage has been identified as a potential source for nosocomial transmission and a risk factor for disease development. This systematic review determined the overall S. aureus (including methicillin susceptible and resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage rates within the community and healthcare settings.Methodology: Peer-reviewed articles indexed in Medline, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Africa-Wide Information, CINAHL, and Web of Science were identified using applicable and controlled vocabulary through to 11 November 2015. Eligible studies were ascertained by three independent reviewers. Random-effects meta-analyses of proportions were performed to determine S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage rates reported by eligible studies.Results: Twenty six studies were included in this review. The pooled estimates for S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage were 26 % (95 % confidence interval (CI: 16.8 % - 36.3 %, 86 % (95 % confidence interval (CI: 65.9 % - 97.9 % and 10 % (95 % CI: 0.7 % - 27.0 %, respectively. Faecal S. aureus carriage rates increased on average from 10 % to 65 % during the first eight weeks of life, followed by an average carriage rate of 64 % at six months and 46 % at one year of life. Genotyping techniques were employed mainly in studies conducted in developed countries and comprised largely of gel-based techniques. Six studies reported on the role of S. aureus faecal strains in diarrhoea (n = 2 and the risk for acquiring infections (n = 4. Eight of the 26 studies included in this review performed antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus faecal isolates.Conclusion: This study provides evidence that screening for S. aureus faecal carriage, at least in populations at high risk, could be an effective measure for the prevention of S. aureus transmission and infection in the healthcare and community setting. More well-structured studies need to be

  12. Prevalence and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains in the Pork Chain Supply in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Valeria; Vergara, José L; Bonilla, Ana M; Muñoz, Javier; Mallea, Alejandra; Vallejos, Diego; Quezada-Aguiluz, Mario; Campos, Jorge; Rojas-García, Pedro

    2018-05-01

    The detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other emerging strains in meat-producing animals and retail meat has increased the risk of contamination of food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characterize S. aureus strains isolated from the pork chain supply in Chile. A total of 487 samples were collected: 332 samples from pigs at farms and slaughterhouses (nasal, n = 155; skin, n = 177); 85 samples from carcasses at slaughterhouses; and 70 meat samples at supermarkets and retail stores. The isolation of S. aureus was carried out by selective enrichment and culture media. Biochemical testing (API ® Staph) and PCR (detection of the nuc and mecA genes) were used to confirm S. aureus and MRSA strains. The agglutination test was used to determine the protein PBP2'. Enterotoxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED) were determined by agglutination test and the se genes by PCR method. Oxacillin and cefoxitin susceptibility testing were carried out using the diffusion method. The overall prevalence of S. aureus in the pork meat supply was 33.9%. A higher prevalence was detected on carcasses (56.5%), in pigs sampled at farms (40.6%) than in pigs sampled at slaughterhouses (23.3%) and in nonpackaged retail meat (43.1%) than packaged retail meat (5.3%) (p ≤ 0.05). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the prevalence in pigs (28.3%) and pork meat (32.9%) and between natural pig farming (33.3%) and conventional production (52.8%). The mecA gene and the protein PBP2' were not detected in S. aureus strains. Two S. aureus strains exhibited oxacillin and cefoxitin resistance, and one S. aureus strain was resistant to cefoxitin. One S. aureus strain isolated from a meat sample was positive for enterotoxin SEB. Although the mecA gene was not detected, oxacillin-resistant and seb-producing S. aureus strains were detected, which represent a risk in the pork chain supply.

  13. The effect of improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on transmission of Staphylococcus aureus to newborn infants: the Swedish Hygiene Intervention and Transmission of S aureus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernelius, Sara; Löfgren, Sture; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Blomberg, Marie; Olhager, Elisabeth; Gunnervik, Christina; Lenrick, Raymond; Thrane, Malena Tiefenthal; Isaksson, Barbro; Matussek, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Newborn infants are often colonized with Staphylococcus aureus originating from health care workers (HCWs). We therefore use colonization with S aureus of newborn infants to determine the effect of an improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on bacterial transmission. Compliance with hygiene guidelines was monitored prior to (baseline) and after (follow-up) a multimodal hygiene intervention in 4 departments of obstetrics and gynecology. spa typing was used to elucidate transmission routes of S aureus collected from newborn infants, mothers, fathers, staff members, and environment. The compliance with hygiene guidelines increased significantly from baseline to follow-up. The transmission of S aureus from HCWs to infants was however not affected. Fathers had the highest colonization rates. Persistent carriage was indicated in 18% of the HCWs. The most commonly isolated spa type was t084, which was not detected in a previous study from the same geographic area. It is possible to substantially improve the compliance with hygiene guidelines, by using multimodal hygiene intervention. The improved compliance did not decrease the transmission of S aureus from sources outside the own family to newborn infants. Furthermore, we show the establishment of a new spa type (t084), which now is very common in our region. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antiinfective therapy with a small molecule inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus sortase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Hongchuan; Zhu, Kongkai; Gong, Shouzhe; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Wang, Ya-Ting; Li, Jiafei; Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Ruihan; Zhou, Lu; Lan, Lefu; Jiang, Hualiang; Schneewind, Olaf; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Cai-Guang

    2014-09-16

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most frequent cause of hospital-acquired infection, which manifests as surgical site infections, bacteremia, and sepsis. Due to drug-resistance, prophylaxis of MRSA infection with antibiotics frequently fails or incites nosocomial diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection. Sortase A is a transpeptidase that anchors surface proteins in the envelope of S. aureus, and sortase mutants are unable to cause bacteremia or sepsis in mice. Here we used virtual screening and optimization of inhibitor structure to identify 3-(4-pyridinyl)-6-(2-sodiumsulfonatephenyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole and related compounds, which block sortase activity in vitro and in vivo. Sortase inhibitors do not affect in vitro staphylococcal growth yet protect mice against lethal S. aureus bacteremia. Thus, sortase inhibitors may be useful as antiinfective therapy to prevent hospital-acquired S. aureus infection in high-risk patients without the side effects of antibiotics.

  15. Detecting Staphylococcus aureus in milk from dairy cows using sniffer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Theby, V; Krömker, V; Heuwieser, W

    2018-05-01

    Fast and accurate identification of disease-causing pathogens is essential for specific antimicrobial therapy in human and veterinary medicine. In these experiments, dogs were trained to identify Staphylococcus aureus and differentiate it from other common mastitis-causing pathogens by smell. Headspaces from agar plates, inoculated raw milk samples, or field samples collected from cows with Staphylococcus aureus and other mastitis-causing pathogens were used for training and testing. The ability to learn the specific odor of Staphylococcus aureus in milk depended on the concentration of the pathogens in the training samples. Sensitivity and specificity for identifying Staphylococcus aureus were 91.3 and 97.9%, respectively, for pathogens grown on agar plates; 83.8 and 98.0% for pathogens inoculated in raw milk; and 59.0 and 93.2% for milk samples from mastitic cows. The results of these experiments underline the potential of odor detection as a diagnostic tool for pathogen diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Staphylococcus aureus is an Important agent of food poisoning. In many countries, it ... humans and animals (Casey et al., 2007). ... of widespread use of antibiotics in animals for ... Laboratory Standards Institute methods (CLSI, 2010). Briefly ...

  17. Whole-genome sequencing of bloodstream Staphylococcus aureus isolates does not distinguish bacteraemia from endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilje, Berit; Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Dahl, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Most Staphylococcus aureus isolates can cause invasive disease given the right circumstances, but it is unknown if some isolates are more likely to cause severe infections than others. S. aureus bloodstream isolates from 120 patients with definite infective endocarditis and 121 with S. aureus...... bacteraemia without infective endocarditis underwent whole-genome sequencing. Genome-wide association analysis was performed using a variety of bioinformatics approaches including SNP analysis, accessory genome analysis and k-mer based analysis. Core and accessory genome analyses found no association...... with either of the two clinical groups. In this study, the genome sequences of S. aureus bloodstream isolates did not discriminate between bacteraemia and infective endocarditis. Based on our study and the current literature, it is not convincing that a specific S. aureus genotype is clearly associated...

  18. Efficacy evaluation of Bauhinia variegata L. stem bark powder as adjunct therapy in chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in goat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Jeevan Ranjan; Sar, Tapas Kumar; Samanta, Indranil; Pal, Subodh; Khan, Madhuchhanda; Patra, Nimai Charan; Sarkar, Uttam; Maji, Asit Kumar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to study the effect of Bauhinia variegata L. stem bark powder as adjunct therapy in chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in goat. Materials and Methods: Mastitis was induced by intracisternal inoculation of coagulase positive S. aureus (J638) at the concentration of 2000 colony forming units. Group I animals were treated with repeated dose of ceftriaxone at 20 mg/kg intravenously, and Group II animals were treated with once daily oral administration of B. variegata L. stem bark powder at 6 g/kg for 7 days followed by maintenance dose at 3 g/kg for next 7 days along with repeated dose of the antibiotic at 20 mg/kg intravenously at 4 days interval. Results: No significant improvement in the clinical condition of the udder was noticed in the group treated with repeated dose of ceftriaxone alone. However, in the group treated with B. variegata L. stem bark powder along with repeated dose of ceftriaxone, no S. aureus colony was seen at 96 h and onwards in milk samples with a marked decrease in somatic cell count and milk alkaline phosphatase activity and increased lactoperoxidase activity. Further, plasma and milk concentration of ceftriaxone/ceftizoxime was increased, which indicated antibacterial, bioenhancing and antiinflammatory properties of the bark powder. The Group II animals also exhibited marked reduction in polymorphonuclear cells and fibrous tissue indicating antifibrotic property of B. variegata L. Conclusion: B. variegata L. stem bark powder can be considered as an effective adjunct therapy to intravenous ceftriaxone in S. aureus chronic mastitis in goat. PMID:25298668

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Alters Staphylococcus aureus Sensitivity to Vancomycin in a Biofilm Model of Cystic Fibrosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Orazi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The airways of cystic fibrosis (CF patients have thick mucus, which fosters chronic, polymicrobial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are two of the most prevalent respiratory pathogens in CF patients. In this study, we tested whether P. aeruginosa influences the susceptibility of S. aureus to frontline antibiotics used to treat CF lung infections. Using our in vitro coculture model, we observed that addition of P. aeruginosa supernatants to S. aureus biofilms grown either on epithelial cells or on plastic significantly decreased the susceptibility of S. aureus to vancomycin. Mutant analyses showed that 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO, a component of the P. aeruginosa Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS system, protects S. aureus from the antimicrobial activity of vancomycin. Similarly, the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin also contribute to the ability of P. aeruginosa to protect S. aureus from vancomycin, as did growth under anoxia. Under our experimental conditions, HQNO, P. aeruginosa supernatant, and growth under anoxia decreased S. aureus growth, likely explaining why this cell wall-targeting antibiotic is less effective. P. aeruginosa supernatant did not confer additional protection to slow-growing S. aureus small colony variants. Importantly, P. aeruginosa supernatant protects S. aureus from other inhibitors of cell wall synthesis as well as protein synthesis-targeting antibiotics in an HQNO- and siderophore-dependent manner. We propose a model whereby P. aeruginosa causes S. aureus to shift to fermentative growth when these organisms are grown in coculture, leading to reduction in S. aureus growth and decreased susceptibility to antibiotics targeting cell wall and protein synthesis.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA + femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci ‘excellent’ recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  1. Novel structurally designed vaccine for S. aureus α-hemolysin: protection against bacteremia and pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan P Adhikari

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a human pathogen associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI and life threatening sepsis and pneumonia. Efforts to develop effective vaccines against S. aureus have been largely unsuccessful, in part due to the variety of virulence factors produced by this organism. S. aureus alpha-hemolysin (Hla is a pore-forming toxin expressed by most S. aureus strains and reported to play a key role in the pathogenesis of SSTI and pneumonia. Here we report a novel recombinant subunit vaccine candidate for Hla, rationally designed based on the heptameric crystal structure. This vaccine candidate, denoted AT-62aa, was tested in pneumonia and bacteremia infection models using S. aureus strain Newman and the pandemic strain USA300 (LAC. Significant protection from lethal bacteremia/sepsis and pneumonia was observed upon vaccination with AT-62aa along with a Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant-Stable Emulsion (GLA-SE that is currently in clinical trials. Passive transfer of rabbit immunoglobulin against AT-62aa (AT62-IgG protected mice against intraperitoneal and intranasal challenge with USA300 and produced significant reduction in bacterial burden in blood, spleen, kidney, and lungs. Our Hla-based vaccine is the first to be reported to reduce bacterial dissemination and to provide protection in a sepsis model of S. aureus infection. AT62-IgG and sera from vaccinated mice effectively neutralized the toxin in vitro and AT62-IgG inhibited the formation of Hla heptamers, suggesting antibody-mediated neutralization as the primary mechanism of action. This remarkable efficacy makes this Hla-based vaccine a prime candidate for inclusion in future multivalent S. aureus vaccine. Furthermore, identification of protective epitopes within AT-62aa could lead to novel immunotherapy for S. aureus infection.

  2. Myricetin protects Galleria mellonella against Staphylococcus aureus infection and inhibits multiple virulence factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira-Silva, L; Da Hora, G. C.A.; Soares, Goncalo Teofilo Afonso Pinheiro

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen related to a variety of life-threatening infections but for which antimicrobial resistance is liming the treatment options. We report here that myricetin, but not its glycosylated form, can remarkably decrease the production of several S. aureus ...... in the Galleria mellonella model. The present findings reveal the potential of Myr as an alternative multi-target antivirulence candidate to control S. aureus pathogenicity....

  3. Bacteriostasis and bacteriocidy; Bacteriostase et bacteriocidie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magot, M. [SANOFI Recherche, Groupe Elf Aquitaine, Unite de Microbiologie, 31 - Labege (France)

    1998-11-01

    Biocides are antibacterial products used in industry to control the microbial contaminations. In this work, the main terms defining the activity of these products are recalled and some examples of techniques allowing to measure their bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities are given. (O.M.) 5 refs.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus Toxins and Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Role in Pathogenesis and Interest in Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Ngba Essebe, Christelle; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Infection of foot ulcers is a common, often severe and costly complication in diabetes. Diabetic foot infections (DFI) are mainly polymicrobial, and Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent pathogen isolated. The numerous virulence factors and toxins produced by S. aureus during an infection are well characterized. However, some particular features could be observed in DFI. The aim of this review is to describe the role of S. aureus in DFI and the implication of its toxins in the establishment of the infection. Studies on this issue have helped to distinguish two S. aureus populations in DFI: toxinogenic S. aureus strains (harboring exfoliatin-, EDIN-, PVL- or TSST-encoding genes) and non-toxinogenic strains. Toxinogenic strains are often present in infections with a more severe grade and systemic impact, whereas non-toxinogenic strains seem to remain localized in deep structures and bone involving diabetic foot osteomyelitis. Testing the virulence profile of bacteria seems to be a promising way to predict the behavior of S. aureus in the chronic wounds. PMID:27399775

  5. Nigribactin, a Novel Siderophore from Vibrio nigripulchritudo, Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anita; Månsson, Maria; Wietz, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen that employs a number of virulence factors as part of its pathogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to explore marine bacteria as a source of compounds that modulate virulence gene expression in S. aureus. During the global marine Galathea...... 3 expedition, a strain collection was established comprising bacteria that express antimicrobial activity against Vibrio anguillarum and/or Staphylococcus aureus. Within this collection we searched colony material, culture supernatants, and cell extracts for virulence modulating activity showing......, enterobactin, failed to influence S. aureus virulence gene expression. This study shows that marine microorganisms produce compounds with potential use in therapeutic strategies targeting virulence rather than viability of human pathogens....

  6. Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization Differs among Pig Lineages and Is Associated with the Presence of Other Staphylococcal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen M. Verstappen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a common colonizer in pigs, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA in particular being a potential health risk to humans. To reduce the exposure to humans, the colonization in pigs should be reduced. The aim of this study was to quantitatively compare the susceptibility of pig lineages for S. aureus colonization, and if the absence of S. aureus could be associated with the presence or absence of other staphylococcal species. Nasal samples (n = 129 were obtained from seven different pig lineages in the Netherlands, France, and Germany. S. aureus and other staphylococci were enumerated from these samples by real-time (RT-PCR and culture. Associations were explored between the presence of S. aureus and other staphylococci. S. aureus was detected by RT-PCR on all farms and in samples from pigs of all lineages. Twenty-five percent of the pigs from lineage F (from two farms were colonized with S. aureus, while in all other lineages it was more than 50% (p < 0.01. Moreover, in S. aureus-positive samples from pigs of lineage F smaller amounts of S. aureus were found than in other lineages. Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus cohnii, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were usually not found in combination with S. aureus in these samples. In conclusion: (i pigs from different genetic lineages have different susceptibilities for colonization with S. aureus. These pigs might contain a genetic factor influencing nasal colonization. (ii Colonization of S. aureus is also associated with the absence of S. sciuri, S. cohnii, or S. saprophyticus. (iii The farm environment seems to influence the presence of S. aureus in pigs.

  7. ESCHERICHIA COLI AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The bio-effects of the ethanol extracts from the leaf and stem of Momordica charantia were studied with the view to ascertain the medical usefulness ascribed to the plant by the locals. The plant parts, stem and leaf, revealed remarkable activity against Escherichia coli and Staphlococcus aureus. The leaves ...

  8. Antibiofilm Effect of Octenidine Hydrochloride on Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA and VRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anne Roshni Amalaradjou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Millions of indwelling devices are implanted in patients every year, and staphylococci (S. aureus, MRSA and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA are responsible for a majority of infections associated with these devices, thereby leading to treatment failures. Once established, staphylococcal biofilms become resistant to antimicrobial treatment and host response, thereby serving as the etiological agent for recurrent infections. This study investigated the efficacy of octenidine hydrochloride (OH for inhibiting biofilm synthesis and inactivating fully-formed staphylococcal biofilm on different matrices in the presence and absence of serum protein. Polystyrene plates and stainless steel coupons inoculated with S. aureus, MRSA or VRSA were treated with OH (zero, 0.5, one, 2 mM at 37 °C for the prevention of biofilm formation. Additionally, the antibiofilm effect of OH (zero, 2.5, five, 10 mM on fully-formed staphylococcal biofilms on polystyrene plates, stainless steel coupons and urinary catheters was investigated. OH was effective in rapidly inactivating planktonic and biofilm cells of S. aureus, MRSA and VRSA on polystyrene plates, stainless steel coupons and urinary catheters in the presence and absence of serum proteins. The use of two and 10 mM OH completely inactivated S. aureus planktonic cells and biofilm (>6.0 log reduction on all matrices tested immediately upon exposure. Further, confocal imaging revealed the presence of dead cells and loss in biofilm architecture in the OH-treated samples when compared to intact live biofilm in the control. Results suggest that OH could be applied as an effective antimicrobial to control biofilms of S. aureus, MRSA and VRSA on appropriate hospital surfaces and indwelling devices.

  9. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Mentha Essential Oils Against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts and essential oils (EOs are characterized by their antibacterial properties against various bacterial pathogens, including staphylococci. Some strains of these bacteria are resistant against the adverse effects of the environment including antibiotics, e. g. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. EOs alone cannot substitute for antibiotics but their treatment may be useful to intensify and strengthen the effects of antibiotics on pathogenic staphylococci. In this work, we tested the antibacterial effects of the essential oils of Mentha species with menthol as one of the effective substances against different strains of S. aureus. Two in vitro methods were used, the qualitative disc diffusion assay and the quantitative minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of selected essential oils. Peppermint oil from Mentha piperita, spearmint oil from Mentha spicata var. crispa and cornmint oil from Mentha arvensis were tested in this study against the various strains of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The oils were dissolved in DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide and diluted at the following ratios: 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1 : 5, and 1 : 10. Based on the results determined by the agar disc diffusion test, the highest antibacterial properties were observed in spearmint oil against S. aureus CCM 4223 at 1 : 2 ratio where the inhibition zone varied at a range of 35.67 ± 6.81 mm. We determined also the MIC of all the oils where concentrations of the oils were as follows: 1 %; 0.5 %; 0.25 %; 0.125 % and 0.0625 %. The lowest concentrations of essential oils that possessed inhibitory effects on the growth of S. aureus varied between 0.125 % and 0.25 %.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin modulates skin host response to viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Lianghua; Kim, Byung Eui; Brauweiler, Anne; Goleva, Elena; Streib, Joanne; Ji, Yinduo; Schlievert, Patrick M; Leung, Donald Y M

    2012-09-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) with a history of eczema herpeticum have increased staphylococcal colonization and infections. However, whether Staphylococcus aureus alters the outcome of skin viral infection has not been determined. We investigated whether S aureus toxins modulated host response to herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and vaccinia virus (VV) infections in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) and in murine infection models. NHKs were treated with S aureus toxins before incubation of viruses. BALB/c mice were inoculated with S aureus 2 days before VV scarification. Viral loads of HSV-1 and VV were evaluated by using real-time PCR, a viral plaque-forming assay, and immunofluorescence staining. Small interfering RNA duplexes were used to knockdown the gene expression of the cellular receptor of α-toxin, a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10). ADAM10 protein and α-toxin heptamers were detected by using Western blot assays. We demonstrate that sublytic staphylococcal α-toxin increases viral loads of HSV-1 and VV in NHKs. Furthermore, we demonstrate in vivo that the VV load is significantly greater (P skin inoculated with an α-toxin-producing S aureus strain compared with murine skin inoculated with the isogenic α-toxin-deleted strain. The viral enhancing effect of α-toxin is mediated by ADAM10 and is associated with its pore-forming property. Moreover, we demonstrate that α-toxin promotes viral entry in NHKs. The current study introduces the novel concept that staphylococcal α-toxin promotes viral skin infection and provides a mechanism by which S aureus infection might predispose the host toward disseminated viral infections. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from retail chicken carcasses and pet workers in Northwest Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Irene; Gilmore, David; Pendleton, Sean; Fleck, Scott; Clement, Ashley; Park, Si Hong; Scott, Erin; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can be carried on the skin and nasal passages of humans and animals as a commensal. A case of human methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection resulting from contact with pork has been reported. Poultry carcasses are sold at retail with the skin intact, but pork and beef typically are not. Thus, the risk of methicillin-resistant S. aureus human infection from whole raw poultry carcasses may be greater than that of exposure from pork or beef. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize S. aureus from whole retail poultry carcasses and compare the isolates to S. aureus isolates from humans. A total of 25 S. aureus isolates were collected from 222 whole poultry carcasses. The isolates were characterized phenotypically with antibiotic resistance disc diffusion assays and genotypically using multilocus sequence typing. A total of 17 S. aureus isolates obtained from healthy humans were included and characterized in the same way as the poultry isolates. Staphylococcus spp. were recovered from all poultry carcasses. Only 25 poultry carcasses (11.2%) were contaminated with S. aureus. Of these 25 isolates, 36% were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested and 20% were resistant to two or more antibiotics tested. However, 100% of the human isolates were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics and 94% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. The results of the multilocus sequence typing indicate that most of the isolates grouped according to source. These results indicate a low prevalence of S. aureus present in poultry, and the isolates were not phenotypically similar to human isolates. The low number of S. aureus isolates from this study indicates that chicken carcasses would appear to not be a significant source of this bacterium.

  12. Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.

  13. Neutrophil depletion causes a fatal defect in murine pulmonary Staphylococcus aureus clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Charles M; Perrone, Erin E; McConnell, Kevin W; Dunne, W Michael; Boody, Barrett; Brahmbhatt, Tejal; Diacovo, M Julia; Van Rooijen, Nico; Hogue, Lisa A; Cannon, Carolyn L; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2008-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of healthcare-associated pneumonia. Despite the significant morbidity and mortality associated with the disease, animal models of S. aureus pneumonia are rare. We examined the pathogenicity of four different strains of S. aureus (both methicillin-sensitive and -resistant as well as Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive and -negative) in four strains of immunocompetent inbred and outbred mice (FVB/N, C57Bl/6, BALB/c, ND4; n = 148). The immunological basis for the development of murine S. aureus pneumonia was then determined by selectively depleting neutrophils, lymphocytes, or pulmonary macrophages prior to the onset of infection. An additional cohort of animals was rendered immunosuppressed by induction of abdominal sepsis via cecal ligation and puncture 2, 4, or 7 d prior to the onset of pneumonia. Nearly all immunocompetent mice survived, regardless of which strain of S. aureus was used or which strain of mouse was infected. Among animals with immune depletion or prior immunosuppression, survival was decreased only following neutrophil depletion (26% versus 90% alive at 7 d, P < 0.0001). Compared to immunocompetent animals, neutrophil-depleted mice with S. aureus pneumonia had delayed pulmonary bacterial clearance at 16 and 40 h but had no difference in levels of bacteremia. Neutrophil-depleted mice also had elevated levels of pulmonary monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (822 pg/mL versus 150 pg/mL, P < 0.05). In contrast, pulmonary histological appearance was similar in both groups as was dry/wet lung weight. These results suggest that neutrophils play a critical role in the host response to S. aureus pneumonia, and the survival differences observed in neutrophil-depleted mice are associated with alterations in bacterial clearance and pulmonary cytokine response.

  14. Inducible Clindamycin Resistance in Staphylococcus Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, F. I.; Zeb, M.; Farooqi, B. J.; Murtaza, G.; Hussain, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species by phenotypic D-test. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, from July to December 2011. Methodology: Consecutive clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species were collected and identified by conventional microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and inducible clindamycin resistance was carried out by performing D-test using CLSI criteria. Methicillin resistance was detected by using Cefoxitin disk as a surrogate marker. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version-17. Results: A total of 667 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species were obtained during the study period. In these isolates, 177 (26.5%) were Staphylococcus aureus, and 490 (73.5%) were coagulase negative Staphylococci. The total frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among isolates of Staphylococcus species was 120/667 (18%). Frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among coagulase negative Staphylococci group and Staphylococcus aureus group were 18.57% and 16.38% respectively. Median age of patients in D-test positive group was 19.5 (1 - 54) years. Conclusion: The frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcus species may differ in different hospital setup. Clinical microbiology laboratories should implement testing simple and effective D-test on all Staphylococcus species. D-test positive isolates should be reported clindamycin resistant to decrease treatment failure. (author)

  15. Screening of virulence genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Viana Martín

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen able to cause disease in both humans and animals. In rabbits, this bacterium infects animals of different ages, producing several purulent lesions. The ability of S. aureus to cause disease depends on a combination of virulence factors. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the distribution of bacterial virulence determinants in 69 S. aureus isolates from rabbits. Some virulence factors (7 adhesins, 1 toxin and 1 protease were positive in all rabbit S. aureus isolates analysed, while others (1 adhesin and 10 toxins were always negative. The remaining virulence factors were more variable among isolates. An association between genotype and the different profiles of virulence factors was observed, but not with the type of lesion (P<0.05. One strain of each genotype was further analysed by multilocus sequence typing, generating ST121, ST96 and ST2951, determining a greater number of enterotoxins in ST121 isolates compared to ST96 and ST2951 isolates, which could justify the different pathogenicity between strains. 

  16. Modelling severe Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in conscious pigs: are implications for animal welfare justified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Helle G; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    A porcine model of haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus sepsis has previously been established in our research group. In these studies, pigs developed severe sepsis including liver dysfunction during a 48 h study period. As pigs were awake during the study, animal welfare was challenged by the sev......A porcine model of haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus sepsis has previously been established in our research group. In these studies, pigs developed severe sepsis including liver dysfunction during a 48 h study period. As pigs were awake during the study, animal welfare was challenged....... Prior to euthanasia, a galactose elimination capacity test was performed to assess liver function. Pigs were euthanised 48 h post inoculation for necropsy and histopathological evaluation. While infusion times of 6.66 min, and higher, did not induce liver dysfunction (n = 3), the infusion time of 3......, according to humane endpoints. A usable balance between scientific purpose and animal welfare could not be achieved, and we therefore find it hard to justify further use of this conscious porcine sepsis model. In order to make a model of translational relevance for human sepsis, we suggest that future model...

  17. Kaempferol Inhibits the Primary Attachment Phase of Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Di; Wang, Dacheng; Cao, Fengjiao; Xiang, Hua; Mu, Dan; Cao, Junjie; Li, Bangbang; Zhong, Ling; Dong, Xiaoyun; Zhong, Xiaobo; Wang, Lin; Wang, Tiedong

    2017-01-01

    The ability to form biofilms on surfaces makes Staphylococcus aureus the main pathogenic factor in implanted medical device infections. The aim of this study was to discover a biofilm inhibitor distinct from the antibiotics used to prevent infections resulting from S. aureus biofilms. Here, we describe kaempferol, a small molecule with anti-biofilm activity that specifically inhibited the formation of S. aureus biofilms. Crystal violet (CV) staining and fluorescence microscopy clearly showed that 64 μg/ml kaempferol inhibited biofilm formation by 80%. Meanwhile, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and growth curve results indicated that kaempferol had no antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strain. Kaempferol inhibited the primary attachment phase of biofilm formation, as determined by a fibrinogen-binding assay. Moreover, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that kaempferol reduced the activity of S. aureus sortaseA (SrtA) and the expression of adhesion-related genes. Based on these results, kaempferol provides a starting point for the development of novel anti-biofilm drugs, which may decrease the risk of bacterial drug resistance, to prevent S. aureus biofilm-related infections.

  18. Inhibitory effects of flavonoids on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus that overexpresses efflux protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Laênia Angélica Andrade; Dos Santos Rodrigues, Jéssica Bezerra; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Siqueira-Júnior, José P

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of glycone (myricitrin, hesperidin and phloridzin) and aglycone flavonoids (myricetin, hesperetin and phloretin) in inhibiting biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 and S. aureus SA1199B that overexpress the msrA and norA efflux protein genes, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC 50 - defined as the lowest concentration that resulted in ≥50% inhibition of biofilm formation) of flavonoids were determined using microdilution in broth procedures. The flavonoids showed MIC >1024 μg/mL against S. aureus RN4220 and S. aureus SA1199B; however, these compounds at lower concentrations (1-256 μg/mL) showed inhibitory effects on biofilm formation by these strains. Aglycone flavonoids showed lower MBIC 50 values than their respective glycone forms. The lowest MBIC 50 values (1 and 4 μg/mL) were observed against S. aureus RN4220. Myricetin, hesperetin and phloretin exhibited biofilm formation inhibition >70% for S. aureus RN4220, and lower biofilm formation inhibition against S. aureus SA1199B. These results indicate that sub-MICs of the tested flavonoids inhibit biofilm formation by S. aureus strains that overexpress efflux protein genes. These effects are more strongly established by aglycone flavonoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hospitalizations and Deaths Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, United States, 1999?2005

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Eili; Smith, David L.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2007-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections with Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections, are a major cause of illness and death and impose serious economic costs on patients and hospitals. However, the recent magnitude and trend of these infections have not been reported. We used national hospitalization and resistance data to estimate the annual number of hospitalizations and deaths associated with S. aureus and MRSA from 1999 through 2005. During this period, t...

  20. Selective inhibition of Biotin Protein Ligase from Staphylococcus aureus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares da Costa, Tatiana P.; Tieu, William; Yap, Min Y.; Pendini, Nicole R.; Polyak, Steven W.; Sejer Pedersen, Daniel; Morona, Renato; Turnidge, John D.; Wallace, John C.; Wilce, Matthew C. J.; Booker, Grant W.; Abell, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a well documented need to replenish the antibiotic pipeline with new agents to combat the rise of drug resistant bacteria. One strategy to combat resistance is to discover new chemical classes immune to current resistance mechanisms that inhibit essential metabolic enzymes. Many of the obvious drug targets that have no homologous isozyme in the human host have now been investigated. Bacterial drug targets that have a closely related human homologue represent a new frontier in antibiotic discovery. However, to avoid potential toxicity to the host, these inhibitors must have very high selectivity for the bacterial enzyme over the human homolog. We have demonstrated that the essential enzyme biotin protein ligase (BPL) from the clinically important pathogen Staphylococcus aureus could be selectively inhibited. Linking biotin to adenosine via a 1,2,3 triazole yielded the first BPL inhibitor selective for S. aureus BPL over the human equivalent. The synthesis of new biotin 1,2,3-triazole analogues using click chemistry yielded our most potent structure (Ki 90 nm) with a >1100-fold selectivity for the S. aureus BPL over the human homologue. X-ray crystallography confirmed the mechanism of inhibitor binding. Importantly, the inhibitor showed cytotoxicity against S. aureus but not cultured mammalian cells. The biotin 1,2,3-triazole provides a novel pharmacophore for future medicinal chemistry programs to develop this new antibiotic class. PMID:22437830

  1. Selective inhibition of biotin protein ligase from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares da Costa, Tatiana P; Tieu, William; Yap, Min Y; Pendini, Nicole R; Polyak, Steven W; Sejer Pedersen, Daniel; Morona, Renato; Turnidge, John D; Wallace, John C; Wilce, Matthew C J; Booker, Grant W; Abell, Andrew D

    2012-05-18

    There is a well documented need to replenish the antibiotic pipeline with new agents to combat the rise of drug resistant bacteria. One strategy to combat resistance is to discover new chemical classes immune to current resistance mechanisms that inhibit essential metabolic enzymes. Many of the obvious drug targets that have no homologous isozyme in the human host have now been investigated. Bacterial drug targets that have a closely related human homologue represent a new frontier in antibiotic discovery. However, to avoid potential toxicity to the host, these inhibitors must have very high selectivity for the bacterial enzyme over the human homolog. We have demonstrated that the essential enzyme biotin protein ligase (BPL) from the clinically important pathogen Staphylococcus aureus could be selectively inhibited. Linking biotin to adenosine via a 1,2,3 triazole yielded the first BPL inhibitor selective for S. aureus BPL over the human equivalent. The synthesis of new biotin 1,2,3-triazole analogues using click chemistry yielded our most potent structure (K(i) 90 nM) with a >1100-fold selectivity for the S. aureus BPL over the human homologue. X-ray crystallography confirmed the mechanism of inhibitor binding. Importantly, the inhibitor showed cytotoxicity against S. aureus but not cultured mammalian cells. The biotin 1,2,3-triazole provides a novel pharmacophore for future medicinal chemistry programs to develop this new antibiotic class.

  2. Purification and biochemical characterization of Mur ligases from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, Delphine; Boniface, Audrey; Kovač, Andreja; Hervé, Mireille; Dementin, Sébastien; Barreteau, Hélène; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Blanot, Didier

    2010-12-01

    The Mur ligases (MurC, MurD, MurE and MurF) catalyze the stepwise synthesis of the UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-pentapeptide precursor of peptidoglycan. The murC, murD, murE and murF genes from Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen, were cloned and the corresponding proteins were overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified as His(6)-tagged forms. Their biochemical properties were investigated and compared to those of the E. coli enzymes. Staphylococcal MurC accepted L-Ala, L-Ser and Gly as substrates, as the E. coli enzyme does, with a strong preference for L-Ala. S. aureus MurE was very specific for L-lysine and in particular did not accept meso-diaminopimelic acid as a substrate. This mirrors the E. coli MurE specificity, for which meso-diaminopimelic acid is the preferred substrate and L-lysine a very poor one. S. aureus MurF appeared less specific and accepted both forms (L-lysine and meso-diaminopimelic acid) of UDP-MurNAc-tripeptide, as the E. coli MurF does. The inverse and strict substrate specificities of the two MurE orthologues is thus responsible for the presence of exclusively meso-diaminopimelic acid and L-lysine at the third position of the peptide in the peptidoglycans of E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. The specific activities of the four Mur ligases were also determined in crude extracts of S. aureus and compared to cell requirements for peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus from maternity unit staff members to newborns disclosed through spa typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matussek, Andreas; Taipalensuu, Jan; Einemo, Ing-Marie; Tiefenthal, Malena; Löfgren, Sture

    2007-03-01

    We observed previously that newborn infants are colonized with Staphylococcus aureus, even if their mothers do not carry S aureus. This observation indicated a cross colonization, and, thus, a risk for nosocomial infection, although the infants are roomed in with their mothers. The S aureus colonization of infants, their parents, and staff members was measured at 3 maternity units. Possible transmission routes were determined using spa typing of S aureus isolates. Infants had the highest S aureus carriage (45%) compared with fathers (39%), mothers (27%), and staff members (27%). In 13 out of 44 colonized infants, transmission from staff members was indicated. This transmission was more frequent than was transmission from their own parents (11 cases), and occurred even in cases when parents were colonized with S aureus of other spa types. We confirm a high level of transmission of S aureus from staff members to infants, indicating a risk for patient safety, which necessitates continuing work with implementing scientific evidence for infection control. The spa typing is a rapid and valuable epidemiological tool, and it can be used in improving hospital hygiene control programs.

  4. The Collagen-Binding Adhesin Is a Virulence Factor in Staphylococcus aureus Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhem, Marcus N.; Lech, Elizabeth M.; Patti, Joseph M.; McDevitt, Damien; Höök, Magnus; Jones, Dan B.; Wilhelmus, Kirk R.

    2000-01-01

    A collagen-binding strain of Staphylococcus aureus produced suppurative inflammation in a rabbit model of soft contact lens-associated bacterial keratitis more often than its collagen-binding-negative isogenic mutant. Reintroduction of the cna gene on a multicopy plasmid into the mutant helped it regain its corneal adherence and infectivity. The topical application of a collagen-binding peptide before bacterial challenge decreased S. aureus adherence to deepithelialized corneas. These data suggest that the collagen-binding adhesin is involved in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infection of the cornea. PMID:10816547

  5. Scintigraphic imaging of Staphylococcus aureus infection using 99mTc radiolabeled aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara Roberta Dos; de Sousa Lacerda, Camila Maria; Ferreira, Iêda Mendes; de Barros, André Luís Branco; Fernandes, Simone Odília; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro

    2017-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a specie of great medical importance associated with many infections as bacteremia and infective endocarditis as well as osteoarticular, skin and soft tissue, pleuropulmonary, and device related infections. Early identification of infectious foci is crucial for successful treatment. Scintigraphy could contribute to this purpose since specific radiotracers were available. Aptamers due to their high specificity have great potential for radiopharmaceuticals development. In the present study scintigraphic images of S. aureus infectious foci were obtained using specific S. aureus aptamers radiolabeled with 99m Tc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibitory effect of totarol on exotoxin proteins hemolysin and enterotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ce; Zhao, Xingchen; Li, Wenli; Meng, Rizeng; Liu, Zonghui; Liu, Mingyuan; Guo, Na; Yu, Lu

    2015-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) causes a wide variety of infections, which are of major concern worldwide. S. aureus produces multiple virulence factors, resulting in food infection and poisoning. These virulence factors include hyaluronidases, proteases, coagulases, lipases, deoxyribonucleases and enterotoxins. Among the extracellular proteins produced by S. aureus that contribute to pathogenicity, the exotoxins α-hemolysin, staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) are thought to be of major significance. Totarol, a plant extract, has been revealed to inhibit the proliferation of several pathogens effectively. However, there are no reports on the effects of totarol on the production of α-hemolysin, SEA or SEB secreted by S. aureus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of totarol on these three exotoxins. Hemolysis assay, western blotting and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay were performed to identify the influence of graded subinhibitory concentrations of totarol on the production of α-hemolysin and the two major enterotoxins, SEA and SEB, by S. aureus in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed that the TNF-α production of RAW264.7 cells stimulated by S. aureus supernatants was inhibited by subinhibitory concentrations of totarol. Form the data, we propose that totarol could potentially be used as a promising natural compound in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  7. Mastitis Bovina: Resistencia a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus asiladas de leche (Bovine Mastitis: Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk)

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrino, MS; Frola, ID; Odierno, LM; Bogni, CI

    2011-01-01

    ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 gene expression profiling during ex vivo colonization of porcine nasal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulinski, P.; Duim, B.; Wittink, F.R.; Jonker, M.J.; Breit, T.M.; van Putten, J.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Fluit, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a common human and animal opportunistic pathogen. In humans nasal carriage of S. aureus is a risk factor for various infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is highly prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. The mechanism of successful pig

  9. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 gene expression profiling during ex vivo colonization of porcine nasal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulinski, P.; Duim, B.; Wittink, F.R.; Jonker, M.J.; Breit, T.M.; Van Putten, J.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Fluit, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is a common human and animal opportunistic pathogen. In humans nasal carriage of S. aureus is a risk factor for various infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is highly prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. The mechanism of successful pig

  10. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 gene expression profiling during ex vivo colonization of porcine nasal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulinski, Pawel; Duim, Birgitta; Wittink, Floyd R; Jonker, Martijs J; Breit, Timo M; van Putten, Jos P; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Fluit, Ad C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a common human and animal opportunistic pathogen. In humans nasal carriage of S. aureus is a risk factor for various infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is highly prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. The mechanism of successful pig

  11. Evaluation of the effects of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF on survival of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus

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    Ahmed Istiaque

    2013-12-01

    In summary, the growth rate of the irradiated S. aureus bacteria is affected by radiation of particular parameters, thus revealing resonant effects induced by the applied radiation. The decreased CFU values in all irradiated samples compared to control samples (non-exposed were observed. Findings provide important insight towards selecting the optimal parameters of ELF PEMF for possible treatment of infected tissue and thus, wound healing promotion.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization Differs among Pig Lineages and Is Associated with the Presence of Other Staphylococcal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstappen, Koen M; Willems, Eveline; Fluit, Ad C; Duim, Birgitta; Martens, Marc; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common colonizer in pigs, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in particular being a potential health risk to humans. To reduce the exposure to humans, the colonization in pigs should be reduced. The aim of this study was to quantitatively compare the susceptibility of pig lineages for S. aureus colonization, and if the absence of S. aureus could be associated with the presence or absence of other staphylococcal species. Nasal samples ( n  = 129) were obtained from seven different pig lineages in the Netherlands, France, and Germany. S. aureus and other staphylococci were enumerated from these samples by real-time (RT)-PCR and culture. Associations were explored between the presence of S. aureus and other staphylococci. S. aureus was detected by RT-PCR on all farms and in samples from pigs of all lineages. Twenty-five percent of the pigs from lineage F (from two farms) were colonized with S. aureus , while in all other lineages it was more than 50% ( p  Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus cohnii , and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were usually not found in combination with S. aureus in these samples. (i) pigs from different genetic lineages have different susceptibilities for colonization with S. aureus . These pigs might contain a genetic factor influencing nasal colonization. (ii) Colonization of S. aureus is also associated with the absence of S. sciuri, S. cohnii , or S. saprophyticus . (iii) The farm environment seems to influence the presence of S. aureus in pigs.

  13. Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Transmitted between Patients with Buruli Ulcer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amissah, Nana Ama; Chlebowicz, Monika A.; Ablordey, Anthony; Sabat, Artur J.; Tetteh, Caitlin S.; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Friedrich, Alex W.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Rossen, John W.; Stienstra, Ymkje

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The wounds of most BU patients are colonized with different microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus. Methodology This study investigated possible patient-to-patient transmission events of S. aureus during

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of photodynamic therapy (UVA/riboflavin against Staphylococcus aureus Suscetibilidade antimicrobiana da terapia fotodinâmica (UVA/riboflavina contra Staphylococcus aureus

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    Renata Tiemi Kashiwabuchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess S. aureus in vitro viability after the exposure to ultraviolet light A (UVA and riboflavin (B2. METHODS: Samples of S. aureus in 96 well plates (in triplicate were exposed to riboflavin (B2 and ultraviolet light A (365 nm wavelength at a power density of 3 mW/cm², 8 mm spot diameter, for 30 minutes. Control groups were prepared as well in triplicate: blank control, ultraviolet light A only, riboflavin only and dead bacteria Control. The bacterial viability was measured using fluorescent microscopy. In order to investigate the occurrence of "viable but non-culturable" microorganisms after treatment, the cell viability was also investigated by plate culture procedure onto a broth medium. Statistical analysis was performed using the triplicate values from each experimental condition. RESULTS: No difference was observed among the treatment group and the control samples (p=1. CONCLUSION: The combination of riboflavin 0.1% and ultraviolet light A at 365 nm did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against oxacillin susceptible S. aureus.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a viabilidade celular de S. aureus in vitro após a exposição de riboflavina (B2 e luz ultravioleta A (UVA. MÉTODOS: Amostras de S. aureus colocadas em uma placa de 96 poços (em triplicata foram expostas a riboflavina 0,1% (B2 e luz ultravioleta (comprimento de onda de 365 nm poder de 3 mW/cm², 8 mm de diâmetro, por 30 minutos. Grupos controles foram também preparados em triplicata: controle branco, somente luz ultravioleta A, somente riboflavina e controle morto. A viabilidade bacteriana foi analisada usando microscópio de fluorescência. Para investigar a ocorrência de micro-organismos "viáveis porem não cultiváveis" a viabilidade celular foi avaliada utilizando-se placas de meio de cultivo bacteriano. Analise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se os valores obtidos em triplicata de cada grupo experimental. RESULTADOS: Nenhuma diferença foi observada entre o grupo

  15. Sensitivity test of staphylococcus aureus against extract tinospora crispa

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Ratna Winata Muslimin

    2017-01-01

    A bacterium such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S.aureus) produces a kind of toxic protein which can disrupt intestinal wall. Livestock reacts to these toxins by pumping lots of water into the intestine in order to rinse or flush these toxins. As a result, the livestock have diarrhea as a body response to remove the toxin in the digestive system. In the presence of these problems, farmers take a measure such as using antibiotics freely. Among farmers, antibiotics are often used freely without kn...

  16. Infecções intramamárias causadas por Staphylococcus aureus e suas implicações em paúde pública Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections and its implications in public health

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    Helena Fagundes

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, são apresentados os principais problemas decorrentes das infecções intramamárias (mastites causadas por Staphylococcus aureus e as conseqüências para a saúde humana da veiculação de suas toxinas através do leite. o S. aureus destaca-se como um dos microorganismos mais importantes que podem ser transmitidos através dos alimentos. Assim, discute-se a possibilidade de veiculação de gastroenterite estafilocócica, não somente através do consumo de leite cru contaminado, mas também de leite tratado termicamente ou de derivados lácteos contendo enterotoxinas termoestáveis. São apresentados alguns aspectos relacionados ao potencial toxigênico das cepas de S. aureus, bem como as principais características das enterotoxinas estafilocócicas. Considerando que o S. aureus é um dos agentes de mastite mais freqüentemente observados, apresentam-se as principais medidas de controle de infecções estafilocócicas em rebanhos leiteiros, com vistas à prevenção da ocorrência de toxinas no leite de consumo.This article presents the main problems derived from the mammary infections (mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, and the consequences of the presence of its toxins in milk for human health. S. aureus is one of the most important microorganisms that can be transmitted through the food products. Hence, the possibility of transmission of stafilococal gastroenteritis by consumption of raw milk and heat-treated milk, containing heat-resistant enterotoxins, is discussed. Some aspects regarding the toxigenic potential of S. aureus strains and the main characteristics of stafilococal entorotoxins are presented. Taking into account that S. aureus is also one of the most prevalent agents of mastitis, considerations are made on the methods for the controlling of stafilococal infections in dairy cattle, in order to prevent the occurrence of toxins in milk and milk products.

  17. Echocardiographic findings predict in-hospital and 1-year mortality in left-sided native valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine K.; Park, Lawrence; Tong, Steven Y C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus left-sided native valve infective endocarditis (LNVIE) has higher complication and mortality rates compared with endocarditis from other pathogens. Whether echocardiographic variables can predict prognosis in S aureus LNVIE is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS......: Consecutive patients with LNVIE, enrolled between January 2000 and September 2006, in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis were identified. Subjects without S aureus IE were matched to those with S aureus IE by the propensity of having S aureus. Survival differences were determined using log...

  18. Preliminary treatment of bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, with trx-SA1, recombinant endolysin of S. aureus bacteriophage IME-SA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jindai; Zeng, Zhiliang; Mai, Kaijie; Yang, Yu; Feng, Jiaqi; Bai, Yang; Sun, Baoli; Xie, Qingmei; Tong, Yigang; Ma, Jingyun

    2016-08-15

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a great threat to human and animal health and there is an urgent need to develop novel antibacterial agents to control this pathogen. The objective of this study was to obtain an active recombinant endolysin from the novel bacteriophage (IME-SA1), and conduct an efficacy trial of its effectiveness against bovine mastitis. We isolated a phage that was virulent and specific for S. aureus with an optimal multiplicity of infection of 0.01. Electron microscopy revealed that IME-SA1 was a member of the family Myoviridae, with an isometric head (98nm) and a long contractile tail (200nm). Experimental lysis experiments indicated the phage had an incubation period of 20min with a burst size of 80. When host bacteria were in early exponential growth stages, a multiplicity of infection of 0.01 resulted in a complete bacterial lysis after 9h. The endolysin gene (804bp) was cloned into the pET-32a bacterial expression vector and recombinant endolysin Trx-SA1 was successfully obtained with molecular size of about 47kDa. Preliminary results of therapeutic trials in cow udders showed that Trx-SA1 could effectively control mild clinical mastitis caused by S. aureus. The endolysin Trx-SA1 might be an alternative treatment strategy for infections caused by S. aureus, including MRSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus Meticilina Resistente (MRSA e Infecções Nosocomiais

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    CRISTINA PAIVA SOUSA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Um número crescente de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus meticilina resistente (MRSA apresentam resistência a múltiplos agentes antimicrobianos e são implicadas como causas de infecções hospitalares. S. aureus podem ser isolados de ambiente hospitalar e profissionais da saúde, revelando o risco de transmissão desses microrganismos pelo contato direto ou indireto com pacientes hospitalizados. Objetivou-se nesta revisão correlacionar este microrganismo com infecções hospitalares e avaliar as possíveis fontes de infecção, bem como enfatizar a importância do investimento em ações de educação em saúde que culminem em minimização de infecções hospitalares. Palavras-chave: Staphylococcus aureus meticilina resistente. Infecções nosocomiais.

  20. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections: A Comprehensive Review and a Plastic Surgeon's Approach to the Occult Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Cedric; Rosenfield, Lorne; Silverstein, Elena; Petrou-Zeniou, Panayiota

    2016-08-01

    Up to 20 percent of the general population is persistently colonized with Staphylococcus aureus, and 1 to 3 percent of the population is colonized with community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Currently, the knowledge of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage sites other than the nose, and their effect on surgical site infections in cosmetic surgery, is lacking. A comprehensive literature review using the PubMed database to analyze prevalence, anatomical carrier sites, current screening and decontamination protocols and guidelines, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus in cosmetic surgery was performed. The senior author's (L.R.) methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection experience and prevention protocols were also reviewed. Nasal swabs detect only 50.5 percent of methicillin-resistant S. aureus colonization, and broad screening has noted the presence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in the ear canal and umbilicus. Decolonization protocols within the orthopedic and cardiothoracic surgery literature have reduced rates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus surgical-site infections. There are no decolonization guidelines for plastic surgeons. Since instituting their decolonization protocol, the authors have had no cases of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection in nearly 1000 cosmetic surgery procedures. There are very limited, if any, Level I or II data regarding methicillin-resistant S. aureus screening and decolonization. As the sequelae of a surgical-site infection can be disastrous, expert opinions recommend that plastic surgeons vigorously address methicillin-resistant S. aureus colonization and infection. The authors have developed and recommend a simple decolonization protocol that includes treatment of the umbilicus, ear canal, and nares to limit surgical-site infection and improve surgical outcomes.

  1. Prevalence of Methicillin and Vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in nasopharynx; Amir-Alam hospital, 2005

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    Hasibi M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections with high morbidity and mortality rate. Traditionally, methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus has been considered a major nosocomial pathogen in healthcare facilities, but in the past decade, it has been observed emerging in the community as well. Informations regarding hospital microbial colonization could be an important step for prevention of nosocomial infections. Our objective was clarifying the prevalence of methicillin resistant and vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus colonization in nasopharynx. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried on 106 patients and nursing staff of surgery and hemodialysis wards in Amir-Alam hospital from April 2005 to July 2005. The samples were collected from nasal region of cases using cotton swab by two experienced technician and were sent to laboratory for culture and antibiogram. Results: Twenty six (29.5% out of 106 cases were nasopharyngeal carriers of staphylococcus aureus. Eight cases (7.5% had methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus. The most frequent colonization rate was seen in hemodialysis nursing staff and in all of them methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus was reported. Carrier rates in hemodialysis patients were twice compared to surgery ward patients. The interesting point was that no sample of vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus was isolated. Conclusion: Prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus colonization seems to be increased; therefore proper management for controlling this problem is mandatory. The results of the present study suggest that the prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus infections is higher than was expected in Iran and vigorous preventive strategies should therefore be taken to stop the growth of this major health problem.

  2. Comparative analysis of methicillin-sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus exposed to emodin based on proteomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Peng, Yuanxia; Zhan, Ruoting; Xu, Hui; Ge, Xijin

    2017-12-09

    Emodin has a strong antibacterial activity, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, the mechanism by which emodin induces growth inhibition against MRSA remains unclear. In this study, the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics approach was used to investigate the modes of action of emodin on a MRSA isolate and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus ATCC29213(MSSA). Proteomic analysis showed that expression levels of 145 and 122 proteins were changed significantly in MRSA and MSSA, respectively, after emodin treatment. Comparative analysis of the functions of differentially expressed proteins between the two strains was performed via bioinformatics tools blast2go and STRING database. Proteins related to pyruvate pathway imbalance induction, protein synthesis inhibition, and DNA synthesis suppression were found in both methicillin-sensitive and resistant strains. Moreover, Interference proteins related to membrane damage mechanism were also observed in MRSA. Our findings indicate that emodin is a potential antibacterial agent targeting MRSA via multiple mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus colonization in renal transplant patients

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    Luiz Carlos Ribeiro Lamblet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective to evaluate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in renal transplant patients and to identify the related risk factors. Method Swabs were used to collect nasal samples from 160 patients who had undergone a transplant within the previous year at the Kidney and Hypertension Hospital. The ‘National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards’ norms were followed for the collection, isolation, identification and sensitivity measurements. Results There was a 9.4% (15 prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization, of which one (6.7% was resistant to oxacillin. It was possible to identify as an associated risk factor a wait of more than one year for accessing dialysis prior to the transplant (p=0.029. Conclusion Given the high morbidity and mortality rates that this microorganism causes in the target population, other studies should be carried out, and pre- and post-transplant screening should occur in order to develop strategies that improve the prevention and control of the spread of Staphylococcus aureus.

  4. Biofilm Formation of Staphylococcus aureus on Various Surfaces and Their Resistance to Chlorine Sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Su; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Sook-Young; Lee, Sun-Young

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of material types (polystyrene, polypropylene, glass, and stainless steel) and glucose addition on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation, and the relationship between biofilm formation measured by crystal violet (CV) staining and the number of biofilm cells determined by cell counts was studied. We also evaluated the efficacy of chlorine sanitizer on inhibiting various different types of S. aureus biofilms on the surface of stainless steel. Levels of biofilm formation of S. aureus were higher on hydrophilic surfaces (glass and stainless steel) than on hydrophobic surfaces (polypropylene and polystyrene). With the exception of biofilm formed on glass, the addition of glucose in broth significantly increased the biofilm formation of S. aureus on all surfaces and for all tested strains (P ≤ 0.05). The number of biofilm cells was not correlated with the biomass of the biofilms determined using the CV staining method. The efficacy of chlorine sanitizer against biofilm of S. aureus was not significantly different depending on types of biofilm (P > 0.05). Therefo