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Sample records for aureus confers selective

  1. Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus using chitosan quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2018-01-01

    Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using chitosan modified quantum dots (CTS@CdS QDs) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide is reported. The method is based on the intrinsic positive catalase activity of S. aureus. CTS@CdS quantum dots provide high dispersion in aqueous media with high fluorescence emission. Staphylococcus aureus causes a selective quenching of the fluorescence emission of CTS@CdS QDs in the presence of H2O2 compared to other pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The intrinsic enzymatic character of S. aureus (catalase positive) offers selective and fast biosensing. The present method is highly selective for positive catalase species and requires no expensive reagents such as antibodies, aptamers or microbeads. It could be extended for other species that are positive catalase.

  2. Conference scene: Select Biosciences Epigenetics Europe 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvi, Enal S

    2011-02-01

    The field of epigenetics is now on a geometric rise, driven in a large part by the realization that modifiers of chromatin are key regulators of biological processes in vivo. The three major classes of epigenetic effectors are DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications (such as acetylation, methylation or phosphorylation) and small noncoding RNAs (most notably microRNAs). In this article, I report from Select Biosciences Epigenetics Europe 2010 industry conference held on 14-15 September 2010 at The Burlington Hotel, Dublin, Ireland. This industry conference was extremely well attended with a global pool of delegates representing the academic research community, biotechnology companies and pharmaceutical companies, as well as the technology/tool developers. This conference represented the current state of the epigenetics community with cancer/oncology as a key driver. In fact, it has been estimated that approximately 45% of epigenetic researchers today identify cancer/oncology as their main area of focus vis-à-vis their epigenetic research efforts.

  3. Immunisation With Immunodominant Linear B Cell Epitopes Vaccine of Manganese Transport Protein C Confers Protection against Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hui-Jie; Zhang, Jin-Yong; Wei, Chao; Yang, Liu-Yang; Zuo, Qian-Fei; Zhuang, Yuan; Feng, You-Jun; Srinivas, Swaminath; Zeng, Hao; Zou, Quan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination strategies for Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections have attracted much research attention. Recent efforts have been made to select manganese transport protein C, or manganese binding surface lipoprotein C (MntC), which is a metal ion associated with pathogen nutrition uptake, as potential candidates for an S. aureus vaccine. Although protective humoral immune responses to MntC are well-characterised, much less is known about detail...

  4. IATEFL 2016 BIRMINGHAM CONFERENCE SELECTIONS - BOOK REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Yagcioglu

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I would like to summarize the conference book, entitled ‘IATEFL 2016 Birmingham Conference Selections’. The abbreviation IATEFL stands for the International Association of Teachers of English As a Foreign Language. The editorial committee members of this conference book are Edward de Chazal, Chris Lima and Amos Paran. It was edited by Tania Pattison. It was first published in 2017 in the United Kingdom. The printed International Standard Book Number of this book is 978-1-9010...

  5. Staphylococcus aureus carriage in selected kindergartens in Klang Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, N A; Ramli, S; Amin, N N Z; Sulaiman, W S W; Isahak, I; Jamaluddin, T Z M T; Salleh, N M

    2016-04-01

    Nasal colonisation of S. aureus in healthy children was 18% to 30%. One to three percent of them were colonised by Methicillin-resistant Staphlycoccus aureus (MRSA). Although MRSA infection has become increasingly reported, population-based S. aureus and MRSA colonisation estimates are lacking. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus carriage among children. Nasal samples for S. aureus culture were obtained from 250 children from three kindergartens in the Klang Valley, after consent was obtained from the children and their parents. Swabs were transported in Stuart medium, and inoculated on mannitol-salt agar within four hours of collection. Identification and disk diffusion test were done according to guidelines. Polymerase chain reaction was done on MRSA isolates for the presence of mecA and lukS/FPV genes. Overall prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA carriage were 19.2% (48/250) and 1.6% (4/250) respectively. mecA gene was present in all isolates, 50% isolates carried Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) gene. Sccmec type I was found in 2 isolates and the remaining isolates has Sccmec type V. The prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA carriage were similar to other studies. However, risk of contracting severe infection might be higher due to presence of PVL gene in half of the MRSA isolates.

  6. Truncated Autoinducing Peptide Conjugates Selectively Recognize and Kill Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchikama, Kyoji; Shimamoto, Yasuhiro; Anami, Yasuaki

    2017-06-09

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) of Staphylococcus aureus coordinates various pathogenic events and is recognized as a promising therapeutic target for virulence control. S. aureus utilizes autoinducing peptides (AIPs), cyclic-peptide signaling molecules, to mediate the agr system. Despite the high potency of synthetic AIP analogues in agr inhibition, the potential of AIP molecules as a delivery vehicle for antibacterial agents remains unexplored. Herein, we report that truncated AIP scaffolds can be fused with fluorophore and cytotoxic photosensitizer molecules without compromising their high agr inhibitory activity, binding affinity to the receptor AgrC, or cell specificity. Strikingly, a photosensitizer-AIP conjugate exhibited 16-fold greater efficacy in a S. aureus cell-killing assay than a nontargeting analogue. These findings highlight the potential of truncated AIP conjugates as useful chemical tools for in-depth biological studies and as effective anti-S. aureus agents.

  7. Bacteriophage-resistant Staphylococcus aureus mutant confers broad immunity against staphylococcal infection in mice.

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    Rosanna Capparelli

    Full Text Available In the presence of a bacteriophage (a bacteria-attacking virus resistance is clearly beneficial to the bacteria. As expected in such conditions, resistant bacteria emerge rapidly. However, in the absence of the phage, resistant bacteria often display reduced fitness, compared to their sensitive counterparts. The present study explored the fitness cost associated with phage-resistance as an opportunity to isolate an attenuated strain of S. aureus. The phage-resistant strain A172 was isolated from the phage-sensitive strain A170 in the presence of the M(Sa phage. Acquisition of phage-resistance altered several properties of A172, causing reduced growth rate, under-expression of numerous genes and production of capsular polysaccharide. In vivo, A172 modulated the transcription of the TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and Il-1beta genes and, given intramuscularly, protected mice from a lethal dose of A170 (18/20. The heat-killed vaccine also afforded protection from heterologous methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA (8/10 mice or vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA (9/10 mice. The same vaccine was also effective when administered as an aerosol. Anti-A172 mouse antibodies, in the dose of 10 microl/mouse, protected the animals (10/10, in two independent experiments from a lethal dose of A170. Consisting predominantly of the sugars glucose and galactose, the capsular polysaccharide of A172, given in the dose of 25 microg/mouse, also protected the mice (20/20 from a lethal dose of A170. The above results demonstrate that selection for phage-resistance can facilitate bacterial vaccine preparation.

  8. Science and Information Conference 2015 : Extended and Selected Results

    CERN Document Server

    Kapoor, Supriya; Bhatia, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    This book is a collection of extended chapters from the selected papers that were published in the proceedings of Science and Information (SAI) Conference 2015. It contains twenty-one chapters in the field of Computational Intelligence, which received highly recommended feedback during SAI Conference 2015 review process. During the three-day event 260 scientists, technology developers, young researcher including PhD students, and industrial practitioners from 56 countries have engaged intensively in presentations, demonstrations, open panel sessions and informal discussions. .

  9. The Staphylococcus aureus α-Acetolactate Synthase ALS Confers Resistance to Nitrosative Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, Sandra M; de Jong, Anne; Kloosterman, Tomas G; Kuipers, Oscar P; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a worldwide pathogen that colonizes the human nasal cavity and is a major cause of respiratory and cutaneous infections. In the nasal cavity, S. aureus thrives with high concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) produced by the innate immune effectors and has available for growth

  10. Selectively driving optical magnetism (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Norbert F.; Manna, Uttam; Parker, John A.; lee, Jung-Hoon; Deng, Tiansong; Shepherd, Nolan; Weizmann, Yossef

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that one can create a magnetic field by passing a DC or AC electric current through a coil of conductor (i.e., a wire); a phenomenon described by the Maxwell-Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. NMR or ESR (nuclear magnetic resonance or electron spin resonance) spectroscopies involve the interaction of a spin (nuclear or electron, respectively) with a magnetic field. Mathematically, these phenomena can be understood as the curl of the electric field (i.e., the current or spin) producing a (time varying) magnetic field or vise versa. Thus, one should also be able to induce a magnetic response in nano- and meso-scale materials by exploiting Maxwell-Faraday's law of induction through the design of the structure, by employing an electric field with instantaneous curl or do both to produce an instantaneous circulating (or displacement) current. Here we employ cylindrical vector beams with azimuthal polarization to create an angular (cylindrical) electric field, and selectively induce a magnetic response in metal nanoparticle-based nanomaterials at optical frequencies. This time-varying magnetic field at optical frequencies is induced in systems that do not possess spin or orbital angular momentum. Moreover, with the vector beam spectroscopy we also selectively drive electric dipole modes by excitation with a radially polarized light, and show that the strength of the electric and magnetic modes can be equal in magnitude in individual metal nano-structures. This work opens new opportunities for selective spectroscopic investigation of "dark modes" and Fano resonances in nanomaterials, metamaterials and control of nanomaterial excitations and dynamics.

  11. The Staphylococcus aureus α-Acetolactate Synthase ALS Confers Resistance to Nitrosative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Carvalho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a worldwide pathogen that colonizes the human nasal cavity and is a major cause of respiratory and cutaneous infections. In the nasal cavity, S. aureus thrives with high concentrations of nitric oxide (NO produced by the innate immune effectors and has available for growth slow-metabolizing free hexoses, such as galactose. Here, we have used deep sequencing transcriptomic analysis (RNA-Seq and 1H-NMR to uncover how S. aureus grown on galactose, a major carbon source present in the nasopharynx, survives the deleterious action of NO. We observed that, like on glucose, S. aureus withstands high concentrations of NO when using galactose. Data indicate that this resistance is, most likely, achieved through a distinct metabolism that relies on the increased production of amino acids, such as glutamate, threonine, and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs. Moreover, we found that under NO stress the S. aureus α-acetolactate synthase (ALS enzyme, which converts pyruvate into α-acetolactate, plays an important role. ALS is proposed to prevent intracellular acidification, to promote the production of BCAAs and the activation of the TCA cycle. Additionally, ALS is shown to contribute to the successful infection of murine macrophages. Furthermore, ALS contributes to the resistance of S. aureus to beta-lactam antibiotics such as methicillin and oxacillin.

  12. Selective growth of Staphylococcus aureus from flushed dairy manure wastewater using acriflavine-supplemented mannitol salt agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J A; Farrah, S R; Wilkie, A C

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the use of mannitol salt agar (MSA) supplemented with acriflavine for selective growth and quantification of Staphylococcus aureus from flushed dairy manure wastewater (FDMW). Minimal inhibitory concentrations of acriflavine in MSA were determined by comparing the growth of S. aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 33591) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 155) in pure culture. Acriflavine concentrations of 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 mg l(-1) reduced CFU of S. epidermidis by 43%, 55% and 87%, respectively, while CFU of S. aureus subsp. aureus were only reduced by 15%, 20% and 26% at the respective concentrations of acriflavine. MSA supplemented with 1.5 mg l(-1) acriflavine was tested for selective growth of indigenous S. aureus from three grab samples of FDMW. Acriflavine concentrations of 1.5 mg l(-1) reduced background flora without significantly reducing (P < 0.05) indigenous S. aureus counts. Acriflavine-supplemented MSA provides an effective media for selective growth and quantification of indigenous S. aureus from FDMW in the presence of high levels of background microflora. S. aureus is implicated for mastitis infections in dairy cows. Therefore, a reliable means for monitoring and detecting the organism in FDMW provides a tool for measuring the effectiveness of treatment for reducing S. aureus levels and implementing flushwater recycling without affecting herd health.

  13. Specific and selective probes for Staphylococcus aureus from phage-displayed random peptide libraries.

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    De Plano, Laura M; Carnazza, Santina; Messina, Grazia M L; Rizzo, Maria Giovanna; Marletta, Giovanni; Guglielmino, Salvatore P P

    2017-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing health care-associated and community-associated infections. Early diagnosis is essential to prevent disease progression and to reduce complications that can be serious. In this study, we selected, from a 9-mer phage peptide library, a phage clone displaying peptide capable of specific binding to S. aureus cell surface, namely St.au9IVS5 (sequence peptide RVRSAPSSS).The ability of the isolated phage clone to interact specifically with S. aureus and the efficacy of its bacteria-binding properties were established by using enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). We also demonstrated by Western blot analysis that the most reactive and selective phage peptide binds a 78KDa protein on the bacterial cell surface. Furthermore, we observed selectivity of phage-bacteria-binding allowing to identify clinical isolates of S. aureus in comparison with a panel of other bacterial species. In order to explore the possibility of realizing a selective bacteria biosensor device, based on immobilization of affinity-selected phage, we have studied the physisorbed phage deposition onto a mica surface. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the organization of phage on mica surface and then the binding performance of mica-physisorbed phage to bacterial target was evaluated during the time by fluorescent microscopy. The system is able to bind specifically about 50% of S. aureus cells after 15' and 90% after one hour. Due to specificity and rapidness, this biosensing strategy paves the way to the further development of new cheap biosensors to be used in developing countries, as lab-on-chip (LOC) to detect bacterial agents in clinical diagnostics applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Combinatorial approaches with selected phytochemicals to increase antibiotic efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Ana Cristina; Saavedra, Maria José; Simões, Lúcia C; Simões, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Combinations of selected phytochemicals (reserpine, pyrrolidine, quinine, morin and quercetin) with antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and erythromycin) were tested on the prevention and control of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. The phytochemicals were also studied for their ability to avoid antibiotic adaptation and to inhibit antibiotic efflux pumps. Morin, pyrrolidine and quercetin at subinhibitory concentrations had significant effects in biofilm prevention and/or control when applied alone and combined with antibiotics. Synergism between antibiotics and phytochemicals was found especially against biofilms of NorA overexpressing strain S. aureus SA1199B. This strain when growing with subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin developed increased tolerance to this antibiotic. However, this was successfully reversed by quinine and morin. In addition, reserpine and quercetin showed significant efflux pump inhibition. The overall results demonstrate the role of phytochemicals in co-therapies to promote more efficient treatments and decrease antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics, with substantial effects against S. aureus in both planktonic and biofilm states.

  15. Immunisation With Immunodominant Linear B Cell Epitopes Vaccine of Manganese Transport Protein C Confers Protection against Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jie Yang

    Full Text Available Vaccination strategies for Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA infections have attracted much research attention. Recent efforts have been made to select manganese transport protein C, or manganese binding surface lipoprotein C (MntC, which is a metal ion associated with pathogen nutrition uptake, as potential candidates for an S. aureus vaccine. Although protective humoral immune responses to MntC are well-characterised, much less is known about detailed MntC-specific B cell epitope mapping and particularly epitope vaccines, which are less-time consuming and more convenient. In this study, we generated a recombinant protein rMntC which induced strong antibody response when used for immunisation with CFA/IFA adjuvant. On the basis of the results, linear B cell epitopes within MntC were finely mapped using a series of overlapping synthetic peptides. Further studies indicate that MntC113-136, MntC209-232, and MntC263-286 might be the original linear B-cell immune dominant epitope of MntC, furthermore, three-dimensional (3-d crystal structure results indicate that the three immunodominant epitopes were displayed on the surface of the MntC antigen. On the basis of immunodominant MntC113-136, MntC209-232, and MntC263-286 peptides, the epitope vaccine for S. aureus induces a high antibody level which is biased to TH2 and provides effective immune protection and strong opsonophagocytic killing activity in vitro against MRSA infection. In summary, the study provides strong proof of the optimisation of MRSA B cell epitope vaccine designs and their use, which was based on the MntC antigen in the development of an MRSA vaccine.

  16. Selective cultivation and rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus by computer vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yin, Yongguang; Zhang, Chaonan

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we developed a selective growth medium and a more rapid detection method based on computer vision for selective isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus from foods. The selective medium consisted of tryptic soy broth basal medium, 3 inhibitors (NaCl, K2 TeO3 , and phenethyl alcohol), and 2 accelerators (sodium pyruvate and glycine). After 4 h of selective cultivation, bacterial detection was accomplished using computer vision. The total analysis time was 5 h. Compared to the Baird-Parker plate count method, which requires 4 to 5 d, this new detection method offers great time savings. Moreover, our novel method had a correlation coefficient of greater than 0.998 when compared with the Baird-Parker plate count method. The detection range for S. aureus was 10 to 10(7) CFU/mL. Our new, rapid detection method for microorganisms in foods has great potential for routine food safety control and microbiological detection applications. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Phytochemicals against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and Their Biofilms

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    Joana Monte

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria can be resistant to multiple antibiotics and we are fast approaching a time when antibiotics will not work on some bacterial infections. New antimicrobial compounds are urgently necessary. Plants are considered the greatest source to obtain new antimicrobials. This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of four phytochemicals—7-hydroxycoumarin (7-HC, indole-3-carbinol (I3C, salicylic acid (SA and saponin (SP—against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, either as planktonic cells or as biofilms. These bacteria are commonly found in hospital-acquired infections. Some aspects on the phytochemicals mode of action, including surface charge, hydrophobicity, motility and quorum-sensing inhibition (QSI were investigated. In addition, the phytochemicals were combined with three antibiotics in order to assess any synergistic effect. 7-HC and I3C were the most effective phytochemicals against E. coli and S. aureus. Both phytochemicals affected the motility and quorum-sensing (QS activity, which means that they can play an important role in the interference of cell-cell interactions and in biofilm formation and control. However, total biofilm removal was not achieved with any of the selected phytochemicals. Dual combinations between tetracycline (TET, erythromycin (ERY and ciprofloxacin (CIP and I3C produced synergistic effects against S. aureus resistant strains. The overall results demonstrates the potential of phytochemicals to control the growth of E. coli and S. aureus in both planktonic and biofilm states. In addition, the phytochemicals demonstrated the potential to act synergistically with antibiotics, contributing to the recycling of old antibiotics that were once considered ineffective due to resistance problems.

  18. Teicoplanin Stress-Selected Mutations Increasing ςB Activity in Staphylococcus aureus

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    Bischoff, Markus; Berger-Bächi, Brigitte

    2001-01-01

    A natural rsbU mutant of Staphylococcus aureus, unable to activate the alternative transcription factor ςB via the RsbU pathway and therefore forming unpigmented colonies, produced first-step teicoplanin-resistant mutants upon selection for growth in the presence of teicoplanin, of which the majority were of an intense orange color. By using an asp23 promoter-luciferase fusion as an indicator, the pigmented mutants were shown to express increased ςB activity. Increased ςB activity was associated with point mutations in rsbW, releasing ςB from sequestration by the anti-sigma factor RsbW, or to promoter mutations increasing the ςB/RsbW ratio. Genetic manipulations involving the sigB operon suggested that the mutations within the operon were associated with the increase in teicoplanin resistance. The upregulation of ςB suggests that a ςB-controlled gene(s) is directly or indirectly involved in the development of teicoplanin resistance in S. aureus. Carotenoids do not contribute to teicoplanin resistance, since inactivation of the dehydrosqualene synthase gene crtM abolished pigment formation without affecting teicoplanin resistance. The relevant ςB-controlled target genes involved in teicoplanin resistance remain to be identified. PMID:11353616

  19. Antibiotic-mediated selection of quorum-sensing-negative Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulander, Wilhelm Erik Axel; Varming, Anders Nissen; Bæk, Kristoffer Torbjørn

    2012-01-01

    -acquired S. aureus infections and suggest that the adaptability of S. aureus to antibiotics involves the agr locus. IMPORTANCE: Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated pathogen in intensive care units and a common cause of nosocomial infections, resulting in a high degree of morbidity......Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal that at times turns into a serious bacterial pathogen causing life-threatening infections. For the delicate control of virulence, S. aureus employs the agr quorum-sensing system that, via the intracellular effector molecule RNAIII, regulates virulence gene...... increases the agr-mediated fitness cost by inducing the expression of RNAIII. Thus, the extensive use of antibiotics in hospitals may explain why agr-negative variants are frequently isolated from hospital-acquired S. aureus infections but rarely found among community-acquired S. aureus strains. Importantly...

  20. Antimicrobial peptide exposure selects for Staphylococcus aureus resistance to human defence peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubicek-Sutherland, Jessica Z.; Lofton, Hava; Vestergaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    of LL-37, PR-39 or wheat germ histones. WGS and proteomic analysis by MS were used to identify the molecular mechanism associated with increased tolerance of AMPs. AMP-resistant mutants were characterized by measuring in vitro fitness, AMP and antibiotic susceptibility, and virulence in a mouse model...... of sepsis. Results: AMP-resistant Staphylococcus aureus mutants often displayed little to no fitness cost and caused invasive disease in mice. Further, this phenotype coincided with diminished susceptibility to both clinically prescribed antibiotics and human defence peptides. Conclusions: These findings...... suggest that therapeutic use of AMPs could select for virulent mutants with crossresistance to human innate immunity as well as antibiotic therapy. Thus, therapeutic use of AMPs and the implications of cross-resistance need to be carefully monitored and evaluated....

  1. Partial Sequencing of 16S rRNA Gene of Selected Staphylococcus aureus Isolates and its Antibiotic Resistance

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    Harsi Dewantari Kusumaningrum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The choice of primer used in 16S rRNA sequencing for identification of Staphylococcus species found in food is important. This study aimed to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolates by partial sequencing based on 16S rRNA gene employing primers 16sF, 63F or 1387R. The isolates were isolated from milk, egg dishes and chicken dishes and selected based on the presence of sea gene that responsible for formation of enterotoxin-A. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates towards six antibiotics was also tested. The use of 16sF resulted generally in higher identity percentage and query coverage compared to the sequencing by 63F or 1387R. BLAST results of all isolates, sequenced by 16sF, showed 99% homology to complete genome of four S. aureus strains, with different characteristics on enterotoxin production and antibiotic resistance. Considering that all isolates were carrying sea gene, indicated by the occurence of 120 bp amplicon after PCR amplification using primer SEA1/SEA2,  the isolates were most in agreeing to S. aureus subsp. aureus ST288. This study indicated that 4 out of 8 selected isolates were resistant towards streptomycin. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing using 16sF is useful for identification of S. aureus. However, additional analysis such as PCR employing specific gene target, should give a valuable supplementary information, when specific characteristic is expected.

  2. Evaluation of four selective agars and two enrichment broths in screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcher, S; Smyth, R; Kahlmeter, G; Kerremans, J; Vos, M C; Skov, R

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection, we tested in vitro four selective agars and two enrichment broths apart and in combination. Tryptone soya broth with salt, aztreonam, and cefoxitin appeared to be the most sensitive medium. This broth was superior to a phenol red mannitol broth with aztreonam and ceftizoxime.

  3. Evaluation of a new selective medium for methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadik, P M; Davies, S; Whittaker, S; Mason, C

    2001-05-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of a new medium, desferrioxamine oxacillin tellurite egg-yolk mannitol salt agar (DOTEMSA) in detecting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and then to compare this medium against the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) recommendation of mannitol salt agar (Oxoid) with oxacillin (OMSA) and Baird-Parker medium with ciprofloxacin (BPC) for the isolation of MRSA. The individual selective agents contained in DOTEMSA were tested against isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) and the medium with all constituents was challenged with various bacteria. Routine screening specimens were plated out on OMSA, BPC and DOTEMSA and the plates were incubated and examined at 24 and 48 h. Tellurite, desferrioxamine and oxacillin each inhibited the majority of CNS isolates; only three (of 103) grew in the presence of all three agents. Sixty-two of 63 isolates of MRSA grew on DOTEMSA and 59 produced lipase. Most other bacteria were inhibited. In all, 184 MRSA isolates were isolated from 540 screening specimens. The sensitivity of OMSA, BPC and DOTEMSA was 42%, 81% and 51% at 24 h, and 60%, 89% and 89% at 48 h. At 48 h, the combination of BPC and DOTEMSA detected 99% of MRSA isolates. Seventy, 49 and one non-MRSA isolates needed investigation for each of the three media respectively. A proposed strategy for MRSA screening would use BPC and DOTEMSA, examining BPC at 24 h and both media at 48 h. Provisional reports could then be issued at 24 h on the basis of rapid agglutination tests to confirm isolates as S. aureus from BPC and at 48 h on the basis of typical colonies from DOTEMSA.

  4. The Patterns Of Selected Antibiotics Sensitivity And Resistance To Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates

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    Stanslaus Kiilu Musyoki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Complications of Staphylococcus aureus infection have greatly increased in recent past because of the many invasive procedures increased cases of immunocompromised individuals and the uprising trends in increased antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus strains. Despite of these available information and by contrast with developed countries S. aureus associated disease are ranked low on the public-health agenda in Kenya and other developing countries. Therefore there is due reason to undertake an investigation and report the trends and patterns in a thorough manner majorly and especially regarding the antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was thus to determine the levels of drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to various classes of antibiotics. This data is of significance in improving baseline data on antibiotic resistance of S. aureus isolated from human clinical specimens for the prudent use of antibiotics and the coming up with policies on control programs. All culture isolates were confirmed as Staphylococcus aureus genus by various tests That is gram staining catalase and oxidase. Catalase positive gram positive and oxidase negative isolates were defined as Staphylococcus. Further analyses by mannitol salt agar fermentation of the isolates and positive coagulase tests indicated Staphylococcus aureus. The area of clearance of sensitivity and tolerance was measured in millimeters and categorized as sensitive resistant or intermediate. The present study reported that S. aureus was most sensitive to Azithromycin whereby 46 61 samples were sensitive. Penicillin on the hand was least sensitive showing 29 level of sensitivity. Methicillin Gentamicin had more than 50 level of sensitivity That is 41 55 and 40 53 respectively. Other antibiotic drugs including ampicillin augmentin and tetracycline demonstrated less than 50 sensitivity That is 29 39 32 43 and 33 44 respectively. Drug resistance for S. aureus was therefore reported to be

  5. Evaluation of commercial selective agars in screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Yang, Hee-Young; Suh, Jin-Tae; Lee, Hee-Joo

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) detection methods, we compared (a) mannitol salt agar with cefoxitin (MSA-FX), (b) MRSASelect agar (Bio-Rad), (c) MRSA ID (bioMerieuex), and (d) CHROMagar MRSA (BD Diagnostics) as selective media for culturing nasal swab specimens collected from intensive care unit (ICU) patients and healthcare personnel. A total of 99 (17.1%) cases of MRSA were recovered from 578 specimens. Four (5.5%) cases were identified from healthcare personnel and 95 (18.8%) were from ICU patients. The sensitivity of MSA-FX, MRSASelect, MRSA ID, and CHROMagar MRSA was 83.8, 87.9, 80.8, and 84.8% after 18 hr; 92.9, 94.9, 90.9, and 91.9% after 24 hr; and 96.0, 100, 99.0, and 99.0% after 48 hr, respectively. The specificity of MSA-FX, MRSASelect, MRSA ID, and CHROMagar MRSA was 97.7, 99.0, 98.7. and 99.8% after 18 hr; 97.1, 98.5, 98.1, and 99.5% after 24 hr; and 95.2, 97.7, 97.9, and 99.0% after 48 hr, respectively. In conclusion, all four media showed good results after the 24 hr readings, but MRSA ID and CHROMagar MRSA media required readings at 48 hr due to increased sensitivity at this time point.

  6. Mutations of the Transporter Proteins GlpT and UhpT Confer Fosfomycin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

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    Su Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus worldwide, fosfomycin has begun to be used more often, either alone or in combination with other antibiotics, for treating methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections, resulting in the emergence of fosfomycin-resistant strains. Fosfomycin resistance is reported to be mediated by fosfomycin-modifying enzymes (FosA, FosB, FosC, and FosX and mutations of the target enzyme MurA or the membrane transporter proteins UhpT and GlpT. Our previous studies indicated that the fos genes might not the major fosfomycin resistance mechanism in S. aureus, whereas mutations of glpT and uhpT seemed to be more related to fosfomycin resistance. However, the precise role of these two genes in S. aureus fosfomycin resistance remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of glpT and uhpT in S. aureus fosfomycin resistance. Homologous recombination was used to knockout the uhpT and glpT genes in S. aureus Newman. Gene complementation was generated by the plasmid pRB473 carrying these two genes. The fosfomycin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of the strains was measured by the E-test to observe the influence of gene deletion on antibiotic susceptibility. In addition, growth curves were constructed to determine whether the mutations have a significant influence on bacterial growth. Deletion of uhpT, glpT, and both of them led to increased fosfomycin MIC 0.5 μg/ml to 32 μg/ml, 4 μg/ml, and >1024 μg/ml, respectively. By complementing uhpT and glpT into the deletion mutants, the fosfomycin MIC decreased from 32 to 0.5 μg/ml and from 4 to 0.25 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, the transporter gene-deleted strains showed no obvious difference in growth curves compared to the parental strain. In summary, our study strongly suggests that mutations of uhpT and glpT lead to fosfomycin resistance in S. aureus, and that uhpT mutation may play a more important role. The high

  7. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus dysgalactiae in Norwegian herds after introduction of selective dry cow therapy and teat dipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whist, Anne Cathrine; Osterås, Olav; Sølverød, Liv

    2007-02-01

    The objective was to promote a reduction in the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus dysgalactiae after 2 years of selective dry cow therapies and teat dipping/external teat sealant implementation. Three different dry cow treatments, one long-acting and two short-acting penicillin-based products were tested at herd level together with a negative control teat dipping group, an iodine teat dipping group and DryFlextrade mark, an external teat sealant. The regimes were independently randomly allocated to 178 dairy herds. Yearly bacteriological quarter milk samples were collected from all cows at the beginning of the trial, after 1 year and 2 years. At herd level, a total of 15% of the herds showed no Staphylococcus aureus isolates after 2 years, compared with 5% at the beginning. The distribution of Streptococcus dysgalactiae infected herds remained the same after 2 years. At cow level, there were no significant differences in the reduction of Staph. aureus between the different dry cow therapies and teat dipping regimes. But there was a significant reduction of Str. dysgalactiae in the iodine teat dipping group compared with Dryflextrade mark and the negative control group. The proportional rate of Staph. aureus positive quarters was reduced from 65.9% to 54.9% after 2 years. As for Str. dysgalactiae, an increase was observed from 14.2% to 15.2%.

  8. Impact of adjusting for inter-rater variability in conference abstract ranking and selection processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Justin Newton; Lannin, Natasha A; Hoffmann, Tammy; Stanley, Mandy; McDonald, Rachael

    2018-02-01

    Scientific conferences provide a forum for clinicians, educators, students and researchers to share research findings. To be selected to present at a scientific conference, authors must submit a short abstract which is then rated on its scientific quality and professional merit and is accepted or rejected based on these ratings. Previous research has indicated that inter-rater variability can have a substantial impact on abstract selection decisions. For their 2015 conference, the Occupational Therapy Australia National Conference introduced a system to identify and adjust for inter-rater variability in the abstract ranking and selection process. Ratings for 1340 abstracts submitted for the 2015 and 2017 conferences were analysed using many-faceted Rasch analysis to identify and adjust for inter-rater variability. Analyses of the construct validity of the abstract rating instrument and rater consistency were completed. To quantify the influence of inter-rater variability of abstract selection decisions, comparisons were made between decisions made using Rasch-calibrated measure scores and decisions that would have been made based purely on raw average scores derived from the abstract ratings. Construct validity and measurement properties of the abstract rating tool were good to excellent (item fit MnSq scores ranged from 0.8 to 1.2; item reliability index = 1.0). Most raters (24 of 27, 89%) were consistent in their use of the rating instrument. When comparing abstract allocations under the two conditions, 25% of abstracts (n = 341) would have been allocated differently if inter-rater variability was not accounted for. This study demonstrates that, even with a strong abstract rating instrument and a small rater pool, inter-rater variability still exerts a substantial influence on abstract selection decisions. It is recommended that all occupational therapy conferences internationally, and scientific conferences more generally, adopt systems to identify and

  9. Comparison of Several Selective Media for Isolation and Differentiation of Coagulase-Positive Strains of Staphylococcus aureus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDivitt, Maxine E.; Topp, Eleanor B.

    1964-01-01

    Six coagulase-positive strains of Staphylococcus aureus which had been cultivated in Brain Heart Infusion broth, milk, and brine were plated on seven isolation media. A significant difference in the growth patterns of the individual strains was found as well as a significant effect resulting from the previous cultivation history before plating. Brine and, to a lesser extent, milk were found to reduce maximal cell concentrations attained, but strains grown in brine and milk showed greater ability to withstand the selective action of the isolation media. Fibrinogen applied to the surface of five of the media allowed the formation of characteristic halos by coagulase-positive strains of S. aureus. Only half of the strains studied produced a zone of precipitation on SM110-Egg Yolk agar. The isolation medium containing cycloheximide and a high level of polymxin B was most inhibitory to the organisms. PMID:14131367

  10. XI Scientific Conference Selected Issues of Electrical Engineering and Electronics (WZEE)

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, Damian; Analysis and Simulation of Electrical and Computer Systems

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the selected results of the XI Scientific Conference Selected Issues of Electrical Engineering and Electronics (WZEE) which was held in Rzeszów and Czarna, Poland on September 27-30, 2013. The main aim of the Conference was to provide academia and industry to discuss and present the latest technological advantages and research results and to integrate the new interdisciplinary scientific circle in the field of electrical engineering, electronics and mechatronics. The Conference was organized by the Rzeszów Division of Polish Association of Theoretical and Applied Electrical Engineering (PTETiS) in cooperation with Rzeszów University of Technology, the Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Rzeszów University, the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.  

  11. IV international conference on computational methods in marine engineering : selected papers

    CERN Document Server

    Oñate, Eugenio; García-Espinosa, Julio; Kvamsdal, Trond; Bergan, Pål; MARINE 2011

    2013-01-01

    This book contains selected papers from the Fourth International Conference on Computational Methods in Marine Engineering, held at Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal in September 2011.  Nowadays, computational methods are an essential tool of engineering, which includes a major field of interest in marine applications, such as the maritime and offshore industries and engineering challenges related to the marine environment and renewable energies. The 2011 Conference included 8 invited plenary lectures and 86 presentations distributed through 10 thematic sessions that covered many of the most relevant topics of marine engineering today. This book contains 16 selected papers from the Conference that cover “CFD for Offshore Applications”, “Fluid-Structure Interaction”, “Isogeometric Methods for Marine Engineering”, “Marine/Offshore Renewable Energy”, “Maneuvering and Seakeeping”, “Propulsion and Cavitation” and “Ship Hydrodynamics”.  The papers we...

  12. Software Technologies - 8th International Joint Conference, ICSOFT 2013 : Revised Selected Papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordeiro, José; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2014-01-01

    The present book includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the 8th International Joint Conference on Software Technologies (ICSOFT 2013), which was co-organized by the Reykjavik University (RU) and sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information,

  13. A Contemporary Review of Feminist Aesthetic Practices in Selective Adult Education Journals and Conference Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, Darlene E.

    2010-01-01

    This feminist content analysis of selective adult education journals and conference proceedings draws on feminist aesthetic theory to develop a deeper understanding of women adult education scholars' work with/in the arts. Four major categories identified were community cultural development, aesthetic civic engagement and knowledge mobilization,…

  14. Selection of egg attachment sites by the Indian Golden Gecko Calodactylodes aureus (Beddome, 1870 (Reptilia: Gekkonidae in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sreekar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Some geckos lay eggs at communal egg deposition sites with as many as 300 eggs per site. Selection of egg deposition sites is important to avoid egg damage and predation. We investigated survival rates of communal egg clutches of the Indian Golden Gecko Calodactylodes aureus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae. Our results show that communal clutches have a higher survival rate in sites with water bodies and without anthropogenic activities, in comparison to sites having the opposite combination. These findings are discussed in the context of the status of this gecko.

  15. Identification of ABC transporter genes conferring combined pleuromutilin-lincosamide-streptogramin A resistance in bovine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlandt, Sarah; Kadlec, Kristina; Feßler, Andrea T; Schwarz, Stefan

    2015-06-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of combined pleuromutilin-lincosamide-streptogramin A resistance in 26 unrelated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from dairy cows suffering from mastitis. The 26 pleuromutilin-resistant staphylococcal isolates were screened for the presence of the genes vga(A), vga(B), vga(C), vga(E), vga(E) variant, sal(A), vmlR, cfr, lsa(A), lsa(B), lsa(C), and lsa(E) by PCR. None of the 26 isolates carried the genes vga(B), vga(C), vga(E), vga(E) variant, vmlR, cfr, lsa(A), lsa(B), or lsa(C). Two Staphylococcus haemolyticus and single Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus lentus, and Staphylococcus hominis were vga(A)-positive. Twelve S. aureus, two Staphylococcus warneri, as well as single S. lentus and S. xylosus carried the lsa(E) gene. Moreover, single S. aureus, S. haemolyticus, S. xylosus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were positive for both genes, vga(A) and lsa(E). The sal(A) gene was found in a single Staphylococcus sciuri. All ABC transporter genes were located in the chromosomal DNA, except for a plasmid-borne vga(A) gene in the S. epidermidis isolate. The genetic environment of the lsa(E)-positive isolates was analyzed using previously described PCR assays. Except for the S. warneri and S. xylosus, all lsa(E)-positive isolates harbored a part of the previously described enterococcal multiresistance gene cluster. This is the first report of the novel lsa(E) gene in the aforementioned bovine CoNS species. This is also the first identification of the sal(A) gene in a S. sciuri from a case of bovine mastitis. Moreover, the sal(A) gene was shown to also confer pleuromutilin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Peer-review for selection of oral presentations for conferences: Are we reliable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveugele, Myriam; Silverman, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Although peer-review for journal submission, grant-applications and conference submissions has been called 'a counter- stone of science', and even 'the gold standard for evaluating scientific merit', publications on this topic remain scares. Research that has investigated peer-review reveals several issues and criticisms concerning bias, poor quality review, unreliability and inefficiency. The most important weakness of the peer review process is the inconsistency between reviewers leading to inadequate inter-rater reliability. To report the reliability of ratings for a large international conference and to suggest possible solutions to overcome the problem. In 2016 during the International Conference on Communication in Healthcare, organized by EACH: International Association for Communication in Healthcare, a calibration exercise was proposed and feedback was reported back to the participants of the exercise. Most abstracts, as well as most peer-reviewers, receive and give scores around the median. Contrary to the general assumption that there are high and low scorers, in this group only 3 peer-reviewers could be identified with a high mean, while 7 has a low mean score. Only 2 reviewers gave only high ratings (4 and 5). Of the eight abstracts included in this exercise, only one abstract received a high mean score and one a low mean score. Nevertheless, both these abstracts received both low and high scores; all other abstracts received all possible scores. Peer-review of submissions for conferences are, in accordance with the literature, unreliable. New and creative methods will be needed to give the participants of a conference what they really deserve: a more reliable selection of the best abstracts. More raters per abstract improves the inter-rater reliability; training of reviewers could be helpful; providing feedback to reviewers can lead to less inter-rater disagreement; fostering negative peer-review (rejecting the inappropriate submissions) rather than a

  17. A multipathogen selective enrichment broth for simultaneous growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Gang; Wu, Hui; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Su-Long; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Xiao, Xing-Long

    2010-07-01

    A selective enrichment broth (SSL) was formulated to allow concurrent growth of 3 prominent food-borne pathogens: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Nalidixic acid, lithium chloride, and potassium tellurite were added as the selective agents, while sodium pyruvate and mannitol were employed as the supplemented elements. In the individual growth trial, the target pathogens were capable of growing in SSL to as high as 7-8 log(10) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL after 24 h incubation at 37 degrees C when being inoculated at 50-100 CFU/mL. In the simultaneous growth trial, the 3 combined target pathogens showed similar growth rates. The results show that SSL could support the successful simultaneous enrichment of 3 pathogens; however, SSL inhibited the growth of nontarget bacteria. In the artificial contaminated raw beef and ready-to-eat chicken, a high recovery of these 3 target pathogens was obtained in SSL. Finally, Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and L. monocytogenes were detected from 710 suspicious food samples by SSL with real-time PCR, and no false-positive or -negative results were reported. In summary, SSL has been shown to be a suitable broth for the simultaneous detection of the 3 prominent food-borne pathogens by multipathogen detection on a single-assay platform.

  18. Importance of control group selection for evaluating antimicrobial use as a risk factor for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Erika J; Raley, George; Herwaldt, Loreen A; Diekema, Daniel J

    2005-07-01

    We investigated the importance of control group selection during an evaluation of antimicrobial use as a risk factor for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia at our institution. We performed a case-control study. A case was defined as any patient admitted between January 1997 and May 2001 who developed nosocomial MRSA bacteremia. We used two control groups; control group I consisted of patients with nosocomial methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) bacteremia and control group II included only patients without bacteremia. We matched control-patients to case-patients using age, gender, time at risk, and hospital ward. Data collected on all patients included demographics, comorbidities, antibiotic use, time at risk, length of stay, severity of illness, and outcome. We evaluated 63 patients (21 in each group). The three groups were well matched regarding age, gender, underlying diseases, and severity of illness. Patients in the MRSA group were more likely to have received a fluoroquinolone and had a higher mean number of days of fluoroquinolone use than did patients in the MSSA group (P = .027 and P = .015, respectively). However, all measures of fluoroquinolone use were similar for case-patients and for control-patients who did not have nosocomial bloodstream infection. Control group selection is important in evaluating antimicrobial use as a risk factor for MRSA bacteremia. Using control-patients infected with MSSA, rather than uninfected control-patients, may overestimate the association between antimicrobial use and MRSA infection.

  19. Antibacterial Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus: Killing Kinetics, Selection for Resistance, and Potential Cellular Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Nguyen Thien Le

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3, are attracting interest as possible new topical antibacterial agents, particularly due to their potency and perceived safety. However, relatively little is known of the underlying mechanism of antibacterial action of EPA or whether bacteria can develop resistance quickly against this or similar compounds. Therefore, the aim of this present study was to determine the mechanism of antibacterial action of EPA and investigate whether bacteria could develop reduced susceptibility to this fatty acid upon repeated exposure. Against two common Gram-positive human pathogens, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus, EPA inhibited bacterial growth with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 64 mg/L, while minimum bactericidal concentrations were 64 mg/L and 128 mg/L for B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. Both species were killed completely in EPA at 128 mg/L within 15 min at 37 °C, while reduced bacterial viability was associated with increased release of 260-nm-absorbing material from the bacterial cells. Taken together, these observations suggest that EPA likely kills B. cereus and S. aureus by disrupting the cell membrane, ultimately leading to cell lysis. Serial passage of the strains in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of EPA did not lead to the emergence or selection of strains with reduced susceptibility to EPA during 13 passages. This present study provides data that may support the development of EPA and other fatty acids as antibacterial agents for cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.

  20. Selected papers from the 7th International Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology (MMB 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ellis; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-03-01

    grateful to the many authors who contributed their research achievements to this exciting issue and to the anonymous reviewers for their invaluable insights and suggestions. We would also like to express our thanks to our colleagues on the international steering committee for their dedicated review of the selected presentations that appears at the conference. Finally, we appreciate the support of the editorial staff of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering for this inaugural MMB special issue. We look forward to continued collaboration in future MMB conferences.

  1. [A multi-pathogen selective enrichment broth for simultaneous growth of Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Xinglong; Yu, Yigang; Chen, Gu; Li, Xiaofeng; Tang, Yuqian; Wu, Hui

    2009-10-01

    A selective enrichment broth (SSL) was formulated to allow simultaneous growth of Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogens. Suitable additive agents were selected by single factor experiment, the enrichment effect of the broth for the three pathogens were evaluated by conventional detection method and real-time PCR. A selective enrichment broth, SSL, was obtained by adding the selective agents, including nalidixic acid, lithium chloride, and potassium tellurite, in the basic broth, and sodium pyruvate and mannitol as the supplemented elements. Recovery of three target pathogens in SSL was obtained within 24 h of incubation at 37 degrees C, yielding cell dnesities of 10(7) - 10(8) CFU/mL. Meanwhile, SSL broth effectively inhibited the growth of non-target organisms. 710 samples were detected by SSL with real-time PCR, and there is no error report. SSL is demonstrated to be a promising new multiplex selective enrichment broth for simultaneous detection of the three most prominent foodborn pathogens by multipathogen detection on a single assay platform.

  2. Nanocolumnar coatings with selective behavior towards osteoblast and Staphylococcus aureus proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Barba, Isabel; García-Martín, José Miguel; Álvarez, Rafael; Palmero, Alberto; Esteban, Jaime; Pérez-Jorge, Concepción; Arcos, Daniel; Vallet-Regí, María

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on orthopedic implants is one of the worst scenarios in orthopedic surgery, in terms of both patient prognosis and healthcare costs. Tailoring the surfaces of implants at the nanoscale to actively promote bone bonding while avoiding bacterial colonization represents an interesting challenge to achieving better clinical outcomes. Herein, a Ti6Al4V alloy of medical grade has been coated with Ti nanostructures employing the glancing angle deposition technique by magnetron sputtering. The resulting surfaces have a high density of nanocolumnar structures, which exhibit strongly impaired bacterial adhesion that inhibits biofilm formation, while osteoblasts exhibit good cell response with similar behavior to the initial substrates. These results are discussed on the basis of a "lotus leaf effect" induced by the surface nanostructures and the different sizes and biological characteristics of osteoblasts and Staphylococcus aureus. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of culture screening protocols for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using a chromogenic agar (MRSA-Select).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungok; Park, Yeon-Joon; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Kahng, Jimin; Jeong, In-Hee; Kwon, Young-Mi; Han, Kyungja

    2008-01-01

    To compare the culture screening protocols for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a total of 300 duplicate nasal swabs (233 initial cultures and 67 weekly follow-up cultures) were collected consecutively from 233 patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). One swab was plated directly on MRSA-Select agar (D-MRSA-Select) and observed at 24 hr. The duplicate swab was incubated in tryptic soy broth (TSB) with 6.5% NaCl for 24 hr, and then subcultured on MRSA-Select (B-MRSA-Select), BAP (B-BAP), and mannitol salt agar with 4 mg/L oxacillin (B-MSA(OXA)), and observed at 24 hr. MRSA was detected in 13.7% (32/233) of the initial and 22.4% (15/67) of the follow-up specimens. A patient was classified as MRSA-positive if any of the media grew colonies that were tested and confirmed to be MRSA. In the initial screening samples, the sensitivities of D-MRSA-Select, B-MRSA-Select, B-BAP, and B-MSA(OXA) were 78.1%, 84.4%, 78.1%, and 65.6%, respectively, and the specificities were 100%, 98.0%, 83.1%, and 93.5%, respectively. The sensitivities of all but the B-MRSA-Select protocol were significantly lower (p Salt-containing enrichment broth in conjunction with MRSA-Select (B-MRSA-Select) provides a promising way to increase sensitivity in initial and follow-up screening for MRSA.

  4. MODSIM World 2007 Conference and Expo: Select Papers and Presentations from the Education and Training Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E. (Editor); Sullivan, Shannon (Editor); Sanchez, Alicia (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This NASA Conference Publication features select papers and PowerPoint presentations from the Education and Training Track of MODSIM World 2007 Conference and Expo. Invited speakers and panelists of national and international renown, representing academia, industry and government, discussed how modeling and simulation (M&S) technology can be used to accelerate learning in the K-16 classroom, especially when using M&S technology as a tool for integrating science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) classes. The presenters also addressed the application ofM&S technology to learning and training outside of the classroom. Specific sub-topics of the presentations included: learning theory; curriculum development; professional development; tools/user applications; implementation/infrastructure/issues; and workforce development. There was a session devoted to student M&S competitions in Virginia too, as well as a poster session.

  5. Multiplex Real-Time PCR for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) Genes from Selective Enrichments from Animals and Retail Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Valeria; Sherwood, Julie S.; Rojas-García, Pedro P.; Logue, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a real-time PCR assay, with a conventional culture/PCR method, to detect S. aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes in animals and retail meat, using a two-step selective enrichment protocol. A total of 234 samples were examined (77 animal nasal swabs, 112 retail raw meat, and 45 deli meat). The multiplex real-time PCR targeted the genes: nuc (identification of S. aureus), mecA (associated with methicillin resistance) and PVL (virulence factor), and the primary and secondary enrichment samples were assessed. The conventional culture/PCR method included the two-step selective enrichment, selective plating, biochemical testing, and multiplex PCR for confirmation. The conventional culture/PCR method recovered 95/234 positive S. aureus samples. Application of real-time PCR on samples following primary and secondary enrichment detected S. aureus in 111/234 and 120/234 samples respectively. For detection of S. aureus, the kappa statistic was 0.68–0.88 (from substantial to almost perfect agreement) and 0.29–0.77 (from fair to substantial agreement) for primary and secondary enrichments, using real-time PCR. For detection of mecA gene, the kappa statistic was 0–0.49 (from no agreement beyond that expected by chance to moderate agreement) for primary and secondary enrichment samples. Two pork samples were mecA gene positive by all methods. The real-time PCR assay detected the mecA gene in samples that were negative for S. aureus, but positive for Staphylococcus spp. The PVL gene was not detected in any sample by the conventional culture/PCR method or the real-time PCR assay. Among S. aureus isolated by conventional culture/PCR method, the sequence type ST398, and multi-drug resistant strains were found in animals and raw meat samples. The real-time PCR assay may be recommended as a rapid method for detection of S. aureus and the mecA gene, with further confirmation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) using

  6. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Czech Cystic Fibrosis Patients: High Rate of Ribosomal Mutation Conferring Resistance to MLS(B) Antibiotics as a Result of Long-Term and Low-Dose Azithromycin Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkadlec, Jan; Vařeková, Eva; Pantůček, Roman; Doškař, Jiří; Růžičková, Vladislava; Botka, Tibor; Fila, Libor; Melter, Oto

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens infecting the respiratory tract of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study was the first to examine S. aureus isolates from CF patients in the Czech Republic. Among 100 S. aureus isolates from 92 of 107 observed patients, we found a high prevalence of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) antibiotics (56%). More than half of the resistant strains (29 of 56) carried a mutation in the MLS(B) target site. The emergence of MLS(B) resistance and mutations conferring resistance to MLS(B) antibiotics was associated with azithromycin treatment (p=0.000000184 and p=0.000681, respectively). Methicillin resistance was only detected in 3% of isolates and the rate of resistance to other antibiotics did not exceed 12%. The prevalence of small-colony variant (SCV) strains was relatively low (9%) and eight of nine isolates with the SCV phenotype were thymidine dependent. The study population of S. aureus was heterogeneous in structure and both the most prevalent community-associated and hospital-acquired clonal lineages were represented. Of the virulence genes, enterotoxin genes seg (n=52), sei (n=49), and sec (n=16) were the most frequently detected among the isolates. The PVL genes (lukS-PV and lukF-PV) have not been revealed in any of the isolates.

  7. 68Ga-labeled phage-display selected peptides as tracers for positron emission tomography imaging of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karin Michaelsen; Kyneb, Majbritt Hauge; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of skin and deep-sited infections, often associated with the formation of biofilms. Early diagnosis and initiated therapy is essential to prevent disease progression and to reduce complications that can be serious. Imaging techniques are helpful...... combining anatomical with functional data in order to describe and characterize site, extent and activity of the disease. The purpose of the study was to identify and (68)Ga-label peptides with affinity for S. aureus biofilm and evaluate their potential as bacteria-specific positron emission tomography (PET......) imaging agents. METHODS: Phage-displayed dodecapeptides were selected using an in vitro grown S. aureus biofilm as target. One cyclic (A8) and two linear (A9, A11) dodecapeptides were custom synthesized with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N″,N‴-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) conjugated via a lysine linker...

  8. Understanding the antimicrobial activity of selected disinfectants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboualizadeh, Ebrahim; Bumah, Violet V; Masson-Meyers, Daniela S; Eells, Janis T; Hirschmugl, Carol J; Enwemeka, Chukuka S

    2017-01-01

    Disinfectants and biocidal products have been widely used to combat Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in homes and healthcare environments. Although disruption of cytoplasmic membrane integrity has been documented as the main bactericidal effect of biocides, little is known about the biochemical alterations induced by these chemical agents. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and chemometric tools as an alternative non-destructive technique to determine the bactericidal effects of commonly used disinfectants against MRSA USA-300. FTIR spectroscopy permits a detailed characterization of bacterial reactivity, allowing an understanding of the fundamental mechanism of action involved in the interaction between bacteria and disinfectants. The disinfectants studied were ethanol 70% (N = 5), isopropanol (N = 5), sodium hypochlorite (N = 5), triclosan (N = 5) and triclocarban (N = 5). Results showed less than 5% colony forming units growth of MRSA treated with triclocarban and no growth in the other groups. Nearly 70,000 mid-infrared spectra from the five treatments and the two control (untreated; N = 4) groups of MRSA (bacteria grown in TSB and incubated at 37°C (Control I) / at ambient temperature (Control II), for 24h) were pre-processed and analyzed using principal component analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA). Clustering of strains of MRSA belonging to five treatments and the discrimination between each treatment and two control groups in MRSA (untreated) were investigated. PCA-LDA discriminatory frequencies suggested that ethanol-treated spectra are the most similar to isopropanol-treated spectra biochemically. Also reported here are the biochemical alterations in the structure of proteins, lipid membranes, and phosphate groups of MRSA produced by sodium hypochlorite, triclosan, and triclocarban treatments. These findings provide mechanistic information involved in the interaction

  9. Understanding the antimicrobial activity of selected disinfectants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Aboualizadeh

    Full Text Available Disinfectants and biocidal products have been widely used to combat Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections in homes and healthcare environments. Although disruption of cytoplasmic membrane integrity has been documented as the main bactericidal effect of biocides, little is known about the biochemical alterations induced by these chemical agents. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and chemometric tools as an alternative non-destructive technique to determine the bactericidal effects of commonly used disinfectants against MRSA USA-300. FTIR spectroscopy permits a detailed characterization of bacterial reactivity, allowing an understanding of the fundamental mechanism of action involved in the interaction between bacteria and disinfectants. The disinfectants studied were ethanol 70% (N = 5, isopropanol (N = 5, sodium hypochlorite (N = 5, triclosan (N = 5 and triclocarban (N = 5. Results showed less than 5% colony forming units growth of MRSA treated with triclocarban and no growth in the other groups. Nearly 70,000 mid-infrared spectra from the five treatments and the two control (untreated; N = 4 groups of MRSA (bacteria grown in TSB and incubated at 37°C (Control I / at ambient temperature (Control II, for 24h were pre-processed and analyzed using principal component analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA. Clustering of strains of MRSA belonging to five treatments and the discrimination between each treatment and two control groups in MRSA (untreated were investigated. PCA-LDA discriminatory frequencies suggested that ethanol-treated spectra are the most similar to isopropanol-treated spectra biochemically. Also reported here are the biochemical alterations in the structure of proteins, lipid membranes, and phosphate groups of MRSA produced by sodium hypochlorite, triclosan, and triclocarban treatments. These findings provide mechanistic information involved in the

  10. Selected contributions from the 9th International Conference on Tidal Sedimentology, November 2015, Puerto Madryn, Patagonia, Argentina: an introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scasso, Roberto A.; Cuitiño, José I.

    2017-08-01

    This special issue of Geo-Marine Letters presents selected contributions from the 9th International Conference on Tidal Sedimentology held on 17-19 November 2015 in Puerto Madryn, Chubut Province, Patagonia, Argentina. The guest editors are the conference organizers Roberto A. Scasso and José I. Cuitiño. Gerardo M. Perillo was the head of the Scientific Committee. The conferences on tidal sedimentology have been traditionally held every 4 years. However, only 3 years separated the last conference held in Caen (France, 2012) from this conference. Increasing numbers of contributions and the growing interest in tidal sedimentation have been the reasons for shortening the inter-conference period. The 2015 conference served as a discussion forum focusing on advances in modern and ancient tidal sedimentation at different locations worldwide. The papers presented in this Special Issue provide a selective view of the latest research results, the main topics dealing with tidal hydrodynamics and sediment transport, tidal coastal morphodynamics, modern and ancient tidal sedimentation, geotechnical processes in tidal environments, and tidal basins, facies and reservoirs.

  11. Selected papers from the 11th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (EUCAS 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdeghini, Carlo; Putti, Marina

    2014-04-01

    The 11th edition of the European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (EUCAS) was held in Genoa (15-19 September 2013) and registered the participation of more than one thousand attendants from over 40 countries. During the conference seven plenary lectures, 23 invited, and 203 oral contributions and 550 posters have been presented, all focused on recent developments in the field of superconductivity applications. This issue of Superconductor Science Technology is a collection of some of the plenary and invited contributions. Moreover, the winners of the EUCAS prizes (the electronics prize dedicated to the memory of Antonio Barone), and the most significant oral contributions selected by the 125 chairs involved in the organization, have been invited to submit their papers. The remaining papers presented at the conference will be published in the Journal Physics Conference Series, edited by S Farinon, G Lamura, A Malagoli and I Pallecchi. The papers have been organized into the four traditional topics of interest of EUCAS, namely materials, wires and tapes, large scale applications, and electronics. The plenary lectures on these four topics have been collected: Potential of iron-based superconductors for practical materials in the future (J Shimoyama), Coated conductors for power applications: materials challenges (J Obradors), Challenges and status of ITER conductor production (A Devred), and the Impact of superconducting devices in imaging in neuroscience (G L Romani). We hope that this issue will let you taste the flavours, hear the sounds and see the colours of this exciting EUCAS edition. The very large participation in EUCAS 2013 has allowed debates on a wide range of topics, starting from the most basic studies on emergent materials up to the new developments in electronics and large scale applications. A round table on HTS Conductors was experimented for the first time gathering material scientists, wire manufacturers and device builders in a stimulating

  12. Guest editorial: Special issue on selected papers from the IEEE SENSORS 2015 conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Jiang, Hongrui; Maeda, Ryutaro; Vellekoop, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, the IEEE SENSORS Conference has become one of the premier, true international, conferences on anything that has to do with sensors, ranging from principles, design and fabrication to interfacing, data-extraction, applications, etc. The IEEE SENSORS 2015 Conference was held in Bushan,

  13. Selective Laser Ablation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus with IgG Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Lucian; Ilie, Ioana; Tabaran, Flaviu A; Iancu, Cornel; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Pop, Teodora; Zdrehus, Claudiu; Bartos, Dana; Mocan, Teodora; Matea, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    Severe infections caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other bacteria are responsible for millions of deaths each year. One of the main objectives of future antibiotic strategies is to develop new anti-infective agents, which would be highly effective and drug-resistant (antimicrobial resistance being currently exhibited by MRSA), using specific antibodies conjugated to thermally active nanomaterials such as NIR-responsive photothermal contrast agents. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) covalently functionalized with immunoglobulin G (IgG, an antagonist of Staphylococcal protein A-SpA, which is a MRSA membrane associated protein) were selectively delivered (at various concentrations and incubation times) into MRSA bacteria. Following treatment, cultures were irradiated using an 808 nm 2 w laser diode. The post irradiation death rate ranged from 39.6% (for 1 mg/L) to 79.2% (for 50 mg/L) at 60 seconds (p < 0.001), while at 30 minutes, the death rate increased from 45.2% (1 mg/L) to 85.72% (50 mg/L), p < 0.001. Irradiated MRSAs treated with MWCNTs alone (control) for 60 seconds and 30 minutes, at concentrations ranging from 1 mg/L to 50 mg/L, resulted in significantly lower death rates (7.1-34.1% for 60 seconds, 11.7-48.8% for 30 minutes). Using IgG molecules bound to MWCNTs, followed by laser irradiation, we obtained a very efficacious nanoshell-mediated laser therapy of individual MRSA agents providing highly localized killing effects for IgG-MWCNTs targeted bacteria.

  14. Selective Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) screening of a high risk population does not adequately detect MRSA carriers within a country with low MRSA prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wouters, Solange; Daxhelet, Jérémy; Kaminski, Ludovic; Thienpont, Emmanuel; Cornu, Olivier; Yombi, Jean Cyr

    2015-12-01

    Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) has been widely recognized as a serious problem in hospital settings. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of MRSA colonization factors in the detection of MRSA carriers in an orthopedic ward. A systematic MRSA detection strategy was set up to assess the predictive value of MRSA colonization factors among 554 patients undergoing elective knee arthroplasty. In total 116 patients were found positive for Staphylococcus Aureus; among those 110/116 patients were found positive for Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA) and 6/116 for MRSA. Only one patient out of six presented two risk factors according to MRSA risk factors. In this study, no correlation was found between the remaining conventional risk factors, according to Belgian guidelines, defined to target high-risk populations and to identify MRSA carriers. Established criteria for selective MRSA screening do not allow detecting MRSA carriers. The objective of detecting MRSA carriers is not correctly met by the actual applied criteria (Belgian consensus) for a selective screening policy. Future studies should aim at identifying the right risk factors, depending of the country's prevalence of MRSA, to improve the ability to predict the risk of MRSA carriage at hospital admission.

  15. RESET: Information Services Trends in 2012. Selected Papers from PIALA Conference 2012, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (22nd, Tumon, U.S. Territory of Guam, Nov 13-16, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 22th annual conference was held in Tumon, Territory of Guam USA, November 13-16, 2012. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2012 Planning Committee and…

  16. "Be Informed, Stay Connected, Community Transformation!" Selected Papers from the PIALA Conference 2014, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (24th, Koror, Republic of Palau, Nov 10-15, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul Burton

    2015-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 24th annual conference was held in Koror, Republic of Palau, November 10-15, 2014. This volume includes a listing of the PIALA 2014 Organizing Committee and PIALA Officers and…

  17. Omics Approaches for the Study of Adaptive Immunity to Staphylococcus aureus and the Selection of Vaccine Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Holtfreter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous pathogen both in hospitals and in the community. Due to the crisis of antibiotic resistance, there is an urgent need for new strategies to combat S. aureus infections, such as vaccination. Increasing our knowledge about the mechanisms of protection will be key for the successful prevention or treatment of S. aureus invasion. Omics technologies generate a comprehensive picture of the physiological and pathophysiological processes within cells, tissues, organs, organisms and even populations. This review provides an overview of the contribution of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and immunoproteomics to the current understanding of S. aureus‑host interaction, with a focus on the adaptive immune response to the microorganism. While antibody responses during colonization and infection have been analyzed in detail using immunoproteomics, the full potential of omics technologies has not been tapped yet in terms of T-cells. Omics technologies promise to speed up vaccine development by enabling reverse vaccinology approaches. In consequence, omics technologies are powerful tools for deepening our understanding of the “superbug” S. aureus and for improving its control.

  18. Response surface methodology to design a selective co-enrichment broth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus for simultaneous detection by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiao Yan; Zhou, Wen Wu; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Xiao Fu; Xu, Jun Feng

    2012-07-25

    Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus are frequent co-visitors of contaminated foods to cause food-borne diseases. To achieve rapid detection of three organisms by multiplex PCR, a selective co-enrichment broth was considered to design using response surface methodology (RSM) in this work. NaCl, LiCl and KSCN as selective bacterial inhibitors were selected to optimize their concentrations for a matched composition of bacterial biomass with uniform amplification of three targets. Central composite design was employed to collect the data and fit the responses. Three quadratic polynomial models were derived by computer simulation. A statistical analysis was carried out to explore the effects of the variables on the composition of bacterial biomass and PCR amplification yields. In the end, a novel broth (ESS-3 broth) of NaCl 1.60%, LiCl 0.70%, KSCN 0.10% was formulated to allow co-enrichment of the target pathogens and suppress growth of some non-target pathogens. The simultaneous detection of E. coli, Salmonella spp. and S. aureus was developed on a rapid, convenient and sensitive method consisting of selective co-enrichment in ESS-3 broth, DNA extraction with the boiling method and robust test by multiplex PCR. Our work provided broader application of RSM for the simultaneous detection of other combinations of multiple pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Minor structural changes in nicotinoid insecticides confer differential subtype selectivity for mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Motohiro; Casida, John E

    1999-01-01

    The major nitroimine insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) and the nicotinic analgesics epibatidine and ABT-594 contain the 6-chloro-3-pyridinyl moiety important for high activity and/or selectivity. ABT-594 has considerable nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtype specificity which might carry over to the chloropyridinyl insecticides. This study considers nine IMI analogues for selectivity in binding to immuno-isolated α1, α3 and α7 containing nicotinic AChRs and to purported α4β2 nicotinic AChRs.α1- and α3-Containing nicotinic AChRs (both immuno-isolated by mAb 35, from Torpedo and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, respectively) are between two and four times more sensitive to DN-IMI than to (−)-nicotine.With immuno-isolated α3 nicotinic AChRs, the tetrahydropyrimidine analogues of IMI with imine or nitromethylene substituents are 3–4 fold less active than (−)-nicotine. The structure-activity profile with α3 nicotinic AChRs from binding assays is faithfully reproduced in agonist potency as induction of 86rubidium ion efflux in intact cells.α7-Containing nicotinic AChRs of SH-SY5Y cells (immuno-isolated by mAb 306) and rat brain membranes show maximum sensitivity to the tetrahydropyrimidine analogue of IMI with the nitromethylene substituent.The purported α4β2 nicotinic AChRs [mouse (Chao & Casida, 1997) and rat brain] are similar in sensitivity to DN-IMI, the tetrahydropyrimidine nitromethylene and nicotine.The commercial insecticides (IMI, acetamiprid and nitenpyram) have low to moderate potency at the α3 and purported α4β2 nicotinic AChRs and are essentially inactive at α1 and α7 nicotinic AChRs.In conclusion, the toxicity of the analogues and metabolites of nicotinoid insecticides in mammals may involve action at multiple receptor subtypes with selectivity conferred by minor structural changes. PMID:10369463

  20. Selected papers from the 7th IEEE International Nanoelectronics Conference (INEC 2016) and the 5th International Symposium on Next-Generation Electronics (ISNE 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Chi-Wah; Tam, Wing-Shan

    2017-12-01

    May is a busy but fruitful month of the year 2016, in which two renowned international conferences, the 7th IEEE International Nanoelectronics Conference (INEC 2016) and the 5th International Symposium on Next Generation Electronics (ISNE 2016), were successfully held in the technology hubs of Chengdu China and Hsinchu Taiwan, respectively. This special issue is a collection of selected research papers presented in these two conferences.

  1. Persistence of nasal colonisation with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 among participants of veterinary conferences and occurrence among their household members: A prospective cohort study, Germany 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jan; Espelage, Werner; Adlhoch, Cornelia; Cuny, Christiane; Schink, Susanne; Jansen, Andreas; Witte, Wolfgang; Eckmanns, Tim; Hermes, Julia

    2017-02-01

    There are only few data on the persistence and transmission of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of the clonal complex (CC) 398 among veterinarians and their household members. We therefore investigated the long-term colonisation with MRSA CC398 among participants of veterinary conferences in Germany in 2008/2009 and their household members. Forty-five initially MRSA CC398 positive and 180 initially MRSA CC398 negative conference participants were included in a longitudinal study. These persons and their household members were tested for nasal colonisation in 2011, 2012 and 2014. Of 31 continuously tested and initially MRSA CC398 positive participants only 8 (26%) were colonized with MRSA CC398at all 4 time points, 4 (13%) of them consistently with the same spa type. Among initially MRSA CC398 negative participants, 13 (7%) were tested MRSA CC398 positive at least once during the follow-up period. Data for household members at least at one time point were available for 185 households. Of these 21 (11%) households had one or more household member who tested positive for MRSA CC398at least once. The odds of household members to be MRSA CC398 positive was 12 times higher (95% confidence interval 4-37) when the conference participant tested MRSA CC398 positive in 2008/2009. This association remained strong when household members working in veterinary medicine or livestock farms were excluded. In summary, these data suggest that colonisation with MRSA CC398 is partially transient and that household members of MRSA CC398 colonized persons are at an increased risk of colonisation with MRSA CC398. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pacific Visions: Finding, Selecting, and Using Resources for Your Libraries, Archives, and Museums. Selected Papers from PIALA 2009, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (19th, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 19th annual conference was held in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2009 Planning…

  3. Effects of tetracycline and zinc on selection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type 398 in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moodley, Arshnee; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Guardabassi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of tetracycline and zinc on pig colonization and transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type (ST) 398. Eight piglets naturally colonized with MRSA ST398 and 8 MRSA-negative piglets of the same age...... and breed were assigned to three groups treated with tetracycline and zinc (Group 1), zinc (Group 2) or tetracycline alone (Group 3) and one non-treated group (Group 4), each containing two MRSA-positive and two MRSA-negative animals. Two additional non-treated control groups composed of only MRSA......-positive (Group 5) and MRSA-negative (Group 6) animals were used to check for stability of MRSA carriage status. Nasal swabs and environmental wipes were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, and 21, and the occurrence of MRSA in each sample was quantified by bacteriological counts on Brilliance™ MRSA agar. Significantly...

  4. Highlights from SelectBio 2015: Academic Drug Discovery Conference, Cambridge, UK, 19-20 May 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John; Coaker, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    The SelectBio 2015: Academic Drug Discovery Conference was held in Cambridge, UK, on 19-20 May 2015. Building on the success of academic drug discovery events in the USA, this conference aimed to showcase the exciting new research emerging from academic drug discovery and to help bridge the gap between basic research and commercial application. At the event the authors heard from a number of speakers on a broad array of topics, from partnering models for academia and industry to novel drug discovery approaches across various therapeutic areas, with a few talks, such as those by Susanne Muller-Knapp (Structure Genomics Consortium, Oxford University, Oxford, UK) and Julian Blagg (Institute of Cancer Research, UK), covering both remits, by highlighting a number of such partnerships and then delving into some case studies. The conference concluded with a heated debate on whether phenotypic discovery should be favored over targeted discovery in academia and pharma, in a panel discussion chaired by Roland Wolkowicz (San Diego State University, USA).

  5. Gender differences in conference presentations: a consequence of self-selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therésa M. Jones

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Women continue to be under-represented in the sciences, with their representation declining at each progressive academic level. These differences persist despite long-running policies to ameliorate gender inequity. We compared gender differences in exposure and visibility at an evolutionary biology conference for attendees at two different academic levels: student and post-PhD academic. Despite there being almost exactly a 1:1 ratio of women and men attending the conference, we found that when considering only those who presented talks, women spoke for far less time than men of an equivalent academic level: on average student women presented for 23% less time than student men, and academic women presented for 17% less time than academic men. We conducted more detailed analyses to tease apart whether this gender difference was caused by decisions made by the attendees or through bias in evaluation of the abstracts. At both academic levels, women and men were equally likely to request a presentation. However, women were more likely than men to prefer a short talk, regardless of academic level. We discuss potential underlying reasons for this gender bias, and provide recommendations to avoid similar gender biases at future conferences.

  6. Onsite wastewater treatment, recycling and small water and wastewater systems: Selected proceedings of the IWA 6th International specialised conference on small water and wastewater systems and 1st International specialised conference on onsite wastewater treatment and recycling, held in Freemantle, Western Australia, 11-13 February 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathew, K; Ho, G

    2005-01-01

    This issue contains a selection of 40 papers presented at IWA's 6th Specialised Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems and 1st Specialised Conference on Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Recycling...

  7. Mps1 Mediated Phosphorylation of Hsp90 Confers Renal Cell Carcinoma Sensitivity and Selectivity to Hsp90 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Woodford

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The molecular chaperone Hsp90 protects deregulated signaling proteins that are vital for tumor growth and survival. Tumors generally display sensitivity and selectivity toward Hsp90 inhibitors; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenotype remains undefined. We report that the mitotic checkpoint kinase Mps1 phosphorylates a conserved threonine residue in the amino-domain of Hsp90. This, in turn, regulates chaperone function by reducing Hsp90 ATPase activity while fostering Hsp90 association with kinase clients, including Mps1. Phosphorylation of Hsp90 is also essential for the mitotic checkpoint because it confers Mps1 stability and activity. We identified Cdc14 as the phosphatase that dephosphorylates Hsp90 and disrupts its interaction with Mps1. This causes Mps1 degradation, thus providing a mechanism for its inactivation. Finally, Hsp90 phosphorylation sensitizes cells to its inhibitors, and elevated Mps1 levels confer renal cell carcinoma selectivity to Hsp90 drugs. Mps1 expression level can potentially serve as a predictive indicator of tumor response to Hsp90 inhibitors.

  8. The ability of S.aureus to form biofilm on the Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds produced by Selective Laser Melting and subjected to the different types of surface modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczyk, Patrycja; Junka, Adam; Ziółkowski, Grzegorz; Smutnicka, Danuta; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna; Chlebus, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-positive coccus, Staphylococcus aureus, is the leading etiologic agent of limb and life-threatening biofilm-related infections in the patients following the orthopaedic implantations. The aim of the present paper is to estimate the ability of S. aureus to form biofilm on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-7Nb) scaffolds produced by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and subjected to the different types of surface modifications, including ultrasonic cleaning and chemical polishing. The results obtained indicate significantly the decreased ability of S.aureus to form biofilm on the surface of scaffolds subjected to the chemical polishing in comparison to the scaffolds cleaned ultrasonically. The data provided can be useful for future applications of the SLM technology in production of Ti-6Al-7Nb medical implants.

  9. Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Copper Alloys on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in Different Simulations of Environmental Conditions: With vs. without Organic Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, Anna; Chmielarczyk, Agnieszka; Romaniszyn, Dorota; Sroka-Oleksiak, Agnieszka; Bulanda, Małgorzata; Walkowicz, Monika; Osuch, Piotr; Knych, Tadeusz

    2017-07-20

    Background: Hospital equipment made from copper alloys can play an important role in complementing traditional methods of disinfection. Aims of the study: The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of the antimicrobial properties of selected copper alloys in different simulations of environmental conditions (with organic contamination vs. without organic contamination), and to test alternatives to the currently used testing methods. Materials and Methods: A modification of Japanese standard JIS Z 2801 as well as Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Escherichia coli (EC) suspended in NaCl vs. tryptic soy broth (TSB) were used in tests performed on seven commonly used copper alloys, copper, and stainless steel. Results: A much faster reduction of the bacterial suspension was observed for the inoculum prepared in NaCl than in TSB. A faster reduction for EC than for SA was observed in the inoculum prepared in NaCl. The opposite results were found for the inoculum based on TSB. A significant correlation between the copper concentration in the copper alloys and the time and degree of bacterial suspension reduction was only observed in the case of EC. Conclusions: This study confirmed the antimicrobial properties of copper alloys, and additionally showed that Staphylococcus aureus was more resistant than Escherichia coli in the variant of the experiment without organic contamination. However, even for SA, a total reduction of the bacterial inoculum's density took no longer than 2 h. Under conditions simulating organic contamination, all of the tested alloys were shown to have bactericidal or bacteriostatic properties, which was contrary to the results from stainless steel.

  10. Determining the prevalence of SCCmec polymorphism, virulence and antibiotic resistance genes among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates collected from selected hospitals in west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherikalani, Morovat; Mohammadzad, Mohammad Reza; Soroush, Setareh; Maleki, Mohammad Hossein; Azizi-Jalilian, Farid; Pakzad, Iraj; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Asadollahi, Parisa; Emaneini, Mohammad; Monjezi, Aazam; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef

    2016-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most important pathogens worldwide and compared to other staphylococcal species that are associated with higher mortality rate. A total of 500 Staphylococcus spp. was collected from selected hospitals in Ilam, Kermanshah, Khorram Abad and Hamadan cities and, via phenotypic and genotypic methods, was assessed to find MRSA. The presence or absence of prevalent antibiotic resistance genes and virulence genes was evaluated among MRSA isolates, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, and then the SCCmec typing of these isolates was assayed by multiplex PCR. A total of 372 (74.4%) Stapylococcus spp. isolates were identified as S. aureus, among which 200 (53.8%) possessed the mecA gene and were distinguished as MRSA. All of MRSA isolates contained blaZ gene. The frequency of ermA and ermC genes among erythromycin-resistant MRSA isolates was 21.6% and 66.7%, respectively. The frequency of the virulence genes eta, hla and sea among MRSA isolates was 10%, 80.5% and 100%, respectively. SCCmec type IV accounted for 30.6% of the MRSA isolates and SCCmec type III, SCCmec type II and SCCmec type I accounted for 30%, 22% and 17.5% of the isolates, respectively. The antibiotic resistance genes and the virulence genes of blaZ, hla, sea, eta and ermC had high frequencies among the MRSA isolates. This study showed that the antibiotic resistance genes had higher frequencies among SCCmec types I and IV, which confirms the previous reports in this field.

  11. In vitro evaluation of nutrients that selectively confer a competitive advantage to lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsa, R A; Minerath, R A; Busch, M A; Tan, J; Koenig, D W

    2016-01-01

    An assay was developed that tested the ability of Lactobacillus acidophilus to outcompete a challenge of Escherichia coli in a mixed culture containing different test nutrients. Using this assay, addition of fructo-oligosaccharide to the media allowed L. acidophilus to outcompete a challenge of E. coli, whereas in a mixed culture without the prebiotic the trend was reversed. Growth curves generated for E. coli in a single culture showed that fructo-oligosaccharide did not affect growth, indicating that the carbohydrate was not toxic to E. coli. This indicates that fructo-oligosaccharides may increase the ability of beneficial microbes to outcompete a pathogenic challenge. These results were confirmed using a skin simulant model that incorporates growth of the organisms at an air-surface interface to mimic the vulvar environment. It is possible to use a co-culture assay as an in vitro screening tool to define nutrients that confer a competitive advantage to beneficial flora specific to the female urogenital tract.

  12. Selected papers from Middleware'98: The IFIP International Conference on Distributed Systems Platforms and Open Distributed Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Nigel; Raymond, Kerry; Blair, Gordon

    1999-03-01

    In recent years the distributed systems community has witnessed a growth in the number of conferences, leading to difficulties in tracking the literature and a consequent loss of awareness of work done by others in this important research domain. In an attempt to synthesize many of the smaller workshops and conferences in the field, and to bring together research communities which were becoming fragmented, IFIP staged Middleware'98: The IFIP International Conference on Distributed Systems Platforms and Open Distributed Processing. The conference was widely publicized and attracted over 150 technical submissions including 135 full paper submissions. The final programme consisted of 28 papers, giving an acceptance ratio of a little over one in five. More crucially, the programme accurately reflected the state of the art in middleware research, addressing issues such as ORB architectures, engineering of large-scale systems and multimedia. The traditional role of middleware as a point of integration and service provision was clearly intact, but the programme stressed the importance of emerging `must-have' features such as support for extensibility, mobility and quality of service. The Middleware'98 conference was held in the Lake District, UK in September 1998. Over 160 delegates made the journey to one of the UK's most beautiful regions and contributed to a lively series of presentations and debates. A permanent record of the conference, including transcripts of the panel discussions which took place, is available at: http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/computing/middleware98/ Based on their original reviews and the reactions of delegates to the ensuing presentations we have selected six papers from the conference for publication in this special issue of Distributed Systems Engineering. The first paper, entitled `Jonathan: an open distributed processing environment in Java', by Dumant et al describes a minimal, modular ORB framework which can be used for supporting real

  13. A discrete genetic locus confers xyloglucan metabolism in select human gut Bacteroidetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsbrink, Johan; Rogers, Theresa E.; Hemsworth, Glyn R.; McKee, Lauren S.; Tauzin, Alexandra S.; Spadiut, Oliver; Klinter, Stefan; Pudlo, Nicholas A.; Urs, Karthik; Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Creagh, A. Louise; Haynes, Charles A.; Kelly, Amelia G.; Cederholm, Stefan Nilsson; Davies, Gideon J.; Martens, Eric C.; Brumer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    A well-balanced human diet includes a significant intake of non-starch polysaccharides, collectively termed “dietary fibre,” from the cell walls of diverse fruits and vegetables.1 Due to a paucity of alimentary enzymes encoded by the human genome,2 our ability to derive energy from dietary fibre depends on saccharification and fermentation of complex carbohydrates by the massive microbial community residing in our distal gut.3,4 The xyloglucans (XyGs), in particular, are a ubiquitous family of highly branched plant cell wall polysaccharides5,6 whose mechanism(s) of degradation in the human gut and consequent importance in nutrition was heretofore unknown.1,7,8 Here, we demonstrate that a single, complex gene locus in Bacteroides ovatus confers xyloglucan catabolism in this common colonic symbiont. Through targeted gene disruption, biochemical analysis of all predicted glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate-binding proteins, and three-dimensional structural determination of the vanguard endo-xyloglucanase, we reveal the molecular mechanisms through which XyGs are hydrolysed to component monosaccharides for further metabolism. We also observe that orthologous xyloglucan utilization loci (XyGULs) serve as genetic markers of xyloglucan catabolism in Bacteroidetes, that XyGULs are restricted to a limited number of phylogenetically diverse strains, and that XyGULs are ubiquitous in surveyed human metagenomes. Our findings reveal that the metabolism of even highly abundant components of dietary fibre may be mediated by niche species, which has immediate fundamental and practical implications for gut symbiont population ecology in the context of human diet, nutrition and health.9–12 PMID:24463512

  14. PREFACE: Selected papers from the Fourth Topical Conference on Nanoscale Science and Engineering of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael S.; Lee, Gil U.

    2005-07-01

    systems and tissue engineering; nanotechnology for drug delivery and imaging; bionanotechnology in cancer and cardiovascular disease; nanostructured biomaterials; nanotechnology in bioengineering; nanofabrication of biosensing devices. We are pleased to present a selection of research papers in this special issue of Nanotechnology on behalf of the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Forum (NSEF). NSEF was established in 2001 as a new division of AIChE to promote nanotechnology efforts in chemical engineering. The chemical engineering discipline deals with the production and processing of chemicals and materials, and does so through a fundamental understanding of the core issues of transport, thermodynamics, and kinetics that exist at multiple length scales. Thus, it should come as no surprise that chemical engineers have been pursuing nanotechnology research for the last fifty years. For example, fuel production has benefited immensely from improved catalysts in which their pore structure is controlled with nanoscale precision, and polymer properties have been improved by controlling the polymer supramolecular structure at the nanometre scale. Chemical engineering will continue to make important contributions to nanotechnology, and will play a critical role in the transition from basic science and engineering research to commercial applications. We would like to thank all of the authors who contributed to this special issue; the three NSEF poster presentation award winners for their papers (Sureshkumar, Sunkara, and Rinaldi groups); Dr Nina Couzin, Publisher of Nanotechnology, for her support and enthusiasm for this project; Drs Sharon Glotzer and Dan Coy who chaired the topical conference; and Drs Meyya Meyyappan and Brett Cruden (NASA Ames Research Center) for their assistance in the initial planning stages. We also take this opportunity to thank the many people and organizations who have supported the 2004 topical conference along the way, which include all the session

  15. Selective control of small versus large diameter axons using infrared laser light (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothet, Emilie H.; Shaw, Kendrick M.; Horn, Charles C.; Lu, Hui; Wang, Yves T.; Jansen, E. Duco; Chiel, Hillel J.; Jenkins, Michael W.

    2016-03-01

    Sensory information is conveyed to the central nervous system via small diameter unmyelinated fibers. In general, smaller diameter axons have slower conduction velocities. Selective control of such fibers could create new clinical treatments for chronic pain, nausea in response to chemo-therapeutic agents, or hypertension. Electrical stimulation can control axonal activity, but induced axonal current is proportional to cross-sectional area, so that large diameter fibers are affected first. Physiologically, however, synaptic inputs generally affect small diameter fibers before large diameter fibers (the size principle). A more physiological modality that first affected small diameter fibers could have fewer side effects (e.g., not recruiting motor axons). A novel mathematical analysis of the cable equation demonstrates that the minimum length along the axon for inducing block scales with the square root of axon diameter. This implies that the minimum length along an axon for inhibition will scale as the square root of axon diameter, so that lower radiant exposures of infrared light will selectively affect small diameter, slower conducting fibers before those of large diameter. This prediction was tested in identified neurons from the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Radiant exposure to block a neuron with a slower conduction velocity (B43) was consistently lower than that needed to block a faster conduction velocity neuron (B3). Furthermore, in the vagus nerve of the musk shrew, lower radiant exposure blocked slow conducting fibers before blocking faster conducting fibers. Infrared light can selectively control smaller diameter fibers, suggesting many novel clinical treatments.

  16. An infrared metamaterial selective absorber with emitter considering atmospheric absorption for low observability (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jagyeong; Han, Kiwook; Hahn, Jae W.

    2016-09-01

    Advancement in stealth technology is very crucial for the protection from enemy. Detection of IR electromagnetic wave is performed by detecting the IR radiation from aircraft fuselage or reflected laser by using laser guided missile. In this research, we designed the metamaterial selective absorber with emitter considering atmospheric absorption to minimize observability from these detecting system. The model is designed as T-asymmetric structure for dual-band absorption or emission, and these two parts can be independently tuned. One part is designed as emitter which emit the radiation in the wavelength region where atmospheric absorption is strong. In order to select the target wavelength region, we used the MODTRAN database to calculate the molecular absorption in the atmosphere and strong absorptions occurs at 2μm, 4μm and 5-8μm wavelength regions. The other part is designed as an absorber which absorbs the IR signal from laser guided missile at 1.064μm. Selective emission or absorption at these wavelength region can be achieved by tuning the geometry of the structure. These mechanisms suppose the thermal equilibrium state so that the Kirchhoff law is satisfied. FDTD simulations of the designed structure was conducted to confirm the electromagnetic resonance. Also, we calculated the detected energy from the designed structure and compared with that from conventional aircraft surface. According to the calculation results, the measured signal from the suggested structure decreases to 1/10 of the signal from conventional surface.

  17. Infinity in Logic and Computation: International Conference, ILC 2007, Cape Town, South Africa, November 3-5, 2007: Revised selected papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archibald, M.; Brattka, V.; Goranko, V.; Löwe, B.

    2009-01-01

    Edited in collaboration with FoLLI, the Association of Logic, Language and Information, this volume constitutes a selection of papers presented at the Internatonal Conference on Infinity in Logic and Computation, ILC 2007, held in Cape Town, South Africa, in November 2007. The 7 revised papers

  18. Logic and the Foundations of Game and Decision Theory - LOFT 8: 8th International Conference, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, July 3-5, 2008: revised selected papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanno, G.; Löwe, B.; van der Hoek, W.

    2010-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Logic and the Foundations of the Theory of Game and Decision Theory, LOFT8 2008, held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, July 2008. This volume is based on a selection of the presented papers and invited talks. They

  19. College and University Planning -- 1969. Selected Papers from Society for College and University Planning Annual Conference. (4th, Houston, Texas, August 17-20, 1969.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Frederick W., Ed.; Schmult, Carl V., Jr., Ed.

    Six major conference papers cover selected planning activities for eight institutions of higher education. Discussed are academic planning for the University of Houston; circulation, parking, and landscape planning for the University of California at Irvine; planning office organization and staffing at Harvard and Ohio State Universities; building…

  20. Selective two-photon collagen crosslinking in situ measured by Brillouin microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sheldon J. J.; Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Kim, Moonseok; Choi, Myunghwan; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2017-02-01

    Two-photon polymerization and crosslinking are commonly used methods for microfabrication of three-dimensional structures with applications spanning from photonic microdevices, drug delivery systems, to cellular scaffolds. However, the use of two-photon processes for precise, internal modification of biological tissues has not yet been reported. One of the major challenges has been a lack of appropriate tools to monitor and characterize crosslinked regions nondestructively. Here, we demonstrate spatially selective two-photon collagen crosslinking (2P-CXL) in intact tissue for the first time. Using riboflavin photosensitizer and femtosecond laser irradiation, we crosslinked a small volume of tissue within animal corneas. Collagen fiber orientations and photobleaching were characterized by second harmonic generation and two-photon fluorescence imaging, respectively. Using confocal Brillouin microscopy, we measured local changes in longitudinal mechanical moduli and visualized the cross-linked pattern without perturbing surrounding non-irradiated regions. 2P-CXL-induced tissue stiffening was comparable to that achieved with conventional one-photon CXL. Our results demonstrate the ability to selectively stiffen biological tissue in situ at high spatial resolution, with broad implications in ophthalmology, laser surgery, and tissue engineering.

  1. Automated imaging of cellular spheroids with selective plane illumination microscopy on a chip (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiè, Petra; Bassi, Andrea; Bragheri, Francesca; Osellame, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    Selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) is an optical sectioning technique that allows imaging of biological samples at high spatio-temporal resolution. Standard SPIM devices require dedicated set-ups, complex sample preparation and accurate system alignment, thus limiting the automation of the technique, its accessibility and throughput. We present a millimeter-scaled optofluidic device that incorporates selective plane illumination and fully automatic sample delivery and scanning. To this end an integrated cylindrical lens and a three-dimensional fluidic network were fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining into a single glass chip. This device can upgrade any standard fluorescence microscope to a SPIM system. We used SPIM on a CHIP to automatically scan biological samples under a conventional microscope, without the need of any motorized stage: tissue spheroids expressing fluorescent proteins were flowed in the microchannel at constant speed and their sections were acquired while passing through the light sheet. We demonstrate high-throughput imaging of the entire sample volume (with a rate of 30 samples/min), segmentation and quantification in thick (100-300 μm diameter) cellular spheroids. This optofluidic device gives access to SPIM analyses to non-expert end-users, opening the way to automatic and fast screening of a high number of samples at subcellular resolution.

  2. Mendel conference

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of selected accepted papers of Mendel conference that has been held in Brno, Czech Republic in June 2015. The book contents three chapters which represent recent advances in soft computing including intelligent image processing and bio-inspired robotics.: Chapter 1: Evolutionary Computing, and Swarm intelligence, Chapter 2: Neural Networks, Self-organization, and Machine Learning, and Chapter3: Intelligent Image Processing, and Bio-inspired Robotics. The Mendel conference was established in 1995, and it carries the name of the scientist and Augustinian priest Gregor J. Mendel who discovered the famous Laws of Heredity. In 2015 we are commemorating 150 years since Mendel's lectures, which he presented in Brno on February and March 1865. The main aim of the conference was to create a periodical possibility for students, academics and researchers to exchange their ideas and novel research methods.  .

  3. Parity-time symmetry optics for modal selection in transverse and longitudinal waves (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benisty, Henri; Lupu, Anatole

    2017-05-01

    The evolving field of optics for information and communication is currently seeking directions to expand the data rates in all concerned devices, fiber-based or on chips. We describe here two possibilities where the new concept of PT-symmetry in optics [1,2] can be exploited to help high data rate operation, considering either transverse or longitudinal aspects of modal selection, and assuming that data are carried using precise modes. The first aspect is transverse multimode transport. In this case, a fiber or a waveguide carries a few modes, say 4 to 16, and at nodes, they have to undergo a demux/mux operation to add or drop a subset of them, as much as possible without affecting the others. We shall consider to this end the operation as described in ref. [3] : if a PT-symmetric "potential", which essentially consists of a transverse gain-loss profile with antisymmetry, is applied to a waveguide, it has a very different impact on the different modes and mode families in the waveguide. One can in particular find situations where only two modes of the passive waveguide to be analyzed may enter into a gain regime, and not the other ones. From this scheme and others [4], we will discuss what is the road left towards an actual device, either in dielectrics or in case plasmonics is envisioned [5], i.e. with rather constant losses, but the possible advantage of miniaturization. The second aspect is longitudinal mode selection. The special transport properties of PT-symmetric Bragg gratings are now well established. In order to be used within a data management system, attention has to be paid to the rejection rate of Bragg gratings, and to the flatness of their response in the targeted window. To this end, a slow modulation of both real and imaginary parts of the periodic pattern of the basically PT-symmetric waveguide can help, in the general spirit of "apodization", but now with more parameters. We will detail some aspects of the designs introduced in [6] , notably

  4. The anchorless adhesin Eap (extracellular adherence protein) from Staphylococcus aureus selectively recognizes extracellular matrix aggregates but binds promiscuously to monomeric matrix macromolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Uwe; Hussain, Muzaffar; Villone, Daniela; Herrmann, Mathias; Robenek, Horst; Peters, Georg; Sinha, Bhanu; Bruckner, Peter

    Besides a number of cell wall-anchored adhesins, the majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains produce anchorless, cell wall-associated proteins, such as Eap (extracellular adherence protein). Eap contains four to six tandem repeat (EAP)-domains. Eap mediates diverse biological functions, including

  5. Non-recessive Bt toxin resistance conferred by an intracellular cadherin mutation in field-selected populations of cotton bollworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haonan Zhang

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins have been planted widely to control insect pests, yet evolution of resistance by the pests can reduce the benefits of this approach. Recessive mutations in the extracellular domain of toxin-binding cadherin proteins that confer resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac by disrupting toxin binding have been reported previously in three major lepidopteran pests, including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Here we report a novel allele from cotton bollworm with a deletion in the intracellular domain of cadherin that is genetically linked with non-recessive resistance to Cry1Ac. We discovered this allele in each of three field-selected populations we screened from northern China where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown intensively. We expressed four types of cadherin alleles in heterologous cell cultures: susceptible, resistant with the intracellular domain mutation, and two complementary chimeric alleles with and without the mutation. Cells transfected with each of the four cadherin alleles bound Cry1Ac and were killed by Cry1Ac. However, relative to cells transfected with either the susceptible allele or the chimeric allele lacking the intracellular domain mutation, cells transfected with the resistant allele or the chimeric allele containing the intracellular domain mutation were less susceptible to Cry1Ac. These results suggest that the intracellular domain of cadherin is involved in post-binding events that affect toxicity of Cry1Ac. This evidence is consistent with the vital role of the intracellular region of cadherin proposed by the cell signaling model of the mode of action of Bt toxins. Considered together with previously reported data, the results suggest that both pore formation and cell signaling pathways contribute to the efficacy of Bt toxins.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus (Staph Infection) In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with ... from your health care provider. What is a staph infection? Staphylococcus aureus (staph) is a type of ...

  7. Assessing the Training and Operational Proficiency of China’s Aerospace Forces: Selections from the Inaugural Conference of the China Aerospace Studies Institute (CASI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Edmund J. Burke, Astrid Stuth Cevallos, Mark R. Cozad, Timothy R. Heath Assessing the Training and Operational Proficiency of China’s Aerospace ...Forces Selections from the Inaugural Conference of the China Aerospace Studies Institute (CASI) C O R P O R A T I O N Limited Print and Electronic...iii Preface On June 22, 2015, the China Aerospace Studies Institute (CASI), in conjunction with Headquarters, Air Force, held a day-long

  8. PREFACE: Selected invited contributions from the International Conference on Magnetism (Karlsruhe, Germany, 26-31 July 2009) Selected invited contributions from the International Conference on Magnetism (Karlsruhe, Germany, 26-31 July 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Gernot; Löhneysen, Hilbert v.; Loidl, Alois; Pruschke, Thomas; Richter, Manuel; Schultz, Ludwig; Sürgers, Christoph; Wosnitza, Jochen

    2010-04-01

    The International Conference on Magnetism 2009 (ICM 2009) was held in Karlsruhe, Germany, from 26 to 31 July 2009. Previous conferences in this series were organized in Edinburgh, UK (1991), Warsaw, Poland (1994), Cairns, Australia (1997), Recife, Brazil (2000), Rome, Italy (2003), and Kyoto, Japan (2006). As with previous ICM conferences, the annual Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES) was integrated into ICM 2009. The topics presented at ICM 2009 were strongly correlated electron systems, quantum and classical spin systems, magnetic structures and interactions, magnetization dynamics and micromagnetics, spin-dependent transport, spin electronics, magnetic thin films, particles and nanostructures, soft and hard magnetic materials and their applications, novel materials and device applications, magnetic recording and memories, measuring techniques and instrumentation, as well as interdisciplinary topics. We are grateful to the International Advisory Committee for their help in coordinating an attractive program encompassing practically all aspects of magnetism, both experimentally and theoretically. The Program Committee comprised A Loidl, Germany (Chair), M A Continentino, Brazil, D E Dahlberg, USA, D Givord, France, G Güntherodt, Germany, H Mikeska, Germany, D Kaczorowski, Poland, Ching-Ray Chang, South Korea, I Mertig, Germany, D Vollhardt, Germany, and E F Wassermann, Germany. E F Wassermann was also head of the National Organizing Committee. His help is gratefully acknowledged. The scientific program started on Monday 27 July 2009 with opening addresses by the Conference Chairman, the Deputy Mayor of Karlsruhe, Ms M Mergen and the Chairman of the Executive Board of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, E Umbach. ICM 2009 was attended by the Nobel Laureates P W Anderson, A Fert and P Grünberg who gave plenary talks. A special highlight was the presentation of the Magnetism Award and Néel Medal to S S P Parkin who also presented his newest results

  9. Discover the Hidden Jewels in Your Library and Sharing the Wealth through Collaboration. Selected Papers from PIALA 2011, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (21st, Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia, November 14-17, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 21st annual conference was held in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia, November 14-17, 2011. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2011 Planning…

  10. SIGEF Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Terceño-Gómez, Antonio; Ferrer-Comalat, Joan; Merigó-Lindahl, José; Linares-Mustarós, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of selected papers presented at the SIGEF conference, held at the Faculty of Economics and Business of the University of Girona (Spain), 06-08 July, 2015. This edition of the conference has been presented with the slogan “Scientific methods for the treatment of uncertainty in social sciences”. There are different ways for dealing with uncertainty in management. The book focuses on soft computing theories and their role in assessing uncertainty in a complex world. It gives a comprehensive overview of quantitative management topics and discusses some of the most recent developments in all the areas of business and management in soft computing including Decision Making, Expert Systems and Forgotten Effects Theory, Forecasting Models, Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Sets, Modelling and Simulation Techniques, Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms and Optimization and Control. The book might be of great interest for anyone working in the area of management and business economics and might be es...

  11. Staphylococcus aureus toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous pathogen that causes a variety of severe diseases. The virulence of S. aureus is defined by a large repertoire of virulence factors, among which secreted toxins play a preeminent role. Many S. aureus toxins damage biological membranes, leading to cell death. In particular, S. aureus produces potent hemolysins and leukotoxins. Among the latter, some were recently identified to lyse neutrophils after ingestion, representing an especially powerful weapon against bacterial elimination by innate host defense. Furthermore, S. aureus secretes many factors that inhibit the complement cascade or prevent recognition by host defenses. Several further toxins add to this multi-faceted program of S. aureus to evade elimination in the host. This review will give an overview over S. aureus toxins focusing on recent advances in our understanding of how leukotoxins work in receptor-mediated or receptor-independent fashions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Guest Editor's introduction: Selected papers from the 4th USENIX Conference on Object-Oriented Technologies and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sventek, Joe

    1998-12-01

    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA Introduction The USENIX Conference on Object-Oriented Technologies and Systems (COOTS) is held annually in the late spring. The conference evolved from a set of C++ workshops that were held under the auspices of USENIX, the first of which met in 1989. Given the growing diverse interest in object-oriented technologies, the C++ focus of the workshop eventually became too narrow, with the result that the scope was widened in 1995 to include object-oriented technologies and systems. COOTS is intended to showcase advanced R&D efforts in object-oriented technologies and software systems. The conference emphasizes experimental research and experience gained by using object-oriented techniques and languages to build complex software systems that meet real-world needs. COOTS solicits papers in the following general areas: application of, and experiences with, object-oriented technologies in particular domains (e.g. financial, medical, telecommunication); the architecture and implementation of distributed object systems (e.g. CORBA, DCOM, RMI); object-oriented programming and specification languages; object-oriented design and analysis. The 4th meeting of COOTS was held 27 - 30 April 1998 at the El Dorado Hotel, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Several tutorials were given. The technical program proper consisted of a single track of six sessions, with three paper presentations per session. A keynote address and a provocative panel session rounded out the technical program. The program committee reviewed 56 papers, selecting the best 18 for presentation in the technical sessions. While we solicit papers across the spectrum of applications of object-oriented technologies, this year there was a predominance of distributed, object-oriented papers. The accepted papers reflected this asymmetry, with 15 papers on distributed objects and 3 papers on object-oriented languages. The papers in this special issue are

  13. Immunoglobulin Fc receptors in clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus do not confer resistance to Phagocytosis in an in vitro assay Los receptores Fc para inmunoglobulinas en cepas clínicas de Staphylococcus aureus no confieren resistencia a la fagocitosis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito VEGA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus binds Immunoglobulin G (IgG on its external surface due to the presence of specific receptors for the Fc domain of this immunoglobulin. This mechanism represents a kind of camouflage against phagocytic cells. In order to confirm that possibility an in vitro evaluation of the phagocytic activity of leukocytes polymorpho-nuclear (PMN against strains of Staphylococcus aureus was done, comparing 18 strains isolated from clinical samples and 16 from healthy individuals. The presence of Fc receptors was evaluated by haemagglutination (HA with erythrocytes group A after incubation of the strains with IgG anti blood group A. Phagocytosis of S. aureus was carried out by mixing live bacteria with a suspension of human PMN and incubating at 37 °C for 1 h; survivors were counted as colony forming units by plating. The strains from clinical specimens showed higher HA than those from healthy individuals (p = 0.01; but the former were killed more efficiently than the latter (80-90% and 40%, respectively. It is may be possible that S. aureus showed different behavior in vivo, where could express other virulence factors to prevent the action of phagocytes.Staphylococcus aureus liga inmunoglobulinas G (IgG a su superficie externa debido a la presencia de receptores para el dominio Fc de esas inmunoglobulinas. Este mecanismo representa una clase de camuflage contra células fagocíticas. Para confirmar tal posibilidad se realizó una evaluación in vitro de la actividad fagocítica de leucocitos polimorfonucleares (PMN contra cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, comparando 18 cepas aisladas de casos clínicos y 16 de individuos sanos. La presencia de receptores fue evaluada por hemaglutinación (HA con eritrocitos grupo A luego que las cepas fueron incubadas con IgG anti grupo sanguíneo A. La fagocitosis de S. aureus fue realizada mezclando células vivas con una suspensión de PMN e incubada a 37 °C por una hora; las bacterias sobrevivientes

  14. PREFACE: Selected papers from the Fourth Annual q-bio Conference on Cellular Information Processing Selected papers from the Fourth Annual q-bio Conference on Cellular Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemenman, Ilya; Faeder, James R.; Hlavacek, William S.; Jiang, Yi; Wall, Michael E.; Zilman, Anton

    2011-10-01

    Summary This special issue consists of 11 original papers that elaborate on work presented at the Fourth Annual q-bio Conference on Cellular Information Processing, which was held on the campus of St John's College in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, 11-14 August 2010. Now in its fourth year, the q-bio conference has changed considerably over time. It is now well established and a major event in systems biology. The 2010 conference saw attendees from all continents (except Antarctica!) sharing novel results and participating in lively discussions at both the oral and poster sessions. The conference was oversubscribed and grew to 27 contributed talks, 16 poster spotlights and 137 contributed posters. We deliberately decreased the number of invited speakers to 21 to leave more space for contributed presentations, and the attendee feedback confirmed that the choice was a success. Although the q-bio conference has grown and matured, it has remained true to the original goal of being an intimate and dynamic event that brings together modeling, theory and quantitative experimentation for the study of cell regulation and information processing. Funded in part by a grant from NIGMS and by DOE funds through the Los Alamos National Laboratory Directed Research and Development program, the conference has continued to exhibit youth and vigor by attracting (and partially supporting) over 100 undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral researchers. The associated q-bio summer school, which precedes the conference each year, further emphasizes the development of junior scientists and makes q-bio a singular event in its impact on the future of quantitative biology. In addition to an increased international presence, the conference has notably diversified its demographic representation within the USA, including increased participation from the southeastern corner of the country. One big change in the conference this year is our new publication partner, Physical Biology. Although we are very

  15. Selections from the ABC 2016 Annual Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico: Teaching Innovations Soaring Like a Flight of Balloons over Albuquerque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D. Joel, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This article, the second of a two-part series, presents 12 assignments designed to help students increase their online communication skills, conduct professional conferences, use advanced presentation software, develop problem-solving and critical thinking, gain greater awareness of gender effects in communication, and perform community service.…

  16. Selections from the ABC 2015 Annual Conference, Seattle, Washington: Pitching Fish and Innovative Oral and Written Business Communication Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D. Joel, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This article, the first of a two-part series, presents teaching 10 innovations from the 2015 Association for Business Communication's 80th annual conference. The creative new assignments offered here include building listening skills by journaling, oral interpretation, positive message framing, storytelling, delivering bad news, persuasive…

  17. Selected papers from the 7th International Conference on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-bio (BAMN2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Oh, Ilkwon

    2014-07-01

    The 7th International Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio was held on the magnificent and beautiful Jeju Island in Korea on 26-30 August 2013. In June 2007, the volcanic island and lava tube cave systems were designated as UNESCO World Natural Heritage Sites for their natural beauty and unique geographical values. The aim of the congress was to offer high-level lectures, extensive discussions and communications covering the state-of-the-art on biomimetics, artificial muscles, and nano-bio technologies providing an overview of their potential applications in the industrial, biomedical, scientific and robotic fields. This conference provided a necessary platform for an ongoing dialogue between researchers from different areas (chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, engineering, robotics, etc) within biomimetics, artificial muscle and nano-bio technologies. This special issue of Smart Materials and Structures is devoted to a selected number of research papers that were presented at BAMN2013. Of the 400 or so papers and over 220 posters presented at this international congress, 15 papers were finally received, reviewed and accepted for this special issue, following the regular peer review procedures of the journal. The special issue covers polymeric artificial muscles, electroactive polymers, multifunctional nanocomposites, and their applications. In particular, electromechanical performance and other characteristics of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) fabricated with various commercially available ion exchange membranes are discussed. Additionally, the control of free-edge interlaminar stresses in composite laminates using piezoelectric actuators is elaborated on. Further, the electrode effects of a cellulose-based electroactive paper energy harvester are described. Next, a flexible tactile-feedback touch screen using transparent ferroelectric polymer film vibrators is discussed. A broad coverage of bio-applications of IPMC transducers is

  18. Pre-Use Susceptibility to Ceftaroline in Clinical Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Germany: Is There a Non-Susceptible Pool to be Selected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Strommenger

    Full Text Available Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin active against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Based on a representative collection of clinical S. aureus isolates from Germany, supplemented with isolates of clonal lineages ST228 and ST239, we demonstrate the in-vitro susceptibility towards ceftaroline prior to its introduction into clinical use for a total of 219 isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution, disc diffusion and Etest, respectively. Results were interpreted according to EUCAST guidelines and showed considerable variance in dependence on clonal affiliation of the isolates tested. Among isolates of widespread hospital-associated lineages we found a high proportion of clinical isolates with MICs close to the EUCAST breakpoint (MIC50/90 1.0/1.5 mg/L; currently, interpretation of these "borderline" MICs is complicated by a lack of concordant susceptibility testing methods and reasonable breakpoint determination. Isolates of clonal lineages ST228 and ST239 demonstrated increased MIC50/90 values of 2.5/3.33 mg/L. Sequencing of mecA revealed no association of resistance to a specific mecA polymorphism, but rather reveals two regions in the non-penicillin-binding domain of PbP2a which displayed different combinations of mutations putatively involved in resistance development. This study provides national baseline data to (i adjust susceptibility testing methods and current breakpoints to clinical and epidemiological requirements, (ii evaluate current breakpoints with respect to therapeutic outcome and (iii monitor further resistance evolution.

  19. SpxB is a suicide gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae and confers a selective advantage in an in vivo competitive colonization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev-Yochay, Gili; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Thompson, Claudette M; Lipsitch, Marc; Malley, Richard

    2007-09-01

    The human bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae dies spontaneously upon reaching stationary phase. The extent of S. pneumoniae death at stationary phase is unusual in bacteria and has been conventionally attributed to autolysis by the LytA amidase. In this study, we show that spontaneous pneumococcal death is due to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), not LytA, and that the gene responsible for H(2)O(2) production (spxB) also confers a survival advantage in colonization. Survival of S. pneumoniae in stationary phase was significantly prolonged by eliminating H(2)O(2) in any of three ways: chemically by supplementing the media with catalase, metabolically by growing the bacteria under anaerobic conditions, or genetically by constructing DeltaspxB mutants that do not produce H(2)O(2). Likewise, addition of H(2)O(2) to exponentially growing S. pneumoniae resulted in a death rate similar to that of cells in stationary phase. While DeltalytA mutants did not lyse at stationary phase, they died at a rate similar to that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, we show that the death process induced by H(2)O(2) has features of apoptosis, as evidenced by increased annexin V staining, decreased DNA content, and appearance as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Finally, in an in vivo rat model of competitive colonization, the presence of spxB conferred a selective advantage over the DeltaspxB mutant, suggesting an explanation for the persistence of this gene. We conclude that a suicide gene of pneumococcus is spxB, which induces an apoptosis-like death in pneumococci and confers a selective advantage in nasopharyngeal cocolonization.

  20. Computational Intelligence : International Joint Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Rosa, Agostinho; Cadenas, José; Dourado, António; Madani, Kurosh; Filipe, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the sixth International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2014), held in Rome, Italy, from 22 to 24 October 2014. The conference was composed by three co-located conferences:  The International Conference on Evolutionary Computation Theory and Applications (ECTA), the International Conference on Fuzzy Computation Theory and Applications (FCTA), and the International Conference on Neural Computation Theory and Applications (NCTA). Recent progresses in scientific developments and applications in these three areas are reported in this book. IJCCI received 210 submissions, from 51 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, 15% were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, based also on the assessment of presentation quality and audience in...

  1. EGC Conferences

    CERN Document Server

    Ritschard, Gilbert; Pinaud, Bruno; Venturini, Gilles; Zighed, Djamel; Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Management

    This book is a collection of representative and novel works done in Data Mining, Knowledge Discovery, Clustering and Classification that were originally presented in French at the EGC'2012 Conference held in Bordeaux, France, on January 2012. This conference was the 12th edition of this event, which takes place each year and which is now successful and well-known in the French-speaking community. This community was structured in 2003 by the foundation of the French-speaking EGC society (EGC in French stands for ``Extraction et Gestion des Connaissances'' and means ``Knowledge Discovery and Management'', or KDM). This book is intended to be read by all researchers interested in these fields, including PhD or MSc students, and researchers from public or private laboratories. It concerns both theoretical and practical aspects of KDM. The book is structured in two parts called ``Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining'' and ``Classification and Feature Extraction or Selection''. The first part (6 chapters) deals with...

  2. NATO Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, W

    1975-01-01

    The contents of this volume involve selection, emendation and up-dating of papers presented at the NATO Conference "Mathe­ matical Analysis of Decision problems in Ecology" in Istanbul, Turkey, July 9-13, 1973. It was sponsored by the System Sciences Division of NATO directed by Dr. B. Bayraktar with local arrange­ ments administered by Dr. Ilhami Karayalcin, professor of the Department of Industrial Engineering at the Technical University of Istanbul. It was organized by A. Charnes, University professor across the University of Texas System, and Walter R.Lynn, Di­ rector of the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Cornell Unjversity. The objective of the conference was to bring together a group of leading researchers from the major sciences involved in eco­ logical problems and to present the current state of progress in research of a mathematical nature which might assist in the solu­ tion of these problems. Although their presentations are not herein recorded, the key­ note address of Dr....

  3. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, Aisling F

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans.

  4. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling F Brown

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI. These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans.

  5. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Stephen J.; Leech, John M.; O’Keeffe, Kate M.; Mac Aogáin, Micheál; O’Halloran, Dara P.; Lacey, Keenan A.; Tavakol, Mehri; Hearnden, Claire H.; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Humphreys, Hilary; Fennell, Jérôme P.; van Wamel, Willem J.; Foster, Timothy J.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Lavelle, Ed C.; Rogers, Thomas R.; McLoughlin, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans. PMID:26539822

  6. Presence of Staphylococcus aureus on university dance studio floors and barres: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Desiree A; Russell, Jeffrey A; Martiny, Adam C

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium associated with various infectious diseases. Not only has the bacterium been detected in sports environments, the reported incidences of S. aureus infections have steadily increased in athletic teams. However, in spite of similarities between sports and dance facilities, to our knowledge no previous study has examined the presence of this bacterium in the dance environment. We hypothesized that S. aureus would be present in a university's dance studios, and that it would be extant in higher concentrations inside versus outside the studios. Using common microbiological culturing methods, samples were gathered from floors and barres in three studios of a single university, as well as from outside floors and railings near the studios and a conference room used by dancers. Confirming our hypothesis, we detected S. aureus in every dance studio sample (0.03 to 0.38 cfu/cm 2 ). Supporting our second hypothesis, we found that average S. aureus concentrations from the three studios were significantly higher compared to both outside and conference room samples (P ≤ 0.001). The latter two locations did not yield any S. aureus concentrations. Control samples developed as expected. The results of this study suggest that S. aureus bacteria are common on the flooring and barres of university dance studios, with the bacterial concentrations possibly dependent on the hours of usage of these surfaces. Whether the presence of S. aureus in dance studios presents a health risk to dancers should be studied further.

  7. Conference Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leal Lobato, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,......Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,...

  8. CONFERENCE CALENDAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2014-01-01

    .... 2nd Annual Integrated Health Conference March 20-22, 2015-Town and Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California The Integrated Health Conference provides the latest in integrative...

  9. Conference Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, W. Warner, Ed.; Beckhard, Richard, Ed.

    This book, written to instruct in the use of a conference as a medium of social intercourse, is divided into four sections. Section I, which contains five articles, deals with factors to be considered in planning a conference. Specific techniques one can employ to improve a conference and several different techniques for evaluating the…

  10. Where Two Are Fighting, the Third Wins: Stronger Selection Facilitates Greater Polymorphism in Traits Conferring Competition-Dispersal Tradeoffs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Lampert

    Full Text Available A major conundrum in evolution is that, despite natural selection, polymorphism is still omnipresent in nature: Numerous species exhibit multiple morphs, namely several abundant values of an important trait. Polymorphism is particularly prevalent in asymmetric traits, which are beneficial to their carrier in disruptive competitive interference but at the same time bear disadvantages in other aspects, such as greater mortality or lower fecundity. Here we focus on asymmetric traits in which a better competitor disperses fewer offspring in the absence of competition. We report a general pattern in which polymorphic populations emerge when disruptive selection increases: The stronger the selection, the greater the number of morphs that evolve. This pattern is general and is insensitive to the form of the fitness function. The pattern is somewhat counterintuitive since directional selection is excepted to sharpen the trait distribution and thereby reduce its diversity (but note that similar patterns were suggested in studies that demonstrated increased biodiversity as local selection increases in ecological communities. We explain the underlying mechanism in which stronger selection drives the population towards more competitive values of the trait, which in turn reduces the population density, thereby enabling lesser competitors to stably persist with reduced need to directly compete. Thus, we believe that the pattern is more general and may apply to asymmetric traits more broadly. This robust pattern suggests a comparative, unified explanation to a variety of polymorphic traits in nature.

  11. Where Two Are Fighting, the Third Wins: Stronger Selection Facilitates Greater Polymorphism in Traits Conferring Competition-Dispersal Tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Adam; Tlusty, Tsvi

    2016-01-01

    A major conundrum in evolution is that, despite natural selection, polymorphism is still omnipresent in nature: Numerous species exhibit multiple morphs, namely several abundant values of an important trait. Polymorphism is particularly prevalent in asymmetric traits, which are beneficial to their carrier in disruptive competitive interference but at the same time bear disadvantages in other aspects, such as greater mortality or lower fecundity. Here we focus on asymmetric traits in which a better competitor disperses fewer offspring in the absence of competition. We report a general pattern in which polymorphic populations emerge when disruptive selection increases: The stronger the selection, the greater the number of morphs that evolve. This pattern is general and is insensitive to the form of the fitness function. The pattern is somewhat counterintuitive since directional selection is excepted to sharpen the trait distribution and thereby reduce its diversity (but note that similar patterns were suggested in studies that demonstrated increased biodiversity as local selection increases in ecological communities). We explain the underlying mechanism in which stronger selection drives the population towards more competitive values of the trait, which in turn reduces the population density, thereby enabling lesser competitors to stably persist with reduced need to directly compete. Thus, we believe that the pattern is more general and may apply to asymmetric traits more broadly. This robust pattern suggests a comparative, unified explanation to a variety of polymorphic traits in nature.

  12. Diosmetin inhibits the expression of alpha-hemolysin in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shui; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Wenhua; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Bing; Li, Gen; Liu, Bowen; Deng, Xuming; Peng, Liping

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a significant human pathogen that causes a wide range of diseases. Alpha-hemolysin (Hla), a pore-forming cytotoxin that is produced by most S. aureus strains, can cause tissue injury and plays a critical role in the virulence of this pathogen. In the present study, we discovered that diosmetin, a natural flavonoid that occurs primarily in citrus fruits and exhibits little anti-S. aureus activity, could diminish the production of Hla in culture supernatants in a concentration-dependent manner. The analysis of cytotoxicity in the co-culture system of S. aureus and A549 epithelial cells showed that such inhibition confers significant protection against S. aureus-mediated injury. Our results suggested that diosmetin has the potential to be a new anti-virulence drug for S. aureus infection, particularly for the targeting of Hla.

  13. Computational Intelligence : International Joint Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Dourado, António; Rosa, Agostinho; Filipe, Joaquim; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the fifth International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2013), held in Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, from 20 to 22 September 2013. The conference was composed by three co-located conferences:  The International Conference on Evolutionary Computation Theory and Applications (ECTA), the International Conference on Fuzzy Computation Theory and Applications (FCTA), and the International Conference on Neural Computation Theory and Applications (NCTA). Recent progresses in scientific developments and applications in these three areas are reported in this book. IJCCI received 111 submissions, from 30 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, only 24 submissions were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation, leading to a full paper acceptance ratio of 22%. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after ...

  14. Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity at high sensitivity levels (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhua; Zeng, Haishan; Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey

    2017-02-01

    Background: Raman spectroscopy is a non-invasive optical technique which can measure molecular vibrational modes within tissue. A large-scale clinical study (n = 518) has demonstrated that real-time Raman spectroscopy could distinguish malignant from benign skin lesions with good diagnostic accuracy; this was validated by a follow-up independent study (n = 127). Objective: Most of the previous diagnostic algorithms have typically been based on analyzing the full band of the Raman spectra, either in the fingerprint or high wavenumber regions. Our objective in this presentation is to explore wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy for skin cancer diagnosis. Methods: A wavenumber selection algorithm was implemented using variably-sized wavenumber windows, which were determined by the correlation coefficient between wavenumbers. Wavenumber windows were chosen based on accumulated frequency from leave-one-out cross-validated stepwise regression or least and shrinkage selection operator (LASSO). The diagnostic algorithms were then generated from the selected wavenumber windows using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component and general discriminant analysis (PC-GDA) and partial least squares (PLS). A total cohort of 645 confirmed lesions from 573 patients encompassing skin cancers, precancers and benign skin lesions were included. Lesion measurements were divided into training cohort (n = 518) and testing cohort (n = 127) according to the measurement time. Result: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) improved from 0.861-0.891 to 0.891-0.911 and the diagnostic specificity for sensitivity levels of 0.99-0.90 increased respectively from 0.17-0.65 to 0.20-0.75 by selecting specific wavenumber windows for analysis. Conclusion: Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity at high sensitivity levels.

  15. Longitudinal effects of college type and selectivity on degrees conferred upon undergraduate females in physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Stacy Mckimm

    There has been much research to suggest that a single-sex college experience for female undergraduate students can increase self-confidence and leadership ability during the college years and beyond. The results of previous studies also suggest that these students achieve in the workforce and enter graduate school at higher rates than their female peers graduating from coeducational institutions. However, some researchers have questioned these findings, suggesting that it is the selectivity level of the colleges rather than the comprised gender of the students that causes these differences. The purpose of this study was to justify the continuation of single-sex educational opportunities for females at the post-secondary level by examining the effects that college selectivity, college type, and time have on the rate of undergraduate females pursuing majors in non-traditional fields. The study examined the percentage of physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science degrees conferred upon females graduating from women's colleges from 1985-2001, as compared to those at comparable coeducational colleges. Sampling for this study consisted of 42 liberal arts women's (n = 21) and coeducational (n = 21) colleges. Variables included the type of college, the selectivity level of the college, and the effect of time on the percentage of female graduates. Doubly multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance testing revealed significant main effects for college selectivity on social science graduates, and time on both life science and math and computer science graduates. Significant interaction was also found between the college type and time on social science graduates, as well as the college type, selectivity level, and time on math and computer science graduates. Implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  16. A bifunctional aminoglycoside acetyltransferase/phosphotransferase conferring tobramycin resistance provides an efficient selectable marker for plastid transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Iman; Ruf, Stephanie; Bock, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    A new selectable marker gene for stable transformation of the plastid genome was developed that is similarly efficient as the aadA, and produces no background of spontaneous resistance mutants. More than 25 years after its development for Chlamydomonas and tobacco, the transformation of the chloroplast genome still represents a challenging technology that is available only in a handful of species. The vast majority of chloroplast transformation experiments conducted thus far have relied on a single selectable marker gene, the spectinomycin resistance gene aadA. Although a few alternative markers have been reported, the aadA has remained unrivalled in efficiency and is, therefore, nearly exclusively used. The development of new marker genes for plastid transformation is of crucial importance to all efforts towards extending the species range of the technology as well as to those applications in basic research, biotechnology and synthetic biology that involve the multistep engineering of plastid genomes. Here, we have tested a bifunctional resistance gene for its suitability as a selectable marker for chloroplast transformation. The bacterial enzyme aminoglycoside acetyltransferase(6')-Ie/aminoglycoside phosphotransferase(2″)-Ia possesses an N-terminal acetyltransferase domain and a C-terminal phosphotransferase domain that can act synergistically and detoxify aminoglycoside antibiotics highly efficiently. We report that, in combination with selection for resistance to the aminoglycoside tobramycin, the aac(6')-Ie/aph(2″)-Ia gene represents an efficient marker for plastid transformation in that it produces similar numbers of transplastomic lines as the spectinomycin resistance gene aadA. Importantly, no spontaneous antibiotic resistance mutants appear under tobramycin selection.

  17. A bifunctional aminoglycoside acetyltransferase/phosphotransferase conferring tobramycin resistance provides an efficient selectable marker for plastid transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabaei, I.; Ruf, S; De Bock, R.

    2016-01-01

    Key message A new selectable marker gene for stable transformation of the plastid genome was developed that is similarly efficient as the aadA, and produces no background of spontaneous resistance mutants. Abstract More than 25?years after its development for Chlamydomonas and tobacco, the transformation of the chloroplast genome still represents a challenging technology that is available only in a handful of species. The vast majority of chloroplast transformation experiments conducted thus ...

  18. Bortezomib Warhead-Switch Confers Dual Activity against Mycobacterial Caseinolytic Protease and Proteasome and Selectivity against Human Proteasome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Dick

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria harbor two main degradative proteolytic machineries, the caseinolytic protease ClpP1P2 and a proteasome. We recently showed that Bortezomib inhibits ClpP1P2 and exhibits whole cell activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bortezomib, a dipeptide with a boronic acid warhead, is a human proteasome inhibitor approved for cancer therapy. The boronic acid warhead of the compound has been shown to drive potency against both the human proteasome and ClpP1P2 protease. Selectivity for the bacterial ClpP1P2 protease over the human proteasome is lacking but needs to be achieved to move this new anti-tuberculosis lead forward. In this study we explored whether an alternative warhead could influence Bortezomib's selectivity. We synthesized an analog containing a chloromethyl ketone instead of the boronic acid warhead and determined potencies against the bacterial and human enzymes. Surprisingly, the analog retained activity against mycobacterial ClpP1P2 and was active against the mycobacterial proteasome, but was devoid of activity against the human proteasome. Interrogation of a set of chloromethyl ketone peptides identified three additional compounds similarly inhibiting both ClpP1P2 and the proteasome in the bacteria while leaving the human proteasome untouched. Finally, we showed that these compounds display bactericidal activity against M. tuberculosis with cytotoxicity ranging from acceptable to undetectable. These results suggest that selectivity over the human proteasome is achievable. Selectivity, together with dual-targeting of mycobacterial ClpP1P2 and proteasome makes this new scaffold an attractive starting point for optimization.

  19. The Pharmacological Heterogeneity of Nepenthone Analogs in Conferring Highly Selective and Potent κ-Opioid Agonistic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Long, Jian-Dong; Qian, Yuan-Yuan; Long, Yu; Xu, Xue-Jun; Wang, Yu-Jun; Shen, Qing; Wang, Zuo-Neng; Yang, Xi-Cheng; Xiao, Li; Sun, Hong-Peng; Xu, Yu-Long; Chen, Yi-Yi; Xie, Qiong; Wang, Yong-Hui; Shao, Li-Ming; Liu, Jing-Gen; Qiu, Zhui-Bai; Fu, Wei

    2017-04-19

    To develop novel analgesics with no side effects or less side effects than traditional opioids is highly demanded to treat opioid receptor mediated pain and addiction issues. Recently, κ-opioid receptor (KOR) has been established as an attractive target, although its selective agonists could bear heterogeneous pharmacological activities. In this study, we designed and synthesized two new series of nepenthone derivatives by inserting a spacer (carbonyl) between 6α,14α-endo-ethenylthebaine and the 7α-phenyl substitution of the skeleton and by substituting the 17-N-methyl group with a cyclopropylmethyl group. We performed in vitro tests (binding and functional assays) and molecular docking operations on our newly designed compounds. The results of wet-experimental measures and modeled binding structures demonstrate that these new compounds are selective KOR agonists with nanomolar level affinities. Compound 4 from these new derivatives showed the highest affinity (Ki = 0.4 ± 0.1 nM) and the highest selectivity (μ/κ = 339, δ/κ = 2034) toward KOR. The in vivo tests revealed that compound 4 is able to induce stronger (ED50 = 2.1 mg/kg) and much longer antinociceptive effect than that of the typical KOR agonist U50488H (ED50 = 4.4 mg/kg). Therefore, compound 4 can be used as a perfect lead compound for future design of potent analgesics acting through KOR.

  20. Implementing a State Wide Family Day Care Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiren, Alice; Crawley, Margaret

    Guidelines for implementing a family day care conference are provided in this document. Contents range from the problem of selecting the conference location (including the city and the facility), to setting conference fees, promoting attendance, developing a conference program, and evaluating the conference. (Author/RH)

  1. Complex Demands on Teaching Require Innovation: Case Method & Other Techniques. Selected Papers of the International Conference on Case Method Research & Application (17th, Budapest, Hungary, July 2-5, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Hans E., Ed.

    This book presents a selection of papers from the annual, international, interdisciplinary conference of the World Association for Case Method Research & Application. Papers are categorized into six areas: (1) "Case Studies and Research" (e.g., subjectivity as a source of insight in case study research, evolution of a teaching case,…

  2. New Beginnings: The Library as an Information and Resource Basket. Selected Papers from PIALA 2008: Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums Annual Conference (18th, Colonia, Yap, Federated States of Micronesia, November 17-21, 2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Ruth H., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2008 Planning Committee, the Officers and Executive Board, and Acknowledgements, followed by the Schedule of Events and a…

  3. Nostradamus conference

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Otto; Snášel, Václav; Abraham, Ajith; Corchado, Emilio; Nostradamus: Modern Methods of Prediction, Modeling and Analysis of Nonlinear Systems

    2013-01-01

    This proceeding book of Nostradamus conference (http://nostradamus-conference.org) contains accepted papers presented at this event in 2012. Nostradamus conference was held in the one of the biggest and historic city of Ostrava (the Czech Republic, http://www.ostrava.cz/en), in September 2012. Conference topics are focused on classical as well as modern methods for prediction of dynamical systems with applications in science, engineering and economy. Topics are (but not limited to): prediction by classical and novel methods, predictive control, deterministic chaos and its control, complex systems, modelling and prediction of its dynamics and much more.

  4. The Cell Wall Polymer Lipoteichoic Acid Becomes Nonessential in Staphylococcus aureus Cells Lacking the ClpX Chaperone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer T. Bæk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipoteichoic acid (LTA is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria and a promising target for the development of vaccines and antimicrobial compounds against Staphylococcus aureus. Here we demonstrate that mutations in the conditionally essential ltaS (LTA synthase gene arise spontaneously in an S. aureus mutant lacking the ClpX chaperone. A wide variety of ltaS mutations were selected, and among these, a substantial portion resulted in premature stop codons and other changes predicted to abolish LtaS synthesis. Consistent with this assumption, the clpX ltaS double mutants did not produce LTA, and genetic analyses confirmed that LTA becomes nonessential in the absence of the ClpX chaperone. In fact, inactivation of ltaS alleviated the severe growth defect conferred by the clpX deletion. Microscopic analyses showed that the absence of ClpX partly alleviates the septum placement defects of an LTA-depleted strain, while other phenotypes typical of LTA-negative S. aureus mutants, including increased cell size and decreased autolytic activity, are retained. In conclusion, our results indicate that LTA has an essential role in septum placement that can be bypassed by inactivating the ClpX chaperone.

  5. The evolution of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, Ruud H; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2008-01-01

    A broad variety of infections, ranging from minor infections of the skin to post-operative wound infections can be caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The adaptive power of S. aureus to antibiotics leaded, in the early 1960s, to the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The cause of

  6. Conference: ActiWiz – Optimizing material selection at CERN's accelerators from the radiological point of view

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    by Dr. Helmut Vincke (CERN), Chris Theis (CERN). Tuesday, October 30, 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 at CERN ( 864-1-D02 - BE Auditorium Prévessin ) Description: The operation of a high-energy accelerator inevitably triggers the activation of equipment, which poses a safety hazard. Consequently access and handling constraints have to be imposed to ensure optimized working conditions. One of the key parameters determining the level of radioactivity is the material composition. Considering the radiological impact in addition to the engineering requirements during the selection of material clearly results in a safety benefit as well as a more efficient accelerator operation due to less stringent access and handling constraints. Another aspect is the minimization of future radioactive waste, which constitutes an important part of CERN’s commitment to limit its environmental impact by applying best practices. The ActiWiz software developed at CERN provides an easy to use method to optimize the m...

  7. Marker-Assisted Selection of Xa21 Conferring Resistance to Bacterial Leaf Blight in indica Rice Cultivar LT2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hue Thi Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial leaf blight of rice (BLB, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, is one of the most destructive diseases in Asian rice fields. A high-quality rice variety, LT2, was used as the recipient parent. IRBB21, which carries the Xa21 gene, was used as the donor parent. The resistance gene Xa21 was introduced into LT2 by marker-assisted backcrossing. Three Xoo races were used to inoculate the improved lines following the clipping method. Eleven BC3F3 lines carrying Xa21 were obtained based on molecular markers and agronomic performance. The 11 lines were then inoculated with the three Xoo races. All the 11 improved lines showed better resistance to BLB than the recipient parent LT2. Based on the level of resistance to BLB and their agronomic performance, five lines (BC3F3 5.1.5.1, BC3F3 5.1.5.12, BC3F3 8.5.6.44, BC3F3 9.5.4.1 and BC3F3 9.5.4.23 were selected as the most promising for commercial release. These improved lines could contribute to rice production in terms of food security.

  8. Nucleotide selectivity defect and mutator phenotype conferred by a colon cancer-associated DNA polymerase δ mutation in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, T M; Baranovskiy, A G; Wang, J; Tahirov, T H; Shcherbakova, P V

    2017-08-01

    Mutations in the POLD1 and POLE genes encoding DNA polymerases δ (Polδ) and ɛ (Polɛ) cause hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) and have been found in many sporadic colorectal and endometrial tumors. Much attention has been focused on POLE exonuclease domain mutations, which occur frequently in hypermutated DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-proficient tumors and appear to be responsible for the bulk of genomic instability in these tumors. In contrast, somatic POLD1 mutations are seen less frequently and typically occur in MMR-deficient tumors. Their functional significance is often unclear. Here we demonstrate that expression of the cancer-associated POLD1-R689W allele is strongly mutagenic in human cells. The mutation rate increased synergistically when the POLD1-R689W expression was combined with a MMR defect, indicating that the mutator effect of POLD1-R689W results from a high rate of replication errors. Purified human Polδ-R689W has normal exonuclease activity, but the nucleotide selectivity of the enzyme is severely impaired, providing a mechanistic explanation for the increased mutation rate in the POLD1-R689W-expressing cells. The vast majority of mutations induced by the POLD1-R689W are GC→︀TA transversions and GC→︀AT transitions, with transversions showing a strong strand bias and a remarkable preference for polypurine/polypyrimidine sequences. The mutational specificity of the Polδ variant matches that of the hypermutated CRC cell line, HCT15, in which this variant was first identified. The results provide compelling evidence for the pathogenic role of the POLD1-R689W mutation in the development of the human tumor and emphasize the need to experimentally determine the significance of Polδ variants present in sporadic tumors.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus CC398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Lance B.; Stegger, Marc; Hasman, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Since its discovery in the early 2000s, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) has become a rapidly emerging cause of human infections, most often associated with livestock exposure. We applied whole-genome sequence typing to characterize a diverse collectio...

  10. Creating Cultures of Peace: Pedagogical Thought and Practice. Selected Papers from the 10th Triennial World Conference (September 10-15, 2001, Madrid, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Jean E., Ed.; Swami, Piyush, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The 10th Triennial World Conference of the World Council for Curriculum and Instruction (WCCI) was held September 10-15, 2001 in Madrid, Spain. The theme of the conference was "Cultures of Peace." Thirty-four papers and presentations are divided into nine sections. Part I, Tributes to the Founders of WCCI, includes: (1) Tribute to Alice…

  11. Joint US/German Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Gulledge, Thomas; Jones, Albert

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings volume contains selected and refereed contributions that were presented at the conference on "Recent Developments and New Perspectives of Operations Research in the Area of Production Planning and Control" in Hagen/Germany, 25. - 26. June 1992. This conference was organized with the cooperation of the FernuniversiHit Hagen and was jointly hosted by the "Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Operations Research (DGOR)" and the "Manufacturing Special Interest Group of the Operations Research Society of America (ORSA-SIGMA)". For the organization of the conference we received generous financial support from the sponsors listed at the end of this volume. We wish to express our appreciation to all supporters for their contributions. This conference was the successor of the JOInt ORSA/DGOR-conference in Gaithersburg/Maryland, USA, on the 30. and 31. July 1991. Both OR-societies committed themselves in 1989 to host joint conferences on special topics of interest from the field of operations research. This goal ...

  12. EDITORIAL: Selected articles from `The 8th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves (Amaldi 8)', Columbia University, New York, 22-26 June 2009 Selected articles from `The 8th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves (Amaldi 8)', Columbia University, New York, 22-26 June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marka, Zsuzsa; Marka, Szabolcs

    2010-04-01

    received special attention at the meeting. For the first time in the history of Amaldi conferences, plenary and contributed sessions were held to transfer ideas and experience gained with gravitational-wave science inspired education and outreach projects. Additionally, Columbia University faculties working in frontier fields, which currently may not have a direct connection to the field of gravitational-wave science, gave enthralling presentations in the form of a `wake-up' lecture series. The meeting also facilitated the exchange of scientific results and new ideas among all members of gravitational-wave experiment collaborations and the gravitational-wave theory community. Additionally, future directions in gravitational-wave detection were discussed in a special session dedicated to the Gravitational Wave International Committee Roadmap. A highly entertaining and inspiring public talk entitled `Songs from space: black holes and the Big Bang in audio' was given by Janna Levin and it attracted over 300 young and old science enthusiasts from and around New York City. This special issue of Classical and Quantum Gravity (Volume 27, Number 8, 2010) is published as the proceedings of Amaldi8. It contains the overview articles by invited plenary speakers, and some of the highlights of the conference as selected by session chairs and organizers. Other Amaldi8 talks and posters appear in the refereed issue of the electronic Journal of Physics: Conference Series. This issue of Classical and Quantum Gravity and the Journal of Physics: Conference Series issue will be electronically linked. The conference organizers gratefully acknowledge the financial support of Columbia University in the City of New York, the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and the United States National Science Foundation. We would like to thank the Gravitational Wave International Committee for their scientific oversight, the Local Organizing Committee for program selection, and the session

  13. Myricetin protects Galleria mellonella against Staphylococcus aureus infection and inhibits multiple virulence factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira-Silva, L; Da Hora, G. C.A.; Soares, Goncalo Teofilo Afonso Pinheiro

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen related to a variety of life-threatening infections but for which antimicrobial resistance is liming the treatment options. We report here that myricetin, but not its glycosylated form, can remarkably decrease the production of several S. aureus...... related gene expression and computational simulations of pivotal proteins involved in pathogenesis demonstrate that myricetin downregulates the saeR global regulator and interacts with sortase A and α-hemolysin. Furthermore, Myr confers a significant degree of protection against staphylococcal infection...... in the Galleria mellonella model. The present findings reveal the potential of Myr as an alternative multi-target antivirulence candidate to control S. aureus pathogenicity....

  14. Exfoliative Toxins of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Bukowski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of humans and livestock. It causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. Among multiple virulence factors, staphylococci secrete several exotoxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. These include toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins (ETs. The latter are particularly interesting as the sole agents responsible for staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS, a disease predominantly affecting infants and characterized by the loss of superficial skin layers, dehydration, and secondary infections. The molecular basis of the clinical symptoms of SSSS is well understood. ETs are serine proteases with high substrate specificity, which selectively recognize and hydrolyze desmosomal proteins in the skin. The fascinating road leading to the discovery of ETs as the agents responsible for SSSS and the characterization of the molecular mechanism of their action, including recent advances in the field, are reviewed in this article.

  15. Selective laser melting porous metallic implants with immobilized silver nanoparticles kill and prevent biofilm formation by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hengel, Ingmar A J; Riool, Martijn; Fratila-Apachitei, Lidy E; Witte-Bouma, Janneke; Farrell, Eric; Zadpoor, Amir A; Zaat, Sebastian A J; Apachitei, Iulian

    2017-09-01

    Implant-associated infection and limited longevity are two major challenges that orthopedic devices need to simultaneously address. Additively manufactured porous implants have recently shown tremendous promise in improving bone regeneration and osseointegration, but, as any conventional implant, are threatened by infection. In this study, we therefore used rational design and additive manufacturing in the form of selective laser melting (SLM) to fabricate porous titanium implants with interconnected pores, resulting in a 3.75 times larger surface area than corresponding solid implants. The SLM implants were biofunctionalized by embedding silver nanoparticles in an oxide surface layer grown using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in Ca/P-based electrolytes. The PEO layer of the SLM implants released silver ions for at least 28 days. X-ray diffraction analysis detected hydroxyapatite on the SLM PEO implants but not on the corresponding solid implants. In vitro and ex vivo assays showed strong antimicrobial activity of these novel SLM PEO silver-releasing implants, without any signs of cytotoxicity. The rationally designed SLM porous implants outperformed solid implants with similar dimensions undergoing the same biofunctionalization treatment. This included four times larger amount of released silver ions, two times larger zone of inhibition, and one additional order of magnitude of reduction in numbers of CFU in an ex vivo mouse infection model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CONFERENCE REPORTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    imagining. Psychology in Africa. She asserted that psychology is very important in society because it brings out human perceptions and attitudes. In a unique keynote presentation, Sean Hagen, a lecturer at UNISA who organised the conference ...

  17. International conference, ICPRAM 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, J; Fred, Ana; Pattern recognition : applications and methods : revised selected papers

    2013-01-01

    This edited book includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the First International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPRAM 2012), held in Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, from 6 to 8 February, 2012, sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information Control and Communication (INSTICC) and held in cooperation with the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) and Pattern Analysis, Statistical Modelling and Computational Learning (PASCAL2). The conference brought together researchers, engineers and practitioners interested on the areas of Pattern Recognition, both from theoretical and application perspectives.

  18. Azoreductase in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wen; Cerniglia, Carl E; Chen, Huizhong

    2009-01-01

    Azoreductase(s) catalyze a NAD(P)H-dependent reaction in bacteria to metabolize azo dyes to colorless aromatic amines. Azoreductases from bacteria represent a novel family of enzymes with little similarity to other reductases. This unit will describe the current methods for measuring azoreductase from Staphylococcus aureus, which has been suggested to serve as a model strain to study the azo dye degradation by human skin microflora.

  19. Teachers' and students' perceptions of seventh- and eighth-grade science education in a selected Seventh-day Adventist Union Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Marcel Andre Almont

    Problem. Science education has long been a great concern in the United States, where less than one-third of the students perform at or above the proficient level. The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of the science program in a selected Union Conference of the Seventh-day Adventist school system. Specifically, this study investigated the perceptions of teachers and students regarding the extent to which the science program meets the criteria of the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st century and to what extent these criteria are related to academic performance as indicated by Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) science scores. Method. Two questionnaires designed by the researcher were used to get responses from 424 students in seventh and eighth grades and 68 teachers to see how this school system compares to the criteria of National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21 st century. Three classroom configurations were investigated in this study, namely: (a) multigrade, (b) two-grade, and (c) single-grade. Crosstabulation, one-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis test, and linear regression were used to analyze the four research questions of this study. Results. The single-grade classroom configuration received a better rating for the science criteria (p multigrade (p < 0.01) classroom configurations on their science achievement (ITBS). There were significant relationships among science achievement and the factors that measured the criteria of the National Commission for Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st century. Conclusions. The differences in teaching practices explained the discrepancies in the three classroom configurations. Schools can therefore develop policies and strategies to improve the practices in the teaching and learning process in science education that were identified as being deficient by the criteria of National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for

  20. Theoretical modelling of Staphylococcus aureus growth in a cooked meat product kept at ambient temperature using temperature profiles of selected Mexican cities Modelagem teórica de crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus em um produto à base de carne cozida deixada à temperatura ambiente, usando perfis de temperatura de cidades do México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Baeza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model is used to predict the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in a pasteurized meat product kept at ambient temperatures for several hours. For this purpose, the temperature profiles of some cities of Mexico were combined with literature data on the kinetics of S. aureus growth. As shown by theoretical predictions, if the food is kept at ambient temperature, the average daily temperature may not give accurate predictions.Um modelo teórico é utilizado para prever o crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus em um produto à base de carne (pasteurizado deixado por várias horas à temperatura ambiente. Para isso, perfis de temperatura de algumas cidades do México foram combinados com resultados de literatura sobre a cinética de crescimento de S. aureus. Como demonstrado por previsões teóricas, se o alimento é deixado à temperatura ambiente, a utilização da média diária da temperatura pode não dar previsões exatas.

  1. News Astronomy: Science and beauty combined Africa: Physics technicians offer valuable skills Conference: ESERA2013 brings researchers together in Cyprus Physics Olympiad: UK team bring home more medals from the Physics Olympics in Copenhagen Physics Tournament: IOC backs Shrewsbury to host IYPT 2014 Conference: MPTL18 looks at the latest multimedia developments Workshop: The selective absorption of light Science on Stage: Illuminating Science Education in London in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Astronomy: Science and beauty combined Africa: Physics technicians offer valuable skills Conference: ESERA2013 brings researchers together in Cyprus Physics Olympiad: UK team bring home more medals from the Physics Olympics in Copenhagen Physics Tournament: IOC backs Shrewsbury to host IYPT 2014 Conference: MPTL18 looks at the latest multimedia developments Workshop: The selective absorption of light Science on Stage: Illuminating Science Education in London in 2015

  2. Libraries, Archives, and Museums Helping Create Futures: Building on Culture, Knowledge, and Information through Collaboration and Resource Sharing. Selected Papers from PIALA 2010, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (20th, Weno, Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia, November 15-19, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 20th annual conference was held in Weno, Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia, November 15-19, 2010. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2010…

  3. It Can Be Done: With Advocacy, Libraries Can Thrive on Pacific Islands. Selected Papers from PIALA 2007, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums Annual Conference (17th, Tinian and Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, November 12-17, 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Ruth H., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2007 Planning Committee, the Officers and Executive Board, and Acknowledgements, followed by the Pre-Conference Workshop…

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Alters Staphylococcus aureus Sensitivity to Vancomycin in a Biofilm Model of Cystic Fibrosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Orazi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The airways of cystic fibrosis (CF patients have thick mucus, which fosters chronic, polymicrobial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are two of the most prevalent respiratory pathogens in CF patients. In this study, we tested whether P. aeruginosa influences the susceptibility of S. aureus to frontline antibiotics used to treat CF lung infections. Using our in vitro coculture model, we observed that addition of P. aeruginosa supernatants to S. aureus biofilms grown either on epithelial cells or on plastic significantly decreased the susceptibility of S. aureus to vancomycin. Mutant analyses showed that 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO, a component of the P. aeruginosa Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS system, protects S. aureus from the antimicrobial activity of vancomycin. Similarly, the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin also contribute to the ability of P. aeruginosa to protect S. aureus from vancomycin, as did growth under anoxia. Under our experimental conditions, HQNO, P. aeruginosa supernatant, and growth under anoxia decreased S. aureus growth, likely explaining why this cell wall-targeting antibiotic is less effective. P. aeruginosa supernatant did not confer additional protection to slow-growing S. aureus small colony variants. Importantly, P. aeruginosa supernatant protects S. aureus from other inhibitors of cell wall synthesis as well as protein synthesis-targeting antibiotics in an HQNO- and siderophore-dependent manner. We propose a model whereby P. aeruginosa causes S. aureus to shift to fermentative growth when these organisms are grown in coculture, leading to reduction in S. aureus growth and decreased susceptibility to antibiotics targeting cell wall and protein synthesis.

  5. Staphylococcus aureus intestinal colonization is associated with increased frequency of S. aureus on skin of hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donskey Curtis J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus among hospitalized patients has been associated with increased risk of staphylococcal infection and could potentially contribute to transmission. We hypothesized that S. aureus intestinal colonization is associated with increased frequency of S. aureus on patients' skin and nearby environmental surfaces. Methods Selected inpatients were cultured weekly for S. aureus from stool, nares, skin (groin and axilla, and environmental surfaces (bed rail and bedside table. Investigator's hands were cultured after contacting the patients' skin and the environmental surfaces. Results Of 71 subjects, 32 (45.1% had negative nares and stool cultures, 23 (32.4% had positive nares and stool cultures, 13 (18.3% were nares carriers only, and 3 (4.2% were stool carriers only. Of the 39 patients with S. aureus carriage, 30 (76.9% had methicillin-resistant isolates. In comparison to nares colonization only, nares and intestinal colonization was associated with increased frequency of positive skin cultures (41% versus 77%; p = 0.001 and trends toward increased environmental contamination (45% versus 62%; p = 0.188 and acquisition on investigator's hands (36% versus 60%; p = 0.057. Patients with negative nares and stool cultures had low frequency of S. aureus on skin and the environment (4.8% and 11.3%, respectively. Conclusion We found that hospitalized patients with S. aureus nares and/or stool carriage frequently had S. aureus on their skin and on nearby environmental surfaces. S. aureus intestinal colonization was associated with increased frequency of positive skin cultures, which could potentially facilitate staphylococcal infections and nosocomial transmission.

  6. Third International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2011)

    CERN Document Server

    Dourado, António; Rosa, Agostinho; Filipe, Joaquim; Computational Intelligence

    2013-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the third International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2011), held in Paris, France, from 24 to 26 October 2011. The conference was composed of three co-located conferences:  The International Conference on Fuzzy Computation (ICFC), the International Conference on Evolutionary Computation (ICEC), and the International Conference on Neural Computation (ICNC). Recent progresses in scientific developments and applications in these three areas are reported in this book. IJCCI received 283 submissions, from 59 countries, in all continents. This book includes the revised and extended versions of a strict selection of the best papers presented at the conference.

  7. 2017 Gordon Conference on Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubukov, Andrey [Univ. of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN (United States)

    2017-11-14

    The DOE award was for a 2017 Gordon Research conference on Superconductivity (GRC). The objective of GRC is to interchange the information about the latest theoretical and experimental developments in the area of superconductivity and to select most perspective directions for future research in this area.The goal of the Gordon Conference on Superconductivity is to present and discuss the latest results in the field of modern superconductivity, discuss new ideas and new directions of research in the area. It is a long-standing tradition of the Gordon conference on Superconductivity that the vast majority of participants are junior scientists. Funding for the conference would primarily be used to support junior researchers, particularly from under-represented groups. We had more 10 female speakers, some of them junior researchers, and some funding was used to support these speakers. The conference was held together with Gordon Research Seminar on Superconductivity, where almost all speakers and participants were junior scientists.

  8. Conference Report: CAQD Conference 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Silver

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nestled on the banks of the river Lahn in central Germany, the 15th CAQD conference was held at Marburg. A beautiful provincial town, it is one of very few that was spared the bombings of WWII; now providing the perfect backdrop for meeting to discuss developments in qualitative technology. This was the second international conference in the series with more than 140 delegates from 14 countries, including: Canada, Brazil, Portugal, the UK, as well as Germany. Hosted by MAGMA, the Marburg Research Group for Methodology and Evaluation, in partnership with Philipps-University Marburg, CAQD prioritizes a user-focus which balances practical and methodological workshops with conference presentations. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1302249

  9. Consensus conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annika Porsborg; Lassen, Jesper

    , the differing perceptions are each in their own way rooted in an argument for democratic legitimacy. We therefore argue that national interpretations of consensus conferences, and of their ability to functions as a tool for public participation, depend to a great extent on the dominant ideals of democratic...

  10. Conference Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James L., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Celebrations and special events were in order this year as the Minority University-Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) Program and NASA's Minority University Research and Education Division (MURED) both reached their 10th anniversaries. In honor of this occasion, the 2000 Annual Users' Conference held at Morris Brown College (MBC) in Atlanta, Georgia, September 11-15, 2000, was the first to be jointly hosted by MU-SPIN and MURED. It was particularly fitting that this anniversary should fall in the year 2000. The start of the new millennium propelled us to push bold new ideas and renew our commitment to minority university participation in all areas of NASA. With the theme 'Celebrating Our Tenth Year With Our Eyes on the Prize,' the conference provided a national forum for showcasing successful MU-SPIN and MURED Program (MUREP) experiences to enhance faculty/student development in areas of scientific and technical research and education. Our NASA-relevant conference agenda resulted in a record-breaking 220 registered attendees. Using feedback from past participants, we designed a track of student activities closely tailored to their interests. The resulting showcase of technical assistance and best practices set a new standard for our conferences in the years to come. This year's poster session was our largest ever, with over 50 presentations from students, faculty, and teachers. Posters covered a broad range of NASA activities from 'A Study of the Spiral Galaxy M101' to 'Network Cabling Characteristics.'

  11. Conference report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamara Shefer

    poster presentations on numerous disciplines, including: epidemiology, preventive medicine, public health, social ... The conference theme “from research to implementation” emphasised the importance of ... sustainable implementation were addressed in an honest and nuanced manner, leaving me with a sense of trouble ...

  12. CONFERENCE REPORTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Marfo

    dinner and, at this dinner, socialization was at its best, with some music and dancing and presentation of gifts from the host university. Some members of the .... Jean Monnet, a student hostel with conference facilities where most of the participants also stayed. The third and fourth days' sessions were held at the INALCO ...

  13. The Cell Wall Polymer Lipoteichoic Acid Becomes Nonessential in Staphylococcus aureus Cells Lacking the ClpX Chaperone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek, Kristoffer T.; Bowman, Lisa; Millership, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    spontaneously in an S. aureus mutant lacking the ClpX chaperone. A wide variety of ltaS mutations were selected, and among these, a substantial portion resulted in premature stop codons and other changes predicted to abolish LtaS synthesis. Consistent with this assumption, the clpX ltaS double mutants did...... not produce LTA, and genetic analyses confirmed that LTA becomes nonessential in the absence of the ClpX chaperone. In fact, inactivation of ltaS alleviated the severe growth defect conferred by the clpX deletion. Microscopic analyses showed that the absence of ClpX partly alleviates the septum placement...... the ClpX chaperone....

  14. The agr Inhibitors Solonamide B and Analogues Alter Immune Responses to Staphylococccus aureus but Do Not Exhibit Adverse Effects on Immune Cell Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Baldry

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to antibiotic resistance with the community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA strains such as USA300 being of particular concern. The inhibition of bacterial virulence has been proposed as an alternative approach to treat multi-drug resistant pathogens. One interesting anti-virulence target is the agr quorum-sensing system, which regulates virulence of CA-MRSA in response to agr-encoded autoinducing peptides. Agr regulation confines exotoxin production to the stationary growth phase with concomitant repression of surface-expressed adhesins. Solonamide B, a non-ribosomal depsipeptide of marine bacterial origin, was recently identified as a putative anti-virulence compound that markedly reduced expression of α-hemolysin and phenol-soluble modulins. To further strengthen solonamide anti-virulence candidacy, we report the chemical synthesis of solonamide analogues, investigation of structure-function relationships, and assessment of their potential to modulate immune cell functions. We found that structural differences between solonamide analogues confer significant differences in interference with agr, while immune cell activity and integrity is generally not affected. Furthermore, treatment of S. aureus with selected solonamides was found to only marginally influence the interaction with fibronectin and biofilm formation, thus addressing the concern that application of compounds inducing an agr-negative state may have adverse interactions with host factors in favor of host colonization.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification of Antimicrobial Intrinsic Resistance Determinants in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Leng, Bingfeng; Haaber, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    that confer intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents may be explored for alternative antimicrobial therapies, by potentiating the efficacy of existing antimicrobials. In this study, we identified the intrinsic resistome to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials in the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. We...

  16. The Naturally Occurring Host Defense Peptide, LL-37, and Its Truncated Mimetics KE-18 and KR-12 Have Selected Biocidal and Antibiofilm Activities Against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli In vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; McLean, Denise T F; Linden, Gerard J; McAuley, Danny F; McMullan, Ronan; Lundy, Fionnuala T

    2017-01-01

    Amongst the recognized classes of naturally occurring antimicrobials, human host defense peptides are an important group with an advantage (given their source) that they should be readily translatable to medicinal products. It is also plausible that truncated versions will display some of the biological activities of the parent peptide, with the benefit that they are less costly to synthesize using solid-phase chemistry. The host defense peptide, LL-37, and two truncated mimetics, KE-18 and KR-12, were tested for their inhibitory effects and antibiofilm properties against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, microorganisms commonly implicated in biofilm-related infections such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Using in silico prediction tools, the truncated peptides KE-18 and KR-12 were selected for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antibiofilm testing on the basis of their favorable cationicity, hydrophobic ratio, and amphipathicity compared with the parent peptide. Two methods were analyzed for determining peptide efficacy against biofilms; a crystal violet assay and an XTT [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assay. The biocidal activities (measured by MIC) and antibiofilm activities (measured by a crystal violet assay) appeared to be independent. LL-37 had no biocidal action against C. albicans (MIC > 250 μg/ml) but significant effects in both biofilm-prevention and biofilm-inhibition assays. KE-18 and KR-12 yielded superior MIC values against all three microorganisms. Only KE-18 had a significant effect in the biofilm-prevention assay, which persisted even at sub-MICs. Neither of the truncated peptides were active in the biofilm-inhibition assay. KE-18 was shown to bind lipopolysaccharide as effectively as LL-37 and to bind lipoteichoic acid more effectively. None of the peptides showed hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes at the concentrations tested. KE-18 should be

  17. In vitro characterization of representative clinical South African Staphylococcus aureus isolates from various clonal lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosthuysen, W F; Orth, H; Lombard, C. J.; Sinha, B; Wasserman, E

    Data concerning the virulence and pathogenesis of South African strains of Staphylococcus aureus are limited. We investigated host-pathogen interactions of randomly selected clinical S. aureus isolates representing various clones. We characterized the ability of isolates to adhere to fibronectin,

  18. Mathematics Education. Selected Papers from the Conference on Stochastic Processes and Their Applications. (15th, Nagoya, Japan, July 2-5, 1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Takeyuki; Shimizu, Akinobu

    This volume contains the papers and comments from the Workshop on Mathematics Education, a special session of the 15th Conference on Stochastic Processes and Their Applications, held in Nagoya, Japan, July 2-5, 1985. Topics covered include: (1) probability; (2) statistics; (3) deviation; (4) Japanese mathematics curriculum; (5) statistical…

  19. Selections from the ABC 2014 Annual Conference, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Let Favorite Assignments Ring: Sharpening Communication Tools and Self and Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D. Joel; Crenshaw, Cheri; Ortiz, Lorelei A.; Vik, Gretchen N.; Meredith, Michael J.; Deambrosi, Alfredo; Luck, Susan L.; Rausch, Georgi; Canas, Kathryn; Hicks, Nancy; Newman, Amy; Hofacker, Cynthia M.; Webb, Susan Hall; Zizik, Catherine H.

    2015-01-01

    This article, the first of a two-part series, catalogs teaching innovations from the 2014 Association for Business Communication Annual Conference. These 12 assignments debuted during two "My Favorite Assignment" sessions. Learning experiences included job-seeking skills--résumé writing, writing job applications, sharpening interview…

  20. International Conference of the Australasian Association of Institutional Research (3rd, Auckland, New Zealand, November 25-27, 1992). Selected Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Gan Che, Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Eight papers presented at the Third International Conference of the Australasian Association of Institutional Research (AAIR) are published in this journal issue. They represent the diversity and richness of the field of Planning in the Public Sector" (Jack Smith); (2) "Futures Planning for Tertiary Education: Curricula for the 21st…

  1. Selections from the ABC 2016 Annual Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico: Bright as Stars in the Albuquerque Desert Sky: Classroom-Tested Business Communication Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D. Joel, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This article, the first of a two-part series, presents 13 teaching innovations debuted at the 2016 Association for Business Communication's annual conference. The second edition of "My Favorite Assignment" will be published in the fall 2017 "Business and Professional Communication Quarterly". Assignments include international…

  2. Staphylococcus aureus in the community: colonization versus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections have increased dramatically in the community, yet S. aureus nasal colonization has remained stable. The objectives of this study were to determine if S. aureus colonization is a useful proxy measure to study disease transmission and infection in community settings, and to identify potential community reservoirs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Randomly selected households in Northern Manhattan, completed a structured social network questionnaire and provided nasal swabs that were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to identify S. aureus colonizing strains. The main outcome measures were: 1 colonization with S. aureus; and 2 recent serious skin infection. Risk factor analyses were conducted at both the individual and the household levels; logistic regression models identified independent risks for household colonization and infection. RESULTS: 321 surveyed households contained 914 members. The S. aureus prevalence was 25% and MRSA was 0.4%. More than 40% of households were colonized. Recent antibiotic use was the only significant correlate for household colonization (p = .002. Seventy-eight (24% households reported serious skin infection. In contrast with colonization, five of the six risk factors that increased the risk of skin infection in the household at the univariate level remained independently significant in multivariable analysis: international travel, sports participation, surgery, antibiotic use and towel sharing. S. aureus colonization was not significantly associated with serious skin infection in any analysis. Among multiperson households with more than one person colonized, 50% carried the same strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of association between S. aureus nasal colonization and serious skin infection underscores the need to explore alternative venues or body sites that may be crucial to transmission. Moreover, the magnitude of colonization and

  3. Computational Biology Support: RECOMB Conference Series (Conference Support)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Waterman

    2006-06-15

    This funding was support for student and postdoctoral attendance at the Annual Recomb Conference from 2001 to 2005. The RECOMB Conference series was founded in 1997 to provide a scientific forum for theoretical advances in computational biology and their applications in molecular biology and medicine. The conference series aims at attracting research contributions in all areas of computational molecular biology. Typical, but not exclusive, the topics of interest are: Genomics, Molecular sequence analysis, Recognition of genes and regulatory elements, Molecular evolution, Protein structure, Structural genomics, Gene Expression, Gene Networks, Drug Design, Combinatorial libraries, Computational proteomics, and Structural and functional genomics. The origins of the conference came from the mathematical and computational side of the field, and there remains to be a certain focus on computational advances. However, the effective use of computational techniques to biological innovation is also an important aspect of the conference. The conference had a growing number of attendees, topping 300 in recent years and often exceeding 500. The conference program includes between 30 and 40 contributed papers, that are selected by a international program committee with around 30 experts during a rigorous review process rivaling the editorial procedure for top-rate scientific journals. In previous years papers selection has been made from up to 130--200 submissions from well over a dozen countries. 10-page extended abstracts of the contributed papers are collected in a volume published by ACM Press and Springer, and are available at the conference. Full versions of a selection of the papers are published annually in a special issue of the Journal of Computational Biology devoted to the RECOMB Conference. A further point in the program is a lively poster session. From 120-300 posters have been presented each year at RECOMB 2000. One of the highlights of each RECOMB conference is a

  4. Inhibition of the ATP Synthase Eliminates the Intrinsic Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus towards Polymyxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Nøhr-Meldgaard, Katrine; Bojer, Martin Saxtorph

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is intrinsically resistant to polymyxins (polymyxin B and colistin), an important class of cationic antimicrobial peptides used in treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. To understand the mechanisms underlying intrinsic polymyxin resistance in S. aureus, we screened......G or the subunits of the ATP synthase (atpA, atpB, atpG, or atpH), which during respiration is the main source of energy. Inactivation of atpA also conferred hypersusceptibility to colistin and the aminoglycoside gentamicin, whereas susceptibilities to nisin, gallidermin, bacitracin, vancomycin, ciprofloxacin......, linezolid, daptomycin, and oxacillin were unchanged. ATP synthase activity is known to be inhibited by oligomycin A, and the presence of this compound increased polymyxin B-mediated killing of S. aureus Our results demonstrate that the ATP synthase contributes to intrinsic resistance of S. aureus towards...

  5. Formation of biofilms by Staphylococcus aureus on stainless steel and glass surfaces and its resistance to some selected chemical sanitizers Formação de biofilme por Staphylococcus aureus na superfície de aço inoxidável e vidro e sua resistência a alguns sanificantes químicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cristina Marques

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to verify the capability of Staphylococcus aureus of forming bio-film on stainless steel and glass surfaces; to evaluate the efficiency of sodium dichloroisocyanurate, hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid in inactivating Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered onto these surfaces; and to visualize biofilm development by scanning electron microscopy before and after sanitizer treatment. The surfaces studied consisted of 10x20mm chips immersed in Petri dishes containing BHI broth inoculated with S. aureus ATCC 25923. Biofilm formation was observed after 15-day incubation, when the cells were removed using the swab technique, followed by Baird Parker agar plating. Also, the efficiency of the chemical sanitizers on the chip surfaces was tested and the non-removed cells were counted on the Baird-Parker agar. After biofilm formation and use of sanitizers, the chips were respectively observed by scanning electronic microscopy following a pre-existing protocol. The obtained results showed biofilm formation on both surfaces, with bacterial count in the order of 10(7 CFU/cm² on and 10(8 CFU/cm² on stainless steel and glass surfaces, respectively. Peracetic acid was the most efficient in removing adhered cells, presenting 5.26 and 4.5 decimal reduction for adhered cells on stainless steel and glass surfaces, respectively.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram verificar a capacidade de Staphylococcus aureus formar biofilme nas superfícies de aço inoxidável e vidro, avaliar a eficiência do dicloroisocianurato de sódio, peróxido de hidrogênio e ácido peracético na inativação de células de S. aureus aderidas e visualização por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, o desenvolvimento antes e depois do tratamento das superfícies com os sanificantes. As superfícies foram cupons 10x200mm imersos em placas de Petri contendo caldo BHI inoculado com cultura de Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. A formação de biofilme foi

  6. The Relationships between Human Fatigue and Public Health: A Brief Commentary on Selected Papers from the 9th International Conference on Managing Fatigue in Transportation, Resources and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charli Sargent

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 9th International Conference on Managing Fatigue in Transportation, Resources and Health was held in Fremantle, Western Australia in March 2015. The purpose of the conferences in this series is to provide a forum for industry representatives, regulators, and scientists to discuss recent advances in the field of fatigue research. We have produced a Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health based on papers from the conference that were focused on various aspects of public health. First, the Special Issue highlights the fact that working long shifts and/or night shifts can affect not only cognitive functioning, but also physical health. In particular, three papers examined the potential relationships between shiftwork and different aspects of health, including the cardiovascular system, sleep disordered breathing, and eating behaviour. Second, the Special Issue highlights the move away from controlling fatigue through prescriptive hours of service rules and toward the application of risk management principles. In particular, three papers indicated that best-practice fatigue risk management systems should contain multiple redundant layers of defense against fatigue-related errors and accidents.

  7. The Relationships between Human Fatigue and Public Health: A Brief Commentary on Selected Papers from the 9th International Conference on Managing Fatigue in Transportation, Resources and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Charli; Roberts, Paul; Dawson, Drew; Ferguson, Sally; Meuleners, Lynn; Brook, Libby; Roach, Gregory D

    2016-08-24

    The 9th International Conference on Managing Fatigue in Transportation, Resources and Health was held in Fremantle, Western Australia in March 2015. The purpose of the conferences in this series is to provide a forum for industry representatives, regulators, and scientists to discuss recent advances in the field of fatigue research. We have produced a Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health based on papers from the conference that were focused on various aspects of public health. First, the Special Issue highlights the fact that working long shifts and/or night shifts can affect not only cognitive functioning, but also physical health. In particular, three papers examined the potential relationships between shiftwork and different aspects of health, including the cardiovascular system, sleep disordered breathing, and eating behaviour. Second, the Special Issue highlights the move away from controlling fatigue through prescriptive hours of service rules and toward the application of risk management principles. In particular, three papers indicated that best-practice fatigue risk management systems should contain multiple redundant layers of defense against fatigue-related errors and accidents.

  8. Adaptive and active materials: selected papers from the ASME 2013 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 13) (Snowbird, UT, USA, 16-18 September 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nancy; Naguib, Hani; Turner, Travis; Anderson, Iain; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin; Daqaq, Mohammed; Baba Sundaresan, Vishnu; Sarles, Andy

    2014-10-01

    The sixth annual meeting of the ASME Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) was held in the beautiful mountain encircled Snowbird Resort and Conference Center in Little Cottonwood Canyon near Salt Lake City, Utah. It is the conference's objective to provide an up-to-date overview of research trends in the entire field of smart materials systems in a friendly casual forum conducive to the exchange of ideas and latest results. As each year we strive to grow and offer new experiences, this year we included special focused topic tracks on nanoscale multiferroic materials and origami engineering. The cross-disciplinary emphasis was reflected in keynote speeches by Professor Kaushik Bhattacharya (California Institute of Technology) on 'Cyclic Deformation and the Interplay between Phase Transformation and Plasticity in Shape Memory Alloys', by Professor Alison Flatau (University of Maryland at College Park) on 'Structural Magnetostrictive Alloys: The Other Smart Material', and by Dr Leslie Momoda (Director of the Sensors and Materials Laboratories, HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA) on 'Architecturing New Functional Materials: An Industrial Perspective'. SMASIS 2013 was divided into seven symposia which span basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. SYMP 1. Development and Characterization of Multifunctional Materials. SYMP 2. Mechanics and Behavior of Active Materials. SYMP 3. Modeling, Simulation and Control of Adaptive Systems. SYMP 4. Integrated System Design and Implementation. SYMP 5. Structural Health Monitoring. SYMP 6. Bioinspired Smart Materials and Systems. SYMP 7. Energy Harvesting. Authors of selected papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2, and 6) as well as energy harvesting (symposium 7) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart

  9. A study on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgadas Govind Naik

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in skin and soft tissue infections. Methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA is prevalent in most of the countries wherever it is sought for. MRSA is one of the important pathogens implicated in hospital acquired infection. The main objectives of this study was to find out the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of S.aureus isolates, the prevalence of methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA and nasal carriage rate in healthy hospital staff. Methods:A total of 278 S.aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and 30 anterior nares swabs from healthy hospital staff were screened for S.aureus organisms using standard methods. Results:High resistance was observed against ampicillin, penicillin and tetracycline. High sensitivity was recorded against amikasin, amoxicillin-c and ciprofloxacin. Of the 278 isolates 26 (9% isolates were methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA. 17 % of the hospital staff were positive for nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion:Our study emphasizes the need for continuous monitoring of the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of S.aureus isolates including MRSA for the selection of appropriate therapy. In Eritrea, from the present findings it appears that the spread of MRSA in community and hospital settings is limited.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus paplitimas hospitalizavimo laikotarpiu

    OpenAIRE

    Maželienė, Žaneta; Kaukėnienė, Renata; Antuševas, Aleksandras; Pavilonis, Alvydas

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus strains among hospitalized patients at the beginning of their hospitalization and during their treatment and the resistance of strains to antibiotics, and to evaluate epidemiologic characteristics of these strains. Patients and methods. Sixty-one patients treated at the Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery were examined. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus strains was performed using plasmacoagulase and DNase ...

  11. 2nd International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Raposo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This collection of the selected papers presented to the Second International Conference on Photonics, Optics and laser technology PHOTOPTICS 2014 covers the three main conference scientific areas of “Optics”, “Photonics” and “Lasers”. The selected papers, in two classes full and short, result from a double blind review carried out by conference Program Committee members who are highly qualified experts in the conference topic areas.

  12. 3rd International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Raposo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a collection of selected papers presented to the third International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology PHOTOPTICS 2015, covering the three main conference scientific areas of “Optics”, “Photonics” and “Lasers”. The selected papers, in two classes full and short, result from a double blind review carried out by the conference program committee members which are highly qualified experts in conference topic areas.

  13. Enterotoxicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from beans pudding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    36 samples of beans pudding from selected sources were analysed for Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus using standard protocols aimed at assessing its bacteriological quality. Samples obtained from restaurant showed slightly lower value for total plate count (1.3 x 104 - 1.6 x 106 cfu/gm) compared to samples ...

  14. Evaluation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out among veterinary students coming for laboratory training. After their wise consent, nasal swabs of the anterior nares were carried out; and S. aureus was isolated by selective chromogenic culture. They were then assessed for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: Nasal swabs ...

  15. Type I signal peptidase and protein secretion in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallenberger, Mark A; Niessen, Sherry; Shao, Changxia; Fowler, Bruce J; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2012-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen whose virulence relies on the secretion of many different proteins. In general, the secretion of most proteins in S. aureus, as well as other bacteria, is dependent on the type I signal peptidase (SPase)-mediated cleavage of the N-terminal signal peptide that targets a protein to the general secretory pathway. The arylomycins are a class of natural product antibiotics that inhibit SPase, suggesting that they may be useful chemical biology tools for characterizing the secretome. While wild-type S. aureus (NCTC 8325) is naturally resistant to the arylomycins, sensitivity is conferred via a point mutation in its SPase. Here, we use a synthetic arylomycin along with a sensitized strain of S. aureus and multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) mass spectrometry to identify 46 proteins whose extracellular accumulation requires SPase activity. Forty-four possess identifiable Sec-type signal peptides and thus are likely canonically secreted proteins, while four also appear to possess cell wall retention signals. We also identified the soluble C-terminal domains of two transmembrane proteins, lipoteichoic acid synthase, LtaS, and O-acyteltransferase, OatA, both of which appear to have noncanonical, internal SPase cleavage sites. Lastly, we identified three proteins, HtrA, PrsA, and SAOUHSC_01761, whose secretion is induced by arylomycin treatment. In addition to elucidating fundamental aspects of the physiology and pathology of S. aureus, the data suggest that an arylomycin-based therapeutic would reduce virulence while simultaneously eradicating an infection.

  16. Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a serious pathogen in periprosthetic joint infections: comparison to Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lourtet-Hascoët

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: S. lugdunensis is an emerging pathogen with a pathogenicity quite similar to that of S. aureus. This coagulase-negative Staphylococcus must be identified precisely in PJI, in order to select the appropriate surgical treatment and antibiotics .

  17. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference Quark Matter 2006 Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    scientific program of the conference began with an overview of high energy nuclear physics in China by Professor Wenqing Shen, vice president of the National Natural Science Foundation of China. Professor Shen highlighted many contributions made by the Chinese scientists in both theory and experiment. Dr Nick Samios, former director of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), gave a vivid account of the early years of RHIC and recent accomplishments. Highlights of the conference include new results from RHIC at BNL and SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). Many experimental results reported at the conference support the notion that the quark-gluon matter at RHIC behaves like a perfect liquid with minimum viscosity to entropy ratio. There were 15 plenary sessions which covered 54 plenary talks, 12 parallel sessions and 1 poster session. A total of 320 abstracts were submitted to the conference out of which 124 were selected for oral presentation and the rest were assigned to the poster session. Talks and posters in the conference covered a broad range of experimental and theoretical progress in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, which includes new evidence of sQGP, jet quenching and heavy quark energy loss, heavy-ion collision phenomenology, quantum field theory at finite temperature and/or density, and relevant areas of astrophysics and plasma physics. The Quark Matter 2006 conference coincided with the 80th birthday of Professor T D Lee. A special reception was held in the banquet hall of the Shanghai Grand Theatre to celebrate Professor Lee's birthday and to honor his great contributions to physics, in particular, to the development of high energy nuclear physics research in China. We would like to thank the members of the International Advisory Committee for providing valuable advice on a variety of matters, from the general structure of the conference to the selection of the plenary speakers and selection of abstracts for

  18. Selected papers on natural and man-made hazards and related questions from the 6th international CODATA conference. [Santa Flavia, Palermo, Italy, May 22-25, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyfus, B. (ed.)

    Eighty-seven papers were presented at this conference, which had the four themes of quality of life and environment, preservation of natural ecosystems, prediction of natural disasters, and prevention of manmade hazards. The present bulletin contains ten papers felt to be representative; these deal with earthquake prediction, pattern recognition as a method of data analysis, long-term environmental hazards, analysis of numerical biological data, operation of a data bank in biomedical science, data importance in relation to Chesapeake Bay pollution, data banks in food and agriculture, the Seveso accident, and industry needs concerning information on materials. Separate abstracts were prepared for three of the papers. (RWR)

  19. A systematic review of animal models for Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reizner, W.; Hunter, J.G.; O’Malley, N.T.; Southgate, R.D.; Schwarz, E.M.; Kates, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) osteomyelitis is a significant complication for orthopaedic patients undergoing surgery, particularly with fracture fixation and arthroplasty. Given the difficulty in studying S. aureus infections in human subjects, animal models serve an integral role in exploring the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis, and aid in determining the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Animal models should mimic the clinical scenarios seen in patients as closely as possible to permit the experimental results to be translated to the corresponding clinical care. To help understand existing animal models of S. aureus, we conducted a systematic search of PubMed & Ovid MEDLINE to identify in vivo animal experiments that have investigated the management of S. aureus osteomyelitis in the context of fractures and metallic implants. In this review, experimental studies are categorized by animal species and are further classified by the setting of the infection. Study methods are summarized and the relevant advantages and disadvantages of each species and model are discussed. While no ideal animal model exists, the understanding of a model’s strengths and limitations should assist clinicians and researchers to appropriately select an animal model to translate the conclusions to the clinical setting. PMID:24668594

  20. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2014. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.Results: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  1. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2013. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methodResults: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  2. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    scientific program of the conference began with an overview of high energy nuclear physics in China by Professor Wenqing Shen, vice president of the National Natural Science Foundation of China. Professor Shen highlighted many contributions made by the Chinese scientists in both theory and experiment. Dr Nick Samios, former director of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), gave a vivid account of the early years of RHIC and recent accomplishments. Highlights of the conference include new results from RHIC at BNL and SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). Many experimental results reported at the conference support the notion that the quark-gluon matter at RHIC behaves like a perfect liquid with minimum viscosity to entropy ratio. There were 15 plenary sessions which covered 54 plenary talks, 12 parallel sessions and 1 poster session. A total of 320 abstracts were submitted to the conference out of which 124 were selected for oral presentation and the rest were assigned to the poster session. Talks and posters in the conference covered a broad range of experimental and theoretical progress in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, which includes new evidence of sQGP, jet quenching and heavy quark energy loss, heavy-ion collision phenomenology, quantum field theory at finite temperature and/or density, and relevant areas of astrophysics and plasma physics. The Quark Matter 2006 conference coincided with the 80th birthday of Professor T D Lee. A special reception was held in the banquet hall of the Shanghai Grand Theatre to celebrate Professor Lee's birthday and to honor his great contributions to physics, in particular, to the development of high energy nuclear physics research in China. We would like to thank the members of the International Advisory Committee for providing valuable advice on a variety of matters, from the general structure of the conference to the selection of the plenary speakers and selection of abstracts for

  3. MUSME Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Eusebio

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of MUSME 2014, held at Huatulco in Oaxaca, Mexico, October 2014. Topics include analysis and synthesis of mechanisms; dynamics of multibody systems; design algorithms for mechatronic systems; simulation procedures and results; prototypes and their performance; robots and micromachines; experimental validations; theory of mechatronic simulation; mechatronic systems; and control of mechatronic systems. The MUSME symposium on Multibody Systems and Mechatronics was held under the auspices of IFToMM, the International Federation for Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science, and FeIbIM, the Iberoamerican Federation of Mechanical Engineering. Since the first symposium in 2002, MUSME events have been characterised by the way they stimulate the integration between the various mechatronics and multibody systems dynamics disciplines, present a forum for facilitating contacts among researchers and students mainly in South American countries, and serve as a joint conference for the ...

  4. Antimicrobial Mechanisms of Macrophages and the Immune Evasion Strategies of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannagan, Ronald S.; Heit, Bryan; Heinrichs, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Habitually professional phagocytes, including macrophages, eradicate microbial invaders from the human body without overt signs of infection. Despite this, there exist select bacteria that are professional pathogens, causing significant morbidity and mortality across the globe and Staphylococcus aureus is no exception. S. aureus is a highly successful pathogen that can infect virtually every tissue that comprises the human body causing a broad spectrum of diseases. The profound pathogenic capacity of S. aureus can be attributed, in part, to its ability to elaborate a profusion of bacterial effectors that circumvent host immunity. Macrophages are important professional phagocytes that contribute to both the innate and adaptive immune response, however from in vitro and in vivo studies, it is evident that they fail to eradicate S. aureus. This review provides an overview of the antimicrobial mechanisms employed by macrophages to combat bacteria and describes the immune evasion strategies and some representative effectors that enable S. aureus to evade macrophage-mediated killing. PMID:26633519

  5. Proceedings Technology Enhanced Assessment conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Laanpere, Mart

    2018-01-01

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Technology Enhanced Assessment, TEA 2016, held in Tallinn, Estonia, in October 2016. The 16 full papers presented were carefully selected from 38 submissions. They are centered around topics like measurement of higher

  6. Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from raw fish in relation to culture methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Etsuko; Yoshida, Nanako; Kawano, Junichi; Shimizu, Akira; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2011-03-01

    Five hundred and fifty fish samples from various stages in the course of distribution in Hyogo Prefecture (209 retailed in super markets, 173 obtained from fishery cooperatives at a harbor, 91 caught by trawling and 77 caught by rod fishing) were examined for contamination with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). S. aureus was detected in 41 (19.6%) of the retail fish samples and 46 (26.6%) of the samples from the fishery cooperatives. No S. aureus was isolated from the live fish (91 trawled and 77 fished by rod). With regard to the retail fish, the contamination rate of processed fish (26.0%) was significantly higher than that of unprocessed fish (14.2%). For 88 samples, the efficacy of the selective medium was compared using Baird-Parker agar and mannitol salt agar supplemented with egg yolk (MSEY agar) by the direct plate and enrichment culture methods. Using the direct culture method, the S. aureus positive rate with the Baird-Parker agar (30.7%) was significantly higher (Pagar (6.8%). The enrichment culture method remarkably raised the S. aureus detection rate. Seventy-eight (85.7%) of 91 isolates belonged to the human ecovar. Sixty-two (68.1%) of the 91 isolates had some enterotoxin genes, including 44 (48.4%) with the sea gene. These data showed that the fish were contaminated with S. aureus after landing and that Baird-Parker agar had an advantage in detecting S. aureus with a direct plate culture.

  7. [Protein toxins of Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsutdinov, A F; Tiurin, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Main scientific-research studies regarding protein bacterial toxins of the most widespread bacteria that belong to Staphylococcus spp. genus and in particular the most pathogenic species for humans--Staphylococcus aureus, are analyzed. Structural and biological properties of protein toxins that have received the name of staphylococcus pyrogenic toxins (PTSAg) are presented. Data regarding genetic regulation of secretion and synthesis of these toxins and 3 main regulatory genetic systems (agr--accessory gene regulator, xpr--extracellular protein regulator, sar--staphylococcal accessory regulator) that coordinate synthesis of the most important protein toxins and enzymes for virulence of S. aureus, are presented.

  8. Adaptive and active materials: selected papers from the ASME 2012 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 12) (Stone Mountain, GA, USA, 19-21 September 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelecke, Stefan; Erturk, Alper; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Naguib, Hani; Huber, John; Turner, Travis; Anderson, Iain; Philen, Michael; Baba Sundaresan, Vishnu

    2013-09-01

    belong to the symposium topics. In addition, the conference also featured a special symposium dedicated to DARPA's structural and materials/logic program. The program seeks to enable structural systems to adapt to varying loads and simultaneously exhibit both high stiffness and high damping. Authors of selected papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2, and 6) as well as energy harvesting (symposium 7) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart Materials and Structures . This collection of papers demonstrates the exceptional quality and originality of the conference presentations. We are very appreciative of their efforts to produce this collection of highly relevant articles on smart materials.

  9. Heavy metal and disinfectant resistance genes among livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argudín, M Angeles; Lauzat, Birgit; Kraushaar, Britta; Alba, Patricia; Agerso, Yvonne; Cavaco, Lina; Butaye, Patrick; Porrero, M Concepción; Battisti, Antonio; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois; Fetsch, Alexandra; Guerra, Beatriz

    2016-08-15

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has emerged in animal production worldwide. Most LA-MRSA in Europe belong to the clonal complex (CC) 398. The reason for the LA-MRSA emergence is not fully understood. Besides antimicrobial agents used for therapy, other substances with antimicrobial activity applied in animal feed, including metal-containing compounds might contribute to their selection. Some of these genes have been found in various novel SCCmec cassettes. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of metal-resistance genes among a LA-S. aureus collection [n=554, including 542 MRSA and 12 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA)] isolated from livestock and food thereof. Most LA-MRSA isolates (76%) carried at least one metal-resistance gene. Among the LA-MRSA CC398 isolates (n=456), 4.8%, 0.2%, 24.3% and 71.5% were positive for arsA (arsenic compounds), cadD (cadmium), copB (copper) and czrC (zinc/cadmium) resistance genes, respectively. In contrast, among the LA-MRSA non-CC398 isolates (n=86), 1.2%, 18.6% and 16.3% were positive for the cadD, copB and czrC genes, respectively, and none were positive for arsA. Of the LA-MRSA CC398 isolates, 72% carried one metal-resistance gene, and the remaining harboured two or more in different combinations. Differences between LA-MRSA CC398 and non-CC398 were statistically significant for arsA and czrC. The czrC gene was almost exclusively found (98%) in the presence of SCCmec V in both CC398 and non-CC398 LA-MRSA isolates from different sources. Regarding the LA-MSSA isolates (n=12), some (n=4) were also positive for metal-resistance genes. This study shows that genes potentially conferring metal-resistance are frequently present in LA-MRSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Conference summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seestrom, S.J.

    1993-10-06

    The conference began with an introductory lecture by Bunakov. It is very appropriate that this workshop be held in Dubna as Bunakov reminded us that the experiments that motivated the current interest in the study of symmetry violation with neutrons were started here at Dubna by Alfimenkov, Pikelner, and collaborators. Bunakov discussed the fact that is the complexity of the compound nucleus that leads to large enhancement of parity violation near P-resonances and to the possibility of using statistical models to relate the measured parity violation to more-fundamental quantities. He also pointed out that it is a rare case in which complexity aids us. Bunakov did not point out that this is an example of another rare phenomena -- where theory has predicted correctly in advance the parity violating effects seen near p-resonances. As long ago as 1969, Karmanov and Lobov first predicted an enhancement of {gamma}-ray circular polarization near p-resonances. Sushkov and Flambaum later predicted asymmetries P {approximately} 10{sup {minus}2} for p-resonances and suggested {sup 117}Sn, {sup 139}La, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 238}U for study. Bunakov and Gudkov developed a theory describing the energy dependence of parity-violating effects over a large energy range. This theory predicted random signs for the parity-violating asymmetries.

  11. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010) Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Diann

    2011-09-01

    The third annual meeting of the AMSE/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) took place in the heart of historic Philadelphia's cultural district, and included a pioneer banquet in the National Constitutional Center. The applications emphasis of the 2010 conference was reflected in keynote talks by Dr Alan Taub, vice president of General Motors global research and development, 'Smart materials in the automotive industry'; Dr Charles R Farrar, engineering institute leader at Los Alamos National Laboratory, 'Future directions for structural health monitoring of civil engineering infrastructure'; and Professor Christopher S Lynch of the University of California Los Angeles, 'Ferroelectric materials and their applications'. The SMASIS conference was divided into six technical symposia each of which included basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. The six symposia were: SYMP 1 Multifunctional Materials; SYMP 2 Active Materials, Mechanics and Behavior; SYMP 3 Modeling, Simulation and Control; SYMP 4 Enabling Technologies and Integrated System Design; SYMP 5 Structural Health Monitoring/NDE; and SYMP 6 Bio-inspired Smart Materials and Structures. In addition, the conference introduced a new student and young professional development symposium. Authors of papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2 and 6) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart Materials and Structures. This set of papers demonstrates the exceptional quality and originality of the conference presentations. We are appreciative of their efforts in producing this collection of highly relevant articles on smart materials.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Surgical personnel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common causes of both community and hospital acquired bacterial infection. There is strong correlation between S aureus nasal carriage and disease progress. Nasal carriage is high among health care workers. Inappropriate usage of antibiotic may

  13. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and Antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for invasive S. aureus infections in various population including children. The extent of S. aureus carriage in Sierra Leonean children is largely unknown. To determine the prevalence and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of nasal S.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus transmission : clinical and molecular aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemendaal, A.L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in nosocomial infections. Up to 30% of UCI related infections are caused by S. aureus. In this thesis we explore both clinical and molecular aspects of patient-to-patient transmission of S. aureus. We performed a European ICU study exploring infection

  15. Vancomycin Sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (MRSA), resistant to all antibiotics including Vancomycin, has been reported in Japan, USA, Canada and Brazil. Hence, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the possible presence of Vancomycin resistant or intermediate S.aureus in Karachi. A total of 850 ...

  16. New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infection in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-J; Huang, Y-C

    2014-07-01

    Not only is Asia the most populous region in the world, but inappropriate therapy, including self-medication with over-the-counter antimicrobial agents, is a common response to infectious diseases. The high antibiotic selective pressure among the overcrowded inhabitants creates an environment that is suitable for the rapid development and efficient spread of numerous multidrug-resistant pathogens. Indeed, Asia is among the regions with the highest prevalence rates of healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) in the world. Most hospitals in Asia are endemic for multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), with an estimated proportion from 28% (in Hong Kong and Indonesia) to >70% (in Korea) among all clinical S. aureus isolates in the early 2010s. Isolates with reduced susceptibility or a high level of resistance to glycopeptides have also been increasingly identified in the past few years. In contrast, the proportion of MRSA among community-associated S. aureus infections in Asian countries varies markedly, from 35%. Two pandemic HA-MRSA clones, namely multilocus sequence type (ST) 239 and ST5, are disseminated internationally in Asia, whereas the molecular epidemiology of CA-MRSA in Asia is characterized by clonal heterogeneity, similar to that in Europe. In this review, the epidemiology of S. aureus in both healthcare facilities and communities in Asia is addressed, with an emphasis on the prevalence, clonal structure and antibiotic resistant profiles of the MRSA strains. The novel MRSA strains from livestock animals have been considered to constitute a public health threat in western countries. The emerging livestock-associated MRSA strains in Asia are also included in this review. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  17. Methicillin and vancomycin resistant S. aureus in hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sood Loomba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available S. aureus is the major bacterial cause of skin, soft tissue and bone infections, and one of the commonest causes of healthcare-associated bacteremia. Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA carriage is associated with an increased risk of infection, morbidity and mortality. Screening of high-risk patients at the time of hospital admission and decolonization has proved to be an important factor in an effort to reduce nosocomial transmission. The electronic database Pub Med was searched for all the articles on "Establishment of MRSA and the emergence of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA." The search included case reports, case series and reviews. All the articles were cross-referenced to search for any more available articles. A total of 88 references were obtained. The studies showed a steady increase in the number of vancomycin-intermediate and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus. Extensive use of vancomycin creates a selective pressure that favors the outgrowth of rare, vancomycin-resistant clones leading to heterogenous vancomycin intermediate S. aureus hVISA clones, and eventually, with continued exposure, to a uniform population of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA clones. However, the criteria for identifying hVISA strains have not been standardized, complicating any determination of their clinical significance and role in treatment failures. The spread of MRSA from the hospital to the community, coupled with the emergence of VISA and VRSA, has become major concern among healthcare providers. Infection-control measures, reliable laboratory screening for resistance, appropriate antibiotic prescribing practices and avoidance of blanket treatment can prevent long-term emergence of resistance.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: Nemesis of endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Deepti; Foreman, Andrew; Jervis-Bardy, Joshua; Bardy, Josh-Jervis; Wormald, Peter-John

    2011-07-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients with biofilms have persistent postoperative symptoms, ongoing mucosal inflammation, and recurrent infections. Recent evidence suggests that biofilms of differing species confer varying disease profiles in CRS patients. We aimed to prospectively investigate the effects of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, and fungal biofilms on outcomes following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Prospective blinded study. In this prospective blinded study, 39 patients undergoing ESS for CRS assessed their symptoms preoperatively using internationally accepted standardized symptom scoring systems and quality-of-life measures (10-point visual analog scale, Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20, global severity of CRS). Their sinonasal mucosa was graded (Lund-Kennedy scale) and extent of radiologic disease on computed tomography scans scored (Lund-McKay scale). Random sinonasal tissue samples were assessed for different bacterial species forming biofilms by using fluorescent in-situ hybridization and confocal laser microscopy. For 12 months after surgery, CRS symptoms, quality of life, and objective evidence of persisting disease were assessed by using the preoperative tools. Different bacterial species combinations were found in 30 of 39 patients; 60% of these 30 biofilms were polymicrobial biofilms and 70% had S aureus biofilms. Preoperative nasendoscopy and radiologic disease severity were significantly worse in patients with multiple biofilms (P = .02 and P = .01, respectively), and they had worse postsurgery mucosal outcomes on endoscopy (P = .01) requiring significantly more postoperative visits (P = .04). Those with S aureus biofilms progressed poorly with their symptom scores and quality-of-life outcomes, with significant differences in nasendoscopy scores (P = .007). S. aureus biofilms play a dominant role in negatively affecting outcomes of ESS with persisting postoperative symptoms, ongoing mucosal inflammation

  19. Second International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, António; Rosa, Agostinho; Filipe, Joaquim; Computational Intelligence

    2012-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the second International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2010), held in Valencia, Spain, from 24 to 26 October 2010. The conference was composed by three co-located conferences:  The International Conference on Fuzzy Computation (ICFC), the International Conference on Evolutionary Computation (ICEC), and the International Conference on Neural Computation (ICNC). Recent progresses in scientific developments and applications in these three areas are reported in this book. IJCCI received 236 submissions, from 49 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, only 30 submissions were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation, leading to a full paper acceptance ratio of 13%. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, based also on the assessment of presentation quality and audience inte...

  20. Stress Responses in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Ingmer, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aures are prominent members of the normal flora of humans and animals, but are also a major cause of mild and severe infections. To persist and disseminate in the human host, and to survive in environmental settings, such as hospitals, S. aureus have developed a plethora of cellular...

  1. International Conference GIREP EPEC 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Dębowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a selection of the best contributions to GIREP EPEC 2015, the Conference of the International Research Group on Physics Teaching (GIREP) and the European Physical Society’s Physics Education Division (EPS PED). It introduces readers interested in the field to the problem of identifying strategies and tools to improve physics teaching and learning so as to convey Key Competences and help students acquire them. The main topic of the conference was Key Competences (KC) in physics teaching and learning in the form of knowledge, skills and attitudes that are fundamental for every member of society. Given the role of physics as a field strongly connected not only to digital competence but also to several other Key Competences, this conference provided a forum for in-depth discussions of related issues.

  2. Evaluation of genetically inactivated alpha toxin for protection in multiple mouse models of Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Brady

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Development of a vaccine against this pathogen is an important goal. While S. aureus protective antigens have been identified in the literature, the majority have only been tested in a single animal model of disease. We wished to evaluate the ability of one S. aureus vaccine antigen to protect in multiple mouse models, thus assessing whether protection in one model translates to protection in other models encompassing the full breadth of infections the pathogen can cause. We chose to focus on genetically inactivated alpha toxin mutant HlaH35L. We evaluated the protection afforded by this antigen in three models of infection using the same vaccine dose, regimen, route of immunization, adjuvant, and challenge strain. When mice were immunized with HlaH35L and challenged via a skin and soft tissue infection model, HlaH35L immunization led to a less severe infection and decreased S. aureus levels at the challenge site when compared to controls. Challenge of HlaH35L-immunized mice using a systemic infection model resulted in a limited, but statistically significant decrease in bacterial colonization as compared to that observed with control mice. In contrast, in a prosthetic implant model of chronic biofilm infection, there was no significant difference in bacterial levels when compared to controls. These results demonstrate that vaccines may confer protection against one form of S. aureus disease without conferring protection against other disease presentations and thus underscore a significant challenge in S. aureus vaccine development.

  3. PREFACE: XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Fornalik-Wajs, Elzbieta; Jaszczur, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This Conference Volume contains the papers presented at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) held at AGH - University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Poland, 15-18 June 2014, and accepted for Proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Fluid Mechanics Conferences have been taking place every two years since 1974, a total of forty years. The 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) is being organized under the auspices of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Mechanics. The goal of this conference is to provide a forum for the exposure and exchange of ideas, methods and results in fluid mechanics. Conference topics include, but are not limited to Aerodynamics, Atmospheric Science, Bio-Fluids, Combustion and Reacting Flows, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Flow Machinery, General Fluid Dynamics, Hydromechanics, Heat and Fluid Flow, Measurement Techniques, Micro- and Nano- Flow, Multi-Phase Flow, Non-Newtonian Fluids, Rotating and Stratified Flows, Turbulence. Within the general subjects of this conference, the Professor Janusz W. Elsner Competition for the best fluid mechanics paper presented during the Conference is organized. Authors holding a M.Sc. or a Ph.D. degree and who are not older than 35 years of age may enter the Competition. Authors with a Ph.D. degree must present individual papers; authors with a M.Sc. degree may present papers with their supervisor as coauthor, including original results of experimental, numerical or analytic research. Six state-of-the-art keynote papers were delivered by world leading experts. All contributed papers were peer reviewed. Recommendations were received from the International Scientific Committee, reviewers and the advisory board. Accordingly, of the 163 eligible extended abstracts submitted, after a review process by the International Scientific Committee, 137 papers were selected for presentation at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference, 68

  4. Staphylococcus aureus Protein A Mediates Interspecies Interactions at the Cell Surface of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Catherine R; Wolter, Daniel J; Mishra, Meenu; Hayden, Hillary S; Radey, Matthew C; Merrihew, Gennifer; MacCoss, Michael J; Burns, Jane; Wozniak, Daniel J; Parsek, Matthew R; Hoffman, Lucas R

    2016-05-24

    While considerable research has focused on the properties of individual bacteria, relatively little is known about how microbial interspecies interactions alter bacterial behaviors and pathogenesis. Staphylococcus aureus frequently coinfects with other pathogens in a range of different infectious diseases. For example, coinfection by S. aureus with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs commonly in people with cystic fibrosis and is associated with higher lung disease morbidity and mortality. S. aureus secretes numerous exoproducts that are known to interact with host tissues, influencing inflammatory responses. The abundantly secreted S. aureus staphylococcal protein A (SpA) binds a range of human glycoproteins, immunoglobulins, and other molecules, with diverse effects on the host, including inhibition of phagocytosis of S. aureus cells. However, the potential effects of SpA and other S. aureus exoproducts on coinfecting bacteria have not been explored. Here, we show that S. aureus-secreted products, including SpA, significantly alter two behaviors associated with persistent infection. We found that SpA inhibited biofilm formation by specific P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, and it also inhibited phagocytosis by neutrophils of all isolates tested. Our results indicate that these effects were mediated by binding to at least two P. aeruginosa cell surface structures-type IV pili and the exopolysaccharide Psl-that confer attachment to surfaces and to other bacterial cells. Thus, we found that the role of a well-studied S. aureus exoproduct, SpA, extends well beyond interactions with the host immune system. Secreted SpA alters multiple persistence-associated behaviors of another common microbial community member, likely influencing cocolonization and coinfection with other microbes. Bacteria rarely exist in isolation, whether on human tissues or in the environment, and they frequently coinfect with other microbes. However, relatively little is known about how

  5. Eighth national passive solar conference. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, A.; Zee, R.

    1983-12-01

    The Eighth National Passive Solar Conference was held near Santa Fe, New Mexico at the Glorieta Conference Center on September 5 to 11, 1983. Nearly 900 people from all across the nation and the world attended the conference. Close to 200 technical papers were presented, 50 solar product exhibits were available; 34 poster sessions were presented; 16 solar workshops were conducted; 10 renowned solar individuals participated in rendezvous sessions; 7 major addresses were delivered; 5 solar home tours were conducted; 2 emerging architecture sessions were held which included 21 separate presentations; and commercial product presentations were given for the first time ever at a national passive solar conference. Peter van Dresser of Santa Fe received the prestigious Passive Solar Pioneer Award, posthumously, from the American Solar Energy Society and Benjamin T. Buck Rogers of Embudo received the prestigious Peter van Dresser Award from the New Mexico Solar Energy Association. This report reviews conference organization, attendance, finances, conference evaluation form results, and includes press coverage samples, selected conference photos courtesy of Marshall Tyler, and a summary with recommendations for future conferences. The Appendices included conference press releases and a report by the New Mexico Solar Industry Development Corporation on exhibits management.

  6. Conference this! Lead Pipers compare conference experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As library travel budgets are increasingly slashed around the country, it’s a tough time for conference-going. In this group post, we compare notes about the conferences we’ve attended, which have been our favorites, and why. We hope this will generate creative ideas on good conferences (online or in-person to look forward to, and maybe offer [...

  7. Metastatic Spreading of Community Acquired Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old woman presented to the Fondazione IRCCS “Cà Granda” Ospedale Maggiore, a tertiary care university hospital in Milan (Italy, with skin lesions, fever, myalgia, joint pain and swelling, and a one-week history of low back pain. The diagnosis was Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus bacteraemia spreading to skin, bones, and joints and a lumbosacral epidural abscess L5-S2. Neither initial focus nor predisposing conditions were apparent. The antibiotic therapy was prolonged for six-weeks with the resolution of fever, skin lesions, articular inflammation, and the epidural abscess. Community-acquired S. aureus infections can affect patients without traditional healthcare-associated risk factors, and community acquisition is a risk-factor for the development of complications. Raised awareness of S. aureus bacteraemia, also in patients without healthcare-associated risk factors, is important in the diagnosis, management, and control of this infection, because failure to recognise patients with serious infection and lack of understanding of empirical antimicrobial selection are associated with a high mortality rate in otherwise healthy people.

  8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FR Novak

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We collected and analyzed 500 samples of human milk, from five Brazilian cities (100 from each to detect methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA producing enterotoxins. We found 57 strains of MRSA, and the mecA gene, responsible for resistance, was detected in all of them using a specific molecular probe. We examined 40 strains for the presence of four enterotoxins, after selecting a subset that included all strains from each region, except for the largest sample, from which 10 were randomly selected. Among these two presented enterotoxin B, and growth in human colostrum and trypicase soy broth. After 5 h of incubation at 37°C, population sizes were already higher than 9.4 x 105 UFC/ml and enterotoxin was released into culture medium and colostrum. Our results stress the importance of hygiene, sanitary measures, and appropriate preservation conditions to avoid the proliferation of S. aureus in human milk.

  9. Spatially selective depleting tumor-associated negative regulatory T-(Treg) cells with near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT): A new cancer immunotherapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2017-02-01

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new type of molecularly-targeted photo-therapy based on conjugating a near infrared silica-phthalocyanine dye, IR700, to a monoclonal antibody (MAb) targeting target-specific cell-surface molecules. When exposed to NIR light, the conjugate rapidly induces a highly-selective cell death only in receptor-positive, MAb-IR700-bound cells. Current immunotherapies for cancer seek to modulate the balance among different immune cell populations, thereby promoting anti-tumor immune responses. However, because these are systemic therapies, they often cause treatment-limiting autoimmune adverse effects. It would be ideal to manipulate the balance between suppressor and effector cells within the tumor without disturbing homeostasis elsewhere in the body. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are well-known immune-suppressor cells that play a key role in tumor immuno-evasion and have been the target of systemic immunotherapies. We used CD25-targeted NIR-PIT to selectively deplete Tregs, thus activating CD8+ T and NK cells and restoring local anti-tumor immunity. This not only resulted in regression of the treated tumor but also induced responses in separate untreated tumors of the same cell-line derivation. We conclude that CD25-targeted NIR-PIT causes spatially selective depletion of Tregs, thereby providing an alternative approach to cancer immunotherapy that can treat not only local tumors but also distant metastatic tumors.

  10. Assessment of Ibicella lutea for antibacterial agent front Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Lisiane Martins Volcão; Tatiane Silveira Coelho; Alváro Vàsquez; Maria Pia Cerdeiras; Pedro Eduardo Almeida da Silva; Flávio Manoel Rodrigues da Silva Júnior; Daniela Fernandes Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Justificative and Objectives: the study aimed the assessment of the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and fractions of Ibicella lutea, front Staphylococcus aureus, thecombination of these compounds and cytotoxic activity. Methods: was used for antibacterial activity the Microdilution Test Broth, and performed the Checkerboard Test. The extracts showed antibacterial activity were submitted to the citotoxicity test, with macrophages cell and determination of the Selectivity Index (SI). R...

  11. Evaluation of non-invasive biological samples to monitor Staphylococcus aureus colonization in great apes and lemurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Schaumburg

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reintroduction of endangered animals as part of conservational programs bears the risk of importing human pathogens from the sanctuary to the natural habitat. One bacterial pathogen that serves as a model organism to analyze this transmission is Staphylococcus aureus as it can colonize and infect both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of various biological samples to monitor S. aureus colonization in great apes and lemurs. METHODS: Mucosal swabs from wild lemurs (n=25, Kirindy, Madagascar, feces, oral and genital swabs from captive chimpanzees (n=58, Ngamba and Entebbe, Uganda and fruit wadges and feces from wild chimpanzees (n=21, Taï National Parc, Côte d'Ivoire were screened for S. aureus. Antimicrobial resistance and selected virulence factors were tested for each isolate. Sequence based genotyping (spa typing, multilocus sequence typing was applied to assess the population structure of S. aureus. RESULTS: Oro-pharyngeal carriage of S. aureus was high in lemurs (72%, n=18 and captive chimpanzees (69.2%, n=27 and 100%, n=6, respectively. Wild chimpanzees shed S. aureus through feces (43.8, n=7 and fruit wadges (54.5, n=12. Analysis of multiple sampling revealed that two samples are sufficient to detect those animals which shed S. aureus through feces or fruit wadges. Genotyping showed that captive animals are more frequently colonized with human-associated S. aureus lineages. CONCLUSION: Oro-pharyngeal swabs are useful to screen for S. aureus colonization in apes and lemurs before reintroduction. Duplicates of stool and fruit wadges reliably detect S. aureus shedding in wild chimpanzees. We propose to apply these sampling strategies in future reintroduction programs to screen for S. aureus colonization. They may also be useful to monitor S. aureus in wild populations.

  12. 76 FR 64083 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, November 29... addressing risks to reliability that were identified in earlier Commission technical conferences. The...

  13. Mechanisms of pyocyanin toxicity and genetic determinants of resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Michael J; Burns, William J; Beavers, William N; Skaar, Eric P

    2017-06-12

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are commonly isolated from polymicrobial infections, such as wound infections and chronic respiratory infections of persons with cystic fibrosis. Despite their co-isolation, P. aeruginosa produces substances toxic to S. aureus, including pyocyanin, a blue pigmented molecule that functions in P. aeruginosa virulence. Pyocyanin inhibits S. aureus respiration, forcing it to derive energy from fermentation and adopt a small colony variant (SCV) phenotype. The mechanisms by which S. aureus sustains infection in the presence of pyocyanin are not clear. We sought to clarify the mechanisms of pyocyanin toxicity in S. aureus as well as identify the staphylococcal factors involved in resistance to pyocyanin toxicity. Non-respiring S. aureus SCVs are inhibited by pyocyanin through pyocyanin-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, indicating that pyocyanin toxicity is mediated through respiratory inhibition and ROS generation. Selection on pyocyanin yielded a menadione auxotrophic SCV capable of growth on high concentrations of pyocyanin. Genome sequencing of this isolate identified mutations in four genes including saeS, menD, NWMN_0006, and qsrR QsrR is a quinone-sensing repressor of quinone detoxification genes. Inactivation of qsrR resulted in significant pyocyanin resistance and additional pyocyanin resistance was achieved through combined inactivation of qsrR and menadione biosynthesis. Pyocyanin-resistant S. aureus has enhanced capability to inactivate pyocyanin, suggesting QsrR-regulated gene products may degrade pyocyanin to alleviate toxicity. These findings demonstrate pyocyanin-mediated ROS generation as an additional mechanism of pyocyanin toxicity, and define QsrR as a key mediator of pyocyanin resistance in S. aureusImportance Many bacterial infections occur in the presence of other microbes, where interactions between different microbes and the host impact disease. In patients with cystic fibrosis

  14. Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gülkan, Polat; Mahmoud, Khaled

    2016-01-01

      The book includes peer-reviewed contributions selected from presentations given at the Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014, held from August 11 – 13 in Istanbul, Turkey. It reports on the current challenges in bridge engineering faced by professionals around the globe, giving a special emphasis to recently developed techniques, innovations and opportunities. The book covers key topics in the field, including modeling and analysis methods; construction and erection techniques; design for extreme events and condition assessment and structural health monitoring. There is a balanced presentation of theory, research and practice. This book, which provides the readers with a comprehensive and timely reference guide on current practices in bridge engineering, is intended for professionals, academic researchers and students alike.

  15. COMPDYN 2011 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Fragiadakis, Michalis; Plevris, Vagelis; Computational Methods in Earthquake Engineering v.2

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an insight on advanced methods and concepts for the design and analysis of structures against earthquake loading. This second volume is a collection of 28 chapters written by leading experts in the field of structural analysis and earthquake engineering. Emphasis is given on current state-of-the-art methods and concepts in computing methods and their application in engineering practice. The book content is suitable for both practicing engineers and academics, covering a wide variety of topics in an effort to assist the timely dissemination of research findings for the mitigation of seismic risk. Due to the devastating socioeconomic consequences of seismic events, the topic is of great scientific interest and is expected to be of valuable help to scientists and engineers. The chapters of this volume are extended versions of selected papers presented at the COMPDYN 2011 conference, held in the island of Corfu, Greece, under the auspices of the European Community on Computational Methods in Ap...

  16. Stardust Final Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Minisci, Edmondo; Summerer, Leopold; McGinty, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Space debris and asteroid impacts pose a very real, very near-term threat to Earth. In order to help study and mitigate these risks, the Stardust program was formed in 2013. This training and research network was devoted to developing and mastering techniques such as removal, deflection, exploitation, and tracking. This book is a collection of many of the topics addressed at the Final Stardust Conference, describing the latest in asteroid monitoring and how engineering efforts can help us reduce space debris. It is a selection of studies bringing together specialists from universities, research institutions, and industry, tasked with the mission of pushing the boundaries of space research with innovative ideas and visionary concepts. Topics covered by the Symposium: Orbital and Attitude Dynamics Modeling Long Term Orbit and Attitude Evolution Particle Cloud Modeling and Simulation Collision and Impact Modelling and Simulation, Re-entry Modeling and Simulation Asteroid Origins and Characterization Orbit and A...

  17. Conference on Multibody Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Multibody Dynamics : Computational Methods and Applications

    2014-01-01

    By having its origin in analytical and continuum mechanics, as well as in computer science and applied mathematics, multibody dynamics provides a basis for analysis and virtual prototyping of innovative applications in many fields of contemporary engineering. With the utilization of computational models and algorithms that classically belonged to different fields of applied science, multibody dynamics delivers reliable simulation platforms for diverse highly-developed industrial products such as vehicle and railway systems, aeronautical and space vehicles, robotic manipulators, smart structures, biomechanical applications and nano-technologies. The chapters of this volume are based on the revised and extended versions of the selected scientific papers from amongst 255 original contributions that have been accepted to be presented within the program of the distinguished international ECCOMAS conference. It reflects state-of-the-art in the advances of multibody dynamics, providing excellent insight in the recen...

  18. Climate Science Conference

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The North Pacific LCC is helping sponsor the Second Annual Pacific Northwest Climate Science Conference. This two day, regional conference included a panel...

  19. Fake/Bogus Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin; Rahbar, Nader; Rezvani, Mohammad Javad

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to introduce some features of fake/bogus conferences and some viable approaches to differentiate them from the real ones. These fake/bogus conferences introduce themselves as international conferences, which are multidisciplinary and indexed in major sci...... scientific digital libraries. Furthermore, most of the fake/bogus conference holders offer publishing the accepted papers in ISI journals and use other techniques in their advertisement e-mails....

  20. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  1. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2011 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 11) (Scottsdale, AZ, USA, 18-21 September 2011) Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2011 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 11) (Scottsdale, AZ, USA, 18-21 September 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Diann

    2012-09-01

    The fourth annual meeting of the ASME/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) took place in sunny Scottsdale, Arizona. Each year we strive to grow and offer new experiences. This year we held a special Guest Symposium on Sustainability along with two focused topic tracks on energy harvesting and active composites to encourage cross-fertilization between these important fields and our community. This cross-disciplinary emphasis was reflected in keynote talks by Dr Wayne Brown, President and founder of Dynalloy, Inc., 'Cross-Discipline Sharing'; Dr Brad Allenby, Arizona State University, 'You Want the Future? You can't Handle the Future!'; and Professor Aditi Chattopadhyay, Arizona State University, 'A Multidisciplinary Approach to Structural Health Monitoring and Prognosis'. SMASIS continues to grow our community through both social and technical interchange. The conference location, the exotic Firesky Resort and Spa, exemplified the theme of our Guest Symposium on Sustainability, being the only Green Seal certified resort in Arizona, and highlighting four elements thought to represent all that exist: fire, water, earth and air. Several special events were held around this theme including the night at the oasis reception sponsored by General Motors, sustainability bingo, smart trivia and student networking lunches, and an Arizona pow-wow with a spectacular Indian hoop dance. Our student and young professional development continues to grow strong with best paper and hardware competitions, scavenger student outing and games night. We are very proud that our students and young professionals are always seeking out ways to give back to the community, including organizing outreach to local high school talent. We thank all of our sponsors who made these special events possible. We hope that these social events provided participants with the opportunity to expand their own personal community and broaden their horizons. Our

  2. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  3. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Junping; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Weicun; CISC’15

    2016-01-01

    This book presents selected research papers from the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference (CISC’15), held in Yangzhou, China. The topics covered include multi-agent systems, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, complex systems, computation intelligence and soft computing, intelligent control, advanced control technology, robotics and applications, intelligent information processing, iterative learning control, and machine learning. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent systems.

  4. SPECIALTY CONFERENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, William P.; Goldstein, Leonard I.; Sample, William Frederick; Kadell, Barbara; Tompkins, Ronald K.

    1979-01-01

    Various techniques are available to evaluate patients suspected of having common duct stones before an operation on the biliary tract. In patients without jaundice, intravenous cholangiography with tomography may provide satisfactory visualization of the biliary system and its contents. Sonography and computerized axial tomography are useful noninvasive methods. Endoscopic retrograde and transhepatic cholangiography are invasive techniques; but, when successful, they provide the most precise preoperative information obtainable about the presence or absence of stones in the biliary system. The most appropriate diagnostic procedures must be carefully selected for each patient. Each year in 3,000 to 4,000 cases, stones are found remaining in the bile ducts after common duct exploration for the removal of stones. Retained stones can be treated by nonoperative extraction, by irrigation techniques and by surgical removal. Extraction methods probably deserve first consideration, if experienced personnel are available. The technique of irrigation of the common bile duct with cholic acid or other solutions, although limited in success, may also be tried; if these procedures fail, then reoperation is indicated. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:516667

  5. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Espinosa-Gongora

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming.

  6. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schønning, Kristian; Fredholm, Merete; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming.

  7. Increased Susceptibility of Humanized NSG Mice to Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Wen Tseng

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections worldwide. Mice are the most commonly used animals for modeling human staphylococcal infections. However a supra-physiologic S. aureus inoculum is required to establish gross murine skin pathology. Moreover, many staphylococcal factors, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL elaborated by community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA, exhibit selective human tropism and cannot be adequately studied in mice. To overcome these deficiencies, we investigated S. aureus infection in non-obese diabetic (NOD/severe combined immune deficiency (SCID/IL2rγnull (NSG mice engrafted with human CD34+ umbilical cord blood cells. These "humanized" NSG mice require one to two log lower inoculum to induce consistent skin lesions compared with control mice, and exhibit larger cutaneous lesions upon infection with PVL+ versus isogenic PVL- S. aureus. Neutrophils appear important for PVL pathology as adoptive transfer of human neutrophils alone to NSG mice was sufficient to induce dermonecrosis following challenge with PVL+ S. aureus but not PVL- S. aureus. PMX53, a human C5aR inhibitor, blocked PVL-induced cellular cytotoxicity in vitro and reduced the size difference of lesions induced by the PVL+ and PVL- S. aureus, but PMX53 also reduced recruitment of neutrophils and exacerbated the infection. Overall, our findings establish humanized mice as an important translational tool for the study of S. aureus infection and provide strong evidence that PVL is a human virulence factor.

  8. 7th International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Rosa, Agostinho; Cadenas, José; Correia, António; Madani, Kurosh; Ruano, António; Filipe, Joaquim

    2017-01-01

    This book includes a selection of revised and extended versions of the best papers from the seventh International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2015), held in Lisbon, Portugal, from 12 to 14 November 2015, which was composed of three co-located conferences: The International Conference on Evolutionary Computation Theory and Applications (ECTA), the International Conference on Fuzzy Computation Theory and Applications (FCTA), and the International Conference on Neural Computation Theory and Applications (NCTA). The book presents recent advances in scientific developments and applications in these three areas, reflecting the IJCCI’s commitment to high quality standards.

  9. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  10. 22nd International Conference on Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This proceeding book contains a collection of selected accepted papers of the Mendel conference held in Brno, Czech Republic in June 2016. The proceedings book contains three chapters which present recent advances in soft computing including intelligent image processing. The Mendel conference was established in 1995 and is named after the scientist and Augustinian priest Gregor J. Mendel who discovered the famous Laws of Heredity. The main aim of the conference is to create a regular possibility for students, academics and researchers to exchange ideas and novel research methods on a yearly basis.

  11. ENTEROTOXIGENIC STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN SHEEP RAW MILK

    OpenAIRE

    G. Giacinti; Amatiste, S.; A. Tammaro; D. Sagrafoli; G. Giangolini; R. Rosati

    2011-01-01

    A total of 366 raw milk samples from 30 sheep farms were examined quantitatively for Staphylococcus aureus. Enterotoxin production by strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated was investigated. S. aureus was detected in 19 farms (63,3%). The ability to synthetise enterotoxins was found in ten strains (52,6%). Production of staphylococcal enterotoxins C (SEC) was recorded in 6 (60%) and production of SEC together with staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in 4 (40%) staphylococcal isolates. Raw m...

  12. International Conference on Extreme Learning Machine 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Kezhi; Wu, Jonathan; Lendasse, Amaury; ELM 2015; Theory, Algorithms and Applications (I); Theory, Algorithms and Applications (II)

    2016-01-01

    This book contains some selected papers from the International Conference on Extreme Learning Machine 2015, which was held in Hangzhou, China, December 15-17, 2015. This conference brought together researchers and engineers to share and exchange R&D experience on both theoretical studies and practical applications of the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) technique and brain learning. This book covers theories, algorithms ad applications of ELM. It gives readers a glance of the most recent advances of ELM. .

  13. 7th ICT Innovations 2015 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Koceski, Saso

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a collection of selected papers presented at the Seventh International Conference on ICT Innovations held in October 2015, in Ohrid, Macedonia, with main topic Emerging Technologies for Better Living. The conference gathered academics, professionals and industrial practitioners that work on developing the emerging technologies, systems, applications in the industrial and business arena especially innovative commercial implementations, novel application of technology, and experience in applying recent ICT research advances to practical solutions.

  14. International Conference on Extreme Learning Machines 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Kezhi; Cambria, Erik; Man, Zhihong; Toh, Kar-Ann

    2015-01-01

    This book contains some selected papers from the International Conference on Extreme Learning Machine 2014, which was held in Singapore, December 8-10, 2014. This conference brought together the researchers and practitioners of Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) from a variety of fields to promote research and development of “learning without iterative tuning”.  The book covers theories, algorithms and applications of ELM. It gives the readers a glance of the most recent advances of ELM.  

  15. Computational Intelligence in Information Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Au, Thien-Wan; Omar, Saiful

    2017-01-01

    This book constitutes the Proceedings of the Computational Intelligence in Information Systems conference (CIIS 2016), held in Brunei, November 18–20, 2016. The CIIS conference provides a platform for researchers to exchange the latest ideas and to present new research advances in general areas related to computational intelligence and its applications. The 26 revised full papers presented in this book have been carefully selected from 62 submissions. They cover a wide range of topics and application areas in computational intelligence and informatics.

  16. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and disease tolerance mechanisms that promote commensalism to S. aureus.

  17. S. aureus colonization at ICU admission as a risk factor for developing S. aureus ICU pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paling, Fleur P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413968669; Wolkewitz, Martin; Bode, Lonneke G M; Klein Klouwenberg, Peter M C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33706864X; Ong, David S Y; Depuydt, Pieter; de Bus, Liesbet; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Bonten, Marc J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123144337; Kluijtmans, Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323262139

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the incidence of intensive care unit (ICU) acquired pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and its association with S. aureus colonization at ICU admission. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of two cohort studies in critically ill patients. The primary

  18. Relationship and susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus aureus infection diabetic foot ulcers with Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Aza Bahadeen

    2013-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the main cause of diabetic foot infection with the patient's endogenous flora as the principal source. Nasal carriage of S. aureus has been identified as an important risk factor for the acquisition of diabetic foot infections. The study assessment the associations of S. aureus with methicillin resistant S. aureus were isolation from diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage of the same patients and their antibiotic susceptibility profile. Diagnosis of S. aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus were carried out by using standard procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles were determent by breakpoint dilution method. Out of 222 S. aureus isolation, 139 (62.61%) were isolated from the diabetic foot and 83 (37.39%) from the nasal carriage. Seventy one (30.87%) of the patients were S. aureus infection diabetic foot with nasal carriage. Among diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage patients, 40.85% of S. aureus were considered as methicillin resistant S. aureus. Rifampicin (96.40%) and Levofloxacin (91.44%) were active against S. aureus. Patients at strong risk for methicillin resistant S. aureus nasal carriage and subsequent diabetic foot infection with high resistance to antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Facilitating Learning at Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    2011-01-01

    and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes......The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...

  20. International Conference on Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    OMICS International, (conference series) the World Class Open Access Publisher and Scientific Event Organizer is hosting “International Conference on physics” which is going to be the biggest conference dedicated to Physics. The theme “Highlighting innovations and challenges in the field of Physics” and it features a three day conference addressing the major breakthroughs, challenges and the solutions adopted. The conference will be held during June 27-29, 2016 at New Orleans, USA. Will be published in: http://physics.conferenceseries.com/

  1. Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinigalliano Christopher D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant S. aureus, MRSA, are human colonizing bacteria that commonly cause opportunistic infections primarily involving the skin in otherwise healthy individuals. These infections have been linked to close contact and sharing of common facilities such as locker rooms, schools and prisons Waterborne exposure and transmission routes have not been traditionally associated with S. aureus infections. Coastal marine waters and beaches used for recreation are potential locations for the combination of high numbers of people with close contact and therefore could contribute to the exposure to and infection by these organisms. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and characteristics of the shedding of methicillin sensitive S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA by human bathers in marine waters. Results Nasal cultures were collected from bathers, and water samples were collected from two sets of pools designed to isolate and quantify MSSA and MRSA shed by adults and toddlers during exposure to marine water. A combination of selective growth media and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to identify and perform limited characterization of the S. aureus isolated from the water and the participants. Twelve of 15 MRSA isolates collected from the water had identical genetic characteristics as the organisms isolated from the participants exposed to that water while the remaining 3 MRSA were without matching nasal isolates from participants. The amount of S. aureus shed per person corresponded to 105 to 106 CFU per person per 15-minute bathing period, with 15 to 20% of this quantity testing positive for MRSA. Conclusions This is the first report of a comparison of human colonizing organisms with bacteria from human exposed marine water attempting to confirm that participants shed their own colonizing MSSA and MRSA into their bathing milieu. These findings clearly

  2. testing a consensus conference method by discussing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-10-10

    Oct 10, 2000 ... controversial subjects(1-3). Consensus conference methods were developed by the ... Selection of the topic: The current topic was selected after observing the treatment modalities of traumatic dental injuries ... require improvement. The topic was considered appropriate and of potential importance to dental ...

  3. The learning conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To call attention to the fact that conferences for professionals rely on massive one-way communication and hence produce little learning for delegates. To introduce an alternative, the ?learning conference,? that involves delegates in fun and productive learning processes. Design....../methodology/approach: A typical full-day conference is analyzed. It has six hours of podium talk and twenty-five minutes for delegates to become involved. What model of learning can possibly lie behind this? The transfer model, which assumes learners to be empty vessels. An alternative view is that conference delegates...... are active professionals in search of inspiration, and they also want to share knowledge with their peers at the conference. A theory of the conference as a forum for mutual inspiration and human co-flourishing is proposed, as are four design principles for a learning conference: 1. Presentations must...

  4. The Staphylococcus aureus FASII bypass escape route from FASII inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvan, Claire; Halpern, David; Kénanian, Gérald; Pathania, Amit; Anba-Mondoloni, Jamila; Lamberet, Gilles; Gruss, Alexandra; Gloux, Karine

    2017-10-01

    Antimicrobials targeting the fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway are being developed as alternative treatments for bacterial infections. Emergence of resistance to FASII inhibitors was mainly considered as a consequence of mutations in the FASII target genes. However, an alternative and efficient anti-FASII resistance strategy, called here FASII bypass, was uncovered. Bacteria that bypass FASII incorporate exogenous fatty acids in membrane lipids, and thus dispense with the need for FASII. This strategy is used by numerous Gram-positive low GC % bacteria, including streptococci, enterococci, and staphylococci. Some bacteria repress FASII genes once fatty acids are available, and "constitutively" shift to FASII bypass. Others, such as the major pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, can undergo high frequency mutations that favor FASII bypass. This capacity is particularly relevant during infection, as the host supplies the fatty acids needed for bacteria to bypass FASII and thus become resistant to FASII inhibitors. Screenings for anti-FASII resistance in the presence of exogenous fatty acids confirmed that FASII bypass confers anti-FASII resistance among clinical and veterinary isolates. Polymorphisms in S. aureus FASII initiation enzymes favor FASII bypass, possibly by increasing availability of acyl-carrier protein, a required intermediate. Here we review FASII bypass and consequences in light of proposed uses of anti-FASII to treat infections, with a focus on FASII bypass in S. aureus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  5. The F130S point mutation in the Arabidopsis high-affinity K+ transporter AtHAK5 increases K+ over Na+ and Cs+ selectivity and confers Na+ and Cs+ tolerance to yeast under heterologous expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eAleman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K+ is an essential macronutrient required for plant growth, development and high yield production of crops. Members of group I of the KT/HAK/KUP family of transporters, such as HAK5, are key components for K+ acquisition by plant roots at low external K+ concentrations. Certain abiotic stress conditions such as salinity or Cs+-polluted soils may jeopardize plant K+ nutrition because HAK5-mediated K+ transport is inhibited by Na+ and Cs+. Here, by screening in yeast a randomly-mutated collection of AtHAK5 transporters, a new mutation in AtHAK5 sequence is identified that greatly increases Na+ tolerance. The single point mutation F130S, affecting an amino acid residue conserved in HAK5 transporters from several species, confers high salt tolerance, as well as Cs+ tolerance. This mutation increases more than 100-fold the affinity of AtHAK5 for K+ and reduces the Ki values for Na+ and Cs+, suggesting that the F130 residue may contribute to the structure of the pore region involved in K+ binding. In addition, this mutation increases the Vmax for K+. All this changes occur without increasing the amount of the AtHAK5 protein in yeast and support the idea that this residue is contributing to shape the selectivity filter of the AtHAK5 transporter.

  6. Evaluation of Two New Chromogenic Media, CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID, for Identifying Staphylococcus aureus and Screening Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Hedin, Göran; Fang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with diverse genetic backgrounds and two reference strains were correctly identified as S. aureus on CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID media. Growth inhibition on CHROMagar MRSA was noted. A combination of cefoxitin disk and S. aureus ID was found suitable for rapid MRSA screening.

  7. Eleclazine, a new selective cardiac late sodium current inhibitor, confers concurrent protection against autonomically induced atrial premature beats, repolarization alternans and heterogeneity, and atrial fibrillation in an intact porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Henrique; Justo, Fernanda; Nearing, Bruce D; Kahlig, Kristopher M; Rajamani, Sridharan; Belardinelli, Luiz; Verrier, Richard L

    2016-08-01

    The cardiac late sodium current (INa) has been increasingly implicated in the initiation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Eleclazine (formerly known as GS-6615) is a new selective late INa inhibitor and is undergoing clinical testing for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. We tested whether late INa inhibition by eleclazine confers protection against atrial premature beats (APBs) and AF. In closed-chest anesthetized Yorkshire pigs, epinephrine (2.0 µg/kg, intravenous, bolus over 1 minute) was administered alone to induce APBs (n = 6) or in combination with intrapericardial acetylcholine (0.5-4 mL of 12.5 mM solution) to induce spontaneous AF (n = 11). Effects of eleclazine (0.3 and 0.9 mg/kg, intravenous, over 15 minutes) on APBs and AF were determined. Epinephrine-induced APBs were reduced >3-fold (P < .04) after eleclazine (0.9 mg/kg) infusion. The combined administration of epinephrine and acetylcholine resulted in AF in all animals tested, which was invariably preceded by APBs. Eleclazine pretreatment suppressed AF in all 7 animals in at least 1 test episode during the 60- to 150-minute observation period (P = .04). The plasma eleclazine level at 120 minutes was 828 ± 45.8 nM, within exposure range evaluated clinically. Eleclazine shortened ventricular QT and atrial PTa intervals by 7% (P < .001 for both) and reduced atrial repolarization alternans (P = .003) and heterogeneity (P = .021) without attenuation of the inotropic response to catecholamine (P = .56). The drug inhibited the enhanced late INa of single atrial myocytes with a potency of 736 ± 67 nM. Selective cardiac late INa inhibition with eleclazine suppresses autonomically mediated atrial repolarization alternans and heterogeneity, APBs, and AF in an intact porcine model. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of lipovitellin-salt-mannitol agar for screening, isolation, and presumptive identification of Staphylococcus aureus in a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, J; Gill, R; Robertson, G J

    1996-12-01

    Lipovitellin-salt-mannitol (LSM) plate medium was examined for its ability to directly isolate, recover, and presumptively identify Staphylococcus aureus from 418 clinical specimens. The criteria for medium evaluation included colony morphology reactions, selectivity, and ease of isolation. For 298 specimens used for screening, LSM agar medium was compared with the other conventional media used, mannitol salt agar (MSA), 5% horse blood agar (HBA), and phenolphthalein phosphate agar (PPA), to detect and recover S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The results indicated that LSM agar is more effective than MSA, HBA, or PPA for the recovery and isolation of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. On a replicator multipoint inoculation system, we compared the reactions on LSM agar, MSA, and DNase agar of 227 different strains of staphylococci, which included 178 different strains of S. aureus and 49 different strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from clinical specimens. By using the lipovitellin precipitation activity and mannitol fermentation characteristics, LSM agar gave a 100% correlation in presumptively identifying S. aureus. LSM agar may be an alternative plate medium for large hospital extensive screening for the detection and isolation of S. aureus.

  9. Relative prevalence of methicilline resistant Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In our region, although methicillin resistance increased in S. aureus strains, because of the unavailability and the high cost of alternative antibiotics, gentamycin is still suggested as an alternative for treatment of S. aureus infections. These results however indicate that vancomycin seemed to be the only antimicrobial agent ...

  10. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus have an important role in its dissemination. The colonization rates of S. aureus in anterior nose nares from 210 healthy volunteers (70 from the non-hospital adult personnel in the community, 68 from clinical students and 72 from healthcare workers “HCWs” in 6 hospitals) in the eastern ...

  11. METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus often pose therapeutic dilemma to the clinicians because of the multi resistant nature of these strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Outbreaks of both nosocomial and community acquired infections are also frequent and difficult to control.

  12. (allium sativum) on staphylococcus aureus conjunctivites

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Bacterial conjunctivitis is common usually self-limiting. The most common causative organisms are staphylococcus epidermis and staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Bacterial conjunctivitis is rarely sight threatening. However, accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment at the primary level is important as it ...

  13. Nasal Carriage of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired infections. The emergence of methicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus in the hospitals and the community is a serious health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage and ...

  14. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus is an Important agent of food poisoning. In many countries, it is the main bacterial organism responsible for diseases caused by exotoxin production and direct invasion with systemic dissemination. In poultry, S. aureus is associated with many clinical syndromes including tenosynovitis, omphalitis, ...

  15. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recognized as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. S aureus may induce clinically manifested diseases, or the host may remain completely asymptomatic. Methods: a cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted from October 2012 ...

  16. Immunogenicity of toxins during Staphylococcus aureus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Verkaik (Nelianne); O. Dauwalder (Olivier); K. Antri (Kenza); I. Boubekri (Ilhem); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); C. Badiou (Cédric); M. Bes (Michèle); F. Vandenesch (François); M. Tazir (Mohammed); H. Hooijkaas (Herbert); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J. Etienne (Jerome); G. Lina (Gérard); N. Ramdani-Bouguessa (Nadjia); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAB - BACKGROUND: Toxins are important Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors, but little is known about their immunogenicity during infection. Here, additional insight is generated. METHODS: Serum samples from 206 S. aureus-infected patients and 201 hospital-admitted control subjects

  17. Nasal carriage of Meticillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gemeda

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired infections. The emergence of methicillin resistant strains of. Staphylococcus aureus in the hospitals and the community is a serious health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage and ...

  18. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 11 (Number 1). June, 2013. 51 ... Staphylococcus aureus is an Important agent of food poisoning. In many ..... enterotoxicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the hands and nasal cavities of flight catering employees. Journal of Food. Protection, 11, 1487–1491. Hill JE ...

  19. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the studied population. Clinical isolates of S. aureus strains were collected from Medical Microbiology Unit of University College Hospital, Ibadan between May and October, 2012. The isolates were confirmed through growth on Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) and tube coagulase test.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus and healthcare-associated infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkelenkamp, M.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817716

    2011-01-01

    Many medical procedures breach or suppress patients’ natural defences, leaving them vulnerable to infections which would not occur in healthy humans: “healthcare-associated infections”. Healthcare-associated infections caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are probably the most

  1. Whole animal automated platform for drug discovery against multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Rajamuthiah

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus, the leading cause of hospital-acquired infections in the United States, is also pathogenic to the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The C. elegans-S. aureus infection model was previously carried out on solid agar plates where the bacteriovorous C. elegans feeds on a lawn of S. aureus. However, agar-based assays are not amenable to large scale screens for antibacterial compounds. We have developed a high throughput liquid screening assay that uses robotic instrumentation to dispense a precise amount of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA and worms in 384-well assay plates, followed by automated microscopy and image analysis. In validation of the liquid assay, an MRSA cell wall defective mutant, MW2ΔtarO, which is attenuated for killing in the agar-based assay, was found to be less virulent in the liquid assay. This robust assay with a Z'-factor consistently greater than 0.5 was utilized to screen the Biomol 4 compound library consisting of 640 small molecules with well characterized bioactivities. As proof of principle, 27 of the 30 clinically used antibiotics present in the library conferred increased C. elegans survival and were identified as hits in the screen. Surprisingly, the antihelminthic drug closantel was also identified as a hit in the screen. In further studies, we confirmed the anti-staphylococcal activity of closantel against vancomycin-resistant S. aureus isolates and other Gram-positive bacteria. The liquid C. elegans-S. aureus assay described here allows screening for anti-staphylococcal compounds that are not toxic to the host.

  2. Whole animal automated platform for drug discovery against multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Kim, Younghoon; Larkins-Ford, Jonah; Conery, Annie; Ausubel, Frederick M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, the leading cause of hospital-acquired infections in the United States, is also pathogenic to the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The C. elegans-S. aureus infection model was previously carried out on solid agar plates where the bacteriovorous C. elegans feeds on a lawn of S. aureus. However, agar-based assays are not amenable to large scale screens for antibacterial compounds. We have developed a high throughput liquid screening assay that uses robotic instrumentation to dispense a precise amount of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and worms in 384-well assay plates, followed by automated microscopy and image analysis. In validation of the liquid assay, an MRSA cell wall defective mutant, MW2ΔtarO, which is attenuated for killing in the agar-based assay, was found to be less virulent in the liquid assay. This robust assay with a Z'-factor consistently greater than 0.5 was utilized to screen the Biomol 4 compound library consisting of 640 small molecules with well characterized bioactivities. As proof of principle, 27 of the 30 clinically used antibiotics present in the library conferred increased C. elegans survival and were identified as hits in the screen. Surprisingly, the antihelminthic drug closantel was also identified as a hit in the screen. In further studies, we confirmed the anti-staphylococcal activity of closantel against vancomycin-resistant S. aureus isolates and other Gram-positive bacteria. The liquid C. elegans-S. aureus assay described here allows screening for anti-staphylococcal compounds that are not toxic to the host.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization: Modulation of Host Immune Response and Impact on Human Vaccine Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aisling F.; Leech, John M.; Rogers, Thomas R.; McLoughlin, Rachel M.

    2014-01-01

    In apparent contrast to its invasive potential Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the anterior nares of 20–80% of the human population. The relationship between host and microbe appears particularly individualized and colonization status seems somehow predetermined. After decolonization, persistent carriers often become re-colonized with their prior S. aureus strain, whereas non-carriers resist experimental colonization. Efforts to identify factors facilitating colonization have thus far largely focused on the microorganism rather than on the human host. The host responds to S. aureus nasal colonization via local expression of anti-microbial peptides, lipids, and cytokines. Interplay with the co-existing microbiota also influences colonization and immune regulation. Transient or persistent S. aureus colonization induces specific systemic immune responses. Humoral responses are the most studied of these and little is known of cellular responses induced by colonization. Intriguingly, colonized patients who develop bacteremia may have a lower S. aureus-attributable mortality than their non-colonized counterparts. This could imply a staphylococcal-specific immune “priming” or immunomodulation occurring as a consequence of colonization and impacting on the outcome of infection. This has yet to be fully explored. An effective vaccine remains elusive. Anti-S. aureus vaccine strategies may need to drive both humoral and cellular immune responses to confer efficient protection. Understanding the influence of colonization on adaptive response is essential to intelligent vaccine design, and may determine the efficacy of vaccine-mediated immunity. Clinical trials should consider colonization status and the resulting impact of this on individual patient responses. We urgently need an increased appreciation of colonization and its modulation of host immunity. PMID:24409186

  4. 4th International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, António; Rosa, Agostinho; Filipe, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    The present book includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the Fourth International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2012)., held in Barcelona, Spain, from 5 to 7 October, 2012. The conference was sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication (INSTICC) and was organized in cooperation with the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI). The conference brought together researchers, engineers and practitioners in computational technologies, especially those related to the areas of fuzzy computation, evolutionary computation and neural computation. It is composed of three co-located conferences, each one specialized in one of the aforementioned -knowledge areas. Namely: - International Conference on Evolutionary Computation Theory and Applications (ECTA) - International Conference on Fuzzy Computation Theory and Applications (FCTA) - International Conference on Neural Computation Theory a...

  5. Topic models for conference session assignment: organising PRASA 2014(5)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael G

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Conference scheduling and organising is a particularly laborious task and can be exteremely time consuming. While many online conference platforms allow manual topic selection, these can be expensive and typically still require that individual...

  6. PREFACE: International Conference on Electrical Bioimpedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, Rosalind; Woo, Eung Je

    2010-04-01

    logo The XIVth International Conference on Electrical Bioimpedance, held in conjunction with the 11th Conference on Biomedical Applications of EIT (ICEBI & EIT 2010), took place from 4-8 April 2010 in the Reitz Union of the University of Florida, in Gainesville, USA. This was the first time since its inception in 1969 that the ICEBI was held in the United States. As in the last three conferences (Graz 2007, Gdansk 2004 and Oslo 2001) the ICEBI was combined with the Conference on Biomedical Applications of EIT - a mutually beneficial approach for those interested in the biophysics of tissue electrical properties and those developing imaging methods and measurement systems based thereon. This year's conference was particularly notable for the many papers presented on hybrid and emerging imaging techniques such as Electric Property Tomography (EPT), Magneto Acoustic Tomography using Magnetic Induction (MAT-MI) and Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT); sessions on Cell Scale Impedance, Cardiac Impedance and Imaging Neural Activity. About 180 scientists from all over the world attended, including keynote speakers on topics of fundamental electromagnetic principles (Jaakko Malmivuo), Electrical Source and Impedance Imaging (Bin He), Bioimpedance applications in Nephrology, (Nathan Levin), and Lung EIT (Gerhard Wolf). The papers in this volume are peer-reviewed four-page works selected from over 150 presented in oral and poster sessions at the conference. The complete program is available from the conference website.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... was used for severity assessment. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was found on the hands in 24 patients with HE and four controls (P

  8. The T Cell Response to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M. Bröker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a dangerous pathogen and a leading cause of both nosocomial and community acquired bacterial infection worldwide. However, on the other hand, we are all exposed to this bacterium, often within the first hours of life, and usually manage to establish equilibrium and coexist with it. What does the adaptive immune system contribute toward lifelong control of S. aureus? Will it become possible to raise or enhance protective immune memory by vaccination? While in the past the S. aureus-specific antibody response has dominated this discussion, the research community is now coming to appreciate the role that the cellular arm of adaptive immunity, the T cells, plays. There are numerous T cell subsets, each with differing functions, which together have the ability to orchestrate the immune response to S. aureus and hence to tip the balance between protection and pathology. This review summarizes the state of the art in this dynamic field of research.

  9. ENTEROTOXIGENIC STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN SHEEP RAW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giacinti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 366 raw milk samples from 30 sheep farms were examined quantitatively for Staphylococcus aureus. Enterotoxin production by strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated was investigated. S. aureus was detected in 19 farms (63,3%. The ability to synthetise enterotoxins was found in ten strains (52,6%. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxins C (SEC was recorded in 6 (60% and production of SEC together with staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA in 4 (40% staphylococcal isolates. Raw milk products are vulnerable to contamination by S. aureus. Strategies to reduce the occurrence of S. aureus in bulk milk are of particular importance on farms where milk is used for raw milk products.

  10. Operon structure of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Broeke-Smits, Nicole J P; Pronk, Tessa E; Jongerius, Ilse; Bruning, Oskar; Wittink, Floyd R; Breit, Timo M; van Strijp, Jos A G; Fluit, Ad C; Boel, C H Edwin

    2010-06-01

    In bacteria, gene regulation is one of the fundamental characteristics of survival, colonization and pathogenesis. Operons play a key role in regulating expression of diverse genes involved in metabolism and virulence. However, operon structures in pathogenic bacteria have been determined only by in silico approaches that are dependent on factors such as intergenic distances and terminator/promoter sequences. Knowledge of operon structures is crucial to fully understand the pathophysiology of infections. Presently, transcriptome data obtained from growth curves in a defined medium were used to predict operons in Staphylococcus aureus. This unbiased approach and the use of five highly reproducible biological replicates resulted in 93.5% significantly regulated genes. These data, combined with Pearson's correlation coefficients of the transcriptional profiles, enabled us to accurately compile 93% of the genome in operon structures. A total of 1640 genes of different functional classes were identified in operons. Interestingly, we found several operons containing virulence genes and showed synergistic effects for two complement convertase inhibitors transcribed in one operon. This is the first experimental approach to fully identify operon structures in S. aureus. It forms the basis for further in vitro regulation studies that will profoundly advance the understanding of bacterial pathophysiology in vivo.

  11. UJI KEBERADAAN Staphylococcus aureus PADA SOSIS TRADISIONAL (URUTAN YANG BEREDAR DI PASAR TRADISIONAL DI DENPASAR, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Niti Rahayu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the total amount of Staphylococcus aureus in atraditional sausage (urutan sold in Denpasar traditional market in Bali. Sausage samples aretaken from four areas in Denpasar (North Denpasar, East Denpasar, West Denpasar, and SouthDenpasar. From each area, three traditional markets are selected and from each market 2merchants are chosen. The calculation of the number of Staphylococcus aureus is done byplatting method and by pour plate method. The results show that the highest number ofStaphylococcus aureus belongs to the North Denpasar region in the mount of 241,067 CFU/gwhile the lowest belongs to the region of West Denpasar with 71,233 CFU/g. These two resultsare significantly different with one another (P<0,05. The maximum limit of microbialcontamination in processed meats (sausages for Staphylococcus aureus based on IndonesianNational Standard (SNI is equal to 102 CFU / g. Based on the testing that has been done, allurutan contamination by the Staphylococcus aureus in Denpasar traditional market, hasexceeded the threshold amount of SNI.Keywords : Traditional Sausages (urutan, Staphylococcus aureus

  12. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among secondary school students at Duhok City-Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Habeeb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA widely distributed in hospitals around the world. There is strong relationship between disease development and S. aureus nasal carriage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiology of nasal colonization with S. aureus and MRSA in the community of Duhok city, Iraq. Methods: 489 students aged 16 to18 years were included. Nasal swab samples were collected followed by antimicrobial susceptibility test. MRSA isolates were selected and investigated for the mecA gene. Also the prevalence of PantonValentine Leukocidin (PVL gene was also studied. Results: A total of 90 (18.4% out of 489 (18.4% of the students were found to be colonized by S. aureus . Only 10 (2.04% of the students were found to be MRSA carrier. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to Vancomycin. PLV gene was detected in one MRSA strain. Conclusion: This is the first study investigating S. aureus colonization in students in the Duhok city. Nasal carriage of S. aureus and MRSA is comparable with reports from elsewhere. Fortunately, all trains included in our study were sensitive to vancomycin. Further research is needed to examine the SCCmec elements and the evolution of MRSA over the time. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(2: 59-63

  13. Detection of enterotoxins and genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from Isfahan Educational Hospital, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Asghar Havaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Staphylococcus aureus is known as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens, which may lead to several infections. The aim of this study was determining the enterotoxins A, C, and TSST-1 and molecular characterization of S. aureus strains with PFGE and MLST typing methods. Materials and methods: In the present study during the sixmonths sampling, fifty S. aureus strains were isolated from patients admitted to Al-Zahra university hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Multiplex PCR for detection of enterotoxin A, C and TSST-1, pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST were used for molecular typing. Results: In antibiogram the highest and lowest percentage of resistance was belonged to tetracycline and rifampin respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that 30% of the strains harbored sea and 34% harbored sec genes. However, only 4% of our collected isolates had tsst gene. In PFGE method analysis on all S. aureus strains, a total of 19 different patterns were identified. Nine various sequence types in 27 selected S. aureus isolates were identified by MLST. Conclusions: Present study indicates a possible higher variability among our S. aureus strains by two different molecular typing methods; nevertheless four main common types (CT1, CT7, CT9, and CT11 with at least one toxin genes were determined.

  14. ISMB Conference Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresa, Gaasterand [UCSD; Martin, Vingron

    2011-07-01

    This special issue comprises the papers accepted for presentation at the 19th Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology, joint with the 10th European Conference on Computational Biology, an official conference of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB; http://www.iscb.org). ISMB/ECCB 2011 (http://www.iscb.org/ismb2011/) will take place in Vienna, Austria, from July 17 through July 19, 2011; preceded during July 14–16 by eight 1- or 2- day Special Interest Group (SIG) meetings, three satellite meetings and nine half-day tutorials; and followed by two additional satellite meetings. The 48 papers in this volume were selected from 258 submitted papers. Submitted papers were assigned to 13 areas. Area Chairs led each topic area by selecting their area's program committee and overseeing the reviewing process. Many Area Chairs were new compared to 2010, and two completely new areas were added in 2011, ‘Data Visualization’ and ‘Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics’. Six papers for which Area Chairs were in conflict were reviewed under a ‘Conflicts Management’ section headed by the Proceedings Chairs; one such paper was accepted in ‘Bioimaging’. Areas, co-chairs and acceptance information are listed in Table 1. Compared to prior years, five mature topic areas had steady submissions, ‘Evolution and Comparative Genomics’, ‘Gene Regulation and Transcriptomics’, ‘Protein Structure and Function’, ‘Sequence Analysis’, ‘Text Mining’. Two areas newer to ISMB were underrepresented this year, ‘Bioimaging’ and ‘Disease Models and Epidemiology’. One area doubled, ‘Applied Bioinformatics’, renamed from last year's ‘Other Bioinformatics Applications’; and one tripled, ‘Protein Interactions and Molecular Networks’. Across the areas, 326 members of the bioinformatics community provided reviews. Most papers received three reviews and several received four or more. There was

  15. International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Cryocoolers 13

    2005-01-01

    This is the 13th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature super-capacitor applications.

  16. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in the United States, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnert, Matthew J; Kruszon-Moran, Deanna; Hill, Holly A; McQuillan, Geraldine; McAllister, Sigrid K; Fosheim, Gregory; McDougal, Linda K; Chaitram, Jasmine; Jensen, Bette; Fridkin, Scott K; Killgore, George; Tenover, Fred C

    2006-01-15

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of disease, particularly in colonized persons. Although methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection has become increasingly reported, population-based S. aureus and MRSA colonization estimates are lacking. Nasal samples for S. aureus culture and sociodemographic data were obtained from 9622 persons > or = 1 year old as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2002. After screening for oxacillin susceptibility, MRSA and selected methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clonal type, toxin genes (e.g., for Panton-Valentine leukocidin [PVL]), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type I-IV genes. For 2001-2002, national S. aureus and MRSA colonization prevalence estimates were 32.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.7%-34.1%) and 0.8% (95% CI, 0.4%-1.4%), respectively, and population estimates were 89.4 million persons (95% CI, 84.8-94.1 million persons) and 2.3 million persons (95% CI, 1.2-3.8 million persons), respectively. S. aureus colonization prevalence was highest in participants 6-11 years old. MRSA colonization was associated with age > or = 60 years and being female but not with recent health-care exposure. In unweighted analyses, the SCCmec type IV gene was more frequent in isolates from participants of younger age and of non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity; the PVL gene was present in 9 (2.4%) of 372 of isolates tested. Many persons in the United States are colonized with S. aureus; prevalence rates differ demographically. MRSA colonization prevalence, although low nationally in 2001-2002, may vary with demographic and organism characteristics.

  17. Global Conference on Applied Physics and Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Global Conference on Applied Physics and Mathematics is organized by academics and researchers belonging to different scientific areas of the C3i/Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre (Portugal) and the University of Extremadura (Spain) with the technical support of ScienceKnow Conferences. The event has the objective of creating an international forum for academics, researchers and scientists from worldwide to discuss worldwide results and proposals regarding to the soundest issues related to Applied Physics and Mathematics. This event will include the participation of renowned keynote speakers, oral presentations, posters sessions and technical conferences related to the topics dealt with in the Scientific Program as well as an attractive social and cultural program. The papers will be published in the Proceedings e-books. The proceedings of the conference will be sent to possible indexing on Thomson Reuters (selective by Thomson Reuters, not all-inclusive) and Google Scholar. Those communications con...

  18. Conference proceedings ISES 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Peerstrup Ahrendt, Line; Malmkvist, Jens

    The 10th Internatinal Equitation Science Conference is held i Denmark from August 6th - 9th 2014. This book of proceedings contaions abstracts of 35 oral and 57 poster presentations within the conference themes Equine Stress, Learning and Training as well as free papers.......The 10th Internatinal Equitation Science Conference is held i Denmark from August 6th - 9th 2014. This book of proceedings contaions abstracts of 35 oral and 57 poster presentations within the conference themes Equine Stress, Learning and Training as well as free papers....

  19. 3. International conference on catalysis in membrane reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The 3. International Conference on Catalysis in Membrane Reactors, Copenhagen, Denmark, is a continuation of the previous conferences held in Villeurbanne 1994 and Moscow 1996 and will deal with the rapid developments taking place within membranes with emphasis on membrane catalysis. The approx. 80 contributions in form of plenary lectures and posters discuss hydrogen production, methane reforming into syngas, selectivity and specificity of various membranes etc. The conference is organised by the Danish Catalytic Society under the Danish Society for Chemical Engineering. (EG)

  20. Identification of genes involved in polysaccharide-independent Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaise R Boles

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a potent biofilm former on host tissue and medical implants, and biofilm growth is a critical virulence determinant for chronic infections. Recent studies suggest that many clinical isolates form polysaccharide-independent biofilms. However, a systematic screen for defective mutants has not been performed to identify factors important for biofilm formation in these strains. We created a library of 14,880 mariner transposon mutants in a S. aureus strain that generates a proteinaceous and extracellular DNA based biofilm matrix. The library was screened for biofilm defects and 31 transposon mutants conferred a reproducible phenotype. In the pool, 16 mutants overproduced extracellular proteases and the protease inhibitor alpha(2-macroglobulin restored biofilm capacity to 13 of these mutants. The other 15 mutants in the pool displayed normal protease levels and had defects in genes involved in autolysis, osmoregulation, or uncharacterized membrane proteins. Two transposon mutants of interest in the GraRS two-component system and a putative inositol monophosphatase were confirmed in a flow cell biofilm model, genetically complemented, and further verified in a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA isolate. Collectively, our screen for biofilm defective mutants identified novel loci involved in S. aureus biofilm formation and underscored the importance of extracellular protease activity and autolysis in biofilm development.

  1. Anti-alpha-hemolysin monoclonal antibodies mediate protection against Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragle, Brook E; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane

    2009-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia is one of the most common invasive diseases caused by this human pathogen. S. aureus alpha-hemolysin, a pore-forming cytotoxin, is an essential virulence factor in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. Vaccine-based targeting of this toxin provides protection against lethal staphylococcal pneumonia in a murine model system, suggesting that a monoclonal antibody-based therapy may likewise prove to be efficacious for prevention and treatment of this disease. We report the generation of two distinct anti-alpha-hemolysin monoclonal antibodies that antagonize toxin activity, preventing human lung cell injury in vitro and protecting experimental animals against lethal S. aureus pneumonia. Each of these two monoclonal antibodies recognized an epitope within the first 50 amino acid residues of the mature toxin and blocked the formation of a stable alpha-hemolysin oligomer on the target cell surface. Active immunization with the first 50 amino acids of the toxin also conferred protection against S. aureus pneumonia. Together, these data reveal passive and active immunization strategies for prevention or therapy of staphylococcal pneumonia and highlight the potential role that a critical epitope may play in defining human susceptibility to this deadly disease.

  2. Scheduling EURO-k Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas Jacob Riis; Pisinger, David; Vigo, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    EURO-k conferences are among the largest Operations Research conferences in the world, typically including more than 2000 presentations. As opposed to many other conferences, EURO-k conferences are hierarchically organized, and the conference schedule should reflect this structure to make...

  3. Planktonic aggregates of Staphylococcus aureus protect against common antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaber, Jakob; Cohn, Marianne Thorup; Frees, Dorte; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cells are mostly studied during planktonic growth although in their natural habitats they are often found in communities such as biofilms with dramatically different physiological properties. We have examined another type of community namely cellular aggregates observed in strains of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. By laser-diffraction particle-size analysis (LDA) we show, for strains forming visible aggregates, that the aggregation starts already in the early exponential growth phase and proceeds until post-exponential phase where more than 90% of the population is part of the aggregate community. Similar to some types of biofilm, the structural component of S. aureus aggregates is the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA). Importantly, PIA production correlates with the level of aggregation whether altered through mutations or exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of selected antibiotics. While some properties of aggregates resemble those of biofilms including increased mutation frequency and survival during antibiotic treatment, aggregated cells displayed higher metabolic activity than planktonic cells or cells in biofilm. Thus, our data indicate that the properties of cells in aggregates differ in some aspects from those in biofilms. It is generally accepted that the biofilm life style protects pathogens against antibiotics and the hostile environment of the host. We speculate that in aggregate communities S. aureus increases its tolerance to hazardous environments and that the combination of a biofilm-like environment with mobility has substantial practical and clinical importance.

  4. EDITORIAL Smart materials, multifunctional composites, and morphing structures: selected papers from the 20th International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies (ICAST 2009) Smart materials, multifunctional composites, and morphing structures: selected papers from the 20th International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies (ICAST 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2010-12-01

    The 20th International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies (ICAST) was held on 20-22 October 2009 in Hong Kong. This special section of Smart Materials and Structures is derived from the research papers presented at the conference. Of the 106 papers presented at the conference, 11 papers were reviewed and accepted for this special section, following the regular review procedures of the journal. This special section is focused on smart materials, multifunctional composites, and applications on morphing structures. Smart materials. Smart materials are the foundation of adaptive structures and intelligent systems. The development of new materials will lead to significant improvement in various applications. Three articles are focused on the fabrication of new materials and investigation of their behaviors: Barium strontium zirconate titanate ((Ba1-xSrx)(ZrxTi1-x)O3; BSZT, x = 0.25 and 0.75) ceramics with a highly crystalline structure were fabricated using the combustion technique. The microstructure of BSZT powders exhibited an almost-spherical morphology and had a porous agglomerated form. Polyaniline (PANI)/clay nanoparticles with unique core-shell structure were synthesized via Pickering emulsion polymerization. By dispersing PANI/clay nanoparticles in silicone oil, the ER fluid was made. Magnetic field effects were investigated on the deposition rate and surface morphology of chromium nitride coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering for superior hardness, excellent wear and oxidation resistance. The surface morphology of chromium nitride films was also examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Multifunctional composites. Composites are made from two or more constituent materials so they can combine the best properties of different materials. Five papers deal with fabrication, testing, and modeling of various multifunctional composites: A new active structural fiber (ASF) was fabricated by coating a single carbon fiber with a concentric

  5. Mannitol Salt Agar-Cefoxitin Combination as a Screening Medium for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, R. W.; Kahlmeter, Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    In disk diffusion tests, cefoxitin is now considered a better indicator than oxacillin for the presence of the mecA gene in Staphylococcus aureus. A logical extension of this work is the incorporation of cefoxitin into media selective for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This paper describes the development and subsequent testing of mannitol salt agar containing 4 mg/liter cefoxitin with a unique collection of well-characterized MRSA strains, including low-level methicillin-resistant strains and an equal number of known mecA-negative S. aureus strains. The agar supported the growth of 96.6% of the mecA-positive strains in the collection and inhibited the growth of 100% of the mecA-negative strains. These results suggest that selective media based on cefoxitin are superior to those based on oxacillin for the detection of MRSA. PMID:16081913

  6. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Revisar la evolución y mecanismos moleculares de la resistencia de Staphylococcus aureus a vancomicina. Fuente de los datos. Se consultó la base de datos MEDLINE y se seleccionaron artículos tipo reportes de caso, estudios bioquímicos, de microscopía electrónica y biología molecular pertinentes. Síntesis. Después de casi 40 años de eficacia ininterrumpida de la vancomicina, en 1997 se reportaron los primeros casos de fracaso terapéutico debido a cepas de Staphylococcus aureus con resistencia intermedia, denominadas VISA (concentración inhibitoria mínima, CIM, 8 a 16 ?g/ml, así como a cepas con resistencia heterogénea hVISA (CIM global = 4 ?g/ml, pero con subpoblaciones VISA, en las cuales la resistencia está mediada por engrosamiento de la pared celular y disminución de su entrecruzamiento, lo que afecta la llegada del antibiótico al blanco principal, los monómeros del peptidoglicano en la membrana plasmática. En 2002 se aisló la primera de las 3 cepas reportadas hasta la fecha con resistencia total al antibiótico, denominadas VRSA (CIM>32 ?g/ml, en las que se encontró el transposón Tn1546 proveniente de Enterococcus spp, responsable del reemplazo de la terminación D-Ala-D-Ala por D-Ala-Dlactato en los precursores de la pared celular con pérdida de la afinidad por el glicopéptido. Conclusiones. La resistencia a vancomicina es una realidad en S. aureus, mediada en el caso de VISA por alteraciones en la pared celular que atrapan el antibiótico antes de llegar al sitio de acción, y en el caso de VRSA, por transferencia desde Enterococcus spp. de genes que llevan a la modificación del blanco molecular.

  7. Second international conference on isotopes. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, C.J. [ed.

    1997-10-01

    The Second International Conference on Isotopes (2ICI) was hosted by the Australian Nuclear Association in Sydney, NSW, Australia. The Theme of the Second Conference: Isotopes for Industry, Health and a Better Environment recognizes that isotopes have been used in these fields successfully for many years and offer prospects for increasing use in the future. The worldwide interest in the use of research reactors and accelerators and in applications of stable and radioactive isotopes, isotopic techniques and radiation in industry, agriculture, medicine, environmental studies and research in general, was considered. Other radiation issues including radiation protection and safety were also addressed. International and national overviews and subject reviews invited from leading experts were included to introduce the program of technical sessions. The invited papers were supported by contributions accepted from participants for oral and poster presentation. A Technical Exhibition was held in association with the Conference. This volume contains the full text or extended abstracts of papers number 61- to number 114

  8. Conference scene: 2nd cancer epigenetics conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cassandra L

    2013-04-01

    The GTC Cancer Summit: Novel Approaches to Drug Discovery was divided into two parallel tracks: the 2nd Cancer Epigenetics Conference, and the Protein Kinases and Drug Design Conference. The 2nd Cancer Epigenetics Conference focused on exciting changes in drug discovery that include an unprecedented private and public collaboration on drug discovery in epigenetics through the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC), which has led to several major breakthroughs including: the development of small-molecule inhibitors that interfere with protein interactions, especially bromodomain-containing protein acetylation readers; the indirect but successful targeting of the elusive MYC oncogene; and the identification of epigenetic drugs that are disease-specific. Also reported were the development of clinically useful DNA methylation assays; cell, peptide and protein arrays for testing antibody- and protein-binding specificity; and tools for chromatin capture and DNA modification analysis. Several groups reported on the lack of specificity of some commercial, but unnamed, antibodies used for epigenetic studies.

  9. Multiple paths towards reduced membrane potential and concomitant reduction in aminoglycoside susceptibility in staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Nøhr-Meldgaard, Katrine; Ingmer, Hanne

    2018-01-01

    the susceptibility towards antibiotics. The aim of this study was to identify genetic determinants that upon inactivation reduce aminoglycoside susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus. We screened the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library of 1920 single-gene inactivations in S. aureus strain JE2, for reduced...... susceptibility to gentamicin. 9 mutants were confirmed by E-test to display between 2 and 16-fold reduced susceptibility to this antibiotic. All of the identified genes were associated with the electron transport chain and energy metabolism. Four mutant strains (menD, hemB, aroC and SAUSA300_0355) conferred...... the largest increase in gentamicin susceptibility and exhibited a small colony variant phenotype, whereas the remaining mutants (qoxA, qoxB, qoxC, ndh and hemX) displayed colony morphology similar to the wild type. All of the mutants, except hemX, displayed reduced membrane potential suggesting that reduced...

  10. Radiation`96. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The conference program includes eight invited lectures which cover a range of contemporary topics in radiation science and technology. In addition, thirty-two oral papers were presented, along with forty-five posters. The conference handbook contains one-page precis or extended abstracts of all presentations, and is a substantial compendium of current radiation research in Australia.

  11. The Vision Conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2002-01-01

    The concept of the design, planning and mangement of a creative conference is presented. A case study illustrates the theoretical concepts.......The concept of the design, planning and mangement of a creative conference is presented. A case study illustrates the theoretical concepts....

  12. Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintas, O.; Chen, W.; Heijenk, Geert; Dressler, F.; Ekici, E.; Kargl, Frank; Shigeno, H.; Dietzel, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    On behalf of the Organizing Committee, we would like to welcome you to the third edition of the IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (IEEE VNC 2011) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. IEEE VNC is a unique conference sponsored by both the IEEE Communications Society and the IEEE Intelligent

  13. Staphylococcus aureus adherence to Candida albicans hyphae is mediated by the hyphal adhesin Als3p

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brian M.; Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina S.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Schlecht, Lisa Marie; Zhou, Han; Hoyer, Lois L.; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium Staphylococcus (St.) aureus and the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans are currently among the leading nosocomial pathogens, often co-infecting critically ill patients, with high morbidity and mortality. Previous investigations have demonstrated preferential adherence of St. aureus to C. albicans hyphae during mixed biofilm growth. In this study, we aimed to characterize the mechanism behind this observed interaction. C. albicans adhesin-deficient mutant strains were screened by microscopy to identify the specific receptor on C. albicans hyphae recognized by St. aureus. Furthermore, an immunoassay was developed to validate and quantify staphylococcal binding to fungal biofilms. The findings from these experiments implicated the C. albicans adhesin agglutinin-like sequence 3 (Als3p) in playing a major role in the adherence process. This association was quantitatively established using atomic force microscopy, in which the adhesion force between single cells of the two species was significantly reduced for a C. albicans mutant strain lacking als3. Confocal microscopy further confirmed these observations, as St. aureus overlaid with a purified recombinant Als3 N-terminal domain fragment (rAls3p) exhibited robust binding. Importantly, a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae heterologously expressing Als3p was utilized to further confirm this adhesin as a receptor for St. aureus. Although the parental strain does not bind bacteria, expression of Als3p on the cell surface conferred upon the yeast the ability to strongly bind St. aureus. To elucidate the implications of these in vitro findings in a clinically relevant setting, an ex vivo murine model of co-infection was designed using murine tongue explants. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed extensive hyphal penetration of the epithelium typical of C. albicans mucosal infection. Interestingly, St. aureus bacterial cells were only seen within the epithelial tissue when associated with the invasive

  14. Two paediatric cases of skin and soft-tissue infections due to clindamycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying a plasmid-encoded vga(A) allelic variant for a putative efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xuan; Poon, Brian; Kwong, Justin; Niles, Denver; Schmidt, Byron Z; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Gantt, Soren

    2011-07-01

    Two clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates were investigated due to their unusual antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, i.e. erythromycin-susceptible but clindamycin-resistant. These isolates harboured identical copies of a plasmid-borne vga(A)(LC) gene not previously described in S. aureus. The native plasmids carrying vga(A)(LC) were transferable to a susceptible laboratory strain of S. aureus in vitro, in which they conferred resistance patterns similar to the parent isolates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  15. ICCK Conference Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, William H. [MIT

    2013-05-28

    The 7th International Conference on Chemical Kinetics (ICCK) was held July 10-14, 2011, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in Cambridge, MA, hosted by Prof. William H. Green of MIT's Chemical Engineering department. This cross-disciplinary meeting highlighted the importance of fundamental understanding of elementary reactions to the full range of chemical investigations. The specific conference focus was on elementary-step kinetics in both the gas phase and in condensed phase. The meeting provided a unique opportunity to discuss how the same reactive species and reaction motifs manifest under very different reaction conditions (e.g. atmospheric, aqueous, combustion, plasma, in nonaqueous solvents, on surfaces.). The conference featured special sessions on new/improved experimental techniques, improved models and data analysis for interpreting complicated kinetics, computational kinetics (especially rate estimates for large kinetic models), and a panel discussion on how the community should document/archive kinetic data. In the past, this conference had been limited to homogeneous gas-phase and liquid-phase systems. This conference included studies of heterogeneous kinetics which provide rate constants for, or insight into, elementary reaction steps. This Grant from DOE BES covered about half of the subsidies we provided to students and postdocs who attended the conference, by charging them reduced-rate registration fees. The complete list of subsidies provided are listed in Table 1 below. This DOE funding was essential to making the conference affordable to graduate students, and indeed the attendance at this conference was higher than at previous conferences in this series. Donations made by companies provided additional subsidies, leveraging the DOE funding. The conference was very effective in educating graduate students and important in fostering scientific interactions, particularly between scientists studying gas phase and liquid phase

  16. 3rd Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Louie, Berverly; McCarthy, Sandy

    1985-01-01

    Cryocoolers 3 documents the output of the Third Cryocooler Conference, held at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado, on September 17-18, 1984. About 140 people from 10 countries attended the conference representing industry, government, and academia. A total of 26 papers were presented orally at the conference and all appear in written form in the proceedings. The focus of this conference was on small cryocoolers in the temperature range of 4 - 80 K. Mechanical and nonmechanical types are discussed in the various papers. Applications of these small cryocoolers include the cooling of infrared detectors, cryopumps, small superconducting devices and magnets, and electronic devices. The conference proceedings reproduced here was published by the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado as NBS Special Publication #698.

  17. Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of fluoroquinolone- and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Flores, Antonio; Potel-Alvarellos, Carmen; Otero-Fernández, Susana; Álvarez-Fernández, Maximiliano

    2017-07-20

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has increased in recent years. The objective of this study was to characterise two MRSA populations, one susceptible to fluoroquinolones and other resistant identifying the clonal types and the differential characteristics of both MRSA populations. Molecular typing using PFGE, MLST, spa and SSCmec was performed on 192 MRSA strains isolated from 2009 to 2011, 49 only oxacillin-resistant (OX-R) and 143 oxacillin and levofloxacin-resistant (OX-R-LEV-R). Mutations that conferred resistance to fluoroquinolones, hypermutable phenotypes and the presence of eight microbial surface components recognising adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) were also studied. A statistically significant increase in the OX-R-LEV-R phenotype was observed (p<0.05). The most common clone of the OX-R isolates was sequence type (ST) 8 (32.6%), followed by ST72 (26.5%) and ST5 (26.5%). In the OX-R-LEV-R phenotype, the ST5 clone was the most common (65.7%), followed by ST72 (15.4%), and ST125 (12.6%). All isolates except the ST398 clone carried the SCCmecIVc. Clones ST5, ST72, ST125, and ST30 had hypermutable phenotypes. The ST72 clone and the ST30 clone in the OX-R phenotype harboured the highest number of MSCRAMMs. ST5 and ST72 clones were the most frequent clones identified in OX-R-LEV-R phenotype. Both clones showed a hypermutable phenotype that favours their selection as the fluoroquinolone resistant clones. The genetic relationships identified indicate that OX-R-LEV-R clones have evolved from OX-R MRSA clones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. US preparations for an international conference on broadcast satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    Areas of the U.S. preparation for the 1983 regional administrative radio conference were addressed including the following: conference background, interagency coordination of preparations, delegation selection and preparation activities, budget planning, preparatory bilateral and multilateral meetings, and computer software development.

  19. Key Opinion Leaders - SMi's Second Conference Knowledge Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Vicki L

    2009-12-01

    The Key Opinion Leaders (KOLs) conference, held in London, included topics covering new developments regarding the role of KOLs in the pharmaceutical industry. This conference report highlights selected presentations on insights from KOLs regarding their relationship with drug companies, conflicts of interest and negative aspects of the use of KOLs, and the role of patient advocacy groups.

  20. Virginia Tech students benefit from General Electric Leadership Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Fifty Virginia Tech business and engineering students recently participated in the 11th Annual General Electric Leadership Conference Jan. 23-24, giving them the opportunity to develop team building and leadership skills essential for future employment. The highly selective conference garners approximately 200 applications each year.

  1. Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aim and Scope. The scope of the Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series is to publish invited and peer reviewed original research, review, perspective, and commentary articles arising from presentations at select and topical Scientific Conferences. Upto four issues are published a year, each edited in consultation ...

  2. 2nd International Conference on Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Fülöp, Zsolt; Somorjai, Endre; The European Physical Journal A : Volume 27, Supplement 1, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Launched in 2004, "Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics" has established itself in a successful topical conference series addressing the forefront of research in the field. This volume contains the selected and refereed papers of the 2nd conference, held in Debrecen in 2005 and reprinted from "The European Physical Journal A - Hadrons and Nuclei".

  3. Setting the pace: the 2011 Australasian Podiatry Council conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firth Julia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 2011 Australasian Podiatry Council conference was held from April 26 to 29 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. This commentary provides a brief overview of the conference, including the speakers and topic areas covered, selected original research highlights, and award winning presentations.

  4. Setting the pace: the 2011 Australasian Podiatry Council conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Australasian Podiatry Council conference was held from April 26 to 29 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. This commentary provides a brief overview of the conference, including the speakers and topic areas covered, selected original research highlights, and award winning presentations. PMID:21762520

  5. 2nd National Conference on Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Baldini, Francesco; Natale, Corrado; Betta, Giovanni; Siciliano, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers presented at the Second National Conference on Sensors held in Rome 19-21 February 2014. The conference highlighted state-of-the-art results from both theoretical and applied research in the field of sensors and related technologies. This book presents material in an interdisciplinary approach, covering many aspects of the disciplines related to sensors, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications. ·         Provides a selection of the best papers from the Second Italian National Conference on Sensors; ·         Covers a broad range of topics relating to sensors and microsystems, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications; ·         Offers interdisciplinary coverage, aimed at defining a common ground for sensors beyond the specific differences among the different particular implementation of sensors.

  6. Antimicrobial consumption on dairy herds and its association with antimicrobial inhibition zone diameters of non-aureus staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2018-02-02

    The main objectives of this study were to quantify the consumption of antimicrobials on a convenience sample of dairy herds and to determine the association between herd-level antimicrobial consumption and inhibition zone diameters (IZD) of non-aureus staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus isolates from subclinical mastitis cases. Also, the association between the IZD of non-aureus staphylococci and Staph. aureus isolates within a herd was studied. Antimicrobial consumption data on 56 Flemish dairy farms were obtained between 2013 and 2014 by so-called garbage can audits and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI), with the unit of ATI being the number of defined daily doses animal (DDDA) used per 1,000 cow-days. The average total ATI in adult dairy cattle for all active substances was 18.73 DDDA per 1,000 cow-days and ranged from 6.28 to 42.13 DDDA between herds. The ATI of critically important (for human health) antimicrobials was 6.91 DDDA per 1,000 cow-days; that is, 37% of total antimicrobial consumption. The average ATI for intramammary therapy of (sub)clinical mastitis, intramammary dry-cow therapy, and systemically administered therapy was 5.20, 6.70, and 6.73 DDDA, respectively. The IZD of 239 non-aureus staphylococci and 88 Staph. aureus isolates originating from milk samples from cows with subclinical mastitis collected on selected dairy herds were determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and ranged between 6 and 42 mm. Because only a limited number of clinical breakpoints (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) and epidemiological cut-off values (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) are available for mastitis-causing bacteria in bovine, IZD were used as a proxy for antimicrobial resistance. Inhibition zone diameters of non-aureus staphylococci for cefquinome, a critically important β-lactam antibiotic, were negatively associated with the ATI of critically important β-lactam for systemically administered

  7. Science and Information Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Kapoor, Supriya; Bhatia, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The book Intelligent Systems in Science and Information 2014 is  the carefully edited collection of 25 extended chapters from selected papers in the field of Computational Intelligence that , which received highly recommended feedback during the Science and Information Conference (SAI) 2014 review process. All chapters have gone through substantial extension and consolidation and were subject to another round of rigorous review and additional modification and represent the state of the art of the cutting-edge research and technologies in the related areas.

  8. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation.   Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  9. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation. Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  10. Second international conference on isotopes. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, C.J. [ed.

    1997-10-01

    The Second International Conference on Isotopes (2ICI) was hosted by the Australian Nuclear Association in Sydney, NSW, Australia. The Theme of the Second Conference: Isotopes for Industry, Health and a Better Environment recognizes that isotopes have been used in these fields successfully for many years and offer prospects for increasing use in the future. The worldwide interest in the use of research reactors and accelerators and in applications of stable and radioactive isotopes, isotopic techniques and radiation in industry, agriculture, medicine, environmental studies and research in general, was considered. Other radiation issues including radiation protection and safety were also addressed. International and national overviews and subject reviews invited from leading experts were included to introduce the program of technical sessions. The invited papers were supported by contributions accepted from participants for oral and poster presentation. A Technical Exhibition was held in association with the Conference. This volume contains the foreword, technical program, the author index and of the papers (1-60) presented at the conference.

  11. To conference or not to conference

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP), the International Urogynaecology ... subject, of treatments or techniques they would never use, and why, or of treatments, interventions or tests which they ... colleagues recounted advice given over conference coffee – the one of obligatory consent for laparoscopy ...

  12. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA); Staph - MRSA; Staphylococcal - MRSA ... Most staph germs are spread by skin-to-skin contact (touching). A doctor, nurse, other health care provider, or ...

  13. Community acquired Staphylococcus aureus meningitis in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Keizerweerd, Gabriella D.; de Gans, Jan; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; van de Beek, Diederik

    2009-01-01

    We present 9 patients with community acquired Staphylococcus aureus meningitis. Foci of infection outside the central nervous system were present in 8 (89%) patients, mostly endocarditis and pneumonia. Cardiorespiratory complications occurred frequently and 6 patients died (67%). Identification and

  14. Misidentification of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Libya using current testing methods. Methods: One hundred and seventy S. aureus isolates previously identified as MRSA were obtained from three hospitals in Tripoli. All isolates were reidentified by culturing on mannitol salt agar, API 20 ...

  15. Prevalence, antibiotic resistance and molecular characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus in pigs at agricultural fairs in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, A E; Scheibel, R P; Wardyn, S; Harper, A L; Hanson, B M; Kroeger, J S; Diekema, D J; Bender, J B; Gray, G C; Smith, T C

    2012-05-12

    Fairs and petting zoos have been associated with outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Previously, the presence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was documented in commercial pigs; therefore, it was hypothesised that antibiotic-resistant S aureus may also occur in pigs exhibited at agricultural fairs. To test this hypothesis, 157 pigs were swabbed at two state fairs in 2008 to 2009. Both nares were sampled and cultures were grown in enrichment broth, then plated onto selective MRSA plates and blood plates. S aureus was confirmed using phenotypic and molecular methods, and was analysed using spa typing, gene-specific polymerase chain reaction and antibiotic susceptibility testing. The presence of S aureus was confirmed in samples collected from pigs exhibited at USA pig shows. Twenty-five of 157 (15.9 per cent) samples were positive for S aureus. Two isolates (8 per cent) were resistant to meticillin; 23/25 (92 per cent), 14/25 (56 per cent) and 15/25 (60 per cent) were resistant to tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively. spa typing revealed multiple isolates of spa type t034 (9/25, 36 per cent) and t337 (7/25, 28 per cent) and singletons of t002, t209, t526, t1236, t1334, t1683, t3075, t5784 and t5883. These results verify the presence of antibiotic-resistant S aureus in pigs exhibited at USA fairs, suggesting that pigs are a potential reservoir for S aureus within this environment.

  16. Abscess formation and alpha-hemolysin induced toxicity in a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus peritoneal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Sabine; DeDent, Andrea C; Kim, Hwan Keun; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of skin infection and sepsis in humans. Preclinical vaccine studies with S. aureus have used a mouse model with intraperitoneal challenge and survival determination as a measure for efficacy. To appreciate the selection of protective antigens in this model, we sought to characterize the pathological attributes of S. aureus infection in the peritoneal cavity. Testing C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice, >10(9) CFU of S. aureus Newman were needed to produce a lethal outcome in 90% of animals infected via intraperitoneal injection. Both necropsy and histopathology revealed the presence of intraperitoneal abscesses in the vicinity of inoculation sites. Abscesses were comprised of fibrin as well as collagen deposits and immune cells with staphylococci replicating at the center of these lesions. Animals that succumbed to challenge harbored staphylococci in abscess lesions and in blood. The establishment of lethal infections, but not the development of intraperitoneal abscesses, was dependent on S. aureus expression of alpha-hemolysin (Hla). Active immunization with nontoxigenic Hla(H35L) or passive immunization with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies protected mice against early lethal events associated with intraperitoneal S. aureus infection but did not affect the establishment of abscess lesions. These results characterize a mouse model for the study of intraperitoneal abscess formation by S. aureus, a disease that occurs frequently in humans undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for end-stage renal disease.

  17. In vitro mecA gene transfer among Staphylococcus aureus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple experiment was performed to observe in vitro transfer of mecA gene from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Malaysian clinical isolates, to methicillin-sensitive one. PCR-based method was used in combination with the selective antibiotic screening method to study the transfer of resistance among clinical ...

  18. Structural rationale for the modulation of abscess formation by Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzianabos, A O; Wang, J Y; Lee, J C

    2001-07-31

    Staphylococcus aureus is a medically important bacterial pathogen that is a common cause of superficial and deep-seated abscesses in humans. Most S. aureus isolates produce either a serotype 5 or 8 capsular polysaccharide (CP) that has been shown to enhance bacterial virulence. We investigated the role of S. aureus CPs in modulating abscess formation in an experimental animal model of intraabdominal infection. Structural studies of CP8 revealed that it has a zwitterionic charge motif conferred by the negatively charged carboxyl group of N-acetylmannosaminuronic acid and free amino groups available on partially N-acetylated fucosamine residues. We report that purified CP5 and CP8 facilitated intraabdominal abscess formation in animals when given i.p. with a sterile cecal contents adjuvant. Chemical modifications that neutralized the positively or negatively charged groups on CP8 abrogated its ability to provoke abscesses. Rats prophylactically treated with CP8 s.c. were protected against abscess formation induced by homologous or heterologous zwitterionic polysaccharides. Likewise, treatment with CP8 protected against challenge with viable S. aureus strains PS80 (a capsule type 8 strain) or COL (a methicillin-resistant capsule type 5 strain). Purified CP8 was a potent activator of rat and human CD4(+) T cells in vitro. When transferred to naive rats, these activated T cells modulated the development of intraabdominal abscess formation. These results provide a structure/function rationale for abscess formation by S. aureus and expand the sphere of encapsulated organisms that interact directly with T cells to regulate this host response to bacterial infection.

  19. Silkworm Apolipophorin Protein Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Virulence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Yuichi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2011-01-01

    Silkworm hemolymph inhibits hemolysin production by Staphylococcus aureus. We purified a factor in the silkworm hemolymph responsible for this inhibitory activity. The final fraction with the greatest specific activity contained 220- and 74-kDa proteins. Determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence revealed that the 220- and 74-kDa proteins were apolipophorin I and apolipophorin II, respectively, indicating that the factor was apolipophorin (ApoLp). The purified ApoLp fraction showed decreased expression of S. aureus hla encoding α-hemolysin, hlb encoding β-hemolysin, saeRS, and RNAIII, which activate the expression of these hemolysin genes. Injection of an anti-ApoLp antibody into the hemolymph increased the sensitivity of silkworms to the lethal effect of S. aureus. Hog gastric mucin, a mammalian homologue of ApoLp, decreased the expression of S. aureus hla and hlb. These findings suggest that ApoLp in the silkworm hemolymph inhibits S. aureus virulence and contributes to defense against S. aureus infection and that its activity is conserved in mammalian mucin. PMID:21937431

  20. The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenney, Adam; Holt, Deborah; Ritika, Roselyn; Southwell, Paul; Pravin, Shalini; Buadromo, Eka; Carapetis, Jonathan; Tong, Steven; Steer, Andrew

    2014-03-24

    There are few data describing the microbiology and genetic typing of Staphylococcus aureus that cause infections in developing countries. In this study we observed S. aureus infections in Pacific Island nation of Fiji in both the community and hospital setting with an emphasis on clonal complex (CC) genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility. S. aureus was commonly found in impetigo lesions of school children and was recovered from 57% of impetigo lesions frequently in conjunction with group A streptococcal infection. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) comprised 7% (20/299) of isolates and were all non-multi-resistant and all genotyped as CC1. In contrast, there was a diverse selection of 17 CCs among the 105 genotyped methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA) strains. Isolates of the rare, phylogenetically divergent and non-pigmented CC75 lineage (also called S. argenteus) were found in Fiji.From hospitalized patients the available 36 MRSA isolates from a 9-month period were represented by five CCs. The most common CCs were CC1 and CC239. CC1 is likely to be a community-acquired strain, reflecting what was found in the school children, whereas the CC239 is the very successful multi-drug resistant MRSA nosocomial lineage. Of 17 MSSA isolates, 59% carried genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. The S. aureus bacteraemia incidence rate of 50 per 100,000 population is among the highest reported in the literature and likely reflects the high overall burden of staphylococcal infections in this population. S. aureus is an important cause of disease in Fiji and there is considerable genotypic diversity in community skin infections in Fijian schoolchildren. Community acquired- (CA)- MRSA is present at a relatively low prevalence (6.7%) and was solely to CC1 (CA-MRSA). The globally successful CC239 is also a significant pathogen in Fiji.

  1. Assessment of three rapid methods for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Maria João; Soares, Carlos; Mendes, Ana Constança; Guimarães, Maria Luís; Cabeda, José Manuel; Amorim, José Manuel

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated three rapid methods to detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and compared them with PCR amplification of mecA. A total of 103 S. aureus strains were studied by MRSA-Screen, BBL Crystal, Velogene Genomic and mecA PCR. All the methods detected the 61 MRSA strains having the mecA gene, showing 100% sensitivity and specificity. Despite the correlation between all the rapid methods and PCR, the ease of use and shorter turnaround time of MRSA-Screen were important factors leading to the selection of this method as the routine screening technique for MRSA.

  2. EVOLVE 2014 International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Tantar, Emilia; Sun, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Qian; Schütze, Oliver; Emmerich, Michael; Legrand, Pierrick; Moral, Pierre; Coello, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This volume encloses research articles that were presented at the EVOLVE 2014 International Conference in Beijing, China, July 1–4, 2014.The book gathers contributions that emerged from the conference tracks, ranging from probability to set oriented numerics and evolutionary computation; all complemented by the bridging purpose of the conference, e.g. Complex Networks and Landscape Analysis, or by the more application oriented perspective. The novelty of the volume, when considering the EVOLVE series, comes from targeting also the practitioner’s view. This is supported by the Machine Learning Applied to Networks and Practical Aspects of Evolutionary Algorithms tracks, providing surveys on new application areas, as in the networking area and useful insights in the development of evolutionary techniques, from a practitioner’s perspective. Complementary to these directions, the conference tracks supporting the volume, follow on the individual advancements of the subareas constituting the scope of the confe...

  3. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook-Deegan, R.M. [Georgetown Univ., Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Washington, DC (United States); Venter, J.C. [National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gilbert, W. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Mulligan, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mansfield, B.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  4. The learning conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    little support amongst serious students of learning. The professional conference as a forum for knowledge sharing is in dire need of a new learning theory and a more enlightened practice. The notion of human flourishing is offered as basis for theory, and four simple design principles for the so-called......The typical one-day conference attended by managers or professionals in search of inspiration is packed with PowerPoint presentations and offers little opportunity for involvement or knowledge sharing. Behind the conventional conference format lurks the transfer model of learning, which finds...... “learning conference” are proposed: People go to conferences to 1. get concise input, 2. interpret it in the light of their ongoing concerns, 3. talk about their current projects and 4. meet the other attendees and be inspired by them. Six practical techniques that induce attendees to do these things...

  5. Photos of the conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Birgitta  Åhman is the photographer of the series of pictures from the conference, also for the cover photo of the full paper edition showing Kongsvold Mountain Hut and Biological Station.

  6. Ranking Operations Management conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Gupta, Sushil; Laptaned, U

    2007-01-01

    Several publications have appeared in the field of Operations Management which rank Operations Management related journals. Several ranking systems exist for journals based on , for example, perceived relevance and quality, citation, and author affiliation. Many academics also publish at conferences

  7. Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products and their drug resistance patterns in Anand, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Brahmbhatt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with aim to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products (pedha and curd and determine antibiogram pattern of S. aureus isolates. Materials and Methods: During 9 months duration of study a total of 160 milk and milk product samples (pedha and curd were collected from different places in and around Anand city such as milk collection centre of Co-operative milk dairies, cattle farms, individual household, milk vendors and sweet shops. The samples were collected under aseptic precautions and were enriched in Peptone Water (PW followed by direct plating on selective media viz. Baird-Parker Agar. The presumptive S. aureus isolates were identified by biochemical tests. Antibiogram pattern of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents were evaluated by disk diffusion method. Results: Analysis of result revealed that out of total 160 samples of milk (100 and milk products i.e. curd (30 and pedha (30 resulted in the isolation of 10 isolates (6.25 % of S. aureus. In the present study S. aureus isolates were found variably resistant to the antibiotics tested. The S. aureus isolates showed highest sensitivity towards cephalothin (100.00 %, co-trimoxazole (100.00 %, cephalexin (100.00 % and methicillin (100.00 % followed by gentamicin (90.00 %, ciprofloxacin (80.00 %, oxacillin (70.00 %, streptomycin (60.00 % and ampicillin (60.00 %. The pattern clearly indicated that the overall high percent of S. aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin-G (100.00 % followed by ampicillin (40.00 %, oxytetracycline and oxacillin (20.00 % and streptomycin and gentamicin (10.00 % Conclusions: Results clearly suggested a possibility of potential public health threat of S. aureus resulting from contamination of milk and milk products with pathogenic bacteria is mainly due to unhygienic processing, handling and unhygienic environment. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 10-13

  8. 2nd SUMO Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the conference proceedings of the Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO) conference 2014, Berlin. The included research papers cover a wide range of topics in traffic planning and simulation, including open data, vehicular communication, e-mobility, urban mobility, multimodal traffic as well as usage approaches. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.  

  9. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  10. Heavy metal and disinfectant resistance genes among livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argudin, Maria Angeles; Lauzat, Birgit; Kraushaar, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has emerged in animal production worldwide. Most LA-MRSA in Europe belong to the clonal complex (CC)398. The reason for the LA-MRSA emergence is not fully understood. Besides antimicrobial agents used for therapy, other...... substances with antimicrobial activity applied in animal feed, including metal-containing compounds might contribute to their selection. Some of these genes have been found in various novel SCCmec cassettes. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of metal-resistance genes among a LA-S. aureus...... collection [n = 554, including 542 MRSA and 12 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA)] isolated from livestock and food thereof. Most LA-MRSA isolates (76%) carried at least one metal-resistance gene. Among the LA-MRSA CC398 isolates (n = 456), 4.8%, 0.2%, 24.3% and 71.5% were positive for arsA (arsenic...

  11. Rapid Identification of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by the Vitek MS Saramis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Weiguang; Li, Jiaping; Fang, Ying; Wang, Xuan; Gu, Danxia; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and accurate Vitek MS assay was developed to distinguish clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from clinical isolates of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) by developing an in-house knowledgebase of SuperSpectra. Three unique peaks, including peaks at 2305.6 and 3007.3 Da specific to MRSA, and 6816.7 Da specific to MSSA, were selected for differentiating MRSA and MSSA. This assay accurately identified 84 and 91% of clinical MRSA and MSSA strains out of the total 142 clinically acquired S. aureus strains that were tested. This method will greatly improve the efficiency of single clinical sample identification of MRSA, thereby facilitating a reduction in the transmission of MRSA in clinical settings.

  12. 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wen; Cheng, Qianliu; Zhao, Hangfang

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are a collection of 16 selected scientific papers and reviews by distinguished international experts that were presented at the 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference (PRUAC), held in Hangzhou, China in October 2013. The topics discussed at the conference include internal wave observation and prediction; environmental uncertainty and coupling to sound propagation; environmental noise and ocean dynamics; dynamic modeling in acoustic fields; acoustic tomography and ocean parameter estimation; time reversal and matched field processing; underwater acoustic localization and communication as well as measurement instrumentations and platforms. These proceedings provide insights into the latest developments in underwater acoustics, promoting the exchange of ideas for the benefit of future research.

  13. International Conference on Advanced Computing for Innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Angelova, Galia; Agre, Gennady

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a selected collection of papers presented and discussed at the International Conference “Advanced Computing for Innovation (AComIn 2015)”. The Conference was held at 10th -11th of November, 2015 in Sofia, Bulgaria and was aimed at providing a forum for international scientific exchange between Central/Eastern Europe and the rest of the world on several fundamental topics of computational intelligence. The papers report innovative approaches and solutions in hot topics of computational intelligence – advanced computing, language and semantic technologies, signal and image processing, as well as optimization and intelligent control.

  14. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in cattle, sheep, goat, and pig rearing in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Klimešová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and resistant strains in livestock. In this study, 114 different samples from three cattle farms (84 from two farms of dairy cows and 30 from one farm of suckler cows, 132 samples from one sheep farm, 120 samples from one goat farm, and 82 samples from three pig farms were examined. Strains identified as Staphylococcus aureus were further analysed by the polymerase chain reaction method for detection of the mecA gene and for confirmation of the sequence type 398. Positive incidence of Staphylococcus aureus was confirmed in farms of suckler cows, sheep, goats and pigs. The incidence of methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was confirmed at a goat farm, with all strains belonging to the sequence type 398. Repetitive element palindromic-polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to compare the relatedness of selected human and animal S. aureus strains at the goat and sheep farms. The obtained data from repetitive element-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed significant clonal similarity among the tested isolates and indicated the possibility of mutual transmission between animals or animal and human and possible transfer in the food chain.

  15. Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by antimicrobial biofilms formed by competitive exclusion microorganisms on stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hyeri; Park, Sunhyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2016-12-05

    The goal of this study was to develop a desiccation resistant antimicrobial surface using biofilm of competitive exclusion (CE) microorganism inhibitory to Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated 161 microorganisms from soils, foods, and food-contact surfaces that are inhibitory to S. aureus. Among them, three CE microorganisms (Streptomyces spororaveus strain Gaeunsan-18, Bacillus safensis strain Chamnamu-sup 5-25, and Pseudomonas azotoformans strain Lettuce-9) exhibiting strong antibacterial activity and high growth rates were selected for evaluation. These isolates formed biofilms within 24h on stainless steel coupons (SSCs) immersed in Bennet's broth and tryptic soy broth at 25°C. Cells in these biofilms showed significantly (P≤0.05) enhanced resistance to a desiccation (43% relative humidity [RH]) compared to those attached to SSCs but not in biofilms. The antimicrobial activities of biofilms formed by these isolates on SSCs against S. aureus at 25°C and 43% RH were determined. Compared to SSCs lacking biofilms formed by CE microorganisms, populations of S. aureus on SSCs harboring CE biofilms were significantly lower (P≤0.05). Results indicate that persistent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus on stainless steel surfaces can be achieved by the presence of biofilms of CE microorganisms. This information will be useful when developing strategies to improve the microbiological safety of foods during storage, processing, and distribution by facilitating the development of effective antimicrobial food-contact surfaces. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Genetic Screen Reveals the Role of Purine Metabolism in Staphylococcus aureus Persistence to Rifampicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Yee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic infections with Staphylococcus aureus such as septicemia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and biofilm infections are difficult to treat because of persisters. Despite many efforts in understanding bacterial persistence, the mechanisms of persister formation in S. aureus remain elusive. Here, we performed a genome-wide screen of a transposon mutant library to study the molecular mechanisms involved in persistence of community-acquired S. aureus. Screening of the library for mutants defective in persistence or tolerance to rifampicin revealed many genes involved in metabolic pathways that are important for antibiotic persistence. In particular, the identified mutants belonged to metabolic pathways involved in carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, vitamin and purine biosynthesis. Five mutants played a role in purine biosynthesis and two mutants, purB, an adenylosuccinate lyase, and purM, a phosphoribosylaminoimidazole synthetase, were selected for further confirmation. Mutants purB and purM showed defective persistence compared to the parental strain USA300 in multiple stress conditions including various antibiotics, low pH, and heat stress. The defect in persistence was restored by complementation with the wildtype purB and purM gene in the respective mutants. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of persistence in S. aureus and provide novel therapeutic targets for developing more effective treatment for persistent infections due to S. aureus.

  17. Interventions for wound healing among diabetic patients infected with Staphylococcus aureus: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anacássia Fonseca Lima

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent agent isolated in diabetic foot infections and may be associated with changes to wound healing times. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature, including studies that assessed the efficacy of any clinical or surgical intervention, as well as oral or topical therapy for diabetic ulcers infected with S. aureus. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review with a search conducted in databases. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with a comprehensive search in the Lilacs, SciELO, PubMed/Medline, Old Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases, for articles published from 1966 to 2010. The articles selected were limited to studies on diabetic patients with wounds infected with S. aureus for whom their healing was followed up, with the use of either antibiotics or experimental treatments. Animal studies and those that did not report the wound healing, as well as review articles, were excluded. RESULTS: Five studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: There are few studies reporting the healing of wounds infected with S. aureus in diabetic patients, although this is the most commonly found pathogen in this type of wound and it frequently consists of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. There is insufficient evidence to support early use of broad-spectrum antibiotics against MRSA to promote healing of diabetic ulcers, since antibiotic resistance may develop from such treatment. This highlights the need for further studies on the subject.

  18. Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a serious pathogen in periprosthetic joint infections: comparison to Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourtet-Hascoët, J; Bicart-See, A; Félicé, M P; Giordano, G; Bonnet, E

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis and to compare these to the characteristics of PJI due to Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A retrospective multicentre study including all consecutive cases of S. lugdunensis PJI (2000-2014) was performed. Eighty-eight cases of staphylococcal PJI were recorded: 28 due to S. lugdunensis, 30 to S. aureus, and 30 to S. epidermidis, as identified by Vitek 2 or API Staph (bioMérieux). Clinical symptoms were more often reported in the S. lugdunensis group, and the median delay between surgery and infection was shorter for the S. lugdunensis group than for the S. aureus and S. epidermidis groups. Regarding antibiotic susceptibility, the S. lugdunensis strains were susceptible to antibiotics and 61% of the patients could be treated with levofloxacin + rifampicin. The outcome of the PJI was favourable for 89% of patients with S. lugdunensis, 83% with S. aureus, and 97% with S. epidermidis. S. lugdunensis is an emerging pathogen with a pathogenicity quite similar to that of S. aureus. This coagulase-negative Staphylococcus must be identified precisely in PJI, in order to select the appropriate surgical treatment and antibiotics . Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Distinctive cytokines as biomarkers predicting fatal outcome of severe Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Sanne; Laman, Jon D; Boon, Louis; ten Kate, Marian T; de Knegt, Gerjo J; Verdijk, Rob M; Verbrugh, Henri A; Nouwen, Jan L; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A J M

    2013-01-01

    Invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections are frequently associated with bacteraemia. To support clinical decisions on antibiotic therapy, there is an urgent need for reliable markers as predictors of infection outcome. In the present study in mice, bacteraemia was established by intravenous inoculation of a clinical S. aureus isolate at the LD50 inoculum. As potential biomarkers for fatal outcome, blood culture (qualitative and quantitative), serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as 31 selected cytokines and chemokines were assessed during the first three days of infection. A positive S. aureus blood culture, the quantitative blood culture, CRP levels, and levels of eight cytokines were indicative for the presence of S. aureus bacteraemia. However, only tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, interleukin (IL) 1α, and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC; a functional homologue of human IL-8) were each significantly elevated in eventually non-surviving infected mice versus eventually surviving infected mice. In severe S. aureus bacteraemia in mice, TNF-α, IL-1α, and KC are biomarkers predicting fatal outcome of infection. KC was a biomarker elevated irrespective the progression of infection, which is very interesting regarding clinical application in view of the heterogeneity of patients experiencing bacteraemia in this respect.

  20. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates to Propolis Extract Alone or in Combination with Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Sajewicz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Polish propolis (EEPP against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA clinical isolates. The combined effect of EEPP and 10 selected antistaphylococcal drugs on S. aureus clinical cultures was also investigated. EEPP composition was analyzed by a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method. The flavonoid compounds identified in Polish Propolis included flavones, flavonones, flavonolols, flavonols and phenolic acids. EEPP displayed varying effectiveness against twelve S. aureus strains, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC within the range from 0.39 to 0.78 mg/mL, determined by broth microdilution method. The average MIC was 0.54 ± 0.22 mg/mL, while calculated MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.39 mg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of the EEPP ranged from 0.78 to 3.13 mg/mL. The in vitro combined effect of EEPP and 10 antibacterial drugs was investigated using disk diffusion method-based assay. Addition of EEPP to cefoxitin (FOX, clindamycin (DA, tetracycline (TE, tobramycin (TOB, linezolid (LIN, trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (SXT, penicillin (P, erythromycin (E regimen, yielded stronger, cumulative antimicrobial effect, against all tested S. aureus strains than EEPP and chemotherapeutics alone. In the case of ciprofloxacin (CIP and chloramphenicol (C no synergism with EEPP was observed.

  1. Ecological Overlap and Horizontal Gene Transfer in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méric, Guillaume; Miragaia, Maria; de Been, Mark; Yahara, Koji; Pascoe, Ben; Mageiros, Leonardos; Mikhail, Jane; Harris, Llinos G; Wilkinson, Thomas S; Rolo, Joana; Lamble, Sarah; Bray, James E; Jolley, Keith A; Hanage, William P; Bowden, Rory; Maiden, Martin C J; Mack, Dietrich; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Feil, Edward J; Corander, Jukka; Sheppard, Samuel K

    2015-04-16

    The opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis represent major causes of severe nosocomial infection, and are associated with high levels of mortality and morbidity worldwide. These species are both common commensals on the human skin and in the nasal pharynx, but are genetically distinct, differing at 24% average nucleotide divergence in 1,478 core genes. To better understand the genome dynamics of these ecologically similar staphylococcal species, we carried out a comparative analysis of 324 S. aureus and S. epidermidis genomes, including 83 novel S. epidermidis sequences. A reference pan-genome approach and whole genome multilocus-sequence typing revealed that around half of the genome was shared between the species. Based on a BratNextGen analysis, homologous recombination was found to have impacted on 40% of the core genes in S. epidermidis, but on only 24% of the core genes in S. aureus. Homologous recombination between the species is rare, with a maximum of nine gene alleles shared between any two S. epidermidis and S. aureus isolates. In contrast, there was considerable interspecies admixture of mobile elements, in particular genes associated with the SaPIn1 pathogenicity island, metal detoxification, and the methicillin-resistance island SCCmec. Our data and analysis provide a context for considering the nature of recombinational boundaries between S. aureus and S. epidermidis and, the selective forces that influence realized recombination between these species. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus - induced tumor necrosis factor - related apoptosis - inducing ligand expression mediates apoptosis and caspase-8 activation in infected osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Emily H; Rivera, F Andrea; Marriott, Ian; Anguita, Juan; Bost, Kenneth L; Hudson, Michael C

    2003-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus infection of normal osteoblasts induces expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Results Normal osteoblasts were incubated in the presence of purified bacterial products over a range of concentrations. Results demonstrate that purified surface structures and a selected superantigen present in the extracellular environment are not capable of inducing TRAIL expression by osteoblasts. Osteoblasts were co-cultured with S. aureus at various multiplicities of infection utilizing cell culture chamber inserts. Results of those experiments suggest that direct contact between bacteria and osteoblasts is necessary for optimal TRAIL induction. Finally, S. aureus infection of osteoblasts in the presence of anti-TRAIL antibody demonstrates that TRAIL mediates caspase-8 activation and apoptosis of infected cells. Conclusions Collectively, these findings suggest a mechanism whereby S. aureus mediates bone destruction via induction of osteoblast apoptosis. PMID:12697056

  3. Staphylococcus aureus - induced tumor necrosis factor - related apoptosis - inducing ligand expression mediates apoptosis and caspase-8 activation in infected osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bost Kenneth L

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus infection of normal osteoblasts induces expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL. Results Normal osteoblasts were incubated in the presence of purified bacterial products over a range of concentrations. Results demonstrate that purified surface structures and a selected superantigen present in the extracellular environment are not capable of inducing TRAIL expression by osteoblasts. Osteoblasts were co-cultured with S. aureus at various multiplicities of infection utilizing cell culture chamber inserts. Results of those experiments suggest that direct contact between bacteria and osteoblasts is necessary for optimal TRAIL induction. Finally, S. aureus infection of osteoblasts in the presence of anti-TRAIL antibody demonstrates that TRAIL mediates caspase-8 activation and apoptosis of infected cells. Conclusions Collectively, these findings suggest a mechanism whereby S. aureus mediates bone destruction via induction of osteoblast apoptosis.

  4. Foreign-Language Pedagogy: Practical Applications to Theoretical Concerns. Selected Papers from the Loyola College Conference Entitled "Bridging Theory and Practice in the Foreign-Language Classroom" (Baltimore, Maryland, October 18-20, 1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Joseph A., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Papers from the conference include the following: "Activites orales et motivation dans l'etude du vocabulaire d'une langue etrangere (Oral Activities and Motivation in the Study of Vocabulary in a Foreign Language)" (M. Guisset); "Bridging High School and College Classes through the Multicultural Approach: The Case of Francophone…

  5. Toward a More Inclusive Curriculum: The Integration of Gender, Race, and Class. Selected Proceedings from a Regional Conference [Held at] Ursinus College (Collegeville, Pennsylvania, October 21, 1988). Ephemera, Volume I, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Colette, Ed.

    The conference proceedings contains 27 papers or summaries concerned with integration of gender, race, and class in the college curriculum. After an introductory paper on the Ursinus model (Colette Hall), remarks concerning New Jersey projects (Connie Murray and Verdelle Freeman) and the keynote address (Margaret Andersen), the first set of…

  6. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele C. Beuron

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate herd management practices and mastitis treatment procedures as risk factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance. For this study, 13 herds were selected to participate in the study to evaluate the association between their management practices and mastitis treatment procedures and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 1069 composite milk samples were collected aseptically from the selected cows in four different periods over two years. The samples were used for microbiological culturing of S. aureus isolates and evaluation of their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 756 samples (70.7% were culture-positive, and S. aureus comprised 27.77% (n=210 of the isolates. The S. aureus isolates were tested using the disk-diffusion susceptibility assay with the following antimicrobials: ampicillin 10mg; clindamycin 2μg; penicillin 1mg; ceftiofur 30μg; gentamicin 10mg; sulfa-trimethoprim 25μg; enrofloxacin 5μg; sulfonamide 300μg; tetracycline 30μg; oxacillin 1mg; cephalothin 30μg and erythromycin 5μg. The variables that were significantly associated with S. aureus resistance were as follows: the treatment of clinical mastitis for ampicillin (OR=2.18, dry cow treatment for enrofloxacin (OR=2.11 and not sending milk samples for microbiological culture and susceptibility tests, for ampicillin (OR=2.57 and penicillin (OR=4.69. In conclusion, the identification of risk factors for S. aureus resistance against various mastitis antimicrobials is an important information that may help in practical recommendations for prudent use of antimicrobial in milk production.

  7. Radioimmunoassays for protein A of Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langone, J.J.; Das, C.; Bennett, D.; Terman, D.S. (Baylor Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Coll. of Medicine)

    1983-10-14

    Radioimmunoassays have been developed that can detect nanogram amounts of protein A (SpA), a product generated by Staphylococcus aureus that binds selectively to the Fc region of IgG from most mammalian species. Competition assays for fluid phase SpA utilize antibodies produced in chickens, /sup 125/I-labeled SpA as the tracer molecule, and either F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments of rabbit IgG anti-chicken IgG or 40% ammonium sulfate as the precipitating agent to separate antigen-antibody complexes from free antigen. The double antibody assay could be carried out in serum from species that form only soluble complexes with SpA (e.g., rabbit), that react poorly with SpA (e.g., rat) or under appropriate conditions in serum from species (e.g., dog) that show high reactivity with SpA and form precipitating complexes. Chicken antibodies prepared by affinity chromatography on SpA-Sepharose and labeled with /sup 125/I were used in a direct binding assay for SpA present either on the cell wall of Cowan strain I or Wood 46 bacteria, in insoluble complexes prepared from SpA and whole serum or purified IgG, or in C1q binding complexes that were formed by passage of serum from normal or tumor bearing humans or dogs over SpA-collodion charcoal. Since both types of assays could detect SpA even in the presence of serum or IgG, they offer advantages over other techniques in which the SpA-Fc interaction may interfere.

  8. Fourth International Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Minai, Ali A; Unifying Themes in Complex Systems IV

    2008-01-01

    In June of 2002, over 500 professors, students and researchers met in Boston, Massachusetts for the Fourth International Conference on Complex Systems. The attendees represented a remarkably diverse collection of fields: biology, ecology, physics, engineering, computer science, economics, psychology and sociology, The goal of the conference was to encourage cross-fertilization between the many disciplines represented and to deepen understanding of the properties common to all complex systems. This volume contains 43 papers selected from the more than 200 presented at the conference. Topics include: cellular automata, neurology, evolution, computer science, network dynamics, and urban planning. About NECSI: For over 10 years, The New England Complex Systems Institute (NECSI) has been instrumental in the development of complex systems science and its applications. NECSI conducts research, education, knowledge dissemination, and community development around the world for the promotion of the study of complex sys...

  9. European Conference on Complex Systems 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkilionis, Markus; Nicolis, Gregoire

    2013-01-01

    The European Conference on Complex Systems, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. ECCS'12, its ninth edition, took place in Brussels, during the first week of September 2012. It gathered about 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. More specifically, the following tracks were covered:  1. Foundations of Complex Systems 2. Complexity, Information and Computation 3. Prediction, Policy and Planning, Environment 4. Biological Complexity 5. Interacting Populations, Collective Behavior 6. Social Systems, Economics and Finance This book contains a selection of the contributions presented at the conference and its satellite meetings. Its contents reflect the extent, diversity and richness of research areas in the field, both fundamental and applied.  

  10. Third International Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Minai, Ali A; Unifying Themes in Complex Systems

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, scientists have applied the principles of complex systems science to increasingly diverse fields. The results have been nothing short of remarkable: their novel approaches have provided answers to long-standing questions in biology, ecology, physics, engineering, computer science, economics, psychology and sociology. The Third International Conference on Complex Systems attracted over 400 researchers from around the world. The conference aimed to encourage cross-fertilization between the many disciplines represented and to deepen our understanding of the properties common to all complex systems. This volume contains over 35 papers selected from those presented at the conference on topics including: self-organization in biology, ecological systems, language, economic modeling, ecological systems, artificial life, robotics, and complexity and art. ALI MINAI is an Affiliate of the New England Complex Systems Institute and an Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engine...

  11. Third International Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Minai, Ali A; Unifying Themes in Complex Systems

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, scientists have applied the principles of complex systems science to increasingly diverse fields. The results have been nothing short of remarkable: their novel approaches have provided answers to long-standing questions in biology, ecology, physics, engineering, computer science, economics, psychology and sociology. The Third International Conference on Complex Systems attracted over 400 researchers from around the world. The conference aimed to encourage cross-fertilization between the many disciplines represented and to deepen our understanding of the properties common to all complex systems. This volume contains selected transcripts from presentations given at the conference. Speakers include: Chris Adami, Kenneth Arrow, Michel Baranger, Dan Braha, Timothy Buchman, Michael Caramanis, Kathleen Carley, Greg Chaitin, David Clark, Jack Cohen, Jim Collins, George Cowan, Clay Easterly, Steven Eppinger, Irving Epstein, Dan Frey, Ary Goldberger, Helen Harte, Leroy Hood, Don Ingber, Atlee Jackson,...

  12. Tracing and inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus aureus in barbecue cheese production after product recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johler, S; Zurfluh, K; Stephan, R

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne intoxication worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of enterotoxins formed by Staphylococcus aureus during growth in the food matrix. Following a recall of barbecue cheese due to the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins in Switzerland in July 2015, we analyzed the production process of the respective dairy. Although most cheese-making processes involve acidification to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, barbecue cheese has to maintain a pH >6.0 to prevent undesired melting of the cheese. In addition, the dairy decided to retain the traditional manual production process of the barbecue cheese. In this study, therefore, we aimed to (1) trace Staph. aureus along the barbecue cheese production process, and (2) develop a sustainable strategy to inhibit growth of Staph. aureus and decrease the risk of staphylococcal food poisoning without changing the traditional production process. To this end, we traced Staph. aureus in a step-wise blinded process analysis on 4 different production days using spa (Staphylococcus protein A gene) typing, DNA microarray profiling, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. We subsequently selected a new starter culture and used a model cheese production including a challenge test assay to assess its antagonistic effect on Staph. aureus growth, as well as its sensory and technological implications. We detected Staph. aureus in 30% (37/124) of the collected samples taken from the barbecue cheese production at the dairy. This included detection of Staph. aureus in the final product on all 4 production days, either after enrichment or using quantitative detection. We traced 2 enterotoxigenic Staph. aureus strains (t073/CC45 and t282/CC45) colonizing the nasal cavity and the forearms of the cheesemakers to the final product. In the challenge test assay, we were able to show that the new starter culture inhibited growth of Staph. aureus while meeting

  13. 2010 Plant Molecular Biology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Sussman

    2010-07-23

    The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2010 conference will continue in that tradition. Emerging concerns about food security have inspired a program with three main themes: (1) genomics, natural variation and breeding to understand adaptation and crop improvement, (2) hormonal cross talk, and (3) plant/microbe interactions. There are also sessions on epigenetics and proteomics/metabolomics. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines, will foster the exchange of ideas and enable participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner. In particular, this conference plays a key role in enabling students and postdocs (the next generation of research leaders) to mingle with pioneers in multiple areas of plant science.

  14. BCES: A Fifteen-Year Conference Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Popov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This volume contains selected papers submitted to the XV Annual International Conference of the Bulgarian Comparative Education Society (BCES, held in June 2017 in Borovets, Bulgaria, and papers submitted to the V International Partner Conference of the International Research Centre (IRC ‘Scientific cooperation’, Rostov-on-Don, Russia, organized as part of the BCES Conference. The XV BCES Conference theme is Current Business and Economics Driven Discourse and Education: Perspectives from Around the World. The V International Partner Conference theme is Science and Education in Modern Social, Economic and Humanitarian Discourse. The book consists of 38 papers written by 69 authors. The volume starts with an introductory paper by Johannes L van der Walt. The other 37 papers are divided into 8 parts: 1 Comparative Education & History of Education; 2 Teacher Education; 3 Education Policy, Reforms & School Leadership; 4 Higher Education, Lifelong Learning & Social Inclusion; 5 Law and Education; 6 Research Education; 7 Educational Development Strategies in Different Countries and Regions of the World; 8 Key Directions and Characteristics of Research Organization in the Contemporary World.

  15. Australian coal conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Almost 600 people attended this year's Australian Coal Conference on Queensland's Gold Coast. The article reports on issues raised at the conference which included the effects of globalisation and the difficulties of raising funds faced by the coal industry and environmental issues. A life cycle analysis of coal's emissions compared to other fuels, released at the conference had demonstrated that coal was a legitimate part of the world's future energy mix. Conference speakers included Michael Pinnock, Queensland Mining Council Chief Executive Officer, Dr Louis Wibberley and Rich Gazzard of BHP, Robin Batterham, the Australian Governments Chief Scientist, Mark Vale, Federal Minister for Trade, Tony Armor of EPRI, Daren Fooks, Clayton Utz Lawyers, Ron Knapp, Chief Executive of the World Coal Institute and Andrew Tucker, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. Highlights of their addresses are given. Winners of the five research awards presented by the Australian Coal Association at the conference are reported. 11 photos.

  16. 2nd Bozeman Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, John

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains a collection of papers delivered by the partici­ pants at the second Conference on Computation and Control held at Mon­ tana State University in Bozeman, Montana from August 1-7, 1990. The conference, as well as this proceedings, attests to the vitality and cohesion between the control theorist and the numerical analyst that was adver­ tised by the first Conference on Computation and Control in 1988. The proceedings of that initial conference was published by Birkhiiuser Boston as the first volume of this same series entitled Computation and Control, Proceedings of the Bozeman Conference, Bozeman, Montana, 1988. Control theory and numerical analysis are both, by their very nature, interdisciplinary subjects as evidenced by their interaction with other fields of mathematics and engineering. While it is clear that new control or es­ timation algorithms and new feedback design methodologies will need to be implemented computationally, it is likewise clear that new problems in computation...

  17. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): screening and decolonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Barry; Bonten, Marc J M; Mackenzie, Fiona M; Skov, Robert L; Verbrugh, Henri A; Tacconelli, Evelina

    2011-03-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are of increasing importance to clinicians, public health agencies and governments. Prevention and control strategies must address sources in healthcare settings, the community and livestock. This document presents the conclusions of a European Consensus Conference on the role of screening and decolonisation in the control of MRSA infection. The conference was held in Rome on 5-6 March 2010 and was organised jointly by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the International Society of Chemotherapy (ISC). In an environment where MRSA is endemic, universal or targeted screening of patients to detect colonisation was considered to be an essential pillar of any MRSA control programme, along with the option of decolonising carriers dependent on relative risk of infection, either to self or others, in a specific setting. Staff screening may be useful but is problematic as it needs to distinguish between transient carriage and longer-term colonisation. The consequences of identification of MRSA-positive staff may have important effects on morale and the ability to maintain staffing levels. The role of environmental contamination in MRSA infection is unclear, but screening may be helpful as an audit of hygiene procedures. In all situations, screening procedures and decolonisation carry a significant cost burden, the clinical value of which requires careful evaluation. European initiatives designed to provide further information on the cost/benefit value of particular strategies in the control of infection, including those involving MRSA, are in progress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  19. Mode of action of Buddleja cordata verbascoside against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, J G; de Liverant, J G; Martínez, A; Martínez, G; Muñoz, J L; Arciniegas, A; Romo de Vivar, A

    1999-07-01

    We evaluate the mode of action of verbascoside obtained from Buddleja cordata against Staphylococcus aureus by killing kinetics and incorporation of precursors methods. Verbascoside induced lethal effect on S. aureus, by affecting protein synthesis and inhibiting leucine incorporation.

  20. Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Høst, Ulla; Arpi, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Aims Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population. Methods...

  1. Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis in diverse host environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Divya; Harper, Lamia; Shopsin, Bo; Torres, Victor J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is an eminent human pathogen that can colonize the human host and cause severe life-threatening illnesses. This bacterium can reside in and infect a wide range of host tissues, ranging from superficial surfaces like the skin to deeper tissues such as in the gastrointestinal tract, heart and bones. Due to its multifaceted lifestyle, S. aureus uses complex regulatory networks to sense diverse signals that enable it to adapt to different environments and modulate virulence. In this minireview, we explore well-characterized environmental and host cues that S. aureus responds to and describe how this pathogen modulates virulence in response to these signals. Lastly, we highlight therapeutic approaches undertaken by several groups to inhibit both signaling and the cognate regulators that sense and transmit these signals downstream. PMID:28104617

  2. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xue-qing

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, is an important cause of pyogenic skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs. The aim of present study is to investigate the molecular characteristic of Staphylococcus aureus isolates isolated from the pus samples from the patients with purulent skin and soft tissue infections in Wenzhou, China. Methods Between December 2002 and June 2008, a total of 111 nonduplicate S. aureus isolates were collected from the pus samples of the patients with SSTIs in a teaching hospital in Wenzhou, China. All the tested isolates were confirmed as S. aureus using a Staph SPA agglutination kit, Gram's stain and a Vitek-60 microbiology analyzer. The homology among the tested isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST was used to determine the sequence types (STs of the selected isolates. The genotypes of SCCmec were determined by a multiplex PCR in the MRSA isolates. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genes and mecA were also determined by another multiplex PCR. Results Among the 111 S. aureus isolates, 48 and 63 isolates were community-acquired and hospital-acquired respectively. Sixty isolates were confirmed as MRSA harboring mecA detected by PCR. A total of 32 PFGE clonal types were obtained by PFGE, with 10 predominant patterns (types A to J. Twenty-five different STs including ST398 and three novel STs were found among 51 selected isolates. The main STs were ST239, ST1018, ST59, ST7 and ST88. Of 60 MRSA isolates, SCCmec II, III, IV and SCCmec V were found in three, 50, three and two isolates, respectively. The positive rates of PVL genes in overall isolates, HA-isolates, CA-isolates, MRSA isolates and MSSA isolates were 23.4% (26/111, 20.6% (13/63, 27.1% (13/48, 21.7% (13/60 and 25.5% (13/51, respectively. Eight (33.3%, 8/24 of 24 CA-MRSA isolates and 5 (13.9%, 5/36 of 36 HA-MRSA isolates were positive for PVL genes

  3. Mastite com lesões sistêmicas por Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus em coelhos Mastitis with systemic lesions due to Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Davi Traverso

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Em uma criação composta por 1800 coelhos, 33% das matrizes apresentaram mastite e lesões cutâneas crostosas e purulentas. Estes animais apresentavam-se entre 10 a- 12 meses de idade e em segunda parição. Quinze coelhos afetados foram sacrificados e necropsiados. Na necropsia, além das lesões cutâneas haviam microabscessos em diversos órgãos. Das amostras coletadas isolou-se Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus. S. aureus subesp. aureus também foi isolado de "swab" nasal coletado do tratador encarregado de fazer o diagnóstico de gestação nas coelhas. Histologicamente, havia formação de múltiplos abscessos, presença de bactérias gram positivas em vasos sangüíneos e linfáticos, além de êmbolos bacterianos nos tecidos. Nas mamas, observou-se tecido glandular normal associado a abscessos multifocais delimitados.At a commercial rabbitry which was composed of 1800 New Zealand White rabbits, 30% of the does had presented mastitis and purulent cutaneal lesions. The age of the animals ranged from 10 to 12 months and were at the second parturition. At necropsy, microabscesses were observed in several organs. Bacteriological samples collected from affected animals resulted Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus.. Additionally, the same agent has been isolated from a nasal swab collected from the person responsible for the pregnancy diagnosis. Histologically, there were multiple abscesses, gram positive bacteria within blood and lymphatic vessels, and bacterial emboli scattered in the tissues. In the mammas, normal glandular tissue associated with multifocal abscesses were observed.

  4. Conferences and Family Reunions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sutherland

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Professional associations and conferences have similarities with and differences from families and family reunions. This comparison can illustrate some ways professional associations can approach the integration of new members and the planning of conferences in order to facilitate membership development and leadership renewal. Unlike family reunions, professional conferences are not closed events that require a shared culture in order to fully participate; they are events that should show the constant change and development of practice that is representative of the profession – for both members and non-members. Some of the topics explored in the article are: making it easy for outsiders to contribute, considering the tastes of new members, making it easy to volunteer in a meaningful way, and remembering who the future of the organization is. These simple considerations will assist in opening professional associations to new participants and help them to maintain their relevance and vitality over time.

  5. Addendum to material selection guidelines for geothermal energy-utilization systems. Part I. Extension of the field experience data base. Part II. Proceedings of the geothermal engineering and materials (GEM) program conference (San Diego, CA, 6-8 October 1982)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.S.; Ellis, P.F. II

    1983-05-01

    The extension of the field experience data base includes the following: key corrosive species, updated field experiences, corrosion of secondary loop components or geothermal binary power plants, and suitability of conventional water-source heat pump evaporator materials for geothermal heat pump service. Twenty-four conference papers are included. Three were abstracted previously for EDB. Separate abstracts were prepared for twenty-one. (MHR)

  6. Genetic characterisation of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from commercial broiler chickens in the Durban metropolitan area, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelisiwe Mkize

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in human and veterinary medicine is a serious worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in commercial broiler chickens as well as to establish antimicrobial susceptibility and the distribution of genetic determinants conferring resistance and virulence. One hundred and ninety-four samples were aseptically collected from broiler chicken slaughterhouses and retail outlets around the Durban metropolitan area in South Africa. Microbiological and molecular methods were used to detect the presence of S. aureus as well as its resistance- and virulence-associated genes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to confirm the presence of S. aureus by amplifying the nuc gene. Approximately 54% of 194 samples were positive for S. aureus. The disc diffusion technique was used to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the S. aureus isolates to a battery of 10 antimicrobial agents, namely ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, erythromycin, cefoxitin, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, vancomycin and trimethoprim. The results demonstrated that S. aureus isolates of abattoir origin had a high level (79.4% of resistance to tetracycline, followed by ampicillin, vancomycin, cefoxitin, trimethoprim, erythromycin and streptomycin with resistance rates of 65.1%, 61.9%, 60.3%, 58.7%, 57.1% and 46.0%, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus isolates of retail origin exhibited higher antimicrobial resistance prevalence rates than those of abattoir origin. Tetracycline had the highest resistance rate (100%, followed by cefoxitin (91.7%, erythromycin (83.3%, streptomycin (83.3% and kanamycin (66.7%. All isolates were resistant to two or more antimicrobial agents. Out of the four virulence genes that were screened, only two were detected (coagulase and protein A; however, their prevalence rates were very low. All antimicrobial resistance genes screened were

  7. Antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Abia State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 70 ear and nasal swab samples collected from 35 persons, 16-hospital population and 19 non-hospital population was examined for presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Eighty percent of the population studied were found to be carriers of S. aureus. Of the 28 positive cases, 35.7% were carriers of S. aureus. in ...

  8. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the anterior nares of healthy pupils and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns were determined. 116 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were biochemically characterized as coagulase positive S. aureus. Susceptibility profile of the isolates revealed that 15(14.85%) ...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... diagnosis of disease caused by this bacterium belonging to the genus Staphylococcus and provides...

  10. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product containing...

  11. Immunological role of nasal staphylococcus aureus carriage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2008-10-30

    Oct 30, 2008 ... Nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) exerts immunomodulatory effects in patients with atopic dermatitis and it may contribute to airway inflammation and allergic response in patients with allergic rhinitis. We investigated the frequency of nasal S. aureus carriage in patients with perennial ...

  12. The sensitivity status of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community acquired Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from various infectious sites in two private laboratories in Kano-city, Nigeria. A total of 247 (11%) Staphylococcu aureus isolates were recovered from all infectious sites except cerebro-spinal fluid. The least Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found in urine ...

  13. Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three Hundred and Sixty fresh cow milk samples were collected from settled Fulani herds in Kaduna State and examined for S. aureus and their antibiotic resistance. Fifty five samples (15.3%) were positive for S. aureus. The occurrence of S. aureus was statistically significant (P<0.005) based on locations. Statistical ...

  14. PHYSICS FOR HEALTH: CONFERENCE

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    ICTR-PHE 2016 - International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health -, co organized by CERN, aims at developing new strategies to better diagnose and treat cancer, by uniting biology and physics with clinics. Through the various sessions and symposia, the scientific programme offers the delegates the opportunity to discuss, in a friendly atmosphere, the latest progress in physics breakthroughs for health applications. The third edition of this conference took place at CICG (Centre International de Conférence Genève) from 15 to 19 Feb 2016.

  15. Performance of culture media for the isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Trujillo, G U; Solorio-Rivera, J L; Rentería-Solórzano, I; Carranza-Germán, S I; Bustos-Martínez, J A; Arteaga-Garibay, R I; Baizabal-Aguirre, V M; Cajero-Juárez, M; Bravo-Patiño, A; Valdez-Alarcón, J J

    2013-03-01

    Rapid isolation and identification of pathogens is a major goal of diagnostic microbiology. In order to isolate and identify Staphylococcus aureus, a number of authors have used a variety of selective and/or differential culture media. However, to date, there are no reports comparing the efficacy of selective and differential culture media for S. aureus isolation from bovine mastitis cases using the 16S rRNA (rrs) gene sequence as a gold standard test. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of four selective and/or differential culture media for the isolation of S. aureus from milk samples collected from cows suffering from bovine mastitis. Four hundred and forty isolates were obtained using salt-mannitol agar (SMA, Bioxon), Staphylococcus-110 agar (S110, Bioxon), CHROMAgar Staph aureus (CSA, BD-BBL) and sheep's blood agar (SBA, BD-BBL). All bacterial isolates were identified by their typical colony morphology in the respective media, by secondary tests (for coagulase and β-haemolysis) and by partial 16S rRNA (rrs) gene sequencing as a gold standard test. Sensitivity, positive predictive and negative predictive values were higher for SMA (86.96, 52.63 and 95.95%, respectively) compared with S110 (70.00, 23.73 and 90.91%, respectively), CSA (69.23, 28.13 and 95.74%, respectively) and SBA (68.75, 37.93 and 89.58%, respectively) while specificity values were similar for all media. Data indicated that the use of culture media for S. aureus isolation combined with determination of coagulase activity and haemolysis as secondary tests improved accuracy of the identification and was in accordance with rrs gene sequence-analysis compared with the use of the culture media alone.

  16. Protective activity of the CnaBE3 domain conserved among Staphylococcus aureus Sdr proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherelli, Marco; Prachi, Prachi; Viciani, Elisa; Biagini, Massimiliano; Fiaschi, Luigi; Chiarot, Emiliano; Nosari, Sarah; Brettoni, Cecilia; Marchi, Sara; Biancucci, Marco; Fontana, Maria Rita; Montagnani, Francesca; Bagnoli, Fabio; Barocchi, Michèle A; Manetti, Andrea G O

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen, commensal of the human skin and nares, but also responsible for invasive nosocomial as well as community acquired infections. Staphylococcus aureus adheres to the host tissues by means of surface adhesins, such as SdrC, SdrD, and SdrE proteins. The Sdr family of proteins together with a functional A domain, contain respectively two, three or five repeated sequences called B motifs which comprise the CnaB domains. SdrD and SdrE proteins were reported to be protective in animal models against invasive diseases or lethal challenge with human clinical S. aureus isolates. In this study we identified a 126 amino acid sequence containing a CnaB domain, conserved among the three Sdr proteins. The three fragments defined here as CnaBC2, D5 and E3 domains even though belonging to phylogenetically distinct strains, displayed high sequence similarity. Based on the sequence conservation data, we selected the CnaBE3 domain for further analysis and characterization. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant CnaBE3 domain recognized SdrE, SdrC and SdrD proteins of different S. aureus lineages. Moreover, we demonstrated that the CnaBE3 domain was expressed in vivo during S. aureus infections, and that immunization of this domain alone significantly reduces the bacterial load in mice challenged with S. aureus. Furthermore, we show that the reduction of bacteria by CnaBE3 vaccination is due to functional antibodies. Finally, we demonstrated that the region of the SdrE protein containing the CnaBE3 domain was resistant to trypsin digestion, a characteristic often associated with the presence of an isopeptide bond.

  17. Preconditioning with Lipopolysaccharide or Lipoteichoic Acid Protects against Staphylococcus aureus Mammary Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Breyne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most causative agents of mastitis and is associated with chronic udder infections. The persistency of the pathogen is believed to be the result of an insufficient triggering of local inflammatory signaling. In this study, the preclinical mastitis model was used, aiming to evaluate if lipopolysaccharide (LPS or lipoteichoic acid (LTA preconditioning could aid the host in more effectively clearing or at least limiting a subsequent S. aureus infection. A prototypic Gram-negative virulence factor, i.e., LPS and Gram-positive virulence factor, i.e., LTA were screened whether they were able to boost the local immune compartment. Compared to S. aureus-induced inflammation, both toxins had a remarkable high potency to efficiently induce two novel selected innate immunity biomarkers i.e., lipocalin 2 (LCN2 and chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1. When combining mammary inoculation of LPS or LTA prior to a local S. aureus infection, we were able to modulate the innate immune response, reduce local bacterial loads, and induce either LCN2 or CHI3L1 at 24 h post-infection. Clodronate depletion of mammary macrophages also identified that macrophages contribute only to a limited extend to the LPS/LTA-induced immunomodulation upon S. aureus infection. Based on histological neutrophil influx evaluation, concomitant local cytokine profiles and LCN2/CHI3L1 patterns, the macrophage-independent signaling plays a major role in the LPS- or LTA-pretreated S. aureus-infected mouse mammary gland. Our results highlight the importance of a vigilant microenvironment during the innate immune response of the mammary gland and offer novel insights for new approaches concerning effective immunomodulation against a local bacterial infection.

  18. International Joint Conference CISIS’15 and ICEUTE’15

    CERN Document Server

    Baruque, Bruno; Sedano, Javier; Quintián, Héctor; Corchado, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing contains accepted papers presented at the 8th International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Security for Information Systems (CISIS 2015) and the 6th International Conference on EUropean Transnational Education (ICEUTE 2015). These conferences were held in the beautiful and historic city of Burgos (Spain), in June 2015. The aim of the 8th CISIS conference is to offer a meeting opportunity for academic and industry-related researchers belonging to the various, vast communities of Computational Intelligence, Information Security, and Data Mining. The need for intelligent, flexible behaviour by large, complex systems, especially in mission-critical domains, is intended to be the catalyst and the aggregation stimulus for the overall event. After a through peer-review process, the CISIS 2015 International Program Committee selected 43 papers, written by authors from 16 different countries. In the case of 6th ICEUTE conference, the International ...

  19. 4th International Conference on Applied Computing and Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 4th International Conference on Applied Computing and Information Technology (ACIT 2016) which was held on December 12–14, 2016 in Las Vegas, USA. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. The aim of this conference was also to bring out the research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the best papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference. The papers were chosen based on review scores submitted by members of the Program Committee, and underwent further rigorous rounds of review. Th...

  20. 78 FR 27963 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, July 9, 2013... to the webcast. The Capitol Connection provides technical support for webcasts and offers the option...

  1. Rifampin Resistance rpoB Alleles or Multicopy Thioredoxin/Thioredoxin Reductase Suppresses the Lethality of Disruption of the Global Stress Regulator spx in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Maite; Jousselin, Ambre; Baek, Kristoffer T

    2016-01-01

    and that a previously reported Δspx strain harbored suppressor mutations that allowed it to grow without spx One of these mutations is a single missense mutation in rpoB (a P-to-L change at position 519 encoded by rpoB [rpoB-P519L]) that conferred high-level resistance to rifampin. This mutation alone was found......UNLABELLED: Staphylococcus aureus is capable of causing a remarkable spectrum of disease, ranging from mild skin eruptions to life-threatening infections. The survival and pathogenic potential of S. aureus depend partly on its ability to sense and respond to changes in its environment. Spx...... is a thiol/oxidative stress sensor that interacts with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase RpoA subunit, leading to changes in gene expression that help sustain viability under various conditions. Using genetic and deep-sequencing methods, we show that spx is essential in S. aureus...

  2. Genome-wide identification of antimicrobial intrinsic resistance determinants in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vestergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antimicrobial resistance severely threatens our ability to treat bacterial infections. While acquired resistance has received considerable attention, relatively little is known of intrinsic resistance that allows bacteria to naturally withstand antimicrobials. Gene products that confer intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents may be explored for alternative antimicrobial therapies, by potentiating the efficacy of existing antimicrobials. In this study, we identified the intrinsic resistome to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials in the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. We screened the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library of 1920 single-gene inactivations in S. aureus strain JE2, for increased susceptibility to the anti-staphylococcal antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, linezolid, fosfomycin, daptomycin, mupirocin, vancomycin and gentamicin. 68 mutants were confirmed by E-test to display at least two-fold increased susceptibility to one or more antimicrobial agents. The majority of the identified genes have not previously been associated with antimicrobial susceptibility in S. aureus. For example, inactivation of genes encoding for subunits of the ATP synthase, atpA, atpB, atpG and atpH, reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of gentamicin 16-fold. To elucidate the potential of the screen, we examined treatment efficacy in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Gentamicin efficacy was significantly improved, when treating larvae infected with the atpA mutant compared to wild type cells with gentamicin at a clinically relevant concentration. Our results demonstrate that many gene products contribute to the intrinsic antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus. Knowledge of these intrinsic resistance determinants provides alternative targets for compounds that may potentiate the efficacy of existing antimicrobial agents against this important pathogen.

  3. Contribution of the nos-pdt operon to virulence phenotypes in methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, April M; Mogen, Austin B; Almand, Erin A; Rivera, Frances E; Shaw, Lindsey N; Richardson, Anthony R; Rice, Kelly C

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is emerging as an important regulator of bacterial stress resistance, biofilm development, and virulence. One potential source of endogenous NO production in the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is its NO-synthase (saNOS) enzyme, encoded by the nos gene. Although a role for saNOS in oxidative stress resistance, antibiotic resistance, and virulence has been recently-described, insights into the regulation of nos expression and saNOS enzyme activity remain elusive. To this end, transcriptional analysis of the nos gene in S. aureus strain UAMS-1 was performed, which revealed that nos expression increases during low-oxygen growth and is growth-phase dependent. Furthermore, nos is co-transcribed with a downstream gene, designated pdt, which encodes a prephenate dehydratase (PDT) enzyme involved in phenylalanine biosynthesis. Deletion of pdt significantly impaired the ability of UAMS-1 to grow in chemically-defined media lacking phenylalanine, confirming the function of this enzyme. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the operon organization of nos-pdt appears to be unique to the staphylococci. As described for other S. aureus nos mutants, inactivation of nos in UAMS-1 conferred sensitivity to oxidative stress, while deletion of pdt did not affect this phenotype. The nos mutant also displayed reduced virulence in a murine sepsis infection model, and increased carotenoid pigmentation when cultured on agar plates, both previously-undescribed nos mutant phenotypes. Utilizing the fluorescent stain 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2',7'-Difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM) diacetate, decreased levels of intracellular NO/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) were detected in the nos mutant on agar plates. These results reinforce the important role of saNOS in S. aureus physiology and virulence, and have identified an in vitro growth condition under which saNOS activity appears to be upregulated. However, the significance of the operon organization of nos-pdt and potential

  4. Contribution of the nos-pdt operon to virulence phenotypes in methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April M Sapp

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is emerging as an important regulator of bacterial stress resistance, biofilm development, and virulence. One potential source of endogenous NO production in the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is its NO-synthase (saNOS enzyme, encoded by the nos gene. Although a role for saNOS in oxidative stress resistance, antibiotic resistance, and virulence has been recently-described, insights into the regulation of nos expression and saNOS enzyme activity remain elusive. To this end, transcriptional analysis of the nos gene in S. aureus strain UAMS-1 was performed, which revealed that nos expression increases during low-oxygen growth and is growth-phase dependent. Furthermore, nos is co-transcribed with a downstream gene, designated pdt, which encodes a prephenate dehydratase (PDT enzyme involved in phenylalanine biosynthesis. Deletion of pdt significantly impaired the ability of UAMS-1 to grow in chemically-defined media lacking phenylalanine, confirming the function of this enzyme. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the operon organization of nos-pdt appears to be unique to the staphylococci. As described for other S. aureus nos mutants, inactivation of nos in UAMS-1 conferred sensitivity to oxidative stress, while deletion of pdt did not affect this phenotype. The nos mutant also displayed reduced virulence in a murine sepsis infection model, and increased carotenoid pigmentation when cultured on agar plates, both previously-undescribed nos mutant phenotypes. Utilizing the fluorescent stain 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2',7'-Difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM diacetate, decreased levels of intracellular NO/reactive nitrogen species (RNS were detected in the nos mutant on agar plates. These results reinforce the important role of saNOS in S. aureus physiology and virulence, and have identified an in vitro growth condition under which saNOS activity appears to be upregulated. However, the significance of the operon organization of nos-pdt and

  5. Antimicrobial activity of plumbagin, a naturally occurring naphthoquinone from Plumbago rosea, against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sweatha V; Baranwal, Gaurav; Chatterjee, Maitrayee; Sachu, Arun; Vasudevan, Anil Kumar; Bose, Chinchu; Banerji, Asoke; Biswas, Raja

    2016-06-01

    Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens. Despite causing a number of independent infections, both pathogens can co-infect to cause urinary tract infections, skin infections, biofilm associated infections, sepsis and pneumonia. Infections of these two pathogens especially their biofilm associated infections are often difficult to treat using currently available anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agents. In order to identify a common anti-microbial agent which could confer a broad range of protection against their infections, we screened several phytochemicals and identified plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), a phytochemical from Plumbago species as a potent antimicrobial agent against S. aureus and C. albicans, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 5μg/ml. Antimicrobial activity of plumbagin was validated using an ex-vivo porcine skin model. For better understanding of the antimicrobial activity of plumbagin, a Drosophila melanogaster infection model was used, where D. melanogaster was infected using S. aureus and C. albicans, or with both organisms. The fly's survival rate was dramatically increased when infected flies were treated using plumbagin. Further, plumbagin was effective in preventing and dispersing catheter associated biofilms formed by these pathogens. The overall results of this work provides evidence that plumbagin, possesses an excellent antimicrobial activity which should be explored further for the treatment of S. aureus and C. albicans infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. ICRESH-ARMS 2015 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Verma, Ajit; Varde, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Containing selected papers from the ICRESH-ARMS 2015 conference in Lulea, Sweden, collected by editors with years of experiences in Reliability and maintenance modeling, risk assessment, and asset management, this work maximizes reader insights into the current trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) and Risk Management. Featuring a comprehensive analysis of the significance of the role of RAMS and Risk Management in the decision making process during the various phases of design, operation, maintenance, asset management and productivity in Industrial domains, these proceedings discuss key issues and challenges in the operation, maintenance and risk management of complex engineering systems and will serve as a valuable resource for those in the field.

  7. European Conference on Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Böhmer, Matthias; Data Science, Learning by Latent Structures, and Knowledge Discovery; ECDA 2013

    2015-01-01

    This volume comprises papers dedicated to data science and the extraction of knowledge from many types of data: structural, quantitative, or statistical approaches for the analysis of data; advances in classification, clustering, and pattern recognition methods; strategies for modeling complex data and mining large data sets; applications of advanced methods in specific domains of practice. The contributions offer interesting applications to various disciplines such as psychology, biology, medical and health sciences; economics, marketing, banking, and finance; engineering; geography and geology;  archeology, sociology, educational sciences, linguistics, and musicology; library science. The book contains the selected and peer-reviewed papers presented during the European Conference on Data Analysis (ECDA 2013) which was jointly held by the German Classification Society (GfKl) and the French-speaking Classification Society (SFC) in July 2013 at the University of Luxembourg.

  8. 2nd Historic Mortars Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, John; Groot, Caspar; Historic Mortars : Characterisation, Assessment and Repair

    2012-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues connected with mortars on historic structures. The book is divided into four sections: Characterisation of Historic Mortars, Repair Mortars and Design Issues, Experimental Research into Properties of Repair Mortars, and Assessment and Testing. The papers present the latest work of researchers in their field. The individual contributions were selected from the contributions to the 2nd Historic Mortars Conference, which took place in Prague, September, 22-24, 2010. All papers were reviewed and improved as necessary before publication. This peer review process by the editors resulted in the 34 individual contributions included in here. One extra paper reviewing and summarising State-of-the-Art knowledge covered by this publication was added as a starting and navigational point for the reader. The editors believe that having these papers in print is important and they hope that it will stimulate further research into historic mortars and related subjects. 

  9. 11th International Conference Mechatronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brezina, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the most rapidly changing areas of mechatronics, this book discusses signals and system control, mechatronic products, metrology and nanometrology, automatic control & robotics, biomedical engineering, photonics, design manufacturing and testing of MEMS. It is reflected in the list of contributors, including an international group of 302 leading researchers representing 12 countries. The book is intended for use in academic, government and industry R&D departments, as an indispensable reference tool for the years to come. Thid volume can serve a global community as the definitive reference source in Mechatronics. The book comprises carefully selected 93 contributions presented at the 11th International Conference Mechatronics 2015, organized by Faculty of Mechatronics, Warsaw University of Technology, on September 21-23, in Warsaw, Poland. .

  10. European Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Francesco; Caldarelli, Guido; Merelli, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This work contains a stringent selection of extended contributions presented at the meeting of 2014 and its satellite meetings, reflecting scope, diversity and richness of research areas in the field, both fundamental and applied. The ECCS meeting, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. It offers cutting edge research and unique opportunities to study novel scientific approaches in a multitude of application areas. ECCS'14, its eleventh occurrence, took place in Lucca, Italy. It gathered some 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. The editors are among the best specialists in the area. The book is of great interest to scientists, researchers and graduate students in complexity, complex systems and networks.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  12. Staphylococcus aureus Entrance into the Dairy Chain: Tracking S. aureus from Dairy Cow to Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Judith; Stessl, Beatrix; Gonano, Monika; Walcher, Georg; Bereuter, Othmar; Fricker, Martina; Grunert, Tom; Wagner, Martin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. one thousand hundred seventy six one thousand hundred seventy six quarter milk (QM) samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294) and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM) of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing), dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day 14 of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej) of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus, our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires

  13. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  14. 2008 Combat Vehicles Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-22

    General Michael M. Brogan Combat Vehicles Conference Marine Corps Systems Command 21 October 2008 2 MCSC •LAV •AAV •Tank •HMMWV/ ECV •MRAP PEO LS...34,226 Total 56,649 1985 IOC 1996 M1114 armored HMMWV Limited Production 2006 M1100 series begins fielding scalable armor 2009-10 ECV II

  15. International Nuclear Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    We are pleased to announce that the 26th International Nuclear Physics Conference (INPC2016) will take place in Adelaide (Australia) from September 11-16, 2016. The 25th INPC was held in Firenze in 2013 and the 24th INPC in Vancouver, Canada, in 2010. The Conference is organized by the Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter at the University of Adelaide, together with the Australian National University and ANSTO. It is also sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and by a number of organisations, including AUSHEP, BNL, CoEPP, GSI and JLab. INPC 2016 will be held in the heart of Adelaide at the Convention Centre on the banks of the River Torrens. It will consist of 5 days of conference presentations, with plenary sessions in the mornings, up to ten parallel sessions in the afternoons, poster sessions and a public lecture. The Conference will officially start in the evening of Sunday 11th September with Registration and a Reception and will end late on the afternoon of ...

  16. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  17. Leader Training Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan-Ohio Regional Educational Lab., Inc., Detroit.

    The purpose of this conference was to prepare key people in the field of education to function as inservice education leaders in their respective settings. It called for participants to learn what the MOREL inservice education program is and what it hopes to accomplish, to identify the role and functions of the inservice education leader, and to…

  18. Conferences and Events

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    2016-01-18

    Jan 18, 2016 ... Evening meal events for Governors, held in connection with Board meetings, must not cost more per person than 2.625 times the applicable meal allowance. The Chair of the Board must authorize any exception to the provision of this paragraph. Overnight stays related to events (other than conferences and ...

  19. Microbicides 2006 conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGowan Ian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current HIV/AIDS statistics show that women account for almost 60% of HIV infections in Sub-Saharan Africa. HIV prevention tools such as male and female condoms, abstinence and monogamy are not always feasible options for women due to various socio-economic and cultural factors. Microbicides are products designed to be inserted in the vagina or rectum prior to sex to prevent HIV acquisition. The biannual Microbicides conference took place in Cape Town, South Africa from 23–26 April 2006. The conference was held for the first time on the African continent, the region worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The conference brought together a record number of 1,300 scientists, researchers, policy makers, healthcare workers, communities and advocates. The conference provided an opportunity for an update on microbicide research and development as well as discussions around key issues such as ethics, acceptability, access and community involvement. This report discusses the current status of microbicide research and development, encompassing basic and clinical science, social and behavioural science, and community mobilisation and advocacy activities.

  20. Genome-wide association study reveals a locus for nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Danish crossbred pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is an important human opportunistic pathogen residing on skin and mucosae of healthy people. Pigs have been identified as a source of human colonization and infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and novel measures are needed to control...... of S. aureus in Danish crossbred pigs (Danish Landrace/Yorkshire/Duroc). RESULTS: Fifty-six persistent carriers and 65 non-carriers selected from 15 farms surveyed in the previous longitudinal study were genotyped using Illumina's Porcine SNP60 beadchip. In addition, spa typing was performed on 126 S...

  1. International conference on string theory

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Strings conference is an annual event that brings the entire string theory community together. Since the 1980s, it has grown to be the largest and most important conference in the field. The aim is to review recent developments in string theory and to stimulate scientific exchanges among the participants. This is the second Strings conference organised in Beijing, after Strings 2006. Following the tradition, besides scientific talks, the conference will also include some public lectures open to a general audience.

  2. Antibiograms of Staphylococcus Aureus and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While there was no bacterial growth after 48hrs incubation recorded for group one, only 5(13.9%) samples yielded growth of Staphylococcus aureus for group two with 31(86.1%) yielding no bacterial growth. All group three samples yielded profuse growth of which 11(36.7%) yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ...

  3. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-22

    Datos importantes sobre las infecciones por SARM en Estados Unidos, en las escuelas y los entornos médicos. (Title: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Created: 10/2007).  Created: 10/22/2007 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/9/2007.

  4. Human Staphylococcus aureus lineages among Zoological Park ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clones were defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), spa type and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Seven S. aureus isolates were recovered from four animals and one from an employee. All were mecA, mecC and tst–negative, whereas, one carried the PVL genes and was isolated from an infected ...

  5. Profiling the surfacome of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreisbach, Annette; Hempel, Kristina; Buist, Girbe; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Doerte; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    Staphylococcus aureus is a widespread opportunistic pathogen that can cause a wide variety of life-threatening diseases. Especially for the colonization of human tissues and the development of invasiveness, surface-exposed proteins are of major importance. In the present studies, we optimized a

  6. Resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred (200) strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were isolated from clinical samples collected from patients in Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital and Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kano. The confirmed isolates were tested for resistance to quinolones by the agar disk diffusion susceptibility test and the agar ...

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Leif Percival; Nielsen, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Even though methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial infections, it may often be difficult to evaluate the exact route of transmission. METHODS: In this study, we describe four cases of nosocomial transmission of MRSA in a hospital with a low...

  8. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t437

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasner, C; Pluister, G; Westh, H

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) belonging to the multilocus sequence type clonal complex 59 (MLST CC59) is the predominant community-associated MRSA clone in Asia. This clone, which is primarily linked with the spa type t437, has so far only been reported in low numbers among...

  9. Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in suppurative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus, a mainly acquired hospital infection is responsible for many suppurative lesions and has demonstrated the ability of developing resistance to many antimicrobial agents leading to life threatening infections and long hospital stay. Objective: To determined the prevalence and antibiotic ...

  10. Polyclonal antibodies production against Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... The main aim of this project is to produce polyclonal antibodies directed against the Staphylococcus aureus protein A and their use to appreciate bacteriological analysis of milk quality. In this context, an immunization produce was set up to test and detect in a batch of animals the convenient responder to.

  11. Meticillineresistente Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in de gemeenschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, A. G.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have been confined to healthcare centres for decades. However, MRSA infections are increasingly seen in young healthy individuals with no exposure to healthcare centres. These community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains differ from

  12. Staphylococcus aureus infections; Lead by the nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAn overview and the latest insights regarding S. aureus nasal carriage, associated risks of developing infections and possible preventive measures, will be given in Chapter 2. Since mupirocin efficacy studies in preventing nosocomial infections have only been performed in surgical and

  13. Microbial population of Staphyloccous aureus from inanimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High frequency of S. aureus was observed in toilet seat with perecentage distribution of 78%, followed by floor with percentage distribution of 70% and locker with percentage distribution of 65% and the lowest frequency occurence was observed in switch with percentage distribution of 30%. Frequency occurrence of S.

  14. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukos, Georgios; Sakellari, Dimitra; Arsenakis, Minas; Tsalikis, Lazaros; Slini, Theodora; Konstantinidis, Antonios

    2015-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in plaque and tongue samples from systemically healthy subjects with periodontal health, gingivitis or chronic periodontitis. After screening 720 potentially eligible subjects, 154 systemically healthy participants were ultimately enrolled in the current study. Subgingival samples were taken from the first molars and the tongue and analyzed for the presence of S. aureus and MRSA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using primers and conditions previously described in the literature. In addition, samples were taken from deep periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis patients. Statistical analysis was performed by applying non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis for clinical parameters, and z-test with Bonferroni corrections for distributions of assessed parameters). All comparisons were set at the 0.05 significance level. S. aureus was detected in 18% of all participants and in 10% of the samples tested. No significant differences were found in its distribution among the three investigated groups (z-test for proportions with Bonferroni corrections, p>0.05). The mecA gene was not present in any of the S. aureus found. S. aureus can be found in the oral environment regardless of the periodontal conditions and therefore should be considered as a member of the transient flora not participating in periodontal pathology. Subgingival sites and tongue surfaces seem to be an unusual habitat of MRSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PREFACE: International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemle, Ludovic Dan; Jiang, Yiwen

    2015-06-01

    The International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2014) took place in Hunedoara, Romania from 2-4 October 2014 at the Engineering Faculty of Hunedoara. The conference takes place alternately in Romania and in P.R. China and is organized by "Politehnica" University of Timisoara, Romania, and Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, P.R. China, with the aim to serve as a platform for exchange of information between various areas of applied sciences and to promote the communication between scientists of different nations, countries and continents. The topics of the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues: 1. Economical Sciences 2. Engineering Sciences 3. Fundamental Sciences 4. Medical Sciences The conference gathered qualified researchers whose expertise can be used to develop new engineering knowledge that has the potential for application in economics, defense, medicine, etc. There were nearly 100 registered participants from six countries, and four invited and 56 oral talks were delivered during the two days of the conference. Based on the work presented at the conference, selected papers are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. These papers present new research in the various fields of Materials Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Computer Engineering, and Mathematical Engineering. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering to the scientific community to promote further research in these areas. We sincerely hope that the papers published in this volume will contribute to the advancement of knowledge in their respective fields.

  16. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to define the programme of a conference in Indico. The program of your conference is divided in different “tracks”. Tracks represent the subject matter of the conference, such as “Online Computing”, “Offline Computing”, and so on.

  17. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical samples at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnessa, Tebelay; Bitew, Adane

    2016-08-09

    Staphylococcus aureus particularly MRSA strains are one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired bacterial infections. They are also becoming increasingly multi-drug resistant and have recently developed resistance to vancomycin, which has been used successfully to treat MRSA for many years. In-vitro determination of drug resistance patterns of S. aureus is critical for the selection of effective drugs for the treatment of staphylococci infections. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains from different clinical specimens from patients referred for routine culture and sensitivity testing. A cross sectional study was conducted among 1360 participants at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College in Ethiopia from September 2013 to April 2014. Clinical samples from various anatomical sites of study participants were cultured on blood agar and mannitol salt agar and identified to be S. aureus by using catalase, coagulase and DNAse tests. S. aureus isolates then were screened for MRSA using 30 μg cefoxitin disc and other 11 antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion procedure, and agar dilution and E tests for vancomycin. All S. aureus isolates examined for beta-lactamase production by employing nitrocefin. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software and logistic regressions were applied to assess any association between dependent and independent variables. Of 1360 clinical specimens analyzed S. aureus was recovered from (194, 14.3 %). Rate of isolation of S. aureus with regard to clinical specimens was the highest in pus (118, 55.4 %).No S. aureus was isolated from CSF and urethral discharge. Out of 194 S. aureus isolates, (34, 17.5 %) were found out to be MRSA and the remaining (160, 82.5 %) were MSSA. Ninety eight (50.5 %) S. aureus were multi drug resistant and the highest isolates were resistant to penicillin (187, 96.4 %) and least resistant for clindamycin (23, 11.9 %) and vancomycin

  18. Basic rules of hygiene protect health care and lab workers from nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus: an international cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Tristan, Anne; Laurent, Frédéric; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Bouchiat, Coralie; Ranc, Anne-Gaëlle; Lina, Gérard; Dauwalder, Olivier; Etienne, Jérôme; Bes, Michèle; Vandenesch, François

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of nasal Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization by contaminated hands is likely an important determinant of its nasal carriage rate in health care and lab setting. The objective of our cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of nasal methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) or -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage among health care professionals (HCPs) attending an international symposium and to study the association between compliance with hygiene rules, individual-related parameters, and medical conditions with nasal S. aureus carriage in this population. After obtaining consent, two nasal swabs were collected. Nasal MSSA and MRSA carriage was measured by the: i) molecular approach targeting spa, mecA and mecA-orfX junction sequences, and ii) culture on selective S. aureus media combined with mecA molecular detection of isolated strains. Information on compliance with hygiene rules, demographic variables, sector of activity and long-term medication was collected by anonymous questionnaire. The participation rate was 32.3%. In total, 176 subjects from 34 countries were included in the analysis. S. aureus was isolated from the nasal swabs of 57 (32.4%) subjects, of whom 3 (5.3%) harbored MRSA strains. Overall, 123 subjects reported working in microbiology laboratories with direct manipulation of S. aureus, and 29 acknowledged regular contacts with patients. In this exposed population, hydro-alcoholic solutions appeared to have a significant protective effect against nasal S. aureus carriage (OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.15-0.85). Hospital work was associated with increased risk of nasal S. aureus carriage (OR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.07-5.29). The results of this study showed that compliance with basic rules of hygiene, such as the use of hydro-alcoholic solutions, could reduce the risk of nasal S. aureus colonization. Hydro-alcoholic solution could interrupt auto-transmission of the pathogen, consequently decreasing the overall nasal

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces pigment production and enhances virulence in a white phenotypic variant of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonic V

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vlado Antonic,1–3 Alexander Stojadinovic,3–5 Binxue Zhang,1–3 Mina J Izadjoo,1–3,5 Mohammad Alavi1–3 1Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Diagnostic and Translational Research Center, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 3Combat Wound Initiative Program, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA; 5Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Staphyloxanthin is a virulence factor which protects Staphylococcus aureus in stress conditions. We isolated two pigment variants of S. aureus and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a single wound infection. S. aureus variants displayed white and yellow colony phenotypes. The sequence of the operons for staphyloxanthin synthesis indicated that coding and promoter regions were identical between the two pigment variants. Quorum sensing controls pigment synthesis in some bacteria. It is also shown that P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecules affect S. aureus transcription. We explored whether the co-infecting P. aeruginosa can affect pigment production in the white S. aureus variant. In co-culture experiments between the white variants and a selected number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, only P. aeruginosa induced pigment production in the white variant. Gene expression analysis of the white variant did not indicate upregulation of the crtM and other genes known to be involved in pigment production (sigB, sarA, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene [FPP-synthase], hfq. In contrast, transcription of the catalase gene was significantly upregulated after co-culture. P. aeruginosa-induced pigment synthesis and catalase upregulation correlated with increased resistance to polymyxin B, hydrogen peroxide, and the intracellular environment of macrophages. Our data indicate the presence of silent but functional staphyloxanthin synthesis machinery in a white phenotypic variant

  20. Screening method for Staphylococcus aureus identification in subclinical bovine mastitis from dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natapol Pumipuntu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious bacteria causing subclinical bovine mastitis. This bacterial infection is commonly identified by determine the pathogen in bovine milk samples through conventional technique including coagulase test. However, this test has several disadvantages as low sensitivity, risk of biohazard, cost expensive, and limited preparation especially in local area. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare and assess the screening method, Mannitol fermentation test (Mannitol salt agar [MSA], and deoxyribonuclease (DNase test, for S. aureus identification in milk samples. Materials and Methods: A total of 224 subclinical bovine mastitis milk samples were collected from four provinces of Thailand and determined S. aureus using conventional method and also subjected to the screening test, MSA and DNase test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV among both tests were analyzed and compared to the tube coagulase test (TCT, as reference method. Immunological test by latex agglutination and molecular assay by determined spa gene were also used to identify and differentiate S. aureus. Results: A total of 130 staphylococci were isolated by selective media, Gram-stain, and catalase test. The number of S. aureus which identified using TCT, MSA and DNase test were 32, 102, and 74 isolates, respectively. All TCT results were correlated to results of latex agglutination and spa gene which were 32 S. aureus. MSA showed 100% sensitivity, 28.57% specificity, 31.37% PPV, and 100% NPV, whereas DNase showed 53.13% sensitivity, 41.84% specificity, 22.97% PPV, and 73.21% NPV. DNase test showed higher specificity value than MSA but the test presented 26.79% false negative results whereas no false-negative result from MSA when comparing to TCT. Conclusion: MSA had a tendency to be a good preference for screening S. aureus because of its high sensitivity and

  1. 9th Scientific Conference "Globalisation of Culture"

    OpenAIRE

    Armand Faganel

    2009-01-01

    The 9th scientific conference titled Globalisation of Culture, which was organised by the Political Science Research Centre (PSRC) from Zagreb, was held in the middle of October 2008 at the University of Dubrovnik. 20 selected papers cast light on different aspects of mutual relationships between globalisation and culture. The plenary speaker Robertson is one of the pioneers of research in the field of cultural globalisation and is also the one who introduced the Japanese term glocalisation i...

  2. 6th International Conference on Mechanism Science

    CERN Document Server

    Flores, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    This book collects the most recent advances in mechanism science and machine theory with application to engineering. It contains selected peer-reviewed papers of the sixth International Conference on Mechanism Science, held in Nantes, France, 20-23 September 2016, covering topics on mechanism design and synthesis, mechanics of robots, mechanism analysis, parallel manipulators, tensegrity mechanisms, cable mechanisms, control issues in mechanical systems, history of mechanisms, mechanisms for biomechanics and surgery and industrial and nonindustrial applications.

  3. International Conference on Durability of Critical Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Cherepetskaya, Elena; Pospichal, Vaclav

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Durability of Critical Infrastructure. Monitoring and Testing held in Satov, Czech Republic from 6 to 9 December 2016. It discusses the developments in the theoretical and practical aspects in the fields of Safety, Sustainability and Durability of the Critical Infrastructure. The contributions are dealing with monitoring and testing of structural and composite materials with a new methods for their using for protection and prevention of the selected objects.

  4. International Conference on Nano-electronics, Circuits & Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This volume comprises select papers from the International Conference on Nano-electronics, Circuits & Communication Systems(NCCS). The conference focused on the frontier issues and their applications in business, academia, industry, and other allied areas. This international conference aimed to bring together scientists, researchers, engineers from academia and industry. The book covers technological developments and current trends in key areas such as VLSI design, IC manufacturing, and applications such as communications, ICT, and hybrid electronics. The contents of this volume will prove useful to researchers, professionals, and students alike.

  5. 9th International Conference on Optimization : Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Song; Wu, Soon-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest research findings and state-of-the-art solutions on optimization techniques and provides new research direction and developments. Both the theoretical and practical aspects of the book will be much beneficial to experts and students in optimization and operation research community. It selects high quality papers from The International Conference on Optimization: Techniques and Applications (ICOTA2013). The conference is an official conference series of POP (The Pacific Optimization Research Activity Group; there are over 500 active members). These state-of-the-art works in this book authored by recognized experts will make contributions to the development of optimization with its applications.

  6. Mini-conference and Related Sessions on Laboratory Plasma Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantao Ji

    2004-02-27

    This paper provides a summary of some major physics issues and future perspectives discussed in the Mini-Conference on Laboratory Plasma Astrophysics. This Mini-conference, sponsored by the Topical Group on Plasma Astrophysics, was held as part of the American Physical Society's Division of Plasma Physics 2003 Annual Meeting (October 27-31, 2003). Also included are brief summaries of selected talks on the same topic presented at two invited paper sessions (including a tutorial) and two contributed focus oral sessions, which were organized in coordination with the Mini-Conference by the same organizers.

  7. Novel Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Device-Related Infections Using Fibrinolytic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, S; O'Gara, J P; O'Neill, E

    2018-02-01

    Staphylococcal infections involving biofilms represent a significant challenge in the treatment of patients with device-related infections. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms have been shown to be SaeRS regulated and dependent on the coagulase-catalyzed conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin on surfaces coated with human plasma. Here we investigated the treatment of staphylococcal biofilm device-related infections by digesting the fibrin biofilm matrix with and without existing antimicrobials. The fibrinolytic agents plasmin, streptokinase, and nattokinase, and TrypLE, a recombinant trypsin-like protease, were used to digest and treat S. aureus biofilms grown in vitro using in vivo-like static biofilm assays with and without antimicrobials. Cytotoxicity, the potential to induce a cytokine response in whole human blood, and the risk of induction of tolerance to fibrinolytic agents were investigated. A rat model of intravascular catheter infection was established to investigate the efficacy of selected fibrinolytic agents in vivo Under biomimetic conditions, the fibrinolytic agents effectively dispersed established S. aureus biofilms and, in combination with common antistaphylococcal antimicrobials, effectively killed bacterial cells being released from the biofilm. These fibrinolytic agents were not cytotoxic and did not affect the host immune response. The rat model of infection successfully demonstrated the activity of the selected fibrinolytic agents alone and in combination with antimicrobials on established biofilms in vivo TrypLE and nattokinase most successfully removed adherent cells from plasma-coated surfaces and significantly improved the efficacy of existing antimicrobials against S. aureus biofilms in vitro and in vivo These biofilm dispersal agents represent a viable future treatment option for S. aureus device-related infections. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Highlights from the Quark Matter 2012 conference: a theorist's perspective

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The series of Quark Matter conferences is traditionally the most important venue for showing new results in the field of ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. This year's edition was held in August in Washington DC and it attracted almost 700 participants. It featured the newest results from experiments at the LHC and at RHIC, as well as a broad range of new theoretical developments. This talk will provide - from a theorist's perspective - a selective review of results presented at this conference.

  9. Beyond conventional antibiotics for the future treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: two novel alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Devocelle, Marc; Humphreys, Hilary

    2012-08-01

    The majority of antibiotics currently used to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA) infections target bacterial cell wall synthesis or protein synthesis. Only daptomycin has a novel mode of action. Reliance on limited targets for MRSA chemotherapy, has contributed to antimicrobial resistance. Two alternative approaches to the treatment of S. aureus infection, particularly those caused by MRSA, that have alternative mechanisms of action and that address the challenge of antimicrobial resistance are cationic host defence peptides and agents that target S. aureus virulence. Cationic host defence peptides have multiple mechanisms of action and are less likely than conventional agents to select resistant mutants. They are amenable to modifications that improve their stability, effectiveness and selectivity. Some cationic defence peptides such as bactenecin, mucroporin and imcroporin have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against MRSA. Antipathogenic agents also have potential to limit the pathogenesis of S aureus. These are generally small molecules that inhibit virulence targets in S. aureus without killing the bacterium and therefore have limited capacity to promote resistance development. Potential antipathogenic targets include the sortase enzyme system, the accessory gene regulator (agr) and the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Inhibitors of these targets have been identified and these may have potential for further development. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Beyond conventional antibiotics for the future treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: two novel alternatives.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre

    2012-08-01

    The majority of antibiotics currently used to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA) infections target bacterial cell wall synthesis or protein synthesis. Only daptomycin has a novel mode of action. Reliance on limited targets for MRSA chemotherapy, has contributed to antimicrobial resistance. Two alternative approaches to the treatment of S. aureus infection, particularly those caused by MRSA, that have alternative mechanisms of action and that address the challenge of antimicrobial resistance are cationic host defence peptides and agents that target S. aureus virulence. Cationic host defence peptides have multiple mechanisms of action and are less likely than conventional agents to select resistant mutants. They are amenable to modifications that improve their stability, effectiveness and selectivity. Some cationic defence peptides such as bactenecin, mucroporin and imcroporin have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against MRSA. Antipathogenic agents also have potential to limit the pathogenesis of S aureus. These are generally small molecules that inhibit virulence targets in S. aureus without killing the bacterium and therefore have limited capacity to promote resistance development. Potential antipathogenic targets include the sortase enzyme system, the accessory gene regulator (agr) and the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Inhibitors of these targets have been identified and these may have potential for further development.

  11. Vaccine composition formulated with a novel TLR7-dependent adjuvant induces high and broad protection against Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, Fabio; Fontana, Maria Rita; Soldaini, Elisabetta; Mishra, Ravi P. N.; Fiaschi, Luigi; Cartocci, Elena; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Ruggiero, Paolo; Nosari, Sarah; De Falco, Maria Grazia; Lofano, Giuseppe; Marchi, Sara; Galletti, Bruno; Mariotti, Paolo; Bacconi, Marta; Torre, Antonina; Maccari, Silvia; Scarselli, Maria; Rinaudo, C. Daniela; Inoshima, Naoko; Savino, Silvana; Mori, Elena; Rossi-Paccani, Silvia; Baudner, Barbara; Pallaoro, Michele; Swennen, Erwin; Petracca, Roberto; Brettoni, Cecilia; Liberatori, Sabrina; Norais, Nathalie; Monaci, Elisabetta; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane; Schneewind, Olaf; O’Hagan, Derek T.; Valiante, Nicholas M.; Bensi, Giuliano; Bertholet, Sylvie; De Gregorio, Ennio; Rappuoli, Rino; Grandi, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Both active and passive immunization strategies against Staphylococcus aureus have thus far failed to show efficacy in humans. With the attempt to develop an effective S. aureus vaccine, we selected five conserved antigens known to have different roles in S. aureus pathogenesis. They include the secreted factors α-hemolysin (Hla), ess extracellular A (EsxA), and ess extracellular B (EsxB) and the two surface proteins ferric hydroxamate uptake D2 and conserved staphylococcal antigen 1A. The combined vaccine antigens formulated with aluminum hydroxide induced antibodies with opsonophagocytic and functional activities and provided consistent protection in four mouse models when challenged with a panel of epidemiologically relevant S. aureus strains. The importance of antibodies in protection was demonstrated by passive transfer experiments. Furthermore, when formulated with a toll-like receptor 7-dependent (TLR7) agonist recently designed and developed in our laboratories (SMIP.7–10) adsorbed to alum, the five antigens provided close to 100% protection against four different staphylococcal strains. The new formulation induced not only high antibody titers but also a Th1 skewed immune response as judged by antibody isotype and cytokine profiles. In addition, low frequencies of IL-17–secreting T cells were also observed. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the rational selection of mixtures of conserved antigens combined with Th1/Th17 adjuvants can lead to promising vaccine formulations against S. aureus. PMID:25775551

  12. Biocide Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus CC398 and CC30 Isolates from Pigs and Identification of the Biocide Resistance Genes, qacG and qacC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seier-Petersen, Maria Amalie; Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Ingmer, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    )-encoding virulence factors were investigated. Methods: Susceptibilities to biocides and antimicrobial agents of 79 porcine S. aureus isolates were determined by the microdilution method. Isolates comprised 21 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 40 MRSA isolates belonging to CC398 and 13 MSSA and 5 MRSA...... is for the first time described in this study. This finding is concerning as it ultimately may compromise disinfection with QACs and thereby contribute to the selection and spread of MRSA CC30....

  13. International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemle, Ludovic Dan; Jiang, Yiwen

    2014-03-01

    The International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2013) took place in Wuhan, P R China from 26-27 October 2013 at the Military Economics Academy. The conference is regularly organized, alternately in Romania and in P R China, by ''Politehnica'' University of Timişoara, Romania, and Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, P R China, with the aim to serve as a platform for the exchange of information between various areas of applied sciences, and to promote the communication between the scientists of different nations, countries and continents. The conference has been organized for the first time in 15-16 June 2012 at the Engineering Faculty of Hunedoara, Romania. The topics of the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues: Economical sciences Engineering sciences Fundamental sciences Medical sciences The conference gathered qualified researchers whose expertise can be used to develop new engineering knowledge that has applicability potential in economics, defense, medicine, etc. The number of registered participants was nearly 90 from 5 countries. During the two days of the conference 4 invited and 36 oral talks were delivered. A few of the speakers deserve a special mention: Mircea Octavian Popoviciu, Academy of Romanian Scientist — Timişoara Branch, Correlations between mechanical properties and cavitation erosion resistance for stainless steels with 12% chromium and variable contents of nickel; Carmen Eleonora Hărău, ''Politehnica'' University of Timişoara, SWOT analysis of Romania's integration in EU; Ding Hui, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, Design and engineering analysis of material procurement mobile operation platform; Serban Rosu, University of Medicine and Pharmacy ''Victor Babeş'' Timişoara, Cervical and facial infections — a real life threat, among others. Based on the work presented at the conference, 14 selected papers are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. These papers

  14. International science conference Geodesy, Cartography and Geographical Information Systems 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Sabová

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Selected articles from the IVth Scientific Conference with International Participation are introduced. The readers are arquaintedwith the latest selected contributions and results that were reached in geodesy on universities, in commercial sphere and in the publicarea as well. Results are presented from photogrammetry, cadastral mapping, processing of measurements, object deformations, fromgeographical information systems and from cartography

  15. DNA aptamers as a novel approach to neutralize Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekananda, Jeevalatha; Salgado, Christi; Millenbaugh, Nancy J

    2014-02-14

    Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen capable of causing a broad spectrum of diseases ranging from superficial skin infections to life threatening conditions such as endocarditis, septicemia, pneumonia and toxic shock syndrome. In vitro and in vivo studies identified an exotoxin, α-toxin, as a major cause of S. aureus toxicity. Because S. aureus has rapidly evolved resistance to a number of antibiotics, including methicillin, it is important to identify new therapeutic strategies, other than antibiotics, for inhibiting the harmful effects of this pathogen. Aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides with three-dimensional folded conformations that bind with high affinity and selectivity to targets and modulate their biological functions. The goal of this study was to isolate DNA aptamers that specifically inhibit the cytotoxic activity of α-toxin. After 10 rounds of Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential Enrichment (SELEX), 49 potential anti-α-toxin aptamers were identified. In vitro neutralization assays demonstrated that 4 of these 49 aptamers, AT-27, AT-33, AT-36, and AT-49, significantly inhibited α-toxin-mediated cell death in Jurkat T cells. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis revealed that α-toxin increased the transcription of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-17 and that anti-α-toxin aptamers AT-33 and AT-36 inhibited the upregulation of these genes. Collectively, the data suggest the feasibility of generating functionally effective aptamers against α-toxin for treatment of S. aureus infections. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. European ST80 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus orbital cellulitis in a neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsironi Evangelia E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in hospital environment, but also, lately, in the community. This case report is, to our knowledge, the first detailed description of a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST80 orbital cellulitis in a previously healthy neonate. Possible predisposing factors of microbial acquisition and treatment selection are also discussed. Case presentation A 28-day-old Caucasian boy was referred to our hospital with the diagnosis of right orbital cellulitis. His symptoms included right eye proptosis, periocular edema and redness. Empirical therapy of intravenous daptomycin, rifampin and ceftriaxone was initiated. The culture of pus yielded a methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolate and the molecular analysis revealed that it was a Panton-Valentine leukocidine-positive ST80 strain. The combination antimicrobial therapy was continued for 42days and the infection was successfully controlled. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware that young infants, even without any predisposing condition, are susceptible to orbital cellulitis caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Prompt initiation of the appropriate empirical therapy, according to the local epidemiology, should successfully address the infection, preventing ocular and systemic complications.

  17. Screening a repurposing library for potentiators of antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Driessche, Freija; Brackman, Gilles; Swimberghe, Rosalie; Rigole, Petra; Coenye, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus biofilms are involved in a wide range of infections that are extremely difficult to treat with conventional antibiotic therapy. We aimed to identify potentiators of antibiotics against mature biofilms of S. aureus Mu50, a methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-intermediate-resistant strain. Over 700 off-patent drugs from a repurposing library were screened in combination with vancomycin in a microtitre plate (MTP)-based biofilm model system. This led to the identification of 25 hit compounds, including four phenothiazines among which thioridazine was the most potent. Their activity was evaluated in combination with other antibiotics both against planktonic and biofilm-grown S. aureus cells. The most promising combinations were subsequently tested in an in vitro chronic wound biofilm infection model. Although no synergistic activity was observed against planktonic cells, thioridazine potentiated the activity of tobramycin, linezolid and flucloxacillin against S. aureus biofilm cells. However, this effect was only observed in a general biofilm model and not in a chronic wound model of biofilm infection. Several drug compounds were identified that potentiated the activity of vancomycin against biofilms formed in a MTP-based biofilm model. A selected hit compound lost its potentiating activity in a model that mimics specific aspects of wound biofilms. This study provides a platform for discovering and evaluating potentiators against bacterial biofilms and highlights the necessity of using relevant in vitro biofilm model systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  18. Guidelines for the control and prevention of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, J E; Duckworth, G J; Edwards, D I; Farrington, M; Fry, C; Humphreys, H; Mallaghan, C; Tucker, D R

    2006-05-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains endemic in many UK hospitals. Specific guidelines for control and prevention are justified because MRSA causes serious illness and results in significant additional healthcare costs. Guidelines were drafted by a multi-disciplinary group and these have been finalised following extensive consultation. The recommendations have been graded according to the strength of evidence. Surveillance of MRSA should be undertaken in a systematic way and should be fed back routinely to healthcare staff. The inappropriate or unnecessary use of antibiotics should be avoided, and this will also reduce the likelihood of the emergence and spread of strains with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides, i.e. vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus/glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus (VISA/GISA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA). Screening for MRSA carriage in selected patients and clinical areas should be performed according to locally agreed criteria based upon assessment of the risks and consequences of transmission and infection. Nasal and skin decolonization should be considered in certain categories of patients. The general principles of infection control should be adopted for patients with MRSA, including patient isolation and the appropriate cleaning and decontamination of clinical areas. Inadequate staffing, especially amongst nurses, contributes to the increased prevalence of MRSA. Laboratories should notify the relevant national authorities if VISA/GISA or VRSA isolates are identified.

  19. BACTERICIDAL EFFECTS OF VARIOUS IRRIGATION SOLUTIONS AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN HUMAN ROOT CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recai Zan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and to compare the antibacterial effects of various irrigation solutions against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus in human root canals. Materials and Methods: 120 single-root mandibular premolar teeth were selected. The teeth were prepared and sterilized. S. aureus was incubated in the root canals and kept at 37°C for 24h. The infected root canals were divided into one positive (saline and one negative (sodium hypochlorite control, and four experimental groups [Ethylene-diaminetetra-aceticacid, Chlorhexidine Gluconate, Super-oxidized water(SPO, Aqueous ozone] (n=20. Flow rate of irrigation was applied with 5 mL/min flow rate for 3 min to ensure standardization among all study groups. Following the irrigation, paper points were placed in the root canals and then transferred in sterile eppendorf. Remaining bacteria were counted on blood agar plates and the data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Although there were statistically significant differences among SPO and other experimental groups (p0.05. Conclusion: Super-oxidized water may be recommended as an alternative irrigation solution instead of NaOCl against S. aureus in root canals.

  20. Molecular Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Patients with Autosomal Dominant Hyper IgE Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka Sastalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome (AD-HIES is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3. This immune disorder is clinically characterized by increased susceptibility to cutaneous and sinopulmonary infections, in particular with Candida and Staphylococcus aureus. It has recently been recognized that the skin microbiome of patients with AD-HIES is altered with an overrepresentation of certain Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive staphylococci. However, these alterations have not been characterized at the species- and strain-level. Since S. aureus infections are influenced by strain-specific expression of virulence factors, information on colonizing strain characteristics may provide insights into host-pathogen interactions and help guide management strategies for treatment and prophylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the immunodeficiency of AD-HIES selects for unique strains of colonizing S. aureus. Using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, protein A (spa typing, and PCR-based detection of toxin genes, we performed a detailed analysis of the S. aureus isolates (n = 13 found on the skin of twenty-one patients with AD-HIES. We found a low diversity of sequence types, and an abundance of strains that expressed methicillin resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, and staphylococcal enterotoxins K and Q (SEK, SEQ. Our results indicate that patients with AD-HIES may often carry antibiotic-resistant strains that harbor key virulence factors.

  1. Energy Conferences and Symposia; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, J.H.; Simpson, W.F. Jr. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Energy Conferences and Symposia, a monthly publication, was instituted to keep scientists, engineers, managers, and related energy professionals abreast of meetings sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and by other technical associations. Announcements cover conference, symposia, workshops, congresses, and other formal meetings pertaining to DOE programmatic interests. Complete meeting information, including title, sponsor, and contact, is presented in the main section, which is arranged alphabetically by subject area. Within a subject, citations are sorted by beginning data of the meeting. New listings are indicated by a bullet after the conference number and DOE-sponsored conferences are indicated by a star. Two indexes are provided for cross referencing conference information. The Chronological Index lists conference titles by dates and gives the subject area where complete information they may be found. The Location Index is alphabetically sorted by the city where the conference will be held.

  2. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  3. Indico CONFERENCE tutorial

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Manzoni, Alex Marc

    2017-01-01

    This short tutorial explains how to create a CONFERENCE in indico and how to handle abstracts and registration forms, in detail: Timestamps: 1:01 - Programme  2:28 - Call for abstracts  11:50 - Abstract submission  13:41 - Abstract Review 15:41 - The Judge's Role 17:23 - Registration forms' creation 23:34 - Candidate participant's registration/application 25:54 - Customisation of Indico pages - Layout 28:08 - Customisation of Indico pages - Menus 29:47 - Configuring Event reminders and import into calendaring tools   See HERE a recent presentation by Pedro about the above steps in the life of an indico CONFERENCE event.

  4. Mississippi Climate & Hydrology Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawford, R.; Huang, J.

    2002-05-01

    The GEWEX Continental International Project (GCIP), which started in 1995 and completed in 2001, held its grand finale conference in New Orleans, LA in May 2002. Participants at this conference along with the scientists funded through the GCIP program are invited to contribute a paper to a special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR). This special JGR issue (called GCIP3) will serve as the final report on scientific research conducted by GCIP investigators. Papers are solicited on the following topical areas, but are not limited to, (1) water energy budget studies; (2) warm season precipitation; (3) predictability and prediction system; (4) coupled land-atmosphere models; (5) climate and water resources applications. The research areas cover observations, modeling, process studies and water resources applications.

  5. Metabolic Engineering VII Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Korpics

    2012-12-04

    The aims of this Metabolic Engineering conference are to provide a forum for academic and industrial researchers in the field; to bring together the different scientific disciplines that contribute to the design, analysis and optimization of metabolic pathways; and to explore the role of Metabolic Engineering in the areas of health and sustainability. Presentations, both written and oral, panel discussions, and workshops will focus on both applications and techniques used for pathway engineering. Various applications including bioenergy, industrial chemicals and materials, drug targets, health, agriculture, and nutrition will be discussed. Workshops focused on technology development for mathematical and experimental techniques important for metabolic engineering applications will be held for more in depth discussion. This 2008 meeting will celebrate our conference tradition of high quality and relevance to both industrial and academic participants, with topics ranging from the frontiers of fundamental science to the practical aspects of metabolic engineering.

  6. XIX Edoardo Amaldi Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Abousahl, Said; Plastino, Wolfango

    2016-01-01

    This book, comprising contributions presented at the XIX Edoardo Amaldi Conference, examines important aspects of international cooperation aimed at enhancing nuclear safety, security, safeguards (the “3S”), and non-proliferation, thereby assisting in the development and maintenance of the verification regime and progress toward a nuclear weapon-free world. The Conference served as a forum where eminent scientists, diplomats, and policymakers could compare national perspectives and update international collaborations. The book opens by addressing the political, institutional, and legal dimensions of the 3S and non-proliferation; current challenges are discussed and attempts made to identify possible solutions and future improvements. Subsequent sections consider scientific developments that can contribute to increased effectiveness in the implementation of international regimes, particularly in critical areas, technology foresight, and the ongoing evaluation of current capabilities. The closing sections d...

  7. UKSG Annual Conference 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Dutta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available UKSG offered four free places for students to attend the 2012 Conference, made possible with generous support from Elsevier, whose contribution is very much appreciated. Those eligible to apply were students enrolled on Library & Information and Publishing degree courses, and the successful applicants were (Ieft to right as photographed against the River Clyde: Stuart Lawson (University of Brighton, Jennifer Lovatt (Oxford Brookes University, Gopal Dutta (University of Sheffield and Lydia Lantzsch (Oxford Brookes University. The four have allowed us to take a peek at the diaries they kept during the conference. The extracts below give us a flavour of the event including the plenary and breakout sessions, the debates and the stamina of those who kept the dancing going!

  8. 2013 APPLEPIES Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a thorough overview of cutting-edge research on electronics applications relevant to industry, the environment, and society at large. A wide spectrum of application domains are covered, from automotive to space and from health to security, and special attention is devoted to the use of embedded devices and sensors for imaging, communication, and control. The book is based on the 2013 APPLEPIES Conference, held in Rome, which brought together researchers and stakeholders to consider the most significant current trends in the field of applied electronics and to debate visions for the future. Areas covered by the conference included information communication technology; biotechnology and biomedical imaging; space; secure, clean, and efficient energy; the environment; and smart, green, and integrated transport. As electronics technology continues to develop apace, constantly meeting previously unthinkable targets, further attention needs to be directed toward the electronics applications and th...

  9. 7th IAASS Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Rongier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The 7th IAASS Conference, “Space Safety is No Accident” is an invitation to reflect and exchange information on a number of topics in space safety and sustainability of national and international interest. The conference is also a forum to promote mutual understanding, trust and the widest possible international cooperation in such matters. The once exclusive “club” of nations with autonomous sub-orbital and orbital space access capabilities is becoming crowded with fresh and ambitious new entrants. New commercial spaceports are starting operations and others are being built. In the manned spaceflight arena a commercial market is becoming a tangible reality with suborbital spaceflights and government use of commercial services for cargo and crew transportation to orbit. Besides the national ambitions in space, the international cooperation both civil and commercial is also gaining momentum. In the meantime robotic space exploration will accelerate and with it the need to internationally better regulat...

  10. Selected papers

    CERN Document Server

    Tamm, I E; Frenkel, V Ya

    1991-01-01

    I.E. Tamm is one of the great figures of 20th-century physics and the mentor of the late A.D. Sakharov. Together with I.M. Frank, he received the Nobel Prize in 1958 for the explanation of the Cherenkov effect. This book contains an annotated selection of his most important contributions to physics literature and essays on his contemporaries - Mandelstam, Einstein, Landau and Bohr as well as his contributions to the Pugwash conferences. About a third of the selections originally appeared in Russian and are now available to Western readers. This volume includes a preface by Sir Rudolf Peierls, a biography compiled by Tamm's former students, V.Ya. Frenkel and B.M. Bolotovskii, and a complete bibliography. This monograph on quantum theory, science history, particles and fields and the Cherenkov effect is intended for students, researchers, mathematicians and natural scientists in general.

  11. Variable performance of models for predicting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in European surgical wards

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Andie S; Pan, Angelo; Harbarth, Stephan; Patroni, Andrea; Chalfine, Annie; Daikos, George L; Garilli, Silvia; Mart?nez, Jos? Antonio; Cooper, Ben S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Predictive models to identify unknown methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage on admission may optimise targeted MRSA screening and efficient use of resources. However, common approaches to model selection can result in overconfident estimates and poor predictive performance. We aimed to compare the performance of various models to predict previously unknown MRSA carriage on admission to surgical wards. METHODS: The study analysed data collected during a prospe...

  12. Frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in healthy children

    OpenAIRE

    Nikfar, Roya; Shamsizadeh, Ahmad; Ziaei Kajbaf, Tahereh; Kamali Panah, Mohammad; Khaghani, Soheila; Moghddam, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: The prevalence of community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is increasing around the world. It involves healthy people and causes a variety of diseases.Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted from September 2010 - June 2011 on children less than 14 years of Ahvaz, southwest Iran. The participants were selected with two staged cluster sampling. A sterile cotton nasal swab was used to collect the samples from the 86...

  13. 2004 Mutagenesis Gordon Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sue Jinks-Robertson

    2005-09-16

    Mutations are genetic alterations that drive biological evolution and cause many, if not all, human diseases. Mutation originates via two distinct mechanisms: ''vertical'' variation is de novo change of one or few bases, whereas ''horizontal'' variation occurs by genetic recombination, which creates new mosaics of pre-existing sequences. The Mutagenesis Conference has traditionally focused on the generation of mutagenic intermediates during normal DNA synthesis or in response to environmental insults, as well as the diverse repair mechanisms that prevent the fixation of such intermediates as permanent mutations. While the 2004 Conference will continue to focus on the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis, there will be increased emphasis on the biological consequences of mutations, both in terms of evolutionary processes and in terms of human disease. The meeting will open with two historical accounts of mutation research that recapitulate the intellectual framework of this field and thereby place the current research paradigms into perspective. The two introductory keynote lectures will be followed by sessions on: (1) mutagenic systems, (2) hypermutable sequences, (3) mechanisms of mutation, (4) mutation avoidance systems, (5) mutation in human hereditary and infectious diseases, (6) mutation rates in evolution and genotype-phenotype relationships, (7) ecology, mutagenesis and the modeling of evolution and (8) genetic diversity of the human population and models for human mutagenesis. The Conference will end with a synthesis of the meeting as the keynote closing lecture.

  14. Conference on Logical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Remmel, Jeffrey; Shore, Richard; Sweedler, Moss; Progress in Computer Science and Applied Logic

    1993-01-01

    The twenty-six papers in this volume reflect the wide and still expanding range of Anil Nerode's work. A conference on Logical Methods was held in honor of Nerode's sixtieth birthday (4 June 1992) at the Mathematical Sciences Institute, Cornell University, 1-3 June 1992. Some of the conference papers are here, but others are from students, co-workers and other colleagues. The intention of the conference was to look forward, and to see the directions currently being pursued, in the development of work by, or with, Nerode. Here is a brief summary of the contents of this book. We give a retrospective view of Nerode's work. A number of specific areas are readily discerned: recursive equivalence types, recursive algebra and model theory, the theory of Turing degrees and r.e. sets, polynomial-time computability and computer science. Nerode began with automata theory and has also taken a keen interest in the history of mathematics. All these areas are represented. The one area missing is Nerode's applied mathematica...

  15. Stilbenes reduce Staphylococcus aureus hemolysis, biofilm formation, and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayeon; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Ryu, Shi Yong; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2014-09-01

    Stilbenoids have a broad range of beneficial health effects. On the other hand, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus presents a worldwide problem that requires new antibiotics or nonantibiotic strategies. S. aureus produces α-hemolysin (a pore-forming cytotoxin) that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis and pneumonia. Furthermore, the biofilms formed by S. aureus constitute a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, we investigated the hemolytic and antibiofilm activities of 10 stilbene-related compounds against S. aureus. trans-Stilbene and resveratrol at 10 μg/mL were found to markedly inhibit human blood hemolysis by S. aureus, and trans-stilbene also inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation without affecting its bacterial growth. Furthermore, trans-stilbene and resveratrol attenuated S. aureus virulence in vivo in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is normally killed by S. aureus. Transcriptional analysis showed that trans-stilbene repressed the α-hemolysin hla gene and the intercellular adhesion locus (icaA and icaD) in S. aureus, and this finding was in line with observed reductions in virulence and biofilm formation. In addition, vitisin B, a stilbenoid tetramer, at 1 μg/mL was observed to significantly inhibit human blood hemolysis by S. aureus.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus shifts towards commensalism in response to Corynebacterium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Ramsey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus–human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence towards a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus Shifts toward Commensalism in Response to Corynebacterium Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Matthew M.; Freire, Marcelo O.; Gabrilska, Rebecca A.; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.; Lemon, Katherine P.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus–human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe–microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr) system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence toward a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species. PMID:27582729

  18. Changes in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus over the past decade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Toke Seierøe; Wibroe, Elisabeth Arnberg; Braüner, Julie Vestergaard

    2015-01-01

    susceptibility at Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, from 2004 to 2008. Due to a suspected rise in resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae after this period, updated data for these bacteria are shown for selected antibiotics until 2014. The department receives samples from...

  19. Exposure of Staphylococcus aureus to subinhibitory concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics induces heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Mélanie; Clair, Perrine; Renzoni, Adriana; Reverdy, Marie-Elisabeth; Dauwalder, Olivier; Bes, Michèle; Martra, Annie; Freydière, Anne-Marie; Laurent, Frédéric; Reix, Philippe; Dumitrescu, Oana; Vandenesch, François

    2014-09-01

    Glycopeptides are known to select for heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (h-VISA) from susceptible strains. In certain clinical situations, h-VISA strains have been isolated from patients without previous exposure to glycopeptides, such as cystic fibrosis patients, who frequently receive repeated treatments with beta-lactam antibiotics. Our objective was to determine whether prolonged exposure to beta-lactam antibiotics can induce h-VISA. We exposed 3 clinical vancomycin-susceptible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and vancomycin (as a control) at subinhibitory concentrations for 18 days in vitro. Population analyses showed progressive increases in vancomycin resistance; seven of the 12 derived strains obtained after induction were classified as h-VISA according to the following criteria: area under the curve (AUC) on day 18/AUC of Mu3 of ≥90% and/or growth on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar with 4 mg/liter vancomycin. The derived isolates had thickened cell walls proportional to the level of glycopeptide resistance. Genes known to be associated with glycopeptide resistance (vraSR, yvqF, SA1703, graRS, walKR, and rpoB) were PCR sequenced; no de novo mutations were observed upon beta-lactam exposure. To determine whether trfA, a gene encoding a glycopeptide resistance factor, was essential in the selection of h-VISA upon beta-lactam pressure, a trfA-knockout strain was generated by allelic replacement. Indeed, beta-lactam exposure of this mutated strain showed no capacity to induce vancomycin resistance. In conclusion, these results showed that beta-lactam antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations can induce intermediate vancomycin resistance in vitro. This induction required an intact trfA locus. Our results suggest that prior use of beta-lactam antibiotics can compromise vancomycin efficacy in the treatment of MRSA infections. Copyright © 2014, American Society for

  20. Prevalence, Virulence Genes, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Genetic Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus from Retail Aquatic Products in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfang Xu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important food-borne opportunistic pathogen that frequently causes severe blood and tissue infections or even fatal illnesses. Although S. aureus has been extensively studied in livestock and poultry foods in China, limited information has been reported in aquatic products. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to characterize S. aureus in aquatic products purchased from retail markets in China. In total, 320 aquatic food samples were collected from 32 provincial capitals in China. The results showed that 119 samples (37.2%, 119/320 were positive for S. aureus by both qualitative and quantitative analyses. The contamination levels of 78.2% of samples ranged from 0.3 to 10 MPN/g, and six samples exceeded 110 MPN/g. A total of 119 S. aureus isolates from positive samples were selected to evaluate virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, and molecular characteristics. All S. aureus isolates were evaluated for the presence of 11 virulence genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and α-hemolysin (hlα, 84.9%, fibronectin-binding protein A (fnbA, 79.0%, S. aureus enterotoxin E (see, 53.8%, and Panton-Valentine leucocidin (pvl, 50.4% were identified as the major genes. These genes formed 56 different profiles, with the major profile identified as pvl-hlα-fnbA (28.6%. The antimicrobial susceptibility of all isolates was analyzed through the disk diffusion method, and the results showed high resistance to β-lactams, macrolides and tetracyclines, but susceptibility to linezolid and vancomycin. In addition, 26 sequence types (STs were obtained via multilocus sequence typing, including seven novel STs, among which ST1 (20.2%, ST15 (18.5%, and ST188 (13.4% were the most common STs. All the isolates were mecC negative, but nine isolates carrying mecA were evaluated by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec typing, all of which were SCCmecIII or SCCmecIV types. Isolates of SCCmecIII showed a high prevalence and were

  1. Origin-of-transfer sequences facilitate mobilisation of non-conjugative antimicrobial-resistance plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Frances G.; Yui Eto, Karina; Murphy, Riley J. T.; Fairhurst, Heather M.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Grubb, Warren B.; Ramsay, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of hospital, community and livestock-associated infections and is increasingly resistant to multiple antimicrobials. A significant proportion of antimicrobial-resistance genes are plasmid-borne, but only a minority of S. aureus plasmids encode proteins required for conjugative transfer or Mob relaxase proteins required for mobilisation. The pWBG749 family of S. aureus conjugative plasmids can facilitate the horizontal transfer of diverse antimicrobial-resistance plasmids that lack Mob genes. Here we reveal that these mobilisable plasmids carry copies of the pWBG749 origin-of-transfer (oriT) sequence and that these oriT sequences facilitate mobilisation by pWBG749. Sequences resembling the pWBG749 oriT were identified on half of all sequenced S. aureus plasmids, including the most prevalent large antimicrobial-resistance/virulence-gene plasmids, pIB485, pMW2 and pUSA300HOUMR. oriT sequences formed five subfamilies with distinct inverted-repeat-2 (IR2) sequences. pWBG749-family plasmids encoding each IR2 were identified and pWBG749 mobilisation was found to be specific for plasmids carrying matching IR2 sequences. Specificity of mobilisation was conferred by a putative ribbon-helix-helix-protein gene smpO. Several plasmids carried 2–3 oriT variants and pWBG749-mediated recombination occurred between distinct oriT sites during mobilisation. These observations suggest this relaxase-in trans mechanism of mobilisation by pWBG749-family plasmids is a common mechanism of plasmid dissemination in S. aureus. PMID:26243776

  2. Heterologous protection against alpha toxins of Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus induced by binding domain recombinant chimeric protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppalapati, Siva R; Kingston, Joseph J; Murali, Harishchandra S; Batra, Harsh V

    2014-05-23

    Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus are the two important bacteria frequently associated with majority of the soft tissue infections. The severity and progression of the diseases caused by these pathogens are attributed primarily to the alpha toxins they produce. Previously, we synthesized a non-toxic chimeric molecule r-αCS encompassing the binding domains of C. perfringens and S. aureus alpha toxins and demonstrated that the r-αCS hyperimmune polysera reacts with both the native wild type toxins. In the present report, we evaluated efficacy of r-αCS in conferring protection against C. perfringens and S. aureus alpha toxin infections in murine model. Immunization of BALB/c with r-αCS was effective in inducing both high titers of serum anti-r-αCS antibodies after three administrations. Sub-typing the antibody pool revealed high proportions of IgG1 indicating a Th2-polarized immune response. The r-αCS stimulated the proliferation of splenocytes from the immunized mice upon re-induction by the antigen, in vitro. The levels of interleukin-10 increased while TNF-α was found to be downregulated in the r-αCS induced splenocytes. Mice immunized with r-αCS were protected against intramuscular challenge with 5×LD100 doses of C. perfringens and S. aureus alpha toxins with >80% survival, which killed control animals within 48-72h. Passive immunization of mice with anti-r-αCS serum resulted in 50-80% survival. Our results indicate that r-αCS is a remarkable antigen with protective efficacy against alpha toxin mediated C. perfringens and S. aureus soft tissue co-infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2003-11-19

    The main objective of the Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology was to present and discuss new, fundamental research findings on microorganisms, their activities in the environment, their ecosystem-level effects, and their environmental or commercial applications. To accomplish this goal, knowledge of microbial diversity, interactions and population dynamics was required. The genomic basis of microbial processes, the cycling of naturally occurring and hazardous substances, and methodologies to assess the functional relationships of microorganisms in their habitats were essential for understanding the ecological consequences of microbial activities and the formulation of generalizing principles. In the last decade, molecular technology has revealed that microbial diversity is far more extensive than the limited view obtained from culturing procedures. Great advances in environmental microbiology have resulted from the development and application of molecular approaches to ecology and molecular evolution. A further surprise resulting from the application of these new tools is the blurring of the distinction between pathogenic traits versus those considered non-pathogenic. This year's conference addressed the issues of biodiversity, its development, and the impact of stress on gene selection and expression. In addition microbial metabolic versatility with toxins such as heavy metals, antibiotics, and organic pollutants were discussed. The nine session topics were (1) biodiversity and the bacterial species, (2) mechanisms of biodiversification, (3) biofilms in health and environment, (4) a genomic view of microbial response to stress, (5) microbial use of toxic metals, (6) microbial mineral formation and dissolution, (7) power and limitations of antimicrobials, (8) biodegradation of organic pollutants, and (9) astrobiology. The Conference had an international profile: the Conference Vice-Chair, Dr. Gerard Muyzer, was from The Nether

  4. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Stefania; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lindsay, Jodi A

    2012-01-01

    decisions with regard to harmonisation of typing methods. A stratified, three-level organisation of testing laboratories was proposed: local; regional; and national. The functions of, and testing methodology used by, each laboratory were defined. The group consensus was to recommend spa and staphylococcal......This article reviews recent findings on the global epidemiology of healthcare-acquired/associated (HA), community-acquired/associated (CA) and livestock-associated (LA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and aims to reach a consensus regarding the harmonisation of typing methods...... health. Continuous efforts to understand the changing epidemiology of S. aureus infection in humans and animals are therefore necessary, not only for appropriate antimicrobial treatment and effective infection control but also to monitor the evolution of the species. The group made several consensus...

  5. PREFACE: Wake Conference 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Andrew; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Ivanell, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The 44 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the 2015 Wake Conference, held in Visby on the island of Gotland in Sweden. It is the fourth time this conference has been held. The Wake Conference series started in Visby, where it was held in 2009 and 2011. In 2013 it took place in Copenhagen where it was combined with the International Conference on Offshore Wind Energy and Ocean Energy. In 2015 it is back where it started in Visby, where it takes place at Uppsala University Campus Gotland, June 9th-11th. The global yearly production of electrical energy by wind turbines has grown tremendously in the past decade and it now comprises more than 3% of the global electrical power consumption. Today the wind power industry has a global annual turnover of more than 50 billion USD and an annual average growth rate of more than 20%. State-of-the-art wind turbines have rotor diameters of up to 150 m and 8 MW installed capacity. These turbines are often placed in large wind farms that have a total production capacity corresponding to that of a nuclear power plant. In order to make a substantial impact on one of the most significant challenges of our time, global warming, the industry's growth has to continue for a decade or two yet. This in turn requires research into the physics of wind turbine wakes and wind farms. Modern wind turbines are today clustered in wind farms in which the turbines are fully or partially influenced by the wake of upstream turbines. As a consequence, the wake behind the wind turbines has a lower mean wind speed and an increased turbulence level, as compared to the undisturbed flow outside the farm. Hence, wake interaction results in decreased total production of power, caused by lower kinetic energy in the wind, and an increase in the turbulence intensity. Therefore, understanding the physical nature of the vortices and their dynamics in the wake of a turbine is important for the optimal design of a wind farm. This conference is aimed

  6. Mechanisms of Gentamicin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Three clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to gentamicin and other aminoglycosides have been examined for antibiotic modifying enzymes. The strains contain a number of these enzymes, most of them similar to those commonly found in aminoglycoside-resistant gram-negative strains. All three strains (and a transductant derived from one of them) contain two enzymes mediating gentamicin resistance, an aminoglycoside 6′-N-acetyltransferase and a novel enzyme, gentamicin phosphotransferase. PMID:836013

  7. [Staphylococcus aureus in bulk milk samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, P; Vyletĕlová, M

    1995-07-01

    In the years 1993-1994 the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in bulk milk samples in the area where a Baby Food Factory at Zábreh in Moravia is located, and in Bruntál, Zlín and Policka districts. Evaluation of the results was based on ECC Directive 92/46, while the dynamics of S. aureus presence was followed for the whole period of observation as well as in the particular seasons. A total of 4,485 samples was processed. Out of these, 50.7% contained less than 100 CFU/ml of S. aureus, 41.4% contained 100-500 CFU/ml, 6.73% 500-2,000 CFU/ml and 1.14% contained more than 2,000 CFU/ml (Fig. 1). The samples were divided into three categories: private new-established farms, cooperative and State-owned enterprises in the area of the Zábĕh Factory and others (Zlín, Bruntál and Policka districts). There were highly significant differences in the content of staphylococci (P = 0.01%) between the three categories of samples. Ninety-eight percent of samples from private farms, 96% samples from the Zábreh Factory area and 85% of the other samples comply with the regulation EEC 92/64 (Tab. I) for raw cow's milk for the manufacture of products "made with raw milk" whose manufacturing process does not involve any heat treatment (Fig. 2). The occurrence of S. aureus in the Zábreh Factory area shows an expressive seasonal dynamics (P = 0.005%) with maximum values in winter months (December-March) and minimum values in summer months (July-October)-Fig. 3. The same relationship can be seen on more extensive data files for the particular producers (Fig. 4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. A new real-time PCR assay for rapid identification of the S. aureus/MRSA strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Manga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA with the livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA are of great interest to scientists and general public. The aim of our study was to present a new more rapid and reliable diagnostic method working on the RT-PCR platform applicable for monitoring of MRSA/S. aureus. The parallel testing of the S. aureus specific nuc gene sequence and the mecA gene sequence was utilised for this purpose. A collection of ten S. aureus/MRSA reference strains, fifteen genetically related non S. aureus reference strains and fifty-six environmental samples was employed for estimation of the assay performance and parameters. The environmental samples acquired in the Czech livestock farms were represented with the livestock and human nasal mucosae or skin swabs, the slaughter meat swabs and were chosen preferentially from individuals with previously confi rmed or suspected positive MRSA/S. aureus cases. The classic selective cultivation approach with the biochemical test and agar disk diffusion test was accepted as reference diagnostic method. As there were no culture positive samples that were negative using RT-PCR, our method featured with 100% sensitivity in comparison to reference method. The limit of detection allowed to identify from tens to hundreds copies of S. aureus/MRSA genome. Further, the RT-PCR assay featured with 100% inclusivity and 95% exclusivity at Cq value below 30. These parameters suggested on powerful and reliable diagnostic method with real potential of practical utilisation. We consider our method as ideal for testing of individual suspected colonies, when the results can be acquired in less than 1.5 hour.

  9. Staphylococcus epidermidis Esp degrades specific proteins associated with Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and host-pathogen interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Iwamoto, Takeo; Takada, Koji; Okuda, Ken-Ichi; Tajima, Akiko; Iwase, Tadayuki; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2013-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus exhibits a strong capacity to attach to abiotic or biotic surfaces and form biofilms, which lead to chronic infections. We have recently shown that Esp, a serine protease secreted by commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis, disassembles preformed biofilms of S. aureus and inhibits its colonization. Esp was expected to degrade protein determinants of the adhesive and cohesive strength of S. aureus biofilms. The aim of this study was to elucidate the substrate specificity and target proteins of Esp and thereby determine the mechanism by which Esp disassembles S. aureus biofilms. We used a mutant Esp protein (Esp(S235A)) with defective proteolytic activity; this protein did not disassemble the biofilm formed by a clinically isolated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain, thereby indicating that the proteolytic activity of Esp is essential for biofilm disassembly. Esp degraded specific proteins in the biofilm matrix and cell wall fractions, in contrast to proteinase K, which is frequently used for testing biofilm robustness and showed no preference for proteolysis. Proteomic and immunological analyses showed that Esp degrades at least 75 proteins, including 11 biofilm formation- and colonization-associated proteins, such as the extracellular adherence protein, the extracellular matrix protein-binding protein, fibronectin-binding protein A, and protein A. In addition, Esp selectively degraded several human receptor proteins of S. aureus (e.g., fibronectin, fibrinogen, and vitronectin) that are involved in its colonization or infection. These results suggest that Esp inhibits S. aureus colonization and biofilm formation by degrading specific proteins that are crucial for biofilm construction and host-pathogen interaction.

  10. Mupirocin resistance in nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among healthcare workers of a tertiary care rural hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Dardi Charan; Narayan, Pandey Aastha

    2014-11-01

    Mupirocin (pseudomonic acid A) is a topical antimicrobial agent with excellent antistaphylococcal and antistreptococcal activity. A nasal formulation is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for eradicating nasal carriage in adult patients as well as in health care personnel. Resistance to mupirocin has already been reported worldwide. The increasing prevalence of mupirocin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) species could be an important threat to the future use of mupirocin against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Thus, this study was carried out to find the prevalence of mupirocin resistance in S. aureus and CoNS by disc diffusion and to determine the rates of high-level and low-level mupirocin resistance in S. aureus and CoNS by disc diffusion. A total of 140 healthcare workers (HCWs) (doctor, nursing staff, housekeeping staff) were randomly selected. S. aureus and CoNS isolates were tested for mupirocin resistance by the disk diffusion method using 5 μg and 200 μg mupirocin discs. MRSA isolates were tested for antibiotics by Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Out of 140 nasal swabs collected from HCWs, S. aureus was isolated in 38 (27.14%), and CoNS was isolated in 73 (52.14%). MRSA was isolated in 20 (14.28%) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCoNS) in 34 (24.29%. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and MSCoNS isolates were 100% sensitive to mupirocin, but two isolates from MRSA (1.43%) and five from MRCoNS (3.57%) were mupirocin resistant. The presence of mupirocin resistance in MRSA and MRCoNS is a cause for concern. It could be limited by regular surveillance and effective infection control initiatives so to inform health care facilities to guide therapeutic and prophylactic use of mupirocin.

  11. Conference Report: The First ATLAS.ti User Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine C. Evers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report on the First ATLAS.ti User Conference shares our impressions and experiences as longstanding ATLAS.ti users and trainers about the First ATLAS.ti User Conference in Berlin 2013. The origins, conceptual principles and development of the program are outlined, the conference themes discussed and experiences shared. Finally, the future of the program is discussed. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1401197

  12. Conference Report: 5th Annual Georgia Conference on Information Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Ziegler; Mark Lewis Richardson

    2009-01-01

    The 5th annual Georgia Conference on Information Literacy took place in Savannah, Georgia on October 3-4, 2008. Since its inception, this conference has drawn participants from across the United States and even a few from abroad. Jointly sponsored by the Zach S. Henderson Library, the Department of Writing and Linguistics, the College of Education, and the Center for Continuing Education at Georgia Southern University, the conference offers both theoretical and practical discussions of the c...

  13. 1st National Conference on Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    D’Amico, Arnaldo; Natale, Corrado; Siciliano, Pietro; Seeber, Renato; Stefano, Luca; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Andò, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers presented at the First National Conference on Sensors held in Rome 15-17 February 2011. The conference highlighted state-of-the-art results from both theoretical and applied research in the field of sensors and related technologies. This book presents material in an interdisciplinary approach, covering many aspects of the disciplines related to sensors, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications.   ·         Provides a selection of the best papers from the First Italian National Conference on Sensors; ·         Covers a broad range of topics relating to sensors and microsystems, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications;       ·        Offers interdisciplinary coverage, aimed at defining a common ground for sensors beyond the specific differences among the different particular implementation of sensors.

  14. [Change in drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Liu, Yan; Luo, Yan-Ping; Liu, Chang-Ting

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the change in drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (SAU) in the PLA general hospital from January 2008 to December 2012, and to provide solid evidence to support the rational use of antibiotics for clinical applications. The SAU strains isolated from clinical samples in the hospital were collected and subjected to the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. The results were assessed based on the 2002 American National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines. SAU strains were mainly isolated from sputum, urine, blood and wound excreta and distributed in penology, neurology wards, orthopedics and surgery ICU wards. Except for glycopeptide drugs, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) had a higher drug resistance rate than those of the other drugs and had significantly more resistance than methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (P resistance, we discovered a gradual increase in drug resistance to fourteen test drugs during the last five years. Drug resistance rate of SAU stayed at a higher level over the last five years; moreover, the detection ratio of MRSA keeps rising year by year. It is crucial for physicians to use antibiotics rationally and monitor the change in drug resistance in a dynamic way.

  15. Immunopathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus pulmonary infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dane; Prince, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common human pathogen highly evolved as both a component of the commensal flora and as a major cause of invasive infection. Severe respiratory infection due to staphylococci has been increasing due to the prevalence of more virulent USA300 CA-MRSA strains in the general population. The ability of S. aureus to adapt to the milieu of the respiratory tract has facilitated its emergence as a respiratory pathogen. Its metabolic versatility, the ability to scavenge iron, coordinate gene expression, and the horizontal acquisition of useful genetic elements have all contributed to its success as a component of the respiratory flora, in hospitalized patients, as a complication of influenza and in normal hosts. The expression of surface adhesins facilitates its persistence in the airways. In addition, the highly sophisticated interactions of the multiple S. aureus virulence factors, particularly the α-hemolysin and protein A, with diverse immune effectors in the lung such as ADAM10, TNFR1, EGFR, immunoglobulin, and complement all contribute to the pathogenesis of staphylococcal pneumonia. PMID:22037948

  16. Comparison of the BBL CHROMagar Staph aureus agar medium to conventional media for detection of Staphylococcus aureus in respiratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayhart, Diane; Lema, Clara; Borek, Anita; Carroll, Karen C

    2004-08-01

    Screening for Staphylococcus aureus has become routine in certain patient populations. This study is the first clinical evaluation of the BBL CHROMagar Staph aureus agar (CSA) medium (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, Md.) for detection of S. aureus in nasal surveillance cultures and in respiratory samples from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. S. aureus colonies appear mauve on CSA. Other organisms are inhibited or produce a distinctly different colony color. S. aureus was identified from all media by slide coagulase, exogenous DNase, and mannitol fermentation assays. Susceptibility testing was performed using the agar dilution method. A total of 679 samples were evaluated. All samples were inoculated onto CSA. Nasal surveillance cultures were inoculated onto sheep blood agar (SBA) (BD Diagnostics), and samples from CF patients were inoculated onto mannitol salt agar (MSA) (BD Diagnostics). Of the 679 samples cultured, 200 organisms produced a mauve color on CSA (suspicious for S. aureus) and 180 were positive for S. aureus on SBA or MSA. Of 200 CSA-positive samples 191 were identified as S. aureus. Nine mauve colonies were slide coagulase negative and were subsequently identified as Staphylococcus lugdunensis (one), Staphylococcus epidermidis (three), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (one), and Corynebacterium species (four). CSA improved the ability to detect S. aureus by recovering 12 S. aureus isolates missed by conventional media. Of the 192 S. aureus isolates recovered, 122 were methicillin susceptible and 70 were methicillin resistant. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of CSA in this study were 99.5 and 98%, respectively. There was no difference in the performance of the slide coagulase test or in susceptibility testing performed on S. aureus recovered from CSA compared to SBA or MSA. Our data support the use of CSA in place of standard culture media for detection of S. aureus in heavily contaminated respiratory samples.

  17. International conference on past, present and future climate. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikinheimo, P. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    This publications contains the proceedings of the International Conference on Past, Present and Future Climate, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 22-25 August 1995. Conference was organized to serve at least two purposes. First, it was the fourth meeting in a series of Nordic climate conferences. Earlier Nordic meetings had been held in Copenhagen (1978), Stockholm (1983) and Tromsoe (1990). Secondly, the conference formed part of the integration activities of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU). Four central themes were selected for the conference: (1) climatic changes since the last glaciation inferred from proxy data,(2) detection of climate change from the instrumental record,(3) changes in atmospheric composition, (4) predicting future climate. The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change was in its sixth and final year at the time of the conference. One of the aims of the meeting was to foster the communication of SlLMU`s results to the scientific community at large. On the other hand, feedback from overseas colleagues was expected to be beneficial for the final reporting of the results of the research programme. Altogether 117 scientific contributions were submitted and more than 140 scientists attended the conference

  18. A putative cro-like repressor contributes to arylomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craney, Arryn; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a significant public health concern and motivate efforts to develop new classes of antibiotics. One such class of antibiotics is the arylomycins, which target type I signal peptidase (SPase), the enzyme responsible for the release of secreted proteins from their N-terminal leader sequences. Despite the essentiality, conservation, and relative accessibility of SPase, the activity of the arylomycins is limited against some bacteria, including the important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. To understand the origins of the limited activity against S. aureus, we characterized the susceptibility of a panel of strains to two arylomycin derivatives, arylomycin A-C16 and its more potent analog arylomycin M131. We observed a wide range of susceptibilities to the two arylomycins and found that resistant strains were sensitized by cotreatment with tunicamycin, which inhibits the first step of wall teichoic acid synthesis. To further understand how S. aureus responds to the arylomycins, we profiled the transcriptional response of S. aureus NCTC 8325 to growth-inhibitory concentrations of arylomycin M131 and found that it upregulates the cell wall stress stimulon (CWSS) and an operon consisting of a putative transcriptional regulator and three hypothetical proteins. Interestingly, we found that mutations in the putative transcriptional regulator are correlated with resistance, and selection for resistance ex vivo demonstrated that mutations in this gene are sufficient for resistance. The results begin to elucidate how S. aureus copes with secretion stress and how it evolves resistance to the inhibition of SPase. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Effect of water activity and heating rate on Staphylococcus aureus heat resistance in walnut shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihui; Kou, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Shuang; Cheng, Teng; Wang, Shaojin

    2018-02-02

    Water activity (a w ) and heating rate have shown important effects on the thermo-tolerance of pathogens in low moisture foods during thermal treatments. In this study, three strains were selected to compare the heat resistance in walnut shell powder and finally the most heat resistant S. aureus ATCC 25923 was chosen to investigate the influence of a w and heating rate using a heating block system (HBS). The results showed that S. aureus ATCC 25923 became more thermo-tolerant at lower a w . The D-values of S. aureus ATCC 25923 increased with decreasing water activity and heating rates (<1°C/min). A significant increase in heat resistance of S. aureus ATCC 25923 in walnut shell powder was observed only for the heating rates of 0.2 and 0.5°C/min but not at 1, 5 and 10°C/min. There was a rapid reduction of S. aureus ATCC 25923 at elevated temperatures from 26 to 56°C at a heating rate of 0.1°C/min. The inactivation under non-isothermal conditions was better fitted by Weibull distribution (R 2 =0.97 to 0.99) than first-order kinetics (R 2 =0.88 to 0.98). These results suggest that an appropriate increase in moisture content of in-shell walnuts and heating rate during thermal process can improve the inactivation efficiency of pathogens in low moisture foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus infection by aptamers directly radiolabeled with technetium-99m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Sara Roberta; Rodrigues Corrêa, Cristiane; Branco de Barros, André Luís; Serakides, Rogéria; Fernandes, Simone Odília; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro

    2015-03-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that have high affinity and specificity for their molecular targets which are emerging as a new class of molecules for radiopharmaceuticals development. In this study, aptamers selected to Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated for bacterial infection identification. Anti S. aureus aptamers were labeled with (99m)Tc by the direct method. The radiolabel yield and complex stability were assessed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Three groups of Swiss mice containing 6 animals each were used. The first group was infected intramuscularly in the right thigh with S. aureus. The second group was infected in the same way with C. albicans and the third group was injected with zymosan to induce aseptic inflammation. After 24 h, radiolabeled aptamers (22.2 MBq) were injected by the tail vein. The mice were euthanized 4 h post injection and tissue sample activities measured in a gamma counter. The (99m)Tc labeled aptamers were stable in saline, plasma and cystein excess. Radiolabeled aptamers showed increased uptake in the kidneys for all groups indicating a main renal excretion, which is consistent with the hydrophilic nature and small size of aptamers. The radiopharmaceutical showed rapid blood clearance indicated by a reduced dose (% ID/g) in the blood. The biodistribution showed that aptamers were able to identify the infection foci caused by S. aureus displaying a target/non-target ratio of 4.0±0.5. This ratio for mice infected with C. albicans was 2.0±0.4 while for mice with aseptic inflammation was 1.2±0.2. Histology confirmed the presence of infection in groups 1 and 2, and inflammation in group 3. The biodistibution study demonstrated a statistically higher uptake in the S. aureus foci relative to inflammation and C. albicans infected areas. These results highlight the potential of aptamers labeled directly with (99m)Tc for bacterial infection diagnosis by scintigraphy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus complex from animals and humans in three remote African regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumburg, Frieder; Pauly, Maude; Anoh, Etile; Mossoun, Arsene; Wiersma, Lidewij; Schubert, Grit; Flammen, Arnaud; Alabi, Abraham S; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Grobusch, Martin P; Karhemere, Stomy; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Kremsner, Peter G; Mellmann, Alexander; Becker, Karsten; Leendertz, Fabian H; Peters, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Staphylococcus schweitzeri has been recently considered to be a highly divergent Staphylococcus aureus clade and usually colonises nonhuman primates and bats in sub-Saharan Africa. Its transmissibility to humans remains unclear. We therefore investigated the transmission of S. aureus and S. schweitzeri among humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in three remote African regions. A cross-sectional study on nasal and pharyngeal colonisation in humans (n = 1288) and animals (n = 698) was performed in Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, and Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). Isolates were subjected to spa typing and multilocus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility and selected virulence factors were tested. S. schweitzeri was found in monkeys from all study sites but no transmission to humans was evident, despite frequent contact of humans with wildlife. In contrast, human-associated S. aureus sequence types (ST1, ST6, ST15) were detected in domestic animals and nonhuman primates, pointing toward a human-to-monkey transmission in the wild. The proportion of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among all S. aureus was 0% (Gabon), 1.7% (DR Congo), and 5.3% (Côte d'Ivoire). The majority of MRSA isolates belonged to the African clone ST88. In conclusion, we did not find any evidence for a transmission of S. schweitzeri from animals to humans. However, such a transmission might remain possible due to the close phylogenetic relation of humans and nonhuman primates. The ST88-MRSA clone was widespread in Côte d'Ivoire but not in Gabon and DR Congo. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. α-Hemolysin activity of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus predicts ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulik, Lukas; Malafa, Stefan; Hudcova, Jana; Rouha, Harald; Henics, Bence Z; Craven, Donald E; Sonnevend, Agnes M; Nagy, Eszter

    2014-11-15

    Colonization of lower airways by Staphylococcus aureus is a risk factor for the development of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). However, little is known about the virulence factors of methicillin-sensitive and -resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA) that may influence host colonization and progression to VAT and VAP. We evaluated MRSA and MSSA endotracheal aspirates (ETA) for genotype and α-hemolysin activity in relation to the development of VAT and VAP. Serial S. aureus ETA isolates from ventilated patients were analyzed for methicillin resistance, molecular type by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing and spa-typing, and α-hemolysin activity by semiquantitative analysis of hemolysis on sheep blood agar and quantitative measurement of cytolysis of human lung epithelial cells. The virulence of selected strains was assessed in mice by intranasal challenge. We detected S. aureus from ETA samples in a quarter of the 231 ventilated patients analyzed; one-third of them developed VAP. VAP patients (n = 15) were mainly infected by MSSA strains (87%), whereas colonized individuals (n = 18) not progressing to disease mainly carried MRSA strains (68%). MSSA isolates from colonized or VAT patients exhibited significantly lower α-hemolysin activity than those from VAP cases; however, no such relationship was found with MRSA strains. α-Hemolysin activity of S. aureus isolates was predictive for virulence in mouse pneumonia model. MSSA strains with strong blood agar hemolysis and high α-hemolysin activity are markers for VAP, but not VAT, and might be considered in differential diagnosis and initiation of therapy.

  3. Magnetic nanoparticle targeted hyperthermia of cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ho; Yamayoshi, Itsukyo; Mathew, Steven; Liln, Hubert; Nayfach, Joseph; Simon, Scott I.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of wound infections that do not adequately respond to standard-of-care antimicrobial treatment has been increasing. To address this challenge, a novel antimicrobial magnetic thermotherapy platform has been developed in which a high-amplitude, high-frequency, alternating magnetic field (AMF) is used to rapidly heat magnetic nanoparticles that are bound to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The antimicrobial efficacy of this platform was evaluated in the treatment of both an in vitro culture model of S. aureus biofilm and a mouse model of cutaneous S. aureus infection. We demonstrated that an antibody-targeted magnetic nanoparticle bound to S. aureus was effective at thermally inactivating S. aureus and achieving accelerated wound healing without causing tissue injury. PMID:23149904

  4. 7th IEEE International Conference Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Atanassov, KT; Doukovska, L; Hadjiski, M; Jotsov, V; Kacprzyk, J; Kasabov, N; Sotirov, S; Szmidt, E; Zadrożny, S; Filev, D; Jabłkowski, J; Kacprzyk, J; Krawczak, M; Popchev, I; Rutkowski, L; Sgurev, V; Sotirova, E; Szynkarczyk, P

    2015-01-01

    This two volume set of books constitutes the proceedings of the 2014  7th IEEE International Conference Intelligent Systems (IS), or IEEE IS’2014 for short, held on September 24‐26, 2014 in Warsaw, Poland. Moreover, it contains some selected papers from the collocated IWIFSGN'2014-Thirteenth International Workshop on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Generalized Nets.The conference was organized by the Systems Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department IV of Engineering Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, and Industrial Institute of Automation and Measurements - PIAP.The papers included in the two proceedings volumes have been subject to a thorough review process by three highly qualified peer reviewers.Comments and suggestions from them have considerable helped improve the quality of the papers but also the division of the volumes into parts, and assignment of the papers to the best suited parts.  

  5. 10th International Conference on Vibration Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Horáček, Jaromír; Okrouhlík, Miloslav; Marvalová, Bohdana; Verhulst, Ferdinand; Sawicki, Jerzy; Vibration Problems ICOVP 2011

    2011-01-01

    This volume presents the Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Vibration Problems, September 5-8, 2011, Prague, Czech Republic. Since they started in 1990 the ICOVP conferences have matured into a reference platform reflecting the state-of-the-art of dynamics in the broadest sense, bringing together scientists from different backgrounds who are actively working on vibration-related problems in theoretical, experimental and applied dynamics, thus facilitating a lively exchange of ideas, methods and results. Dynamics as a scientific discipline draws inspiration from a large variety of engineering areas, such as Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Aero and Space Technology, Wind and Earthquake Engineering and Transport and Building Machinery. Moreover, the basic research in dynamics nowadays includes many fields of theoretical physics and various interdisciplinary subject areas. ICOVP 2011 covers all branches of dynamics and offers the most up-to-date results and developments in a high-quality select...

  6. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics discussed in Volume 4 include site characterization and remediation projects, environmental monitoring and modeling; disposal site selection and facility design, risk assessment, safety and health issues, and site remediation technology.

  7. 1st Applied Electromagnetic International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Mohd; Aziz, Mohamad; Malek, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    In this book, experts from academia and industry present the latest advances in scientific theory relating to applied electromagnetics and examine current and emerging applications particularly within the fields of electronics, communications, and computer technology. The book is based on presentations delivered at APPEIC 2014, the 1st Applied Electromagnetic International Conference, held in Bandung, Indonesia in December 2014. The conference provided an ideal platform for researchers and specialists to deliver both theoretically and practically oriented contributions on a wide range of topics relevant to the theme of nurturing applied electromagnetics for human technology. Many novel aspects were addressed, and the contributions selected for this book highlight the relevance of advances in applied electromagnetics to a variety of industrial engineering problems and identify exciting future directions for research.

  8. Modeling and Optimization : Theory and Applications Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Terlaky, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of contributions that were presented at the Modeling and Optimization: Theory and Applications Conference (MOPTA) held at Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA on August 17-19, 2016. The conference brought together a diverse group of researchers and practitioners, working on both theoretical and practical aspects of continuous or discrete optimization. Topics presented included algorithms for solving convex, network, mixed-integer, nonlinear, and global optimization problems, and addressed the application of deterministic and stochastic optimization techniques in energy, finance, logistics, analytics, health, and other important fields. The contributions contained in this volume represent a sample of these topics and applications and illustrate the broad diversity of ideas discussed at the meeting.

  9. 2nd International Conference on Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Marsico, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the 2nd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPRAM 2013), held in Barcelona, Spain, from 15 to 18 February, 2013. ICPRAM was organized by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication (INSTICC) and was held in cooperation with the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI). The hallmark of this conference was to encourage theory and practice to meet in a single venue. The focus of the book is on contributions describing applications of Pattern Recognition techniques to real-world problems, interdisciplinary research, experimental and/or theoretical studies yielding new insights that advance Pattern Recognition methods.

  10. 3rd International Conference of Serviceology

    CERN Document Server

    Spohrer, James; Kwan, Stephen; Takenaka, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Services are key activities in a globalized economy and they also underlie the quality of life of local residents. The advanced work presented in this book was selected from the proceedings of the Third International Conference on Serviceology (ICServ2015), held July 7–9, 2015, in San Jose, CA, USA. The conference was supported by the Society for Serviceology. The society was established in 2012 in Japan to explore the scientific systematization of services and to promote technological developments for solutions to industrial issues. This book provides a useful general guide to the state of the art in the theory and practice of services. It can also serve as a valuable reference book for researchers in a wide range of fields from engineering to marketing and economics.

  11. 6th International Conference on ICT Innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Gjorgjevikj, Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Data is a common ground, a starting point for each ICT system. Data needs processing, use of different technologies and state-of-the-art methods in order to obtain new knowledge, to develop new useful applications that not only ease, but also increase the quality of life. These applications use the exploration of Big Data, High throughput data, Data Warehouse, Data Mining, Bioinformatics, Robotics, with data coming from social media, sensors, scientific applications, surveillance, video and image archives, internet texts and documents, internet search indexing, medical records, business transactions, web logs, etc. Information and communication technologies have become the asset in everyday life enabling increased level of communication, processing and information exchange. This book offers a collection of selected papers presented at the Sixth International Conference on ICT Innovations held in September 2014, in Ohrid, Macedonia, with main topic World of data. The conference gathered academics, professional...

  12. Sixth International Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Minai, Ali; Bar-Yam, Yaneer; Unifying Themes in Complex Systems

    2008-01-01

    The International Conference on Complex Systems (ICCS) creates a unique atmosphere for scientists of all fields, engineers, physicians, executives, and a host of other professionals to explore the common themes and applications of complex systems science. In June 2006, 500 participants convened in Boston for the sixth ICCS, exploring an array of topics, including networks, systems biology, evolution and ecology, nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation, as well as neural, psychological, psycho-social, socio-economic, and global systems. This volume selects 77 papers from over 300 presented at the conference. With this new volume, Unifying Themes in Complex Systems continues to build common ground between the wide-ranging domains of complex systems science.

  13. International Conference on Environment Science (ICES 2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Advances in Computational Environment Science

    2012-01-01

    2012 International Conference on Environment Science and 2012 International Conference on Computer Science (ICES 2012/ICCS 2012) will be held in Australia, Melbourne, 15‐16 March, 2012.Volume 1 contains some new results in computational environment science. There are 47 papers were selected as the regular paper in this volume. It contains the latest developments and reflects the experience of many researchers working in different environments (universities, research centers or even industries), publishing new theories and solving new technological problems on computational environment science.   The purpose of volume 1 is interconnection of diverse scientific fields, the cultivation of every possible scientific collaboration, the exchange of views and the promotion of new research targets as well as the further dissemination, the dispersion, the diffusion of the environment science, including but not limited to Ecology, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Soil Science, Geology, Atmospheric Science and Geography �...

  14. 2nd Applied Electromagnetic International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Sulaiman, Hamzah; Othman, Mohd; Aziz, Mohamad; Malek, Mohd

    2017-01-01

    In this book, experts from academia and industry present the latest advances in scientific theory relating to applied electromagnetics and examine current and emerging applications particularly within the fields of electronics, communications, and computer technology. The book is based on presentations delivered at APPEIC 2015, the 2nd Applied Electromagnetic International Conference, held in Krabi, Thailand in December 2015. The conference provided an ideal platform for researchers and specialists to deliver both theoretically and practically oriented contributions on a wide range of topics relevant to the theme of nurturing applied electromagnetics for human technology. Many novel aspects were addressed, and the contributions selected for this book highlight the relevance of advances in applied electromagnetics to a variety of industrial engineering problems and identify exciting future directions for research.

  15. International Work-Conference on Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Pomares, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents selected peer-reviewed contributions from The International Work-Conference on Time Series, ITISE 2015, held in Granada, Spain, July 1-3, 2015. It discusses topics in time series analysis and forecasting, advanced methods and online learning in time series, high-dimensional and complex/big data time series as well as forecasting in real problems. The International Work-Conferences on Time Series (ITISE) provide a forum for scientists, engineers, educators and students to discuss the latest ideas and implementations in the foundations, theory, models and applications in the field of time series analysis and forecasting. It focuses on interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research encompassing the disciplines of computer science, mathematics, statistics and econometrics.

  16. 7th International Conference on Sensing Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a collection of selected works stemming from the 2013 International Conference on Sensing Technology (ICST), which was held in Wellington, New Zealand. The purpose of the book is to distill the highlights of the conference, and therefore track the latest developments in sensing technologies. The book contents are broad, since sensors can be applied in many different areas. Therefore the book gives a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.The book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective. 

  17. Conference Grant Proposal for ICOPS 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, Alla [University of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2016-12-07

    ICOPS (International Conference on Plasma Science) is an internationally renowned, well-attended annual conference that involves topics of direct interest to the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences of Department of Energy. In particular, ICOPS 2016 emphasized both the traditional areas of plasma science and the new areas of growth that include but are not limited to Fusion (Inertial, Magnetic and Alternate Concepts), Particle Acceleration with Laser and Beams, High Energy Density Matter, Laser Produced Plasma, Fast Z-pinches, Computational Plasma Physics, Plasma Diagnostics, and such frontiers as studying Warm Dense Matter using the X-ray free electron lasers. The travel support of the students at ICOPS comes usually from sponsor organizations. Increasing the participation of outstanding students at ICOPS 2016 who are the first authors of the abstracts and are selected to receive the travel support based on the scientific merit of the submitted abstracts is crucial for the creation of the new generation of the plasma physicists.

  18. 13th International Conference Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, Nathan; Berns, Karsten; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the latest research accomplishments, innovations, and visions in the field of robotics as presented at the 13th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS), held in Padua in July 2014, by leading researchers, engineers, and practitioners from across the world. The contents amply confirm that robots, machines, and systems are rapidly achieving intelligence and autonomy, mastering more and more capabilities such as mobility and manipulation, sensing and perception, reasoning, and decision making. A wide range of research results and applications are covered, and particular attention is paid to the emerging role of autonomous robots and intelligent systems in industrial production, which reflects their maturity and robustness. The contributions have been selected through a rigorous peer-review process and contain many exciting and visionary ideas that will further galvanize the research community, spurring novel research directions. The series of biennial IAS conferences ...

  19. International Work-Conference on Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Pomares, Héctor; Valenzuela, Olga

    2017-01-01

    This volume of selected and peer-reviewed contributions on the latest developments in time series analysis and forecasting updates the reader on topics such as analysis of irregularly sampled time series, multi-scale analysis of univariate and multivariate time series, linear and non-linear time series models, advanced time series forecasting methods, applications in time series analysis and forecasting, advanced methods and online learning in time series and high-dimensional and complex/big data time series. The contributions were originally presented at the International Work-Conference on Time Series, ITISE 2016, held in Granada, Spain, June 27-29, 2016. The series of ITISE conferences provides a forum for scientists, engineers, educators and students to discuss the latest ideas and implementations in the foundations, theory, models and applications in the field of time series analysis and forecasting.  It focuses on interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary rese arch encompassing the disciplines of comput...

  20. 2nd European Conference on Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wilhelm, Adalbert FX

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a snapshot of the state-of-the-art in classification at the interface between statistics, computer science and application fields. The contributions span a broad spectrum, from theoretical developments to practical applications; they all share a strong computational component. The topics addressed are from the following fields: Statistics and Data Analysis; Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery; Data Analysis in Marketing; Data Analysis in Finance and Economics; Data Analysis in Medicine and the Life Sciences; Data Analysis in the Social, Behavioural, and Health Care Sciences; Data Analysis in Interdisciplinary Domains; Classification and Subject Indexing in Library and Information Science. The book presents selected papers from the Second European Conference on Data Analysis, held at Jacobs University Bremen in July 2014. This conference unites diverse researchers in the pursuit of a common topic, creating truly unique synergies in the process.