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Sample records for auratus ictalurus punctatus

  1. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  2. Efficacy of crystalline lysine in alternative diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, female Ictalurus punctatus X male Ictalurus furcatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    study was conducted to examine the efficacy of crystalline lysine in alternative diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, ' Ictalurus punctatus × ' Ictalurus furcatus. Two 28% protein alternative diets supplemented with l-lysine HCl at the required level based on 62% (previously published value) or 10...

  3. Streptococcal Arthritis, Osteolysis, Myositis, and Spinal Meningitis in Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Broodstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report details findings of an investigation into complaints by commercial fingerling producers of low-grade mortalities, poor reproductive success, emaciation, skin lesions, and severely arched backs among broodstock of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Gross lesions involved the jaw, fin ba...

  4. Identification and characterization of TCRgamma and TCRdelta chains in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, T cell receptors (TCR) gamma and delta were identified by mining of expressed sequence tag databases and full length sequences were obtained by 5'-RACE and RT-PCR protocols. cDNAs for each of these TCR chains encode typical variable (V), (diversity; D), joining ...

  5. The Case Against Using Organic Fertilizers in Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Nursery Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the assumed advantages and disadvantages of organic fertilizers and presents the case that the risks outweigh the benefits for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery pond fertilization. Under certain conditions, organic fertilizers may be beneficial to provide forage for z...

  6. Developing a low cortisol responsive line of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj G. Chatakondi and Brian C. Peterson USDA ARS Warmwater Aquaculture Research Unit, 141 Experiment Station Road, Stoneville, MS 38776. nagaraj.chatakondi@ars.usda.gov Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus is the most important farm-raised aquacultured species in the USA. Stressors in aquacultu...

  7. Plant Natural Compounds with Antibacterial Activity Towards Common Pathogens of Pond-Cultured Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare cause enteric septicemia and columnaris disease, respectively, in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Natural therapeutants may provide an alternative to current management approaches used by producers. In this study, a rapid bioas...

  8. Evaluation of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and brewers yeast in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to examine the use of distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), ethanol extracted DDGS (EDDGS), and brewers yeast in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets. Diets containing these ingredients were compared with all-plant and fish meal control diets. Juvenile channel catfish ...

  9. Characterization of an Oct1 orthologue in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: A negative regulator of immunoglobulin gene transcription?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennard, M.L.; Hikima, J.I.; Ross, D.A.; Kruiswijk, C.P.; Wilson, M.R.; Miller, N.W.; Warr, G.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background - The enhancer (E¿3') of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IGH) of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) has been well characterized. The functional core region consists of two variant Oct transcription factor binding octamer motifs and one E-protein binding ¿E5 site. An orthologu

  10. Changes of serum myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide in the early stage of Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is an important farm-raised channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), disease. The development of a monitoring system for assessing the catfish health status in hatcheries and ponds is in great demanding. Because of the...

  11. Using 1-D and 2-D J-resolved 1H-NMR metabolomics to understand the effects of anemia in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...

  12. Using 1-D 1H and 2-D 1H J-resolved NMR metabolomics to understand the effects of anemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...

  13. Metabolic responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed to phenol and post-exposure recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Fernanda D; Rossi, Priscila A; Figueiredo, Juliana S L; Venturini, Francine P; Cortella, Lucas R X; Moraes, Gilberto

    2016-05-31

    Metabolic adjustments were studied in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus exposed to 1.5 mg L-1 of phe nol (10% LC50) for four days and recovered for seven days. Lower triacylglycerol (TGA) stores and increased muscle fat free acids (FFA) suggest fat catabolism in muscle. Remarkable liver FFA decrease (-31%) suggests liver fat catabolism as well. Increased muscular ammonia levels and ASAT (aspartate aminotransferase) and decreased plasma aminoacids suggest higher muscular amino acid uptake. Constant levels of glucose and increased liver glycogen stores, associated with lower amino acids in plasma, indicate gluconeogenesis from amino acids. This is supported by higher hepatic ALAT and ASAT. Higher hepatic LDH followed by lower plasma lactate may indicate that plasma lactate was also used as gluconeogenic substrate. Biochemical alterations were exacerbated during the post-exposure recovery period. Reduction in muscle and plasma protein content indicate proteolysis. A higher rate of liver fat catabolism was resulted from a remarkable decrease in hepatic TGA (-58%). Catabolic preference for lipids was observed in order to supply such elevated energy demand. This study is the first insight about the metabolic profile of I. punctatus to cope with phenol plus its ability to recover, bringing attention to the biological consequences of environmental contamination.

  14. Metabolic responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus exposed to phenol and post-exposure recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda D. Moraes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic adjustments were studied in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus exposed to 1.5 mg L-1 of phe nol (10% LC50 for four days and recovered for seven days. Lower triacylglycerol (TGA stores and increased muscle fat free acids (FFA suggest fat catabolism in muscle. Remarkable liver FFA decrease (-31% suggests liver fat catabolism as well. Increased muscular ammonia levels and ASAT (aspartate aminotransferase and decreased plasma aminoacids suggest higher muscular amino acid uptake. Constant levels of glucose and increased liver glycogen stores, associated with lower amino acids in plasma, indicate gluconeogenesis from amino acids. This is supported by higher hepatic ALAT and ASAT. Higher hepatic LDH followed by lower plasma lactate may indicate that plasma lactate was also used as gluconeogenic substrate. Biochemical alterations were exacerbated during the post-exposure recovery period. Reduction in muscle and plasma protein content indicate proteolysis. A higher rate of liver fat catabolism was resulted from a remarkable decrease in hepatic TGA (-58%. Catabolic preference for lipids was observed in order to supply such elevated energy demand. This study is the first insight about the metabolic profile of I. punctatus to cope with phenol plus its ability to recover, bringing attention to the biological consequences of environmental contamination.

  15. Determinação do sexo em catfish de canal (Ictalurus punctatus utilizando endoscopia

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    Fernando Souza Mendonça De Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A identificação precoce do sexo em peixes é um procedimento importante para o desenvolvimento de estratégias que facilitem o manejo no plantel de reprodutores. A endoscopia pode ser utilizada para essa identificação, embora em peixes seu uso ainda seja restrito. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi validar o uso do endoscópio rígido via poro urogenital para determinação do sexo do catfish de canal (Ictalurus punctatus. O equipamento utilizado foi um endoscópio Multipurpose Rigid™ 30º com 2,7 mm de diâmetro e 18 cm de comprimento. Foram examinados 60 peixes com peso variando entre 86 e 1.032 gramas nos quais foi introduzido o endoscópio via poro genital e, logo em seguida, eutanaziados para confirmação do sexo. Amostras de tecido gonadal foram coletadas para avaliação histológica do estádio de maturação e confirmação do sexo. Os resultados mostraram que dos 60 peixes examinados, 57 tiveram confirmação positiva do sexo via endoscopia, o que corresponde a 95% da amostra. A utilização da endoscopia para determinação do sexo em I. punctatus via poro genital é viável.

  16. First record of Trichodina heterodentata (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus cultivated in Brazil

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    ML. Martins

    Full Text Available This study characterises morphologically Trichodina heterodentata Duncan, 1977 from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818 in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Body and gill smears were air-dried at room temperature, impregnated with silver nitrate and/or stained with Giemsa. Ten characteristics were selected to compare the present material with other morphological characterisations of T. heterodentata. Prevalence rate was 100%, mean intensity 89,333.70 (3,125 to 299,100 parasites per host. Trichodina heterodentata was considered medium-sized trichodinid with mean body diameter 59.4 ± 8.5 μm, denticulate ring 38.5 ± 4.5 μm, adhesive disc 60.2 ± 6.7 μm diameter and 24.4 ± 1.6 denticles. In relation to previous reports of T. heterodentata this material resembles in 90% of the analysed characters. This work confirms the biometrical variation that exists in the different populations of T. heterodentata. A list of hosts and comparative measurements of T. heterodentata are presented and the channel catfish is considered a new host.

  17. Putative roles for a rhamnose binding lectin in Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus.

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    Beck, Benjamin H; Farmer, Bradley D; Straus, David L; Li, Chao; Peatman, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare, continues to be a major problem worldwide and commonly leads to tremendous losses of both wild and cultured freshwater fish, particularly in intensively farmed aquaculture species such as channel catfish. Despite its ecologic and economic impacts, the fundamental molecular mechanisms of the host immune response to this pathogen remain unclear. While F. columnare can induce marked pathologic changes in numerous ectopic tissues, the adhesion of F. columnare to the gill in particular is strongly associated with pathogen virulence and host susceptibility. Recently, in this regard, using RNA-seq expression profiling we found that a rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) was dramatically upregulated in the gill of fish infected with F. columnare (as compared to naïve fish). Thus, in the present study we sought to further characterize and understand the RBL response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). We first identified two distinct catfish families with differential susceptibilities to columnaris disease; one family was found to be completely resistant while the other was susceptible (0% mortality versus 18.3% respectively, P catfish RBL that persisted for at least 24 h (P catfish to different doses of the putative RBL ligands l-rhamnose and d-galactose, and found that these sugars, protected channel catfish against columnaris disease, likely through competition with F. columnare binding of host RBL. Finally, we examined the role of nutritional status on RBL regulation and found that RBL expression was upregulated (>120-fold; P < 0.05) in fish fasted for 7 d (as compared to fish fed to satiation daily), yet expression levels returned to those of satiated fish within 4 h after re-feeding. Collectively, these findings highlight putative roles for RBL in the context of columnaris disease and reveal new aspects linking RBL regulation to feed availability.

  18. BOB.1 of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: not a transcriptional coactivator?

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    Richard, Mara L Lennard; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Wilson, Melanie R; Miller, Norman W; Cunningham, Charles; Warr, Gregory W

    2009-01-01

    Expression of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is driven by the Emu3' enhancer, whose core region contains two octamer motifs and a muE5 site. Orthologues of the Oct1 and Oct2 transcription factors have been cloned in the channel catfish and shown to bind to the octamer motifs within the core enhancer. While catfish Oct2 is an activator of transcription, catfish Oct1 failed to drive transcription and may act as a negative regulator of IGH transcription. In mammals, the Oct co-activator BOB.1 (B cell Oct-binding protein1, also known as OCA-B and OBF-1) greatly enhances the transcriptional activity of Oct factors and plays an important role in the development of the immune system. An orthologue of BOB.1 has been cloned in the catfish, and its function characterized. The POU binding domain of the catfish BOB.1 was found to be 95% identical at the amino acid level with the binding domain of human BOB.1, and all the residues directly involved in binding to the Oct-DNA complex were conserved. Despite this conservation, catfish BOB.1 failed to enhance transcriptional activation mediated by endogenous or co-transfected catfish Oct2, and failed to rescue the activity of the inactive catfish Oct1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that catfish BOB.1 was capable of binding both catfish Oct1 and Oct2 when they formed a complex with the Oct motif. Analysis of recombinant chimeric catfish and human BOB.1 proteins demonstrated that the failure to drive transcription was due to the lack of a functional activation domain within the catfish BOB.1.

  19. Suspending mammalian LHRHa-injected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus in individual nylon-mesh bag reduces stress and improves reproductive performance

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    Hormone induced spawning of channel catfish held communally in tanks is a reliable method to produce channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus ' x blue catfish, I. furcatus ' F1 hybrid catfish fry. However, mature catfish are crowded, and repeatedly handled during the process of induced ovulation. Repe...

  20. Evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus important bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus infected with Edwardsiella ictaluri results in $40 - 50 million annual losses in profits to catfish producers. Early detection of this pathogen is necessary for disease control and reduction of economic loss. In this communication, the loop-mediated isothermal a...

  1. Immunocytochemical Identification and Localization of Diffuse Neuroendocrine System (DNES) Cells in Gastrointestinal Tract of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

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    HE Min; WANG Kai-yu; ZHANG Yu

    2009-01-01

    To detect distribution and relative frequency of diffuse neuroendocrine system (DNES) cells in the gastrointestinal tract of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), the intestinal tract of channel catfish was divided into seven portions from proximal to distal: the enlarged area after oesophagus, cardia, fundus, pylorus, and anterior, middle, and posterior intestine. Immunohistochemical method using the strept avidin-biotin-complex (SABC) was employed. All antisera between seven portions of the channel catfish were compared statistically using statistical package for the social science (SPSS). Five types of DNES cells were determined: neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive (NPY-IR) cells were demonstrated in both anterior and middle intestine; serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactive cells were detected throughout the whole gastrointestinal tract; vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) positive cells were at the highest frequency in pylorus; glucagon-immunoreactive (GLU-IR) cells were moderate in number in the fundus and anterior, middle intestine, and no immunoreactivity was determined in the other portions; somatostatin (SOM) positive cells were more abundant in the anterior and middle intestine. The regional distribution and relative frequency of immunoreactive cells in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, are essentially similar to those of other fish. However, some characteristics are observed in this species, which further proved that the diversity of the physiological function of DNES cells was based on their morphology.

  2. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

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    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  3. Expression, Purification and Antibacterial Activity of NK-Lysin Mature Peptides from the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus

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    Shurui Cai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are small peptides and play important roles in host innate immune response against microbial invasion. Aquatic animals secrete different kinds of antimicrobial peptides which have antimicrobial activity towards microorganisms. NK-lysins, mature peptides produced by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, are comprised of 74–78 amino acid residues, demonstrating broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and parasites. In this study, three distinct NK-lysin mature peptide (mNKLs, transcripts (76 amino acid residues cloned from the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus head kidney were ligated into plasmid vector pET-32a(+ to express the mNKLs fusion protein. The fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli Rosetta (DE3 under optimized conditions. After purification by affinity column chromatography, the fusion protein was successfully cleaved by enterokinase and released the peptide mNKLs. Tricine-SDS-PAGE results showed that mNKLs (approximately 8.6 kDa were successfully expressed. The purified peptide mNKLs exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli.

  4. L-Rhamnose-binding lectins (RBLs) in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: Characterization and expression profiling in mucosal tissues.

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    Thongda, Wilawan; Li, Chao; Luo, Yupeng; Beck, Benjamin H; Peatman, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Rhamnose-binding lectins (RBLs) have recently emerged as important molecules in the context of innate immunity in teleost fishes. Previously, using RNA-seq technology, we observed marked up-regulation of a RBL in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) gill following a challenge with the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare. Furthermore, the magnitude of RBL up-regulation positively correlated with disease susceptibility. Moving forward from these findings, we wished to more broadly understand RBL function, diversity, and expression kinetics in channel catfish. Therefore, in the present study we characterized the RBL gene family present in select channel catfish tissues and profiled family member expression after challenge with two different Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Here, six RBLs were identified from channel catfish and were designated IpRBL1a, IpRBL1b, IpRBL1c, IpRBL3a, IpRBL3b, and IpRBL5a. These RBLs contained carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) ranging from one to three domains and each CRD contained the conserved motifs of -YGR- and -DPC-. Despite a level of structural conservation, the catfish RBLs showed low full-length identity with RBLs from outside the order Siluriformes. IpRBL expression after bacterial infection varied depending on both pathogen and tissue type, suggesting that IpRBLs may exert disparate functions or exhibit distinct tissue-selective roles in the host immune response to bacterial pathogens.

  5. Growth and contribution of stocked channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818): the importance of measuring post-stocking performance

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    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study it was sought to quantify post-stocking growth, survival, and contribution of advanced size (178 mm total length [TL]) channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings, something rarely done. Channel catfish populations were evaluated before (May 2010) and after (May to August 2011 and 2012) stocking. Relative abundance, stocking contribution, and growth were different (P < 0.05) in the two study impoundments (lakes Lone Chimney and Greenleaf, Oklahoma). For fish stocked in Lake Lone Chimney, stocking contribution was lower (3–35%), and average length and weight of stocked fish by age-2 reached 230 mm TL and 85 g, whereas the stocking contribution (84–98%) and growth in length (340 mm TL) and weight (280 g) were higher by age-2 in Lake Greenleaf. Given these unambiguous differences of post-stocking performance, benchmark metrics that represent population-level information such as relative abundance and average length and weight of the sample masked these significant differences, highlighting the importance of marking hatchery-fish and then following them through time to determine the effectiveness of stocking. These results suggest that stock enhancement programmes would benefit from studies that quantify post-stocking performance of hatchery fish.

  6. Safety of aquaflor (florfenicol, 50% type a medicated article), administered in feed to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

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    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Wolf, Jeffery C.; Endris, Richard G.; Gingerich, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Aquaflor, a feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol (50% w/w), is being developed for use to control enteric septicemia (ESC) in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus caused by the gram-negative enterobacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. The recommended dose of Aquaflor to control ESC is 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for 10 days. The study objective was to determine the safety of Aquaflor administered in feed to channel catfish at doses of 0 (control), 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg BW/day for 20 consecutive days. Parameters evaluated included daily mortality, behavioral (appetite, distribution, flight/fright response), and water chemistry observations, initial and terminal weight measurements, and gross and microscopic pathology. Medicated feed consumption was 67-86% of target with group mean doses of 8.5 mg/kg BW/day, 24.6 mg/kg BW/day, and 34.9 mg/kg BW/day. There were no mortalities or clinically observable changes noted at any of the dose levels tested. Aquaflor-related changes were limited to the food consumption and histopathology data. Although Aquaflor-related decreased feed consumption was noted in the 30 and 50 mg/kg BW/day groups, there were no differences in fish growth among the treatment groups. Aquaflor-related histopathology findings were limited to a histomorphologically evident dose-dependent decrease in hematopoietic/lymphopoietic tissue in the anterior kidneys, posterior kidneys, and spleens of channel catfish.

  7. Hematological and clinical chemistry changes induced by acute stress during handling and capture of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus

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    Gabriel Aguirre-Guzman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. Evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters of culture channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus under acute stress by management and capture practice. Materials and methods. Fish (200 g mean were maintained in culture tanks and divided in two treatments, in duplicate, (n=15x2x2=60 fishes. Thirty catfish were exposed for 5 min to acute stress (TE by management and capture practice, while other group not (control group, TnE. 10 fish for treatment were collected at 0, 6, and 24 h post-stress for blood collection, where TnE fishes were anesthetized along work. Complete blood count (manual method and blood biochemical (spectrophotometry of fish samples were evaluated and their results were analyzed using a Student’s t-distribution. Results. The erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and glucose level of TE animals was significantly higher (p<0.05 at 6 h post-stress, in comparison of TnE. Immune cells in fish TE decreased at 6 and 24 h post-stress, where leukocytes and lymphocytes were significantly lower that TnE (p < 0.05 at 24 h post-stress. Other evaluated parameters did not show significant differences along this study. Conclusions. Those results suggest that several hematological and blood biochemical parameters in fish changed by acute stress generated by management and capture practice

  8. Responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) swim-up fry to dietary calcium in soft and hard water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, J; Gatlin, D M

    1993-12-01

    1. Responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) swim-up fry to dietary calcium in soft ( 100 mg/l as CaCO3) water were determined by feeding purified egg-white diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% calcium from CaCO3 for 8 weeks. 2. Catfish fry fed the basal diet (0.03% Ca) in hard and soft water had lower whole-body ash and whole-body calcium concentrations but higher weight gain and survival than those fed calcium-supplemented diets. 3. Fry in soft water generally had lower whole-body ash, whole-body calcium, and survival, as well as a higher incidence of spinal deformities than fry in hard water. 4. Feeding higher levels of calcium to fry reared in soft water did not increase whole-body calcium levels or decrease spinal deformities to the levels observed for fry reared in hard water and fed supplemental calcium. 5. These data indicate that calcium derived solely from dietary or environmental sources was not sufficient for optimum health of channel catfish fry.

  9. The Effects of Sequential Environmental and Harvest Stressors on the Sensory Characteristics of Cultured Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) Fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramella, Michael A; Kim, Taejo; Avery, Jimmy L; Allen, Peter J; Schilling, M Wes

    2016-08-01

    Stress during fish culture alters physiological homeostasis and affects fillet quality. Maintenance of high-quality seafood is important to ensure the production of a marketable product. This study assessed how sequential stressors affect the sensory and quality characteristics of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets. Three stress trials were conducted where temperature (25 or 33 °C) and dissolved oxygen (DO, approximately 2.5 or >5 mg/L) were manipulated followed by socking and transport stress. After each stage of harvest (environmental stress, socking, and transport), fillet yield, consumer acceptability, descriptive evaluation, cook loss, tenderness, and pH were evaluated. Fillet yield decreased with increasing severity of environmental stress. Fillets from the severe stress treatment (33 °C, approximately 2.5 mg/L) received the highest acceptability scores (P 5 mg/L) were the least acceptable (P 6 on a 9 point scale). Socking and transport were identified to positively affect textural characteristics of catfish fillets. Although the effects observed were not likely to negatively impact consumer acceptance, a strict management plan should be followed to maintain consistency in the product and avoid changes in stressors that might alter quality more drastically.

  10. Ultra-structural and histochemical analysis of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus liver treated with fumonisin B1

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    Rejane Maria Cirra Scaff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The histopathological effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1 injected intraperitoneally (IP, was evaluated in catfish (Ictalurus punctatus. Fishes were divided into four Groups. Groups II, III and IV were treated IP with FB1 injections of 1; 5 and 10 mg/kg bw/day, respectively, during 21 days. At the 7th, 14th and 21st day, fishes were sacrificed. The livers were hystologicaly analysed by the light and transmission electronic microscopy. Livers from the 7th day showed organelles alterations, particularly in the granular endoplasmatic reticle, mitochondria, nucleus and nucleolus mediated by FB1 doses. The occurrence of processes involved in the necrosis and apoptosis was detected. At the highest FB1 dose,the livers presented an intense response with an accentuate tissue disorganization, absence of cell limits and intense cytoplasm vacuolization. The image analysis showed the occurrence of necrosis in some areas, characterized by fully broken or swollen cells. The apoptosis was observed as the cytoplasm contraction and the chromatin formed masses concentrated in the edge of the nucleus. There was strong evidence that the numerous hepatocytes in the liver from the fishes under the toxic dose of FBs were selectively removed by the apoptosis process.Os efeitos histopatológicos da fumonisina B1 (FB1 foram avaliados quando a toxina foi aplicada intraperitoneal (IP em bagre (Ictalurus punctatus. Os peixes foram divididos em 4 Grupos, sendo que os Grupos II, III e IV foram tratados com FB1 em injeções IP nas concentrações de 1; 5 e 10 mg/kg p.c./dia, respectivamente, durante 21 dias. No 7º, 14ºe 21º dia de tratamento, amostras de peixe de cada Grupo foram sacrificadas. Os figados foram analisados histopatologicamente por microscopia de luz e de transmissão eletrônica. Desde o dia 7 de coleta, os fígados apresentaram alterações em diversas organelas, principalmente no retículo endoplasmático, citoplasma, núcleo e nucléolo mediadas pelas doses de FB

  11. El bagre de canal (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818: estado actual y problemática en México

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    Ana Laura Lara-Rivera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El bagre de canal (Ictalurus punctatus es uno de los peces endémicos de Norte América con mayor potencial para la acuicultura. A pesar de esto, los datos sobre su distribución actual son escasos y se desconocen muchos aspectos de su dinámica y desempeño productivo. En el presente estudio se reportan los resultados de una búsqueda bibliográfica y análisis de campo que permiten describir la situación actual del bagre de canal con respecto a su distribución geográfica histórica y actual, así como de la problemática que enfrentan los sistemas productivos de esta especie en México. Se identificó la falta de información e indicadores que permitan conocer la extensión de su hábitat natural, movilización o potencial productivo. La calidad y disponibilidad del agua figuran entre las principales problemáticas de la industria; el alimento supone el mayor gasto para los productores y existe gran heterogeneidad de manejo tanto en granjas reproductoras como de engorde, gran parte de la dinámica productiva sigue un modelo de ensayo y error. Se requiere optimizar y homologar los procesos del sistema productivo de bagre de canal, así como caracterizar correctamente las poblaciones domésticas y silvestres para aprovechar al máximo su potencial.

  12. Effects of cortisol and stress on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen susceptibility and lysozyme activity following exposure to Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brian C; Bilodeau, A Lelania

    2005-05-15

    Periods of stress are often associated with disease outbreaks in cultured fish, and stress is often characterized by the secretion of cortisol. Although stress and cortisol secretion are highly correlated in fish, the role of cortisol in affecting channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen susceptibility is unclear. The effects of short-term stress and exogenous cortisol administration on channel catfish susceptibility to Edwardsiella ictaluri, the etiologic agent of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), were investigated. Channel catfish were exposed to virulent E. ictaluri following a standardized 30-min low-water stress or administration of dietary cortisol (100 mg/kg feed) and compared to a pathogen-challenged control group of catfish. Pathogen susceptibility increased in stressed catfish (43.3% mortality) when compared to cortisol-fed catfish (26.7%) and controls (26.7%). A greater (Pcortisol-fed catfish (13.0%) over the course of the study, however, average levels of circulating bacteria were not different (P>0.05) among the treatments. Catfish challenged by the low-water stress event had elevated (Pcortisol 1-day post-pathogen exposure and elevated (Pcortisol-fed and control-challenged catfish. Cortisol concentrations were not correlated (P>0.05) to either lysozyme activity or bacterial levels; however, lysozyme activity was positively correlated (P=0.0197) to blood bacterial concentrations. These results implicate other stress factors or pathways, separate from or possibly in conjunction with cortisol, in the stress-associated immunosuppression of channel catfish as it relates to ESC susceptibility.

  13. An assessment of morphometric indices, blood chemistry variables and an energy meter as indicators of the whole body lipid content in Micropterus dolomieu, Sander vitreus and Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of several non-lethal techniques as indicators of total lipid content in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was investigated. The techniques included (1) the Fulton and relative condition factors, (2) relative mass, (3) plasma indicators of nutritional status (alkaline phosphatase, calcium, cholesterol, protein, triglycerides and glucose) and (4) readings from a hand-held, microwave energy meter. Although simple linear regression analysis showed that lipid content was significantly correlated with several predictor variables in each species, the r2 values for the relations ranged from 0·17 to 0·50 and no single approach was consistent for all species. Only one model, between energy-meter readings and lipid content in I. punctatus, had an r2 value (0·83) high enough to justify using it as a predictive tool. Results indicate that no single variable was an accurate and reliable indicator of whole body lipid content in these fishes, except the energy meter for I. punctatus.

  14. Parámetros hemáticos en tres especies de peces (Ictalurus punctatus, Morone saxatilis y Micropterus salmoides en condiciones de desnutrición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Alvarez Mendoza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la desnutrición sobre los parámetros hemáticos en tres especies de peces de agua dulce, Ictalurus punctatus, Morone saxatilis y Micropterus salmoides. Los parámetros hemáticos analizados fueron: Microhematocrito (Ht, Hemoglobina (Hb, Proteína Total del Plasma (PTP, y Recuento diferencial de leucocitos. Además se analizó el comportamiento del polígono de frecuencia de la longitud mayor de los eritrocitos. Se consideraron dos niveles de desnutrición: moderada (15 días y severa (100 días. Para el Ht y el Recuento diferencial de leucocitos se realizó por el método estándar

  15. Sulfonation of 17{beta}-estradiol and inhibition of sulfotransferase activity by polychlorobiphenylols and celecoxib in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Liquan [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); James, Margaret O. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)]. E-mail: mojames@ufl.edu

    2007-03-10

    The sulfonation of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) by human liver and recombinant sulfotransferases is influenced by environmental contaminants such as hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), which are potent inhibitors, and the therapeutic drug, celecoxib, which affects positional sulfonation of E2. In some locations, the aquatic environment is contaminated by PCBs, OH-PCBs and widely used therapeutic drugs. The objectives of this study were to investigate the sulfonation kinetics of E2 in liver cytosol from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus); to examine the effect of OH-PCBs on E2 sulfonation; and to determine if celecoxib altered the position of E2 sulfonation, as it does with human liver cytosol. E2 was converted to both 3- and 17-sulfates by catfish liver cytosol. At E2 concentrations below 1{mu}M, formation of E2-3-sulfate (E2-3-S) predominated, but substrate inhibition was observed at higher concentrations. Rates of E2-3-S formation at different E2 concentrations were fit to a substrate inhibition model, with K{sup '}{sub m} and V{sup '}{sub max} values of 0.40+/-0.10{mu}M and 91.0+/-4.7pmol/min/mg protein, respectively and K{sub i} of 1.08+/-0.09{mu}M. The formation of E2-17-S fit Michaelis-Menten kinetics over the concentration range 25nM to 2.5{mu}M, with K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of 1.07+/-0.23{mu}M and 25.7+/-4.43pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The efficiency (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) of formation of E2-3-S was 9.8-fold higher than that of E2-17-S. Several OH-PCBs inhibited E2 3-sulfonation, measured at an E2 concentration of 1nM. Of those tested, the most potent inhibitor was 4'-OH-CB79, with two chlorine atoms flanking the OH group (IC{sub 50}: 94nM). The inhibition of estrogen sulfonation by OH-PCBs may disrupt the endocrine system and thus contribute to the known toxic effects of these compounds. Celecoxib did not stimulate E2-17-S formation, as is the case with human liver cytosol, but did inhibit the

  16. Identification and Analysis of Genome-Wide SNPs Provide Insight into Signatures of Selection and Domestication in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Luyang; Liu, Shikai; Wang, Ruijia; Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jiaren; Bao, Lisui; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Dunham, Rex; Waldbieser, Geoff; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2014-01-01

    Domestication and selection for important performance traits can impact the genome, which is most often reflected by reduced heterozygosity in and surrounding genes related to traits affected by selection. In this study, analysis of the genomic impact caused by domestication and artificial selection was conducted by investigating the signatures of selection using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). A total of 8.4 million candidate SNPs were identified by using next generation sequencing. On average, the channel catfish genome harbors one SNP per 116 bp. Approximately 6.6 million, 5.3 million, 4.9 million, 7.1 million and 6.7 million SNPs were detected in the Marion, Thompson, USDA103, Hatchery strain, and wild population, respectively. The allele frequencies of 407,861 SNPs differed significantly between the domestic and wild populations. With these SNPs, 23 genomic regions with putative selective sweeps were identified that included 11 genes. Although the function for the majority of the genes remain unknown in catfish, several genes with known function related to aquaculture performance traits were included in the regions with selective sweeps. These included hypoxia-inducible factor 1β· HIFιβ ¨ and the transporter gene ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 5 (ABCB5). HIF1β· is important for response to hypoxia and tolerance to low oxygen levels is a critical aquaculture trait. The large numbers of SNPs identified from this study are valuable for the development of high-density SNP arrays for genetic and genomic studies of performance traits in catfish. PMID:25313648

  17. Identification and analysis of genome-wide SNPs provide insight into signatures of selection and domestication in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyang Sun

    Full Text Available Domestication and selection for important performance traits can impact the genome, which is most often reflected by reduced heterozygosity in and surrounding genes related to traits affected by selection. In this study, analysis of the genomic impact caused by domestication and artificial selection was conducted by investigating the signatures of selection using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus. A total of 8.4 million candidate SNPs were identified by using next generation sequencing. On average, the channel catfish genome harbors one SNP per 116 bp. Approximately 6.6 million, 5.3 million, 4.9 million, 7.1 million and 6.7 million SNPs were detected in the Marion, Thompson, USDA103, Hatchery strain, and wild population, respectively. The allele frequencies of 407,861 SNPs differed significantly between the domestic and wild populations. With these SNPs, 23 genomic regions with putative selective sweeps were identified that included 11 genes. Although the function for the majority of the genes remain unknown in catfish, several genes with known function related to aquaculture performance traits were included in the regions with selective sweeps. These included hypoxia-inducible factor 1β. HIFιβ.. and the transporter gene ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 5 (ABCB5. HIF1β. is important for response to hypoxia and tolerance to low oxygen levels is a critical aquaculture trait. The large numbers of SNPs identified from this study are valuable for the development of high-density SNP arrays for genetic and genomic studies of performance traits in catfish.

  18. Espectro trófico del bagre Ictalurus punctatus (Silurifomes: Ictaluridae, en la presa Lázaro Cárdenas, Indé, Durango, México Trophic spectrum of the catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae, in the Lázaro Cárdenas reservoir, Indé, Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fernando Cardoza Martínez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el contenido de 240 estómagos de Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818, colectados de 2006 a 2007, con el objetivo de determinar su espectro trófico, su variación por talla y época climática. Los contenidos estomacales se analizaron en laboratorio y los organismos se determinaron hasta nivel de orden. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados por métodos cuantitativos y cualitativos. Los órdenes más frecuentes fueron Perciformes y Atheriniformes que corresponden a peces forraje, así como algas verdes del orden Charales. Además, se encontraron otros siete órdenes de invertebrados: Schizodonta, Odonata, Himenoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera y Scorpionida, además de dos órdenes de plantas: Poales y Fabales. El orden Perciforme constituyó casi la mitad del total del peso del contenido estomacal, seguido por los órdenes Atheriniforme y Charales. En las estaciones de verano e invierno se presentó el mayor número de estómagos vacíos, mientras que en primavera se encontró el mayor número de estómagos llenos. La cantidad de alimento ingerida en la estación de invierno fue significativamente menor que en las demás estaciones. El principal alimento en primavera, verano y otoño, fueron los peces, mientras que en invierno hubo mayor preferencia por las algas.Having the objective of determining their trophic spectrum and their variations within a year, the contents of 240 stomachs of Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818 were analyzed from 2006 to 2007. The items of the stomach contents were determined to the order level. The data was analyzed by different quantitative and qualitative methods. The most frequent orders were Perciforms and Atheriniforms corresponding to forage fish, along with green algae of the Charales order. Also, seven orders of invertebrates were found: Schizodonta, Odonata, Himenoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera and Scorpionida, and two orders of plants: Poales and Fabales. The Perciform

  19. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  20. 微波法测定分析鱼油脂成分%Determination and Analysis of Liposoluble Chemical Constituents from Ictalurus punctatus Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭德姣; 刘祝祥; 陈玲; 朱杰英

    2014-01-01

    采用微波提取斑点叉尾鮰内脏鱼油,然后加酸使其甲酯化,以气相色谱/质谱法分析鱼油中的脂肪酸。结果表明斑点叉尾鮰内脏纯油脂中鱼油达到99%。从鱼油中共鉴定出23种成分,有饱和及不饱和脂肪酸,还有少量烷烃类物质。不饱和脂肪酸含量为72.84%,其中多不饱和脂肪酸为19.12%,以 C18:2(16.54%)为主,单不饱和脂肪酸为53.72%,以 C18:1(48.52%)为主。饱和脂肪酸含量为19.21%,主要有 C16:0(14.46%)和 C18:0(4.17%),多是低于 C18以上的中长链脂肪酸。因此斑点叉尾鮰油脂可作功能性脂肪酸的重要膳食来源。该研究为探讨斑点叉尾鮰纯油脂成分构成,综合利用和开发斑点叉尾鮰鱼提供理论基础和质量控制方法。%The lipids was extracted from the internal organs of Ictalurus punctatus by microwave, and its liposoluble chemical constituents was identified and quantified by gas chromatography (GC)/electron impact (EI) mass spectrometry (MS). Subsequent-ly, the acid catalysis method was used to convert fatty acids to methyl-esters. The total lipids in the pure fat of I. punctatus were found to be about 99%. Twenty-three fatty acids were identified. The major fatty acids found in the oils were normal mo-nounsaturated, polyunsaturated fatty acids and alkane paraffin. Unsaturated fatty acids comprised 72.84% of the total, and the major components of monounsaturated fatty acids were C18:1 (48.52%), while the polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly composed of C18:2 (16.54%). Saturated fatty acids comprised approximately 19.21%of the total. The main components were C16:0 (14.46%) and C18:0 (4.17%), most of which were medium-long-chain fatty acids. Therefore, catfish oil can be used as an important dietary source of functional fatty acids. The difference between the pro-portion of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids appears to be significant compared to fish of the Cyprinidae

  1. Demethylation of the pesticide methoxychlor in liver and intestine from untreated, methoxychlor-treated, and 3-methylcholanthrene-treated channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus): evidence for roles of CYP1 and CYP3A family isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchal, Leah D; Kleinow, Kevin M; Stegeman, John J; James, Margaret O

    2006-06-01

    Exposure to the organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is associated with endocrine disruption in several species through biotransformation to mono-desmethyl-MXC (OH-MXC) and bis-desmethyl-MXC (HPTE), which interact with estrogen receptors. The biotransformation of [14C]methoxychlor was examined in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), a freshwater species found in the southern United States. Hepatic microsomes formed OH-MXC and HPTE, assessed by comigration with authentic standards. The Km for OH-MXC formation by control liver microsomes was 3.8 +/- 1.3 microM (mean +/- S.D., n = 4), and Vmax was 131 +/- 53 pmol/min/mg protein. These values were similar to those of catfish pretreated with 2 mg/kg methoxychlor i.p. for 6 days (Km 3.3 +/- 0.8 microM and Vmax 99 +/- 17 pmol/min/mg) but less (p Methoxychlor pretreatment significantly reduced intestinal metabolite formation from 32 +/- 4 to 15 +/- 6 pmol/min/mg (mean +/- S.D., n = 4), whereas 3-MC treatment significantly increased OH-MXC production to 72 +/- 22 pmol/min/mg. Ketoconazole, clotrimazole, and alpha-naphthoflavone all decreased the production of OH-MXC in liver microsomes, whereas alpha-naphthoflavone stimulated HPTE formation, suggesting that CYP1 and CYP3 family isozymes demethylated methoxychlor. The results suggest that the formation of estrogenic metabolites from methoxychlor would be more rapid in catfish coexposed to CYP1 inducers.

  2. 不同放血方式对斑点叉尾鲴鱼鱼肉品质影响的研究%Research on effects of Different Bleeding Ways on Quality of Ictalurus Punctatus Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐春江; 邓放明

    2009-01-01

    The effects of three different varieties bleeding ways on quality of Ictalurus Punctatus muscle were investigated. The sensory evaluation, transparency, gelation property and musculature structure were used evaluate indicators. The result showed that the muscle of bleeding way with sport had good sensory evaluation, well transparency, gelation property was 447 g'cm and muscle fibre stueture had regular arrange.%以感官评价、色度、凝胶强度和肌肉组织结构为观察因素,研究了3种放血方式(自然死亡、静态放血、运动放血)对斑点叉尾鲴鱼鱼肉品质的影响.结果表明,采用运动放血的鱼肉具有良好的感官品质,色度好,凝胶强度达到447 g·cm,鱼肉肌纤维结构排列紧密有序.

  3. Effects of dietary stilbene glucoside on growth and body color of Ictalurus punctatus%饲料中添加二苯乙烯苷对斑点叉尾(鱼回)生长和体色的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恒; 贺国龙; 刘立鹤; 王辅臣; 张侃; 舒友松

    2012-01-01

    A 42 d feeding-trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of stilbene glucoside (tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside, THSG) on the growth and body color performance of Ictalurus punctatus. Five isonitrigenous diets were formulated to contain 36. 6% protein and 7. 3% lipid. THSG was added at four inclusion levels of 0. 33% , 0. 67% , 1. 33% and 2. 67% (diets A-D). The control diet didn' t contain THSG ( diet Ctr). Weight gain ( WG) , Survival and feed conversion ratio( FCR) were not significantly affected when the THSG added except FCR, which presented statistical significance in diet D; In diets A-D, tyrosinase activity in blood and skin, melanin content and distribution in the skin were higher than the diet Ctr, and tyrosinase activity in skin of diet A and diet B is 10. 4 ug/cm2 and 10. 6 ug/cm2 respectively , melanin distribution is 8. 16% and 9. 38% respectively, which were significantly higher than that of 7. 86 ug/cm2 and 5. 01% in control(P < 0. 05 ). These results indicate that adding THSG to Channel catfish feed has obvious influence on body color and without adverse effect on growth performance. Based on the results of WG, FCR, survival, tyrosinase activity in blood and skin, melanin content and distribution, it was feasible to improve the body color by dietary stilbene glucoside.%在饲料中分别添加0、0.33%、0.67%、1.33%和2.67%的二苯乙烯苷(THSG)制成5种等氮等能试验饲料饲喂(15 ±0.5)g斑点叉尾(鱼回)(Ictalurus punctatus)42 d,研究THSG对其生长和体色的影响.结果表明.饲料中添加THSG对斑点叉尾(鱼回)增重率和存活率均无显著影响,仅在添加量为2.67%时,试验组的饵料系数显著高于对照组(P<0.05);然而,随着添加量的增加,(鱼回)皮肤和血液酪氨酸酶活力、皮肤黑色素含量和黑色素分布量均有提高,其中0.33%和0.67%组皮肤中酪氨酸酶活力分别为10.4 U和10.7 U,显著高于对照组的7.86 U;黑色素分布量分别为8.16%和9

  4. 一株斑点叉尾鲴致病菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and identification of a pathogenic bacteria strain in channel catish ( Ictalurus punctatus )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任燕; 巩华; 陶家发; 梁慧丽; 刘礼辉; 石存斌; 吴淑勤

    2011-01-01

    A Gram-negative, rod shaped bacterium( designated as strain GD091027) was isolated from the liver of diseased channel catish (Ictalurus punctatus). Artificial infection proved that GD091027 was the pathogen of the disease.When artificial infection dose reached 1.0 × 107 CFU/fish, the challenged channel catish presented 100% mortality and the LD50 to channel catish was 6. 2 × 104 CFU/g. The isolated GD091027 was preliminarily identified as Edwardsiella tarda with the characteristics of gram-negative bacilli, motility at 25 ℃ or 35 ℃, growth in 3% salt water, Oxidase-negative;non-fermentation of glucose, maltose, sucrose, D-Mannitol, L-arabinose; non-utilization of Simmons citrate and malonic acid, lysine decarboxylase-positive, ornithine decarboxylase-positive, produce of H2S and lndole, methyl-red-negative.A phylogenetic tree was constructed by comparing the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolated GD091027 with other relative bacteria species in the RDP and GenBank databases. In the phylogenetic tree, the isolate and some E. tarda strains converged and constituted a branch, which confirm the identication of the isolated GD091027 as E. tarda. The drug sensitivity results showed the isolate GD091027 was highly sensitive to 16 kinds of antibiotics, such as ampieilin, gentamicin, tobramycin; while resistant to rifampicin, sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim, and penicillin. According to the morphological,physiological, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene analysis, the isolate( GD091027 ) was identified as E. tarda.%从斑点叉尾鲴(Ictalurus punctatus)肝脏分离到的一株细菌GD091027,对该菌进行人工感染试验、生理生化特性测定和16S rRNA序列测定并构建系统发育树,同时进行了抗菌药物敏感性试验.结果显示:当人工感染剂量大于1.0×107 CFU/尾时,能引起斑点叉尾鲴100%发病死亡,对斑点叉尾鲴的LD50为6.2×104 CFU/g.分离株GD091027为革兰氏阴性短杆菌,氧化酶阴性,在25℃、35

  5. 三种复方中草药对斑点叉尾鮰部分生化指标的影响%Effects of Three Compound Chinese Herbal Medicines on Some Biochemical Parameters in Ictalurus punctatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永军; 乔之怡; 胡玉花; 陈成勋; 白东清; 丁莉莉; 刘志伟; 邢克智

    2012-01-01

    In order to test the effects of compound Chinese herbal medicine "Yuhuan", "Gantaile" and "Sanhuangfen" on biochemical parameters in Ictalurus punctatus, an oral administration trial was performed. The medicines mentioned above were added to a commercial feed at 5 g/kg separately, and were administrated to the tested fish. The fish was sampled after a continuous 7-day feeding. The biochemical parameters in blood and tissues were assayed. The results show that all the medicines enhanced SOD/MDA and CAT/MDA ratio in serum and spleen. So the antioxidant capacity in serum and spleen was enhanced. All the medicines reduced the antioxidant capacity in head kidney by means of reducing SOD/MDA and CAT/MDA ratio. The "Gantaile" and "Yuhuan" enhanced the antioxidant capacity in gill, while "Sanhuangfen" and "Yuhuan" enhanced the antioxidant capacity in muscle. All the medicines reduced AST and ALT activities in hepato-pancreas. The LZM activity was significantly cut down in hepato-pancreas by "Gantaile" and in head kidney by "Yuhuan", while "Sanhuangfen" boosted LZM activity in muscle significantly. All the medicines enhanced blood leucocytes phagocytosis and reduced AST and ALT activities in hepato-pancreas.%为研究复方中草药“鱼欢”、“肝泰乐”、“三黄粉”对斑点叉尾鮰生化指标的影响,将以上3种中草药按5g/kg饵料的比例加到饵料中,连续喂食斑点叉尾鮰7d后取样,测定血液和组织中的生化指标。结果表明:3种复方中草药均能提高血清和脾脏的SOD/MDA和cAz孙佃A比值,提高血清和脾脏的抗氧化能力;3种复方中草药均能降低头肾的SOD/MDA和CAT/MDA比值,降低其抗氧化能力。“肝泰乐”和“鱼欢”能提高鮰的抗氧化能力,“三黄粉”和“鱼欢”能提高肌肉的抗氧化能力。3种复方中草药能降低肝胰脏中AST和ALT的活力。“肝泰乐”显著降低肝胰脏的LZM活力,“鱼欢”显著降低头肾的LZM活力

  6. Seven Chinese Herbal Medicines Affect Physiological and Biochemical Indices in Ictalurus punctatus%7种中草药对斑点叉尾鮰生理生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆奎; 陈成勋; 郭永军; 白东清; 乔之怡; 刘志伟; 丁莉莉; 邢克智

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to provide theoretical basis for the reasonable application of seven kinds of Chinese herbal medicines in aquaculture industry. [ Method] Taking lctalurus purutatus as the study object, the impacts of seven Chinese herbal medicines (CHM),Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC (BC),Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (EU),radix Dryopteris crassirhizoma (rDC) ,radix Paeoniae lactiflora (rPL), Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fiseh (GU) ,Polygonum cuspidutum Sieb et Zucc (PC),and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJ) on the physiological and biochemical indices were tested. [ Result ] CHM could enhance the antioxidative capacity in serum and spleen while depress the antioxidative capacity in hepatopancreas. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in head kidney were enhanced significantly by BC. The SOD and CAT activities in muscle were enhanced significantly by EU ,rDC,PC and GJ. Serum lysozyme (LZM) activity was depressed significantly by rDC. The IZM activity in hepatopancreas and head kidney was enhanced significantly by BC. The PC depressed LZM activity in head kidney significantly.The LZM activity in gill was enhanced significantly by GU and GJ. The LZM activity in muscle was enhanced by rDC,EU and PC. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in hepatopancreas was depressed by rDC,GU and PC. The AST was enhanced by rPL significantly. The aianine aminotransferase (ALT) in hepatopancreas was depressed by rDC,EU ,GJ and GU. Leucocytes phagocytosis was enhanced significantly by BC,GU and GJ. [ Conclusion] Seven kinds of herbal medicines had different degrees of influences on the physiological and biochemical indices in Ictaluruspunctatus.%[目的]为7种中草药在水产养殖业中的合理使用提供理论依据.[方法]以斑点又尾鮰(Ictalurus punctatus)为研究时象,考察了射干、杜仲、贯众、白芍、甘草、虎杖和栀子7种中草药对生理生化指标的影响.[结果]中草药能提高血清和脾脏抗氧化能力,降低

  7. Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, as a model for studies of the effects of ionizing radiation. [Radiosensitivity of Poecilia formosa, Carassius auratus, Ictalurus punctatus, and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in laboratory environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the viviparous teleost, Poecilia formosa, (Amazon molly) may have wide potential use for aquatic radiation studies. The Amazon molly is a naturally occurring gynogenetic species, in which the eggs are activated after mating with the males of closely related species, without the subsequent genetic contribution from the male. The offspring of a single original female constitute a clone, having identical genotypes. Clones of the genetically homogeneous Amazon molly may prove to be equally as valuable to aquatic radiobiologists as the inbred rodent lines have been to mammalian studies. In many other respects the Amazon molly is a satisfactory laboratory animal. It is robust, easy to rear, and has large broods of young when fully grown. Maintenance costs are low. Details are given of the conditions under which colonies reproduce.

  8. Effects of different commercial feeds on growth,body color and live tissue structure of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)%不同商品饲料对生长、体色及肝脏组织结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立鹤; 黄绮雯; 胡先勤; 胡奇伟; 何广文; 谭斌; 李彪

    2009-01-01

    本试验评估了(鲴) (Ictalurus punctatus)主产区4种商品(鲴) 颗粒饲料(分别记为S1、S2、S3和S4,其中S4为膨化饲料,其他均为颗粒饲料)和自行设计的颗粒饲料(记为S5)对 (鲴) 试验阶段生长性能、体色变异、肝胰脏组织结构及 (鲴) 形态指标的影响.7周的饲喂试验结果显示:饲料蛋白含量为38%的S4膨化饲料可明显的提高养殖鱼的体重,平均增重率为262.6%,但存活率较低,仅为72.3%;而喂养S5饲料组 (鲴) 的增重率为168.89%,且存活率为92.4%,高于其他饲料组.养殖结束后,不同试验组(鲴) 的肥满度、脏体比有所差异,但均未达到显著性水平(P>0.05).投喂S2饲料组养殖鱼体体色发白比较明显,体色异常比例高达91%;S4饲料组养殖后体色发白也比较明显,体色异常比例为72.3%;对 (鲴) 背部黑色素扫描研究进一步证实饲喂S2饲料和S4饲料的黑色素细胞发生了变化,黑色素细胞边缘变得模糊,而自配S5饲料的黑色素细胞树突状分支较多;饲喂S4饲料组的 (鲴) 背部斑点比例为12.15%,而S2饲料组的背部斑点比例为26.38%,自配S5饲料组的背部斑点比例为35.69%,S4饲料组的斑点比例明显较低.

  9. Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, myeloperoxidase cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeloperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), a heme-containing lysosomal glycoprotein, is found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and monocytes. Upon activation, neutrophiles produce hydrogen peroxide and release myeloperoxidase from the granules that the latter catalyzes the former in the presence of vario...

  10. 植酸酶对斑点叉尾鮰生长性能、营养物质表观消化率及氮、磷排泄的影响%Influence of Phytase on Growth Performance, Apparent Digestibility of Nutrients, Excretion of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Channel Catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雨虹; 刘行彪; 黄可; 付熊; 吴晗冰

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of phytase on growth performance, apparent digestibility of nutrients, excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and to determine the optimum additive amount of phytase. A total of 540 juvenile channel catfish with an average body weight of (1. 74 ±0. 02) g were randomly divided into 6 groups with 3 replicates per group and 30 fish per replicate. The fish in control group were fed a basal diet, and the fish in experimental groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 300, 500, 1 000, 1 500 and 2 000 U/kg phytase, respectively. After a 90-day growth experiment, a total of 75 channel catfish [ average body weight of (16. 70 ±0.85) g ] in each group were randomly distributed into 3 replicates and 25 fish in each replicate, for measuring the nitrogen and phosphorus excretion. The nitrogen and phosphorus excretion experiment lasted for 72 h. The results of growth experiment showed as follows: compared with the control group, the weight gain rate, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and apparent digestibility of nutrients in the groups with the diets supplemented with 500 to 2 000 U/kg phytase were significantly improved (P 0. 05). The results of nitrogen and phosphorus excretion experiment showed as follows: the excretion of ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus and fecal phosphorus per kilogram of weight gain were decreased with the dietary phytase level increasing, and the above indices in the groups with the diets supplemented with 1 000 to 2 000 U/kg phytase were significantly lower compared with the control group (P <0. 05). Based on these findings, this study concludes that supplementation of 1 500 U/kg phytase in diets can improve the growth performance and apparent digestibility of nutrients in channel catfish, and decrease the nitrogen and phosphorus excretion into aquaculture water.%本试验旨在研究植酸酶对斑点叉尾鮰生长性能、营养物质

  11. Proteomic analysis on hepatotoxicity of selenium-enriched yeast to channel catfish(Ictalurus punctatus)liver%富硒酵母对斑点叉尾蛔肝脏的毒性作用及蛋白质组学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊华伟; 简少卿; 贾小芳; 虞舜; 何宝荣; 曾艳; 张丽军; 虞鹏程

    2011-01-01

    实验探讨了富硒酵母对斑点叉尾鮰肝脏的毒性作用及蛋白质组学的影响,结果表明,饲养56d后正常组和有机硒组采用原子荧光法检测硒含量均值为0.15和0.81mg/kg.H.E染色显示有机硒组肝细胞有明显的疏松化,部分发生脂肪变.通过二维凝胶电泳结合ImageMaster软件分析,鉴定出8个表达差异蛋白质点,其中3个在有机硒组表达上调,5个在有机硒组特异表达,经液相色谱串联质谱分析鉴定,这些蛋白质分别是伴侣蛋白TCP1一亚基8、甘油醛一磷酸脱氢酶,4SNc-Tudor蛋白、腺苷激酶、酮糖移转酶、丙氨酞-tRNA合成酶.富硒酵母饲料对斑点叉尾鮰肝具有明显的毒性效应,有机硒调控4SNc-Tudor蛋白,通过信号传导通道加强机体免疫.%To investigate the influence on channel catfish (lctalurus punctatus) liver toxicity and liver proteome change by the use of selenium-enriched yeast, Se-concentration in channel catfish liver was determined and the pathological change was monitored after selenium-enriched yeast feeding for 56 days. Proteins extracted from the liver of selenium-enriched yeast feeding channel catfishes and non-feeding controls were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), differentially expressed proteins between the two groups were analyzed using ImageMaster software and identified by online reversed-phase nano-flow liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS). The average Se-concentration of liver form the non-feeding controls and the selenium-enriched yeast feeding ones were 0.15 mg/kg and 0.81 mg/kg. Significant difference was detected between these two groups (P < 0. 05). H. E staining of pathology from channel catfish liver showed that the selenium-enriched yeast group has obvious cell loose and cell fatty degeneration. 15 differetial protein were found by 2-DE separation and ImageMaster software analysis. Of them, 8 over-expressed proteins in selenium

  12. Pre and postprandial changes in orexigenic and anorexigenic factors in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined pre- and postprandial changes in the expression of plasma ghrelin (GHRL) and mRNAs encoding GRLN, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and cholecystokinin (CCK) in channel catfish. Fish were either offered feed (Fed) or fasted (Unfed). Feeding incr...

  13. Molecular Cloning and Sequence of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque 1818) Cathepsin S gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathepsin S is a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family. This enzyme digests the invariant chain molecules so that antigenic peptides are able to load on the class II-associated invariant chain peptide of MHC. The complexes can subsequently be presented to the CD4 cell surface. In ...

  14. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Cathepsin H and L cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathepsin H and L, a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family, are ubiquitously expressed and involve in antigen processing. In this communication, the channel catfish cathepsin H and L transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. Total RNA from tissues was extracted and cDNA libraries we...

  15. Molecular Cloning, Sequencing and Characterization of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque 1818) Cathepsin S Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathepsin S is a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family. Our preliminary results showed the up-regulation of cathepsin S (CTSS) transcript during the early stage of Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. This prompted us to speculate that the CTSS may play a role in infection. In this re...

  16. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine is a beta-amino sulfur amino acid found in most animal tissues. It has many important biological functions in mammals including membrane stabilization, antioxidation, cellular osmoregulation, detoxification, neuromodulation, and brain and eye development. Taurine supplementation in juvenil...

  17. Effects of co-stocking smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proliferative gill disease (PGD) in catfish is caused by the myxozoan Henneguya ictaluri. The complex life cycle requires Dero digitata as the oligochaete host. Efforts to control PGD by eradicating D. digitate have been unsuccessful. Smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, (SMB) are opportunistic bot...

  18. IMMUNOTOXICITY IN CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS, FOLLOWING ACUTE EXPOSURE TO TRIBUTYLTIN. (R823881)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS, LEUKOCYTES SECRETE IMMUNOREACTIVE ADRENAL CORTICOTROPIN HORMONE (ACTH). (R823881)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Pentachlorophenol-Induced Cytotoxic, Mitogenic, and Endocrine-Disrupting Activities in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Pentachlorophenol (PCP is an organochlorine compound that has been widely used as a biocide in several industrial, agricultural, and domestic applications. Although it has been shown to induce systemic toxicity and carcinogenesis in several experimental studies, the literature is scarce regarding its toxic mechanisms of action at the cellular and molecular levels. Recent investigations in our laboratory have shown that PCP induces cytotoxicity and transcriptionally activates stress genes in human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells [1]. In this research, we hypothesize that environmental exposure to PCP may trigger cytotoxic, mitogenic, and endocrine-disrupting activities in aquatic organisms including fish. To test this hypothesis, we carried out in vitro cultures of male channel catfish hepatocytes, and performed the fluorescein diacetate assay (FDA to assess for cell viability, and the Western Blot analysis to assess for vitellogenin expression following exposure to PCP. Data obtained from FDA experiments indicated a strong dose-response relationship with respect to PCP cytotoxicity. Upon 48 hrs of exposure, the chemical dose required to cause 50% reduction in cell viability (LD50 was computed to be 1,987.0 + 9.6 μg PCP/mL. The NOAEL and LOAEL were 62.5 + 10.3 μg PCP/mL and 125.0+15.2 μg PCP/mL, respectively. At lower levels of exposure, PCP was found to be mitogenic, showing a strong dose- and time-dependent response with regard to cell proliferation. Western Blot analysis demonstrated the potential of PCP to cause endocrine-disrupting activity, as evidenced by the up regulation of the 125-kDa vitellogenin protein the hepatocytes of male channel catfish.

  1. Molecular Cloning, Expression and Genome Organization of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the course of studying pathogenesis of enteric septicemia of catfish, we noted that channel catfish matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene was up-regulated after Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. In this study, we cloned, sequenced using the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method and cha...

  2. Ontogeny of the cortisol stress response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone which is an endocrine signaling molecule in all vertebrates and acts through intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Cortisol affects many biological functions including immunity, stress, growth, ion homeostasis, and reproduction. The objective of this stu...

  3. Validation of a whole-body cortisol extraction procedure for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed and validated a whole-body cortisol extraction technique for catfish fry. Their small size (cortisol, a common indicator of a stress response, using conventional assay methods. Three volume enhancement methods were tested: CAL method (zero calibrator...

  4. Plasma cortisol stress response in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus influences susceptibility to Edwardeseilla ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone in fish as its plasma variations correlate with the occurrence of various stressful situations. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had a reduced ability to resist pathogens. Channel catfish fingerlings th...

  5. Characterization of edible film fabricated with channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) gelatin extract using selected pretreatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S; Wang, Y; Herring, J L; Oh, J-H

    2007-11-01

    Farm-raised catfish are important to the economy of the southeastern states in the United States, and catfish processing produces about 55% of by-products for inexpensive sale. Therefore, the utilization of catfish by-products is of great interest to the catfish industry. The objectives of this research were to determine the optimum pretreatment method to extract catfish gelatin for edible film application, and to characterize physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of edible films fabricated with catfish skin gelatin. Catfish skins obtained from a local plant were treated with 6 selected pretreatment methods. The main extraction was performed with deionized water at 50 degrees C after pretreatment. The gelatin yield was calculated and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to characterize molecular weight (MW) profile. Color, tensile strength (TS), elongation, and water barrier property were determined to characterize the fabricated catfish gelatin films. From the results of gelatin yield, color, SDS-PAGE, as well as mechanical and barrier properties of the film, the pretreatment method with 0.25 M NaOH and 0.09 M acetic acid, followed by extraction at 50 degrees C for 3 h, was determined as the optimum extraction method. The catfish gelatin exhibited higher MW fractions than commercial mammalian gelatin. The catfish gelatin extracts possessed film-forming properties determined by TS, elongation, and water vapor permeability (WVP) comparable to those of commercial mammalian gelatin. The selected formula for catfish gelatin film was determined as 1% gelatin and 20% glycerol, resulting in greatest TS and lowest WVP.

  6. Simulation modeling to explore the effects of length-based harvest regulations for Ictalurus fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.; Shoup, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Management of Blue Catfish Ictalurus furcatus and Channel Catfish I. punctatus for trophy production has recently become more common. Typically, trophy management is attempted with length-based regulations that allow for the moderate harvest of small fish but restrict the harvest of larger fish. However, the specific regulations used vary considerably across populations, and no modeling efforts have evaluated their effectiveness. We used simulation modeling to compare total yield, trophy biomass (Btrophy), and sustainability (spawning potential ratio [SPR] > 0.30) of Blue Catfish and Channel Catfish populations under three scenarios: (1) current regulation (typically a length-based trophy regulation), (2) the best-performing minimum length regulation (MLRbest), and (3) the best-performing length-based trophy catfish regulation (LTRbest; “best performing” was defined as the regulation that maximized yield, Btrophy, and sustainability). The Btrophy produced did not differ among the three scenarios. For each fishery, the MLRbest and LTRbest produced greater yield (>22% more) than the current regulation and maintained sustainability at higher finite exploitation rates (>0.30) than the current regulation. The MLRbest and LTRbest produced similar yields and SPRs for Channel Catfish and similar yields for Blue Catfish; however, the MLRbest for Blue Catfish produced more resilient fisheries (higher SPR) than the LTRbest. Overall, the variation in yield, Btrophy, and SPR among populations was greater than the variation among regulations applied to any given population, suggesting that population-specific regulations may be preferable to regulations applied to geographic regions. We conclude that LTRs are useful for improving catfish yield and maintaining sustainability without overly restricting harvest but are not effective at increasing the Btrophy of catfish.

  7. Effect of nutrient restriction and re-feeding on calpain family genes in skeletal muscle of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Preziosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calpains, a superfamily of intracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, are involved in the cytoskeletal remodeling and wasting of skeletal muscle. Calpains are generated as inactive proenzymes which are activated by N-terminal autolysis induced by calcium-ions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of three calpain genes, clpn1, clpn2, and clpn3 in channel catfish, and assessed the effect of nutrient restriction and subsequent re-feeding on the expression of these genes in skeletal muscle. The clpn1 cDNA sequence encodes a protein of 704 amino acids, Clpn2 of 696 amino acids, and Clpn3 of 741 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences indicate that catfish Clpn1 and Clpn2 share a sequence similarity of 61%; catfish Clpn1 and Clpn3 of 48%, and Clpn2 and Clpn3 of only 45%. The domain structure architectures of all three calpain genes in channel catfish are similar to those of other vertebrates, further supported by strong bootstrap values during phylogenetic analyses. Starvation of channel catfish (average weight, 15-20 g for 35 days influenced the expression of clpn1 (2.3-fold decrease, P<0.05, clpn2 (1.3-fold increase, P<0.05, and clpn3 (13.0-fold decrease, P<0.05, whereas the subsequent refeeding did not change the expression of these genes as measured by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Calpain catalytic activity in channel catfish skeletal muscle showed significant differences only during the starvation period, with a 1.2- and 1.4- fold increase (P<0.01 after 17 and 35 days of starvation, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We have assessed that fasting and refeeding may provide a suitable experimental model to provide us insight into the role of calpains during fish muscle atrophy and how they respond to changes in nutrient supply.

  8. Iron status of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus affected by channel catfish anemia and response to parenteral iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Originally reported in 1983, channel catfish anemia (CCA), also ‘white lip’ or ‘no blood,’ is a major idiopathic disease affecting commercial production in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Affected individuals are characterized by lethargy, anorexia, extreme pallor, and packed cell volumes o...

  9. DNAk is a dominant epitope in the humoral immune response of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination remains a viable alternative for bacterial disease protection in fish; however additional work is required to understand the mechanisms of adaptive immunity in the channel catfish. To assess the humoral immune response to Flavobacterium columnare; a group of channel catfish were first im...

  10. Molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns of five protein arginine methyltransferase genes of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Klesius, Phillip H

    2012-08-01

    Protein arginine methylation, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT), has recently emerged as an important modification in the regulation of gene expression. In this communication, we identified and characterized the channel catfish orthologs to human PRMT 1, 3, 4 and 5, and PRMT4 like. Each PRMT nucleic acid sequence has an open reading frame (ORF) and 3'-untranslated regions. Each ORF appears to encode 361, 587 and 458 amino acid residues for PRMT1, PRMT4 and variant, respectively. The partial ORF of PRMT3 and PRMT5 encode 292 and 563 amino acids, respectively. By comparison with the human counterparts, each channel catfish PRMT also has conserved domains. For expression profile, the channel catfish PRMT1 transcript was detected by RT-PCR in spleens, anterior kidneys, livers, intestines, skin and gills of fish examined. Except in liver, the PRMT3 transcript was detected in all catfish tissues examined. However, the PRMT4 cDNA was detected in livers from all three catfish and gills from two fish, but not other tissues. This information will enable us to further elucidate PRMT functions in channel catfish.

  11. Impact of oral and waterborne administration of rhamnolipids on the susceptibility of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to Flavobacterium columnare infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease and causes tremendous morbidity and mortality of farmed fish globally. Previously, we identified a potential lectin-mediator (a rhamnose-binding lectin; RBL1a) of F. columnare adhesion and showed higher RBL1a expression in suscept...

  12. Sequence analysis, characterization and tissue distribution of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) myeloperoxidase cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeloperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), a heme-containing lysosomal glycoprotein, is found predominantly in azurophilic granules of neutrophils. This enzyme upon activation catalyzes hydrogen peroxide in the presence of various halide ions to form hypohalous acids. Subsequently, these reagents are able to ...

  13. Spatial and seasonal variations on Henneguya exilis prevalence on cage intensive cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, in Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Luis Rábago-Castro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diseases are of particular importance for aquaculture worldwide, particularly in intensive culture. In Mexico, intensive culture of channel catfish is mainly done in floating cages. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of the myxozoan Henneguya and the effect of site, period and host length on its prevalence in cage-cultured channel catfish. Over a year, fish were examined on six different sites. Results showed the presence of Henneguya exilis in all the farms. However, no significant effects were observed for site and season on prevalence, nor was there a correlation between host length and infection prevalence.

  14. Non-infectivity of Cattle Streptococcus agalactiae in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is classified as a Lancefield’s group B Streptococcus (GBS). It is the causative bacterium of streptococcosis that is responsible for severe economic losses in wild and cultured fish, worldwide. Streptococcus agalactiae also causes bovine mastitis. Only limited comparativ...

  15. Can native species crucian carp Carassius auratus recognizes the introduced red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengjin CAI, Zhengjun WU, Nan HE, Zhenxing WANG, Chengming HUANG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Procambarus clarkii is native to the south-central United States (Louisiana and northeastern Mexico, and is a highly efficient predator that poses a damager to native species after its introduction or invasion. In its natural habitat, P. clarkii consumes Carassius auratus, however, whether C. auratus recognizes P. clarkii as a predator is not yet clear. In laboratory experiments, we investigated whether experienced and inexperienced C. auratus recognize P. clarkii as a predatory threat and the specific sensory modality used by C. auratus to respond to chemical and visual stimuli from P. clarkii. In the chemical stimuli experiment, two kinds of chemical stimuli were used, water from a tub containing P. clarkii previously fed with C. auratus (C. auratus diet cues and water from a tub containing unfed P. clarkii (P. clarkii cues. In the visual experiment, experienced C. auratus decreased activity, but inexperienced C.auratus avoided the predator compartment. When C. auratus diet cues were presented, both experienced and inexperienced C. auratus increased the use of shelter, decreased activity in the initial response phase. Compared with the blank treatment, experienced C. auratus responded to P. clarkii cues by decreasing activity; however, inexperienced C. auratus showed no reduction in activity. C. auratus appears to recognize P. clarkii as a predator both through visual and chemical cues. Further analysis revealed that C. auratus may recognize P. clarkii visually through the disturbances caused by P. clarkii movement and chemically by detecting conspecific alarm cues in the diet of P. clarkii. The results also indicate that experienced C. auratus can recognize P. clarkii by innate chemical cues from P. clarkii, whereas inexperienced C. auratus cannot [Current Zoology 57 (3: 330–339, 2011].

  16. Can native species crucian carp Carassius auratus recognizes the introduced red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengjin CAI; Zhengjun WU; Nan HE; Zhenxing WANG; Chengming HUANG

    2011-01-01

    Procambarus clarkii is native to the south-central United States (Louisiana) and northeastern Mexico, and is a highly efficient predator that poses a damager to native species after its introduction or invasion. In its natural habitat, P. Clarkii consumes Carassius auratus, however, whether C. Auratus recognizes P. Clarkii as a predator is not yet clear. In laboratory experiments, we investigated whether experienced and inexperienced C. Auratus recognize P. Clarkii as a predatory threat and the specific sensory modality used by C. Auratus to respond to chemical and visual stimuli from P. Clarkii. In the chemical stimuli experiment, two kinds of chemical stimuli were used, water from a tub containing P. Clarkii previously fed with C. Auratus (C. Auratus diet cues) and water from a tub containing unfed P. Clarkii (P. Clarkii cues). In the visual experiment, experienced C. Auratus decreased activity, but inexperienced C.auratus avoided the predator compartment. When C. Auratus diet cues were presented, both experienced and inexperienced C. Auratus increased the use of shelter, decreased activity in the initial response phase. Compared with the blank treatment, experienced C. Auratus responded to P. Clarkii cues by decreasing activity; however, inexperienced C. Auratus showed no reduction in activity. C. Auratus appears to recognize P. Clarkii as a predator both through visual and chemical cues. Further analysis revealed that C. Auratus may recognize P. Clarkii visually through the disturbances caused by P. Clarkii movement and chemically by detecting conspecific alarm cues in the diet of P. Clarkii. The results also indicate that experienced C. Auratus can recognize P. Clarkii by innate chemical cues from P. Clarkii, whereas inexperienced C. Auratus cannot.

  17. PARASITES INFECTIONS OF GOLDFISH (Carassius auratus L.

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    Emil Gjurčević

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Removing fish from their natural environment, and placing them in aquariums, where large number is concentrated on small space, causes not only stress but increases the possibility of disease. In these unnatural conditions but often adequate for parasite reproduction, parasites can cause diseases leading to death. In our work we investigated parasites presence in goldfish (Carassius auratus L. kept in aquarium, from three different pet shops. The study showed presence of: Trypanoplasma sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Myxoboulus sp., Dactylogyrus sp. and Gyrodactylus sp. Considering the number of parasites found in examined fish, it can be possible that parasites can cause mortality in goldfish. Therefore, special caution has to be on quarantine and healthcare while importing especially exotic aquarium fish that may be infected with exotic parasites. In case of disease, proper treatment in due time has to be conducted.

  18. Morphological and molecular characterization of Thelohanellus hoffmanni sp. nov. (Myxozoa) infecting goldfish Carassius auratus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewisch, Eva; Soliman, Hatem; Schmidt, Peter; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-06-29

    A new species of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 (Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) was isolated from the fins of goldfish Carassius auratus auratus (Linnaeus 1758). The fish had been imported from China by an Austrian retailer. Nodules from the margins of the fins contained pyriform myxospores with a singular polar capsule. In valvular view, the spores measured 12.2 µm in length and 6.4 µm in width. In sutural view, the thickness was 2.9 µm. The polar capsule measured 4.2 × 3.1 µm and contained a polar filament with 8 to 9 coils. Histological sections showed plasmodia of 0.2 to 4.0 mm diameter with the earlier developmental stages of the parasite in the periphery and the mature spores closer to the center. In the transmission electron microscope examination, the different developmental stages could be observed. Morphological data, host specificity, tissue tropism, and molecular analysis of the small subunit rDNA identify this parasite as a new species of Thelohanellus, which we have named Thelohanellus hoffmanni sp. nov.

  19. Japanese queenless ants, Pristomyrmex punctatus, prefer the traces of both nestmates and strangers in nest selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satow, Show; Saitow, Yuka; Yamaki, Shōtarō; Hirota, Tadao

    2013-07-01

    Conspecific avoidance may influence the spatial distribution of colonies in some ants. House-hunting ants (Temnothorax albipennis) avoid nesting in areas where non-nestmates have nested previously. However, no reports are available on conspecific avoidance during nest selection in other ants. In the present study, we investigated nest selection in another nomadic species, the Japanese queenless ant, Pristomyrmex punctatus. Two-choice tests revealed that, similar to house-hunting ants, P. punctatus preferred nests soiled by nestmates to clean nests. However, unlike house-hunting ants, P. punctatus also preferred nests soiled by non-nestmates to a clean nest. Given the choice between a nest soiled by nestmates and one soiled by strangers, P. punctatus, unlike house-haunting ants, showed no significant preference. Thus, conspecific avoidance in nest selection was not observed in P. punctatus. Interspecific differences in ecological factors may drive the evolution of different nest selection strategies.

  20. Biochemical enrichment and biophysical characterization of a taste receptor for L-arginine from the catfish, Ictalurus puntatus

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    Spielman Andrew I

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is invested with a high density of cutaneous taste receptors, particularly on the barbel appendages. Many of these receptors are sensitive to selected amino acids, one of these being a receptor for L-arginine (L-Arg. Previous neurophysiological and biophysical studies suggested that this taste receptor is coupled directly to a cation channel and behaves as a ligand-gated ion channel receptor (LGICR. Earlier studies demonstrated that two lectins, Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA-I and Phaseolus vulgaris Erythroagglutinin (PHA-E, inhibited the binding of L-Arg to its presumed receptor sites, and that PHA-E inhibited the L-Arg-stimulated ion conductance of barbel membranes reconstituted into lipid bilayers. Results Both PHA-E and RCA-I almost exclusively labeled an 82–84 kDa protein band of an SDS-PAGE of solubilized barbel taste epithelial membranes. Further, both rhodamine-conjugated RCA-I and polyclonal antibodies raised to the 82–84 kDa electroeluted peptides labeled the apical region of catfish taste buds. Because of the specificity shown by RCA-I, lectin affinity was chosen as the first of a three-step procedure designed to enrich the presumed LGICR for L-Arg. Purified and CHAPS-solubilized taste epithelial membrane proteins were subjected successively to (1, lectin (RCA-I affinity; (2, gel filtration (Sephacryl S-300HR; and (3, ion exchange chromatography. All fractions from each chromatography step were evaluated for L-Arg-induced ion channel activity by reconstituting each fraction into a lipid bilayer. Active fractions demonstrated L-Arg-induced channel activity that was inhibited by D-arginine (D-Arg with kinetics nearly identical to those reported earlier for L-Arg-stimulated ion channels of native barbel membranes reconstituted into lipid bilayers. After the final enrichment step, SDS-PAGE of the active ion channel protein fraction revealed a single band at 82–84 k

  1. Pectoral sound generation in the blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Yasha; Ghahramani, Zachary; Fine, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    Catfishes produce pectoral stridulatory sounds by "jerk" movements that rub ridges on the dorsal process against the cleithrum. We recorded sound synchronized with high-speed video to investigate the hypothesis that blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus produce sounds by a slip-stick mechanism, previously described only in invertebrates. Blue catfish produce a variably paced series of sound pulses during abduction sweeps (pulsers) although some individuals (sliders) form longer duration sound units (slides) interspersed with pulses. Typical pulser sounds are evoked by short 1-2 ms movements with a rotation of 2°-3°. Jerks excite sounds that increase in amplitude after motion stops, suggesting constructive interference, which decays before the next jerk. Longer contact of the ridges produces a more steady-state sound in slides. Pulse pattern during stridulation is determined by pauses without movement: the spine moves during about 14 % of the abduction sweep in pulsers (~45 % in sliders) although movement appears continuous to the human eye. Spine rotation parameters do not predict pulse amplitude, but amplitude correlates with pause duration suggesting that force between the dorsal process and cleithrum increases with longer pauses. Sound production, stimulated by a series of rapid movements that set the pectoral girdle into resonance, is caused by a slip-stick mechanism.

  2. Determination of niclosamide residues in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillet tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, T.M.; Dawson, V.K.; Cho, Yirang; Spanjers, N.J.; Boogaard, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Bayluscide [the ethanolamine salt of niclosamide (NIC)] is a registered piscicide used in combination with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to control sea lamprey populations in streams tributary to the Great Lakes. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of NIC residues in muscle fillet tissues of fish exposed to NIC and TFM during sea lamprey control treatments. NIC was extracted from fortified channel catfish and rainbow trout fillet tissue with a series of acetone extractions and cleaned up on C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridges. NIC concentrations were determined by HPLC with detection at 360 and 335 nm for rainbow trout and catfish, respectively. Recovery of NIC from rainbow trout (n = 7) fortified at 0.04 mu g/g was 77 +/- 6.5% and from channel catfish (n = 7) fortified at 0.02 mu g/g was 113 +/- 11%. NIC detection limit was 0.0107 mu g/g for rainbow trout and 0.0063 mu g/g for catfish. Percent recovery of incurred radioactive residues by this method from catfish exposed to [C-14]NIC was 89.3 +/- 4.1%. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for rainbow trout (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 78 +/- 5.1 and 68 +/- 2.4%, respectively. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for channel catfish (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 88 +/- 13 and 76 +/- 21%, respectively.

  3. Poly I:C induces an antiviral state against Ictalurid Herpesvirus 1 and Mx1 transcription in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Karen P; Harbottle, Heather; Thune, Ronald L

    2005-01-01

    In vivo studies were carried out to investigate the protective effect of the interferon inducer poly I:C against channel catfish virus (CCV). Channel catfish were stimulated by intraperitoneal injection of 50 microg of poly I:C or PBS at various days prior to immersion challenge with CCV. Mortality in the poly I:C group was significantly reduced from 70% to 3% at day 1 compared to the PBS controls. Mortality increased at day 3 but was still significantly different from the PBS controls. Mx1 transcription was significantly higher only at day 1. In an additional study Mx1 transcription was monitored in the liver, kidney, gills, spleen, and intestine at various time points post-stimulation with either poly I:C or CCV. Mx1 mRNA was significantly elevated in all organs only at day 1 post-injection with poly I:C. In response to CCV, Mx1 transcription was not significantly elevated until day 3 post-challenge, but remained elevated in certain organs until day 7.

  4. Influence of dietary Coexposure to benzo(a)pyrene on the biotransformation and distribution of 14C-methoxychlor in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyagode, Beatrice A; James, Margaret O; Kleinow, Kevin M

    2009-04-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide whose mono- and bis-demethylated metabolites, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (OH-MXC) and 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE), respectively, are estrogenic and antiandrogenic. Studies in vitro showed that treatment of channel catfish with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon increased phase I and phase II metabolism of MXC. To determine the in vivo significance, groups of four channel catfish were treated by gavage for 6 days with 2 mg/kg (14)C-MXC alone or 2 mg/kg (14)C-MXC and 2 mg/kg benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). On day 7, blood and tissue samples were taken for analysis. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity was 10-fold higher in the BaP-treated catfish, indicating CYP1A induction. More MXC-derived radioactivity remained in control (42.8 +/- 4.1%) than BaP-induced catfish (28.5 +/- 3.2%), mean percent total dose +/- SE. Bile, muscle and fat contained approximately 90% of the radioactivity remaining in control and induced catfish. Extraction and chromatographic analysis showed that liver contained MXC, OH-MXC, HPTE, and glucuronide but not sulfate conjugates of OH-MXC and HPTE. Liver mitochondria contained more MXC, OH-MXC, and HPTE than other subcellular fractions. Bile contained glucuronides of OH-MXC and HPTE, and hydrolysis of bile gave HPTE and both enantiomers of OH-MXC. The muscle, visceral fat, brain and gonads contained MXC, OH-MXC, and HPTE in varying proportions, but no conjugates. This study showed that catfish coexposed to BaP and MXC retained less MXC and metabolites in tissues than those exposed to MXC alone, suggesting that induction enhanced the elimination of MXC, and further showed that potentially toxic metabolites of MXC were present in the edible tissues.

  5. TRIBUTYLTIN (TBT) MODULATES 3,3'4,4',5-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL (PCB-126)-INDUCED HEPATIC CYP1A ACTIVITY IN CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS. (R823881)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. INFLUENCE OF NAPHTHOFLAVONE AND METHOYXCHLOR PRETREATMENT ON THE BIOTRANSFORMATION AND ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY OF METHOXYCHLOR IN CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) (R823450)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. Potency of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus (individual vs pooled) sperm to fertilize stripped channel catfish, I. punctatus eggs on the production and performance of progeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel x blue hybrid catfish is the desired genotype for US farm-raised catfish industry. Induced spawning of gravid channel catfish, followed by fertilization of stripped eggs with blue catfish sperm is the only reliable means to produce hybrid catfish embryos in hatcheries. Hybrid catfish fry p...

  8. Expression of leptin-like mRNA in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is induced by exposure to Edwardsiella ictaluri but is independent of energy status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptin is a key pleiotropic cytokine involved in regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals. In channel catfish, the presence of a messenger RNA that encodes a leptin-like peptide (LLP) has been described. The objectives of our studies were to characterize tissue expression of LLP...

  9. Water quality and plankton communities in hybrid catfish (female channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus x male blue catfish, I. furcatus) ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve, 0.4-ha ponds were stocked with 10,000 hybrid catfish fingerlings in March 2015. Six ponds were partially harvested in August to remove fish larger than ~ 0.57 kg. All remaining fish were removed in October and November. Partial harvest of faster-growing fish removed ~26% of fish initially st...

  10. Interaction of xenobiotics with estrogen receptors α and β and a putative plasma sex hormone-binding globulin from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, William L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Maule, Alec G.

    2004-01-01

    Estrogens are important regulators of physiological functions. Although environmental contaminants (xenoestrogens) which interfere with estrogen signaling are of increasing concern, there is only limited information about their ability to interact with estrogen-binding proteins (SHBG) or receptors (ER). Recombinant ER?? and ?? were obtained after transient transfection of COS-7 cells with channel catfish ER cDNA. Plasma from adult female channel catfish was the source of SHBG. Tritiated estradiol ( 3H-E2) was used in standard radioligand-binding assays to characterize the binding properties of channel catfish SHBG (ccfSHBG) and to estimate the inhibition constants for various estrogenic compounds. Binding of 3H-E2 to ccfSHBG was saturable and of high affinity with a Kd (??SE) of 1.9??0.14nM and a Bmax of 14.3??2.4pmol/mg protein (n=3 assays). Additionally, ccfSHBG displayed binding specificity for androgens and estrogens. Endosulfan, 4-nonylphenol, and 4-octylphenol displaced 3H-E2 binding to ccfSHBG albeit only at very high concentrations, whereas dieldrin and atrazine showed little displacement activity even at the highest concentrations used. The synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol had higher affinity than E2 for ccfSHBG. This finding differs from results with human and rainbow trout SHBG. The alkylphenolic compounds (4-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol) displayed some ability to displace 3H-E2 binding from ER?? and ?? at high concentrations, but dieldrin and atrazine had little binding activity for both ER subtypes and endosulfan for ER??. The xenobiotics tested generally showed equivalent or greater affinity for ER?? than ER??, whereas natural estrogens had much greater affinity for ER?? than ER??. These observations suggest that results of studies using fish tissue ER extracts must be interpreted with caution, since both ER subtypes may be present, and that the binding of xenoestrogens to SHBG must be taken into account for proper assessment of endocrine disruption caused by environmental contaminants.

  11. Redescription of Pterygoplichthys punctatus and description of a new species of Pterygoplichthys (Siluriformes: Loricariidae

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    Jonathan W. Armbruster

    Full Text Available Pterygoplichthys punctatus and P. weberi, new species, are unique among hypostomines in having a medially divided buccal papilla. The two species can be separated from one another by color (small spots in P. punctatus, large in P. weberi, condition of the buccal papilla (deeply divided at all ages in P. punctatus vs. shallowly divided in adults of P. weberi, condition of the lateral keel odontodes (fairly short and directed posteriorly in P. punctatus vs. large and directed almost laterally in P. weberi, and body width (SL/cleithral width 3.6-4.0 in P. punctatus vs. 3.3-3.4 in P. weberi. Pterygoplichthys punctatus is known from the rio Madeira drainage and the rio Urubu of Brazil and has published, but unconfirmed localities in the rio Purus and rio Tocantins basin, and P. weberi is known from the Río Marañon, Río Ucayali, and upper Río Amazonas drainages of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

  12. Resistencia a antibioticos y presencia de plasmidos en: Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, aislados de Carassius auratus auratus

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Negrete Redondo; Jorge Romero Jarero; José Luis Arredondo Figueroa

    2004-01-01

    Se aislaron e identificaron 70 cepas bacterianas del riñón de peces de ornato Carassius auratus con signos y lesiones de infección. Las especies bacterianas aisladas e identificadas, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, han sido descritas como causantes de diarrea en humano y como patógeno muy agresivo en cultivos de Ciprinus carpio. Por esta razón se ha hecho mal uso y abuso de antibióticos para evitar y controlar la presencia de esta bacteria en los cultivos. El uso fu...

  13. Peptides from the scorpion Vaejovis punctatus with broad antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Carreto, Santos; Jiménez-Vargas, Juana María; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Corzo, Gerardo; Possani, Lourival D; Becerril, Baltazar; Ortiz, Ernesto

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial potential of two new non-disulfide bound peptides, named VpAmp1.0 (LPFFLLSLIPSAISAIKKI, amidated) and VpAmp2.0 (FWGFLGKLAMKAVPSLIGGNKSSSK) is here reported. These are 19- and 25-aminoacid-long peptides with +2 and +4 net charges, respectively. Their sequences correspond to the predicted mature regions from longer precursors, putatively encoded by cDNAs derived from the venom glands of the Mexican scorpion Vaejovis punctatus. Both peptides were chemically synthesized and assayed against a variety of microorganisms, including pathogenic strains from clinical isolates and strains resistant to conventional antibiotics. Two shorter variants, named VpAmp1.1 (FFLLSLIPSAISAIKKI, amidated) and VpAmp2.1 (FWGFLGKLAMKAVPSLIGGNKK), were also synthesized and tested. The antimicrobial assays revealed that the four synthetic peptides effectively inhibit the growth of both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiaea) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, with MICs in the range of 2.5-24.0 μM; yeasts (Candida albicans and Candida glabrata) with MICs of 3.1-50.0 μM; and two clinically isolated strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-including a multi-drug resistant one- with MICs in the range of 4.8-30.5 μM. A comparison between the activities of the original peptides and their derivatives gives insight into the structural/functional role of their distinctive residues.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of spotted hidden-teeth goby Apocryptodon punctatus Tomiyama (Perciformes, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhong-Han; Chen, I-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the oxudercine, spotted hidden-teeth goby Apocryptodon punctatus (Tomiyama, 1934) has been amplified in this study. Apocryptodon punctatus was found in Japan, Taiwan and Eastern Mainland China. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,567 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 1 control region (CR) and 1 light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition of Apocryptodon punctatus is 29.2% for A, 28.6% for T, 25.9% for C, 16.3% for G, with higher AT content 57.8%. This study will contribute and be rather beneficial for understanding the phylogenetic approach of species of Apocryptodon and the related genera among gobioids.

  15. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of tetraploid Carassius auratus gibelio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced from the tetraploid Carassius auratus gibelio in this study. The genome sequence was 16,576 bp in length. The mitochondrial genome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and 2 non-coding regions (control region and origin of light-strand replication). All genes were encoded on the heavy strain except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The overall base composition is 31.61% A, 25.81% T, 26.62% G, 15.96% C, with an A+T bias of 57.42%. The complete mitogenome data provides useful genetic markers for the studies on the molecular identification, population genetics, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics.

  16. Estudios inmunologicos en hamsters (Cricetus auratus infectados con Schistosoma mansoni

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    Eduardo Monge

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que el hamster (Cricetus auratus puede ser utilizado como un modelo experimental para estudios inmunológicos en la infección por Schistosoma mansoni. Los datos obtenidos, relativos a inmunidad concomitante, producción de anticuerpo letal e inmunosupresión se asemejan a los conseguidos en otros modelos experimentales ya establecidos. Estas observaciones indican que el hámster, además de ser un hospedero satisfactorio para el mantenimiento del parásito en el laboratorio, puede ser considerado como un modelo experimental alterno cuyo crecimiento y mantenimiento son relativamente simples y además es un animal de fácil manejo.

  17. Genetic variation and population history of three Carassius auratus populations in Huaihe River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Yuanjun; Yang, Chengzhong

    2016-11-01

    In order to investigate the relationships of drainage history of Huaihe River with the genetic history of Carassius auratus along the river, we examined the genetic variations and population histories of three wild C. auratus populations in Huaihe River based on the D-loop gene. The results showed that their nucleotide and haplotype diversities were ranged from 0.00268 to 0.00651 and from 0.863 to 0.902, respectively, and their genetic distance was quite small. The analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that a frequent inter-population connection and large historic gene flows occurred among the three populations. Demographic analysis indicated that expansions had been happened in three populations. After investigating the historic process of the Huaihe River, we presumed that both nature and artificial factors may play important roles in shaping the genetic structure of the three populations. The present study also provided genetic information of C. auratus for further conservation of its germplasm resources.

  18. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) within a Temperate Marine Protected Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasti, David; Lee, Kate A; Gallen, Christopher; Hughes, Julian M; Stewart, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs). We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae); a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing), with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high). Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days). The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years.

  19. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus within a Temperate Marine Protected Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harasti

    Full Text Available Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs. We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae; a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing, with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high. Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days. The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years.

  20. Hypoxia impairs visual acuity in snapper (Pagrus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Esme; Jerrett, Alistair; Black, Suzanne; Davison, William

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the effect of environmental hypoxia on vision in snapper (Pagrus auratus). Juvenile snapper inhabit estuarine environments where oxygen conditions fluctuate on a seasonal basis. Optomotor experiments demonstrated that visual acuity is impaired by environmental hypoxia, but not until levels approach the critical oxygen tension (P crit) of this species (around 25% air-saturated seawater). In 100, 80, and 60% air-saturated seawater, a positive optomotor response was present at a minimum separable angle (M SA) of 1°. In 40% air-saturated seawater, vision was partially impaired with positive responses at M SAs of 2° and above. However, in 25% air-saturated seawater, visual acuity was seriously impaired, with positive responses only present at M SAs of 6° and above. Snapper were found to possess a choroid rete, facilitating the maintenance of high ocular oxygen partial pressures (PO2) during normoxia and moderate hypoxia (PO2, between 269 and 290 mmHg). However, at 40 and 25% water oxygen saturation, ocular PO2 was reduced to below 175 mmHg, which is perhaps linked to impairment of visual acuity in these conditions. The ability to preserve visual function during moderate hypoxia is beneficial for the maintenance of a visual lifestyle in the fluctuating oxygen environments of estuaries.

  1. Multistress effects on goldfish (Carassius auratus) behavior and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandar, Allison; Jean, Séverine; Canal, Julie; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Gilbert, Franck; Laffaille, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Crossed effects between climate change and chemical pollutions were identified on community structure and ecosystem functioning. Temperature rising affects the toxic properties of pollutants and the sensitiveness of organisms to chemicals stress. Inversely, chemical exposure may decrease the capacity of organisms to respond to environmental changes. The aim of our study was to assess the individual and crossed effects of temperature rising and pesticide contamination on fish. Goldfish, Carassius auratus, were exposed during 96 h at two temperatures (22 and 32 °C) to a mixture of common pesticides (S-metolachlor, isoproturon, linuron, atrazine-desethyl, aclonifen, pendimethalin, and tebuconazol) at two environmentally relevant concentrations (total concentrations MIX1 = 8.4 μg L(-1) and MIX2 = 42 μg L(-1)). We investigated the sediment reworking behavior, which has a major ecological functional role. We also focused on three physiological traits from the cellular up to the whole individual level showing metabolic status of fish (protein concentration in liver and muscle, hepatosomatic index, and Fulton's condition factor). Individual thermal stress and low concentrations of pesticides decreased the sediment reworking activity of fish and entrained metabolic compensation with global depletion in energy stores. We found that combined chemical and thermal stresses impaired the capacity of fish to set up an efficient adaptive response. Our results strongly suggest that temperature will make fish more sensitive to water contamination by pesticides, raising concerns about wild fish conservation submitted to global changes.

  2. Vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is important to the proper development and functioning of the body, appearing in several metabolic functions. This experiment was conducted with aim evaluate to the vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish Carassius auratus. The experimental was completely randomized with six treatments (0, 2.000, 4.000, 8.000, 16.000 and 32.000 IU of vitamin A kg-1 diet with four repetitions into 24 experimental cages, with capacity for 150 liters useful volume, made of mesh shading, installed inside a masonry circular tank with a capacity of 25 m3 of water. 192 fish with an average initial weight of 6.66±0.57 g and initial length of 7.30±0.33 cm, feed at 8h, 11h, 14h and 17h at satiety were used. Evaluated the effects on productive performance and intensity of yellow-red coloring of the skin of the fish were. The Linear Response Plateau analysis of weight gain and length total, feed conversion and daily growth rate versus vitamin A requirement estimate showed 2,624, 2,385 and 2,358, 4,381 and 2,866 IU of vitamin A per kg diet, respectively. The data indicated that this vitamin has little or no influence on the intensity of the skin color of the Goldfish.

  3. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

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    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  4. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego E; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana

    2011-07-25

    The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  5. Oropouche virus experimental infection in the golden hamster (Mesocrisetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alcir Humberto; Santos, Rodrigo Ivo; Arisi, Gabriel Maisonnave; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Silva, Maria Lúcia; Rossi, Marcos Antônio; Lopes, Maria Beatriz Sampaio; Arruda, Eurico

    2011-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV), of the family Bunyaviridae, is the second most frequent arbovirus causing febrile disease in Brazil. In spite of this, little is known about pathogenesis of OROV infection. This report describes an experimental model of OROV in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Following subcutaneous inoculation of OROV, over 50% of the animals developed disease characterized by lethargy, ruffled fur, shivering, paralysis, and approximately one third died. Animals were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 post-inoculation to collect tissue samples from brain, heart, liver, lung, spleen, muscle and blood for virus titration, histology and OROV immunohistochemistry. OROV was detected in high titers in blood, liver and brain, but not in the other organs. Histopathology revealed meningoencephalitis and hepatitis, with abundant OROV antigen detected in liver and brain. Diffuse galectin-3 immunostaining in brain and liver supports microglial and Kupfer cells activation. This is the first description of an experimental model for OROV infection and should be helpful to study pathogenesis and possibly to test antiviral interventions such as drugs and vaccine candidates.

  6. Lower Cambrian phosphatized Punctatus from southern Shaanxi and their ontogeny sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Phosphatized and three-dimensionally preserved embryos and spherical fossils of metazoan recovered from the Kuanchuanpu Member, Dengying Formation in southern Shaanxi, China provide nice developmental sequence for the studies of origination, taxonomy, phylogenic evolution and developmental biology of early animals. Ontogeny of these larva fossils has not been systemically studied mainly due to their poor preservation and limited identification. The Kuanchuanpu Member, predominated by phosphorites and cherts, yields phosphatized animal embryos, particularly those of Olivooides and Punctatus which have high resolution in fine structures and different ontogeny developmental stages. An ontogenetic sequence of the Punctatus is established mainly base on its developmental transitions from body part to oral one, which is perfectly consistent with the embryonic ontogeny sequence proposed by Bengtson and Yue (1997). Furthermore, a new genus Quadrapyrgites gen. nov is erected to receive a larva with tetraradial body plan.

  7. Un caso de xantismo parcial en Aplodactylus punctatus (Teleostei: Aplodactylidae del sur de Perú

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    Philippe Béarez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez en Ilo, sur del Perú, una jerguilla amarilla (Aplodactylus punctatus. Esa condición de tener una piel de color amarillo se denomina xantismo. Este registro, único, corresponde probablemente a una extensión hacia el norte del rango de distribución de la «jerguilla reina», conocida de la costa central de Chile.

  8. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Maesa lanceolata and Plectranthus punctatus against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Dereje; Eguale, Tadesse; Giday, Mirutse; Mussa, Abiy

    2009-03-18

    The widespread development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of the conventional anthelmintic drugs, has limited the control of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep and goats and hence led to evaluation of medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. In the current study, in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the leaves and fruits of the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Maesa lanceolata and aerial parts of Plectranthus punctatus were evaluated on the egg and larvae of Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay and larval development test. All extracts of plants tested have shown complete inhibition of egg hatching at or below 1 mg/ml. ED50 for egg hatch inhibition ranged from 0.11 to 0.29 mg/ml, for both the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata. All extracts have shown dose dependent inhibition of larval development with variable results. The complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (50 mg/ml) was obtained only for hydro-alcoholic extract of the fruits of Maesa lanceolata and the lowest inhibition (50.33%) was recorded for the hydro-alcoholic extract of the leaves of the same plant. The overall findings of the present study has shown that Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata contain possible anthelmintic compounds and further evaluation of different extracts and fractions of these plants should be carried out.

  9. Phosphatized Punctatus with mouthparts and its embryo fossils from the Lower Cambrian of Ningqiang, south Shaanxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yunhuan; LI Yong; SHAO Tiequan; ZHU Zhixin; YU Bo; WANG Zhuo; ZHANG Wanqian; LI Rongxi

    2007-01-01

    The appearance of coelenterates marks the real beginning ofmetazoan evolution. It therefore has a prominent position in the origin and evolutionary history of organisms,and is also a pivotal question of evolutionary biology.Punctatus is an extinct, ancient marine animal from the early stage of the Cambrian explosion, occurring at. The lowermost Cambrian of both Kuanchuanpu (Ningqiang, Shaanxi) and Maidiping (Emei, Sichuan) areas. Punctatus has been studied for many years since the discovery of its fragments. System-atic and phylogenetic analysis has long been limited because of the rarity of complete specimens. In order to improve research into Punctatus, more than ten thousand globular fossils were recovered by means of "Chemistry Retting". On the basis of the study of these globular fossils, a series of Punctatus fossils with cone parts and finely preserved soft-tissue mouthparts and fossilized metazoan embryo were recovered. Through research on characteristics such as shape,modality and structure of these fossils symbiotic with Punctatus emeiensis, the author found many possible embryo fossils including the evidence of gastrula-stage animal fossils.The sequence of fetation might have appeared on the corol-liform oral region of Punctatus emeiensis. A study of the soft tissues, functional morphology and the sequence of embryo fossils shows evidence that Punctatus resembles coelenterate polyps in systematic classification. Perhaps it also represents an ancestor of the coelenterate with an original tentacle. A comparison with the real "tentacle animal" found in the Chengjiang Fauna, shows that the original tentacle is very tiny and its function range is limited. This reveals the primi-tive nature of the animal. Although the original tentacle is so small, it does exist, representing the first big step towards the real flexible tentacle with a strong function from the early evolving tentacle.

  10. Real-time PCR validation of visually identified snapper Chrysophrys auratus (Sparidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, P J; Wakefield, C B; Fairclough, D V; Jackson, G; Travers, M J; Snow, M

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a total of 212 eggs were visually identified as snapper Chrysophrys auratus. Real-time PCR confirmed visual identification in 69% of cases but corroboration varied widely among plankton samples. The use of molecular tools to support visual identification prior to adopting daily egg production stock assessment methods should be considered.

  11. Effect of Atrazine on Antioxidant Enzyme and Its Bioaccumulation in Kidney of Crucian Carp, Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Shunlong; CHEN Jiazhang; WU Wei; HU Gengdong; QU Jianhong; YOU Yang

    2011-01-01

    Etrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in China and the world. Acute and chronic toxicity tests werc carried out to assess the possible toxicity effect of atrazine on crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Results showed that 96 h LC,. of atrazine to Carassius auratus was 105.94 mg. L-1. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferases (GST) in kidney of Carassius auratus were all influenced by atraizine, and CAT was more sensitive to atrazine compared with SOD and GST. Atrazine residues in kidney of Carassius aura/us reached the stable state at day 19, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of atrazine in kidney of Carassius auratus treated with 1.0 mg. L-1 and 10.0 mg. L-1 atrazine were 8.3 and 4.4, respectively. The research demonstrated that atrazine could cause oxidative stress to fish kidney, but atrazine was not easy to accumulate in Carassius auratus kidney, and the antioxidant enzymes could be used as biomarker to the early detection of pollution.

  12. Low salinity acclimation and thyroid hormone metabolizing enzymes in gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaren, P.H.M.; Guzman, J.M.; Reutelingsperger, S.J.; Mancera, J.M.; Flik, G.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of acclimation to low salinity water of gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus), a euryhaline seawater teleost, on the activities of thyroid hormone-metabolizing enzymes in gills, kidney, and liver. Following acclimation to low salinity water, the plasma free thyroxine (T(4)) c

  13. Identification of Triploid Individuals and Clonal Lines in Carassius Auratus Complex Using Microsatellites

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    Zhiyi Bai, Feng Liu, Jiale Li, Gen Hua Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Carassius auratus complex in natural populations includes diploid triploid and polyploidy individuals. Diploid individuals belong to the species Carassius auratus whereas triploid and polyploidy individuals are from the subspecies Carassius auratus gibelio. Triploid individuals are all female and reproduce clonally by gynogenesis. Therefore the Carassius auratus complex is an ideal system for studying evolution of unisexual reproduction. Identification of triploid individuals and clonal lines is the first step towards understanding of the evolution of unisexual clonal lines. We examined the ability of 10 microsatellites in identifying triploid individuals in 94 individuals from Japan and China. In 40 confirmed triploid individuals and eight confirmed diploid individuals, all triploid and diploid individuals can be identified by genotyping 10 microsatellite, and four triploid clonal lines were identified. Using the 10 microsatellites we genotyped 46 adult individuals (40 females and six males from a natural population in China and found that all six males were diploid whereas the majority of females (36 of 40 were triploid and three triploid clonal lines were detected. In 18 diploid individuals from China, all individuals showed different genotypes, suggesting there is no diploid clonal line in diploid crucian carp. A phylogenetic analysis of 94 individuals from China and Japan showed that triploid individuals and clonal lines have originated recurrently.

  14. Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia

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    Iguchi Kei'ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded; CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and

  15. Crecimiento de alevines de Ictalurus Balsanus (pisces:ictaluridae) en condiciones de laboratorio.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Luna-Figueroa; Elsah Arce Uribe

    2016-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio para evaluar el efecto de tres dietas sobre el crecimiento de alevines de Ictalurus balsanus en condiciones de laboratorio. La talla inicial de los peces fue 39.68 ± 2.0 mm de longitud total y 411.47 ± 17.00 mg de peso corporal, colocados en grupos de 10 peces por acuario de 80L. Los bagres fueron alimentados con tres dietas diferentes: I(31,13% proteína, 2,70% grasa, 56,53% carbohidratos), II(39,12%, 3,0%, 35,0%), III(53,57%, 19,37%, 4,17%). Los resultados indican que e...

  16. Explosive development of pectoral muscle fibres in large juvenile blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, S; Fine, M L

    2015-11-01

    As part of an effort on scaling of pectoral spines and muscles, the basis for growth was examined in six pectoral muscles in juvenile blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus, the largest catfish in North America. Fibre number increases slowly in fish from 13.0 to 26.4 cm in total length, doubles by 27.0 cm and remains stable in larger individuals. Simultaneously, mean fibre diameter decreases by half, caused by the addition of new small fibres, before increasing non-linearly in larger fish. The orders of magnitude disparity between the size at hatching and the size of large adults may have selected for rapid muscle fibre addition at a threshold size.

  17. Antidiabetic Effects of Carassius auratus Complex Formula in High Fat Diet Combined Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  18. Environmental Assessment Building 5745, Historical Building Demolition, Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Thryothorus ludovicianus MAMMALS White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus Gray Squirrel Sciurus carolinensis Fox Squirrel...macrochirus Redear Sunfish Lepomis microlophus Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Blue Catfish Ictalurus furcatus 3.3.1.8

  19. Linking nutrient inputs, phytoplankton composition, zooplankton dynamics and the recruitment of pink snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in a temperate bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kerry P.; Longmore, Andrew R.; Hamer, Paul A.; Lee, Randall; Swearer, Stephen E.; Jenkins, Gregory P.

    2016-12-01

    Survival of larval fish is often linked to production of preferred prey such as copepods, both inter- and intra-annually. In turn, copepod production depends not only the quantity of food, but also on the nutritional quality, edibility and/or toxicity of their micro-algal food. Hence, larval fish survival can become de-coupled from levels of nutrient input depending on the resulting composition of the plankton. Here we use a plankton dynamics model to study nutrient input, phytoplankton composition and copepod, Paracalanus, production in relation to interannual variation in recruitment of snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. The model was able to simulate the ratio of diatoms to flagellates in the plume of the main river entering Port Phillip Bay. Interannual variability in the copepod, Paracalanus, abundance during the C. auratus spawning period over 5 years was accurately predicted. The seasonal peak in Paracalanus production depended on the timing and magnitude (match-mismatch) of nutrient inputs and how these were reflected in temporal change in the diatom:flagellate ratio. In turn, the model-predicted Paracalanus abundance was strongly related to inter-annaul variability in abundance of snapper, C. auratus, larvae over 7 years. Years of highest larval C. auratus abundance coincided with a matching of the spawning period with the peak in Paracalanus abundance. High freshwater flows and nutrient inputs led to an early seasonal dominance of diatoms, and consequently reduced abundances of copepods over the C. auratus spawning period with correspondingly low abundances of larvae. Conversely years of very low rainfall and nutrient input also led to low phytoplankton and copepod concentrations and larval C. auratus abundances. Highest abundances of larval C. auratus occurred in years of low to intermediate rainfall and nutrient inputs, particularly when pulses of nutrients occurred in the spring period, the latter supporting the match

  20. Immunotoxicity of bisphenol A to Carassius auratus lymphocytes and macrophages following in vitro exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Da-qiang; HU Shuang-qing; GU Ying; WEI Li; LIU Shu-shen; ZHANG Ai-qian

    2007-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the monomer component of polycarbonate plastics and classified as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC).The reproductive toxicity of BPA has been extensively studied in mammals; however, relatively little information is available on the immunotoxic responses of fish to BPA. In this study, we investigated the effects of BPA on the immune functions of lymphocytes and macrophages in Carassius auratus. The effects of BPA were compared with those of two natural steroid hormones, estradiol and hydrocortisone. Proliferation of the two types of cells in response to PHA was measured using colorimetric MTT assay. Macrophage respiratory burst stimulated by Con A was measured using chemiluminescence assay. Results showed that BPA (0.054-5.4 mg/L),estradiol (0.0002-2.0 mg/L) and hydrocortisone (5-50 mg/L) significantly induced Carassius auratus lymphocyte proliferation while higher doses of hydrocortisone (500-5000 mg/L) appeared to be inhibitory. BPA (0.005-50 mg/L), estradiol (0.005-800 mg/L) and hydrocortisone (0.005-500 mg/L) markedly enhanced macrophage proliferation, whereas higher doses of BPA (500-1000 mg/L)appeared to inhibit cell proliferation. Furthermore, higher dosage of BPA (50 mg/L) and hydrocortisone (50 and 500 mg/L) suppressed the macrophages respiratory burst while estradiol is stimulative all the doses tested (0.05-500 mg/L). In conclusion, BPA could have immunotoxicity to Carassius auratus and functional changes of lymphocyte and macrophage in Carassius auratus may be different between low and high dosages.

  1. Chromosome breakages associated with 45S ribosomal DNA sequences in spotted snakehead fish Channa punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamta; Barman, Anindya Sundar

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that transcriptionally inactive rRNA genes are correlated with DNA hyper-methylation and histone hypo-methylation and there is clear evidence in humans that DNA and histone modification which alter chromatin structure are related to chromosome fragility. Very little is known about the biological cause of 45S rDNA fragility. In this report we characterized the chromosome breakage or gap associated with 45S rDNA in a fish species Channa punctatus. The rDNA mapping in C. punctatus, showed many chromosome breakages or gap formations, and all occurred exclusively in the 45S rDNA sites in anterior kidney cells. We observed that the number of chromosomes plus chromosome fragments was often more than the expected 32 in most cells. Total 67 % metaphase spread showed the expected or normal 32 chromosomes, while 33 % metaphase spread showed 33 and/or 34 chromosomes and/or chromosome fragments. The chromosome lesions observed in this study are very similar cytologically to that of fragile sites observed in human chromosomes. Possible causes for the spontaneous expression of fragile sites and their potential biological significance are also discussed in present report.

  2. Effect of bioactive compounds extracted from euphorbious plants on hematological and biochemical parameters of Channa punctatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Shahi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Channa punctatus was exposed to four different concentrations of Rutin, Taraxerol and Apigenin. Changes in some hematological parameters of Channa punctatus were assessed to determine the influence of these compounds on test fish. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations (80% of LC50 of 24h of these compounds for one week. Control fish were also administered for one week. Thereafter, blood samples were obtained from the control and experimental fish. Blood was assayed for selected hematological parameters (hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, white blood cell count total plasma protein and plasma glucose concentration. The derived hematological indices of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular volume (MCV were calculated. Sublethal concentrations of these compounds caused a dose dependent decrease in hemoglobin values coupled with a decrease in hematocrit values and red blood cell counts are an obvious indication of anemia. The total white blood cell counts and the differential white blood cell counts were decreased except for the lymphocytes, where there was a slight increase. Plasma protein and glucose were also lower in exposed fish when compared with control. The hematological indices MCH, MCHC, MCV were also lowered. The result from this study reveals high mortality rate and deleterious consequences on the health of fish subjected to acute exposure of Rutin, Taraxerol and Apigenin and therefore, should not be used directly in aquaculture without having the proper knowledge.

  3. Bioaccumulation, oxidative stress and genotoxicity in fish (Channa punctatus) exposed to a thermal power plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Irshad; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-05-01

    Metal bioaccumulation and induction of biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and DNA damage are potential indicators of stress in Channa punctatus exposed to effluents. In canal water, receiving thermal power plant discharges, Fe and Ni concentrations exceeded the recommended guidelines set by the United Nations Environment Programme Global Environment Monitoring System (UNEPGEMS). Fe was highly bioavailable and accumulated in all organs (liver, kidney, muscle and integument). The highest metal pollution index (MPI) value of 41.2 was observed in kidney and the lowest 13.5 in muscle tissue. LPO, SOD, CAT and GST levels were significantly higher in liver and kidney, whereas GSH levels declined significantly compared to fish from the reference site. Concomitant damage to DNA was observed with significantly higher mean tail length in the exposed fish gill cells (26.5µm) and in liver (20.8µm) compared to reference fish. Therefore, it can be concluded that the thermal power plant effluent had the potential to cause oxidative stress and DNA damage in C. punctatus.

  4. Stable isotope analyses reveal the importance of seagrass beds as feeding areas for juvenile Myrophic punctatus in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feeding habits and habitats of the speckled worm eel Myrophis punctatus were studied on the mangrove edge of the Indian River Lagoon (Florida) using stomach contents and stable isotope analyses of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). Stomach dietary analyses identified four tax...

  5. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea populations of swimming crab Ovalipes punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Han, Zhiqiang; Chen, Guobao; Yu, Cungen; Gao, Tianxiang

    2015-08-01

    Swimming crab Ovalipes punctatus is a commercially important species in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea, but there is limited knowledge of its genetic population structure. The population genetic structure of O. punctatus in East China Sea and Yellow Sea was examined with a 658-bp segment of the mtDNA COI gene. A total of 60 individuals were collected from five locations and 48 haplotypes were obtained. Mean haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity for the five populations were 0.9876 ± 0.0068 and 0.0074 ± 0.0041, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) detected no significant differences at all hierarchical levels, and all FST values were non-significant, indicating that no significant population genetic structure exists in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea. These results supported the null hypothesis that O. punctatus within the East China Sea and Yellow Sea constitutes a panmictic mtDNA gene pool. Neutrality tests and mismatch distribution supported population expansion in this species, indicating that climate change could play an important role in affecting the demographic history of marine species. Strong dispersal capacity of larvae and adults, and ocean currents in the studied area could be the reasons for genetic homogeneity in this species in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea. Another explanation for the lack of phylogeographic structure in O. punctatus might reflect a recent range expansion after the last glacial maximum and insufficient time to attain migration-drift equilibrium.

  6. Crecimiento de alevines de Ictalurus Balsanus (pisces:ictaluridae en condiciones de laboratorio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luna-Figueroa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para evaluar el efecto de tres dietas sobre el crecimiento de alevines de Ictalurus balsanus en condiciones de laboratorio. La talla inicial de los peces fue 39.68 ± 2.0 mm de longitud total y 411.47 ± 17.00 mg de peso corporal, colocados en grupos de 10 peces por acuario de 80L. Los bagres fueron alimentados con tres dietas diferentes: I(31,13% proteína, 2,70% grasa, 56,53% carbohidratos, II(39,12%, 3,0%, 35,0%, III(53,57%, 19,37%, 4,17%. Los resultados indican que el incremento en el peso y en la longitud total de I. balsanus fueron mayores (P0.05 entre los peces nutridos con los distintos alimentos. Por lo que se concluye que las características propias del alimento vivo y, en particular, la alta concentración proteica de Daphnia sp. Generaron mayor incremento en la tasa de crecimiento especifico de I. balsanus.

  7. THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY EXPOSURES TO TRIBUTYLTIN (TBT) AND 3,3',4,4',5-PENTACHLORBIPHENYL (PCB-126) ON HEPATIC CYP1A AND IMMUNE FUNCTION IN CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS. (R823881)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. CIRCULATING LYSOZYME AND HEPATIC CYP1A ACTIVITIES DURING A CHRONIC DIETARY EXPOSURE TO TRIBUTYLTIN (TBT) AND 3,3 ',4,4 ',5-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL (PCB-126) MIXTURES IN CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS. (R823881)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. 斑点叉尾(鲴)鱼骨胶原多肽螯合钙的制备及其特征%Preparation and characterization of collagen polypeptide chelated calcium from fish bone powder of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆剑锋; 孟昌伟; 李进; 宫子慧; 林琳; 叶应旺; 姜绍通

    2012-01-01

    Calcium is essential for living organisms. Even with an apparently sufficient intake of dietary calcium,there is some concern that inadequate calcium is absorbed by the small intestine,due to precipitation of insoluble calcium salts in the neutral to slightly basic intestinal lumen. Some studies revealed that peptides have the capacity to chelate Ca and to prevent the precipitation of insoluble calcium salts, thereby increasing the amount of soluble Ca availability for absorption across the mucosa. However,the mechanism and degree of calcium ion binding are still unclear. In this paper, the combinations between collagen polypeptide(from the enzymatic hydrolysate of channel catfish bone powder) and calcium ion were studied by measuring chelate rate. On the basis of results of single-factor experiments, the Box-Behnken central composite design and response surface method were adopted to obtain the optimum conditions for chelation. The optimal chelate conditions were determined as:chelate temperature 60 ℃,chelate pH 5. 4,chelate time 1. 5 h and ratio of collagen polypeptide to calcium 2:1 (W/W). Under the optimized conditions, the chelate rate of Ca-collagen polypeptide could reach 82.53%. The formation of Ca-collagen polypeptide chelate was confirmed by the UV-VIS and FT-IR spectra. The characterization of amino acid composition of the chelate was similar to typical collagen-like protein. This research provides a practical guideline and a theoretical basis for fully utilizing fish bone protein resources and developing the deep processed products.%以斑点叉尾(鲴)鱼骨酶解胶原多肽液和氯化钙为原料,螯合率为指标,在一定条件下制备胶原多肽螯合钙,并考察温度、pH、时间、多肽与钙的质量比对螯合率的影响.在单因素实验结果的基础上,采用Box-Behnken中心组合设计和响应面分析法,确定最佳螯合工艺条件为温度60℃、pH 5.4、时间1.5h、质量比2∶1,此条件下,螯合率达82.53%.紫外吸收和傅里叶变换红外光谱扫描的结果表明,骨胶原多肽与钙形成了螯合物,且其氨基酸组成符合典型的胶原样蛋白特征.

  10. Nitric oxide inhibited the melanophore aggregation induced by extracellular calcium concentration in snakehead fish, Channa punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Saikat P; Palande, Nikhil V; Jadhao, Arun G

    2011-12-01

    We studied the role of nitric oxide (NO) and extra-cellular Ca(2+) on the melanophores in Indian snakehead teleost, Channa punctatus. Increase of Ca(2+) level in the external medium causes pigment aggregation in melanophores. This pigment-aggregating effect was found to be inhibited when the external medium contained spontaneous NO donor, sodium nitro prusside (SNP) at all the levels of concentration tested. Furthermore, it has been observed that SNP keeps the pigment in dispersed state even after increasing the amount of Ca(2+). In order to test whether NO donor SNP causes dispersion of pigments or not is checked by adding the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, N-omega-Nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) in the medium. It has been noted that the inhibitor L-NNA blocked the effect of NO donor SNP causing aggregation of pigments. In that way NO is inhibiting the effect of extracellular Ca(2+), keeping the pigment dispersed.

  11. Genomic and biological characterization of a new cypovirus isolated from Dendrolimus punctatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhou

    Full Text Available A novel cypovirus (designated DpCPV-MC was isolated from the pine moth Dendrolimus punctatus using serial in vivo cloning procedures. DpCPV-MC occurs in typical polyhedral occlusion bodies, containing a number of spherical virions. Laboratory bioassays indicated that the infectivity of DpCPV-MC against second-instar Spodoptera exigua larvae does not differ significantly from that of Dendrolimus punctatus cypovirus 1. Full-length amplification of the DpCPV-MC cDNAs identified 16 dsRNA genome segments. Each segment encodes one open reading frame with unique conserved terminal sequences at the 5' and 3' ends, which differ from those of all previously reported cypoviruses. On a phylogenetic tree based on the amino acid sequences of the polyhedrin of 19 cypovirus species, DpCPV-MC was closest to the type-4 cypoviruses. Homology searches showed that ten segments of DpCPV-MC (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S7, S8, S9, S12, and S13 encode putative CPV structural and nonstructural proteins, three segments (S6, S10 and S14 encode putative insect proteins or other viral proteins, and the other three segments (S11, S15, and S16 encode proteins that have no obvious sequence similarity to any known protein. Based on RNA secondary structures analysis, two segments of them (S11 and S16 were predicted to possibly transcript less efficiently than the other segments. We speculate that DpCPV-MC is composed of several genotypes. The ten CPV-related segments constantly exist in all genotypes, and one or two of the six CPV-unrelated segments co-exist with the ten CPV-related segments in one DpCPV-MC genotype, thus each virion contains no more than 12 segments. Based on our results and the literature, DpCPV-MC is a new cypovirus (Cypovirus 22, strain DpCPV-22.

  12. Genomic and biological characterization of a new cypovirus isolated from Dendrolimus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yin; Qin, Tongcheng; Xiao, Yuzhou; Qin, Fujun; Lei, Chengfeng; Sun, Xiulian

    2014-01-01

    A novel cypovirus (designated DpCPV-MC) was isolated from the pine moth Dendrolimus punctatus using serial in vivo cloning procedures. DpCPV-MC occurs in typical polyhedral occlusion bodies, containing a number of spherical virions. Laboratory bioassays indicated that the infectivity of DpCPV-MC against second-instar Spodoptera exigua larvae does not differ significantly from that of Dendrolimus punctatus cypovirus 1. Full-length amplification of the DpCPV-MC cDNAs identified 16 dsRNA genome segments. Each segment encodes one open reading frame with unique conserved terminal sequences at the 5' and 3' ends, which differ from those of all previously reported cypoviruses. On a phylogenetic tree based on the amino acid sequences of the polyhedrin of 19 cypovirus species, DpCPV-MC was closest to the type-4 cypoviruses. Homology searches showed that ten segments of DpCPV-MC (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S7, S8, S9, S12, and S13) encode putative CPV structural and nonstructural proteins, three segments (S6, S10 and S14) encode putative insect proteins or other viral proteins, and the other three segments (S11, S15, and S16) encode proteins that have no obvious sequence similarity to any known protein. Based on RNA secondary structures analysis, two segments of them (S11 and S16) were predicted to possibly transcript less efficiently than the other segments. We speculate that DpCPV-MC is composed of several genotypes. The ten CPV-related segments constantly exist in all genotypes, and one or two of the six CPV-unrelated segments co-exist with the ten CPV-related segments in one DpCPV-MC genotype, thus each virion contains no more than 12 segments. Based on our results and the literature, DpCPV-MC is a new cypovirus (Cypovirus 22, strain DpCPV-22).

  13. Lead toxicity on non-specific immune mechanisms of freshwater fish Channa punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nilantika; Chakraborty, Samujjwal; Sengupta, Mahuya

    2014-07-01

    Lead has no known role in the body that is physiologically relevant, and its harmful effects are myriad. Lead from the atmosphere and soil ends up in water bodies thus affecting the aquatic organisms. This situation has thus prompted numerous investigations on the effects of this metal on the biological functions of aquatic organisms, particularly on immune mechanisms in fish. This paper addresses the immunotoxicologic effects of lead acetate in intestinal macrophages of freshwater fish Channa punctatus. Fish were exposed to lead acetate (9.43mg/l) for 4 days. When checked for its effects on macrophages, it was noted that lead interfered with bacterial phagocytosis, intracellular killing capacity and cell adhesion as well as inhibited release of antimicrobial substances like nitric oxide (NO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). On giving bacterial challenge with Staphylococcus aureus to intestinal macrophages of both control and lead treated groups, the macrophages showed significantly higher concentration of viable bacteria in the intracellular milieu in lead treated group as compared to control. We also report that in vivo exposure to lead acetate inhibits phagocytosis, which is evident from a reduced phagocytic index of treated group from that of the control. The amount of MPO and NO released by the control cells was also reduced significantly upon in vivo lead treatment. The property of antigenic adherence to the macrophage cell membrane, a vital process in phagocytosis, was significantly decreased in the treated group as compared to control. Severe damage in intestinal epithelium, disarrangement and fragmentation of mucosal foldings was observed in lead treated group when compared with the untreated group. The present results also showed decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level upon metal exposure in sera as well as cell lysate of lead exposed fish thus, implicating both MAPK signaling pathways as well as NFκβ signaling. We thus conclude that lead affects

  14. 粗点大小蠹的检疫鉴定%Quarantine ldentification of Dendroctonus punctatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 陆苗; 张呈伟; 李艳华; 杨光; 梁小松; 吴新华

    2014-01-01

    大小蠹属害虫是进出口木材、货物的木质包装中最易携带的害虫之一,是各国口岸检疫的重要目标。对截获的大小蠢做出快速准确的鉴定,是降低危险性大小蠢入侵我国的一个重要的方法。该文研究对象为隶属于大小蠹属中的粗点大小蠹,对其分类地位、生物学特性、鉴定特征以及传入风险等进行了详细的介绍,为粗点大小蠹的检验检疫鉴定提供参考。%Dendroctonus spp. is one of the most portable pests in imported and ex-ported timber and wooden packages, and it is an important object of the port quarantine. Making rapid and accurate identification of Dendroctonus spp. is an im-portant method to reduce the invasion risk of Dendroctonus spp. for China. ln this paper, Dendroctonus punctatus, which belongs to the Dendroctonus spp., is intro-duced in detail from the aspects of taxonomic status, biological characteristics, mor-phological characteristics and the invasion risk, providing reference for the identifica-tion of Dendroctonus punctatus in inspection and quarantine.

  15. Annatto in diets Carassius auratus goldfish fingerlings: growth performance and skin pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of adding annatto as agent pigmentation on the staining characteristics of the skin, muscle and productive performance of Carassius auratus, reared in 0.15 m3 (dimensions 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.65 m hapas disposed within a circular masonry tank of 25 m3. We used 336 C. auratus fingerlings completely randomized design in 28 hapas with seven treatments and four replicates with 12 fish per unit. The addition of annatto levels were 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 8.00%. Fish with an average initial weight of 1.12 ± 0.18 g and length of 4.31 ± 0.44 cm, were fed the 08, 11, 14 and 17 hours. The b * colorimetric characteristics (yellow showed significant at 96 and 141 days in the Hunter coordinate system with the addition of 2.0 and 1.0% annatto in the diet, respectively, and the coordinate system of CMYK and 96 days for C (cyan, and 141 days for the Y (yellow, with the addition of 8.0 to 2.0% annatto in the diet, respectively. We observed differences (P <0.05 average final weight, weight gain, feed conversion, daily growth rate and feed efficiency. It is recommended a diet containing 1.0% added annatto to C. auratus to better performance and 1.0 to 4.0% added annatto to intensified light fish skin.

  16. In vitro infection of a cell line from Ictalurus nebulosus with Piscirickettsia salmonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendras, F E; Jones, S R; Fuentealba, C; Wright, G M

    1997-01-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis, the etiologic agent of salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS), affects several species of salmonids. Previous reports using the appearance of cytopathic effect (CPE) as the criterion for susceptibility, showed that Piscirickettsia salmonis (ATCC strain) can be grown in vitro in some cells lines derived from salmonid fish, but not in BB cells from brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) and BF-2 cells from bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). In this study we describe growth of P. salmonis (ATCC strain VR 1361) in a cell line previously believed to be nonpermissive for this organism. CPE was first detected in chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) and epithelioma papulosum ciprini (EPC) cell lines at 6 d postinfection (dpi). In contrast, using BB cell line, CPE was first detected 45 dpi and the monolayer completed CPE by 78 dpi. Electron microscopic examination of BB cells 78 dpi revealed free, intracytoplasmic and extracellular localization of the agent. P. salmonis was also observed within membrane-bounded vacuoles in BB cells, similar to that described in CHSE 214 cells. Contrary to earlier reports, results from the present study show that the BB cell line, is susceptible to Piscirickettsia salmonis infection. The delayed onset of CPE in BB cells in comparison to other permissive cell lines suggests that BB cells are not ideal hosts for P. salmonis. Interestingly, however, these results demonstrate that P. salmonis can infect non-salmonid cell lines, and raises the possibility that non-salmonid fish may play a role in the persistence and transmission of SRS in the natural environment.

  17. Therapeutic efficacies of Coriandrum sativum aqueous extract against metronidazole-induced genotoxicity in Channa punctatus peripheral erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talapatra, Soumendra Nath; Dasgupta, Subham; Guha, Gunjan; Auddy, Moumita; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha

    2010-12-01

    Metronidazole (MTZ), a nitroimidazole drug, is primarily used as an anti-protozoan or an anti-bacterial agent in humans, although its genotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been widely reported, particularly in aquatic organisms. MTZ may induce DNA damages through single-strand breaks, modification of bases, DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links, ultimately leading to apoptosis or necrosis. Here, we have assessed the genotoxicity of MTZ in the peripheral erythrocytes of Channa punctatus, using micronucleation (MN) and binucleation (BN) as genotoxicity markers. The therapeutic potential of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum against MTZ-induced genotoxicity has also been examined. The results show significant (Psativum leaf extract. Hence, we establish that MTZ can produce considerable degrees of micronucleus and binucleus formation in peripheral erythrocytes of C. punctatus, and such deleterious effect of MTZ treatment can be mitigated by aqueous extract of C. sativum leaves.

  18. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.;

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...

  19. Dicty_cDB: AHA115 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7e-04 1 CK420742 |CK420742.1 AUF_IpTrk_27_j08 Trunk kidney cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' similar to ER-resident... chaperone calreticulin, mRNA sequence. 56 7e-04 1 AY342298 |AY342298.1 Ictalurus punctatus ER-resident

  20. Dicty_cDB: VFH121 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ary Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' similar to ER-resident chaperone calreticulin, mRNA sequence. 56 8e-04 1 AY3...42298 |AY342298.1 Ictalurus punctatus ER-resident chaperone calreticulin mRNA, co

  1. Dicty_cDB: AFH386 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available is centranthoides cDNA clone hj81f04, mRNA sequence. 36 4e-04 3 AY342298 |AY342298.1 Ictalurus punctatus ER-resident...IpTrk_27_j08 Trunk kidney cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' similar to ER-resident

  2. Dicty_cDB: VFH244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available is centranthoides cDNA clone hj81f04, mRNA sequence. 36 3e-04 3 AY342298 |AY342298.1 Ictalurus punctatus ER-resident...1 AUF_IpTrk_27_j08 Trunk kidney cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' similar to ER-resident chaperone ca

  3. Dicty_cDB: AFF885 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Trk_27_j08 Trunk kidney cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' similar to ER-resident... chaperone calreticulin, mRNA sequence. 56 7e-04 1 AY342298 |AY342298.1 Ictalurus punctatus ER-resident

  4. Dicty_cDB: AFF681 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 36 7e-04 3 AY342298 |AY342298.1 Ictalurus punctatus ER-resident chaperone calreticulin mRNA, complete cds. ... cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' similar to ER-resident chaperone calreticulin, mRNA sequence. 56 8

  5. Dicty_cDB: SFJ801 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available IpTrk_27_j08 Trunk kidney cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' similar to ER-resident chaperone calretic...ulin, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 AY342298 |AY342298.1 Ictalurus punctatus ER-resident

  6. Dicty_cDB: AFE742 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NA clone hj81f04, mRNA sequence. 36 3e-04 3 AY342298 |AY342298.1 Ictalurus punctatus ER-resident....1 AUF_IpTrk_27_j08 Trunk kidney cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' similar to ER-resident chaperone c

  7. Dicty_cDB: AFH370 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' similar to ER-resident chaperone calreticulin, mRNA sequence. 56 9e-0...ibrary Salmo salar cDNA clone TH4-0159, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 AY342298 |AY342298.1 Ictalurus punctatus ER-resident

  8. Dicty_cDB: AFF235 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3 CK420742 |CK420742.1 AUF_IpTrk_27_j08 Trunk kidney cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' similar to ER-resident... chaperone calreticulin, mRNA sequence. 56 6e-04 1 AY342298 |AY342298.1 Ictalurus punctatus ER-resident

  9. Dicty_cDB: CHD152 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available UF_IpTrk_27_j08 Trunk kidney cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' similar to ER-resident... chaperone calreticulin, mRNA sequence. 56 7e-04 1 AY342298 |AY342298.1 Ictalurus punctatus ER-resident

  10. De novo sequencing and comparative analysis of testicular transcriptome from different reproductive phases in freshwater spotted snakehead Channa punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alivia; Basak, Reetuparna

    2017-01-01

    The spotted snakehead Channa punctatus is a seasonally breeding teleost widely distributed in the Indian subcontinent and economically important due to high nutritional value. The declining population of C. punctatus prompted us to focus on genetic regulation of its reproduction. The present study carried out de novo testicular transcriptome sequencing during the four reproductive phases and correlated differential expression of transcripts with various testicular events in C. punctatus. The Illumina paired-end sequencing of testicular transcriptome from resting, preparatory, spawning and postspawning phases generated 41.94, 47.51, 61.81 and 44.45 million reads, and 105526, 105169, 122964 and 106544 transcripts, respectively. Transcripts annotated using Rattus norvegicus reference protein sequences and classified under various subcategories of biological process, molecular function and cellular component showed that the majority of the subcategories had highest number of transcripts during spawning phase. In addition, analysis of transcripts exhibiting differential expression during the four phases revealed an appreciable increase in upregulated transcripts of biological processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation, cytoskeleton organization, response to vitamin A, transcription and translation, regulation of angiogenesis and response to hypoxia during spermatogenically active phases. The study also identified significant differential expression of transcripts relevant to spermatogenesis (mgat3, nqo1, hes2, rgs4, cxcl2, alcam, agmat), steroidogenesis (star, tkt, gipc3), cell proliferation (eef1a2, btg3, pif1, myo16, grik3, trim39, plbd1), cytoskeletal organization (espn, wipf3, cd276), sperm development (klhl10, mast1, hspa1a, slc6a1, ros1, foxj1, hipk1), and sperm transport and motility (hint1, muc13). Analysis of functional annotation and differential expression of testicular transcripts depending on reproductive phases of C. punctatus helped in

  11. Negative effect of 17-beta-estradiol on growth parameters of goldifsh (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Tarkhani; Mohammad Reza Imanpoor; Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Sayede Amene Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of 17-beta-estradiol on growth factors of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Methods:To perform the test, 17-beta-estradiol was given 3 months period to fish at different doses as followed: control group, Group 1: 10 mg/kg food, Group 2: 25 mg/kg food and Group 3: 50 mg/kg food. For this purpose, a solution of hormone in pure ethanol used to spray on food. Feeding was done 3 times daily as an appetite. Comparing the mean values measured for length and weight usingANOVA. Results:Indicated with increase length and weight, the effects of the hormone get more distinct, so that with increase concentration of hormone, reduce weight and length. Conclusions: Estradiol along with testosterone and progesterone regulates final stages of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Various studies have proven the different concentrations of this hormone has different effects on the growth of different fishes. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of this hormone on growth factors ofCarassius auratus.

  12. Hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative stress in Carassius auratus liver, exposed to pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Zhang, Jingfei; Yu, Hongxia; Wang, Xiaorong; Wu, Jichun; Xue, Yuqun

    2008-10-01

    This paper studied the hydroxy radical generation and oxidative stress in the liver of goldfish Carassius auratus under the effect of pyrene. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/L) of pyrene for 10 days, with one group assigned as control. Based on the hyperfine splitting constants and shape of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum, the free radical which was generated in fish liver was identified as hydroxyl radical ((*)OH). The (*)OH signal intensity showed a significant increase compared with the control. The changes of the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were detected. The reduced glutathione (GSH) level decreased significantly while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level was increased at higher concentration (0.005-0.1 mg/L), resulting in a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly at 0.005-0.1 mg/L pyrene. The results clearly showed that C. auratus was subjected to oxidative stress and damage when exposed to pyrene.

  13. Is the red spotted green frog Hypsiboas punctatus (Anura: Hylidae) selecting its preys? The importance of prey availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier A; Scarabotti, Pablo A; Medrano, María C; Ghirardi, Romina

    2009-09-01

    The study of the feeding ecology of amphibians is an old issue in herpetology. Notwithstanding, the lack of food resources data in many studies of amphibians feeding has lead to partial understanding of frog feeding strategies. In this study we evaluate the trophic selectivity of a red spotted green frog (Hypsiboas punctatus) population from a Middle Paraná River floodplain pond in Argentina, and discuss the importance of prey availability data when interpreting results from diet analysis. We analyzed the gut contents of 47 H. punctatus adults and compared frog's diet with the environmental food resources. Prey availability was estimated by systematically seep-netting the microhabitat where anurans were localized foraging. We identified 33 taxonomic categories from gastrointestinal contents. Numerically, the most important prey categories were dipterans, followed by hemipterans, homopterans and coleopterans. The diet similarity between males and females was high and no statistical differences in diet composition were found. The most abundant food resources in the environment were dipterans, coleopterans, homopterans and collembolans. In order to assess whether frogs were selecting their preys, we calculated Pianka's niche overlap index and Jacobs' electivity index comparing gut contents to prey availability data. Trophic niche overlap was medium but significantly higher than expected by chance. The electivity index indicated that H. punctatus foraged dipterans slightly above their environmental abundance. Among the secondary preys, hemipterans were foraged selectively, homopterans were consumed in the same proportion to their occurrence in the environment, coleopterans were foraged quite under their availability and collembolans were practically ignored by frogs. Without food resources data, H. punctatus could be classified as a specialist feeder, but dipterans also were quite abundant in the environment. Our results show that H. punctatus fit better as a

  14. Induction of micronuclei and nuclear lesions in Channa punctatus following exposure to carbosulfan, glyphosate and atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwani, Christopher Didigwu; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Kumar, Ravindra; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Pavan; Lakra, Wazir Singh

    2014-10-01

    The genotoxic effects of commonly used agricultural pesticides viz., carbosulfan, glyphosate, and atrazine, were evaluated in Channa punctatus (Pisces, Perciformes) using micronucleus (MN) test and induction of nuclear lesions (NL). The 96 h LC50 value were estimated by probit analysis as 0.27, 32.0 and 42.0 mg L(-1), respectively, for carbosulfan, glyphosate, and atrazine using semi-static bioassays. Based on these values, three sublethal test concentrations of carbosulfan (0.07, 0.13, 0.20 mg L(-1)), glyphosate (8.1, 16.3, 24.4 mg L(-1)) and atrazine (10.6, 21.2, 31.8 mg L(-1)) corresponding to ¼, ½ and ¾ of the LC50 of the pesticides respectively, were selected for exposure for 96 h. Peripheral blood samplings were taken at intervals of 24 h for assessment of MN and NL frequencies. Considerably higher genotoxic damage was induced by carbosulfan as compared to glyphosate and atrazine. There were significant effects (p < 0.01) of concentrations in all the treated groups. The induction of MN and NL was highest at 96 h pesticide exposure at all test concentrations. The nuclear abnormalities recorded in this study, such as blebbed-, lobed-, notched- and bi-nuclei, other than micronuclei, are indicators of genotoxic damage.

  15. Cadmium induced histopathology in the olfactory epithelium of a snakehead fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch

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    Debraj Roy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Histopathology on the olfactory organ of a snakehead fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1793 were assessed after exposing the fish to 2.5 mg/L and 5mg/L of CdCl2 for 15 days, 30 days and 45 days. Cellular organization of the epithelium was affected severely with degeneration of sensory and supporting cells and hyperplasia of basal cells and mucous cells. Mucous cell proliferation indicates the upregulation of mucous secretion to protect the epithelium from toxic effect of cadmium. The olfactory epithelium was endowed with the multipotent basal cells which differentiate into sensory cells, supporting cells and other cell types of the epithelium during normal cells turn over and in the event of cell death.  However, due to cadmium exposure proliferating basal cells failed to differentiate into normal cells and the undifferentiated proliferated cell formed lump and intraepithelial lesion altering the composition of the entire epithelium. Present study indicates that in prolonged exposure to cadmium chloride olfactory functions of the fish might be impaired due to loss of all sensory cells.

  16. Arsenic-induced histopathology and synthesis of stress proteins in liver and kidney of Channa punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sonali; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2006-10-01

    As3+, considered effective for aquatic weed control, has been found to be harmful to several species of freshwater teleosts. Channa punctatus (Bloch) exposed for 14 days to nonlethal concentrations (1/20 LC50 and 1/10 LC50) of As2O3 were sampled on days 0, 1, 2, 7, and 14. Tissue disorientation, peliosis, and vacuolization accompanied by karyolysis, apoptosis, and necrosis of hepatocytes were significant on days 1, 2, and 7. In the kidney shrinkage of the glomerulus and increase in the Bowman's space were observed on days 1, 2, and 7. Irregularities in the renal tubule including apoptotic and necrotic cells were also common. Decreased intertubular space and enlargement of the height of the brush border cells were noteworthy. Corresponding with the histopathological lesions, dose-dependent disturbances in liver and renal functions and induction of heat shock protein 70 were significant at the early phase of arsenic treatment while metallothionein was induced at a later phase of treatment.

  17. [Spectral features analysis of Pinus massoniana with pest of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and levels detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhang-Hua; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-Yong; Gong, Cong-Hong; Xie, Wan-Jun; Tang, Meng-Ya; Lai, Ri-Wen; Li, Zeng-Lu

    2013-02-01

    Taking 51 field measured hyperspectral data with different pest levels in Yanping, Fujian Province as objects, the spectral reflectance and first derivative features of 4 levels of healthy, mild, moderate and severe insect pest were analyzed. On the basis of 7 detecting parameters construction, the pest level detecting models were built. The results showed that (1) the spectral reflectance of Pinus massoniana with pests were significantly lower than that of healthy state, and the higher the pest level, the lower the reflectance; (2) with the increase in pest level, the spectral reflectance curves' "green peak" and "red valley" of Pinus massoniana gradually disappeared, and the red edge was leveleds (3) the pest led to spectral "green peak" red shift, red edge position blue shift, but the changes in "red valley" and near-infrared position were complicated; (4) CARI, RES, REA and REDVI were highly relevant to pest levels, and the correlations between REP, RERVI, RENDVI and pest level were weak; (5) the multiple linear regression model with the variables of the 7 detection parameters could effectively detect the pest levels of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker, with both the estimation rate and accuracy above 0.85.

  18. Population structure of the Korean gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) using multivariate morphometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, Se Hun; Kim, Jin-Koo

    2016-03-01

    The gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus, is one of the most important fish species in Korea, China, Japan and Taiwan, and therefore the implementation of an appropriate population structure analysis is both necessary and fitting. In order to clarify the current distribution range for the two lineages of the Korean gizzard shad (Myoung and Kim 2014), we conducted a multivariate morphometric analysis by locality and lineage. We analyzed 17 morphometric and 5 meristic characters of 173 individuals, which were sampled from eight localities in the East Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Korean Strait. Unlike population genetics studies, the canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) results showed that the two morphotypes were clearly segregated by the center value "0" of CAN1, of which morphotype A occurred from the Yellow Sea to the western Korean Strait with negative values, and morphotype B occurred from the East Sea to the eastern Korean Strait with positive values even though there exists an admixture zone in the eastern Korean Strait. Further studies using more sensitive markers such as microsatellite DNA are required in order to define the true relationship between the two lineages.

  19. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

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    DIANA COSTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes inthe gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin. To getthis goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, seven and fourteendays to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 µg/L. Another group was used ascontrol. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase and gluthatione reductasewere significantly decreased, while the glutathione-S-transferase was up-regulated. Allfish, exposed to 2 µg/L deltamethrin revealed gills morphological alterations after 48h ofexposure which were accentuated after 14 days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion ofsecondary lamellae, epithelial layer rupture and chloride cells proliferation wereobserved. These results suggest that an immediate adaptive response to the oxidativestress appeared, demonstrating alterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in thegills of deltamethrin intoxicated fish.

  20. MALATHION INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS IN GILLS AND KIDNEY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    ANDREA CRISTINA STAICU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide, used in agriculture and a possible source of environmental poisoning. During malathion metabolization, mitochondria generates reactive oxygen species, responsible for significant structural changes. In this study, gills and kidney histological changes in Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to 0.05 mg/l malathion were investigated. In kidney, the effects were dramatic. The 24 -72 hours exposure to malathion induced cytoplasm vacuolization and changes in cell and nuclear volumes. In addition, necrotic renal tubules appeared, nuclear malformations of epithelial cells, anisokary, nuclei pycnosis and nuclei hypertrophy, were noticed. Epithelial ruptures, secondary lamellae fusion and hyperplasia of branchial epithelium, vascular congestion were the main changes noticed soon after pollutant exposure. We suggest that structural changes in gill and kidney could be used as good response to aquatic pollution with organophosphorous insecticides.

  1. Cause and Possible Treatments of Foot Lesions in Captive Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

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    Mélisa Veillette

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus run extensively in exercise wheels. This running may cause paw lesions. Three treatments of these wounds (topical application of vitamin E, wheel blocking, and a combination of both were compared using both sexes. A pretreatment period with or without wheels lasted 15 days and the ensuing treatment period lasted 45 days. At the end of the pre-treatment period, none of the animals without wheels had paw wounds, whereas at least 75% of the females and 100% of the males with wheels did. Females had fewer and smaller wounds than males at this point. At the end of the treatment period, no effect of vitamin E could be discerned, but significant wound healing occurred after wheel blocking in both males and females. Wheel blocking is an easy way to prevent or treat paw wounds, but it presents problems in terms of animal welfare, as wheels are an important cage enrichment for hamsters.

  2. Angling-induced barotrauma in snapper Chrysophrys auratus: are there consequences for reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peregrin, Laura S; Butcher, Paul A; Broadhurst, Matt K; Millar, Russell B

    2015-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the potential for sub-lethal impacts of barotrauma on reproductively active Chrysophrys auratus during catch and release, 90 males and 90 females representing five reproductive stages (immature or resting--28%, developing--8%, developed--7%, ripe or spawning--23% and spent--34%) were angled from 8-70 m and macroscopically assessed (on-board and then in a laboratory). Irrespective of sex, all fish exhibited various clinical signs of barotrauma, including a prolapsed cloaca (60% of fish); gastric herniation (46%); ruptured swim bladder (73%); organ displacement (48%); and kidney (3%), liver (73%) and coloemic-cavity haemorrhaging (33%); with the frequency of nearly all positively associated with capture depth. Reproductive stage was also an important barotrauma predictor (reflecting related morphological changes) with a general trend towards spent fish least likely to incur the various clinical signs--especially for a prolapsed cloaca (also common among immature or resting fish and significantly affected by food in the digestive tract) and a ruptured swim bladder (common among ripe or spawning fish). The only macroscopically visible gonad damage was haemorrhaging, which was least common among immature or resting and spent fish and, irrespective of reproductive stage, temporally reduced in frequency, and more quickly among males than females. While further research is required to accurately describe the effects of angling at each stage of the reproductive cycle and the physiological consequences of barotrauma on the gonads of C. auratus, given the observed influences of reproductive stage and depth on barotrauma found in this study, any adverse effects might be partially managed by regulating either temporal or spatial fishing effort.

  3. Angling-induced barotrauma in snapper Chrysophrys auratus: are there consequences for reproduction?

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    Laura S Peregrin

    Full Text Available In response to concerns regarding the potential for sub-lethal impacts of barotrauma on reproductively active Chrysophrys auratus during catch and release, 90 males and 90 females representing five reproductive stages (immature or resting--28%, developing--8%, developed--7%, ripe or spawning--23% and spent--34% were angled from 8-70 m and macroscopically assessed (on-board and then in a laboratory. Irrespective of sex, all fish exhibited various clinical signs of barotrauma, including a prolapsed cloaca (60% of fish; gastric herniation (46%; ruptured swim bladder (73%; organ displacement (48%; and kidney (3%, liver (73% and coloemic-cavity haemorrhaging (33%; with the frequency of nearly all positively associated with capture depth. Reproductive stage was also an important barotrauma predictor (reflecting related morphological changes with a general trend towards spent fish least likely to incur the various clinical signs--especially for a prolapsed cloaca (also common among immature or resting fish and significantly affected by food in the digestive tract and a ruptured swim bladder (common among ripe or spawning fish. The only macroscopically visible gonad damage was haemorrhaging, which was least common among immature or resting and spent fish and, irrespective of reproductive stage, temporally reduced in frequency, and more quickly among males than females. While further research is required to accurately describe the effects of angling at each stage of the reproductive cycle and the physiological consequences of barotrauma on the gonads of C. auratus, given the observed influences of reproductive stage and depth on barotrauma found in this study, any adverse effects might be partially managed by regulating either temporal or spatial fishing effort.

  4. Protection of ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus against Aeromonas hydrophila by treating Ixora coccinea active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Paulraj; Thangaviji, Vijayaragavan; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-02-01

    Herbals such as Ixora coccinea, Daemia extensa and Tridax procumbens were selected to screen in vitro antibacterial and immunostimulant activity against the freshwater fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Initial screening results revealed that, ethyl acetate extracts and its purified fraction of I. coccinea was able to suppress the A. hydrophila strains at more than 15 mm of zone of inhibition and positive immunostimulant activity. The purified active fraction, which eluted from H40: EA60 mobile phase was structurally characterized by GC-MS analysis. Two compounds such as Diethyl Phthalate (1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, monobutyl ester) and Dibutyl Phthalate were characterized using NIST database search. In order to study the in vivo immunostimulant influence of the compounds, the crude extracts (ICE) and purified fractions (ICF) were incorporated to the artificial diets at the concentration of 400 mg kg⁻¹ and fed to the ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus for 30 days. After termination of feeding experiment, they were challenged with highly virulent A. hydrophila AHV-1 which was isolated from infected gold fish and studied the survival, specific bacterial load reduction, serum biochemistry, haematology, immunology and histological parameters. The control diet fed fishes succumbed to death within five days at 100% mortality whereas ICE and ICF fed groups survived 60 and 80% respectively after 10 days. The diets also helped to decrease the Aeromonas load after challenge and significantly (P ≤ 0.01) improved the serum albumin, globulin and protein. The diets also helped to increase the RBC and haemoglobin level significantly (P ≤ 0.05) from the control group. Surprisingly the immunological parameters like phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and lysozyme activity were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.001) in the experimental diets. Macrophages and erythrocytes were abundantly expressed in the

  5. THE ACTION OF CORAGEN INSECTICIDE ON CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS ON CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH L. 1758

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    Claudiu Alexandru Baciu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In our researches we have determined the variation of certain physiological indexes, such as the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the glycaemia and the number of red blood cells under the action of Coragen insecticide on Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch. Under the action of Coragen, we have registered significant changes in the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the number of red blood cells and glycemia at the Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch items, considered as answers to the stress provoked by emissions. The highest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of the percentage, were noticed at the glycemia, which at the mark was 28 mg/dl, and in the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 42 mg/dl, representing a 50% growth and at the breathing rhythm in 24 hours, where values significantly decreased with 41.18% at the concentration of 0.07 ml/l and with 39.33% at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen. The slightest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of percentage, were noticed at the oxygen consumption, which, at the mark is of 55.302 ml oxygen/kg/hour, and for the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 34.81 ml oxygen/kg/hour, representing a decrease of 37.06% in 24 hours and the number of red blood cells, where the values have significantly decrease with 9.58%, 13.48%, respectively 18.44% for the concentrations of 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen.

  6. Sequencing, annotation and analysis of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus transcriptome.

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    Nicolas Tchitchek

    Full Text Available The Syrian hamster (golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus is gaining importance as a new experimental animal model for multiple pathogens, including emerging zoonotic diseases such as Ebola. Nevertheless there are currently no publicly available transcriptome reference sequences or genome for this species.A cDNA library derived from mRNA and snRNA isolated and pooled from the brains, lungs, spleens, kidneys, livers, and hearts of three adult female Syrian hamsters was sequenced. Sequence reads were assembled into 62,482 contigs and 111,796 reads remained unassembled (singletons. This combined contig/singleton dataset, designated as the Syrian hamster transcriptome, represents a total of 60,117,204 nucleotides. Our Mesocricetus auratus Syrian hamster transcriptome mapped to 11,648 mouse transcripts representing 9,562 distinct genes, and mapped to a similar number of transcripts and genes in the rat. We identified 214 quasi-complete transcripts based on mouse annotations. Canonical pathways involved in a broad spectrum of fundamental biological processes were significantly represented in the library. The Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned to the current release of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell transcriptome and genome to improve the genomic annotation of this species. Finally, our Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned against 14 other rodents, primate and laurasiatheria species to gain insights about the genetic relatedness and placement of this species.This Syrian hamster transcriptome dataset significantly improves our knowledge of the Syrian hamster's transcriptome, especially towards its future use in infectious disease research. Moreover, this library is an important resource for the wider scientific community to help improve genome annotation of the Syrian hamster and other closely related species. Furthermore, these data provide the basis for development of expression microarrays that can be used in functional genomics studies.

  7. Atividade alimentar diária da cabrinha Prionotus punctatus (Teleostei: Triglidae do litoral de Ubatuba, Brasil Diel feeding of searobin Prionotus punctatus (Telestei: Triglidae from coastal system off Ubatuba, Brazil

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    Lucy Satiko Hashimoto Soares

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se identificar a cronologia alimentar e comparar a composição dos conteúdos estomacais ao longo do dia foram obtidas amostras de Prionotus punctatus na plataforma interna ao largo de Ubatuba (SP, Brasil, durante o ciclo diário em janeiro/87, julho/88 e dezembro/88. As amostras foram obtidas com rede de arrasto de fundo, a intervalos de aproximadamente 3 horas. Através do acompanhamento da freqüência relativa dos graus de repleção, dos indicadores de repleção, do número médio de presas frescas evidenciou-se nitidamente que Prionotus punctatus possui hábito alimentar diurno com tendência vespertina, podendo-se levantar a hipótese de ritmo circadiano na atividade alimentar. A composição dos conteúdos consistiu, principalmente de jovens de siris Portunus spinicarpus no verão (janeiro/87 e dezembro/88, e de jovens de Portunidae e camarões Penaeidea (Sicyonidae e Pleoticus mullen no inverno (julho/88. A composição foi altamente similar durante a fase de atividade alimentar no inverno, enquanto que apresentou variação tanto no verão/87 quanto no verão/88.The feeding habits and the diel feeding periodicity of the searobin Prionotus punctatus were investigated at Ubatuba region (22º30'S in the western South Atlantic. The samples were collected during consecutive 3 h periods over 24 h in January, 1987 and July and December, 1988. The diel feeding activity analysis indicated that Prionotus punctatus was a daytime feeder with afternoon tendency, permitting to bring up the hypothesis of the Orcadian rythm. The main food items were Portunidae crabs in Summer, and Portunidae and Penaeidae shrimps in Winter. The diet composition was very similar during the feeding activity time in Winter (July 1988, whereas it showed some variation in Summer (January 1987 and December 1988.

  8. Studies on biomarkers of oxidative stress and associated genotoxicity and histopathology in Channa punctatus from heavy metal polluted canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Irshad; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-05-01

    Some investigations were made on the Satha canal water and health of dwelling fish Channa punctatus at Satha village, district Aligarh (U.P). Metal bioaccumulation and induction of biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), DNA damage and histopathology are potential indicators of stress in C. punctatus exposed to effluents. In canal water Cr, Mn, Fe and Ni concentrations were exceeding the permissible limits set by both Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) and WHO. Fe (74%) was highly bioavailable and accumulated in all organs (gill, liver, kidney, muscle and integument). The highest metal pollution index (MPI) value of 53 was observed in gills and the lowest 6 in liver tissue. SOD and LPO were significantly higher in all tissues, whereas CAT, GST and GSH levels declined significantly compared to fish from the reference site. Concomitant damage to DNA was observed with significantly higher mean tail length in the exposed fish gill cells (19 μm) and in liver (12.7 μm) compared to reference fish (5 and 4 μm respectively). Histopathology in gill and liver also show significant damage. Therefore, it can be concluded that the sugar mill effluent has the potential to cause oxidative stress, DNA damage and histopathology in C. punctatus. This canal is a prime source of water and fish food to the local residents of the area. Therefore, the consumers may suffer adverse health effects like that in indicator organism.

  9. Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) cheek pouch as an experimental model to investigate human skin and keloid heterologous graft

    OpenAIRE

    Hochman,Bernardo; Ferreira,Lydia Masako; Bôas, Flaviane Cássia Vilas [UNIFESP; Mariano, Mario

    2004-01-01

    To describe the integration process of grafts of total human skin and keloid in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) cheek pouch, whose sub-epithelium is naturally an "Immunologically Privileged Site". Fragments of human normal skin and keloid from the breast region of mulatto female patients were transplanted into the cheek pouch subepithelium in situ. Surgical procedure and grafted pouches for microscopic exam at several time points of the transplantation were standardized. The integration of gra...

  10. On the record of pug-headedness in snapper, Pagrus auratus (Forster, 1801 (Perciformes, Sparidae from New Zealand

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    Laith JAWAD

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pug-headedness in the snapper Pagrus auratus is reported for the first time from New Zealand, based on a specimen (aged 2+ collected from Whangarei Harbour. Severe damage to the underlying bones of the mouth and snout regions was noted. The mouth of the specimen was virtually closed. Several factors were attributed to the cause of these anomalies among which are genetic and epigenetic causes.

  11. Stable isotope analyses reveal the importance of seagrass beds as feeding areas for juvenile Myrophis punctatus (Angulliformes: Ophichthidae) inthe coastal waters of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feeding habits and habitats of the speckled worm eel Myrophis punctatus were studied on the mangrove edge of the Indian River Lagoon (Florida) using stomach contents and stable isotope analyses of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). Stomach dietary analyses identified four tax...

  12. Incidence and histopathology of encysted progenetic metacercaria of Clinostomum complanatum (Digenea:Clinostomidae) in Channa punctatus and its development in experimental host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PA Ahammed Shareef; SMA Abidi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the incidence of encysted progenetic metacercariae of Clinostomum complanatum (C. complanatum) in Channa punctatus (C. punctatus), associated histopathology and the experimental infection to laboratory chicken to obtain ovigerous adult worms. Methods:Live C. punctatus were brought from local fish market of Aligarh, India, dissected and examined on a monthly basis for the presence of C. complanatum cysts. For histochemistry, infected tissue sections with attached cysts were processed for haematoxylene and eosin staining. Cysts were aseptically fed to 4 day old leghorn chicken to obtain adult worms. Mechanically excysted metacercaria and the ovigerous adult worms were stained in carmine to prepare permanent slides. Results: One year survey for the infection of encysted progenetic metacercaria of C. complanatum in C. punctatus revealed the prevalence, intensity and abundance of 24.7%, 2.27 and 0.608, respectively. Histopathology showed heavy infiltration of immune cells at the site of cyst attachment and some tissue damage was also evident. Following feeding to experimental chicken, about 41.07%of the encysted metacercariae were able to excyst and migrate back to bucco-pharyngeal region where they tenaciously attached and fed on blood, and transformed into ovigerous adult worms from 62 hours onwards of post infection. Conclusions:The parasite is potentially pathogenic to the host, and the availability of a suitable intermediate host can be a contributing factor for the occurrence of C. complanatum metacercaria either in the excysted or encysted form, indicating loose host specificity and zoonotic potential.

  13. Bioaccumulation, Subacute Toxicity, and Tissue Distribution of Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Mehmet Ates

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of nanosized materials is likely to result in the release of these particles into the environment. It is, however, unclear if these materials are harmful to aquatic animals. In this study, the sublethal effects of exposure of low and high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs on goldfish (Carassius auratus were investigated. Accumulation of TiO2 NPs increased from 42.71 to 110.68 ppb in the intestine and from 4.10 to 9.86 ppb in the gills of the goldfish with increasing exposure dose from 10 to 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs. No significant accumulation in the muscle and brain of the fish was detected. Malondialdehyde as a biomarker of lipid oxidation was detected in the liver of the goldfish. Moreover, TiO2 NPs exposure inhibited growth of the goldfish. Although there was an increase (8.1% in the body weights of the goldfish for the control group, in the low and high exposure groups 1.8% increase and 19.7% decrease were measured, respectively. The results of this study contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and highlight the importance of characterization of NPs in understanding their behavior, uptake, and effects in aquatic systems and in fish.

  14. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC MERCURY INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    MARIOARA NICULA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic inorganic mercury intoxication on liver, gills, kidneys, small intestine and skin in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 20 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimatized to laboratory conditions. After a 3 weeks exposure to a sublethal mercury concentration (0.25 ppm from a HgCl2 stock solution, liver, gills, kidney, small intestine and skin were sampled and processed for histological examination.The main effects observed: numerous interstitial leukocytar infiltrates, followed by glomerulonephritis and tubulonephritis there are at the renal level; fibrosation of peri- and interlobular conjunctive tissue, including ectasiated blood vessel and numerous limphocytar infiltrates enlarged both in perilobular and intralobular conjunctive tissue at the liver level; an disorganization process of gill lamellae by superficial layer alteration, at the gill level; cells of skin epiderma exhibit hiperplazic hypertrophy, epithelial desquamation, intraepithelial edema and citoplasmatic vacuolization; light epithelial distrophic processes and an abundant leukocytar infiltrate both in vilositaire chorion and basal chorion at the small intestine level.

  15. Secretion and regulatory mechanism of leptin during pregnancy in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the secretion pattern and regulatory mechanism of leptin during pregnancy in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). 100 pregnant golden hamsters were separated into 16 groups and the serum was sampled daily throughout gestation for the leptin assay. Results indicated that a gestational leptin profile existed during pregnancy in the golden hamster. To investigate if endocrine conditions during pregnancy contribute to this gestational leptin profile, serums collected during different reproductive stages were added to the adipocyte culture medium. Results showed that sera collected from all reproductive stages have significant stimulating effect on the secretion of leptin as compared with the control (P 0.05). However, sera from mid and late pregnancy significantly stimulate leptin secretion as compared with the cycling sera (P < 0.01). Serum collected on day 15 of pregnancy have the strongest stimulating effect on leptin secretion compared with sera collected on day 8 (P < 0.0001) and day 12 (P < 0.001) of the pregnancy. But after the extraction of steroid hormones, sera collected during different reproductive stages have the same effect on leptin secretion in vitro. Further study showed that dexamethason, progesterone and insulin stimulated while estradiol suppressed leptin secretion in vitro. Our results suggested that steroid hormones (or other steroid factors) have significant regulating effect on the leptin secretion during pregnancy and they may be the most important contributors of the gestational leptin profile in the golden hamster.

  16. Assessment of snapper (Pagrus auratus) natural IgM binding to bromelain treated sheep erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Richard N; Bruce Lyons, A; Nowak, Barbara F; Hayball, John D

    2005-01-01

    Normal snapper (Pagrus auratus Bloch and Schneider) serum was examined for natural IgM that binds to protease (bromelain) treated sheep erythrocytes (BrSRBC) in a model assay system that has been used to appraise natural IgM of various mammals. Normal snapper serum lysed BrSRBC while haemolysis was abrogated by heat inactivation of serum and in divalent cation-deficient conditions, indicative of classical complement mediated lysis. In addition, heat inactivated normal snapper serum agglutinated BrSRBC while phosphatidylcholine (PtC) liposomes partially inhibited both haemolysis and agglutination. Inhibition of haemolysis and agglutination may have been mediated by an interaction between immunoglobulin (Ig) and PtC as protein A purified snapper Ig bound to PtC liposomes. However it is not known if this binding was PtC specific nor if the binding was initiated by either the Fab and/or Fc domains of snapper Ig. BrSRBC plaque forming cells (PFC) were detected in the peritoneal cavity, spleen, head kidney and peripheral blood of normal snapper. The greatest proportion of BrSRBC PFC per B cell was within the peritoneal cavity followed by the spleen, peripheral blood and head kidney. Together, these data suggest that normal snapper serum may contain natural Ig that binds BrSRBC, activating the classical complement cascade.

  17. Fluoxetine and diclofenac interaction on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus

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    Mohammad Navid Forsatkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the interaction of simultaneous use of fluoxetine (Flx, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and diclofenac (Dcf, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus. Treatments with different dosage of Flx including control, 0, 1, and 10  µg/g body weight (BW were injected in the fish with mean weight of 30.16 ± 8.57 g every other day in total of 5 times. Then fish were exposed to 3 different levels of Dcf including 0, 10, and 100 mg/l for 5 days. Injection of fluoxetine significantly decreased food intake and consequently body weight. After 5 days exposure to Dcf, the amount of food intake in the Dcf receiving treatments of 1 mg/l and 10 mg/l was significantly larger than that of 0 mg/l Dcf recieving treatment in both the Flx dosage groups of 1 μg/g BW and 10 μg/g BW. Our results indicated that Dcf inhibits behavioral change effects of Flx showing the complex effects of pharmaceuticals on fish.

  18. Morphology and morphometric relationships of the sagitta of Diapterus auratus (Perciformes: Gerreidae) from Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Verónica Rivera; Martínez-Pérez, José Antonio; Molina, Jacob Rubio; Emiliano, Rafael; Zuñiga, Quintanar; López, Jonathan Franco

    2013-03-01

    Sagittae otoliths are the most studied because of their morphological variability and size; the sagittae may also have valuable taxonomic use and for D. auratus has not yet been described. In the present study we present a morphological description of the sagitta otolith and an analysis of its correlation with various morphometric parameters. The biological material was captured with a beach seine in the coasts of Alvarado and Port of Veracruz, from November 2009 to June 2010. Sagittae were extracted, cleaned, photographed (SEM and optical), and measured. The analysis included the correlations between sagitta's length and width, versus the fish standard length, height and weight, for a total of 449 fishes. The comparison between left and right sagitta showed no significant difference in both otolith length and width (t-tests, p<0.05) for each sex. The right otolith was used for the correlations for both males and females and the Fisher test (d.f. 161 and 143, p<0.001) showed no significant differences in the slopes and intersections between them. The otolith length vs. fish weight correlation showed a positive allometric growth in males (b=3.9754, p<0.05) and females (b=4.3168, p<0.05).

  19. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

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    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  20. Effects of dietary antioxidant of tomato extract and lycopene on Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus

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    Cynthia Montoya M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effect on tegument pigmentation, survival, growth and antioxidant capacity in diets supplemented with tomato extract and lycopene as additives in experimental feed for Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus. Materials and methods. The additives were added in different concentrations to a basic diet. We performed beginning and an ending biometrics for 100% of the population in each bioassay. The growth and survival of organisms were evaluated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by ABTS assay, both in the tomato extract sample as well as in foods used in different bioassays. The concentration of lycopene was determined in food and liver and muscle samples of fish fed with it. Acquired pigmentation of fish was assessed through photographs analyzed with Adobe Photoshop®. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance, and when differences were found (p0.05 on pigmentation and growth of the organisms under the established experimental conditions was obtained. Significant differences in antioxidant capacity (p<0.05 were obtained in foods with added lycopene. Conclusions. The inclusion of lycopene or tomato extract in food for the organisms used is not recommended to improve pigmentation, but further studies are needed to demonstrate antioxidant effect.

  1. Benzocaína e eugenol como anestésicos para o quinguio (Carassius auratus

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    F. Bittencourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os tempos de indução e recuperação de quinguios (Carassius auratus expostos a dois anestésicos, eugenol e benzocaína. Foram utilizados 128 juvenis com peso médio de 2,07±0,53g e comprimento total médio de 5,51±0,56cm. A benzocaína mostrou ser mais eficiente do que o eugenol em relação ao tempo, tanto para indução ao coma quanto para a recuperação à fuga e também no que diz respeito à sobrevivência. As doses de benzocaína com melhores resultados foram de 87,5 e 100mg.L-1. O eugenol proporcionou demora na indução e na recuperação dos animais, além de ter apresentado mortalidades quando as doses anestésicas foram elevadas.

  2. Intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and its origin as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shan-Gong; Tian, Jing-Yun; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Li, Wen-Xiang; Zou, Hong; Yang, Bao-Juan; Wang, Gui-Tang

    2013-09-01

    The intestinal microbiota has received increasing attention, as it influences growth, feed conversion, epithelial development, immunity as well as the intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms in the intestinal tract. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to explore the bacterial community of the intestine in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), and the origin of these microorganisms. The results disclosed great bacterial diversities in the carp intestines and cultured environments. The gibel carp harbored characteristic intestinal microbiota, where Proteobacteria were predominant, followed by Firmicutes. The analysis on the 10 most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed a majority of Firmicutes in the intestinal content (by decreasing order: Veilonella sp., Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus sp., and Lactobacillus sp.). The second most abundant OTU was Rothia sp. (Actinobacteria). The most likely potential probiotics (Lactobacillus sp., and Bacillus sp.) and opportunists (Aeromonas sp., and Acinetobacter sp.) were not much abundant. Bacterial community comparisons showed that the intestinal community was closely related to that of the sediment, indicating the importance of sediment as source of gut bacteria in gibel carp. However, 37.95 % of the OTUs detected in feed were retrieved in the intestine, suggesting that food may influence markedly the microbiota of gibel carp, and therefore may be exploited for oral administration of probiotics.

  3. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC CADMIUM INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    NICULA MARIOARA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic cadmium intoxication on liver, gill, kidney, intestine and striated muscle in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 25 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimated to laboratory conditions. After a 21 days exposure to a sublethal cadmium concentration (1.625 ppm from a Cd (CH3COO2 x2H2O stock solution, liver, gill, kidney, small intestine and striated muscle were sampled and processed for histological examination. Histopathological alterations induced by studied heavy metal in the tissues of silver crucian carp specimenes were: nephrocite hypertrophic processes, distruction of intercellular jonctions, stratification of epitelium and congestions both in renal glomerulis and in interstitium; hyalinizations, congestions of blood vassels and vacuolations associated with lipid accumulation at the hepatic level; into intestinal mucosa revealed rich leucocyte infiltrates, with numerous leucocytes situated intraepithelial; branchial lamelles with disordered aspect and multilayered epithelium, vascular ectasias and leucocyte infiltrates into subepithelial connective tissue at the gill level; miolisis processes in peripheral muscular fibers manifested by contractile apparatus alteration on large areas.

  4. p53 dependent apoptotic cell death induces embryonic malformation in Carassius auratus under chronic hypoxia.

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    Paramita Banerjee Sawant

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD, leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD, ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05 embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos.

  5. p53 Dependent Apoptotic Cell Death Induces Embryonic Malformation in Carassius auratus under Chronic Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Subrata; Sawant, Bhawesh T.; Chadha, Narinder K.; Pal, Asim K.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD), leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf) and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD), ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05) embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos. PMID:25068954

  6. Characterization of actions of dopamine in the pituitary of the goldfish, Carassius auratus

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    Omeljaniuk, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The dopamine receptor in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) pituitary and its involvement with inhibition of gonadotropin (GtH) and {alpha}-melanocyte stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) release was studied. In vitro dopamine, in a dose-related manner, inhibited spontaneous GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from superfused fragments of pars distalis (PD) and neurointermediate lob (NIL), respectively; dopamine also inhibited sGnRH-A stimulation of GtH release. Thyrotropin releasing-hormone (TRH), in a dose-related manner, stimulated {alpha}-MSH release from NIL fragments; dopamine inhibited TRH action. The stereoisomers of apomorphine were equivalent in inhibiting GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from fragments treated with releasing factors. Domperidone, in a dose-related manner, antagonized dopamine action. ({sup 3}H)-Spiperone was used to radiolabel the goldfish pituitary dopamine receptor in vitro. The binding of ({sup 3}H)-spiperone had the characteristics of a receptor: tissue specificity, dependence on tissue quantity, reversibility, saturability, displaceability, specificity of binding with various drugs and a correlation of binding with biological effects were demonstrated. This is a low-affinity, high-capacity receptor which does not show binding stereoselectivity for apomorphine; domperidone binds avidly to this receptor. The NIL contains significantly greater numbers of this receptor compared to the PD.

  7. The hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as an experimental model of toxocariasis: histopathological, immunohistochemical, and immunoelectron microscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana Maria Gonçalves; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; da Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira; Kanashiro, Edite Hatsumi Yamashiro; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Mairena, Eliane Conti; De Brito, Thales

    2015-03-01

    Toxocariasis is a globally distributed parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Toxocara spp. The typical natural hosts of the parasite are dogs and cats, but humans can be infected by the larval stage of the parasite after ingesting embryonated eggs in soil or from contaminated hands or fomites. The migrating larvae are not adapted to complete their life cycle within accidental or paratenic hosts like humans and laboratory animals, respectively, but they are capable of invading viscera or other tissues where they may survive and induce disease. In order to characterize hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) as a model for Toxocara canis infection, histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were used to detect pathological lesions and the distribution of toxocaral antigens in the liver, lungs, and kidneys of experimentally infected animals. We also attempted to characterize the immunological parameters of the inflammatory response and correlate them with the histopathological findings. In the kidney, a correlation between glomerular changes and antigen deposits was evaluated using immunoelectron microscopy. The hamster is an adequate model of experimental toxocariasis for short-term investigations and has a good immunological and pathological response to the infection. Lung and liver manifestations of toxocariasis in hamsters approximated those in humans and other experimental animal models. A mixed Th2 immunological response to T. canis infection was predominant. The hamster model displayed a progressive rise of anti-toxocaral antibodies with the formation of immune complexes. Circulating antigens, immunoglobulin, and complement deposits were detected in the kidney without the development of a definite immune complex nephropathy.

  8. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

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    Daniele Freitas Henriques

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rocio virus (ROCV is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC. ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  9. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as an experimental model for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Silva, Adriano; Valverde, Joanna Gardel; Ribeiro-Romão, Raquel Peralva; Plácido-Pereira, Rosa Maria; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria

    2013-05-01

    The lack of an adequate model for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection is a limiting factor for studying American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). The golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a promising model because besides being highly susceptible to dermotropic Leishmania infection, the lesions are very similar to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in humans. However, different Leishmania isolates or species and/or protocols have resulted in different outcomes, whereas no study has evaluated the reproducibility of L. braziliensis infection in this model. The natural history of L. braziliensis infection in 34 hamsters was evaluated by using a single parasite isolate in 8 independent experiments under similar experimental conditions. Clinical, histological and immunological analyses were performed. The hamsters presented skin ulcers similar to those observed in ATL. The intra-experiment lesion increment tended to show an intermediary variance. Histological analysis of infected skins showed granulomatous reaction, scarce amastigotes, and Schaumann's bodies. Blood lymphocytes proliferated in response to leishmanial antigens. The severity of the infection was positively correlated to spleen weight, and the titres of anti-Leishmania IgG antibodies. Our findings indicate that the hamster is an appropriate model for immunopathogenesis studies of CL caused by L. braziliensis, supporting its use in clinical, vaccine and chemotherapy experimental protocols.

  10. Validation of assays to monitor immune responses in the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivcec, Marko; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2011-05-31

    The Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a valuable but under-utilized animal model for studies of human viral pathogens such as bunyaviruses, arenaviruses, flaviviruses, henipaviruses, and SARS-coronavirus. A lack of suitable reagents and specific assays for monitoring host responses has limited the use of this animal model to clinical observations, pathology and humoral immune responses. The objective of this study was to establish and validate assays to monitor host immune responses in the hamster including important pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and innate immune responses, as well as markers of apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell junction integrity and coagulation. Commercially available mouse and rat ELISA and luminex panels were screened for potential cross-reactivity, but were found to be of limited value for studying host responses in hamsters. Subsequently, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays for the detection of 51 immune-related and four internal reference genes were developed. To validate the immune-related assays, hamsters were infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Indiana species, or treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and host immune responses were monitored in selected organs. Ribosomal protein L18 was identified as the most stable internal reference gene. In conclusion, these new assays will greatly improve the use of the hamster as an important small animal model in infectious disease research.

  11. A survey on intestinal parasites of golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in the northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borji, Hassan; Khoshnegah, Javad; Razmi, Gholamreza; Amini, Hossein; Shariatzadeh, Mahnaz

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were to provide baseline knowledge about gastrointestinal parasites in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) that inhabit the Mashhad area, and to analyze possible independent variable from October 2011-August 2012. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in golden hamster, faecal samples were tested specifically for nematode eggs, protozoan oocysts and sporocysts utilizing a combined sedimentation-flotation technique. In addition, all fecal samples were examined to detect oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Of 100 golden hamsters, 52 % were females and 48 % males. Of all examined fecal samples of golden hamsters, 44 % (95 % CI: 34.3-53.7 %) were found to harbor at least one parasite species. The following parasites were detected (with their respective prevalence): undetermined Trichurata (42 %, 95 % CI: 29.5-48.5 %), Syphacia spp. (4.3 %, 95 % CI: 1-7.3 %). Cryptosporidium and protozoan oocysts were not found in these animals. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between age, sex, litter, breeding place, breeding style and anthelminthic treatment with individual helminth infection in faecal examination. This is the first record of the gastrointestinal parasites of golden hamster in Iran. Considering that hamster and other rodents are pets in many homes, the likelihood of cross-infections, particularly involving children and mainly due to unhygienic habits, should be determined.

  12. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões; Fuzii, Helen Thais; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Martins, Lívia Carício; Casseb, Samir Mansour Moraes; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2012-08-01

    Rocio virus (ROCV) is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC). ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  13. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of the searobin Prionotus punctatus (Scorpaeniformes, Triglidae at two different temperatures

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    Vicente Gomes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Routine oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were measured at 20ºC and 25ºC in the searobin Prionotus punctatus collected in Ubatuba region (22º30'S, SP, Brazil, in western South Atlantic, to investigate energy expenditure and losses through metabolic processes. IndividuaIs ranging from 1.00g to 88.47g and from 1.79g to 56.50g were used in experiments at 20ºC and 25ºC, respectively. At 20ºC and 25ºC, the averages of weight-specific oxygen consumption for the weight class of 1.00 - 10.00g, common to both temperatures, were 162.46µ 39.51 µ.10z/g/h and 200.47µ 92.46 µ.10z/g/h, respectively; for the weight class of 50.01 - 60.00g these values were 112.30 µ 22.84 µ.10z/g/h and 114.60 µ 20.36 µ.10zlg/h. At 20ºC and 25ºC, the averages of weight-specific ammonia excretion for the weight class of 1.00 to 1O.00g were 1.03 µ 0.37 fJ.M/g/h and 1.21 µ 0.65 µ.M/g/h, respectively; for the weight class of 50.01 -60.00g these values were 0.68 µ 0.13 fJ.M/g/h and 0.60 µ 0.22 µ.M/g/h. The energy budget for the species was calculated at both temperatures using the experimental data and a model for marine teleosts proposed in the literature.O consumo de oxigênio de rotina e a excreção de amônia de Prionotus punctatus coletados na região de Ubatuba (22º30'S, SP, Brasil, foram medidos a 20ºC e 25ºC, para avaliar os gastos e perdas de energia com os processos metabólicos. Foram utilizados indivíduos variando de 1,00g a 88,47g e de 1,79g a 56,50g, em experimentos a 20ºC e 25ºC, respectivamente. As médias de consumo específico de oxigênio a 20ºC e 25ºC para a classe de peso de 1,00 - 10,00g, comum a ambas as temperaturas, foram 162,46µ 39,51 µ.10z/g/h e 200,47 µ 92,46 µ.10z/g/h, respectivamente; para a classe de peso de 50,01 - 60,00g esses valores foram 112,30 µ 22,84 µ.10z/g/h e 114,60 µ 20,36 µ.10z/g/h. A 20ºC e 25ºC, as médias de excreção específica de amônia para a classe de peso de 1,00 a 10,00g foram 1

  14. Keloid heterograft in the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch Heteroenxerto de quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

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    Bernardo Hochman

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the integration of keloid heterograft in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch. METHODS: The sample is formed by 18 male hamsters, heterogenic ones, aged between 10 and 14 weeks. Keloid fragments were obtained from keloid scars of the breast region of adult female mulatto patient. Each hamster received keloid fragments into both of its pouches, in a total of 36 grafted fragments. Animals were distributed into 6 groups for having their grafts assessed in the days 5, 12, 21, 42, 84, and 168. A macroscopic assessment is performed by comparing the pouch containing the grafted fragment, at each time point, with the same pouch in the immediate post surgical moment through a comparison of standardized photographs. Under microscope, the presence of blood vases is considered within the conjunctive tissue of the grafted fragment, as a criterion of its integration. Other events, as keratin secretion, the presence of cellular infiltrated, epithelium and keloid collagen fibers aspects are also analyzed. RESULTS: Macroscopy reveals intensive vascularization of the pouch up to 12 days from the transplantation and the presence of constant dark brown pigmentation on the grafted keloid fragments. In microscopy, the integration of keloid fragments is considered by the presence of blood capillary vases within conjunctive tissue. The presence of intensive cellular inflammatory type infiltrated up to 12 days is also observed, as well as the remaining of keloid epithelium up to 21 days, and the appearing of melanocytes from the day 42. CONCLUSION: Hamster cheek pouch represents, a priori, an experimental model for the investigation of keloid.OBJETIVO: Investigar a integração do transplante heterólogo de quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus. MÉTODOS: A amostragem consiste de 18 hamsters machos, heterogênicos, com 10 a 14 semanas de idade. Fragmentos de quelóide foram obtidos de cicatrizes queloidianas da região mam

  15. In vivo Pharm acodynam ic Effect of Thiam phenicol in Serum of Carassius auratus on Aerom onas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang; Hongbo; Wang; Di; LU; Tongyan

    2014-01-01

    This study was to investigate the in vitro pharmacodynamic effect of thiamphenicol( TAP) in serum of Carassius auratus on Aeromonas hydrophila. By combining the in vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro pharmacodynamics,the pharmacodynamic effect of TAP on Aeromonas hydrophila was studied,and the data were processed and analyzed by software Excel 2007,Kinetica3P97 and Kinetica4. 4. The results showed that oral administration of singly 30 mg /kg TAP assumed a rapid assimilation-quickly peaking-slowly dispelling trend in Carassius auratus. The related parameters were measured as follows: time of peaked plasma concentration of TAP( Tpeak) of 1.5 h,peak concentration( Cmax) of 37.172 μg/mL and absorption rate( ka) of 1.523 h,half-life period T1/2( ka) of 0.455 h,lag time( TL)of 0. 02 h,elimination half life T1/2( ke) of 16.712 h. The half maximal effective concentration( EC50) was 14.28 h. The PK-PD parameters were 32.41 h in AUC0- 24/ MICserumand 23. 23 in Cmax/MICserum. Employing an inhibitory Sigmoid Emax model,the administration dosage of TAP for preventing Aeromonas hydrophila-caused bacterial septicemia was 8. 61- 46. 20 mg /kg in clinical application. Based on these,we proposed the optimal administration route for preventing and controlling the Aeromonas hydrophila-caused bacterial septicemia: delivering TAP at the ratio of 46. 20 mg /kg on diseased Carassius auratus by mixing with baits or oral administration,followed by delivering with baits at ratio of 8. 61 mg /kg for preventing the Aeromonas hydrophila-caused bacterial septicemia. The results provided references for applying thiamphenicol for preventing and controlling the bacterial septicemia in aquatic livestock.

  16. Toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil in aquatic environment on Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant defense system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuanyuan; ZHOU Qixing; PENG Shengwei; MA Lena Q; NIU Xiaowei

    2009-01-01

    Under the indoor simulant conditions, toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil which was put into aquatic environment on the young fishes Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant system after a 20-d exposure were investigated. Results showed that the relationship between the mortality of C. auratus and the exposed doses could be divided to 3 phases: fishes exposed to the low dose groups (0.5--5.0 g/L) were dead due to the ingestion of crude-oil-contaminated soils in aquatic environment; at the medium dose groups (5.0--25.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to the penetration of toxic substances; at the high dose groups (25.0--50.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to environmental stress. The highest mortality and death speed were found in the 1.0 g/L dose group, and the death speed was sharply increased in the 50.0 g/L dose group in the late phase of the exposure. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the content of malaondialdehyde (MDA) in the hepatic tissues of C. auratus were induced significantly. The activity of SOD was first increased and then decreased, and was significantly inhibited in the 50.0 g/L dose group. The activity of CAT was highly induced, and restored to a little more than the control level when the exposed doses exceeded 10.0 g/L. The activity of GST was the most sensitive, it was significantly induced in all dose groups, and the highest elevation was up to 6 times in the 0.5 g/L dose group compared with the control. The MDA content was significantly elevated in the 50.0 g/L dose group, and the changes of the MDA content were opposite with the changes of the GST activity.

  17. Effect of vitamin E and highly unsaturated fatty acids supplementation on sperm quality of goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Hanaee Kashani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary vitamin E and highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA supplementation onsperm quality was studied in goldfish (Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758, for one year. Fish fedexperimental diets had no significant differences in sperm concentration, spermatocrit, motility durationand percent motility of each sperm (P>0.05. Fish fed with E100+HUFA had the highest spermconcentration and highest spermatocrit. Motility duration and percent motility of each sperm were notsignificantly different (P>0.05 although the control group had the lowest value.

  18. Role of catecholamines and nitric oxide on pigment displacement of the chromatophores of freshwater snakehead teleost fish, Channa punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Saikat P; Jadhao, Arun G; Palande, Nikhil V

    2014-04-01

    We are reporting for the first time that the catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) inhibit the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on melanosome dispersion in freshly isolated scales of the freshwater snakehead fish, Channa punctatus. We studied the effect of NO and catecholamines on the pigment displacement by observing the changes in the melanophore index. The scales when treated with solution containing NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) showed dispersion of melanosomes, whereas NO synthase blocker N-omega-Nitro-L-arginine suppresses this action of SNP. Treatment with adrenaline and noradrenaline on the isolated scales caused aggregation of melanosomes. Scales treated with solution containing catecholamines and SNP resulted in aggregation of melanosomes suggesting that catecholamines mask the effect of SNP. These results suggest that the catecholamines are inhibiting the effect of NO and causing the aggregation of the melanosomes may be via surface receptors.

  19. Effect of cadmium and chromium on the intestinal absorption of glucose in the snakehead fish, Channa punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, K V; Sunita, K

    1982-02-01

    The effect of five concentrations of cadmium and chromium (10 mM, 1 mM, 0.1 mM, 0.01 mM and 0.001 mM) on the rate of absorption of glucose from the intestine of te snakehead fish, channa punctatus, was studied at 23 degrees C. All concentrations of cadmium decreased the rate of glucose transport. Maximum decrease was recorded with 10 mM of cadmium. The rate of transport decreased with an increase in the concentration of cadmium used. Chromium increased glucose absorption rate at all concentrations examined; the highest rate of absorption occurred at 0.001 mM of chromium.

  20. Decadal Changes in the Abundance and Length of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) in Subtropical Marine Sanctuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Hamish A; Schultz, Arthur L; Sachs, Patrick; Johnstone, Nicola; Jordan, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abundance and length of the highly-targeted snapper Chysophrys auratus were compared between sites in 'no take' areas (Sanctuary Zones: SZ), partial protected areas which are fished (Habitat Protection Zones: HPZ), and areas outside (Outside) the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) sampling on shallow rocky reef (15 - 25 m) was conducted annually from 2002 until 2014 in the Austral-winter, covering the decade after these marine park zones were established (2002). Additional deeper sites (25 - 40 m) were sampled in 2010-2011 to assess if findings were more-broadly applicable. Lengths were measured using stereo-BRUVs from 2011-2014. Snapper were significantly more abundant in SZ overall and in most years compared with the other two management types, which did not significantly differ. Snapper rapidly increased after 2 - 3 years protection in all management types, especially SZ. Snapper were present on more SZ deployments than HPZ and Outside after the same period. The positive SZ response in snapper abundance on shallower reef was also found at a broader spatial scale on deeper sites. Again the two fished management types did not show significant differences among each other. There was considerable variation in snapper abundance between years, with strong peaks in 2005, 2009 and 2014 especially in SZ. Abundances remained higher in SZ in the year or two following a strong peak, but decreased to similar abundances to fished areas before the next peak. Snapper length frequency distribution significantly differed between SZ and both fished management types, with more larger snapper within SZ including a higher proportion (58%) that were legal-sized (>25.7 cm FL). HPZ and Outside did not significantly differ from each other, and were dominated by individuals below legal size. Overall, SZ's have positively influenced abundance and length of snapper on these subtropical rocky reefs.

  1. Decadal Changes in the Abundance and Length of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus in Subtropical Marine Sanctuaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish A Malcolm

    Full Text Available Abundance and length of the highly-targeted snapper Chysophrys auratus were compared between sites in 'no take' areas (Sanctuary Zones: SZ, partial protected areas which are fished (Habitat Protection Zones: HPZ, and areas outside (Outside the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP, Australia. Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV sampling on shallow rocky reef (15 - 25 m was conducted annually from 2002 until 2014 in the Austral-winter, covering the decade after these marine park zones were established (2002. Additional deeper sites (25 - 40 m were sampled in 2010-2011 to assess if findings were more-broadly applicable. Lengths were measured using stereo-BRUVs from 2011-2014. Snapper were significantly more abundant in SZ overall and in most years compared with the other two management types, which did not significantly differ. Snapper rapidly increased after 2 - 3 years protection in all management types, especially SZ. Snapper were present on more SZ deployments than HPZ and Outside after the same period. The positive SZ response in snapper abundance on shallower reef was also found at a broader spatial scale on deeper sites. Again the two fished management types did not show significant differences among each other. There was considerable variation in snapper abundance between years, with strong peaks in 2005, 2009 and 2014 especially in SZ. Abundances remained higher in SZ in the year or two following a strong peak, but decreased to similar abundances to fished areas before the next peak. Snapper length frequency distribution significantly differed between SZ and both fished management types, with more larger snapper within SZ including a higher proportion (58% that were legal-sized (>25.7 cm FL. HPZ and Outside did not significantly differ from each other, and were dominated by individuals below legal size. Overall, SZ's have positively influenced abundance and length of snapper on these subtropical rocky reefs.

  2. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Darren M; Middleton, Crispin; Spong, Keren T; Mackay, Graeme; Smith, Matt D; Buckthought, Dane

    2015-01-01

    Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  3. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Parsons

    Full Text Available Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  4. Behavioral and biochemical responses in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to sertraline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhengxin; Lu, Guanghua; Li, Sheng; Nie, Yang; Ma, Binni; Liu, Jianchao

    2015-09-01

    Sertraline is one of the most commonly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and is frequently detected in the aquatic environment. However, knowledge regarding relationships among molecular or biochemical endpoints involved in modes of action (MOAs) of sertraline and ecologically important behavioral responses of fish is insufficient. The present study aimed to investigate the bioconcentration and possible adverse outcomes pathways (AOPs) in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to various concentrations of sertraline (4.36, 21.3 and 116 μg L(-1)) for 7 d. Bioconcentration factor values were in the range of 19.5-626 in liver, 6.94-285 in brain, 4.01-146 in gill and 0.625-43.1 in muscle during the entire period of exposure. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were selected as biochemical endpoints associated with MOAs. Swimming activity, shoaling, feeding rate and food consumption were determined to assess behavioral responses. Fish plasma levels of sertraline exceeding human therapeutic doses were also predicted from external exposure concentrations. Significant enhancements in CAT, GPx, AChE and swimming activities and decreases in shoaling tendency, feeding rate and food consumption were observed when fish plasma levels exceeded human therapeutic thresholds. Shoaling, feeding rate and food consumption were correlated with the activities of SOD, CAT and GST. A significant positive correlation between swimming activity and AChE activity was also observed. As such, our study provides important AOPs linking biochemical responses with ultimate ecologically relevant behavioral endpoints.

  5. Mechanisms Explaining Nursery Habitat Association: How Do Juvenile Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) Benefit from Their Nursery Habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Darren M.; Middleton, Crispin; Spong, Keren T.; Mackay, Graeme; Smith, Matt D.; Buckthought, Dane

    2015-01-01

    Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species. PMID:25803443

  6. Characterization of Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase (GOAT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Gómez-Boronat, Miguel; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel Luis; Yufa, Roman; Unniappan, Suraj; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin is the only known hormone posttranslationally modified with an acylation. This modification is crucial for most of ghrelin’s physiological effects and is catalyzed by the polytopic enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT). The aim of this study was to characterize GOAT in a teleost model, goldfish (Carassius auratus). First, the full-length cDNA sequence was obtained by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Two highly homologous cDNAs of 1491 and 1413 bp, respectively, named goat-V1 and goat-V2 were identified. Deduced protein sequences (393 and 367 amino acids, respectively) are predicted to present 11 and 9 transmembrane regions, respectively, and both contain two conserved key residues proposed to be involved in catalysis: asparagine 273 and histidine 304. RT-qPCR revealed that both forms of goat mRNAs show a similar widespread tissue distribution, with the highest expression in the gastrointestinal tract and gonads and less but considerable expression in brain, pituitary, liver and adipose tissue. Immunostaining of intestinal sections showed the presence of GOAT immunoreactive cells in the intestinal mucosa, some of which colocalize with ghrelin. Using an in vitro approach, we observed that acylated ghrelin downregulates GOAT gene and protein levels in cultured intestine in a time-dependent manner. Finally, we found a rhythmic oscillation of goat mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, pituitary and intestinal bulb of goldfish fed at midday, but not at midnight. Together, these findings report novel data characterizing GOAT, and offer new information about the ghrelinergic system in fish. PMID:28178327

  7. Characterization of Toll-like receptor gene expression in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during Dactylogyrus intermedius infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiao; Liu, Lei; Qi, Xiaozhou; Chen, Weichao; Wang, Gaoxue; Ling, Fei

    2016-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the first and best understood innate immune receptors, play a notable role in the innate immune system by sensing pathogenic agents and initiating appropriate immune responses. However, studies about the roles of fish TLRs in response to the infection of the ectoparasitic monogenean Dactylogyrus intermedius have been surprisingly vacant. In the present study, cDNA fragments of five members of TLRs family in goldfish (Carassius auratus) were cloned and the expression patterns of nine TLRs in five tissues at different time points during D. intermedius infection were subsequently investigated. We found that the expressions of TLR4, TLR5, TLR20 and TLR22 were significantly elevated after infection at some time points, of which the transcription of TLR5 was progressively increased nearly in all tissues, whereas the mRNA levels of other TLRs (TLR2, 3, 7, 9 and 21) were down-regulated or showed no significant change compared with the control at most time points. Additionally, this paper was also conducted to explore the expression of above TLRs after re-infected with D. intermedius. The results showed a significant upregulation of TLR4, TLR5 and TLR22 in all tested tissues at these two time points, especially the levels of TLR4 and TLR22 expression, were even higher comparing with the first infection. Besides, tissue-specific expression analysis revealed that spleen featured the highest expressions of almost all the TLR-encoding genes among detected tissues. The informations obtained here could be helpful towards understanding the functions of TLRs in response to parasitic infection in goldfish and provide new insights for the development of preventive and therapeutic approaches against D. intermedius infection.

  8. Uptake and accumulation of mercury from dental amalgam in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.J

    2003-03-01

    Exposure of fish to concentrations of dental amalgam typically found in waste discharge leads to mercury accumulation in tissues. - In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of mercury from external environmental exposure to mixed, cured, milled, sieved and proportioned dental amalgam was examined in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to dental amalgam (particle size range from <0.10 to 3.15 mm) in order to represent the particle size and distribution of that found within the typical dental office wastewater discharge stream. Experimental amalgam water loadings were 0 g/l, 0.5 g/l and 1 g/l in glass aquaria at 15 deg. C for 28 days. Fish tissues were sampled at 5 min and 28 days of exposure, and the liver, brain, muscle and whole body analyzed for total mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Mercury was found in several tissues examined and generally increased with exposure to higher amounts of dental amalgam. The highest levels were found in the whole body (17.68{+-}5.73 {mu}g/g) followed by the liver (0.80{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g) and muscle (0.47{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g). The lowest concentrations were seen in the brain (0.28{+-}0.19 {mu}g/g). Compared to controls, concentrations in the whole body, muscle and liver in fish exposed for 28 days to the highest concentration of amalgam were 200-, 233-, and 40-fold higher, respectively. This study shows that mercury from an environmental exposure to representative samples of dental amalgam typically found within the dental wastewater discharge stream is bioavailable to fish and may accumulate in internal tissues.

  9. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae serves as novel carrier for oral DNA vaccines in Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Nana; Xu, Kun; Li, Xinyi; Liu, Yuwan; Bai, Yichun; Zhang, Xiaohan; Han, Baoquan; Chen, Zhilong; Zhang, Zhiying

    2015-12-01

    Oral delivery of DNA vaccines represents a promising vaccinating method for fish. Recombinant yeast has been proved to be a safe carrier for delivering antigen proteins and DNAs to some species in vivo. However, whether recombinant yeast can be used to deliver functional DNAs for vaccination to fish is still unknown. In this study, red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) was orally administrated with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring CMV-EGFP expression cassette. On day 5 post the first vaccination, EGFP expression in the hindgut was detected under fluorescence microscope. To further study whether the delivered gene could induce specific immune responses, the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) was used as immunogen, and oral administrations were conducted with recombinant S. cerevisiae harboring pCMV-OVA mammalian gene expression cassette as gene delivery or pADH1-OVA yeast gene expression cassette as protein delivery. Each administration was performed with three different doses, and the OVA-specific serum antibody was detected in all the experimental groups by western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA assay also revealed that pCMV-OVA group with lower dose (pCMV-OVA-L) and pADH1-OVA group with moderate dose (pADH1-OVA-M) triggered relatively stronger antibody response than the other two doses. Moreover, the antibody level induced by pCMV-OVA-L group was significantly higher than pADH1-OVA-M group at the same serum dilutions. All the results suggested that recombinant yeast can be used as a potential carrier for oral DNA vaccines and would help to develop more practical strategies to control infectious diseases in aquaculture.

  10. Electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative damage induced by tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Huahong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: huahongshi@tom.com; Wang Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo Yi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Su Yan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2005-09-30

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs). To confirm its putative oxidative stress-inducing activity, freshwater fish Carassius auratus were injected intraperitoneally with TBBPA. One experiment lasted 3 h to 28 days after a single injection of 100 mg/kg TBBPA, and the other lasted 24 h after a single injection of 0-300 mg/kg TBBPA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were trapped by phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Protein carbonyl (PCO) and lipid peroxidation product (LPO) content were also determined. A six-line EPR spectrum was detected in the sample prepared in air, and a multiple one was obtained in nitrogen. The observed spectrum in nitrogen fits the simulation one with PBN/{center_dot}OCH{sub 3} and PBN/{center_dot}CH{sub 3} quite well. As compared to the control group, TBBPA significantly induced ROS production marked by the intensity of the prominent spectra in liver and bile. TBBPA (100 mg/kg) also significantly increased PCO content in liver starting 24 h and LPO content 3 days after injection. Either PCO or LPO content showed significant relation with ROS production. Based on the hyperfine constants and shape of the spectrum, ROS induced by TBBPA was determined as {center_dot}OH. The results clearly indicated that TBBPA could induce {center_dot}OH generation and result in oxidative damage in liver of C. auratus.

  11. Seasonality of reproduction in male spotted murrel Channa punctatus: correlation of environmental variables and plasma sex steroids with histological changes in testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Reetuparna; Roy, Alivia; Rai, Umesh

    2016-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop a comprehensive understanding of how environmental cues and sex steroids relate with cyclic changes in spermatogenesis in freshwater spotted snakehead Channa punctatus that is nutritious and economically important. The seasonal histological changes in testis and annual profile of gonadosomatic index (GSI) of C. punctatus delineated the testicular cycle into four phases: regressed (December-March), preparatory (April-June), spawning (July and August) and postspawning (September-November). Among environmental variables, correlation and regression analyses exhibited an important relationship between photoperiod and testicular weight while role of rainfall was seen confined to spawning. The seasonal profile of plasma sex steroids when correlated with cyclic changes in spermatogenesis in spotted snakehead, testosterone (T) seems to be involved in controlling the major events of spermatogenesis from renewal of stem cells to spawning of spermatozoa. Another important androgen prevalent in teleosts, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), was high during preparatory phase, suggesting that 11-KT in addition to T plays an important role in progression of spermatogenesis and spermiation in C. punctatus. However, 11-KT was not seen to be associated with milt production and release of spermatozoa during spawning. Plasma profile of estradiol-17β (E2) during different reproductive phases revealed the involvement of E2 in repopulation of stem cells during postspawning phase and in maintaining quiescence of testis during regressed phase.

  12. Genome Editing of Wnt-1, a Gene Associated with Segmentation, via CRISPR/Cas9 in the Pine Caterpillar Moth, Dendrolimus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Liu, Qun; Zhou, Xuguo; Huang, Yongping; Zhang, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus punctatus, is a devastating forest pest. Genetic manipulation of this insect pest is limited due to the lack of genomic and functional genomic toolsets. Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been demonstrated to be a promising approach to modify the genome. To investigate gene functions during the embryogenesis, we introduced CRISPR/Cas9 system in D. punctatus to precisely and effectively manipulate gene expressions inmutant embryos. Compared to controls, knocking out of DpWnt-1, a gene well known for its role in the early body planning, led to high embryonic mortality. Among these mutants, 32.9% of the embryos and larvae showed an abnormal development. DpWnt-1 mutants predominantly exhibited abnormal posterior segments. In addition, multiple phenotypes were observed, including the loss of limbs and the head deformation, suggesting that DpWnt-1 signaling pathway is necessary for anterior segmentation and appendage development. Overall, our results demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 system is feasible and efficient in inducing mutations at a specific locus in D. punctatus. This study not only lays the foundation for characterizing gene functions in a non-model species, but also facilitates the future development of pest control alternatives for a major defoliator. PMID:28111552

  13. Water hardness influences Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to determine aspects of water chemistry responsible for large differences in pathogenesis and mortality rates in challenges of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus with Flavobacterium columnare; challenges were conducted in water supplying the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Res...

  14. Palatability of diets for channel catfish that contain amprolium or salinomycin using feed conversion ratio as criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two feeding studies were conducted to evaluate the palatability of diets for juvenile Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus that contained the poultry anticoccidial drugs Amprolium or Salinomycin, which are candidates to control the Channel Catfish myxozoan parasite, Henneguya ictaluri. These chemothe...

  15. INDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND ASSOCIATED TOXICITY IN LIVERS OF HARDHEAD CATFISH, ARIUS FELIS, FROM CONTROL AND EPIZOOTIC SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier work with a live channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen, Edwardsiella ictaluri, demonstrated the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the head kidney, paralleling enteric septicemia (Hawke et al. 1981; Schoor and Plumb 1994). However, another study exposing...

  16. Swim bladder function and buoyancy control in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Hughes, Julian M

    2014-04-01

    Physoclist fish are able to regulate their buoyancy by secreting gas into their hydrostatic organ, the swim bladder, as they descend through the water column and by resorbing gas from their swim bladder as they ascend. Physoclists are restricted in their vertical movements due to increases in swim bladder gas volume that occur as a result of a reduction in hydrostatic pressure, causing fish to become positively buoyant and risking swim bladder rupture. Buoyancy control, rates of swim bladder gas exchange and restrictions to vertical movements are little understood in marine teleosts. We used custom-built hyperbaric chambers and laboratory experiments to examine these aspects of physiology for two important fishing target species in southern Australia, pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). The swim bladders of pink snapper and mulloway averaged 4.2 and 4.9 % of their total body volumes, respectively. The density of pink snapper was not significantly different to the density of seawater (1.026 g/ml), whereas mulloway were significantly denser than seawater. Pink snapper secreted gas into their swim bladders at a rate of 0.027 ± 0.005 ml/kg/min (mean ± SE), almost 4 times faster than mulloway (0.007 ± 0.001 ml/kg/min). Rates of swim bladder gas resorption were 11 and 6 times faster than the rates of gas secretion for pink snapper and mulloway, respectively. Pink snapper resorbed swim bladder gas at a rate of 0.309 ± 0.069 ml/kg/min, 7 times faster than mulloway (0.044 ± 0.009 ml/kg/min). Rates of gas exchange were not affected by water pressure or water temperature over the ranges examined in either species. Pink snapper were able to acclimate to changes in hydrostatic pressure reasonably quickly when compared to other marine teleosts, taking approximately 27 h to refill their swim bladders from empty. Mulloway were able to acclimate at a much slower rate, taking approximately 99 h to refill their swim bladders. We estimated that the

  17. Efecto del anabólico acetato de trembolona sobre el crecimiento de Carassius auratus (Pisces: Cyprinidae Anabolic effect induced by trenbolone acetate steroid on the Carassius auratus (Pisces: Cyprinidae growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Marañón Herrera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia anabólica del esteroide acetato de trembolona en juveniles de Carassius auratus de 60 días de edad, expuestos durante 120 días a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento. Cada dos semanas se registraron las siguientes biometrías: longitud total, longitud patrón, altura y peso. El beneficio del esteroide se caracterizó con un modelo que relacionó el peso en función del tiempo, acoplado a otros dos modelos: uno en donde se relaciona la talla con el tiempo y otro alométrico, que relacionó el peso con la talla. Los modelos estimados mostraron que el crecimiento de los peces tratados con el anabólico fue superior al de los peces del testigo y difieren significativamente (p0.05. El análisis de la variabilidad de los tres modelos demostró que las estimaciones describieron en forma adecuada el crecimiento, así lo confirma el coeficiente de determinación (r² que fluctúa entre el 72.9 y 93.5% y el análisis de la distribución de la talla y el peso con diagramas de caja. Se concluye que la aplicación del acetato de trembolona en Carassius auratus fue exitosa, al registrarse una sobrevivencia del 100% y funcionar como un eficiente agente anabólico, ya que se obtuvo una ganancia de biomasa del 48.0% y de talla del 41.3%, con respecto al testigo.The anabolic efficiency of steroid trenbolone acetate was evaluated in 60 days old juveniles of Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed during 120 days to steroid at a dose of 300 mg/kg food. Total length, standard length, height and weight were registered every two weeks. The benefit of the steroid was characterized with a model that relates the weight as a function of time, coupled to other two models: one where size is related with time and an alometric one which correlates weight with size. The models showed that growth of steroid treated fish was superior to that of untreated (control fish, differing significantly (p 0.05. Analysis of the variability of the three models

  18. Dicty_cDB: VFH144 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RNA sequence. 42 8e-04 2 AY342298 |AY342298.1 Ictalurus punctatus ER-resident chaperone calreticulin mRNA, c...A sequence. 56 0.001 1 CK420742 |CK420742.1 AUF_IpTrk_27_j08 Trunk kidney cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' similar to ER-resi...dent chaperone calreticulin, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 C

  19. Seco-limonoid derived from Raputia heptaphylla promotes the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Falla, Diana; Gomez-Galindo, Angela; Daza, Alejandro; Robledo, Sara; Coy-Barrera, Carlos; Cuca, Luis; Delgado, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    The rational search of novel bioactive molecules against pathogens with immunomodulatory activity is presently one of the most significant approaches to discover and design new therapeutic agents for effective control of infectious diseases, such as the infection caused by Leishmania parasites. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the recently characterized immunomodulatory compound 11α,19β-dihydroxy-7-acetoxy-7-deoxoichangin, a seco-limonoid derived from the bark of Raputia heptaphylla (Pittier) using: (1) peritoneal macrophages and (2) Mesocricetus auratus hamsters infected with Leishmania (V.) panamensis and Leishmania (L.) amazonensis. We observed the ability of this seco-limonoid to induce the effective control of the parasite either in vitro [determining an effective concentration 50 (EC50) of 59 µ m at the infection model] and in vivo (inducing clinical improvement or even cure in infected animals treated compared with the groups of animals treated with vehicle solution or meglumine antimoniate).

  20. Viscoelastic Characteristics of Fins, Muscle and Skin in Crucian Carp (Carassius Auratus) Described by the Fractional Zener Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming; JIA Lai-Bing; YIN Xie-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Fish are supposed to be able to adapt to various underwater environments.The mechanical properties of the body of a fish is of essential importance in order to explore the source of high efficiency during fish swimming.We investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp(carassius auratus).A fractional Zener model is used to fit the relaxation force and the results show that the model can describe the relaxation process well.With a Fourier transform, we discuss the response functions of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp under the external excitation of a harmonic force.Comparison of these results with the cruising frequency of Crucian carp shows that the dissipation due to internal viscoelasticity during cruising is small.

  1. Histopathological study of the kidney, liver and intestine tissues in goldfish (Carassius auratus and angelfish (Pterophyllum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtesam Ahmadmoradi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Histopathology is used for diagnosis of diseases in aquatic animals. This study was conductedto investigate histopathological lesions of kidney, liver and intestine of goldfish (Carassius auratus andangelfish (Pterophyllum sp. in some aquarium shops during a period between January-April 2010.Several histological alterations were observed in kidney which include glomerulonephritis, cell swelling ofepithelial cells, tubular epithelium necrosis, hyaline droplets and hyaline cast in renal tubules and tubulardilation. Liver showed vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, karyolysis and karyorrhexis and focal areasof necrosis, haemorrhagia and hepatitis. In intestine, atrophy of epithelial cells and enteritis on thelamina propria and submucosal layer were seen. It was concluded that unfavourable environmentalcontamination of aquarium may induced several histopathological alterations in the tissues of goldfishand angelfishes.

  2. [Influence of the sex of the final host on experimental Dipetalonema vitae filariosis in golden hamsters Cricetus auratus (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynouard, F; Barrabes, A; Combescot, C

    1979-01-01

    The authors have studied the influence of the sex of the host on experimental Dipetalonema viteae parasitosis in golden hamsters Cricetus auratus. The parasited hamsters are sacrificed fifteen days after testing for microfilarial count, and then the extent of the infestation is measured by counting the number of male worms and female worms. The average level of microfilarial count is significantly higher in male hamsters than in female hamsters. The same applies to the extent of parasitism: the average number of adult worms is higher when parasitosis occurs in males. However, the sex of the hamster has no influence on the proportion of male and female worms present and the degree of microfilarial count, observed in male hamsters seems to result only from the presence in the same of a greater number of worms.

  3. Phenotypic plasticity allows the Mediterranean parsley frog Pelodytes punctatus to exploit two temporal niches under continuous gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan-Pineau, Helene; David, Patrice; Crochet, Pierre-Andre

    2012-02-01

    Environmental changes, such as climate change, lead to the opening of new niches. In such situations, species that adapt to new niches can survive and/or expand their ranges. However, gene flow can hamper genetic adaptation to new environments. Alternatively, recent models have highlighted the importance of phenotypic plasticity in tracking environmental change. Here, we investigate whether phenotypic plasticity or genetic evolution (or both) allows an amphibian species to exploit two divergent climatic niches. In the Mediterranean region, the parsley frog Pelodytes punctatus breeds both in spring, as do most other species, and in autumn, a temporal niche not exploited by most other species, but which may become increasingly important with global warming. Conditions of development are dramatically different between the two seasons and deeply impact tadpole life-history traits. To determine whether these temporal niches are exploited by two genetically differentiated subpopulations, or whether the bimodal phenology arises in a panmictic population displaying plastic life-history traits, we use two complementary approaches. We measure both molecular genetic differentiation and quantitative-trait differentiation between spring and autumn cohorts, using microsatellites and common garden experiments, respectively. Seasonal cohorts were not genetically differentiated and differences in tadpole life history between cohorts were not maintained in laboratory conditions. We conclude that phenotypic plasticity, rather than genetic adaptation, allows Parsley frog to exploit two contrasting temporal niches.

  4. Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashish K; Mohanty, Banalata

    2009-09-01

    Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  5. Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Ashish K. [Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Mohanty, Banalata, E-mail: drbana_mohanty@rediffmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India)

    2009-09-01

    Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  6. Nucleotide sequences of genome segments S6, S7 and S10 of Dendrolimus punctatus cypovirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J J; Duan, J L; Zhao, S L; Xu, H G; Peng, H Y

    2004-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of genome segments S6, S7 and S10 of Dendrolimus punctatus cypovirus 1 Hunan I (DpCPV-HN(I)) and DpCPV-HN(I)-Se(3) (DpCPV-HN(I) passed three times in Spodoptera exigua) were determined. Segment S10 was 944 nucleotides in length and encoded a polyhedrin of 248 amino acids (28,439 Da). Only two nucleotide mutations were found between DpCPV-HN(I) S10 and DpCPV-HN(I)-Se3 S10, and the deduced amino acid sequences of the polyhedrin proteins were identical. Segment S7, 1 501 nucleotides, encoded a protein of 448 amino acids ( approximately 50 kDa; p50). Thirty-one nucleotide mutations were found between DpCPV-HN(I) S7 and DpCPV-HN(I)-Se3 S7, but these resulted in only four amino acid changes. DpCPV-HN(I) S6 encoded a protein of 561 amino acids (63,688 Da; p64). The amino acid sequence of p64, had a high leucine content (10%), and contained a leucine zipper motif and one ATP/GTP-binding site motif.

  7. Reproductive parameters of Hypsiboas punctatus(Schneider 1799 (Anura: Hylidae in the south limit of its distribution area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina E. Antoniazzi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypsiboas punctatus(Schneider 1799 has a wide distribution in South America, throughout a latitudinal and environmental gradient (tropical/temperate, thus, supporting significantly different pressures among populations. Until now, only tropical populations’ reproductive parameters have been recorded. Then, our goal was to study reproductive parameters on a population inhabiting a temperate climate region to evaluate differences with those inhabiting tropical regions. Studied frogs were smaller than those from tropical regions. There was no correlation between weight and size of males and their testicles volume. Conversely, females’ weight and size was positively correlated to their fertility. Fat bodies were developed in males but absent in females. When compared with other studies, our results showed the variability in reproductive parameters of H. punctatusbetween tropical and temperate regions. This variability could be the result of phenotypic plasticity and/or genetic differentiation between distant populations. This variability may be one of the keys that allow H. punctatusto thrive in diverse ecosystems with different characteristics and environmental pressures.

  8. Effect of sublethal exposure of Cartap on hypothalamo-neurosecretory system of the freshwater spotted murrel, Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D K; Bohidar, K; Pandey, A K

    2008-11-01

    In order to record the effect of carbamate pesticide on hypothalamus of Channa punctatus, fish were exposed to sublethal concentration (0.18 mg l(-1), 30% LC50 for 96 hr) of Cartap for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr under static bioassay condition. Hypothalamo-neurosecretory complex of the murrel consisted mainly of nucleus preopticus (NPO), nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLT) and their axonal tracts. NPO is a paired structure situtated on either side of the third ventricle anterodorsal to the optic chiasma and looked inverted L-shape in the sagittal section. NPO is morphologically divisible into a dorsal pars magnocellularis (PMC) consisting of large neurons and ventral pars parvocellularis (PPC) formed of smaller neurosecretory cells. NLT cells are distributed in the infundibular floor adjacent to the pituitary stalk. Sublethal Cartap treatment induced an initial hypertrophy of the neurosecretory cells of NPO and NLT followed by loss of staining affinity as well as varying degrees of cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis. Herring bodies (HB) were also encountered in the neurohypophysis of the treated fishes.

  9. Persistence of duplicated PAC1 receptors in the teleost, Sparus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Melody S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Duplicated genes are common in vertebrate genomes. Their persistence is assumed to be either a consequence of gain of novel function (neofunctionalisation or partitioning of the function of the ancestral molecule (sub-functionalisation. Surprisingly few studies have evaluated the extent of such modifications despite the numerous duplicated receptor and ligand genes identified in vertebrate genomes to date. In order to study the importance of function in the maintenance of duplicated genes, sea bream (Sparus auratus PAC1 receptors, sequence homologues of the mammalian receptor specific for PACAP (Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, were studied. These receptors belong to family 2 GPCRs and most of their members are duplicated in teleosts although the reason why both persist in the genome is unknown. Results: Duplicate sea bream PACAP receptor genes (sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, members of family 2 GPCRs, were isolated and share 77% amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR with specific primers for each gene revealed that they have a differential tissue distribution which overlaps with the distribution of the single mammalian receptor. Furthermore, in common with mammals, the teleost genes undergo alternative splicing and a PAC1Ahop1 isoform has been characterised. Duplicated orthologous receptors have also been identified in other teleost genomes and their distribution profile suggests that function may be species specific. Functional analysis of the paralogue sbPAC1s in Cos7 cells revealed that they are strongly stimulated in the presence of mammalian PACAP27 and PACAP38 and far less with VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide. The sbPAC1 receptors are equally stimulated (LOGEC50 values for maximal cAMP production in the presence of PACAP27 (-8.74 ± 0.29 M and -9.15 ± 0.21 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0.05 and PACAP38 (-8.54 ± 0.18 M and -8.92 ± 0.24 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0

  10. Assessing the anti-estrogenic activity of sodium pentachlorophenol in primary cultures of juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes using vitellogenin as a biomarker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Bing; LIU Zheng-tao; XU Zhang-fa

    2006-01-01

    Both pentachlorophenol and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) had been studied widely because of their probable anti-estrogenic activity. Sodium pentachlorophenol (PCP-Na), as a industrial product used in many fields, usually contains a trace of TCDD. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-estrogenic effect of PCP-Na in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus)hepatocyte cultures using vitellogenin (VTG) as the biomarker. The ID50 of PCP-Na was investigated and then a series of concentrations (0.001-0.5 μg/ml) of PCP-Na were evaluated to estimate the anti-estrogenic activity. Results showed that PCP-Na was cytotoxic for hepatocytes even at very low concentration <1.21 μg/ml, and it could not induce VTG at any concentrations tested.Since it failed to stimulate VTG production, the possibility of its anti-estrogenic effect was tested, and a well-known anti-estrogenic compound-tamoxifen was used as positive control. PCP-Na caused a reduction in VTG synthesis in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes at concentrations >0.1 μg/ml when co-exposure with 1 μg/ml 17β-estradiol (E2), making its anti-estrogenic activity approximately as potent as tamoxifen. Our results indicate that PCP-Na can act as negative modulators of estrogenic function in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes.

  11. Acute and chronic effects of diazinon on the activities of three dehydrogenases in the digestive system of a freshwater teleost fish Channa punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, K V; Malik, P V

    1982-01-01

    The effect of acute exposure to LC50 for 96 h (3.1 mg/l) and chronic exposure to a sublethal concentration (0.31 mg/l) of diazinon has been studied in the liver, stomach, intestine and pyloric ceca of a freshwater teleost fish, Channa punctatus. In acute exposure succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was elevated in intestine and pyloric ceca. No alteration was noted in lactate dehydrogenase activity but pyruvate dehydrogenase was inhibited in pyloric ceca. Chronic exposure resulted in inhibition of the activities of the three dehydrogenases in all the four parts at both intervals.

  12. Comparative study of the effect of acute and chronic mercuric chloride treatment on the activities of a few digestive enzymes of a Teleost fish, Channa punctatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.; Gupta, P.K.; Malik, P.V.

    1979-05-01

    In this study a comparison of the effect of exposure of Channa punctatus to LC(50) (1.8 mg/L) and a sublethal concentration (0.30 mg/L) of mercuric chloride on the activities of maltase, lactase leucyl-L-glycine dipeptidase and lipase has been made. After 96 hr of treatment, a slight elevation in maltase activity was recorded in all the portions of the digestive system. Lipase and leucyl-L-glycine dipeptidase showed inhibition in activity. Chronic treatment for 20 days revealed a significant inhibition in the activities of all the four enzymes.

  13. Effect of pine foliage damage on the incidence of larval diapause in the pine caterpillar Dendrolimus punctatus(Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Li Huang; Guo-Hong Wang; Zhong He; Feng Ge

    2008-01-01

    The pine caterpillar Dendrolimus punctatus (Walker) with a larval facultative diapause is one of the most destructive insect pests of the pine tree Pinus massoniana in China. The larvae feeding on pine trees with different damage levels were studied to determine the induction of diapause under both laboratory and field conditions. Developmental duration of larvae before the third instar was the longest when fed with 75%-90%damaged needles, followed by 25%-40% damaged needles and intact pine needles, whereas mortalities did not differ among different treatments under the conditions of 25℃ and critical photoperiod 13.5:10.5 L:D. At 25℃, no diapause was induced under 15:9 L:D, whereas 100% diapause occurred under 12:12 L:D regardless of the levels of needle damage.Incidences of larvae entering diapause when they were fed with intact, 25%-40% and 75%90% damaged pine needles were 51.7%, 70.8% and 81% under 13.5:10.5 L:D, respectively.Similar results were obtained in the field experiment. Incidence of diapause was significantly different among the pine needle damage levels of pine trees when the photoperiod was close to the critical day length, indicating that the effect of host plants on diapause induction was dependent on the range of photoperiod. The content of amino acid and sugar decreased and tannin increased in pine needles after feeding by the pine caterpillars, suggesting that changed levels of nutrients in damaged needles or a particular substance emitted by damaged pine trees was perhaps involved in the diapause induction of the pine caterpillar.

  14. Low O2 avoidance is associated with physiological perturbation but not exhaustion in the snapper (Pagrus auratus: Sparidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Denham G; Herbert, Neill A

    2012-08-01

    It is already known that the New Zealand snapper (Pagrus auratus, Sparidae) does not avoid hypoxia until reaching an oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) of 3.1±1.2 kPa at 18 °C. Avoidance at this level of PO(2) and temperature is below the critical oxygen partial pressure of the species (P(crit)=5.8±0.6 kPa, 43.5±4.5 mmHg) and is therefore expected to result in major physiological stress. Results from the current study showed that avoidance was associated with numerous physiological perturbations, including a significant endocrine response, haematological changes, osmoregulatory disturbance and metabolic adjustments in the heart, liver and muscle. Snapper clearly experienced physiological stress at the point of avoidance but they were not however in a state of physiological exhaustion since some fuel reserves were still available. In addition to avoidance, snapper also showed a subtle reduction in swimming speed - this energy-saving response may have helped snapper minimise the physiological challenge of low O(2) residence. It is therefore concluded that snapper can reside in water below their P(crit) threshold for brief periods of time and, without any evidence of physiological exhaustion at the point of avoidance, fish should recover quickly once normoxia is selected. Lastly, with signs of anaerobic metabolism in cardiac tissue at the point of avoidance, we tentatively suggest that snapper may leave hypoxia to protect heart function.

  15. Anaemia adjusts the aerobic physiology of snapper (Pagrus auratus) and modulates hypoxia avoidance behaviour during oxygen choice presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Denham G; Wells, Rufus M G; Herbert, Neill A

    2011-09-01

    The effect of altered oxygen transport potential on behavioural responses to environmental hypoxia was tested experimentally in snapper, Pagrus auratus, treated with a haemolytic agent (phenylhydrazine) or a sham protocol. Standard metabolic rate was not different between anaemic and normocythaemic snapper (Hct=6.7 and 25.7 g dl(-1), respectively), whereas maximum metabolic rate, and hence aerobic scope (AS), was consistently reduced in anaemic groups at all levels of water P(O(2)) investigated (Pspeed. Despite differences in physiological and behavioural parameters, both groups avoided low P(O(2)) just below their P(crit), indicating that avoidance was triggered consistently when AS limits were reached and anaerobic metabolism was unavoidable. This was confirmed by high levels of plasma lactate in both treatments at the point of avoidance. This is the first experimental demonstration of avoidance behaviour being modulated by internal physiological state. From an ecological perspective, fish with disturbed oxygen delivery potential arising from anaemia, pollution or stress are likely to avoid environmental hypoxia at a higher P(O(2)) than normal fish.

  16. Ghrelin Facilitates GLUT2-, SGLT1- and SGLT2-mediated Intestinal Glucose Transport in Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Ramesh, Naresh; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is an important biological process that involves a variety of regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, modulates intestinal glucose transport in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Three intestinal glucose transporters, the facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and the sodium/glucose co-transporters 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2), were studied. Immunostaining of intestinal sections found colocalization of ghrelin and GLUT2 and SGLT2 in mucosal cells. Some cells containing GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2 coexpressed the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Intraperitoneal glucose administration led to a significant increase in serum ghrelin levels, as well as an upregulation of intestinal preproghrelin, ghrelin O-acyltransferase and ghs-r1 expression. In vivo and in vitro ghrelin treatment caused a concentration- and time-dependent modulation (mainly stimulatory) of GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2. These effects were abolished by the GHS-R1a antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122, suggesting that ghrelin actions on glucose transporters are mediated by GHS-R1a via the PLC/PKC signaling pathway. Finally, ghrelin stimulated the translocation of GLUT2 into the plasma membrane of goldfish primary intestinal cells. Overall, data reported here indicate an important role for ghrelin in the modulation of glucoregulatory machinery and glucose homeostasis in fish. PMID:28338019

  17. Study on Carassius Auratus Fresh-keeping with Microwave%鲫鱼微波保鲜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建荣

    2013-01-01

    采用微波处理鲫鱼,然后将处理好的鲫鱼冷藏在3℃和10℃,以其细菌菌落数、pH、感官值、TVBN值、TBA值变化,研究微波的保鲜效果。结果表明:经超声波处理,对鱼的保鲜期有所延长,3℃时功率为300 W、时间为30 s微波处理鲫鱼,可保藏16 d。10℃时功率为300 W、时间为45 s微波处理鲫鱼可保藏9 d。%Carassius auratus was treated with microwave,then stored under 3℃and 10℃.Germs,pH,sensory index, TVBN index, TBA index was measured to evaluated the fresh-keeping effect. It was proved that Fish was treated with microwave,the fish can be preserved longer . At the temperature of 3℃,the fresh period of the fish can be prolonged 16 days under Power 300 W, Time:30 s;At the temperature of 10℃, the fresh period of the fish can be prolonged 9 days under Power 300 W , Time:45 s.

  18. Photoperiodic regulation of melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and steroidogenesis in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2014-11-01

    Photoperiodic modulation of melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression in testis has never been reported for any seasonal breeder. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the expression dynamics of MT1R in testis and its interaction with testicular steroidogenesis in a long-day breeder, Mesocricetus auratus. Hamsters were exposed to different photoperiodic conditions i.e. critical- (CP; 12.5L:11.5D); short-day- (SD; 8L:16D) and long-day- (LD; 16L:8D) for 10 weeks wherein testicular steroidogenesis, local melatonin synthesis and the expression of MT1R were analyzed. SD induced melatonin suppressed testicular steroidogenesis as evident from regressed testicular histoarchitecture, decreased expression of AR, StAR, LH-R, P₄₅₀SCC and enzyme activities of 3β- and 17β-HSD. Differential photoperiodic regulation of MT1R expression in testis suggests its involvement in photoperiodic signal transduction for seasonal adjustment of reproduction. Increased S-NAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase) activity and local testicular melatonin under SD condition suggest an inhibitory effect of the local melatonergic system on testicular steroidogenesis. Completely opposite responses were recorded for all the parameters analyzed when hamsters were exposed to CP or LD conditions. In conclusion, we may suggest that photoperiod via regulating circulatory and local melatonin level as well as MT1R expression in testes fine tunes the steroidogenesis and thereby, the reproductive status of male golden hamster.

  19. Spontaneous polyploidy, gynogenesis and androgenesis in second generation (F2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delomas, T A; Gomelsky, B; Anil, A; Schneider, K J; Warner, J L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genetics of second generation (F2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids. Spermatozoa produced by a novel, fertile F1 male were found to be diploid by flow-cytometric analysis. Backcross (F1 female × C. carpio male and C. carpio female × F1 male) juveniles were triploid, confirming that female and male F1 hybrids both produced diploid gametes. The vast majority of surviving F2 juveniles was diploid and small proportions were aneuploid (2·1n-2·3n and 3·1n-3·9n), triploid (3n) and tetraploid (4n). Microsatellite genotyping showed that F2 diploids repeated either the complete maternal or the complete paternal genotype. Fish with the maternal genotype were female and fish with the paternal genotype were male. This demonstrates that F2 diploids were the result of spontaneous gynogenesis and spontaneous androgenesis. Analysis of microsatellite inheritance and the sex ratio in F2 crosses showed that spontaneous gynogenesis and androgenesis did not always occur in equal proportions. One cross was found to have an approximate equal number of androgenetic and gynogenetic offspring while in several other crosses spontaneous androgenesis was found to occur more frequently than spontaneous gynogenesis.

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase is an endogenous inhibitor to myofibril-bound serine proteinase of crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Le-Chang; Zhou, Li-Gen; Du, Cui-Hong; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Hara, Kenji; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2009-06-24

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) was purified to homogeneity from the skeletal muscle of crucian carp ( Carassius auratus ) by ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatographies of Q-Sepharose, SP-Sepharose, and Superdex 200 with a yield of 8.0%, and purification folds of 468. The molecular mass of GPI was 120 kDa as estimated by gel filtration, while on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two subunits (55 and 65 kDa) were identified, suggesting that it is a heterodimer. Interestingly, GPI revealed specific inhibitory activity toward a myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBSP) from crucian carp, while no inhibitory activity was identified toward other serine proteinases, such as white croaker MBSP and crucian carp trypsin. Kinetic analysis showed that GPI is a competitive inhibitor toward MBSP, and the K(i) was 0.32 microM. Our present results indicated that the multifunctional protein GPI is an endogenous inhibitor to MBSP and may play a significant role in the regulation of muscular protein metabolism in vivo.

  1. Zn subcellular distribution in liver of goldfish (carassius auratus) with exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles and mechanism of hepatic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenhong; Li, Qian; Yang, Xiuping; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have attracted increasing concerns because of their widespread use and toxic potential. In this study, Zn accumulations in different tissues (gills, liver, muscle, and gut) of goldfish (Carassius auratus) after exposure to ZnO NPs were studied in comparison with bulk ZnO and Zn(2+). And the technique of subcellular partitioning was firstly used on the liver of goldfish to study the hepatic accumulation of ZnO NPs. The results showed that at sublethal Zn concentration (2 mg/L), bioaccumulation in goldfish was tissue-specific and dependent on the exposure materials. Compared with Zn(2+), the particles of bulk ZnO and the ZnO NPs appeared to aggregate in the environmentally contacted tissues (gills and gut), rather than transport to the internal tissues (liver and muscle). The subcellular distributions of liver differed for the three exposure treatments. After ZnO NPs exposure, Zn percentage in metal-rich granule (MRG) increased significantly, and after Zn(2+) exposure, it increased significantly in the organelles. Metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) were the main target for Zn(2+), while MRG played dominant role for ZnO NPs. The different results of subcellular distributions revealed that metal detoxification mechanisms of liver for ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and Zn(2+) were different. Overall, subcellular partitioning provided an interesting start to better understanding of the toxicity of nano- and conventional materials.

  2. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

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    Wang YB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yanbo Wang, Xuxia Yan, Linglin Fu Marine Resources and Nutrition Biology Research Center, Food Quality and Safety Department, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Nano-selenium (Se, with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. Keywords: selenium nanoparticle, intestinal epithelial cell, crucian carp, primary culture

  3. Report on the observed response of Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) upon encountering a reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Prayitno, Bambang; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2016-04-01

    We observed an encounter between a reticulated python (Python reticulatus) and a group of wild Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) at the Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. A python (about 2 m in length) moved toward a group of lutungs in the trees. Upon seeing the python, an adult male and several adult female lutungs began to emit alarm calls. As the python approached, two adult and one sub-adult female jumped onto a branch near the python and began mobbing the python by shaking the branch. During the mobbing, other individuals in the group (including an adult lutung male) remained nearby but did not participate. The python then rolled into a ball-like shape and stopped moving, at which point the lutungs moved away. The total duration of the encounter was about 40 min, during which time the lutungs stopped feeding and grooming. Group cohesiveness during and after the encounter was greater than that before the encounter, indicating that lutungs adjust their daily activity in response to potential predation risk.

  4. (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach to study the toxic effects of herbicide butachlor on goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-Dong; Wang, Jun-Song; Li, Ming-Hui; Liu, Yan; Chen, Ting; Jia, Ai-Qun

    2015-02-01

    Butachlor, one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture, has been reported with high ecotoxicity to aquatic plants and animals. In this study, a (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach combined with histopathological examination and biochemical assays was applied to comprehensively investigate the toxic effects of butachlor on four important organs (gill, brain, liver and kidney) of goldfish (Carassius auratus) for the first time. After 10 days' butachlor exposure at two dosages of 3.2 and 0.64 μmol/L, fish tissues (gill, brain, liver and kidney) and serum were collected. Histopathological inspection revealed severe impairment of gill filaments and obvious cellular edema in livers and kidneys. The increase of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in gill and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) level in four tissues reflected the disturbance of antioxidative system in the intoxicated goldfish. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and creatinine (CRE) level were increased in butachlor exposure groups, suggesting liver and kidney injuries induced by butachlor. Orthogonal signal correction partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) of NMR profiles disclosed metabolic changes that were related to the toxic effects of butachlor including oxidative stress, disorder of energy metabolism and amino acids metabolism, and disturbance of neurotransmitter balance in butachlor exposed goldfish. This integrated metabolomics approach provided a molecular basis underlying the toxicity of butachlor and demonstrated that metabolomics was a powerful and highly effective approach to elucidate the toxicity and underlying mechanisms of herbicides and pesticides, applicable for their risk assessment.

  5. Responses of antioxidant defense system to polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) exposure in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenguang; Qin, Li; Qu, Ruijuan; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of ten polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) congeners to freshwater fish Carassius auratus, by determining the antioxidative responses and lipid peroxidation in the liver after the fish were injected with two different concentrations (10 and 100 µmol/kg) of individual PFDDs for 3 and 14 days. The results showed that oxidative stress was obviously induced in some PFDDs-treated groups, as implied by the significantly inhibited antioxidants levels (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase) and elevated malondialdehyde content. In addition, the oxidative stress inducing ability was variable for different PFDDs congeners, which was related with the substitution number and position of fluorine atom. Based on the calculated integrated biomarker response (IBR) values, the toxicity was ranked as 2,3,7,8-FDD>Octa-FDD>1,2,3,4,7-FDD>1,3,6,8-FDD>1,2,3,4,6,7-FDD>1,2,6,7-FDD>1,2,7-FDD>DD>2,7-FDD>2-FDD. This study can enhance the general understanding of the PFDDs induced oxidative stress in aquatic organisms.

  6. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) in farmed in the State of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyses, Carla Renata Serantoni; Spadacci-Morena, Diva Denelle; Xavier, José Guilherme; Antonucci, Antonio Mataresio; Lallo, Maria Anete

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration). Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean). The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  7. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in farmed in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Renata Serantoni Moyses

    Full Text Available Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration. Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean. The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  8. Effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin and β-carotene on the semen quality of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizkar, B; Kazemi, R; Alipour, A; Seidavi, A; Naseralavi, G; Ponce-Palafox, J T

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of two carotenoids (astaxanthin and β-carotene) on the sperm quality of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758). For this purpose, six diets containing concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of synthetic astaxanthin and β-carotene were added to a basic carp diet. One group of fish was also fed with a control diet (no added carotenoids). Osmolality, spermatocrit value, and sperm concentration significantly increased in the treatment supplemented with 150 mg/kg of astaxanthin (296.6 ± 1.1 mOsm/kg; 29.2 ± 0.6%; 17.2 ± 0.4 × 10(9) cells/mL, respectively) and β-carotene (295.2 ± 2.1 mOsm/kg; 32.5 ± 1.6%; 17.9 ± 0.5 × 10(9) cells/mL, respectively). The highest concentration of astaxanthin (10.4 ± 1.4 mg/kg) was recorded in the treatment of A150 (P astaxanthin improves osmolality, motility, fertilization rate, and sperm concentration.

  9. The transcriptomes of the crucian carp complex (Carassius auratus) provide insights into the distinction between unisexual triploids and sexual diploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2014-05-27

    Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics.

  10. The Transcriptomes of the Crucian Carp Complex (Carassius auratus Provide Insights into the Distinction between Unisexual Triploids and Sexual Diploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yan Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics.

  11. Evaluation of the leishmanicidal activity of rutaceae and lauraceae ethanol extracts on golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus peritoneal macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Chavez Enciso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≤2 selectivity indices (S/I, the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12 and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11. These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  12. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  13. Acquired hookworm immunity in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) elicited by living Necator americanus third-stage infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Zhan, Bin; Guo, Jian; He, Na; Qiang, Hui-qing; Hotez, Peter; Xiao, Shu-hua

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate and understand the acquired immunity in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) elicited by primary Necator americanus infective third-stage larvae (L3) infection. Hamsters infected with 150 L3 for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 10 weeks, were challenged with the same number of L3 and sacrificed 25 days post challenge. The primarily infected hamsters exhibited 99-100% protection against subsequent L3 challenge compared to un-infected naive hamsters. The acquired immunity was developed as early as 1 week post L3 infection and lasted up to 10 weeks. Similar protective immunity was obtained in hamsters infected with N. americanus L3 and then treated orally with a single of 100mg/kg albendazole, followed by challenge with N. americanus L3 4 and 8 weeks post-treatment. The infected hamsters exhibited a rise in IgG antibodies against L3 and juvenile adult worm antigens. Histological examination showed that challenging L3 were trapped in the skin of primarily infected hamsters and surrounded or infiltrated by different inflammatory cells. The trapped L3 were damaged and dead followed by the formation of granulomas encasing dead worms. The results demonstrate that hamsters primarily infected with N. americanus L3 develop acquired immunity against re-infection.

  14. Gene expression profiling of TIR-domain-containing adaptor molecule (TICAM)in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus challenged with different pathogens including bacteria and virus%斑点叉尾(鱼回)TICAM在细菌和病毒感染后的基因表达特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王启龙; 李敏; 路飏; 黄爱平; 曾令兵; 王文琪; 陈松林; 沙珍霞

    2012-01-01

    In mammals, Toll-IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor molecule 1(TICAM-1) is a signaling adaptor for TLR3 and TLR4 that activates the transcription factors IRF-3, NF-kB, and AP-1, leading to the induction of type I interferon and cytokines. TICAM is also identified in some fish species, however, the gene expression profiling of TICAM is largely unknown in teleosts. Because bacteria such as Aeromonas hydrophila , Streptococcus spp. And Edwardsiella tarda and viruses such as channel catfish virus cause a multisystemic disease responsible for severe losses in channel catfish aquaculture in China. In this study, gene expression profiling of TICAM in different immune tissues(iver, headkidney, spleen,and intestine) after infection with these pathogens assayed by quantitative RT-PCR was described. After infection with A. Hydrophila, TICAM was up-regulated approximately 2. 3-fold at 24 h in liver and 1. 9-fold at 12 h in spleen, while expression of this gene was down-regulated in headkidney and intestine, with the lowest expression as 0. 15-fold at 48 h in headkidney, 0. 53-fold at 24 h in intestine, respectively. TICAM was up-regulated drastically in liver, spleen, headkidney and intestine after infection with Streptococcus spp. It reached the highest level with 23-fold in liver at 7 d post infection, and it increased about 10 times in headkidney and spleen after infection. The expression of TICAM increased in all tested tissues after infection with E. Tarda, especially it was up-regulated to the highest (23. 1-fold) at 7d in spleen. After infection with channel catfish virus, the gene TICAM expression was up-regulated in liver, headkidney and intestine moderately, with the highest expression of 3. 7-fold in liver at 72 h, 2. 8-fold in headkidney at 7 d, 1. 5-fold at 24 h in intestine. However, it was down-regulated in spleen,and its lowest expression was 0. 13-fold at 24 h. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the TICAM gene may play crucial roles in innate immunity in channel catfish.%采用实时定量RT-PCR方法研究斑点叉尾(鱼回)在不同病原(链球菌、嗜水气单胞菌、迟钝爱德华菌、斑点叉尾(鱼回)病毒)感染后TICAM基因在mRNA水平的组织和时空表达特征.感染嗜水气单胞菌可引起TICAM基因在肝脏和脾脏中的上调表达,在注射后24 h和12 h后上调最大分别为2.3倍和1.9倍;而在头肾和后肠中的表达则下调到感染后48 h的0.15倍和24 h的0.53倍;感染链球菌后则导致在肝脏、脾脏、后肠和头肾中TICAM基因表达的强烈上调,最大上调幅度为感染后7d肝脏中表达提高了23倍,其次,在脾脏和头肾中基因表达最大可上调到感染前的10倍左右;在感染迟钝爱德华菌后,TICAM基因在肝脏、脾脏、后肠和头肾中表达上调.其中,感染后7d脾脏中的表达提高到感染前的23.1倍.而感染叉尾(鱼回)病毒后,TICAM基因在肝脏、头肾和后肠的表达上调但幅度不大,基因表达在4种组织内表达变化量在1.5~3.7倍范围内波动,而在脾脏中TICAM表达下调,在感染24 h后达到最低为感染前的0.13倍.以上实验结果显示,斑点叉尾(鱼回)TICAM基因表达变化与病原感染密切相关,暗示TICAM基因在斑点叉尾(鱼回)天然免疫中起重要作用.

  15. 冻藏对斑点叉尾鮰鱼片蛋白质冷冻变性和肌原纤维超微结构的影响%Effects of Frozen-storage on Protein Denaturation and Ultrastructure of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) Fillet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽丽; 毛金林; 陈杭君; 李仁伟; 穆宏磊; 郜海燕

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究不同冻藏温度及抗冻剂对鮰鱼片蛋白质冷冻变性和肌原纤维超微结构的影响.方法:鮰鱼剖片后一部分置于-18、-30和-50℃3种温度下冻存15个月,另一部分先用三聚磷酸钠混合液浸渍2min,取出沥干,10 min后置于上述温度下,测定冻藏前、后各品质指标的变化情况.结果:鮰鱼片3种不同温度冻藏15个月后,粗脂肪和粗蛋白含量下降,pH值下降,TVB-N值和K值上升,盐溶蛋白的含量下降,Ca2+-ATPase活性降低,鱼肉营养品质下降,蛋白质发生冷冻变性.冻藏温度越低,蛋白质的冷冻变性程度越轻,纵肌切片基本结构特征保持较好.添加多聚磷酸盐抗冻剂有助于保持鱼片的营养品质,降低蛋白质冷冻变性.结论:冻藏温度对鮰鱼片蛋白质冷冻变性和超微结构有显著影响,抗冻剂可有效防止蛋白质的冷冻变性.%Objective:To investigate effects of different frozen storage temperatures and salt solutions on protein denaturation and ultrastructure of channel catfish fillet. Methods:channel catfish fillet were treated for 2 min with or without salt solutions, and then frozen into -18, -30 and -50℃ for 15 months. Results:channel catfish fillet exhibited lower contents of fat and protein, pH, extractable protein nitrogen value, and Ca2+-ATPase activity, and higher TVB-N value and K value after storages at -18, -30 and -50℃ for 15 months than those were before frozen storage, which indicated that channel catfish fillet had a decrease in nutritive quality and the protein denaturated. Frozen storage temperature was lower, the degree of protein denaturation lighter and cell ultrastructure of tissues better. In addition, soaking cryoprotectants in fillet maintained nutritive quality and reduced the protein denaturation. Conclusion; frozen storage temperatures markedly affect the protein denaturation and ultrastructure, and cryoprotectants effectively eased the protein denaturation of channel catfish fillet when stored at frozen temperatures.

  16. Bioaccumulation of stentorin, the probable causative agent for discolored (“purple”) eggs and ovaries in blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) from Eufaula Lake, Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Schmitt, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of reddish to “purple” discolored eggs in the ovaries of adult female blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) from the northern arm of Eufaula Lake, a eutrophic multiuse impoundment in east-central Oklahoma, were first reported in 2006. Blue catfish eggs are normally cream to light yellow. Reports peaked in 2007–2008 and declined through 2009–2010; purple eggs have not been reported between 2010 and 2014. In the laboratory, all tissues and fluids of affected fish were strongly orange-red fluorescent under UV illumination, with the fluorescence most apparent in the lipid-rich ovaries and eggs. The causative agent was isolated chromatographically and confirmed by mass spectrometry as stentorin (1,3,4,6,8,10,11,13-octahydroxy-2,5-diisopropyl-phenanthro[1,10,9,8,o,p,q,r,a]perylene-7,14-dione), the fluorescent, lipophilic pigment associated with the photoreceptor protein of the ciliated protozoan Stentor coeruleus (Heterotrichea; Stentoridae). Larval medaka (Orizias latipes) readily consumed S. coeruleus in the laboratory and were observed to fluoresce in the same manner as the affected blue catfish. Potential deleterious effects of stentorin bioaccumulation remain to be determined, as do the geographic extent and the identities of other fluorescent compounds isolated from catfish eggs and ovaries.

  17. Two gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor subtypes with distinct ligand selectivity and differential distribution in brain and pituitary in the goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Illing, Nicola; Troskie, Brigitte E.; Nahorniak, Carol S.; Janet P Hapgood; Peter, Richard E.; Millar, Robert P.

    1999-01-01

    In the goldfish (Carassius auratus) the two endogenous forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), namely chicken GnRH II ([His5,Trp7,Tyr8]GnRH) and salmon GnRH ([Trp7,Leu8]GnRH), stimulate the release of both gonadotropins and growth hormone from the pituitary. This control is thought to occur by means of the stimulation of distinct GnRH receptors. These receptors can be distinguished on the basis of differential gonadotropin and growth hormone releasing activities of naturally occurring...

  18. Effects of Cardiac Glycosides from Nerium indicum on Juvenile Carassius auratus%夹竹桃(Nerium indicum)皂甙对鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)幼鱼的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 戴灵鹏; 郑祥河; 席启斐; 王倩

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential toxicity of cardiac glycosides of N. Indicum on non-target organism, the effects of different concentration of cardiac glycosides(0, 5.89, 20.12 mg·L-1 and 80.76 mg·L-1) on mortality, specific growth rate, glycogen and protein content, SOD activity as well as micronucleus rate of juvenile C. Auratus were investigated during exposure for 14 d and its recovery response after 7 d by using semi-static test method. The results showed that fish did not die when the concentration of cardiac glycosides ≤20.12 mg·L-1 during 14 d exposure periods. However, with 80.76 mg·L-1, 100% of the fish died within 5 d. When cardiac glycosides concentration reach to 20.12 mg·L-1, the specific growth rate, glycogen and protein contents decreased gradually while the SOD activity increased first and then decreased during the whole experiment. After a recovery period of 7 d, the inhibition of specific growth rate and SOD activity were weakened gradually and the glycogen and protein content were no significant difference between control and treatment group. In addition, the result of micronucleus test showed that cardiac glycosides did not significantly affect the micronucleus rate of juvenile C. Auratus. These results suggested that cardiac glycosides was low toxicity and no genotoxicity found, which supports that the plant product is safe for use as a molluscicide for the control of harmful freshwater snails in the aquatic environment. However, higher concentration of cardiac glucosides seriously impaired the normal physiological metabolism, resulting in the growth inhibition of C. Auratus, even caused fish death in the end.%为了评价夹竹桃皂甙对非靶标生物的潜在危害,采用半静态法研究了不同浓度(0、5.89、20.12 mg·L-1和80.76 mg·L4)的夹竹桃皂甙对鲫鱼幼苗的死亡情况、特定生长率、糖原、蛋白质含量、SOD酶活性和微核率的影响.结果表明,当夹竹桃皂甙处理浓度≤20.12 mg·L-1时,处

  19. Annual changes in serum calcium and inorganic phosphate levels and correlation with gonadal status of a freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Srivastav

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult Channa punctatus murrels of both sexes (60-80 g were collected locally from Ramgarh Lake during the second week of every month (10 individuals of each sex/month throughout the year. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for serum calcium and phosphate levels by the methods of Trinder (1960 and Fiske and Subbarow (1925, respectively. Gonads were fixed to judge the state of maturation of the fish. Males exhibited no change in serum calcium levels throughout the year in correlation with testicular maturation. However, serum phosphate levels exhibited a rise in correlation with the increased gonadosomatic index. Females showed marked seasonal changes in serum calcium and phosphate levels which were associated with ovarian maturation (vitellogenesis.

  20. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Deplazes, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47), Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11) and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS) (n = 9...

  1. Assessing Habitat Use by Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus from Baited Underwater Video Data in a Coastal Marine Park.

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    Maria A Terres

    Full Text Available Baited Underwater Video (BUV systems have become increasingly popular for assessing marine biodiversity. These systems provide video footage from which biologists can identify the individual fish species present. Here we explore the relevance of spatial dependence and marine park boundaries while estimating the distribution and habitat associations of the commercially and recreationally important snapper species Chrysophrys auratus in Moreton Bay Marine Park during a period when new Marine National Parks zoned as no-take or "green" areas (i.e., areas with no legal fishing were introduced. BUV studies typically enforce a minimum distance among BUV sites, and then assume that observations from different sites are independent conditional on the measured covariates. In this study, we additionally incorporated the spatial dependence among BUV sites into the modelling framework. This modelling approach allowed us to test whether or not the incorporation of highly correlated environmental covariates or the geographic placement of BUV sites produced spatial dependence, which if unaccounted for could lead to model bias. We fitted Bayesian logistic models with and without spatial random effects to determine if the Marine National Park boundaries and available environmental covariates had an effect on snapper presence and habitat preference. Adding the spatial dependence component had little effect on the resulting model parameter estimates that emphasized positive association for particular coastal habitat types by snapper. Strong positive relationships between the presence of snapper and rock habitat, particularly rocky substrate composed of indurated freshwater sediments known as coffee rock, and kelp habitat reinforce the consideration of habitat availability in marine reserve design and the design of any associated monitoring programs.

  2. Estudio anatomopatológico de aislados de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua en Mesocricetus auratus como biomodelo

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    Willian Jirón T.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar en el biomodelo Mesocricetus auratus la sintomatología y lesiones anatomopatológicas que provocan 5 aislados clínicos de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua. Materiales y métodos. Con este fin se inocularon 50 hámster por vía i.p con 1mL del cultivo de cada una de las cepas en fase exponencial teniendo una concentración celular de 7.5 x 106 leptospira/mL (10 animales por cepa, evaluándose signos de la enfermedad, mortalidad durante 14 días, lesiones anatomopatológicas macroscópicas y microscópicas mediante tinción con hematoxilina-eosina y tinción de Warthyn Starryn. Resultados. Todas las cepas presentaron alta mortalidad, mostrando un cuadro tanto clínico, como lesional característico de la infección experimental. Además, causaron la muerte al 100% de los animales entre el tercer y décimo día postinfección. En el estudio anatomopatológico la cepa del serogrupo Ballum y la del serogrupo Pomona produjeron focos de hemorragias específicamente en el riñón y pulmones. De forma similar ocurrió una congestión hepática y renal, mientras que la hemorragia renal fue observada con mayor frecuencia en la cepa del serogrupo Pomona, diferenciándose del resto de las cepas que mostraron esta lesión con menos frecuencia. Conclusiones. Este trabajo permitió una mayor caracterización de estas cepas siendo utilizadas como futuras candidatas vacunales frente a una nueva epidemia de Leptospirosis en Nicaragua.

  3. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minghui [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Junsong, E-mail: wang.junsong@gmail.com [Center for Molecular Metabolism, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiao Ling Wei Street, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Kong, Lingyi, E-mail: cpu_lykong@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment.

  4. Assessing Habitat Use by Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) from Baited Underwater Video Data in a Coastal Marine Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terres, Maria A; Lawrence, Emma; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Haywood, Michael D E; Babcock, Russell C

    2015-01-01

    Baited Underwater Video (BUV) systems have become increasingly popular for assessing marine biodiversity. These systems provide video footage from which biologists can identify the individual fish species present. Here we explore the relevance of spatial dependence and marine park boundaries while estimating the distribution and habitat associations of the commercially and recreationally important snapper species Chrysophrys auratus in Moreton Bay Marine Park during a period when new Marine National Parks zoned as no-take or "green" areas (i.e., areas with no legal fishing) were introduced. BUV studies typically enforce a minimum distance among BUV sites, and then assume that observations from different sites are independent conditional on the measured covariates. In this study, we additionally incorporated the spatial dependence among BUV sites into the modelling framework. This modelling approach allowed us to test whether or not the incorporation of highly correlated environmental covariates or the geographic placement of BUV sites produced spatial dependence, which if unaccounted for could lead to model bias. We fitted Bayesian logistic models with and without spatial random effects to determine if the Marine National Park boundaries and available environmental covariates had an effect on snapper presence and habitat preference. Adding the spatial dependence component had little effect on the resulting model parameter estimates that emphasized positive association for particular coastal habitat types by snapper. Strong positive relationships between the presence of snapper and rock habitat, particularly rocky substrate composed of indurated freshwater sediments known as coffee rock, and kelp habitat reinforce the consideration of habitat availability in marine reserve design and the design of any associated monitoring programs.

  5. A prediction of the global habitat of two invasive fishes (Pseudorasbora parva and Carassius auratus from East Asia using Maxent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi’ao Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva and goldfish (Carassius auratus, two small omnivorous freshwater fishes, have been introduced into many countries by human activities during recent years. Wide and severe ecological harm has resulted from the pathogens that these fishes carried and from the extremely large populations of these fishes. Based on data from a large number of distribution points systematically identified by our long-term sampling survey and from the FishBase, and on high-resolution environmental data, we used Maxent to obtain the first prediction of the potential global distribution of the two fishes. The results of the study suggest that the topmouth gudgeon and goldfish have an extremely wide potential range in the world and that this is especially the case for the goldfish. In fact, all continents except Antarctica include many potential habitats for the two fishes. Accordingly, these two fishes may spread more widely and create more serious danger to the aquatic ecosystem in the future as human activities continue to expand. Especially, the Mississippi valley in the middle part, and the eastern and southern coasts of the United States of America, region from Seattle to Vancouver of Canada will be the areas of the topmouth gudgeon with highly potential invasive risk. And those areas for goldfish will be the countries of Argentina and Brazil in South America, Guinea and Cameroon in West Africa. Our results also suggest that the use of Maxent with comprehensive distribution data and high resolution environmental data represents a new and valid method for obtaining early warnings serving to prevent the danger of biological invasion.

  6. Effect of booster shot and investigation of vaccination efficacy period against herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2015-01-30

    In this study, the efficacy period of an intraperitoneal vaccination and effect of a booster shot of vaccine against herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus were investigated. Cell culture supernatant of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), causative agent of HVHN, propagated in goldfish fin (GFF) cells was inactivated with formalin (0.1%, v/v) for 2 days at 4 °C. Three groups of the variety Ryukin were individually intraperitoneally injected with the vaccine and each group was separately maintained in replicate tanks. After 4 weeks (Vaccinated-4w-1 and 2) and 8 weeks (Vaccinated-8w-1 and 2) from the first vaccination, the fish were CyHV-2-challenged by the immersion route (10 TCID50 l(-1)). In addition, the other vaccinated group of fish were injected with a booster vaccine 4 weeks after the first vaccination as the Vaccinated-booster groups, then the fish of these groups were CyHV-2-challenged by the immersion route (10 TCID50 l(-1)) after 8 weeks from the first vaccination. The mean of the relative percentage survival (RPS) values of the Vaccinated-4w and 8w groups showed 42.5% and 57.6%, respectively. In addition, the mean RPS value of Vaccinated-booster groups showed 63.6%. Statistical analysis showed significantly higher survival rates in all the vaccinated groups than those of the respective negative control groups using Fisher's exact test. Moreover, the survival rates of vaccinated-booster groups were significantly higher (p=0.036) compared with the respective control groups by Student's t test. The present study shows the efficacy period of the vaccine is at least 8 weeks and a booster shot showed a tendency to enhance the protection against HVHN in goldfish.

  7. Growth of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in cell culture and experimental infection of goldfish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Ozaki, Akiyuki; Sano, Motohiko; Fukuda, Hideo; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2013-09-03

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis has caused great economic damage to goldfish Carassius auratus aquaculture in Japan. The existence of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), the causative agent, has also been reported from several other countries. To prevent spread to other areas, basic virological information such as viral kinetics in infected fish is essential. Experimental infection trials using reliably prepared CyHV-2 for defining viral kinetics are difficult to carry out because successful and sustainable propagation of this virus in cell culture has previously been limited. Here we describe a method for sustainable propagation of CyHV-2 in cell culture, and the results of fish infection experiments using the propagated virus. We found that goldfish fin (GFF) cells and standard Ryukin Takafumi (SRTF) cells established from goldfish fin can be used for continuous propagation of CyHV-2. Experimental infections using 2 varieties of goldfish, Ryukin and Edonishiki, were performed with the virus passaged 7 times in GFF cells. In transmission experiments with water temperature at 20°C, cumulative mortality was 30% in Ryukin infected by immersion, and 90 and 100% in Edonishiki and Ryukin intraperitoneally injected with the virus, respectively. In an experiment carried out at 25°C, 90% of Edonishiki challenged by immersion died. PCR detection of viral DNA from the organs of infected fish showed that systemic infection occurs and also that the kidney is a main viral multiplication site. Moreover, CyHV-2 was successfully re-isolated in GFF cells from the dead fish.

  8. Protection of Carassius auratus Gibelio against infection by Aeromonas hydrophila using specific immunoglobulins from hen egg yolk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-liang; SHUAI Jiang-bing; FANG Wei-huan

    2006-01-01

    Specific immunoglobulin (IgY) from egg yolk against Aeromonas hydrophila was produced by immunization of White Leghorn hens with formalin-killed whole cells of A. hydrophila. ELISA test using A. hydrophila as the coating antigen revealed that the specific antibody titer started to increase in the egg yolk at the 13th day post-immunization (P/N=2.18), reached the peak at the 56th day (P/N=13.82), and remained at high level until day 133 (P/N=7.03). The antibody was purified by saturated ammonium sulphate with a recovery rate of 63.5%. The specific IgY inhibited the growth ofA. hydrophila at a concentration of 1.0mg/ml during the 18 h incubation. Pre-treatment of polyploid gibel carps Carassius auratus Gibelio with specific IgY had a protection rate of 60% (6/10) against challenge with A. hydrophila, while none of the fishes in the control groups receiving sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or non-specific IgY survived the challenge. Treatment of fishes with the specific IgY 4 h after the challenge also had lower mortality (70%, 7/10), a 30% reduction against the control PBS or non-specific IgY groups (10/10).These results indicate that specific IgY antibodies could be obtained easily from hens immunized with an inactivated A. hydrophila and could provide a novel alternative approach to control of diseases in fishes caused by this organism.

  9. Ecotoxicological effects of waterborne PFOS exposure on swimming performance and energy expenditure in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jigang Xia; Shijian Fu; Zhendong Cao; Jianglan Peng; Jing Peng; Tingting Dai; Lili Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The potential risks of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are of increasing ecological concern.Swimming performance is linked to the fitness and health of fish.However,the impacts of PFOS on swimming performance remain largely unknown.We investigated the ecotoxicological effects of acute exposure to PFOS on the swimming performance and energy expenditure of juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus).The fish were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (0,0.5,2,8 and 32 mg/L) for 48 hr.The spontaneous swimming activity,fast-start swimming performance,critical swimming speed (Ucrit) and active metabolic rate (AMR) of the goldfish were examined after exposure to PFOS.PFOS exposure resulted in remarkable effects on spontaneous activity.Motion distance was reduced,and the proportion of motionless time increased with increasing concentrations of PFOS.However,no significant alterations in the fast-start performance-related kinematic parameters,such as latency time,maximum linear velocity,maximum linear acceleration or escape distance during the first 120 msec after stimulus,were observed after PFOS exposure.Unexpectedly,although PFOS exposure had marked influences on the swimming oxygen consumption rates and AMR of goldfish,the Ucrit of the goldfish was not significantly affected by PFOS.This may result in a noteworthy increase in the energetic cost of transport.The overall results indicate that,in contrast to spontaneous activity,underlying swimming capabilities are maintained in goldfish after short-term exposure to PFOS,but energy expenditure during the process of swimming is dramatically aggravated.

  10. Membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition regulates cardiac SERCA activity in a hibernator, the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus.

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    Sylvain Giroud

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6 lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (T(b and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca(2+-ATPase 2a (SERCA in the heart of hibernators. We tested the hypotheses that high proportions of n-6 PUFA in general, or specifically high proportions of LA (C18:2 n-6 in SR phospholipids (PL should be associated with increased cardiac SERCA activity, and should allow animals to reach lower minimum T(b in torpor. We measured activity of SERCA from hearts of hibernating and non-hibernating Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus in vitro at 35 °C. Further, we determined the PL fatty acid composition of the SR membrane of these hearts. We found that SERCA activity strongly increased as the proportion of LA in SR PL increased but was negatively affected by the content of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3. SR PL from hibernating hamsters were characterized by high proportions of LA and low proportions of DHA. As a result, SERCA activity was significantly higher during entrance into torpor and in torpor compared to inter-bout arousal. Also, animals with increased SERCA activity reached lower T(b during torpor. Interestingly, a subgroup of hamsters which never entered torpor but remained euthermic throughout winter displayed a phenotype similar to animals in summer. This was characterized by lower proportions of LA and increased proportions of DHA in SR membranes, which is apparently incompatible with torpor. We conclude that the PUFA composition of SR membranes affects cardiac function via modulating SERCA activity, and hence determines the minimum T(b tolerated by hibernators.

  11. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian David Woolsey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47, Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11 and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS (n = 9 with an E. multilocularis egg suspension that contained 100 eggs with viable oncospheres and performed post mortem examination 6, 8 (M. glareolus and 10 weeks post inoculation (wpi. C57BL/6j mice (n = 4 were used as positive controls as they have been shown to exhibit macroscopic liver lesions 4 wpi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to experimentally assess susceptibility in the ostensibly competent host M. glareolus. Lesions were only detected in 2 of 47 M. glareolus (4.3% at 8 and 10 wpi and although both contained protoscolices (1675 at 8 wpi and 88 at 12 wpi the low percentage of infected animals brings into question their role as transmitters of the parasite. Significant differences were observed between inbred and outbred mice with E. multilocularis infection in the former demonstrating increased establishment (p ≤ 0.0001 and growth (p ≤ 0.0001. No lesions were found in all 11 M. auratus.

  12. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of atrazine and atrazine-based herbicide on fish Carassius auratus using the micronucleus test and the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavas, Tolga

    2011-06-01

    Atrazine is a selective triazine herbicide used to control broadleaf and grassy weeds mainly in corn, sorghum, sugarcane, pineapple, and other crops, and in conifer reforestation planting fields. It has been showed that atrazine is one of the most frequently detected pesticides in agricultural streams and rivers, over the past two decades. Although the toxic properties of atrazine are well known, the data on the genotoxic effects of atrazine on aquatic organisms are rather scarce. Thus, in the present study we aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of atrazine and an atrazine-based herbicide (Gesaprim®) on a model fish species Carassius auratus L., 1758, (Pisces: Cyprinidae) using the micronucleus test and the comet assay in peripheral blood erythrocytes. Fish were exposed to 5, 10 and 15 μg/L atrazine and to its commercial formulation for 2, 4 and 6 days. Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) at a single dose of 5 mg/L was used as positive control. Our results revealed significant increases in the frequencies of micronuclei and DNA strand breaks in erythrocytes of C. auratus, following exposure to commercial formulation of atrazine and thus demonstrated the genotoxic potential of this pesticide on fish.

  13. Development and Application of an eDNA Method to Detect the Critically Endangered Trinidad Golden Tree Frog (Phytotriades auratus) in Bromeliad Phytotelmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozio, Sarah; Manson, Chloe; Gourevitch, Eleanor; Burns, Thomas J.; Greener, Mark S.; Downie, J. Roger

    2017-01-01

    The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) to monitor rare and elusive species has great potential for conservation biology. Traditional surveying methods can be time-consuming, labour-intensive, subject to error or can be invasive and potentially damaging to habitat. The Trinidad golden treefrog (Phytotriades auratus) is one such species that would benefit from such an approach. This species inhabits the giant bromeliad (Glomeropitcairnia erectiflora) on two peaks on the Caribbean island of Trinidad. Traditional survey methods for this species have required the destruction of the giant bromeliad, which is the only known habitat of this frog. Here we described the development of an eDNA PCR-based assay that uses water drawn from the water-filled phytotelmata of the giant bromeliad along with the use of a synthetic DNA positive control that can be easily amplified in the bacterium Escherichia coli. The assay can detect to a DNA concentration of 1.4ng. Sampling of 142 bromeliads using this method revealed 9% were positive for P. auratus DNA. These data suggest that eDNA methods also have great potential for revealing the presence of elusive species in arboreal habitats. PMID:28199338

  14. 普安银鲫的生物学特性及养殖技术%Biological Characteristics and Cultivation Technology of PUAN Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢先中; 冉光鑫; 黄仕洪

    2015-01-01

    普安银鲫(PUAN Carassius auratus)是贵州省特有的天然雌核发育鱼类种质资源;它具有肉质好、生长快、杂食性、抗病力强、营养与药用价值高等特点。该文对普安银鲫形态特征、生活习性、摄食习性、繁殖习性等生物学特征进行了综述。并对普安银鲫养殖过程中池塘准备、放养密度、饲料投喂、水质管理,疾病防治等进行了简单介绍。%PUAN Carassius auratus was indigenous unique natural fish germplasm resources in Guizhou prov⁃ince;it has good meat,fast growth,omnivorous,disease resistance,high nutritional and medicinal value. In this paper,biological characteristics of PUAN Carassius auratus were reviewed,including morphological char⁃acteristics,living habits,feeding habits and breeding habits. Cultivation technology of PUAN Carassius aura⁃tus was introduced briefly,including breeding ponds during the preparation,stocking density,feed,feeding,wa⁃ter quality management and disease prevention.

  15. Assessment of Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill WP against Dendrolimus punctatus%球孢白僵菌WP防治马尾松毛虫药效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凌云; 汤均友

    2012-01-01

    In order to find a biological control method against Dendrolimus punctatus,the authors conducted a test of using 4×1010spores which existed in one gram Beauveria bassiana(Bals.)Vuill and WP to control Dendrolimus punctatus.Four concentrations and four different treatment time were used.The results showed that Using 4×1010 spores which existed in one gram Beauveria bassiana(Bals.)Vuill and WP at the dose of 3 000 gram per hectare could control Dendrolimus punctatus efficiently;the efficacy reached 90.33% on the 7th day after treatment;the efficacy reached 96.00% on the 15th day after treatment;Usage of 4×1010spores which existed in one gram Beauveria bassiana(Bals.)Vuill and WP could kill the insects quickly and efficiently.Therefore,it could be used as an effective measure to control Dendrolimus punctatus.%为寻找马尾松松毛虫的生物防治1种有效方法,笔者对400亿孢子/g球孢白僵菌WP进行了4种浓度、4种用药后时间的方法进行对比差异实验。结果表明:400亿孢子/g球孢白僵菌WP3 000 g/hm2对马尾松毛虫具有较好的防治效果,药后7 d防效达90.33%,药后15 d防效达96.00%。400亿孢子/g球孢白僵菌WP防治马尾松毛虫杀虫速度快、效果好,是马尾松毛虫1种有效的生物防治措施。

  16. Melatonin alleviates hyperthyroidism induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in hippocampus of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Geeta; Verma, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana; Agrawal, Neeraj Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is a well known phenomenon under hyperthyroid condition that induces various physiological and neural problems with a higher prevalence in females. We, therefore investigated the antioxidant potential of melatonin (Mel) on hyperthyroidism-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus region of brain (cognition and memory centre) of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Aged female hamsters were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=7); group-I: control, group-II: Melatonin (5mgkg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for one week), group-III: Hyperthyroid (100μg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for two weeks) and group-IV- Hyper+Mel. Hormonal profiles (thyroid and melatonin), activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPX), lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and the specific apoptotic markers (Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3) expression were evaluated. A significant increase in the profile of total thyroid hormone (tT3 and tT4) in hyperthyroidic group as compared to control while tT3 significantly decreased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. However, Mel level significantly decreased in hyperthyroidic group but increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Further, the number of immune-positive cells for thyroid hormone receptor-alpha (TR-α) decreased in the hippocampus of hyperthyroidic group and increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Profiles of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant decrease in hyperthyroidic group with a simultaneous increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Melatonin treatment to hyperthyroidic group lead to decreased TBARS level with a concomitant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity. Moreover, increased expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3, in hyperthyroidic group had elevated neuronal cell death in hippocampal area and melatonin treatment reduced its expression in hyperthyroidic group. Our findings thus indicate that melatonin reduced the hyperthyroidism

  17. Single and combined effects of aluminum (Al2O3) and zinc (ZnO) oxide nanoparticles in a freshwater fish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, María; Fernández-Lodeiro, Javier; Coelho, Pedro; Lodeiro, Carlos; Diniz, Mário S

    2016-12-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) worldwide has raised some concerns about their impact on the environment. The aim of the study was to assess the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles, singly or combined, in a freshwater fish (Carassius auratus). The fish were exposed for 7, 14, and 21 days to different concentrations of NPs (10 μg Al2O3.L(-1), 10 μg ZnO.L(-1), 10 μg Al2O3.L(-1) plus 10 μg ZnO.L(-1), 100 μg Al2O3.L(-1), 100 μg ZnO.L(-1), and 100 μg Al2O3.L(-1) plus 100 μg ZnO.L(-1)). At the end of each exposure period, antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase), lipid peroxidation, and histopathology were assessed in the gills and livers of C. auratus. The results show an increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the gills and livers of fish, especially after 14 days of exposure to single and combined NPs, followed by a reduction at 21 days. An increase in glutathione S-transferase (GST) was observed in gills after 7 days for all tested NP concentrations (single and combined); while in livers, a significant increase was determined after 14 days of exposure to 100 μg.L(-1) of both single ZnO and Al2O3 NPs. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) significantly increased in gills after 7 days of exposure to 100 μg.L(-1) Al2O3 NPs (single or combined). In livers, LPO increased significantly after 7 days of exposure to all tested concentrations of both single ZnO and Al2O3 (except for 10 μg Al2O3.L(-1)), and after 14 days of exposure to ZnO (10 and 100 μg.L(-1)) and Al2O3 (100 μg.L(-1)). The results from histological observations suggest that exposure to metal oxide NPs affected both livers and gills, presenting alterations such as gill hyperplasia and liver degeneration. However, the most pronounced effects were found in gills. In general, this study shows that the tested NPs, single or combined, are capable of causing sub-lethal effects on C. auratus, but when

  18. 对鲫鱼的急性毒性试验四种中药%Acute Toxicity Test of Four Chinese Herbs on Carassius Auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗喜东; 陈鹏飞

    2015-01-01

    Biological toxicity method was adopted to investigate the acute toxicity effect of four Chinese herbs(Cyrtomium fortune,Sophora,Toosendan and Elecampane) on carassius auratus by ob-serving and recording the death and toxic reaction of carassius auratus within 96 h. The results indi-cated that toxicities of the four Chinese herbs decreased in the following sequence:Cyrtomium for-tune>Toosendan>Sophora>Elecampane. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of these four Chinese herbs were 2.254, 10.239, 36.363 g/L and 47.539 g/L, respectively, and their corresponding safe concentration (SC) were 0.294,1.539,8.575 g/L and 10.076 g/L,respectively. Therefore,once these four Chinese herbs were used in culture of carassius auratus,their dosages must be controlled within each safety concentration range.%为研究贯众、苦参、川楝子、土木香等4种中药对鲫鱼的急性毒性作用,我们采用生物毒性方法,观察和记录了投药96 h内鲫鱼的死亡情况和毒性反应. 结果显示:4种中药的毒性大小依次为贯众>川楝子>苦参>土木香,24 h的半致死质量浓度(LC50)分别为2.254、10.239、36.363、47.539 g/L,安全质量浓度(SC)分别为0.294、1.539、8.575、10.076 g/L. 结论:在鲫鱼养殖中使用上述中药时应在其安全质量浓度范围内进行.

  19. Genetic relationships among members of the Ichthyobodo necator complex: implications for the management of aquaculture stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, H A; Litaker, R W; Noga, E J

    2005-02-01

    Abstract Ichthyobodo necator (costia) is a common and important flagellate parasite that infests the skin and gills of many freshwater and marine fish. Costia infestations are often fatal and cause significant aquaculture losses worldwide. Recently it has been demonstrated that Ichthyobodo is a multispecies complex with differing host preferences. Knowing if those species have broad or narrow host specificity has important implications for the management of costia. To address the question of host specificity, genomic DNA was isolated from Ichthyobodo trophonts collected from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, koi, Cyprinus carpio, mirror carp, C. carpio, goldfish, Carassius auratus, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri, and Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene from each isolate was analysed with previously published Ichthyobodo sequences using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. The internal transcribed spacers (ITS) from six isolates were also PCR-amplified, cloned and sequenced. Both the SSU rRNA phylogenetic analysis and the ITS rRNA sequence data support grouping the 22 Ichthyobodo isolates examined into a complex of nine different species. Many of these species were frequently isolated from multiple hosts, indicating that exchange of infested fish from one region to another has a high potential for spreading the disease. In one instance, the same species was obtained from marine and freshwater fish, further suggesting that certain Ichthyobodo species may not be limited by salinity.

  20. First record of Neoergasilus japonicus (Poecilostomatoida: Ergasilidae), a parasitic copepod new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The parasitic copepod Neoergasilus japonicus, native to eastern Asia, was first collected from 4 species of fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus; and yellow perch, Perca flavescens) in July 1994 in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan. Further sampling in the bay in 2001 revealed infections on 7 additional species (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; carp, Cyprinus carpio; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; goldfish, Carassius auratus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris; and smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu). An additional 21 species examined in 2001 were devoid of the parasite. A limited collection of fish from Lake Superior (n = 8) and Lake Michigan (n = 46) in 1994 showed no infection. Neoergasilus japonicus is most frequently found attached to the dorsal fin and, in decreasing frequency, on the anal, tail, pelvic, and pectoral fins. Prevalence generally ranged from 15 to 70 and intensity from 1 to 10. The greatest number of copepods on a single host was 44. The copepod Neoergasilus japonicus appears to disperse over long distances rather quickly, spreading across Europe in 20 yr and then moving on to North America over a span of 10 yr. Its main vehicle of transport and introduction into the Great Lakes is probably exotic fish hosts associated with the fish-culture industry.

  1. Effects of La(III) and Ca(II) on isolated Carassius auratus liver mitochondria: heat production and mitochondrial permeability transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Man; Gao, Jia-Ling; Sun, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Ye-Zhong; Liu, Yi; Dai, Jie

    2015-02-01

    The effects of lanthanum and calcium on heat production of mitochondria isolated from Carassius auratus liver were investigated by microcalorimetry, and their effects on mitochondrial swelling and membrane potential (Δψ) were determined by spectroscopic methods. La(3+) showed only inhibitory action on mitochondrial energy turnover with inhibition concentration of 50 % (IC50) being 71.2 μmol L(-1). Similarly, Ca(2+) restrained the heat production of mitochondria, and the IC50 of Ca(2+) was much higher than that of La(3+). In the spectroscopic experiments, La(3+) and Ca(2+) induced fish liver mitochondrial swelling and decreased membrane potential (Δψ), and the induction ability of La(3+) was stronger than that of Ca(2+). It is concluded that the effects of La(3+) and Ca(2+) on fish liver mitochondria differ, and La represents toxic action rather than Ca analogy.

  2. Discovery of a male-biased mutant family and identification of a male-specific SCAR marker in gynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da Wang; Huiling Mao; Jinxia Peng; Xiyin Li; Li Zhou; Jianfang Gui

    2009-01-01

    Gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is a uniquely gynogenetic species with a minor ratio of males in natural habitats, but its male origin and sex determination mechanisms have been unknown. In this study, a male-biased mutant family was discovered from the gynogenetic gibel carp, and a male-specific SCAR marker was identified from the mutant family. Normal spermatogenesis was observed in the male testes by immunofluorescence histochemistry. Nearly identical AFLP profiles were observed between males and females, but a male-specific 86 bp AFLP fragment was screened by sex-pool bulked segregant analysis and individual screening. Based on the male-specific AFLP frag-ment, a total of 579 bp sequences were cloned by genome walking. Subsequently, a male-specific SCAR marker was designed, and the male-specific DNA fragment was confirmed to be steadily transmitted to the next generation and consistently detected only in males.

  3. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 impairs learning but not memory fixation or expression of classical fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Davis, R E

    1992-04-01

    The amnestic effects of the noncompetitive antagonist MK-801 on visually mediated, classic fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was examined in 5 experiments. MK-801 was administered 30 min before the training session on Day 1 to look for anterograde amnestic effects, immediately after training to look for retrograde amnestic effects, and before the training or test session, or both, to look for state-dependence effects. The results showed that MK-801 produced anterograde amnesia at doses that did not produce retrograde amnesia or state dependency and did not impair the expression of conditioned or unconditioned branchial suppression responses (BSRs) to the conditioned stimulus. The results indicate that MK-801 disrupts the mechanism of learning of the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus relation. Evidence is also presented that the learning processes that are disrupted by MK-801 occur during the initial stage of BSR conditioning.

  4. Analysis on the Muscle Nutrition Component of Carassius auratus (A form)%普安银鲫A型鱼肌肉的营养成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 安苗; 范兴刚; 刘贵林; 黄仕洪; 李勇

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide reference for developing animal industry or other basic researches of Carassius auratus. In this paper, the nutritive composition in muscle of C. auratus (A form) was quantitatively analyzed by biochemical method. The results showed that water content was (78. 28 + 0.15)%, crude protein content was (16. 79±0. 30)%, crude fat content was (0. 74 + 0. 02) %, crude ash content was (0. 98 + 0. 05)%. The muscle of C. auratus (A form) consisted of 17 kinds of amino acids, the gross amount was 20. 08% , and the gross amount of essential amino acids was 8. 21%. The ratio of the essential amino acids to the total amino acids was 40. 89%. The ratio of the content of the essential amino acids to that of the non-essential amino acids was 69. 19%. The proportion of the essential amino acids was in accordance with the standards of FAO/WHO. The'contents of EPA and DHA in fatty acids were 0. 48% and 2. 15% respectively. This research indicated that C. auratus(A form) was a kind of cultured fishes, which had high protein, low fat, abundant amino acids, delicious taste and high nutritive value.%为普安银鲫的推广养殖或其他基础研究提供参考依据,应用生化分析方法对普安银鲫A型鱼的肌肉营养成分进行了定量分析.结果表明:普安银鲫A型鱼肌肉中水分为(78.28±0.15)%,粗蛋白含量为(16.79±0.30)%,粗脂肪含量为(0.74±0.02)%,粗灰分含量为(0.98±0.05)%.普安银鲫A型鱼肌肉中含有17种氨基酸,总量为20.08%,必需氨基酸总量为8.21%,必需氨基酸与总氨基酸比值为40.89%,必需氨基酸与非必需氨基酸比值为69.19%,其必需氨基酸的构成比例符合FAO/WHO标准;脂肪酸中的EPA与DHA含量分别为0.48%和2.15%.普安银鲫A型鱼是一种高蛋白、低脂肪、氨基酸含量丰富、味道鲜美、营养价值高的养殖鱼类.

  5. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  6. 纳米和微米ZnO对鲫鱼的毒性效应研究%Toxicity of Nano and Micro ZnO on Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡正雪; 刘林; 郭红岩; 尹颖

    2014-01-01

    Nano ZnO has attracted increasing concerns because of its widespread use and unique toxic potential.While,so far most researches focused on the concentration effects but not the size effects of Nano ZnO.The purpose of this study was to compare the toxic effects of Nano ZnO and Micro ZnO to Carassiusauratus.Fourteen days after the intraperitoneal injection of Nano ZnO(1,12.5,50 mg ZnO/kg)and Micro ZnO(12.5 mg ZnO/kg),the distribution and toxic effects of Nano and Micro ZnO on Carassiusauratus liver and brain were studied.The particle size of both Nano and Micro ZnO was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).And the free radicals (·OH )generation was determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).Several antioxidant biomarkers such as superoxide dysmutase (SOD),glutathione S-transferases(GST),glutathione(GSH)and malondialdehyde(MDA)were measured,and the effects of Nano and Micro ZnO on Zn content in liver and brain of C.auratus were also detected.We found that both Nano and Micro ZnO could induce the production of·OH.As compared to Micro ZnO,exposure to 12.5 mg ZnO/kg Nano ZnO caused more accumulation of ·OH in the liver of C.auratus.Accordingly,Nano ZnO induced the synthesis of MDA and suppressed the SOD activities in the liver and brain of C.auratus.Further,Nano ZnO effects on GSH were much higher than those of Micro ZnO,suggesting more severe oxidative stress caused by Nano ZnO under the same concentration.The contents of Zn in both liver and brain of C.auratus exposed to Nano ZnO were also much higher than those exposed to Micro ZnO.However,there was no linear relationship between the increased concentrations of Nano ZnO and the induction of ·OH and MDA and the inhibition of SOD activities.Overall,the results indicated that Nano ZnO could be more effectively taken into the brain and liver of Carassius auratus than Micro ZnO,resulting in more toxic effects,but the toxic effects of Nano ZnO didn’t have a linear relationship with the

  7. Studies on the alterations in haematological indices, micronuclei induction and pathological marker enzyme activities in Channa punctatus (spotted snakehead) perciformes, channidae exposed to thermal power plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the toxicity of thermal power plant effluent containing heavy metals (Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Ni > Co > Cr) on haematological indices, micronuclei, lobed nuclei and activity of pathological marker enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK)] in Channa punctatus. Total erythrocyte count (-54.52 %), hemoglobin (-36.98 %), packed cell volume (-36.25 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (-1.41 %) and oxygen (O2) carrying capacity (-37.04 %) declined significantly over reference fish, however total leukocyte count (+25.43 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (+33.52 %) and mean corpuscular volume (+35.49 %) showed elevation. High frequency of micronuclei (1133.3 %) and lobed nuclei (150 %) were observed in exposed fish which may indicate mutagenesis. Activities of pathological marker enzymes ALP, AST, ALT and CK increased significantly in serum of exposed fish. The ratio of ALT: AST in exposed fish was beyond 1 which indicates manifestation of pathological processes. These biomarkers show that fish have macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Leukocytosis showed general defence response against heavy metal toxicity and marker enzymes showed tissue degeneration. In conclusion, thermal power plant effluent has strong potential to induce micronuclei, tissue pathology, making the fish anemic, weak, stressed and vulnerable to diseases.

  8. Phosphatized rare star-like mouth disc of Punctatus and its functional morphology from the earliest Cambrian of the South Shaanxi China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Meishucun stage is the prelude in decipher-ing the Cambrian Explosion. In this prominent stage, rapid radioactive evolution and body-plan innovation have taken place and different associations of organism have been shaped. In this paper we report several 3D-preserved rare star-like fossils with finely preserved soft tissues which were recovered from the Kuanchuanpu Member of the Dengying Formation in South Shaanxi, China in 2003. By studying on functional morphology and analogy with mouthpart of Punctatus, there are evidences that this star-like organism approaches the coelenterates in systematic classification and the centre of star-like organism is its mouth. The appearance of coelenterates marks the real beginning of metazoan evolution. Therefore, it has the prominent position in the origin and evolutionary history of organisms. Perhaps the star-like organism represents the early types of coelenterate with original tentacles. These new materials provide new evidence for the origin, evolution and the functional evolution of the metazoan during the early stage of the Cambrian Explosion.

  9. Toxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine: Effects on Lipid Peroxidation and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Freshwater Fish Channa Punctatus (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Srivastava

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity and effects of a commercial formulation of the herbicide atrazine (Rasayanzine on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system in the freshwater air breathing fish Channa punctatus. The 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 of atrazine, calculated by probit analysis, were determined to be 77.091, 64.053, 49.100, 44.412 and 42.381 mg·L-1, respectively, in a semi static system with significant difference (p < 0.05 in LC10-90 values obtained for different times of exposure. In addition to concentration and time dependent decrease in mortality rate, stress signs in the form of behavioral changes were also observed in response to the test chemical. In fish exposed for 15 days to different sublethal concentrations of the herbicide (1/4 LC50 = ~10.600 mg·L-1, 1/8 LC50 = ~5.300 mg·L-1 and 1/10 LC50 = ~4.238 mg·L-1 induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidence by increased lipid peroxidation levels. The antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR responded positively in a concentration dependent pattern, thus, suggesting the use of these antioxidants as potential biomarkers of toxicity associated with contaminations exposure in freshwater fishes.

  10. 3种生物制剂对马尾松毛虫幼虫的防效试验%Analysis of the effects of three kinds of biological agents on the larvae of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春辉

    2015-01-01

    Due to the unreasonable operation, prevention and control measures, cyclophragma undans has become the main leaf eating pests of Pinus massoniana forest. Experiment was carried out in Yongan, Fujian province in 2014 to explore the high efficient, environmental and economic methods to prevent Dendrolimus punctatus suitable for the forestry production level. The results indicated that the 3 kinds of biological agents of sendebao powder, 3%eucalyptol soluble smoke agent and 3%fenoxycarb EC smoke agent had good prevention and control effects to Dendrolimus punctatus larvae. The prevention effects 7 d later after treatment were more than 90%, and can be used to prevent Dendrolimus punctatus.%近年来,由于不合理的经营、防治措施,波纹杂毛虫已成为马尾松林的主要食叶害虫。为探索适应林区林业生产整体水平且高效、环保、经济的马尾松毛虫防治方法,选用3种生物制剂,于2014年在福建省永安市发生马尾松毛虫的马尾松林进行防治试验。结果表明,森得保粉剂、5%桉油精可溶液烟雾剂、3%高渗苯氧威乳油烟雾剂对马尾松毛虫幼虫均有良好的杀虫效果,药后7 d防效均达90%以上,在马尾松毛虫危害时均可使用。

  11. 鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源变迁及其原因初探%Preliminary Investigation on the Changes of cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus Resources in Poyang Lake and Its Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱芳; 陈文静; 傅义龙; 周辉明

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The research aimed to protect and exploit reasonably the resources of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus in Poyang Lake. [ Method ] Based on analyzing the data of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus resources in Poyang Lake from 1959 to 2006,the change situations of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus resources in Poyang Lake in nearly 50 years were studied. The causes of the changes were preliminarily investigated and some relevant measures were put forward. [ Result ] the individual size and age of sexual maturity had gotten smaller and smaller, although Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus have become the dominant population in Poyang Lake in the past fifty years. The resources showed the severe recession conditions. The causes were mainly due to low water level of Poyang Lake in dry season, water pollution, and over-fishing and illegal fishing gear and methods and other aspects. [ Conclusion ] The range of egg-laying field of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus in Poyang Lake should be confirmed. And the direct discharge of industrial sewage, municipal sewage and agricultural non-point Pollution in the basin of Poyang Lake should be strictly controlled.%[目的]保护和合理开发利用鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源.[方法]在分析1959-2006年鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源数据的基础上,分析近50年鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源变迁情况,并初步探讨了该变化的发生原因及相关应对措施.[ 结果]50来鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼虽成为优势种群,但其个体越来越小,性成熟年龄也越来越小,资源呈现出严重衰退状况.其原因主要是由于鄱阳湖枯水期水位过低,水质污染,加上过度捕捞以及非法渔具渔法的滥用等方面引起的.[结论]应明确鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼产卵场的范围,严格控制鄱阳湖流域工业污水、城市污水以及农业面污染源的直接排放.

  12. Gametogenesis and reproductive cycle of Melanorivulus aff. punctatus (Boulenger, 1895 (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae in Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cassel

    Full Text Available The comprehension of the reproductive cycle allows to understand which are the morphological changes that develop in the gonad during this interval. Thus, many studies have been undertaken in order to describe and classify the stages of gonadal development and reproductive status of Neotropical fishes. For this purpose, specimens of Melanorivulus aff. punctatus were collected in a permanent dam in Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The gonads were prepared for analysis by light microscopy. The oogenesis and spermatogenesis have been described, characterizing the stages of gonadal development, together with assessments of the gonadosomatic ratio, germ cell count and verification of variation of mature oocytes in females. Throughout the year the male gonads presented themselves as capable of reproducing, characterized by the presence of undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia, spermatocytes organized into cysts, spermatids in cysts whose wall was thicker and the spermatozoa was free in the lumen and the duct. This can indicate a continuous reproductive cycle with split spermiation. The females had gonads in the development stage from May to September with undifferentiated and differentiated oogonias and early oocytes always facing the lumen, abundant pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes and some atresias. In the phase capable of spawning, observed from October to March, the mature oocytes are abundant, there are many post-ovulatory complexes and some atresia in advanced stage. The regression, observed in some individuals from February to April, is characterized by ovaries with many atresias and post-ovulatory complexes. The same results were found in the quantitative assessments. Therefore, it may be characterized as discontinuous cycle with split spawning. Thus, the reproductive cycle of this species can be characterized as continuous for males and discontinuous for females, which have a most intense phase of reproduction

  13. Pharmacokinetics and tissue residues of hydrochloric acid albendazole sulfoxide and its metabolites in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zaijian; Chen, Cuilan; Ai, Diyun; Wang, Chunmei; Li, Jing; Qi, Yuanhua; Yi, Weixue; Shen, Hongchun; Cao, Jiyue

    2012-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics and residues elimination of hydrochloric acid albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) and its metabolites were studied in healthy crucian carp (Carassius auratus, 250 ± 30 g) kept at water temperatures of 10 °C and 25 °C. The concentrations of ABZSO and its metabolites concentration in plasma and tissues were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an ultraviolet detector. The results revealed that the plasma concentration of ABZSO in plasma was significantly higher than that of albendazole sulfone (ABZSO(2)), whereas albendazole-2-aminosulfone (ABZ-SO(2)NH(2)) was not detected. The plasma concentrations of ABZSO and its main metabolite ABZSO(2) concentration-time data were fitted using a single-compartment model at 10 °C and 25 °C. The absorption half-life (t₁/₂ka) of ABZSO was 3.86 h at 10 °C and 1.29 h at 25 °C, whereas the elimination half-life (t₁/₂ke) was 16.34 h at 10 °C and 6.72 h at 25 °C; the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the time-point of maximum plasma concentration (T(p)) were calculated as 3.20 μg mL(-1) and 10.58 h at 10 °C, 4.39 μg mL(-1) and 3.80 h at 25 °C. The distribution volume (V(d)/F) of ABZSO was estimated to be 1.99 L kg(-1) at 10 °C and 1.53 L kg(-1) at 25 °C; the total body clearance (CL(b)) of ABZSO were computed as 0.08 and 0.19 L/(h kg) at 10 and 25 °C, respectively; the areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was 118.22 μg mL(-1)h at 10 °C and 63.12 μg mL(-1)h at 25 °C. The [Formula: see text] of ABZSO(2) was found to be 6.39 °C at 10 °C and 3.73 h at 25 °C, whereas the [Formula: see text] was 12.86 h at 10 °C and 6.56 h at 25 °C; the C(max) and T(p) of ABZSO(2) was calculated as 0.78 μg mL(-1) and 12.82 h at 10 °C, 1.03 μg mL(-1) and 7.04 h at 25 °C, respectively; the V(d)/F of ABZSO(2) were estimated to be 6.43 L kg(-1) at 10 °C and 4.61 Lkg(-1) at 25 °C; the CL(b) of ABZSO(2) were computed as 0.34 and 0.49 L/(h kg) at 10 °C and 25

  14. Retrospect and Prospect of Controlling Dendrolimus punctatus with Beauveria bassiana in Guangdong Province%广东省应用白僵菌防治马尾松毛虫研究回顾与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶燕华; 徐金柱

    2014-01-01

    文章综述了广东省应用白僵菌防治马尾松毛虫系列研究和取得的关键性技术成果,阐明大面积喷洒白僵菌对马尾松毛虫持续控制的效果,总结了白僵菌大规模生产和防治使用方法,分析了长期困扰白僵菌生产和应用的问题,并提出对策和展望。%The application of Beauveria bassiana to control Dendrolimus punctatus in Guangdong province and key technologies of series researches were reviewed in this paper,which illuminated the steady effects of using B.bassiana to control D.punctatus,summarized the mass production and using methods,analyzed the problems existing in the production and application,and putted forward the future prospects and the countermeasures to solve these problems.

  15. The effects of galactooligosaccharide on systemic and mucosal immune response, growth performance and appetite related gene transcript in goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Farvardin, Shoeib; Shabani, Ali; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Ramezanpour, Seyyede Sanaz

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the effects of supplementation of goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio) diet with galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on serum immune response, mucosal immune parameters as well as appetite-related (Ghrelin) and immune-related (TNF-1α and TNF-2α) genes expression. One hundred and eighty fish with an average weight of 4.88 ± 0.28 g were stocked in twelve 500-L fiberglass tank assigned to four treatments repeated in triplicates. Fish were fed on experimental diets contain 0.5, 1 and 2% GOS for 6 weeks. Supplementation of diet with GOS had no remarkable effect on goldfish growth performance (P > 0.05). Evaluation of serum innate immune parameters revealed that supplementation of diet with GOS significantly elevated total protein, Albumin, Globulins, Lysozyme and Alkaline phosphatase activity as well as agglutination compared to control group in a dose dependent manner (P appetite (ghrelin) and inflammatory cytokine (TNF-1α and TNF-2α) genes expression revealed remarkably decrease and increase, respectively in GOS fed fish (P decreased appetite gene expression and had no effect on growth performance.

  16. Detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in peripheral blood cells of silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), suggests its potential in viral diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Xu, Lj; Lu, Lq

    2016-02-01

    Epidemics caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in domestic cyprinid species have been reported in both European and Asian countries. Although the mechanisms remain unknown, acute CyHV-2 infections generally result in high mortality, and the surviving carps become chronic carriers displaying no external clinical signs. In this study, in situ hybridization analysis showed that CyHV-2 tended to infect peripheral blood cells during either acute or chronic infections in silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Laboratory challenge experiments coupled with real-time PCR quantification assays further indicated that steady-state levels of the viral genomic copy number in fish serum exhibited a typical 'one-step' growth curve post-viral challenge. Transcriptional expression of open reading frames (ORF) 121, which was selected due to its highest transcriptional levels in almost all tested tissues, was monitored to represent the replication kinetics of CyHV-2 in peripheral blood cells. Similar kinetic curve of active viral gene transcription in blood cells was obtained as that of serum viral load, indicating that CyHV-2 replicated in peripheral blood cells as well as in other well-characterized tissues. This study should pave the way for designing non-invasive and cost-effective serum diagnostic methods for quick detection of CyHV-2 infection.

  17. Dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus modulated skin mucus protein profile, immune and appetite genes expression in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Marjan; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Yarahmadi, Peyman

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus on skin mucus protein pattern, immune and appetite related genes expression as well as growth performance in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio). Three hundred healthy gold fish (2.5 ± 0.05) juveniles were randomly distributed in 12 glass aquariums (400-L; 25 fish per aquaria) and fed experimental diets contain different levels of L. acidophilus (0, 1.5 × 10(8), 3 × 10(8) and 6 × 10(8)) for 8 weeks. SDS-PAGE analysis of skin mucus protein profile at the end of the feeding trial revealed differences in protein profile of probiotic fed fish and control group; even three new bands were observed in L. acidophilus treated groups. Furthermore, fish fed 6 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) supplemented diet showed up-regulation of both TNF-1α and TNF-2α gene expression (P acidophilus had no significant effects on growth performance (P > 0.05). These results demonstrated that while no beneficial effects on growth performance, dietary L. acidophilus affects immune and appetite related genes expression as well as skin mucus protein profile.

  18. Happy hamsters? Enrichment induces positive judgement bias for mildly (but not truly) ambiguous cues to reward and punishment in Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Emily J; Koyama, Nicola F

    2015-07-01

    Recent developments in the study of animal cognition and emotion have resulted in the 'judgement bias' model of animal welfare. Judgement biases describe the way in which changes in affective state are characterized by changes in information processing. In humans, anxiety and depression are characterized by increased expectation of negative events and negative interpretation of ambiguous information. Positive wellbeing is associated with enhanced expectation of positive outcomes and more positive interpretation of ambiguous information. Mood-congruent judgement biases for ambiguous information have been demonstrated in a range of animal species, with large variation in the way tests are administered and in the robustness of analyses. We highlight and address some issues using a laboratory species not previously tested: the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Hamsters were tested using a spatial judgement go/no-go task in enriched and unenriched housing. We included a number of controls and additional behavioural tests and applied a robust analytical approach using linear mixed effects models. Hamsters approached the ambiguous cues significantly more often when enriched than unenriched. There was no effect of enrichment on responses to the middle cue. We discuss these findings in light of mechanisms underlying processing cues to reward, punishment and true ambiguity, and the implications for the welfare of laboratory hamsters.

  19. Effects of melatonin and green-wavelength LED light on the physiological stress and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to high water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Ji Yong; Choi, Young-Ung; Heo, Youn Seong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of increasing water temperature (22-30 °C) on the physiological stress response and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the ability of green light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation or melatonin injections to mitigate this temperature-induced stress. To evaluate the effects of either green-wavelength LED light or melatonin on stress in goldfish, we measured plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mRNA expression; plasma cortisol and glucose; and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme mRNA expression. The thyroid hormone activities, TR mRNA expression, and plasma cortisol and glucose were higher in goldfish exposed to high-temperature water, but were lower after exposure to melatonin or green-wavelength LED light. Lysozyme mRNA expression and plasma IgM activity and protein expression were lower after exposure to high water temperatures and higher after melatonin or green-wavelength LED light treatments. Therefore, high water temperature induced stress and decreased immunity; however, green-wavelength LED light and melatonin treatments mitigated the effects of stress and enhanced immunity. The benefits of melatonin decreased with time, whereas those of green-wavelength LED treatment did not.

  20. Effects of melatonin injection or green-wavelength LED light on the antioxidant system in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-05-01

    We tested the mitigating effects of melatonin injections or irradiation from green-wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to thermal stress (high water temperature, 30 °C). The effects of the two treatments were assessed by measuring the expression and activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, plasma hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, and lysozyme. In addition, a comet assay was conducted to confirm that high water temperature damaged nuclear DNA. The expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, plasma hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher after exposure to high temperature and were significantly lower in fish that received melatonin or LED light than in those that received no mitigating treatment. Plasma lysozyme was significantly lower after exposure to high temperature and was significantly higher after exposure to melatonin or LED light. The comet assay revealed that thermal stress caused a great deal of damage to nuclear DNA; however, treatment with melatonin or green-wavelength LED light prevented a significant portion of this damage from occurring. These results indicate that, although high temperatures induce oxidative stress and reduce immune system strength in goldfish, both melatonin and green-wavelength LED light inhibit oxidative stress and boost the immune system. LED treatment increased the antioxidant and immune system activity more significantly than did melatonin treatment.

  1. 伊维菌素在鲫体内的药代动力学%The pharmacokinetics of ivermectin in Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭章晓; 江敏; 吴昊; 何琳; 杨李

    2012-01-01

    以0.4 mg/kg的给药剂量进行口灌和肌肉注射给药,研究伊维菌素(IVM)在鲫体内的药代动力学.两种给药方式下,鲫组织中的IVM药-时曲线大都呈现多峰现象.肌肉注射给药后,药动学统计矩参数为Cmax=0.445 mg/L、Tmax=48h、t1/2z=524.2 h、MRT(0-∞)=788h、AUC(0-∞)=289.2(mg/L)·h;口灌给药后,药动学统计矩参数为Cmax=0.264 mg/L、Tmax=8h、t1/2z=15,3.9 h、MRT(0-∞)=269.78 h、AUC(0-∞)=83.77(mg/L)·h.两种给药方式相比,口灌组鲫对药物的吸收和清除均较快,而肌肉注射组鲫各组织中的药物浓度高,AUC值也较大.两种给药方式下,IVM在鲫各组织中AUC(0-600)值呈现相同的排列顺序,由大到小分别为性腺、血液、肾脏、肝胰脏、肌肉.IVM在鲫性腺和肾脏中均具有一定的蓄积作用,其主要表现为药物浓度高,MRT值大,且清除率低于血药的清除率,其中卵巢的积蓄作用最为明显.25℃的水温条件下,肌肉注射给药后,鲫休药期应不低于25 d;口灌给药后,鲫的休药期应不低于15 d.休药期与水温条件和给药剂量有关,因此在养殖生产过程中的休药期要根据实际情况适当调整.%Pharmacokinetics of ivermectin in Carassius auratus was studied following a single oral or intramuscular administration at dose of 0.4 mg/kg. After following these two different administration routes, IVM concentration-time cruves in most tissues of C. Auratus exhibited multi-peak phenomenon. After intramuscular administration, non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows :Cmaxi =0.445 mg/L,Tmax=48 h, =524.2 h, MRT(0.., = 788 h and AUC(0-x\\, =289. 2(mg/L) · h. After oral administration,non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows:Cmax =0.264 mg/L,Tmax = 8 h,tl/2z =153. 9 h.MRT(0-)., =269. 78 h,and AUC(0.., =83. 77(mg/L) · h. Comparing parameters of these two administration routes, we found that the rate of absorption and elimination following the oral

  2. Yellow fever virus isolated from a fatal post vaccination event: an experimental comparative study with the 17DD vaccine strain in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the pathogenicity of the virus strain GOI 4191 that was isolated from a fatal adverse event after yellow fever virus (YFV vaccination, an experimental assay using hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus as animal model and YFV 17DD vaccine strain as virus reference was accomplished. The two virus strains were inoculated by intracerebral, intrahepatic and subcutaneous routes. The levels of viremia, antibody response, and aminotransferases were determined in sera; while virus, antigen and histopathological changes were determined in the viscera. No viremia was detected for either strain following infection; the immune response was demonstrated to be more effective to strain GOI 4191; and no significant aminotransferase levels alterations were detected. Strain GOI 4191 was recovered only from the brain of animals inoculated by the IC route. Viral antigens were detected in liver and brain by immunohistochemical assay. Histothological changes in the viscera were characterized by inflammatory infiltrate, hepatocellular necrosis, and viral encephalitis. Histological alterations and detection of viral antigen were observed in the liver of animals inoculated by the intrahepatic route. These findings were similar for both strains used in the experiment; however, significant differences were observed from those results previously reported for wild type YFV strains.

  3. Production and extraction of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma and its biological effect on alcohol-induced renal hypoxia in Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesci, Alessio; Salvo, Andrea; Lauriano, Eugenia Rita; Gervasi, Teresa; Palombieri, Deborah; Bruno, Maurizio; Pergolizzi, Simona; Cicero, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The effect of astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-s-carotene-4,4'-dione) on alcohol-induced morphological changes in Carassius auratus, as an experimental model, was determined. The yeast Phaffia rhodozyma was used as a source of astaxanthin. The animals were divided into three groups for 30 days: one group was treated with ethanol at a dose of 1.5% mixed in water, the second one with EtOH 1.5% and food enriched with astaxanthin from P. rhodozyma, and the third was a control group. After a sufficient experimental period, the samples were processed using light microscopy and evaluated by histomorphological and histochemical staining, and the data were supported by immunohistochemical analysis, using a wide range of antibodies, such as calbindin, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. The results show that the alcoholic damage in the kidney led to hypoxia. In contrast, the group fed with astaxanthin from P. rhodozyma showed a normal morphological picture, with better glomeruli organisation and the presence of the area of filtration. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry has confirmed these results.

  4. Metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus following in vivo exposure to waterborne zinc under different pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Feng, Mingbao; Wang, Xinghao; Qin, Li; Wang, Chao; Wang, Zunyao; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-05-01

    In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the combined effect of zinc and pH on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to 0.1 and 1.0mg Zn/L at three pH values (5.0, 7.25, 9.0) for 3, 12, and 30 d. After each exposure, the contents of three trace elements (Zn, Fe and Cu) were determined in liver. Generally, longer exposure to zinc (12d and 30 d) increased hepatic Zn and Cu deposition, but decreased Fe content. Increasing accumulation of Zn in the tissue was also observed with increasing zinc concentration in the exposure medium. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), together with the level of glutathione (GSH) were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress status. The decreases in the four measured biochemical parameters after 3d exposure might reflect the failure of the antioxidant defense system in neutralizing the ROS generated during the metabolic process, while the recovery of the antioxidants at days 12 and 30 suggested a possible shift toward a detoxification mechanism. With regard to the influence of pH on zinc toxicity, the general observation was that the living environment became more stressful when the water conditions changed from an acidic state toward a near-neutral or alkaline state.

  5. 四溴双酚A的鲫鱼血清蛋白生物标志物研究%Biomarkers of Serum Protein to Tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丰超; 杨苏文; 徐范范; 丁志山; 赵明东

    2013-01-01

    Carassius auratus as test subject, acute toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), potential biomarkers of serum protein and toxicity target organ histopathology were studied.Results showed that 96 h-LC50 of Carassius auratus exposed to TBBPA was 3.13 mg/L, and serum proteins of Carassius auratus can be divided into 11 components exposure to different concentrations TBBPA at different times.There were differences within protein components with time and concentration existed.Component 11 with clear bands and the largest amplitude first decreased then increased, and reached the highest value at low concentration on the 16th day, while it reached the highest value on the 2nd day at high concentration.The molecular weight of Component 11 was 24 kDa, may be the solution of polymer of calcitonin factor in coriouscles of stannius of Carassius auratus.The histopathological results indicated that Carassius auratus liver and kidney showed time-dose-dependent of pathological damage synchronously.The protein component 11 which responds sensitively on the concentration and time of TBBPPA inducing as well as easier to be recognized and identified can be used as the potential biomarkers in Carassius auratus exposed to TBBPA.%以鲫鱼为供试生物,对四溴双酚A(TBBPA)的急性毒性、血清蛋白潜在生物标志物以及相应的毒性靶器官组织病理进行了研究,结果表明TBBPA对鲫鱼96h的半致死浓度LC50是3.13 mg/L,TBBPA诱导下鲫鱼血清蛋白可区分为11个组分,各组分随时间和浓度的变化规律存在差异.组分11条带清晰,表达量变化幅度最大,在低浓度TBBPA暴露下表达量先降低后升高,第16天达到最高;高浓度时表达量在第2天达到最高.组分11的分子量为24 kDa,可能为鲫鱼斯坦尼小体(CS)中降血钙因子的解聚物.组织病理切片结果显示,鲫鱼肝脏和肾脏均表现出时间-剂量依赖性,且与组分11的诱导差异性表达呈现相应的病理损伤.

  6. Distribution and bioaccumulation of tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus tissues and its pathological effect%四溴双酚A在鲫鱼不同器官中的分布、富集及病理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨苏文; 徐范范; 赵明东

    2013-01-01

    Distribution and bioaccumulation of TBBPA in different Carassius auratus tissues exposed to varied TBBPA concentrations were measured and analyzed. The corresponding pathological effects were also assessed. Results indicated that the concentrations of TBBPA increased firstly, then decreased in Carassius auratus liver and kidney at high as well as low dose group. Indicating that both the fish liver and kidney had a strong capacity of bioaccumulation. Nevertheless, the concentrations of TBBPA showed a similarity only at high dose in gill and muscle. The bioaccumulation capacity of the gill and muscle was comparatively lower. Pathological observations revealed that the pathological damage was time-dose-dependent in the liver, kidney and gill. Under the same TBBPA concentration, the gonad damage caused by TBBPA to the male was more serious than that to the female.%研究了将鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)长期暴露于不同浓度的四溴双酚A(TBBPA)后的器官组织分布和浓缩富集系数,同时对不同暴露时间的鲫鱼不同器官病理切片进行了观察.结果显示,各浓度组鲫鱼肝脏和肾脏的TBBPA含量都表现出先升高后下降的趋势,鳃和肌肉中TBBPA含量只有在高浓度时呈现相同的趋势.病理切片显示鲫鱼肝脏、肾脏和鳃等器官组织均表现出时间-剂量依赖性的病理损伤,在相同暴露浓度下,雄鱼的性腺损伤程度高于雌鱼.

  7. Low-O₂ acclimation shifts the hypoxia avoidance behaviour of snapper (Pagrus auratus) with only subtle changes in aerobic and anaerobic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Denham G; Iftikar, Fathima I; Baker, Daniel W; Hickey, Anthony J R; Herbert, Neill A

    2013-02-01

    It was hypothesised that chronic hypoxia acclimation (preconditioning) would alter the behavioural low-O(2) avoidance strategy of fish as a result of both aerobic and anaerobic physiological adaptations. Avoidance and physiological responses of juvenile snapper (Pagrus auratus) were therefore investigated following a 6 week period of moderate hypoxia exposure (10.2-12.1 kPa P(O(2)), 21 ± 1 °C) and compared with those of normoxic controls (P(O(2))=20-21 kPa, 21 ± 1 °C). The critical oxygen pressure (P(crit)) limit of both groups was unchanged at ~7 kPa, as were standard, routine and maximum metabolic rates. However, hypoxia-acclimated fish showed increased tolerances to hypoxia in behavioural choice chambers by avoiding lower P(O(2)) levels (3.3 ± 0.7 vs 5.3 ± 1.1 kPa) without displaying greater perturbations of lactate or glucose. This behavioural change was associated with unexpected physiological adjustments. For example, a decrease in blood O(2) carrying capacity was observed after hypoxia acclimation. Also unexpected was an increase in whole-blood P(50) following acclimation to low O(2), perhaps facilitating Hb-O(2) off-loading to tissues. In addition, cardiac mitochondria measured in situ using permeabilised fibres showed improved O(2) uptake efficiencies. The proportion of the anaerobic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, at least relative to the aerobic marker enzyme citrate synthase, also increased in heart and skeletal red muscle, indicating enhanced anaerobic potential, or in situ lactate metabolism, in these tissues. Overall, these data suggest that a prioritization of O(2) delivery and O(2) utilisation over O(2) uptake during long-term hypoxia may convey a significant survival benefit to snapper in terms of behavioural low-O(2) tolerance.

  8. Short-term exposure to L-type calcium channel blocker, verapamil, alters the expression pattern of calcium-binding proteins in the brain of goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palande, Nikhil V; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Biswas, Saikat P; Jadhao, Arun G

    2015-01-01

    The influx of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) is responsible for various physiological events including neurotransmitter release and synaptic modulation. The L-type voltage dependent calcium channels (L-type VDCCs) transport Ca(2+) across the membrane. Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) bind free cytosolic Ca(2+) and prevent excitotoxicity caused by sudden increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+). The present study was aimed to understand the regulation of expression of neuronal CaBPs, namely, calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) following blockade of L-type VDCCs in the CNS of Carassius auratus. Verapamil (VRP), a potent L-type VDCC blocker, selectively blocks Ca(2+) entry at the plasma membrane level. VRP present in the aquatic environment at a very low residual concentration has shown ecotoxicological effects on aquatic animals. Following acute exposure for 96h, median lethal concentration (LC50) for VRP was found to be 1.22mg/L for goldfish. At various doses of VRP, the behavioral alterations were observed in the form of respiratory difficulty and loss of body balance confirming the cardiovascular toxicity caused by VRP at higher doses. In addition to affecting the cardiovascular system, VRP also showed effects on the nervous system in the form of altered expression of PV. When compared with controls, the pattern of CR expression did not show any variations, while PV expression showed significant alterations in few neuronal populations such as the pretectal nucleus, inferior lobes, and the rostral corpus cerebellum. Our result suggests possible regulatory effect of calcium channel blockers on the expression of PV.

  9. Effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose induced metabolic stress on testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: Role of photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-12-01

    The driving force underlying the evolution of reproductive seasonality is the marked seasonal fluctuation in energy availability. It is well established that photoperiod regulates testicular steroidogenesis through modulation of circulatory and local melatonin levels and MT1R expression in golden hamster. However, photoperiodic variation in energy availability and its impact on testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status has never been investigated for any seasonal breeder. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to elucidate the role of photoperiod in modulation of metabolic stress induced variation in steroidogenesis and antioxidant status in testes. We experimentally reduced energy availability via administration of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), a synthetic glucose analog, in critical- (CP), long- (LD) and short-day (SD) exposed golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus and examined testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Administration of 2-DG decreased testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant enzyme activity in CP and LD experienced hamsters as compared to CP- and LD-control groups. Moreover, a decrease in the plasma- and local-melatonin level and MT1R expression in testes with a simultaneous increase in plasma corticosterone level was noted following 2-DG administration in CP and LD exposed hamsters. In contrast, no significant effect of 2-DG administration was observed on the parameters investigated under SD condition. Therefore, it can be suggested that the reduction in energy availability under CP and LD condition suppressed testicular steroidogenesis and increased oxidative damage in testis whereas SD induced melatonin might have buffered the 2-DG induced suppression of testicular steroidogenesis and maintained testicular antioxidant status.

  10. Assessment of the state of the gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio in the Amur River Basin: heavy-metal and arsenic concentrations and histopathology of internal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syasina, Iraida G; Khlopova, Anna V; Chukhlebova, Lyubov M

    2012-04-01

    This study describes the concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic (As) and the basic histopathological changes in the internal organs of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio from five sites of the Amur River basin. Gibel carp from Sindinskaya Passage had the highest liver concentrations of zinc (Zn) (31.95 ± 13.443), copper (Cu) (12.52 ± 5.746), manganese (9.22 ± 8.121), and cadmium (0.37 ± 0.660 mg/kg wet weight [ww]) compared with fish captured from the Bol'shoi Ussuriiskii Island area and Kadi Lake; however, concentrations of nickel (0.22 ± 0.156 mg/kg ww) were not significantly different, and concentrations of lead (0.19 ± 0.121 mg/kg ww) were higher than those in fish from Kadi Lake. Mean concentrations of metals and As in muscles were lower than Russia's recommended limits for food products; however, concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Hg in individual fish were greater than the limit. Kidney disease was detected in 100% of sampled carp. Kidney disease was characterized by the formation of numerous granulomas in kidney tissues between the renal tubules. The degree of granulomatosis varied among sites. Granulomatous kidney disease in gibel carp is widespread in many reservoirs of the lower Amur River basin. The following histopathological changes were detected in liver: vacuolization of hepatocytes, hypertrophy of multiple hepatocytes, binuclearity, presence of numerous irregularly shaped nuclei in hepatocytes, karyopyknosis, diffuse necrosis of hepatocytes (in some cases focal), and edema. Necrotic changes in hepatocytes, which are important indices of the toxic effect of pollutants, were found in the majority of investigated carp from the lower Amur River basin. Some fish had simultaneous pathological alterations in multiple organs.

  11. Preparation of a polyclonal antibody against goldfish (Carassius auratus) vitellogenin and its application to detect the estrogenic effects of monocrotophos pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Bing, Xin; Yu, Kun; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) represents a good model to detect the estrogenic effects of chemicals, and vitellogenin (Vtg) is a vital indicator of estrogenic activity. The heterologous anti-carp Vtg antibody has previously been used for goldfish Vtg detection. Here, we report the preparation of an anti-goldfish Vtg antibody to improve the sensitivity and specificity of goldfish Vtg immunoassays. Vtg was purified from the plasma of 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced goldfish by gel filtration followed by anion-exchange chromatography. It was characterized as a phospholipoglycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of ~460 kDa and separated into three major polypeptides corresponding to ~130, ~106, and ~81 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A polyclonal antibody against goldfish Vtg was raised in rabbits and found to be specific for goldfish Vtg through immunoelectrophoresis and Western blot. A sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantification of plasma Vtg, with a detection limit of 3.6 ng/mL and a detection range from 7.8 to 250 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations were 2.4-6.8% and 6.7-10.8%, respectively. Additionally, we qualitatively and quantitatively detected the induction of Vtg in male fish exposed to 0.01, 0.01, and 1.00 mg/L monocrotophos pesticide by Western blot and ELISA. The homologous sandwich ELISA based on the anti-goldfish Vtg antibody could provide a valuable tool for the study of estrogenic effects of exogenous chemicals on goldfish.

  12. The death of sertoli cells and the capacity to phagocytize elongated spermatids during testicular regression due to short photoperiod in Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Rovira, Vicente; Beltrán-Frutos, Esther; Ferrer, Concepción; Sáez, Francisco José; Madrid, Juan Francisco; Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), an animal that displays testicular regression due to short photoperiod, germ cells are removed by apoptosis during this process and the apoptotic remains are phagocytized by Sertoli cells. The aim of this work was to investigate morphologically whether the testicular regression process due to short photoperiod leads to the apoptosis of Sertoli cells, and whether, during testicular regression, the elongated spermatids are eliminated through phagocytosis by Sertoli cells. To this end, we studied testis sections during testicular regression in Syrian hamster subjected to short photoperiod by means of several morphological techniques using conventional light microscopy (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E], semi-thin section vimentin, immunohistochemistry, SBA lectin, and TUNEL staining), fluorescence microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). H&E and semi-thin sections identified Sertoli cells with a degenerated morphology. Greater portion of Sertoli cells that were positive for TUNEL staining were observed especially during the mild regression (MR) and strong regression (SR) phases. In addition, TEM identified the characteristic apoptotic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm of Sertoli cells. Moreover, during testicular regression and using light microscopy, some elongated spermatids were seen in basal position next to the Sertoli cell nucleus. This Sertoli phagocytic activity was higher in MR and SR phases. TEM confirmed this to be the result of the phagocytic activity of Sertoli cells. In conclusion, during testicular regression in Syrian hamster due to short photoperiod, when germ cells are known to be lost through apoptosis, there is morphological evidences that Sertoli cells are also lost through apoptosis, while some elongated spermatids are phagocytized and eliminated by the Sertoli cells.

  13. Embryo-endometrial expression of leukemia inhibitory factor in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): increased expression during proestrous and window of implantation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rajnish P; Fischer, Bernd; Seshagiri, Polani B

    2008-01-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a pleiotropic IL-6 family cytokine and its maternal uterine expression is critical for mouse blastocyst implantation. In the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), although the blastocyst hatching phenomenon is quite interesting and LIF is shown to regulate hatching, information is not available on the embryonic and uterine expression of LIF and hormonal regulation of LIF expression during the peri-implantation period. The present investigation is aimed at studying embryonic and uterine expression of LIF during preimplantation hamster development. We observed embryonic expression of LIF mRNA and protein in the 8-cell, morula and blastocyst stages. In cycling females, uterine LIF mRNA expression was maximal during the oestrogen-dominant phase of the oestrous cycle, i.e. proestrous stage. Interestingly, during pregnancy, both LIF mRNA and protein were highly upregulated on Days 3.5 and 4 ('window of implantation'), implying a role for this cytokine in blastocyst hatching and implantation. Cell type-specific localisation of LIF mRNA and protein was observed predominantly in luminal epithelium and uterine glands with faint staining being detected in the stroma. The hamster uterus encoded a approximately 4.2 kb LIF transcript whose coding region, when cloned and sequenced, showed a high degree of identity to the murine cDNA counterpart. These data demonstrate that: (1) hamster preimplantation embryos show LIF mRNA and protein expression; (2) uterine expression of LIF mRNA and protein was dependent on elevated levels of circulating oestrogen, and (3) there is a possible functional association of LIF with the peri-implantation development in the golden hamster.

  14. Melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and nitro-oxidative stress in testis of golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: An age-dependent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-09-01

    Age-dependent decline in melatonin level induces nitro-oxidative stress that compromises physiological homeostasis including reproduction. However, less information exist regarding the age-dependent variation in local melatonin (lMel) concentration and MT1R expression in testis and its interaction with testicular steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Therefore, we evaluated lMel level along with MT1R expression and its possible interaction with steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in testes of young (6weeks), adult (15weeks) and old (2years) aged hamsters. Further, we injected the old hamsters with melatonin to address whether age-related decline in lMel and MT1R is responsible for the reduction in testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Increased expression of steroidogenic markers suggests increased testicular steroidogenesis in adult hamsters that declined in old hamsters. An age-dependent elevation in the level of NOX, TBARS, corticosterone and the expression of iNOS and GR with a concomitant decrease in enzyme activities for SOD, CAT, GSH-PX indicate increased nitro-oxidative stress in testes. Data suggest that reproductive senescence in male hamsters might be a consequence of declined lMel concentration with MT1R expression inducing nitro-oxidative stress resulting in diminished testicular steroidogenesis. However, administration of Mel in old-aged hamsters significantly increased steroidogenesis and antioxidant status without a significant variation in lMel concentration and MT1R expression in testes. Therefore, decreased lMel and MT1R might not be the causative factor underlying the age-associated decrease in antioxidant defence and steroidogenesis in testes. In conclusion, Mel induced amelioration of testicular oxidative insult and elevation of steroidogenic activity suggests a potential role of increased nitro-oxidative stress underlying the age-dependent decrease in steroidogenesis.

  15. Comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to six current-use brominated flame retardants: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •A combined experimental and theoretical approach was used for risk assessments of six BFRs in fish. •Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured for toxicity identification. •Toxicity order was proposed via the integrated biomarker response. •Theoretical calculations were performed to analyze the BFRs toxicity. -- Abstract: Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and several non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are persistent halogenated contaminants ubiquitously detected in aquatic systems. However, data on comparative toxicological effects of these BFRs are lacking for fish. In this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was used to compare and analyze the effects of these BFRs on biochemical biomarkers in liver of Carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with different doses (10 and 100 mg/kg) for 7, 14 and 30 days. Oxidative stress was evoked evidently for the prolonged exposure, represented by the significantly altered indices (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index ranked biotoxicity as: PBT > HBB > HBCD > TBBPA > BDE-209 > DBDPE. Quantum chemical calculations (electronic parameters, frontier molecular orbitals, and Wiberg bond order) were performed for theoretical analysis. Notably, some descriptors were correlated with the toxicity order, probably implying the existence of a potential structure–activity relationship when more BFRs were included. Besides, theoretical calculations also provided some valuable information regarding the molecular characteristics and metabolic pathways of these current-use BFRs, which may facilitate the understanding on their environmental behavior and fate. Overall, this study adopted a combined

  16. Réponses comportementales du brochet (Esox lucius L. à un extrait épidermique de carassin doré (Carassius auratus L. en olfactomètre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAGLIO Ph.

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Les effets de solutions brutes (EE et d'une fraction d'acides aminés libres reconstituée (FAA, issues d'un extrait épidermique de Carassin doré (Carassius auratus L., ont été analysés sur l'attraction et le comportement exploratoire du Brochet (Esox lucius L. en olfactomètre. Des effets significatifs ont été observés en réponse aux différentes solutions et doses testées (EE = 0,005 ; 0,05 ; 0,5 équivalent-carassin/l ; FAA = 0,5 équivalent-carassin/l. L'effet stimulant des solutions épidermiques brutes sur l'exploration varie en raison inverse de la concentration testée. L'activité de ces solutions sur l'attraction augmente avec la concentration. L'effet stimulant de la fraction d'acides aminés libres reconstituée sur l'exploration et sur l'attraction est apparu inférieur à celui observé en réponse à la solution brute. Ces résultats sont discutés à la lueur de données sur le rôle des sécrétions de la peau et des acides aminés dans la communication chimique chez les poissons.

  17. 浑河野生鲫鱼体内重金属污染水平与金属硫蛋白基因表达%Heavy Metal Levels and Metallothionein mRNA Expressions in Wild Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus auratus) from Hun River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳强; 安立会; 郑丙辉; 林进; 陈浩; 赵兴茹

    2012-01-01

    为揭示浑河重金属污染的潜在生态风险,分析测定了浑河野生鲫鱼体内重金属的残留水平以及肝和鳃组织中金属硫蛋白基因表达.对鱼体各组织中Cr、Cd、Pb、Cu和Zn含量的分析结果显示,各组织重金属含量的排序为肠>肝>鳃>肌肉,且Zn含量最高(17.49~ 176.01 mg·kg-1,以湿体质量计算),Cd含量最低(N.D.~0.57 mg· kg 1,以湿体质量计算).均值综合污染指数评价结果显示,浑河野生鲫鱼受到重金属的轻微污染,且从上游至下游呈现逐渐升高的趋势,其中,Cr、Pb和Zn对均值综合污染指数贡献较大.利用实时定量PCR方法分析鲫鱼肝组织金属硫蛋白基因表达发现,中、下游鲫鱼肝组织的金属硫蛋白基因表达水平较上游有所升高,且与肌肉组织综合污染指数具有较好相关性(R2=0.71),这表明金属硫蛋白基因可作为监测环境重金属污染的敏感标志物.%the metallothionein gene can be used as a promising biomarker for monitoring the heavy metal contamination. Hun River; heavy metal; crucian carp (Carassius auratus auratus); average pollution index; metallothionein

  18. Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch as an experimental model to investigate human skin and keloid heterologous graft Bolsa jugal no hamster (Mesocricetus auratus como modelo experimental de investigação de enxertos heterólogos de pele humana e quelóide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hochman

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To describe the integration process of grafts of total human skin and keloid in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch, whose sub-epithelium is naturally an "Immunologically Privileged Site". Fragments of human normal skin and keloid from the breast region of mulatto female patients were transplanted into the cheek pouch subepithelium in situ. Surgical procedure and grafted pouches for microscopic exam at several time points of the transplantation were standardized. The integration of grafted fragments of human skin and keloid was seen in late periods (84 days since the microscopic assessment showed the presence of blood vases within the conjunctive tissue of grafted fragments. It was also possible to see among the grafted fragments the epithelium, the appearing of early cellular infiltrated, epithelial secretion of keratin, the presence of melanocytes, and delayed changes on the aspect of collagen fibers of conjunctive tissue. Pooled results allow to define hamster cheek pouch sub-epithelium as an experimental model to investigating heterologous graft physiology of human total skin and keloid with epithelium.Descrever a integração dos enxertos de pele total humana e quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus, cujo subepitélio é, naturalmente, um "Local de Privilégio Imunológico". Foram transplantados fragmentos, de pele humana normal e de quelóide, obtidos da região mamária de pacientes pardas, no subepitélio da bolsa jugal in situ. O procedimento operatório, e de preparo das bolsas enxertadas para exame microscópico em vários períodos de transplante, foi padronizado. Verificou-se a integração dos fragmentos enxertados de pele humana e de quelóide em períodos tardios (84 dias, uma vez que a avaliação microscópica revelou a presença de vasos sangüíneos no tecido conjuntivo dos fragmentos enxertados. Foi também possível observar, nos fragmentos enxertados, o epitélio, o aparecimento de infiltrado

  19. Experimental model in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus to study heterologous graft of scars and cutaneous diseases in plastic surgery Modelo experimental no hamster (Mesocricetus auratus para estudo de transplantes heterólogos de cicatrizes e doenças cutâneas em cirurgia plástica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hochman

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus has in its cheek pouches sub-epithelium an "Immunologically Privileged Site" which allows the integration of homo- and heterologous graft. This paper describes some anatomical and histological characteristics of that site, as well as analyzes aspects related with its immune properties. It also focuses the advantages of this experimental model over other models which are natural or induced carriers of immunodeficiency. Based on both these advantages and literature, this study aims to establish this model, through the performance of heterologous graft, as another option for the investigation of scar disturbances, as keloids and other diseases which may interest Plastic Surgery, as benign cutaneous lesions, and malignant neoplasias such as skin carcinomas and melanomas. The work also addresses perspectives for using this model, which still is a source scarcely known by Brazilian medical class.O hamster sírio dourado (Mesocricetus auratus possui no subepitélio de suas bolsas jugais um "Local de Privilégio Imunológico", permitindo a integração de homo e heteroenxertos. Este artigo descreve as características anatômicas e histológicas desse local, assim como os aspectos relativos as suas propriedades imunológicas. Cita, também, as vantagens desse modelo experimental sobre outros modelos portadores, naturais ou induzidos, de imunodeficiência. Com base nessas vantagens, e também baseado na literatura, tem o intuito de estabelecer esse modelo, mediante a realização de heteroenxertos, como uma outra opção para investigar distúrbios cicatriciais, como o quelóide, e doenças de interesse em Cirurgia Plástica, como lesões cutâneas benignas e neoplasias malignas como carcinomas e melanoma cutâneo. Tece, ainda, considerações sobre perspectivas de aplicações desse modelo, ainda bastante desconhecido entre a classe médica brasileira.

  20. Plâncton, Artemia sp, dieta artificial e suas combinações no desenvolvimento e sobrevivência do quinguio (Carassius auratus durante a larvicultura Plankton, Artemia sp, artificial diet and their combinations on the development and survival of goldfish (Carassius auratus during larviculture phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do uso de diferentes alimentos sobre o desenvolvimento de larvas de quinguio (Carassius auratus, assim como determinar o melhor manejo alimentar. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Utilizaram-se 20 aquários com capacidade para 10 L, sendo estocadas 20 larvas com 5,20 mm de comprimento por aquário. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: somente ração com 56,00% de proteína bruta (R; plâncton (PL; náuplios de Artemia sp (NA, ração + plâncton (R+PL e ração + náuplios de Artemia sp (R+NA, sendo seu fornecimento à vontade duas vezes ao dia. Houve mortalidade de todos os indivíduos submetidos ao tratamento R. O uso de NA e R+NA proporcionou taxas de sobrevivência superiores (p 0,05. Conclui-se que as diferentes fontes de alimento interferem no desempenho das larvas, sendo o manejo alimentar com o fornecimento de ração + náuplios de Artemia sp o mais adequado para a larvicultura do quinguioThe aim of this study was to verify the influence of different diets on the development of goldfish (Carassius auratus larvae and determine the best diet management during its larviculture phase. The experimental design was totally randomized with five treatments and four replicatess, using Tukey test for statistical analysis. Twenty 10L-aquariums were used, where twenty larvae with 5.20 mm length were stocked per aquarium. Quinguio larvae were fed daily ration of different diets: ration alone including 56.00% crude protein (R, plankton (PL, Artemia sp nauplii (AN, ration + plankton (R+PL and ration + Artemia sp nauplii (R+AN, ad libitum twice a day. Treatment R caused the death of all individuals. AN and R+AN diets provided a higher survival rate (p 0.05 was observed between the different treatments. Under the conditions of the present experiment, the results led to

  1. On a New Species of Phyllodistomum Braun, 1899 (Digenea: Gorgoderidae, a Parasite of Fresh Water Fish, Channa Punctatus (Bl. from Betwa River, Bundelkhand Region Jhansi, U.P, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jag Mohan Sen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with a new species of genus Phyllodistum Braun, 1899. Phyllodistomum betwaensis sp.n. is reported from fresh water fish Channa punctatus (Bl. from Betwa river, Bundelkhand region,Jhansi. It differs from all the earlier reported species in having the body of fluke is spatulate and dorso-ventrally flattened; anterior portion of body is long and curved while posterior portion of body is broad; slightly curved, tubular oesophagus: ventral sucker oval and larger than oral sucker; testes, post-equatorial, inter-caecal, anterior testis is larger than posterior one and parallel to ovary; ovary, oval, just behind right vitelline lobe, parallel to anterior testis; vitelline lobes posterior-lateral to ventral sucker, oval. Right vitelline lobe is larger than left vitelline lobe; eggs are oval and non-operculated.

  2. Antennal Morphology and Sensilla Distribution of Scambus punctatus(Hymenoptera: Ichneunmonidae) with Scanning Electron Microscopy Observation%密点曲姬蜂触角感觉器的扫描电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红盈; 王志英; 高宇

    2012-01-01

    [目的]明确密点曲姬蜂触角和触角感觉器的外部形态特点.[方法]对密点曲姬蜂触角的形态特征、感觉器的类型、形态、数量和分布特点进行扫描电镜观察,并对雌、雄蜂触角感觉器进行性别间差异比较.[结果]密点曲姬蜂雌、雄成蜂触角形态相似,属于鞭状触角.触角由柄节、梗节和鞭节组成.其中雌蜂鞭节由22个鞭亚节组成.雄蜂鞭节由25个鞭亚节组成.成蜂触角上共有5种类型的感觉器:毛型感觉器、刺型感觉器、板型感觉器、B(o)hm氏鬃毛和腔锥形乳突状感觉器.毛形感觉器(Ⅰ、Ⅱ)、刺形感觉器、腔锥形乳突状感觉器和板形感觉器主要分布在鞭节各个亚节.毛形感觉器(Ⅲ)主要分布在梗节和柄节的中部和端部.B(o)hm氏鬃毛分布在梗节和柄节的基部.雌、雄蜂触角感觉器的数量和密度存在明显差异.雄蜂各类感觉器的数量和密度明显高于雌蜂.[结论]密点曲姬蜂触角属于鞭状触角,共有5种类型感觉器.雌、雄蜂触角长度存在差异,感觉器的分布规律相似,感觉器的数量和密度存在性二型现象.%[Objective] The objective of this study is to define the external morphological characteristics of antennae and sensilla of Scambus punctatus. [Method] Morphological characteristics of the antenna and type, morphology, amounts and distributions of antenna sensilla of S. punctatus were examined and photographed with scanning electron microscopy. The differences in sensilla between both sexes were also compared. [Result] The antenna of male and female adult S. punctatus was both fiagelliform, and composed of scape, pedicle and flagellum. The female adult flagellum had twenty-two segments and the male had twenty-five segments. Five types of antennal sensilla were identified in an antenna, trichodea, placodea, coeloconica, chaetica and Bohm bristles. Sensilla trichodea were most abundant. Sensilla trichodea ( Ⅰ, Ⅱ), sensilla

  3. Photoperiodic modulation of thyroid hormone receptor (TR-α), deiodinase-2 (Dio-2) and glucose transporters (GLUT 1 and GLUT 4) expression in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rakesh; Haldar, Chandana

    2016-12-01

    Phenomenon of seasonal reproduction is being regulated by changes in day length or photoperiod. The molecular mechanism underlying the event of photoperiodic regulation of testis and thyroid functions along with glucose uptake transporters has never been reported for golden hamster, M. auratus. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of photoperiod on the expression of key thyroid hormone receptor (TR-α), deiodinase-2 (Dio-2) and glucose uptake transporters (GLUT-1 & GLUT-4) in testicular germ cell and Leydig cells, and its correlation with the testicular androgen receptor (AR), germ cell proliferation factor (PCNA) and cell survival factor (Bcl-2) in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Hamsters were exposed to different photoperiodic regimes i.e. critical photoperiod (CP), short day (SD) and long day (LD) for 10weeks. LD induces upregulation of thyroidal and gonadal activity as evident by active thyroid gland and testicular histoarchitecture, peripheral total thyroid (tT3, tT4) and testosterone hormone profiles when compared with SD exposed hamsters. Further, LD increased the expression of testicular TR-α, Dio-2, GLUT-1, GLUT-4 along with testicular AR and glucose content thereby enhancing germ cell proliferation and survival as reflected by increased PCNA and Bcl-2 expression when compared to SD exposed hamsters. Thus, it can be suggested that testicular thyroid hormone status is being regulated by photoperiod and is possibly involved in seasonal adaptation to reproductive phenomenon of golden hamster.

  4. 饲料中鱼油添加量对观赏性红鲫鱼生长和体色的影响%Influence of Additive Amount of Fish Oil on Growth and Body Color of Carassius auratus red variety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁媛; 李明云; 贾福怀

    2015-01-01

    为研究鱼油添加量对观赏性红鲫鱼生长和体色的影响,在喂养红鲫鱼的饲料中分别添加质量分数0%、2.5%、5%、10%的鱼油,投喂49 d,并将其与空白组分别进行对照.结果表明:添加2.5%的鱼油喂养红鲫鱼对红鲫鱼的生长最佳.随着鱼油喂养量的不断增加,红鲫鱼体重和体长的增加率呈一定的下降趋势.以观赏鱼的红度、白度、黄度作为重要的评判标准,5%鱼油添加量更有助于提高红鲫鱼的红度值,降低白度值和黄度值.%In order to investigate the impact of fish oil on growth and body color of Carassius auratus red variety, the diet of Carassius auratus red variety is added with fish oil of different concentration level (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%) and fed for 49 days. The results show that 2.5%additional fish oil is the best diet for the growth of Carassius auratus red variety. The more the fish oil feeding is given, the more slowly the weight and length of Carassius auratus red variety increase. Body color is an important factor for ornamental fish, which is standardized with the degree of red, white, yellow. It is found that 5%fish oil helps increase the red color index of Carassius auratus red variety, while reduce that of white and yellow.

  5. Biofloc production technology promising in temperate zones – Channel catfish perform during winter months

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility to grow Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in an outdoor biofloc system during winter in a temperate zone. High biomasses of market-size channel catfish were successfully maintained through the winter with high survival and in good condition in both...

  6. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay for visceral toxicosis of catfish and botulinum neurotoxin serotype E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC), a sporadic disease of cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) often with high mortality, is caused by botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E). Presumptive diagnosis of VTC is based on characteristic clinical signs and lesions, and the production of these ...

  7. Environmental Assessment: Construction of Air Traffic Control Tower Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Species of Oklahoma County (Continued) Scientific Name Common Name State Status1 Federal Status1 Mammals Marmota monax Woodchuck SS2 Reptiles...2002a). Some ponds on the facility have been stocked with fish including catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides

  8. Expression of immune genes in skin of channel catfish immunized with live theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is limited information on innate and adaptive immune gene expression in the skin of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus immunized with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich). The objective of this study was to evaluate differential expression of innate and adaptive immune genes, including immunog...

  9. Effects of no feeding, maintenance feeding, and refeeding on production and processing characteristics of market-size hybrid catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pond study was initiated to evaluate effects of no feeding, maintenance feeding, and refeeding on production and processing characteristics of market-size hybrid catfish (female Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus × male Blue Catfish I. furcatus). Fish with an average weight of 644 g were stocked ...

  10. DEET toxicity to channel catfish sac fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of open facilities, moisture, and warm weather during channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus spawning season causes mosquito-infestation problems. A common solution to mosquito problems in hatcheries is to use mosquito repellents applied to exposed skin and clothing. DEET (N,N-diethyl-...

  11. Reducing size variation in hybrid catfish culture through graded partial harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish (' channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) are becoming a major contributor to catfish aquaculture in the United States. Because of unique production characteristics of hybrid catfish, rapid farmer adoption of hybrids has outpaced appropriate management resea...

  12. SEASONAL FORAGING BY CHANNEL CATFISH ON TERRESTRIALLY BURROWING CRAYFISH IN A FLOODPLAIN-RIVER ECOSYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seasonal use of terrestrially burrowing crayfish as a food item by channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was studied in channelized and non-channelized sections of the Yockanookany River (Mississippi, USA). During seasonal inundation of the floodplains, the crayfish occupied o...

  13. Controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs with peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is much interest in the use of peracetic acid (PAA) to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is a relatively new compound and is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus egg...

  14. Acute toxicity and histopathology of channel catfish fry exposed to peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus yolk-sac fry and swim-up fry were exposed to peracetic acid (PAA) for 48h in static toxicity bioassays at 23C. The test water was 217 and 126 mg/L (as CaCO3) total alkalinity and total hardness, respectively. Probit LC50 values were estimated with the trimmed Sp...

  15. Function of a recombinant Chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  16. Degradation of chitin and chitosan by a recombinant chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  17. Detection and quantification of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish tissues following waterborne challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to understand the pathogenesis of motile aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent A. hydrophila (vAh) in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Adipose fin clipped catfish were challenged with vAh using waterborne challenge method and the distribution of vAh in catfish tissue...

  18. Attenuation of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila with novobiocin and pathogenic characterization of the novobiocin-resistant strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novobiocin-resistant strain AH11NOVO was obtained from a virulent A. hydrophila strain AH11P through selection of resistance to novobiocin. AH11NOVO was found to be avirulent to channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) whereas AH11P was virulent. When AH11NOVO vaccinated channel catfish were challeng...

  19. Infection and disease progress of motile Aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely...

  20. Comparative transcriptional analysis reveals distinct expression patterns of channel catfish genes after the first infection and re-infection with Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether transcriptional levels of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) genes are differentially regulated between a first infection with Aeromonas hydrophila and a re-infection, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed in this study using anterior kidney cDNA after the...

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U07539-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 97474 ) AU_BAC014A1F03_T7 CHORI212 Ictalurus punctatus ge... 46 1.2 1 ( ES528821 ) BIG_AF_36642 Brine Shrimp... embryos, 15 hours after... 46 1.2 1 ( ES521817 ) BIG_AF_29636 Brine Shrimp embry

  2. A real time polymerase chain reaction assay for quantification of Edwardsiella ictaluri in catfish pond water and genetic homogeneity of diagnostic case isolates from Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed for the detection and quantification of Edwardsiella ictaluri in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus pond water using modifications to a published E. ictaluri–specific qPCR assay and previously established protocols for the molecula...

  3. Effects of metomindate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate on the short term cortisol response in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of metomidate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on cortisol stress response of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were examined during 10 minutes of sedation. Channel catfish were assigned to three treatments: 1. Metomidate hydrochloride (12.5 mg/L), 2. MS-222 (100...

  4. Evaluation of various combinations of alternative protein feedstuffs to replace soybean meal in diets for pond-raised channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in earthen ponds to evaluate the use of combinations of two or three alternative protein sources to replace soybean meal in diets for Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Six 28% protein diets containing various combinations of alternative protein feedstuffs including cottonse...

  5. No evidence for intercohort cannibalism in mixed-size cultures of food-size and fingerling hybrid catfish (channel catfish x blue catfish) grown in ponds in winter or summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish (' Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus X ' Blue Catfish I. furcatus) are normally harvested by seining single-batch pond production systems in fall or winter. Ponds are typically restocked without draining. There is concern that without completely draining the pond after harvest, food...

  6. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  7. Uptake of Mercury and Relationship to Food Habits of Selected Fish Species in the Shenandoah River Basin, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Gregory W.

    2000-01-01

    Mercury poses significant challenges to human health and fisheries management. Historical industrial practices in Waynesboro, Virginia left portions of the Shenandoah River basin contaminated with mercury and stringent health advisories for fish consumption. I investigated processes affecting the bioaccumulation of mercury in Catostomus commersoni, Ictalurus punctatus, Lepomis auritus, and Micropterus dolomieu by studying food habits, total mercury and methylmercury in common prey items, an...

  8. Antibacterial activity of acylglucinol derivatives against Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease is one of the most common bacterial diseases of pond-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in the southeastern United States of America. The Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium Flavobacterium columnare is the cause of columnaris disease. Direct economic losses to catfish pr...

  9. Dietary copper effects survival of channel catfish challenged with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease is one of the most important bacterial diseases of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, commercially grown in the US. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) has also been shown to be both therapeutic and prophylactic as a water treatment for columnaris disease. As copper is an essential dietar...

  10. Seasonal Differences in Steroids and Maturation-related Genes in Channel Catfish Under Normal and Accelerated Thermoperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selective breeding of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is hampered by a long generation time. Female channel catfish typically spawn when they are 3-years-old; however, a low percentage of spawning may be observed at two years of age. Mature female channel catfish can spawn once annually. Their...

  11. Dicty_cDB: VSF223 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 196315 |pid:none) Auxenochlorella protothecoides rib... 271 2e-71 BC054263_1( BC054263 |pid:none) Xenopus la...F402813 |pid:none) Ictalurus punctatus 40S ribosomal ... 271 2e-71 FJ196315_1( FJ

  12. The channel catfish genome sequence provides insights into the evolution of scale formation in teleosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), characteristic of its scaleless skin and prominent barbels, is an ideal species to study osteogenesis, development of appendages, olfactory sensing, and immunological adaptation. It is the leading aquaculture species in the United States. A high quality refere...

  13. Técnica para obtenção do aparelho geniturinário e dosagem do PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus Technique for collecting blood for PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen dosing and genitourinary system obtaining in syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Expor a técnica utilizada na colheita de sangue para dosagem do PSA ( Prostate Specific Antigen e retirada do aparelho geniturinário no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus, e correlacionar os achados do PSA com as alterações histológicas dos anexos sexuais desse roedor. Métodos: Foram usados no experimento trinta (n= 30 Hamsters: dez (n=10 animais considerados jovens com idade média no momento da morte de 47,5 dias e vinte (n=20 animais considerados adultos com idade superior à um ano. Após serem anestesiados com cloridrato de quetamina e diazepam, foi colhido diretamente da veia cava, em nível de abdome superior, cerca de 1,5mL a 2,0mL de sangue para dosagem do PSA totalpelo método ELISA, com antígeno humano. Morriam após colheita do sangue. Constatado a morte do animal, fazia-se a laparotomia retirando-se em monobloco todo aparelho geniturinário para estudo histológico dos anexos sexuais. Correlacionou-se o PSA com as alterações histológicas encontradas. Resultados: Os animais após serem anestesiados com cloridrato de quetamina e diazepam intraperitonealmente, obteve-se um excelente plano anestésico, que possibilitou colher via trans-dérmica da veia cava inferior em abdome superior sangue para dosagem do PSA. O animal morria após colheita do sangue. Fazia-se a laparotomia, com retirada em monobloco do aparelho geniturinário para estudo histológico e comparação das alterações encontradas nos anexos sexuais com o PSA dosado. Entre os Hamsters Jovens a média do PSA encontrado foi de 0,252ng/mL. Desvio Padrão (DP = 0,36. Entre os Hamsters adultos esta média foi de 0,325 ng/mL, DP= 0,12 . Quando comparou-se as médias do PSA entre os dois grupos de jovens e adultos obteve-se p= 0,0427. Dentre os Hamsters jovens, três apresentaram PSA não detectado. A análise histológica mostrou que, entre os animais jovens, não foi identificada qualquer alteração das estruturas microscópicas da próstata, ves

  14. Investigação do transplante heterólogo de quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochman Bernardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a integração do transplante heterólogo de quelóide no subepitélio da bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus. MÉTODOS: A amostragem consiste de 18 hamsters machos, não isogênicos, com 10 a 14 semanas de idade. Fragmentos de quelóide foram obtidos de cicatrizes queloideanas da região mamária de paciente adulta parda. Cada hamster foi enxertado em ambas as bolsas com fragmentos de quelóide, totalizando 36 fragmentos enxertados. Os animais foram distribuídos, em 6 grupos, para exame dos fragmentos enxertados com 5, 12, 21, 42, 84 e 168 dias. Uma avaliação macroscópica é realizada comparando a bolsa contendo o fragmento enxertado em cada período com a mesma bolsa no pós-operatório imediato, mediante a comparação de fotografias padronizadas. À microscopia, considera-se a presença de vasos sangüíneos no tecido conjuntivo do fragmento enxertado como critério de integração do mesmo. Outros eventos, como secreção de queratina, presença de infiltrados celulares e aspecto do epitélio e das fibras colágenas do quelóide, também são observados. RESULTADOS: A macroscopia revela intensa vascularização na bolsa até 12 dias de enxertia, e a presença constante de pigmentação castanho-escura nos fragmentos de quelóide enxertados. Na microscopia constata-se a integração dos fragmentos de quelóide pela presença de capilares sangüíneos no tecido conjuntivo. Observa-se, também, a presença de intenso infiltrado celular do tipo inflamatório até 12 dias, a permanência do epitélio do quelóide até 21 dias, e o aparecimento de melanócitos a partir de 42 dias. CONCLUSÃO: A bolsa jugal do hamster representa, a priori, modelo experimental para investigação do quelóide.

  15. The interactive effects of ammonia exposure, nutritional status and exercise on metabolic and physiological responses in gold fish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Liew, Hon Jung; Diricx, Marjan; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the physiological effects of high environmental ammonia (HEA) following periods of feeding (2% body weight) and starvation (unfed for 7 days prior to sampling) in gold fish (Carassius auratus). Both groups of fish were exposed to HEA (1 mg/L; Flemish water quality guideline) for 0 h (control), 3 h, 12 h, 1 day, 4 days, 10 days, 21 days and 28 days. Measurements of weight gain (%), oxygen consumption (MO2), ammonia excretion rate, ammonia quotient (AQ), critical swimming speeds (Ucrit), plasma and muscle ammonia accumulation, plasma lactate, liver and muscle glycogen, lipid and protein content were done at various time intervals during the experimental periods. Overall, ammonia excretion rates, plasma ammonia accumulation and AQ were significantly affected by food regime in ammonia free water. HEA, the additional challenge in the present study, significantly altered all the studied parameters among fed and starved groups in days-dependent manner. Results show that weight gain (%), MO2, Ucrit, protein content in liver and muscle, and glycogen content in muscle among starved fish under HEA were considerably reduced compared to control and fed fish. Additionally a remarkable increase in plasma ammonia level, muscle ammonia, lactate accumulation and AQ was seen. However in fed fish, MO2, ammonia excretion rate, AQ and lactate level augmented after exposure to HEA. These results indicate that starved fish appeared more sensitive to HEA than fed fish. Furthermore, as expected, the toxic effect of ammonia exposure in both feeding treatments was exacerbated when imposed to exhaustive swimming (swum at 3/4th Ucrit). Such effects were more pronounced in starved fish. This suggests that starvation can instigate fish more vulnerable to external ammonia during exercise. Therefore, it was evident from our study that feeding ameliorates ammonia handling and reduces its toxicity during both routine and exhaustive swimming. Moreover, recovery was

  16. Hematologic Studies of Three Types of Carassius auratus%3种类型普安鲫鱼的血液学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贤君; 安苗; 黄良; 胡飞; 邵娅

    2012-01-01

    By extracting blood from the tail vein, the blood corpuscle kind and number of C. auratus A, B and C were determined, also the hemoglobin and plasma glucose contents were determined to figure out red blood cell and part of physiological and biochemical indexes of blood. The results showed that the blood corpuscle was composed of red blood cell, hrombosis cell and white blood cell, the white cell included neutrophil, small lymphocyte, large lymphocyte and monocyte. Compared to the three kinds of fish each other, the red blood cell of type A was the biggest and type B was the smallest. The number of red blood cell was maximum in type C and minimum in type B. The plasma glucose content of Type A was the highest value, the second was type B, and the lowest was type C. Hemoglobin content of type C was the highest, and the second was the type A, type B was the minimum.%为弄清3种类型普安鲫鱼的血细胞及血液的部分生理生化指标,丰富普安鲫的基础生物学资料,采用尾静脉取血法,对A型、B型和C型普安鲫鱼的血细胞数量、大小、分类及血红蛋白和血浆葡萄糖含量进行了测定.结果表明:3种类型普安鲫鱼的血细胞均包含红细胞、白细胞和血栓细胞,其中,白细胞又包含淋巴细胞(大淋巴细胞和小淋巴细胞)、嗜中性粒细胞(未发现嗜酸性粒细胞和嗜碱性粒细胞)和单核细胞.红细胞大小,A型普安鲫鱼最大,C型次之,B型最小;红细胞数,C型普安鲫鱼最多,A型次之,B型最少;血浆葡萄糖含量,A型最高,B型次之,C型最低;血红蛋白含量,C型最高,A型次之,B型最低.

  17. 固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定鲫鱼肉中微囊藻毒素%Determination of Trace Microcystins in Meat of Carassius Auratus by SPC-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房祥军; 郜海燕; 陈杭君; 穆宏磊; 毛金林

    2011-01-01

    建立固相萃取-高效液相色谱法(SPE-HPLC)测定鲫鱼肉中微囊藻毒素的方法.鲫鱼肉经90%甲醇水溶液提取,反相硅胶萃取柱净化后,采用高效液相色谱法进行测定.以乙腈-水-三氟乙酸(体积比35:65:0.05)为流动相,经Zorbax Eclipse C18柱(4.6mm×250mm i.d.5μm)分离,外标法定性、定量分析,结果表明微囊藻毒素LR的线性定量范围0.1~10.0μg/mL,鲫鱼肉中检出限25 ng/g.微囊藻毒素RR的线性定量范围0.1~10.0 μg/mL,在鲫鱼肉中的检出限20ng/g.此方法准确,灵敏度高,专属性好,可作为监测淡水水产品微囊藻毒素污染的分析方法.%Objective:An analytical method for the analysis of trace microcystins(MCYST) in meat of Carassius auratus was developed using solid phase extraction (SPE)for enrichment and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)for detection. Methods:Meat of Carassius auratus were extracted by 90% methanol aqueous solution. The microcystins were determined by the method of HPLC after SPE purification。 The mobile phase is consist of 35% acetonitrile,65%water contained 0.05% TFA。 The microcystins were separated and determined on a Zorbax Eclipse C18 column(250 mm×4.6 mm id, 5 μm) by the method of external standard method. Results: the liner range was 0.1~10.0 μg/mL for MC-LR and the detection limit(LOD) for microcystin-LR in meat of Carassius auratus was 25 ng·g-1; the liner range was 0.1~10.0 μg/mL for MC-RR and the detection limit(LOD) for microcystin-RR in meat of Carassius auratus was 20 ng·g-1. This method is precision sensitive and specific and can be used for food satety hazard evaluation and microcystin pollution supervision in fresh water aquatic products.

  18. SPOT-5 Image Texture Analysis Based Dendrolimus punctatus Damage Information Collection%基于纹理特征的SPOT-5影像马尾松毛虫害信息提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓兴兰; 刘健; 胡宗庆; 余坤勇; 雷泽兴

    2012-01-01

    The high-resolution image is extensively used to monitor forest diseases and insect pests with the development of remote sensing techmology. Taking Shaxian County of Fujian Province as the study area, and the SPOT - 5 image as data source, the texture feature of both healthy and infested Pinus massoniana stands by Dendrolimus punctatus were extracted and the best texture were constructed with Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix method. The pest information was derived respectively by pixel statistics and object-oriented methods, and the individual precision was individually 72.00% and 74.75%. The results showed that it was practicable to monitor the infestation of Dendrolimus punctatus with texture feature of remote sensing image, which provided the relevant research with case study support and technical reference. It was also showed that the object-oriented method with higher precision and better image quality was superior to the traditional pixel statistics classification method.%以福建沙县为研究区,以SPOT-5影像为数据源,采用灰度共生矩阵方法提取健康林分与受害林分的纹理特征,构建最佳纹理量,分别采用像元统计和面向对象的方法进行虫害信息提取,结果精度分别为72.00%、74.75%.研究结果证明了利用遥感影像纹理特征进行马尾松毛虫害监测的可行性,为利用融合影像光谱信息与纹理信息进行虫害信息提取研究提供了实例支撑和技术参考,同时面向对象的方法优于传统的基于像元统计的分类方法,精度稍高,“椒盐现象”也有所改善.

  19. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CRUCIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS) FROM YILI RIVER OF SINKIANG DISTRICT%新疆伊犁河鲫鱼遗传多样性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秋白; 郑宇; 周莉; 桂建芳

    2009-01-01

    为了解我国西北地区野生鲫鱼的遗传多样性,鲫鱼样品从新疆伊犁河中采用小型拖网捕获.通过解剖观察性腺鉴定性别;采用碘化丙啶(PI)染色,经流式细胞仪测定血细胞核DNA含量;采用非变性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳,考马斯亮蓝染色分析血清转铁蛋白多态性.结果表明:新疆伊犁河鲫鱼群体为具雌、雄的两性个体的群体;伊犁河鲫鱼血细胞核DNA平均含量为(5.315±0.215)pg/个细胞核,血细胞核DNA含量约为二倍体彩鲫DNA含量的1.53倍,与银鲫血细胞核DNA含量相当;在所采集的鲫鱼样品中共发现9种转铁蛋白表现型,由7个等位基因调控,等位基因频率依次为Tfa0.063、Tfb0.063、Tff0.095、Tfg0.169、Tfc0.174、Tfe0.175和Tfd0.270.基因型频率分别为Tfcd0.043、Tfcdf0.043、Tfabdg0.043、Tfdef0.087、Tfee0.13、Tfde0.13、Tfdf0.13、Tfabeg0.13和Tfcdg0.26.综合分析,伊犁河现存野生鲫鱼为银鲫,且具有两性融合生殖能力.伊犁河鲫鱼表现出的遗传特性可能与该特定水环境有关.%Studies about genetic diversity of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) have been executed for many years. However, the samples usually come from the area of Heilong River in northeast, Yangtze River and Yellow River in the middle part of China, rarely from the district of Sinkiang District in northwest of China. This study aim at accumulating evidences for realizing genetic diversity and finding some characteristic marks of genetic diversity of crucian carp in the district of Sinkiang District in northwest of China. The sampled crucian carps (Carassius auratus) captured with townet from Yili River of Sinkiang district. Their sex was identified according to the gland at the anatomical level. DNA content of blood corpuscle was mensurated with Phoenix Flow Systems after blood corpuscle was dyed with propidium iodide (PI) solution. Transferrin (Tf) in blood serum was measured with non-denatualization polyacrylamide gel

  20. The controlling role of Panonychus citri by "Lümanyuan" in the filed and the measurement of its acute toxicity to Carassius auratus%“绿满园”对柑桔红蜘蛛的田间防治效果及对金鱼的毒性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔虎平; 王金亮; 江庆红; 云月利; 王维; 彭宇

    2013-01-01

    测定“绿满园”水剂对柑桔红蜘蛛Panonychus citri的田间防治效果及对非靶标生物金鱼Carassius auratus 的急性毒性.结果表明,64%“绿满园”水剂800倍和1 000倍稀释液在施药后7d和15d对柑桔红蜘蛛的防治效果均极显著地高于对照杀螨剂:15%扫螨净和57%炔螨特,其中以800倍稀释液防治效果最好,15d的防效达97.21%,800倍和1 000倍稀释液的防治效果差异不明显.金鱼的死亡率随“绿满园”浓度的升高和染毒时间的延长逐渐增加.“绿满园”水剂对金鱼的急性毒性小于阿维菌素.%The controlling role of Panonychus citri by "Lumanyuan" in the filed and the measurement of its acute toxicity to Carassius auratus were carried out. The results showed that, 15 days after spraying, the controlling roles of 800 folds and 1 000 folds dilution of 64% "Lumanyuan" to P. citri was obviously higher than 15% pyridaben and 57% propargite. 800 fold dilution of "Lumanyuan" had the best controlling role to P. citri and the controlling effect was 97. 21%. There was no significant difference on controlling effects between 800 folds and 1 000 folds dilution of "Lumanyuan" to P. citri. The mortalities of C. auratus increased with the rise of the concentration and treatment time of "Lumanyuan" and "Lumanyuan" has lower acute toxicity to C. auratus than avermectin.

  1. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for municipal reuse water: Assessing micropollutant degradation and estrogenic impacts on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zengquan; Singh, Arvinder; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry; Bolton, James R; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Low concentrations (ng/L-μg/L) of emerging micropollutant contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents affect the possibility to reuse these waters. Many of those micropollutants elicit endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic organisms resulting in an alteration of the endocrine system. A potential candidate for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment of these micropollutants is ultraviolet (UV)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) which was currently applied to treat the secondary effluent of the Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant (GBWWTP) in Edmonton, AB, Canada. A new approach is presented to predict the fluence-based degradation rate constants (kf') of environmentally occurring micropollutants including carbamazepine [(0.87-1.39) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ] and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) [(0.60-0.91) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ for 2,4-D] in a medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 system based on a previous bench-scale investigation. Rather than using removal rates, this approach can be used to estimate the performance of the MP UV/H2O2 process for degrading trace contaminants of concern found in municipal wastewater. In addition to the ability to track contaminant removal/degradation, evaluation of the MP UV/H2O2 process was also accomplished by identifying critical ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e., estrogenicity) of the treated wastewater. Using quantitative PCR, mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive (ER) genes ERα1, ERα2, ERβ1, ERβ2 and NPR as well as two aromatase encoding genes (CYP19a and CYP19b) in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were measured during exposure to the GBWWTP effluent before and after MP UV/H2O2 treatment (a fluence of 1000 mJ/cm(2) and 20 mg/L of H2O2) in spring, summer and fall. Elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes in goldfish exposed to UV/H2O2 treated effluent (a 7-day exposure) suggested that the UV/H2O2 process may induce acute estrogenic disruption to goldfish principally because

  2. 草海鲫鱼的年龄和生长%Age and Growth of Crucian Carp Cauratus auratus in Caohai Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金娜; 周其椿; 安苗; 谈冰畅; 邰定敏

    2014-01-01

    The age and growth of crucian carp Cauratus auratus found in alpine wetland Caohai Lake , Guizhou province ,were studied by scales as annual ring method .The results showed that there were 5 age classes ranging from 1 to 5 in the population of the crucian carp in CaoHai Lake ,with preponderant age classes of 1-3 years old ,accounting for 96 .34% of the total population .Most of the crucian carp had body length of 52 .0-240 .0 mm ,primarily within the range between 90 .0 mm and 150 .0 mm (81 .97% ) ,and body weight ranging from 4 .8 g to 582 .4 g ,mainly between 30 g and 120 g (83 .89% ) .The ratio of ♀ to♂was found to be 8∶1 ,more females than males in the crucian carp in CaoHai Lake ,and length-weight power function relationship of the crucian carp showed the exponent b =s with isometrical growth by scale annulus .The growth of the crucian carp was described as Von Bertalanffy equation ,with L∞ =259 .67 mm ,m∞ =481 .94 g ,k=0 .1537 ,t0 = -0 .6506 and body weight growth inflexion point of 6 .28 .Com-pared with 1980’s ,the simple age structure of the crucian carps in CaoHai Lake is featured by more small individuals and the declined population in the resources .%以生活在高寒湿地草海中鲫鱼的鳞片作为鉴定年龄的材料,对其种群开展年龄结构与生长特性研究。研究结果表明,草海鲫鱼种群由1~5龄共5个年龄组组成,以低龄个体为主,1~3龄个体占96.34%,体长分布主要集中在90~150mm(81.97%),体质量分布主要集中在30~120g(83.89%)。群体总性比为♀∶♂=8∶1,体长和鳞径呈幂函数关系,体长和体质量呈幂函数关系且幂指数接近3,属于匀速生长类型,因此可用VonBertalanffy方程来描述其生长特性,相关生长参数分别为:渐近体长L∞=259.67mm,渐近体质量m∞=481.94g,k=0.1537,t0=-0.6506龄,体质量生长拐点Ti=6.28龄。与20世纪80年代相比,目前草海中

  3. Japon Balığı (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758 Dokularında Bor Akümülasyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Okan Genç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, model bir balık türü olabilen Japon balığının (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758 karaciğer ve kas dokusundaki, yem ve su kaynaklı bor birikiminin dağılımı incelenmiştir. Her bir uygulama için her bir akvaryuma 12 adet birey. Uygulamalarda, akvaryum gruplarının suyuna belirli oranlarda (1 mg/L, 10 mg/L ve 20 mg/L borik asit ve borik asit emdirilmesi ile elde edilen yemlerden (1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg ve 10 mg/kg verilmiştir. Dokulardaki bor birikimi mikrodalga yaş yakma ile çözündürme işleminin ardından indüktif olarak eşleştirilmiş kütle spektroskopisi (ICP-MS tekniği ile belirlenmiştir. Japon balıklarının farklı dokularında belirlenen maksimum bor konsantrasyonu 20mg/L sulandırılmış borik asit uygulamasında karaciğer dokusunda (1.78±0.02 mg/kg tespit edilmiştir. Ancak 1 mg/kg yem uygulamasında kas dokusunda birikim olmadığı gözlemlenmiştir. Borlu su grupların için Transfer faktör (TF en düşük dozda en yüksek oranda iken doz miktarı arttıkça TF azalmış ve neredeyse 0.1’e yakın bir sabitlik göstermiştir. Bor ilaveli yem kullanılan deney gruplarında TF en düşük dozda (1 mg/kg 0 iken yemde kullanılan borun doz miktarı arttıkça (5 mg/kg TF değerinin yaklaşık 0.06’ya kadar çıktığı tespit edilmiştir. Bu çalışmada önemli iki tespit ortaya konulmuştur; bor birikiminde hedef organlardan biri karaciğer iken kas dokusunun birikim açısından hedef olmadığı ve yem ile alınan borun dokularda birikiminin düşük olmasıdır.

  4. CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF KAISO IN GOLDFISH, CARASSIUS AURATUS%鲫Kaiso 基因cDNA 的克隆和表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海炎; 黄万旭; 罗琛

    2013-01-01

    -tional repressor, plays an important role in timing the expression of methylated genes during early embryogenesis in amphibian and zebrafish. To investigate the reproductive and developmental functions of DNA methylation in goldfish (Carassius auratus), an important cultural fish, we cloned its full-length Kaiso cDNA by reverse transcription and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The spatiotemporal expression pattern of goldfish Kaiso was examined by whole mount in situ hybridization and real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The entire Kaiso cDNA was 3145 bp long, including a 132 bp long 5'-UTR, a 1117 bp long 3'-UTR and a 1896 bp long open read frame, which encoded a protein with 631 amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment of Kaisos of Carassius auratus, Danio rerio, Xenopus laevis, Gallus gallus, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens revealed that the structure of goldfish Kaiso protein also consisted a highly-conserved BTB/POZ domain at the N-terminal and zinc finger domains at the C-terminal. Whole-mount in situ hybridization examination showed that Kaiso was ubiquitously expressed during early embryogenesis but tissue-specifically expressed from bud stage onward. qRT-PCR examination revealed that high abundance maternal Kaiso mRNA existed in the eggs. During embryogenesis, the level of Kaiso mRNA gradually decreased during cleavage and remained low from late blastula stage to early gastrula stage, and then gradually increased from late gastrula stage and reached to the highest level at bud stage. These results suggested that the Kaiso transcripts detected in cleavage stage might be the maternal mRNA and the transcription of zygotic Kaiso might start at late blastula stage. qRT-PCR analysis of different adult tissues revealed that the transcriptional levels of Kaiso in the muscle, retina, heart and brain were much higher than those in the kidney, pancreas and liver. The spatiotemporal expression pattern of Kaiso suggested that

  5. 丁酸钠对鲫鱼生长和肠细胞增殖的影响%Effects of sodium butyrate on growth and intestinal cell proliferation of Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      以初始体质量(6.02±0.16) g的鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)为研究对象,在鲫鱼基础饲料中分别添加0.0 g/kg、1.0 g/kg、2.5 g/kg、5.0 g/kg、7.5 g/kg的包膜丁酸钠,配制5种等氮等能的实验饲料,研究不同浓度包膜丁酸钠通过促进鲫鱼肠细胞增殖对其生长作用的影响。实验在室内养殖系统中进行,每水族缸饲喂30尾,每处理组3个重复,以鱼体质量3%~5%投喂量,日投喂3次,试验持续7周。实验结果表明:在饲料中添加丁酸钠对鲫鱼有明显的促生长作用,显著提高了鲫鱼前肠绒毛高度/隐窝深度的比值以及肠道细胞增殖因子CREB和CDX2基因的表达。当丁酸钠添加量为2.5 g/kg 时,鲫鱼增重率、特定生长率、蛋白质效率和肥满度最高,显著高于对照组(P<0.05),比对照组分别提高了25.76%、16.46%、28.91%和8.37%;与对照组相比,丁酸钠添加量达到2.5 g/kg时,鲫鱼干物质与蛋白质表观消化率、前肠绒毛高度、肠道 CREB 基因和 CDX2基因的相对表达量显著升高,分别比对照组提高8.36%、6.21%、34.22%、51.11%和42.13%(P<0.05)。上述研究表明饲料中添加适量的丁酸钠可能通过显著提高鲫鱼肠绒毛高度和肠道细胞增殖因子CREB和CDX2基因的表达量,从而促进其生长,适宜添加量为2.5 g/kg。%A 7-week feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and expression of intestinal development related genes in Carassius auratus. The grade levels of sodium butyrate at 0.0 (control), 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg were added to the basic diets respectively. Each diet was randomly fed to a group of 30 fishes per tank in triplicates. The fish were fed three times daily by hand at a rate of 3% –5% of body weight for seven weeks. The results showed that dietary sodium butyrate significantly affected growth, foregut villus height and crypt depth, and the expression

  6. Segregation patterns of microsatellite markers indicate triploid Cara-ssius auratus generate aneuploid sperm%微卫星分离模式显示雄性三倍体鲫产生非整倍体精子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程磊; 曹顶臣; 鲁翠云; 李超; 孙效文

    2014-01-01

    三倍体鲫(Carassius auratus)行天然雌核发育,其自然种群中却有较高比例的雄性个体,这些雄性个体的性腺发育正常,能产生有活力的精子。而且其精子的DNA含量约为体细胞的一半,显示三倍体鲫精子发生过程中可能经历了均等的减数分裂。流式细胞术虽然能够较准确地测定细胞群的平均DNA含量,但是却很难检测到单个精子中的个别染色体增减,要明确回答雄性三倍体鲫产生的精子是否为整倍体需要定量地检测单个精子的遗传组成。本研究用微卫星标记检测以雌性鲤(Cyprinus carpio)与雄性三倍体鲫为亲本构建的杂种家系的基因型,结果发现母本鲤的多态位点在子代中呈孟德尔分离,父本三倍体鲫具有三套鲫基因组,其等位基因在子代中呈随机分离。上述研究结果提示:三倍体鲫起源于二倍体鲫的同源加倍,而非二倍体鲫和鲤的种间杂交;三倍体鲫通过染色体的随机分离产生非整倍体的精子,其精子发生过程中没有均等的减数分裂。三倍体鲫行雌核发育生殖,却可能并非起源于种间杂交且群体中的雄性个体可育,因而是单性生殖鱼类中的一个特例。%Crucian carp (Carassius auratus) is an important aquaculture species, in which diploid, triploid and tetraplo-id forms coexist. Diploid crucian carp reproduce sexually, while both triploid and tetraploid crucian carp reproduce via gynogenesis. Because only females passed their genome to the next generation, gynogenetic fishes are usually all fe-male and reproduce clonally. However, there are unusual high proportion of males in natural populations of triploid crucian carp. These males have normally developed testis, which can generate viable sperm. Additionally, DNA content of sperm was about half of that of somatic cell, which indicated that meiosis has occurred during spermatogenesis of triploid crucian carp. The average DNA

  7. Preliminary study on the influence of ivermectin on blood component of Carassius auratus%伊维菌素对鲫血液成分影响的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭章晓; 江敏; 吴昊; 何琳; 杨李

    2012-01-01

    The influence of ivermectin on Carassius auratus blood component was studied after oral administration at ivermectin doses of 3. 0, 1.0 and 0. 4 mg/kg. The results showed that RBC, WBC, HCT and HGB in Carassius auratus blood had no obvious difference among control group and treatment groups. The contents of PLT in treated fish were obviously higher than those in untreated fish. The contents of PLT increased quickly at 8 ~ 16 h after administration, and began to decrease at 24 h, and the fluctuation was greater than that in control group. The contents of Ca2+ , Tbil, ALP, ALT and ALB didn' t be affected by ivermectin. While the contents of TP in blood of fish administrated with 3. 0 or 1. 0 mg/kg ivermectin were lower than untreated fish, and with the increase of dose, the greater the influence was, while 0. 4 mg/kg ivermectin didn' t affect the content of TP obviously. Some adverse reactions were observed including darkened color, loss of appetite, and balance in treated fishes with the increasing dose. There was external hemorrhage in kidneys when the fish in group of 3. 0 mg/kg was dissected.%采用三种给药剂量(3.0、1.0、0.4 mg/kg)研究伊维菌素对鲫(Carassius auratus)血液指标的影响,结果显示:各实验组鲫血液中红细胞(RBC)、白细胞(WBC)、红细胞压积(HCT)、血红蛋白(HGB)与对照组间均无显著性差异;但血小板(PLT)指标则显著高于对照组,且在给药后8~16h快速上升、24 h后开始下降,波动幅度亦显著高于对照组.三种口灌剂量对鲫血液中钙离子(Ca2+)、总胆红素(Tbil)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)和白蛋白(ALB)含量均无明显影响;而3.0、1.0 mg/kg的口灌剂量组鲫血液中总血清蛋白(TP)含量较对照组有下降,且剂量越大影响越大,而0.4 mg/kg组TP含量变化不大.随着剂量的增大,鲫体色逐渐变深,食欲减退、身体失衡,3.0 mg/kg组的鲫解剖后显示肾脏出血迹象.

  8. Integração do enxerto heterólogo de pele humana no subepitélio da bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus Integration of human skin heterologous graft into hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch sub-epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hochman

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a integração de enxertos de pele total humana no subepitélio da bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus. MÉTODOS: A amostragem consistiu de 18 hamsters machos, exogâmicos, com 10 a 14 semanas de idade. Fragmentos de pele humana normal foram obtidos de pele excedente de mastoplastia redutora de paciente parda. Cada hamster foi enxertado em ambas as bolsas com fragmentos de pele, perfazendo um total de 36 fragmentos enxertados. Os animais foram distribuídos, em 6 grupos, para exame dos fragmentos enxertados com 5, 12, 21, 42, 84 e 168 dias. Uma avaliação macroscópica foi realizada comparando a bolsa contendo o fragmento enxertado em cada período com a mesma bolsa no pós-operatório imediato, mediante fotografias padronizadas. Na avaliação microscópica foi adotado como critério de integração a presença de vasos sangüíneos na derme dos enxertos. Observou-se também a presença de queratina, melanócitos, infiltrado celular e aspecto do tecido conjuntivo. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação macroscópica foi observada uma reação vascular em torno dos fragmentos até 12 dias do implante, e a presença de pigmentação castanho-escura a partir de 42 dias. À microscopia, integraram-se 80,64% dos fragmentos enxertados, inclusive no grupo de 168 dias. Observou-se infiltrado celular inflamatório até 12 dias, a presença de melanócitos a partir de 42 dias e uma hialinização do tecido conjuntivo após 84 dias. CONCLUSÕES: Fragmentos de pele humana integram-se no tecido celular subcutâneo da bolsa jugal do hamster, mantêm-se vascularizados por 168 dias, e conservam o epitélio íntegro até 21 dias. O subepitélio da bolsa representa modelo experimental de investigação da fisiologia de pele humana ex vivo.PURPOSE: To describe the integration of total human skin into hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch. METHODS: The sample was formed by 18 male hamsters, outbred, aging between 10 and 14 weeks. Fragments of

  9. Parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocricetus auratus L. alimentado con base en harina de lombriz roja (Eisenia spp. y fuentes convencionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó durante 21 días el efecto de cuatro dietas proteicas con base en harina de Lombriz Roja (Hl (Eisenia spp. (nivel de inclusión de Hl: D1: 21; D2: 24; D3: 27 y D4: 30% y dos alimentos convencionales: Conejarina ® (D0 y Ratarina® (D5 en algunos parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocrisetus auratus L. mediante un diseño totalmente aleatorizado para un factor, en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela. El hematocrito (37.65-41.01%, la hemoglobina (10.83-12.25%, la bilirrubina total, directa e indirecta (0.20-0.40; 0.10-0.22; 0.10-0.20mg/ dL, respectivamente, las lipoproteínas de muy baja densidad (Vldl (15.12-41.27mg/dL; los triglicéridos (95.42-190.54mg/dL; así como los valores de Calcio (Ca (9.83-12.32 mg/dL y Potasio (4.24-5.43mg/dL no exhibieron diferencias significativas entre dietas (P>0,05. Los leucocitos (Lto, las plaquetas (Plq, el conteo diferencial (neutrófilos/linfocitos (Linf/eosinófilos, la glicemia (Glc, la amilasa, el colesterol total, las lipoproteínas de elevada (Hdl y baja densidad y el Fósforo mostraron variaciones sustanciales entre los tratamientos (P<0,05. Los niveles crecientes de proteína de las dietas no afectaron los parámetros evaluados. Sin embargo, se observó una relación negativa entre la inclusión de Hl y las cantidades de Lto (r=-0.76**, Plq (r=-0.76**, Linf (r=-0.71**, Glc (r=-0.58* y Hdl (r=-0.50*. La adición de hl en proporciones de 24, 27 y 30% para obtener alimentos formulados entre 13.5 y 19.6% de proteína, para M. auratus, afecta algunos de los parámetros hematológicos y la concentración sérica de metabolitos relacionados con la composición nutricional de la dieta.

  10. Correspondence analysis between occurrence type of Dendrolimus punctatus and topographical and vegetative features%马尾松毛虫灾变发生类型与地貌及植被特征间对应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄英姿; 古德祥; 张文庆; 梁承丰; 林育红; 陈占芳; 李南林

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 引言 对应分析(correspondence analysis)由法国Benzecri 于1970年首先提出,是在R型和Q型因子分析基础上发展起来的一种多元分析方法[5].它与主成分分析有着密切的联系,在某种意义上可以看成是主成分的特殊情形,从另外一种意义上讲,它又是主成分分析的推广.另外,它和典型分析也是相通的[4].对应分析的主要目的是寻求列联表行因素和列因素的基本分布特征和最优联立表示,并将彼此间的结构关系直观地展示出来.对应分析已被用于生物学研究的不同领域[2,3].本文应用对应分析方法,对小班(subcompartment,林业管理部门的专用术语)的马尾松毛虫(Dendrolimus punctatus)虫灾发生类型与小班的地形地貌及植被特征之间的结构关系进行探讨,为马尾松毛虫的科学管理提供依据.

  11. Solution structure of the Z-DNA binding domain of PKR-like protein kinase from Carassius auratus and quantitative analyses of the intermediate complex during B-Z transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ae-Ree; Park, Chin-Ju; Cheong, Hae-Kap; Ryu, Kyoung-Seok; Park, Jin-Wan; Kwon, Mun-Young; Lee, Janghyun; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Choi, Byong-Seok; Lee, Joon-Hwa

    2016-04-07

    Z-DNA binding proteins (ZBPs) play important roles in RNA editing, innate immune response and viral infection. Structural and biophysical studies show that ZBPs initially form an intermediate complex with B-DNA for B-Z conversion. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of Z-DNA binding and B-Z transition is still lacking, due to the absence of structural information on the intermediate complex. Here, we report the solution structure of the Zα domain of the ZBP-containing protein kinase from Carassius auratus(caZαPKZ). We quantitatively determined the binding affinity of caZαPKZ for both B-DNA and Z-DNA and characterized its B-Z transition activity, which is modulated by varying the salt concentration. Our results suggest that the intermediate complex formed by caZαPKZ and B-DNA can be used as molecular ruler, to measure the degree to which DNA transitions to the Z isoform.

  12. Leishmania donovani-derived lipophosphoglycan plus BCG induces a Th1 type immune response but does not protect Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus and BALB/c mice against Leishmania donovani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.K. Tonui

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Leishmania donovani-derived lipophosphoglycan (LPG plus Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG as a vaccine candidate against visceral leishmaniosis in susceptible BALB/c mouse and Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus models was investigated. Following a triple vaccination with a total dose of 150 µl BCG plus 60 µg or 30 µg of LPG for hamsters and BALB/c mice respectively, there were no noticeable side effects both locally and systemically; implying that the molecule was safe at this dosage level. Vaccinated animals demonstrated an activation of both the humoral as well as cell-mediated responses to LPG, which correlated with resistance against the disease. Protection by LPG plus BCG, was however, poor as the remaining immunized animals showed disease progression leading to severity of the disease as illustrated by emaciation, mass loss and heavy splenic parasitaemia in hamsters. These data nevertheless suggest that it may be rewarding to further evaluate the potential of LPG as a vaccine candidate in leishmaniosis using other adjuvants, which may enhance its immunogenicity.

  13. 鲫幼鱼(Carassius auratus)标准代谢个体差异与力竭后代谢特征及行为的关联%Correlations between standard metabolic rate and metabolic characteristics after exhaustive exercise, and behavior in the juvenile crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾令清; 付世建; 曹振东

    2016-01-01

    为考察鲫(Carassius auratus)幼鱼标准代谢的个体差异与运动力竭后代谢特征和行为的关系,在(25.0±0.5)℃条件下测定80尾鲫幼鱼标准代谢率(SMR),筛选出40尾实验鱼[体重(13.54±0.20)g,体长(8.05±0.07) cm],其中包括20尾高SMR个体和20尾低SMR个体,测定运动至力竭实验鱼的最大代谢率(MMR),并计算代谢空间(AS=MMR-SMR)、相对代谢空间(FAS)和过量耗氧(EPOC)总量,随后测定单尾鱼的快速启动行为[反应时间(RT)、最大线速度(Umax)、最大线加速度(Amax)和120ms移动距离(S120)]以及个性行为(勇敢性和活跃性).结果显示鲫幼鱼的SMR与AS、FAS和EPOC总量均呈负相关,而与MMR不相关;MMR与AS、FAS和EPOC总量均呈正相关;协方差分析显示高SMR个体组的代谢恢复速率与低SMR个体组无显著差异.鲫幼鱼的SMR与快速启动行为的RT呈正相关,与Amax呈负相关,而与Umax和S120均不相关.在快速启动行为中,鲫幼鱼的RT与Umax、Am120和S120均呈负相关,而Amax与S120和S120呈正相关.鲫幼鱼的SMR与其勇敢性指标如潜伏期(L)、曝露时间(ET)和探头频率(AF)以及活跃性指标如运动时间比(PTM)、撞墙频率(FHW)均不相关,但鲫幼鱼的PTM与FHW和ET呈正相关.研究表明在实验室条件下鲫幼鱼的能量代谢特征、快速启动和个性行为存在明显的个体差异现象,并且部分表型特征之间存在权衡,提示这些权衡可能是鲫幼鱼的生理、行为与栖息环境相互作用的综合结果.

  14. 异育银鲫幼鱼对饲料中维生素K需求的研究%DIETARY VITAMIN K REQUIREMENT OF JUVENILE GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段元慧; 朱晓鸣; 韩冬; 杨云霞; 金俊琰; 解绶启

    2013-01-01

    以不同维生素K水平(0.13、2.15、3.25、6.40、12、17.20和23.20 mg/kg饲料)的7种精制饲料喂养初始体重约为(2.17±0.01) g的异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)10周,每个处理3个重复,研究异育银鲫对维生素K的需求量.结果显示:饲料中维生素K的添加可以明显降低摄食率,饲料中维生素K含量为2.15 mg/kg时,摄食率出现最大值,之后显著下降(P0.05).饲料中维生素K的含量从0.13 mg/kg升至3.25 mg/kg时,饲料效率显著升高(P0.05),在12 mg/kg时达到最大值,并且与特定生长率呈正相关关系(SGR = 0.01 FE + 0.95,R2 = 0.95).血液红细胞数目随着饲料维生素K含量的增加先显著升高(P0.05).血红蛋白含量、血球容积比、血清钙含量与血液中红细胞数目表现出相似的趋势,均在不添加维生素K组出现最低值,但是差异不显著(P>0.05).肝体比、肥满度及鱼体生化组成均不受饲料维生素K水平的影响(P>0.05).分别对饲料效率、红细胞数目进行折线回归得出异育银鲫幼鱼对维生素K的最适需求量为3.73-6.72 mg/kg饲料.%A 10-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine vitamin K requirement of juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Purified diets with seven levels (0.13, 2.15, 3.25, 6.40, 12, 17.20 and 23.20 mg/kg diet) of supplemental vitamin K3 (menadione sodium bisulfite, MSB) were fed to C. gibelio (mean weight 2.17±0.01 g). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish. The results showed that fish fed with the diet supplemented with 2.15 mg vitamin K/kg had significantly higher feeding rate (FR) than fish fed with diets supplemented with 12 mg vitamin K/kg (PO.05). Specific growth rate (SGR) increased with increasing dietary vitamin K levels and reached the highest value when dietary vitamin K content was 12 mg/kg (P>0.05). Feed efficiency (FE) was the highest in fish fed with diet supplemented with ≥3.25 mg vitamin K/kg, intermediate with 2.15 mg vitamin K

  15. Effects of Cd and Pb on the activities of SOD in hepatopancreas of Carassius auratus%Cd和Pb对鲫鱼超氧化物歧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉; 段辉国; 唐正义

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended to present our findings on the effects of Cd and Pb on the activities of SOD in the hepatopancreas of Carassius auratus, which is a kind of enzyme that tends to catalyze the destruction of the O2-free radical to form oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. As is known, SOD is a kind of chemical compound widely existing in nature to prevent cellular damage by excessive oxygen free radicals generated in the process of metabolism . As a matter of fact, the activity of SOD can be affected by the metal ions, especially, the heavy metal ones, e.g. Cd and Pb. In our research, we have discovered that the concentrative effects of Cd and Pb on the activities of SOD from hepatopancreas of Carassius auratus through our toxicity tests. Statistically speaking, after 24 h, 48 h or 96 h of post-exposure treatments in the presence of Cd2+ (0.5 mg/L, 2.0 mg/L, 6.0mg/L) , Pb2+ (10 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 40 mg/L) or both of them, the activity of SOD would have changed . The results have thus shown that within the experimental doae range, the activities of SOD were found to have accelerated by 0.5 mg/L of Cd2+ . However, high concentrations of Cd2+ , Pb2+ and the mixture tend to obviously suppress the activities of SOD. What is more, synergetic effect of the toxicity can be detected in the presence of both Cd2+ and Pb2+ . Such results prove to be useful for the evaluation of the risk of Cd2+ and Pb2+ , in monitoring the environmental pollution .%为了解不同浓度Cd2+、Pb2+及其联合胁迫对超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性的影响,以鲫鱼为材料,采用急性毒性试验研究了质量浓度为0.5 mg/L、2.0 mg/L、6.0 mg/L的Cd2+溶液和10 mg/L、20 mg/L、40 mg/L的Pb2+溶液及其混合液作用下,24 h、48 h、96 h后鲫鱼肝胰脏SOD活性的变化.结果表明,0.5 mg/L的Cd2+对鲫鱼肝胰脏的SOD活性有促进作用,其余各浓度组的Cd2+和Pb2+对SOD有抑制作用;Cd2+和Pb2+的联合作用比单独作用对SOD的影响大.

  16. Effect of echinacea purpurea extract on growth and anti-oxidant responses in carassius auratus var.pengze%紫锥菊提取物对彭泽鲫生长和抗氧化反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪莲; 付京花; 李志华; 邹记兴

    2012-01-01

    试验旨在研究紫锥菊提取物对彭泽鲫(Carassius auratus var.pengze)生长和抗氧化反应的影响.选取体重为(7.50±0.15)g的彭泽鲫作为试验动物,在其饲料中分别按0.1%、0.2%、0.4%、0.8%的不同比例添加紫锥菊提取物,经过60 d的饲养,测定其生长及血清中抗氧化酶活力等的变化.结果表明,紫锥菊提取物显著增加彭泽鲫的相对增重率(P<0.05);显著降低鲫鱼血清中的羟自由基(·OH)(P<0.05),降低丙二醛(MDA)含量,提高其血清中的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)活力,同时降低谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活力.该研究阐明了紫锥菊提取物对鲫鱼生长及抗氧化反应的影响,为紫锥菊在水产养殖中的研究与应用提供基础数据.

  17. 异育银鲫鳃出血病流行病学调查和研究%Epidemiological Investigation and Survey of Gill Hemorrhagic Disease in Silver Prussian Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴霆; 丁正峰; 朱春艳; 薛中仪; 顾伟; 孟庆国; 王文

    2014-01-01

    2011-2013年,江苏省局部地区发生新型异育银鲫鳃出血病,给养殖业造成较大经济损失。为查明病因,了解发病历史、发病季节、发病症状及危害对象,通过在江苏省宝应县开展水产流行病学调查,结合组织病理学、回归感染试验、分子生物学诊断等研究方法,证实异育银鲫鳃出血病病原为鲤科疱疹病毒-Ⅱ型,由于该病害会导致异育银鲫养殖重大损失,因此需要引起国内相关养殖业主、科研工作者更多关注。%Gill hemorrhagic disease as a new type disease in silver prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) caused by Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV‐2) makes harmful in silver prussian carp aquaculture .In present paper ,we make an epidemiological investigation on this new disease in Baoying county ,an important aquaculture area in Jiangsu province .The past records of disease ,epidemic seasons ,hosts suffered from the disease ,symptoms and pathological changes ,molecular biological detection ,and challenged infection are described ,therefore ,some valuable information are provided to the fishers and related researchers for understanding of the disease .

  18. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): absence of vasopressin expression in standard and wild-derived hamsters and galanin regulation by seasonal changes in circulating sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolborea, M; Ansel, L; Weinert, D; Steinlechner, S; Pévet, P; Klosen, P

    2010-02-03

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a nucleus of the forebrain highly sensitive to sex steroids and containing vasopressin neurons implicated in several social- and reproduction-related behaviours such as scent-marking, aggression, pair bonding and parental behaviour. Sexually dimorphic vasopressin expression in BNST neurons has been reported in almost all rodents, with the notable exception of the Syrian hamster. In this species, vasopressin expression is completely absent in the BNST. Because almost all Syrian hamsters used in research are derived from a very small breeding stock captured in 1930, we compared commercially available Syrian hamsters with a recently captured, wild-derived breeding stock. We checked for vasopressin expression using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Vasopressin expression in BNST neurons was completely absent in both breeding stocks, confirming the absence of BNST vasopressin expression in Mesocricetus auratus and ruling out a breeding artefact. Because vasopressin expression in BNST neurons appears to be strictly dependent on circulating sex steroids, the absence of vasopressin expression in Syrian hamster BNST neurons might be due to an insensitivity of these neurons to sex steroids. BNST vasopressin neurons also express galanin. Although galanin expression in the BNST is not sexually dimorphic in the Syrian hamster, it appears to be regulated by sex steroids. In the Djungarian hamster, photoperiodically driven seasonal variations of circulating sex steroids result in a seasonal rhythm of galanin expression in BNST neurons. We analysed the sex steroid dependence of galanin expression in the Syrian hamster. Castration and short photoperiod-induced sexual quiescence both resulted in downregulation of galanin mRNA in cell bodies (BNST) and immunoreactivity in the fibres (lateral septum). Testosterone supplementation of short photoperiod-adapted animals was able to restore galanin expression. Thus Syrian

  19. 萍乡肉红鲫的性腺发育研究%GONADAL DEVELOPMENT IN NATURAL WILDNESS TRIPLOID MUTANT PINGXIANG RED-TRANSPARENT CRUCIAN CARP, CARASSIUS AURATUS L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴会芳; 盛军庆; 洪一江; 王军花; 刘田欣; 桂建芳

    2009-01-01

    萍乡肉红鲫(Pingxiang red-transparent crucian carp,Carassius auratus L.)是在江西省萍乡地区分布的天然三倍体鲫突变体经人工选育后获得的遗传性状基本稳定的后代,具有两性生殖和雌核生殖两种生殖方式.研究以F5代萍乡肉红鲫为材料,自孵化后每满1个月开始取性腺,观察了其卵巢1周年性成熟和精巢的发育过程,结果表明萍乡肉红鲫的性腺为1年成熟类型.卵巢发育进程町以分为6个时期,卵母细胞发育相应可分为6个时相.统计了卵巢成熟系数周年变化,体重为95 g左右的雌性萍乡肉红鲫,其成熟卵巢的成熟系数约为(11.73±2.8)%,成熟的卵母细胞内充满卵黄,相对怀卵量为(3018±310)粒/g.萍乡肉红鲫精巢属于小叶型,在精小叶中可观察到不同发育阶段的生殖细胞.由精原细胞分裂而来的仞级精母细胞经分裂增殖,产生次级精母细胞并最终发育成为精子.萍乡肉红鲫的精巢发育程序与普通鲫鱼和鲤鱼相似,卵巢和精巢的发育过程基本同步,孵化后50日龄内性腺分化不明显,到70日龄左右开始出现雌雄分化,3月龄发育为第1期,4-5月龄发育为第2期,6-7月龄发育至第3期,7-10月龄可见第4期卵巢,1年即可成熟产卵,精巢可排出精液.结果表明,该鲫鱼突变体的性腺发育与普通二倍体鲤(鲫)鱼的性腺发育方式类似.%The Pingxiang red-transparent crucian carp, Carassius auratus ( L. ) , which was approved for a new kind of breed by the National Fisheries thoroughbred Examining Committee in January 2008, is a wildness natural triplod crucian carp mutant distributed in the area of Pingxiang in Jiangxi Province. It takes bi-sexual and gynogenetic reproduction mode which is similar to the Silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). In response to this particular genetic traits of the species, this study aimed to master its gonadal development process and understand its gonadal development rules

  20. 饲料中组合色素对红草金鱼体色的影响%Effects of combinated dietary pigments on body color of red Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程云生; 陈世金; 李静; 陈龙胜; 卢文轩; 邵祖勇; 何吉祥

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of dietary pigments on body color of red Carassius auratus, a series of feeding experi-ments were conducted from July to October 2014 (90 days). For the first 45 days, larva fish (averaged 18. 5 ± 1. 2 g) were fed with diets supplemented with red pepper meal, spirulina and corn gluten meal at different levels (5%, 8%, 11%, 13%, 16%) respectively. For each treatment group, 30 fish were fed at the same feeding level (4%), and 2 of the 30 fish were randomly sampled every 15 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. For each sampled fish, squama and tail fin were collected and mixed. Results from the total carotenoids absorbance analysis of the well mixed organs showed a proper level of red pepper meal, spirulina and corn gluten meal, which was 8%, 5%, and 16%, respectively. For the next 45 days, another series of feeding experiments were conducted with the same feeding environment. Treatments of dieta-ry pigment included 8% of red pepper meal, 5% of spirulina, 16% of corn gluten meal, and the combination of them (one third for 8% of red pepper meal, one third for 5% of spirulina, and one third for 16% of corn gluten meal). Each treatment group contained 30 fish, and the sampling method was the same as above experiments. At the end of the experi-ment, the collected organs were scanned under UV light (470 nm). Scanned maps indicated a better staining result of fish fed with combination of pigments than that of the other groups, suggesting that combinated dietary pigments, were more ef-ficiently in improving the body color of red Carassius auratus than the single dietary pigment.%为研究组合色素对红草金鱼( red Carassius auratus)的增色效果, 在基础饲料中分别添加红辣椒粉、 螺旋藻、 玉米蛋白粉3种着色剂, 制成粗蛋白质含量均为33. 6%饲料, 投喂初始均重( 18. 5 ± 1. 2 ) g的红草金鱼. 每种着色剂设5个水平(5%、 8%、 11%、 13%、 16%), 每水平30尾鱼× 3重复,

  1. Final Environmental Assessment for Temporary Use of tbe Columbus Police Department Outdoor Firing Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    pathway may be more significant for terrestrial invertebrates, aquatic benthic organisms and small mammals that may have a considerable area of...macrochirus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), longear sunfish (Lepomis mega/otis) and spotted bass (Micropterus...species of land mammals (including introduced species), 212 species of fish, 71 species of reptiles and 60 species of amphibians inhabit the state’s

  2. 微囊藻毒素在银鲫肠道中的累积及其病理学影响%Intestinal Accumulation and Pathological Effects of Microcystins in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 雷和花; 侯杰; 龙萌; 苏玉晶; 吴宁

    2014-01-01

    银鲫(Carassius auratus),杂食性鱼类,是我国淡水主养品种之一.在富营养化湖泊中,它能以有毒微囊藻为主要食物,导致微囊藻毒素(MCs)在其组织中大量累积.为研究MCs在肠道内累积和代谢特征及其对肠道的毒性影响,分别以50和200 μg MC-LReq·kg-1剂量的MCs粗提液(主要含MC-RR和MC-LR)对银鲫进行腹腔注射,并在注射后1、3、12、24、48和168 h后取样.MCs的含量用LC-MS和HPLC进行定性和定量测定,结果发现,高低两剂量组银鲫肠中MCs的含量均在注射后1h达最大值(分别为2.8和181.4 ng·g-1 DW),然后随暴露时间的延长迅速下降.相对于毒素的累积,MCs诱导的银鲫肠组织损伤具滞后性,注射后48 h内,高低两剂量组肠道的病理变化呈时间-剂量依赖性的增长,病理特征表现为肠上皮细胞排列紊乱,甚至出现坏死、溶解和脱落,杯状细胞数目显著增多,微绒毛结构破坏并伴随淋巴细胞浸润.实验结果表明,单次染毒后MCs在鲫肠道中迅速累积后降解,并造成时间-剂量依赖性组织损伤,且低剂量组的损伤是可逆的.

  3. La inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus mediante la detección de coproantígenos*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Escalante A

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la técnica de inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus "hámsters" mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Materiales y métodos: Se produjo en Oryctolagus cunniculus "conejo" IgG anti-antígenos de excreción/secreción (ES de T. solium y en Capra hircus "cabra" IgG anti-IgG de conejo. Parte de las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium fue conjugado con oro coloidal. La inmunocromatografía se llevó a cabo utilizando tiras de nitrocelulosa en las cuáles se fijó dos bandas con anticuerpos de captura; en la primera, las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium (banda de prueba, y en la segunda las IgG anti-IgG de conejo (banda control. La técnica fue evaluada con un "pool" de tres muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES de T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum y de larvas de Anisakis simplex, así como con un "pool" de tres muestras fecales de hámsters no parasitados, de parasitados por H. nana y de siete muestras fecales de hámsters parasitados por T. Solium. Resultados: La inmunocromatografía permitió detectar antígenos de T. solium en muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES específicas y en heces de hámsters parasitados por T. solium mediante la coloración de la banda de prueba, siendo negativo cuando se utilizó medios con ES de otros helmintos y sin antígenos, así como con muestras de heces de hámsters infectados por otros parásitos y de no parasitados. En todas las tiras usadas se observó coloración de la banda control. Conclusión: La técnica de inmunocromatografía es capaz de detectar antígenos de T. solium, tanto en medio de cultivo como en heces de hámsters, faltando evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad con muestras fecales humanas para el diagnóstico de la teniosis mediante la detección de coproantígenos.

  4. 饲料中添加螺旋藻对改良鲫生长和肌肉营养成分的影响%Effects of Spirulina platensis on muscle nutritive components and growth of Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢少林; 陈平原; 吕子君; 蓝宗坚; 邹记兴

    2015-01-01

    The control group used tilapia feed for based diet, the test group fed with based diet supple-mented with 1%Spirulina platensis is for 100 days, The growth of Carassius auratus and quality of flesh were determined.The results showed that ingestion of 1%S.platensis increased growth gain rates and the flesh quality.Compared with the control group, the growth gain rates of test group was increased 20.15%, and the total delicious amino acid and essential amino acid, linolenic acid and palmitic acid, amino acid score was also higher than control group.It was concluded that 1%S.platensis could increase fish growth, and be good for its flesh quality.%以改良鲫( Carassius auratus)为试验对象,以罗非鱼料为基础日粮对照,以在基础日粮中添加质量分数1%的螺旋藻为试验处理,进行了100 d的养殖试验.并就螺旋藻对改良鲫的生长性能和鲫鱼肌肉营养成分的影响进行了研究.结果表明,与对照组相比,质量分数1%的螺旋藻处理组鱼平均每天内禀增质量率提高20.15%,鲜味氨基酸和必需氨基酸质量分数、亚麻酸和棕榈酸质量分数、氨基酸各项评分均显著提高.由此认为,饲料中添加质量分数1%的螺旋藻对促进改良鲫生长和改善肌肉营养成分有一定的效果.

  5. 氟甲喹对异育银鲫细胞色素CYP450主要药酶的影响%Effects of flumequine on cytochrome P450 enzymes in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp,Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓; 房文红; 汪开毓; 孙贝贝; 胡琳琳; 周帅; 周俊芳

    2011-01-01

    在分析了氟甲喹腹腔注射后对异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)主要药酶活性影响的基础上,从蛋白表达和mRNA转录水平探究了氟甲喹对CYP1A(EROD)的诱导机制.以氟甲喹剂量35 mg/kg一次性腹腔注射异育银鲫24 h后,肝微粒体的7-乙氧基异吩唑酮-O-脱乙基酶(EROD)活性为54.33 pmol/(mg·min).显著高于对照组的34.00pmol/(mg·min)(P<0.01),而红霉索-N-脱甲基酶(ERND)[177.98 pmol/(mg·min)]、氨基比林-N-脱甲基酶(APD)[934.40 pmol/(mg·min)]及7-乙氧基香豆素-O-脱乙基酶(ECOD)[9.84 pmol/(mg·min)]与对照组[分别为140.90pmol/(mg·min)]、850.71 pmol/(mg·min)和8.93 pmol/(mg·min)]相比无显著性差异;除肾组织中ERND活性高于肝脏外,其他CYP亚型药酶活性(APD、EROD和ECOD)均以肝组织中最高.Western-blotting印迹表明,实验组肝脏中CYP1A蛋白含量明显高于对照组,与酶活(EROD)相符合;而肾、肠中没有检测到特异性条带.半定量RT-PCR结果显示,CYPiAmRNA在肝、肾和肠均有表达,但实验组与对照组并无明显差异.体外实验中,不同浓度的氟甲喹与微粒体共孵育,未见EROD活性与浓度、时间的依赖关系.综上推测,氟甲喹对鲫鱼肝CYP1A的诱导是在翻译后水平,可能是加强蛋白的稳定性.本研究旨在为氟甲喹在鱼类中的合理应用提供科学依据.%The effects of flumequine on activities of several microsomal P450 monooxygenases of allogynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) were determined and the induction of fluemquine on CYP1A was further explored at the level of protein expression and mRNA transcription. After 24 h following a single intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 35 mg/kg, the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the liver of the Crucian carp was 54.33 pmol/(mg.min), which was significantly higher than that of the control carps [34.00 pmol/(mg.min)](P<0.01). It was revealed that flumequine could significantly induce EROD

  6. Effect of Water Pollution onActivitiy of CAT and LDH of Carassius auratus in Yongcheng Coal Collapse Area%永煤塌陷区水污染对鲫鱼过氧化氢酶和乳酸脱氢酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫永峰; 郑娜; 李壹

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the influence of low concentration mixed heavy metal pollution in Yongcheng coal collapse area towards the activitiy of blood catalase (CAT) and serum lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), Carassius auratus of Yongcheng coal collapse area was selected as the research object and that from a relatively pollution-free Tianmu lake of Shangqiu was used as the control. The results showed that compared to Tianmu lake,the activity of blood CAT and LDH of Yongcheng coal collapse area decreased significantly (P<0.01). The result suggested that the normal physiological process was inhibited by low concentration mixed heavy metal pollution.%2010年5月,选择永城煤矿塌陷区天然鱼塘的野生鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)为对象,以相对无煤矿污染的商丘市天沐湖为对照,研究了永城煤矿塌陷区低浓度混合重金属污染对鲫鱼血液过氧化氢酶(CAT)和血清乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)活性的影响.结果表明,永城煤矿塌陷区鲫鱼CAT的OD值(0.600)极显著高于天沐湖鲫鱼CAT的OD值(0.411)(P<0.01),塌陷区鲤鱼血清中LDH的OD值(0.310)极显著低于天沐湖鲫鱼CAT的OD值(0.421)(P<0.01),说明煤矿塌陷区低浓度混合重金属污染对鲫鱼的正常生理过程有明显的抑制.

  7. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Martins

    Full Text Available In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35, "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31, "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20, "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6, "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2 and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1. After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

  8. Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Crucian Carp (Car-assius auratus) of Luan River%滦河流域鲫鱼体内重金属分布及风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞霖; 孙然好; 武大勇

    2015-01-01

    The crucian carp (Carassius auratus) and river sediment samples were collected from the Luan River in this study. The concentration of heavy metals in fish and sediment was measured for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and As by ICP-MS. The concentration of heavy metals decreased in the order of Zn, Cr, Cu, Pb, As, Cd. Moreover, the heavy metal concentration differed among different parts of the fish body. Specifically, the concentrations of Cu and Cr were high in liver whereas those of Zn, Pb and Cd were high in gill. As concentration depended on the sample sites. Generally, the heavy metal concentration in downstream was high than that in upstream. The results indicated that the concentration of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the muscle of crucian carp excessed lots of food safety limits, including the national limited quantity of poisonous and harmful contents of the national pollution-free aquatic products (NY 5073—2006), limited quantity of contaminants in foods (GB 2762—2012), and tolerance limit of zinc in foods (GB 13106—1991). The excess value of heavy metal concentration is Cr(3.34)>Pb(2.24)>Cd(1.15). Finally, the con-sumption risk was assessed based on US EPA’ s target hazard quotient (THQ) method. The results indicated that As had the highest health risk whereas Cr showed the least risk. All THQ values of 6 heavy metals were less than 1. However, the fish consumption in downstream might have risks with the evidence of high TTHQ values of com-bined heavy metals in Suhe River (TTHQ=1.263) and Douhe River (TTHQ=1.381). This study indicated that the high risk of As, Pb, and Zn should be paid more attention in the regular fish consumption.%采集滦河流域鲫鱼样本并分析重金属元素(Cu、Zn、Cr、Pb、As、Cd)在其体内的分布特征及食用风险。实验结果表明鲫鱼体内重金属含量由高到低顺序为Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb>As>Cd,蓄积器官主要为肝脏和鳃部,Cu和Cr主要蓄积在肝脏,Zn、Pb、Cd主要富集在鳃部,As的蓄积器官随地域

  9. 盾叶薯蓣提取物对鱼类指环虫的杀灭效果%Ethanol extract of plant Dioscorea zingiberensis against dactylogyrid Dactylogyrus intermedius found in goldfish Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王高学; 李军; 赵良炜; 周状; 申烨华; 田渭花

    2009-01-01

    The parasiticidal effect of ethanol extracts from a plant Dioscorea zingiberensis on dactylogyrid Dactylogy-rus intermedius found in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was studied to search for parasiticidal substances by standard laboratory procedures compared with the other four drugs mebendazole,abamectin,ivermectin and praziquantel. The bioassay -oriented procedure showed that the active compounds concentrated in the alcoholic extract,with LC_(50), val-ue of 53.47 mg/L(24 h) ,34.05 mg/L(48 h) , and 19. 34 mg/L(96 h). The anthelmintic efficacy of the alcoholic extract was found to be 99.55% with the concentration of 17.0 mg/L (48 h). For mebendazole,99.01% of the dactylogyrid were killed with 3.4 mg/L (48 h) drugs, and 95. 39% killed by praziquantel at a rate of 6.2 mg/L. It is suggested that the ethanol extracts of Dioscorea zingiberensis be a promising and effective Chinese herbal medi-cine to control dactylogyrids.%以寄生在金鱼Carassius auratus鳃部的中型指环虫Dactylogyrus intermedius为指示寄生虫,采用活体感染、活体杀虫的方法,研究了用不同溶剂(石油醚(沸程60~90 ℃)、氯仿、乙酸乙酯、乙醇和水)分别对盾叶薯蓣Dioscorea zingiberensis进行提取,其5种提取物的杀虫活性.结果表明,盾叶薯蓣的杀虫活性部位是乙醇提取物.将乙醇提取物与甲苯咪唑、伊维菌素、阿维菌素和吡喹酮4种原料药的杀虫效果进行比较,结果表明:盾叶薯蓣乙醇提取物的最高杀虫浓度为17.0 mg/L,平均最高杀虫率为99.37%;其次是甲苯咪唑和吡喹酮,最高杀虫浓度分别为3.4、6.2 mg/L时,平均最高杀虫率分别为99.01%和95.39%;而伊维菌素、阿维菌素对中型指环虫无明显的杀灭作用.盾叶薯蓣乙醇提取物对斑马鱼Brachydanio rerio 的24、48、96 h的半致死浓度(LC_(50))分别为53.47、34.05、19.34 mg/L.

  10. THE CONTRAST BETWEEN TWO SUSTAINED-RELEASE HORMONES CARRIERS IN GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS)%鱼类两种缓释催产激素载体临床性能的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹相菡; 温海深; 倪蒙; 步艳; 迟美丽; 钱煜; 张冬茜; 丁玉霞

    2013-01-01

    采用组织切片技术和RT-PCR技术研究了海藻酸钠微球和壳聚糖微球作为缓释激素载体在临床上对金鱼基础生物学指标以及CYP19A、GH基因mRNA表达的影响,以检测两种缓释激素载体对鱼类生殖和生长的影响.研究结果表明:缓释材料埋植0、7、14、30、48d后,雌性和雄性金鱼处理组与对照组(埋植0.7%生理盐水组)比较,海藻酸钠微球埋植组和壳聚糖微球埋植组在基础生物学方面没有出现显著性差异;不同处理组中实验鱼性腺组织切片卵巢和精巢的发育均处于同一时期(按照Мейен分期原则);海藻酸钠微球埋植组和壳聚糖微球埋植组中,各次采样组的CYP19A基因表达均没有出现明显性差异;海藻酸钠微球埋植组GH基因各次取样时间均未出现显著性差异,雌性金鱼壳聚糖微粒埋植组GH基因的表达在0、7、14、30采样后显著上升(P<0.05),埋植48d差异消失,雄性金鱼壳聚糖埋植组未出现明显差异.综合显示:作为缓释载体,海藻酸钠微球在临床上的性能较壳聚糖微球更为稳定,而壳聚糖微球对雌性金鱼的GH基因mRNA表达的促进作用更为明显.%CYP19A and GH gene expression and basic biological indicators were studied after implantation Sodium Alginate Microspheres and Chitosan Microspheres by RT-RCR technique and tissue section technique in male and female goldfish (Carassius auratus , variation). These indicators were used to detect the effects caused by these two sustained-release hormones carriers in both the reproductive and growth of goldfish. The study result show that there was no significant difference in basic biological indicators between control group and experimental group in the 0, 7, 14, 30, 48 days after implantation both Sodium Alginate Microspheres and Chitosan Microspheres separately. The goand appearance of the fish in different groups are in the same period, and the germ cells were in the same phase

  11. 不同营养状况对鲫鱼偏好游泳速度的影响%Preferred swimming behavior in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus) at different nutrition status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴青怡; 曾令清; 付世建

    2016-01-01

    为考察不同营养状况对鲤科鱼类偏好游泳速度的影响,本研究以鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)为实验对象,(25±1.0)℃条件下设置3个不同营养状况实验组:对照组(禁食48 h)、饱食组(饱食)和饥饿组(饥饿14 d),将单尾实验鱼置于梯度流速选择仪(流速范围为11.86~65.45 cm/s,等距离划分为5个流速区域,从第一到第五流速区域流速连续增加)中拍摄1 h,采用Ethovision XT9软件分析视频资料并计算实验鱼在不同流速区域平均进入频次(F,次)、单次进入停留时间(T, s/次)和平均停留时间百分比(Pt,%)等流速选择行为指标。结果显示,对照组和饱食组的F值随水流速度上升而增加,对照组的T值不同流速区域间无差异(P>0.05),而饱食组第三和第四流速区域T值均显著大于其他流速区域(P<0.05),因此两实验组第三和第四流速区域的 Pt 均显著大于其他流速区域,其偏好游泳速度为20.12~41.30 cm/s。饥饿组流速偏好行为出现表型分化, I型实验鱼在第一流速区域Pt和T值显著大于其他流速区域(P<0.05),各流速区域的F值均显著小于其他实验组(P<0.05),故I型实验鱼的偏好游泳速度为11.86~15.18 cm/s。而II型实验鱼则与对照组相似,在第三和第四流速区域Pt均显著大于其他流速区域(P<0.05),故II型实验鱼的偏好游泳速度为20.12~41.30 cm/s。结果表明,饱食不影响鲫鱼的偏好游泳速度,可能是饱食不影响鲫鱼的游泳能力所致,但饱食组在各流速区域间的出入频次减少而停留时间有所增加。饥饿后鲫鱼偏好游泳速度出现表型分化, I型实验鱼的偏好游泳速度降低,而II型实验鱼则无明显变化, I型和II型实验鱼偏好游泳速度的差异可能是由于在饥饿条件下二者能量节约和游泳功能维持的策略不同。%Fish usually alter their swimming behavior to adapt to changes in food resources in their natural habitats. In this study, we investigated

  12. Effect of Starvation and Re-feeding on Blood Physiological and Non-specific Immune Parameters of Carassius auratus gibelio%饥饿后再投喂对异育银鲫血液生理和非特异性免疫指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董学兴; 吕林兰; 黄金田; 王爱民; 於叶兵

    2011-01-01

    The effect of starvation periods and re-feeding on blood physiological and non-specific immune parameters in Carassius auratus gibelio (15.6 ±0.84) were studied. Compared to the control, the content of blood glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly decreased during starvation (P<0.01). The starvation led an initial significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity followed by increased. The phosphatase (ACP) activity was not effected in short-term starvation, however prolong the starvation, ACP activity increased, but then sharp declined (P<0.01). The content of blood glucose and MDA, the activity of SOD and ACP were significantly increased in short-term starvation group after re-feeding. The content of blood glucose and Hb, ACP activity also increased, however, SOD activity and content of MDA were significantly declined in middle-term starvation (P<0.05) after re-feeding. The content of blood glucose and MDA were remarkable declined compared to control, but ACP activity was gradually restored to the control level in long-term starvation after re-feeding. The results showed that short-term hunger and then re-feeding could enhance metabolism and non-specific immune function of Carassius auratus gibelio.%对体重(15.6±0.84)g的异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)进行了不同时间的饥饿处理和再投喂恢复生长试验.研究饥饿和再投喂后对其血液生理指标和非特异性免疫指标的影响.研究发现,饥饿使血糖和MDA含量极显著降低(P<0.01),随饥饿时间的延长,SOD活性显著下降后逐渐升高,短期饥饿对ACP活性无显著影响,进一步延长饥饿时间则先升高后显著下降(P<0.01);恢复投喂后,短期饥饿组血糖浓度、SOD和ACP活性均显著上升,中期饥饿组血糖、血红蛋白含量和ACP活性逐渐上升,SOD活性和MDA含量显著下降(P<0.05),长期饥饿组血糖和MDA含量显著低于对照组(P<0.01),ACP活性逐渐恢复到对照水平.结果表

  13. THE GROWTH-PROMOTING EFFECT AND MECHANISM ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE MICROBIAL PEPTIDE SOYBEAN ON CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS%活性菌肽豆蛋白对鲫(Carassius auratus)促生长的作用效果及机理分析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘臻; 谢帝芝; 周毅; 赵琼; 王赏初; 孙浪; 鲁双庆

    2013-01-01

    Using different feeding formulas, the effects of common soybean, fermented soybean and active microbial peptide soybean meals on growth appearance of crucian carp Carassius auratus were studied. The results indicat that the relative body weight growth rate was higher in active microbial peptide soybean group (41.87%) than control and fer-mented soybean group (19.11%higher);the serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) and growth hormone (GH) levels of active microbial peptide soybean group were the highest with following fermented soybean group and the lowest in control group. Realtime-PCR indicated that IGFs (IGF-I and IGF-II) gene expressions were the highest in active microbial peptide soybean group, lower in fermented soybean group and the lowest in control group; GHR showed no significant difference between fermented soybean group and active microbial peptide soybean group, but both two groups were higher than control group. Thus, active microbial peptide soybean may regulate GH, IGF-I, T3 and T4 in serum as well as GHR and IGFs gene expression in liver to affect growth in C. auratus.%  采用不同饲料配方投喂,研究了普通豆粕(对照组)、发酵豆粕和活性菌肽豆蛋白配合饲料对鲫(Carassius auratus)生长性状影响的研究。结果表明,活性菌肽豆蛋白组的相对体重生长率高于对照组41.87%(P<0.01)和发酵豆粕组19.11%;血清中的三碘甲状腺原氨酸(T3)、甲状腺素(T4)、胰岛素样生长因子-I(IGF-I)和生长激素(GH)含量活性菌肽豆蛋白组最高,其次是发酵豆粕组,而对照组最低;实时定量 PCR检测显示: IGFs(IGF-I和 IGF-II)基因的表达量在活性菌肽豆蛋白组中最高,其次是发酵豆粕组,对照组的表达量最低。GHR基因的表达量在活性菌肽豆蛋白组和发酵豆粕组间无显著性差异,但明显高于对照组。因此,活性菌肽豆蛋白可能通

  14. Effect of fish-scale protein hydrolysates-based films on preservation of crucian carp(Carassius auratus)%鱼鳞蛋白酶解物为基料的涂膜剂对鲫的保鲜效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯风; 罗永康; 冯启超; 姚磊

    2011-01-01

    研究了鱼鳞蛋白酶解物为基料的复合涂膜剂对鲫4 ℃贮藏过程中其鲜度指标变化和保鲜效果的影响.实验将去鳞、去内脏并洗净后的鲫分别于4℃的鱼鳞蛋白酶解物溶液和添加了迷迭香的鱼鳞蛋白酶解物溶液中浸泡1.5min,沥干后用保鲜膜包好于4℃条件下贮藏.通过测定鱼体贮藏过程中细菌总数、TBA值、TVB-N值、K值、重量损失、感官评分等鲜度指标的变化规律,评价了鱼鳞蛋白酶解物对鲫在4℃贮藏条件下保鲜作用效果.结果表明,涂有鱼鳞蛋白酶解物的鲫的细菌总数、TVB-N值、K值、TBA值、重量损失在10 d内显著(P<0.05)低于对照组,而感官品质显著(P<0.05)高于对照组,在4℃条件下能延长鲫贮藏期8d左右;涂有添加了迷迭香提取物的鱼鳞蛋白酶解物的鲫的TVB-N值、K值、重量损失在4-6d内显著(P<0.05)低于对照组,而感官品质显著(P<0.05)高于对照组,但不能有效延长鱼体的贮藏期.鱼鳞蛋白经过胃蛋白酶在一定条件下酶解后,其产物对鱼体具有较好的保鲜效果,是一种良好的鱼体生物保鲜涂膜材料,但不适宜与迷迭香提取物联合使用.%Crucian carpi Carassius auratus)is a main freshwater fish species and has been widely used as a raw material for food productions. The output of crucian carp reached 1 955 500 tons in 2009 in China,but a considerable number of them spoiled because of lacking good preservation. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient method of preservation of fish. During the last decade, there has been a developing interest in edible or biodegradable films based on biopolymers, which can be used to cover the body of fish to prolong the shelf life of fish products. Fish scale is easier to obtain compared to other materials and is always abandoned. It is economical to make a kind of fish-scale film obtained from fish scales by hydrolysis and the film itself can be antibacterial and antioxidant

  15. Clning, Identification and Characterization of Interferon System Genes in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus L.)%鱼类干扰素系统基因的克隆鉴定及其特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义兵; 桂建芳

    2004-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) system is the first line ofdefense against virus invasion in vertebrate. So far relative little was known concerning IFN system genes other than in mammals.In fish, nearly 40-year evidence available for existence of IFN system mainly lies in the observation that fish and fish cells are much earlier known to produce molecules with IFN-like activity as measured by a cell protection test, and that IFN-inducible gene, Mx homologue,has been identified in a limited number of fish species in the latest years. Previously we reported that UV-inactivated GCHV was able to induce high level of IFN-like molecule for establishment of antiviral state in cyprinid fish cell lines, such as crucian carp (Carassius auratus L. ) blastulae embryonic (CAB) cells. In the current study, in order to better understand innate immune mechanisms of fish cells responsive to virus infection, an ideal cell model system for identifying fish antiviral-relevant genes was firstly established, and on the basis of induction and characterization of CAB IFN, a subtractive cDNA library accumulating an enhanced mRNA level of fish antiviral-relevant genes was also constructed. Secondly, a subset of fish IFN system genes and some unidentified ESTs that were found no similarity by BLASTX were retrieved by screening of the library, and expression analysis demonstrated that they were IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) as well. Thirdly, according to the latest research of mammals, 19 full-length cDNAs of fish IFN system genes were cloned, including crucian carp IFN, IFN signal transduction factor STAT1, IFN regulatory factor IRF7, putative IFN antiviral effectors Mx1, Mx2, PKR, Viperin, IFI56, and some ISGs with function unknown, including IFI58, ISG15-1, ISG15-2, Gigl, Gig2 and so on. Finally, further studies on the characterization of structure, expression, induction and evolution of some important relevant genes reveal that several mechanisms in fish innate immune following virus infection, including

  16. 胡子鲇脑型芳香化酶基因全长cDNA克隆及表达%Molecular cloning and expression of Cyp19a1b cDNA in Clarias fuscus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晶; 李广丽; 朱春华; 吴天利; 邓思平

    2012-01-01

    A cDNA encoding Cypl9alb was derived from Clarius fuscus using RT-PCR and RACE. The cDNA was 2 347 bp with a 219 bp 51JTR, a 596 bp 3UTR (excluding poly (A)), and a 1 503 bp ORF, which encoded 500 amino acids and had a predicted mol wt of 56.388 kD. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the C. fuscus Cypl9alb shared 95.6% sequence identity with clarias gariepinus and >75% identity with Silurus merid-ionalis, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Danio rerio, Ictalurus punctatus, Cyprtnus carpio, Carassius auratus, Gobio-cypris rarus, and Epinephelus akaara. In contrast, there was low sequence identity (<62%) with Cypl9ala for these species. Therefore, the gene was classified into the Cypl9alb subfamily. This is consistent with the classification based on traditional morphology and biochemistry. Cypl9alb mRNA was expressed primarily in the fore-brain, hypothalamus, and pituitary, and to a lesser extent in the liver, testis and ovary. We observed differences in the level of expression in brain between males and females (P<0.05). Cypl9alb was expressed prior to sex differentiation in C. Juscus, but there was no difference in the level of expression between prior and post to sex differentiation (12-30 d after hatching). Our results suggest that Cypl9alb is not directly involved in mediating sex differentiation in C. fuscus, but may play an indirect role by acting on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.%采用RT-PCR和RACE法,克隆了胡子鲇(Clarias fuscus)脑型芳香化酶基因Cyp19a1b,应用荧光实时定量PCR检测其在前脑、下丘脑、脑垂体、肝、精巢和卵巢6种组织,以及性腺分化前后(出膜后12~30d)全鱼中的mRNA表达.结果表明,Cyp19a1b cDNA全长2 347 bp,5’端非编码区219 bp,3’端[不包括poly(A)]596 bp,开放阅读框(ORF)1 503 bp,编码500个氨基酸,推测其编码蛋白质分子量为56.388 kD.序列分析及分子系统进化树结果表明,胡子鲇Cyp19a1b氨基酸序列与非洲鲇(Clarias gariepinus)Cyp19

  17. 额尔齐斯河银鲫寄生指环虫18SrDNA序列测定及系统发育研究%18 s rDNA Sequence Determination and Phylogenetic Study of Parasitic Dactylogyrus in Carassius auratus gibelio in Ergis River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温卫栋; 汪博良; 贾舒安; 郝翠兰; 王新; 岳城

    2015-01-01

    Dactylogyrus is the dominant population of monogenean parasites in Cyprinidae fishes .Identification and research on the phylogenetic relationship of parasitic Platyhelminthes in fish have long been dependent on morpho -logical features.With the development of molecular biological techniques , molecular phylogenetics has solved the problems with which traditional morphological identification and phylogenetic relationship research have been con -fronted and the 18S rDNA gene has been widely applied to classification of animal fauna and phylogenetic analysis . Research on parasitic Dactylogyrus in fish in Ergis River has been concerned primarily with population dynamics and adding new records and only a few studies have been reported on molecular identification and phylogenetic a -nalysis.The objectives of this study were as follows:1) To determine the 18S rDNA sequence of Dactylogyrus spe-cies infecting Carassius auratus gibelio in the Ergis River and to confirm morphological identification of Dactylogyrus species.2) To carry out phylogenetic analysis of 19 Dactylogyrus species based on their 18S rDNA sequences.Par-asite samples were collected from the gills of Carassius auratus gibelio captured in Ergis River from 2009 to 2014 and identified as Dactylogyrus vastator and Dactylogyrus extensus by morphological identification .DNA extraction, amplification of the 18S rDNA genes and sequencing of PCR products were conducted .A comparison of the 18S rDNA sequence for D.vastator obtained in our study with the 18S rDNA sequence in GenBank revealed a DNA se-quence homology of 99.36%(457/460) and a base conversion rate of 0.65%(3/460).The same comparison for D.extensus revealed a DNA sequence homology of 100% (472/472).The genetic distances of 18S rDNA se-quences for the 19 Monogenean species from 3 families and 8 genera were calculated and analyzed by MEGA 4.1 software.Results indicate the following genetic distances:0.006-0.238 among the 3 families;0.097-0.182 be

  18. 饲料中补充番茄红素对鲫鱼抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of lycopene supplement on the antioxidant capacity of Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟妤; 杨鸢劼; 王建美; 单志萍

    2011-01-01

    Effects of lycopene supplements on antioxidant capacity were studied in Crucian Carp, Carassius auratus, with average length 22.4±1.13 cm and weight 180.60 ± 37.23 g. Fish were fed a commercial diet supplemented with Lycopene at levels of 0.50%,0.75%, 1.00%, and with 1.5% fish oil as the control in cages for 50 days. That is, four diets contained Lycopene at 0, 75, 112.5, and 150 mg.kg-1 for a control diet and other three diets containing Lycopene. Twenty fish was randomly taken from each. cage. As biomarkers, T-SOD, MDA, GSH-Px, NO, and OH were measured in blood serum. The experimental data were presented in mean ± standard deviation (SD). Duncan test was performed for the multiple comparisons among four diets using SPSS 11.5 version. The study shows: The levels ofT-SOD in fish blood serum were 8.49, 43.33, and 48.57 U.mL-1 higher in fish fed with three diets added lycopene than that of the control. The levels of T-SOD were significantly higher (P<0.05) in fish fed with diet added 112.5 and 150.0 mg.kg-1 lycopene than that of the control. The levels of MDA in the blood serum of fish fed with diets were 3.75, 4.55, and 2.70 nmol·mL-1 lower than that of control. But, no significant difference was found in levels of MDA in fish fed diets added 75.0, 112.5, 150.0 mg.kg-1 lycopene oil and the control. The levels of GSH-Px activity in the blood serum of fish fed with three lycopene diets were 99.32, 138.77,122.61 U higher compared to the control. The GSH-Px activity in blood serum of fish fed diets added lycopene was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the control. The levels of NO in fish fed diets adding lycopene were 12.83, 8.30, and 13.02 μmol·mL-1 higher than that of control. The levels of NO in fish fed 75 and 150 mg·kg-1 lycopene were significantly different (P<0.05) than that of control fish. The activities of .OH in fish fed lycopene were 318.50, 290.91, and 277.99 U·mL-1 lower than that of control. The activity of.OH was

  19. Presumptive and Definitive Identification of Aeromonas from infected Ornamental Gold fish (Carassius auratus auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the presumptive identification of Aeromonas, definitive identification of two species of Aeromonas i.e. Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida in various organs of Gold fish infected with red disease.

  20. Protective effects of schisandrins extracts on injuried primary cultured hepatocytes induced by t-BHP in crucian carp Carassius auratus gibel%五味子提取物对用t-BHP损伤的异育银鲫原代肝细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽萍; 贾睿; 丁炜东; 殷国俊

    2011-01-01

    The activities of inhibiting alanine minotransferase (GPT), malondisldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidas (GSH-PX) in cell culture supernatants and the survival rate of the injuried hepatocytes in vitro induced by t-BHP and then exposed to various concentrations of Schisandrins extracts (0.1,0.2 and 0.4 mg/mL) before (defense), after (treatment) and both before and after (defense-treatment)the culture were determined in the crucian carp Carassius auratus gibel to study on the protective and antioxidant effects of the Schisandrins extract. The model of acute hepatopancreatic damage was found to be established by exposure to 1 mmoL/L t-BHP for 2 h. The extracts were found to reduce the injury of hepatopancrease by increasing the activity of glutathione peroxidas (GSH-PX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), restraining the lipid peroxidation production-malondisldehyde (MDA), inhibiting alanine minotransferase (GPT), to release and to remarkably improve the survival of the hepatocytes (P<0.05, or P<0.01 ) in the supernatant of cultured hepatocytes injured by t-BHP induction. It is concluded that the Schisandrins extracts possess direct protective effect on primary hepatocyte injury induced by t-BHP, which is primarily involved in the scavenging oxygen free radicals and anti-oxidative activity of CMPS. The biochemical indicators showed that the protection of the extracts were significantly better in the defense-treatment group (DT) than that in the defense group (D) and treatment group (T) .%以叔丁基氢过氧化物(t-BHP)诱导异育银鲫Carassius auratus gibel原代培养肝细胞损伤模型,采用不同的给药顺序,通过检测肝细胞培养上清液中谷丙转氨酶(ALT/GPT)、微量丙二醛(MDA)、谷光甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的含量以及肝细胞的增殖活性,研究了五味子提取物对急性肝细胞损伤的保护作用.结果表明:以浓度为1 mmoL/L的t-BHP作用肝细胞2

  1. Identification and biological characteristics of a pathogenic Saprolegnia sp.from the egg of Pengze crucian carp(Carassius auratus pengzesis)%彭泽鲫卵源致病性水霉的鉴定及其生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏文伟; 曹海鹏; 王浩; 张世奇; 杨先乐

    2011-01-01

    Three filamentous fungal strains were isolated form Carassius auratus eggs with Saprolegniasis, and strain JL1 was proved to be pathogenic to Carassius auratus eggs by artificial infection.Therefore, morphology and growth characteristics of strain JL1 were studied, and the phylogenetic analysis based on its ITS rDNA sequence was further conducted. The experimental results showed that the hyphae of strain JL1 was aseptate, transparent and seldom branched. Its zoosporangia were often clavate and renewed internally. Primary zoospore was multi-row arrangement in zoosporangia and discharged in Saprolegnia fashion. Spherical oogonia was attached by monoclinous or diclinous antheridium hyphae. The ITS rDNA sequences of strain JL1 was naturally clustered with ITS rDNA sequences of Saprolegnia sp. submitted to GenBank with 99% of homology, and had closest relationship with Saprolegnia sp. H (accession number: EF460351). Combined morphological characterization with phylogenetic analysis based on ITS rDNA sequence, strain JL1 was identified as Saprolegnia sp.. In addition, strain JL1 could grow at 5℃-30℃ and pH 4-11, its optimum growing temperature and pH were 25 ℃-30℃ and 6-9, respectively. Strain JL1 was sensitive to sodium chloride, its growth could be completely inhibited by 2% NaCI, which could serve as a foundation for the Saprolegniasis control.%从患病的彭泽鲫卵上分离3 株丝状真菌,经人工感染试验证实其中1 株丝状真菌JL1 对彭泽鲫卵具有致病性,并进一步研究了其形态与生长特性,开展了ITS rDNA 序列分析.实验结果表明,菌株JL1 菌丝为透明管状结构,中间无横隔,分枝较少; 游动孢子囊多数呈棒状,游动孢子呈多排排列,发育成熟后从孢子囊中释放出来,并迅速游离; 藏卵器呈球形,与雄器同枝或异枝.菌株JL1 的ITS rDNA 序列与GenBank 基因库中水霉属菌株自然聚类,同源性高达99%,与Saprolegnia sp.H (登录号:EF460351)的亲缘关系

  2. Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Full-length cDNA Encoding Glucokinase from Pengze Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus var.Pengze)%彭泽鲫葡萄糖激酶基因全长cDNA克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程汉良; 姬南京; 彭永兴; 申欣; 吴陈晨; 许建和; 董志国

    2011-01-01

    A full-length cDNA coding glucokinase (GK) was cloned from Pengze crucian carp ( Carassius au-ratus var. Pengze) by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The cDNA sequence obtained is of 2 050 bp length with a 1 431 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 476 amino acids. The GK protein has a calculated molecular weight of 53. 78 ku and isolectric point of 5.14. The main domains of GK, such as ATP-binding domain, glucose-binding amino acids, hexokinases signature, N-linked glycosy-lation sites, cell attachment sequence and glycosaminoglycan attachment site for the Pengze crucian carp are basically conservative compared with other vertebrates. The amino acid sequence has a high similarity to GK of other species, and the percent identity compared with common carp, human and rat are 98.1% , 79. 8% and 79.1% , respectively. Tissue distribution of GK mRNA in brain, white muscle, spleen, mesenteric adipose tissue arid liver of Pengze crucian carp was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR method using β-actin gene as internal control. The result showed that the expression level of GK mRNA in liver was significantly higher than that in spleen, mesenteric adipose tissue and brain (P <0. 05). GK mRNA did not be detected in white muscle.%本试验采用RT-PCR和cDNA末端快速扩增(RACE)方法克隆获得了彭泽鲫(Carassius auratus var.Pengze)葡萄糖激酶(GK)基因全长cDNA序列.结果表明,该cDNA全长2 050 bp,含1个1 43l bp的开放阅读框(ORF),编码476个氨基酸,GK蛋白计算分子量为53.78 ku,等电点为5.14.彭泽鲫GK氨基酸序列的ATP结合位点、葡萄糖结合位点、己糖激酶标签序列、N-连接糖基化位点、细胞黏附序列和糖胺聚糖黏附位点等主要功能位点与其他脊椎动物相比基本保守.彭泽鲫GK氨基酸序列与建鲤、人和鼠GK氨基酸序列相似百分比分别为98.1%、79.8%和79.1%.以β-actin为内标,采用半定量RT-PCR方法对GK基因在彭泽鲫大脑、白

  3. 不同脂肪源对异育银鲫体脂沉积、内源酶活性和脂肪酸组成的影响%Effects of Lipid Sources on Body Lipid Deposition, Endogenous Enzyme Activities and Fatty Acid Composition of Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王煜恒; 王爱民; 刘文斌; 於叶兵; 封功能; 杨文平; 齐志涛

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在探讨饲料中不同脂肪源对异育银鲫体脂沉积、脂类代谢酶活性、消化酶活性和鱼体组织中脂肪酸组成的影响.选择尾均重(6.04±0.05)g的健康异育银鲫鱼种525尾,驯养1周后,随机分为5组,每组3个重复,每个重复35尾鱼.在基础饲料中分别添加4%的鱼油、豆油、猪油、花生油和混合油(鱼油:豆油:猪油=3:4:3),制成5种等氮等能试验饲料.试验期为60 d.结果表明,鱼油组肝胰脏中粗脂肪含量显著低于其他各组(P<0.05),各组间腹脂率以及肌肉中脂肪含量没有显著差异(P>0.05).鱼油组肝胰脏脂蛋白酯酶和肝酯酶活性显著高于猪油组和花生油组(P<0.05),鱼油组和豆油组肠道和肝胰脏中蛋白酶活性显著高于猪油组(P<0.05),但与花生油组和混合油组无显著差异(P>0.05).豆油组和混合油组肝胰脏脂肪酶活性显著高于猪油组(P<0.05),且混合油组肠道脂肪酶活性显著高于猪油组(P<0.05),其他各组之间没有显著差异(P>0.05).各组间肝胰脏和肠道中淀粉酶活性没有显著差异(P>0.05),但肠道淀粉酶活性普遍高于肝胰脏淀粉酶活性.鱼油组肌肉和肝胰脏中饱和脂肪酸(SFA)、二十碳五烯酸(EPA)和二十二碳六烯酸(DHA)含量显著高于其他组(P<0.05).异育银鲫肌肉和肝胰脏中亚油酸(C18:2n-6)含量均以豆油组最高,鱼油组最低,且上述2组间差异显著(P<0.05).结果显示,鱼油能提高肝胰脏中脂蛋白酯酶和肝酯酶的活性,从而降低鱼体脂肪沉积,而猪油的作用相反;饲料中脂肪酸组成影响异育银鲫鱼体组织中脂肪酸的组成.%This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary lipid sources on body lipid deposition, fatty acid composition, and activities of lipid metabolism enzymes and digestive enzymes of Carassius auratus gibelio. Five hundred and twenty-five healthy Carassius auratus gibelio with an average initial weight of

  4. Effects of Spermatozoa of Different Species on Survival and Growth of Offsprings in Fangzheng Silver Crucian Carp(Carassius auratus gibelio)%同源与异源精子对方正银鲫子代存活、生长及性别的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹顶臣; 贾智英; 鲁翠云; 徐伟; 常玉梅; 梁利群; 吴学农

    2012-01-01

    5月中下旬繁殖季节,用方正银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)的卵子分别与麦穗鱼(Pseudorasbora parva)(方正银鲫♀×麦穗鱼♂,简称FM)、方正银鲫(方正银鲫♀×方正银鲫♂,FF)和荷包红鲤(Cyprinus carpio)(方正银鲫♀×荷包红鲤♂,FH)的精子进行人工授精,孵出的仔鱼在网箱中饲养,测定和统计各组子代的存活率、绝对增重率和性比等。结果表明:FF子代的成活率(91.15±1.78%)极显著地高于FM(87.50±2.13%)和FH(85.00±1.04%)(P〈0.01),FM和FH之间差异不显著(P〉0.05);FM(20.17±4.33 g)、FH(23.13±3.58 g)子代的出池体质量显著高于FF(18.90±3.82 g)(P〈0.05),无论雌性还是雄性子代,组间差异均极显著(P〈0.01),而组内、性别间生长差异不显著(P〉0.05);FM(99%)、FF(73%)和FH(99%)子代的雌性百分比明显偏向雌性(P〈0.01),且组间差异极显著,异源精子受精后子代中雌鱼比例明显增高(P〈0.01)。本研究结果证明:银鲫生长性状中存在"异精效应",异源精子对子代的存活率和性别比例有显著影响,对生产中积极利用异源精子提供了数据支持。%The eggs of Fangzheng silver crucian carp(Carassius auratus auratus) as gynogenetic crucian carp were activated by homogenous and by heterogeneous(common carp Cyprinus carpio and topmouth gudgeon Pseudoroashora parva) sperm,forming three offsprings Fangzheng silver crucian carp ♀× Fangzheng silver crucian carp♂(FF),Fangzheng silver crucian carp ♀× common carp ♂(FH) and Fangzheng silver crucian carp♀× topmouth gudgeon♂(FM).The fry of the three offsprings were reared in net cages disposed in a pond,and the survival,growth and sexual ratio were compared.The survival of FF((91.15±1.78)%) fry was shown to be very significantly higher than that in FM(87.50±2.13%)and FH(85.00±1.04%)(P〈0.01).The juveniles in FM(20.17±4.33 g) and FH(23.13

  5. Effects of Glucose and Vitamin C Inhabitation on Activities of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase,Fatty Acid Synthase and Carnitine Palmitoyltransferases Ⅰduring Embryo Development of Carassius auratus gibelio%葡萄糖、维生素 C浸泡对普安银鲫胚胎发育中乙酰辅酶 A羧化酶、脂肪酸合成酶及肉毒碱棕榈酰转移酶Ⅰ活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋左玉; 姚俊杰; 安苗; 熊铧龙; 朱忠胜

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the changes of activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACC ) , fatty acid synthase ( FAS) , and carnitine palmitoyltransferaseⅠ ( CPTⅠ) , and the effects of glucose and vitamin C inhabitation on them during embryo development of Carassius auratus gibelio ( C. auratus) , glucose solution and vitamin C solutions with different concentrations were used for hatching. The concentrations of glucose were 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/L, respectively, and the concentrations of vitamin C were 0, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mg/L, respec-tively. Membrane break time and hatching rate were recorded to decide the optimal concentrations of glucose and vitamin C. Solutions without addition ( control group) and with optimal concentrations of glucose ( glucose group) or vitamin C ( vitamin C group) were used for hatching, and the characteristics of changes of ACC, FAS and CPTⅠactivities were analyzed during embryo development. The results showed as follows:1) mem-brane break time was the shortest, and hatching rate was the highest when the concentrations of glucose and vi-tamin C were 15 g/d and 30 mg/L, respectively. 2) The specific activity and total activity of ACC, FAS and CPTⅠ showed increasing tends during embryo development of C. auratus. 3) The specific activities and total activities of ACC and FAS in glucose group were significantly higher than those in control group at mid-gas-trul, crystal appear and prehatching stages ( P<0.05) , and the specific activity an total activity of CPTⅠ was significantly higher than that in control group at crystal appear and prehatching stages ( P<0.05) . 4) The total activities of ASS and FAS in vitamin C group were significantly higher than those in control group ( P<0.05) . In conclusion, the inhabitation in solutions with appropriate concentrations of glucose ( 15 g/L) and vitamin C ( 30 mg/L) can promote synthesis and secretion of ACC, FAS and CPTⅠ during embryo development of C. auratus, and form new metabolic levels to

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: gold crucian carp [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gold crucian carp Carassius auratus auratus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_L.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_NL.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_S.png Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NS ...

  7. 诃子抗嗜水气单胞菌活性组分分离及其对鲫鱼的毒性试验%Isolation of Active Component from Terminalia chebula Against Ameromonas hydrophila and Acute Toxicity Experiment on Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丰; 陈军; 王扬; 朱凝瑜; 孟庆辉

    2011-01-01

    The present study is intended to investigate the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and pure compound from the fruits of Terminalia chebula. The ethyl acetate extract shows a promising antibacterial activity against Ameromonas hydrophila (when the concentrations is set for 4 mg.L^-1, diameter of inhibition zone is 18 mm). Based on these findings, the ethyl acetate extract is fractionated on silica gel column chromatography in a bioassay-guided fractionation which produces an active compound (white crystal) showing potent activity. The active compound exhibit significant activity against Ameromonas hydrophila with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) in the process afore are regulated for 2.8 mg.L^-1 and 5.6 mg.L^-1, respectively. The acute toxicities (LCs0) of the active compound for Carassius auratus is found to be 220.7 mg-L^-1, the safety concentration 85.2 mg·L^-1. The structure is not fully explored at this point and the research on it will be further embarked on.%研究以抑菌圈直径大小作为评价指标,利用提取分离技术对诃子进行抗嗜水气单胞茵活性成分分离追踪,并对诃子的抗菌活性单体进行安全评价.结果显示,诃子的抗嗜水气单胞茵的活性部位为乙酸乙酯萃取部位,其浓度为4mg·L^-1时,抑茵圈直径为18mm.活性部位经多次柱层析分离,得到一白色针状晶体.抑菌试验结果显示,最小抑菌浓度(MIC)和最小杀菌浓度(MBC)分别为2.8mg-L^-1和5.6mg·L^-1.急性毒性实验结果显示,活性单体对鲫鱼的96h半致死浓度为220.7mg·L^-1,其安全浓度为85.2mg·L^-1,但其化学结构还有待于进一步研究.

  8. Effect of dietary oil sources on growth performance, body composition,the serum biochemical indices, fatty acids composition and lipid metabolism of Carassius auratus gibelio%不同脂肪源对异育银鲫生长性能、机体成分、血清生化指标、体组织脂肪酸组成及脂质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛; 刘波; 戈贤平; 刘文斌; 谢骏; 高启平; 顾夕章

    2012-01-01

    试验以异育银鲫为研究对象,分别以日粮中添加5.4%鱼油、5.4%豆油、5.4%菜籽油、5.4%亚麻油为脂肪源,选择健康、规格、体质量基本一致的异育银鲫336尾,随机分为4组,每组3个重复、在可控温循环流水圆形蓄养槽内进行为期64 d的投喂试验,探讨不同脂肪源对异育银鲫生长、体成分及血清生化指标的影响.试验结果表明:豆油组及菜籽油组增重率、特定生长率显著高于鱼油组,豆油组肥满度显著低于鱼油组及亚麻油组,各试验组末均体质量、饲料系数、肝体比及脏体比均没有显著差异(P>0.05);各组间肌肉水分、粗脂肪、粗蛋白及粗灰分均无显著差异(P>0.05);不同饲料脂肪源对鱼体肌肉脂肪酸组成有显著影响,并且鱼体脂肪酸的组成与饲料脂肪酸的组成有很大相关性,其中鱼油组与菜籽油组有极显著相关性(P<0.01),豆油组显著相关(P<0.05);鱼油组的血清谷丙转氨酶、谷草转氨酶及碱性磷酸酶活性显著高于其它组(P<0.05);各试验组间胰岛素、皮质醇、总蛋白、白蛋白、球蛋白、白球比、血糖、胆固醇及甘油三酯均无显著差异(P>0.05);各组肉碱软脂酰基转移酶-Ⅰ (CPT-Ⅰ)、肉碱软脂酰基转移酶-Ⅱ(CPT-Ⅱ)、脂肪酶、乙酰辅酶A羧化酶(ACC)及脂蛋白脂酶(LPL)均无显著差异(P>0.05).因此,日粮中添加一定量的豆油、菜籽油或亚麻油同样能取得良好的生长效果,为以后生产中以菜籽油或亚麻油替代豆油或鱼油提供了理论依据,节约了生产成本.%This study focused on evaluating the effects of different dietary lipid sources on growth, body composition, serum biochemical indices, and activities of lipometabolism enzymes of Carassius auratus gibelio. The growth experiment was conducted to test four dietary lipids (soybean oil, rapeseed oil, linseed oil, and fish oil) on C. auratus gibelio. The fish with initial body weight

  9. Fur-regulated iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri and its influence on pathogenesis and immunogenicity in the catfish host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Javier; Golden, Greg; Wanda, Soo-Young; Curtiss, Roy

    2012-08-01

    The ability of bacterial pathogens to take up iron from the host during infection is necessary for their multiplication within the host. However, host high-affinity iron binding proteins limit levels of free iron in fluids and tissues. To overcome this deficiency of iron during infection, bacterial pathogens have developed iron uptake systems that are upregulated in the absence of iron, typically tightly controlled by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. The iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri, a host-restricted pathogen of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the main pathogen of this fish in aquaculture, is unknown. Here we describe the E. ictaluri Fur protein, the iron uptake machinery controlled by Fur, and the effects of fur gene deletion on virulence and immunogenicity in the fish host. Analysis of the E. ictaluri Fur protein shows that it lacks the N-terminal region found in the majority of pathogen-encoded Fur proteins. However, it is fully functional in regulated genes encoding iron uptake proteins. E. ictaluri grown under iron-limited conditions upregulates an outer membrane protein (HemR) that shows heme-hemoglobin transport activity and is tightly regulated by Fur. In vivo studies showed that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant is attenuated and immune protective in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), triggering systemic immunity. We conclude that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant could be an effective component of an immersion-oral vaccine for the catfish industry.

  10. EFFECTS OF pH STRESS ON CORTISOL AND NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNITY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO%水体pH胁迫对异育银鲫皮质醇激素和非特异性免疫的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文祥; 谢骏; 宋锐; 邹红; 吴山功; 王桂堂

    2011-01-01

    Effects of pH stress on cortisol and non-specific immunity of Carassius auratus gibelio were investigated.Acidity and Alkalinity of the aquaculture water were maintained at pH 6.0, 7.4, 8.5 and 9.5, where pH 7.4 was used as control. pH value of the aquaculture water was adjusted by HCl (1 N) or NaOH (1 N). Fish blood was sampled at 0, 14 and 30 days during the experiment. Leucocytes isolated by 55% percoli were used for determination of phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity by flow cytometry, and the plasma was used to survey the cortisol concentration and lysozyme activity. Fish weight was measured when pH stress protocol finished. The fish was then challenged by the bacteria Flavobacterium columnare, and dead fish was recorded after 7 days of the challenge. Under the stress of pH 6.0, phagocytosis of leucocytes decreased significantly at the 14 and 30 day, but no significant differences were found in respiratory burst activity and cortisol level. There were significant differences in lysozyme activity and growth between pH 6.0 and control group. No fish died from the bacteria challenge. Under pH 8.5 and 9.5 stress, the cortisol concentration increased significantly, and phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity decreased significantly at the 14 and 30 day. The challenge of bacteria resulted in fish death. The results suggested that non-specific immunity and growth of the carp was heavily affected by the pH 8.5 and 9.5 stress, and phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of fish leucocytes determined by flow cytometry could assess the influence of stress on fish health.%实验比较了不同pH胁迫对异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)皮质醇激素和非特异性免疫的影响.3个实验组水质的pH分别为6.0、8.5、9.5,对照组是pH为7.4的曝气自来水.分别在实验的第0、14和30天采血,血浆用于测定皮质醇含量和溶菌酶活性;分离的白细胞,采用流式细胞术测定吞噬活性

  11. Analysis of different gene expression profiles of sex differentiation-related genes between male and female pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus var. pengze) under different culture modes%不同养殖模式下雌核发育彭泽鲫雌雄鱼性别分化相关基因的表达差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑尧; 陈家长; 邴旭文; 王在照

    2015-01-01

    将同一批经雌核发育产生的F1彭泽鲫(Carassius auratus var. pengze)仔鱼(Pcc)分别置于实验室和池塘进行养殖,结果发现,与池塘养殖雄鱼比例极少相比,实验室养殖中出现了高比例的雄鱼。实验室养殖 PccF1雄雌比例为(43.6±3.0)%,而池塘养殖PccF1雌雄比为(4.7±1.2)%。本研究比较了不同养殖模式下雌雄鱼性腺分化相关基因的表达,结果发现除Pcc-vasa、Pcc-esr1和Pcc-esr2b外,实验室养殖PccF1精巢中性腺分化、受体、类固醇合成酶类基因表达极显著(P<0.01)或显著(P<0.05)高于卵巢中对应基因的表达量。对于池塘养殖的 PccF1,除 Pcc-amh、Pcc-dmrt1b、Pcc-dmrt1c、Pcc-foxl2、Pcc-vasa 和 Pcc-esr2b 外,精巢中性腺分化和受体基因表达极显著(P<0.01)或显著(P<0.05)高于卵巢中对应基因的表达量;但精巢中绝大部分类固醇合成酶类基因的表达量极显著低于卵巢(P<0.01)。实验室和池塘养殖 PccF1雌雄出现差异表达的基因主要是类固醇合成酶类及调控芳香化酶的转录因子,这些基因的差异表达可能与雌雄激素的合成或调控相关,从而导致不同养殖模式出现不同比例的雄鱼。%Pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus var. pengze, Pcc) is naturally gynogenic, and gynogenic Pcc pro-duced by artificial breeding can theoretically produce solely female offspring. In laboratory culture, a higher proportion of male fish occurred in F1 progenies compared with pond culture conditions. A higher proportion of males was found in the F1 progeny under laboratory culture (43.6%) compared with pond (4.7%) conditions. To determine the cause of this variant sex ratio, ovarian gene expression profiles were detected and compared between the male and female F1 progenies for different culture conditions. Results showed that expressions of most testicular sex differentiation-related, steroid receptor, and steroidogenic genes in PccF1 offspring were significantly higher than those

  12. 异育银鲫各组织器官中细胞色素P450药酶活性的比较%Comparative Activity of microsomal cytochrome P450 in various tissues and organs in allogynogenesis silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娴; 胡琳琳; 房文红; 汪开毓; 胡晓

    2011-01-01

    The activities and tissue distribution of cytochrome P450 drug - metabolizing enzyme were studied in liver, kidney, gill and muscle of allogynogenesis silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. Microsomal P450 and b5 contents were determined by the method of CO differential spectroscopy in liver,kidney,gill,intestine and muscle microsomes. Both cytochrome P450 and cytocorome b5 contents were found to be the maximum in liver microsome, and the minimum in muscle microsome. The activities of CYP2B, CYP3A and CYP2E were evaluated by microsomal N - demethylation of aminopyrine ( APD), erythromycin (ERND) and 4 - aniline - hydroxylation (AH) as probe specific reactions. The activities of APD ( 1. 668 ± 0. 104) and ERND (0.941 ± 0. 061 ) nmol/( min · mg)were the maximum in liver microsome, and the minimum in muscle microsome [ (0.245 ± 0.011 ), and (0. 078 ± 0.019) nmol/( min · mg)]. The maximal AH activity (0. 052 ± 0. 009)nmol/( min · mg) was observed in liver microsome, but not be detected in muscle microsome, indicating that the above -mentioned cytochrome P450 isoenzymes were available in main tissue microsoms in the crucian carp, and the APD, ERND and AH activities were different in different tissues, the maximal activities being observed in liver microsome.%对异育银鲫Carassius auratus gibelio肝胰脏、肾、鳃、肠和肌肉等组织器官中细胞色素P450(CYP450)主要药酶活性进行检测,研究其在异育银鲫各组织中的分布.结果显示:以CO还原差示光谱法测得异育银鲫肝胰脏、肾、鳃、肠、肌肉微拉体的细胞色素P450及b5含量均以肝胰脏微粒体中最高,其次为肾、鳃、肠微粒体,肌肉中最低.以氨基比林N-脱甲基、红霉素N-脱甲基、苯胺-4-羟化反应分别作为CYP2B、CYP3A和CYP2E的探针反应,测得氨基比林N-脱甲基酶(APD)及红霉素N-脱甲基酶(ERND)活性在上述组织中分布差异性类似,均表现为肝胰脏微粒体中最高,分别为(1.668±0

  13. Screening and homology analysis of EST-SSRs makers related to body weight and body width in Carassius auratus%鲫体重和体厚相关的EST-SSRs标记筛选及同源基因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭薇; 郑先虎; 匡友谊; 崔晓亮; 曹顶臣; 孙效文

    2013-01-01

    300 EST-SSRs markers were selected to analyze the genomic DNA of 181 progenies from a normal Carassius auratus F2 family, and two growth traits ( body weight and body width) were conducted single marker regression analysis. 38 EST-SSRs markers were found to be closely related to growth traits, 26 of them were significantly associated with growth traits (P<0. 05) , the other 12 markers had a highly significant correlation with growth traits (P<0. 01) ; In these 38 markers, 27 markers were related with body weight, 25 markers were related with body width, and 14 markers were related with both body weight and width. Meanwhile, the genotypes of these correlative loci were determined. Furthermore, by using BLAST online in NCBI, the homology identity of these 38 EST-SSRs markers was determined. Results showed that, 10 markers had significant similarity with the sequences in GenBank ( E < e-20). JE594 was highly homologous (95%) to the gene encoding membrane-associated ring finger protein of Danio rerio; JE3165 was highly homologous (78% ) to the gene encoding muscleblind-like protein of D. rerio; JE6996 was highly correlated (98% ) with the gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase of D. rerio; JE4984 was highly correlated (84% ) with the gene encoding protein phosphatase 1 of D. rerio. These loci may be used for marker-assisted selection and genetic improvement.%利用300个EST-SSRs标记对普通二倍体鲫(Carassius auratus)自交F2代的181个个体进行基因型检测,并对其体重、体厚两种经济性状进行单标记回归分析.Permutation检验(10 000次)结果显示,38个标记与所检测的经济性状相关,其中26个标记达到显著性相关(P<0.05),12个标记达到极显著性相关(P<0.01).在38个相关标记中,有27个标记与体重相关,25个标记与体厚相关,14个标记与体重、体厚均相关.对同一标记的不同基因型之间进行多重比较,找到了与两种经济性状相关的

  14. Medication regimen for prevention of drug resistance using enroflox-acin against Aeromonas hydrophilain crucian carp Carassius auratus%恩诺沙星控制嗜水气单胞菌性鲫败血症的防耐药用药方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽娟; 权可艳; 王浩; 胡鲲; 杨先乐; 吕利群

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to increasing problems caused by bacterial re-sistance. Given this, there is an urgent need to develop a medication regimen that prevents the formation of drug resistant bacteria. We estimated a number of pharmacodynamic (including mutant prevent concentration and mu-tant selection window) and pharmacokinetic parameters for the antibiotic drug enrofloxacin. Our objective was to develop a medication regimen against hemorrhagic septicemia in crucian carp(Carassius auratus), a disease caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.125 μg/mL, the post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of enrofloxacin on the pathogenic bacterial strains was observed up to (1.67±0.42) h, (2.03±0.17) h, and (2.38±0.06) h at 2MIC, 4MIC, and 8MIC, respectively, the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) was 1.125 μg/mL, and the mutant selection window was between 0.125 and 1.125 μg/mL. We developed integrated enrofloxacin concentration-time curves for the serum of crucian carp following administration of a range of doses. Enrofloxacin persisted in the serum at concentrations above the MPC for 5 h at a dose of 5 mg/kg;9.5 h at a dose of 10 mg/kg, and 23 h at a dose of 20 mg/kg. The serum PK/PD parameters AUC24/MIC and Cmax/MIC were 137.22 and 15.05, respectively, at a dose of 5 mg/kg, 285.25 and 41.43, respectively, at a dose of 10 mg/kg, and 426.25 and 52.32, respectively, at a dose of 20 mg/kg.The drug remained in the plasma with a concentration>MPC for (24-PAE) h and AUC24/MIC≥100 or Cmax/MIC>8. Our results suggest that hemorrhagic septicemia can be controlled using a dosing regimen of 20 mg/kg enrofloxacin, at intervals of 24 h.The proposed withdrawal time in crucian carp should not be less than 25 d. The methods described in this study also can be used for developing dose guidelines for other anti-bacterial drugs to prevent selection for drug-resistance.%  为了合理地使用抗生素,制定

  15. Generation of transgenic Beauveria bassiana strain with Vip3Aa gene and its enhanced virulence on Dendrolimus punctatus%转Vip3Aa基因的球孢白僵菌工程菌的构建及其对马尾松毛虫毒力的增效作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任小芳; 刘振邦; 朱虹; 黄勃; 李增智

    2011-01-01

    Based on the sequence of Vip3Aa gene for a kind of vegetative insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis, primers were designed with appropriate restriction sites, to amplify the full-length of Vip3Aa gene.The PCR products digested by Xho I and EcoR I were ligated with the vector pbarGPEl digested by the same restriction enzyme to construct a recombinant plasmid pbarGPEl-vip3Aa. The plasmid expression vector linearized by Sea I was transformed into Bbl3 strain of Beauveria bassiana, one of the most important entomopathogenic fungus, by blastospore-based transformation system. Reverse Transcription-PCR detection of Vip3Aa transcription in Bbl3V suggested that Vip3Aa gene was consistently expressed in the transformant Bbl3V. To compare the virulence of Bbl3 and Bbl3V on the third instar larvae of the Masson's pine caterpillar, Dendrolimus punctatus, a bioassay was conducted by treatments of spray, ingestion of conidial suspension and both for Bbl3V and spray for Bbl3. Conidial suspension concentrations were treated at 1×105,l × 106,l ×107,l ×108 and 2×108 conidia·mL-1,with 0.05% Tween 80 as control. The results showed that as compared to the wild-type strain Bb13, the corrected cumulative mortality caused by Bbl3V treated with the 3 methods increased by over 30% for the suspensions of 1 ×105, 1×106, 1×107, and 1×108 conidia·mL-1 and virulence by spray was increased by 33.6~62.1 folds; mortality caused by ingestion was higher than by spray for all concentrations. Under the concentration of 1×108, mortality by spray was significantly higher than by spray and LT50 shortened by 6.89 days. Consequently, Vip3Aa gene was expressed in the transgenic strain so as to present B. Bassiana with stomach toxicity, which infect hosts mainly through cuticle, and its virulence on the pine caterpillars was raised substantially as a result.%根据苏云金杆菌营养期杀虫蛋白基因Vip3Aa序列设计全基因扩增引物,并在引物两端添加合适的酶切位

  16. 4种添加剂对异育银鲫生长、消化酶活性及抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of four additives on the growth, digestive enzyme activity, antioxidant ability of allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何吉祥; 李海洋; 胡王; 潘庭双; 蒋业林; 吴明林

    2012-01-01

    Three hundred allogynogenetic crucian carp with initial weight 31g were divided into five groups and each group with triplicates randomly. The control group was fed with basal diet, the treated-groups were fed with basal diet supplemented with 1% Chinese herbal medicines (group I), the compound of 1% Chinese herbal medicines plus 0.1% synbiotics (group II), 0.1% synbiotics (group III) , 2% small peptide (group IV), respec tively. After 60 d feeding, the growth, digestive enzymes activities, and antioxidant ability of the carp were inves tigated, and the results showed as follows. (1) GroupIII and group IV significantly increased WGR(weight gain rate) but decreased FCR(feed conversion rate) (P0.05). (2) Group III and group Ivsignificantly increased the intestinal protease and amylase activities (P0.05); only group II significantly increased the protease activities (P0.05), except the group II significantly increased the activities of SOD(P0.05). In this study, group III increased the growth and antioxidant ability of the carps all together; group I and group II were benificial to the increase of antioxidant ability, and the group IV was priority to the growth of the carp.%以基础饲料为对照,分别在基础饲料中添加1%绿康源(试验Ⅰ组)、1%绿康源+0.1%合生素(试验Ⅱ组)、0.1%合生素(试验Ⅲ组)、2%小肽(试验Ⅳ组),连续投喂300尾初始体重31g的异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio) 60 d后,测定试验鱼生长,肠消化酶活性及血清、肝胰脏超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性.结果表明:(1)试验Ⅲ、Ⅳ组增重率(WGR)显著高于对照组(P<0.05),饲料系数(FCR)显著低于对照组(P<0.05);试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ组与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05).(2)试验Ⅲ、Ⅳ组的肠蛋白酶、淀粉酶活性显著高于对照组(P<0.05),脂肪酶活性与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05);试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ组中仅后者肠蛋白酶活性显著高于对照组(P<0.05).(3)除试验

  17. Protein to energy ratios in goldfish (Carassius auratus diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristielle Nunes Souto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimal dietary digestible protein to energy ratio is critical for the success of fish farming. Considering that it provides the proper development of the animals, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different dietary digestible protein to energy ratio in diets for goldfish fingerlings. Diets were formulated to contain 28.0, 35.0, 42.0 and 49.0% DP and 3,600 and 3,200 kcal/kg. The growth parameters evaluated were daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, protein productive value (PPV and energy retention ratio (ERR and specific growth rate (SGR. Regardless FI, all the parameters were affected by protein and energy levels and interaction between both factors was observed. The second-order polynomial equation best fitted to the DWG, SGR, FCR, PER and ERR with estimated requirement values of 38.81, 38.85, 41.05, 41.80 and 39.39% DP, respectively, at the 3,200 kcal/kg. A second-order polynomial model was significant only for the ERR data at the 3,600 kcal/kg with an estimated requirement value of 36.45% DP. Generally, fish fed diets containing 3,200 kcal/kg had better growth performance than fish fed 3,600 kcal/kg (P<0.01, indicating a higher feed efficiency. A 3,200 kcal/kg diet seems to be the proper DE level for meeting goldfish requirement for highest weight gain. Based on this experimental condition, we recommend the use of DP levels between 38.0-40.0% in diets for goldfish with 3,200 kcal/kg or a dietary protein to energy ratio between 119-125 mg/kcal DE.

  18. Enhanced longevity in tau mutant Syrian hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Daan, Serge

    2002-01-01

    The single-gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster shortens the circadian period by about 20% in the homozygous mutant and simultaneously increases the mass-specific metabolic rate by about 20%. Both effects might be expected to lead to a change in longevity. To test such expectations, the life span

  19. In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of sily-marin against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in crucian carp Carassius auratus%水飞蓟素对四氯化碳致鲫肝(细胞)损伤的保护和抗氧化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾睿; 曹丽萍; 杜金梁; 徐跑; 殷国俊

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of silymarin (SM) against carbon tetrachlo-ride (CCl4)-induced hepatocyte and liver injury in crucian carp (carassius auratus) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, 100, 300, and 600 μg/mL silymarin were added to carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment), or both before and after(pre- and post-treatment) incubation of the hepatocytes with 8 mmol/L CCl4 in culture medium. We then measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. In vivo, crucian carp were fed a diet containing one of three concentrations of silymarin [0.1, 0.5, or 1 g/kg (diet)] for 60 d. Each fish was then given a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (30%in arachis oil), and 72 h after the injection, we collected blood and liver samples from each fish. We measured the serum biochemical indices and liver tissue indices described above. Silymarin improved cell viability and decreased GPT, GOT, LDH, MDA, and SOD activ-ity. Administration of silymarin at 0.5 and 1 g/kg diet for 60 d prior to CCl4 intoxication significantly decreased GPT, GOT, and LDH activity, increased levels of total protein and albumin in the serum, and increased SOD, glu-tathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, and MDA formation in liver tissue. However, these parameters, except for LDH, were not significantly altered in fish fed 0.1 g silymarin per kg diet. Our data suggest that silymarin exhibits a protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in fish, which is likely re-lated to its antioxidant activity. We suggest that silymarin may be used as a hepatoprotective agent against fish liver diseases.%  为了评价水飞蓟素(Silymarin, SM)对鲫(Cyprinus carpio)肝(细胞)的保护和抗氧化作用,分别从体外和体内两个方面探讨其作用效果。在体外,利用8

  20. Determination of the Cd in the Tissues of Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) in the Coal Gangue Polluted Water and Natural Water%煤矸石污染水域和天然水域Cd元素在鲫鱼组织中的沉积规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫永峰; 张辽; 闫明

    2015-01-01

    Coal gangue is the solid waste emissions in the process of coal mining and coal washing, which contains a lot of heavy metal: Cadmium (Cd), pose a serious threat to food security and human health. Study on the rule of the deposition of Cd in the tissues of fish from gangue pollution water of Yongcheng, Shangqiu. which can lay foundation for further study on harm to fish from Cd pollution and on food safety assessment of fish from the coal gangue polluted water. Methods:Cd was determined by using the flame atomic absorption method. Results: (1) The concentration of Cd in the gills, heart, muscle of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) from the coal mining subsidence area, were 1.0630±0.2784μg·g-1, 8.6389±3.2301μg·g-1, 1.1461±0.2046μg·g-1, which were higher than the tissues of crucian carp in natural pollution-free waters. The concentration of Cd in the gills, muscle were significantly higher than the control group (Pheart>muscle>gills. However, there was no significant difference between each tissues. In polluted water, the sedimentary rule of Cd in the crucian carp was: heart>muscle>liver>gills. Heart was much higher than in the other tissues. (3) An adult can be safe to eat the fish meat weekly from the two waters were respectively 823 g, 365 g; if more than these content, there would be a potential health threat. Conclusion: The concentration of Cd in gills, muscle of crucian carp in polluted waters was much higher than not polluted waters, Cd are more likely to deposited in the heart of crucian carp. If the consumption of fish meat from coal gangue pollution water is more than 365 g weekly, there will be a health threat.%煤矸石是采煤和洗煤过程中排放的固体废物,其中含有大量的重金属元素 Cd,煤矸石的无序排放不仅对环境造成了污染,而且也对人体健康和食品安全构成了严重的威胁。研究商丘永城采煤塌陷区煤矸石污染水域Cd在鱼体中的沉积规律,可为进

  1. 鲫血髓过氧化物酶的表达及其与血药浓度的关联性%Correlation of the relative expression of myeloperoxidase and prazi-quantel concentration in blood of the crucian carp,Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘腾飞; 马荣荣; 肖艳翼; 朱凤娇; 杨先乐; 胡鲲

    2016-01-01

    为了研究在吡喹酮代谢过程中,鲫血髓过氧化物酶(myeloperoxidase, MPO) mRNA表达与血药浓度的相关性,以体重为(80±10.5) g的鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)为试验动物,单剂量(10 mg/kg)口灌吡喹酮(praziquantel, PZQ)后,在鲫血液中选取β-actin为内参基因,通过设计特异性引物,利用荧光定量PCR,分析了不同时间点鲫血MPO mRNA水平的相对表达量的变化;利用高效液相色谱法(high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC)测定了吡喹酮在鲫鱼体内的血药浓度,分析两者之间的相关性。结果显示,吡喹酮能够迅速进入血液,并被快速消除,药时数据符合二室开放模型。在1 h时,血液中吡喹酮的浓度达到最大值,为2.85mg/mL,96 h后血液中检测不到吡喹酮;灌药后,MPO基因表达量随时间呈先升后降趋势,在1 h时髓过氧化物酶表达量最高。此外,0.25 h、0.5 h、1 h、3 h与6 h组与对照组差异性极显著(P0.05)。相关性分析发现, MPO mRNA相对表达量与血液中吡喹酮的浓度之间相关系数r=0.96,为高度相关,并且推测MPO可能参与吡喹酮的氧化代谢。结论认为:(1) MPO mRNA相对表达量的升高与外源性药物吡喹酮的摄入有关。(2)血液中吡喹酮的残留量与MPO mRNA相对表达量线性相关。本研究旨在提供一种从分子水平评价水产动物体内药物残留的新思路。%The leukocyte enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) is widely present in animals, and is involved in various physiological responses in vivo. When the body is stimulated and the stress reaction is produced, MPO content increases rapidly, showing strong oxidation activity and destruction of invading microorganisms, and enhancing immunity. The strong oxidizing property of MPO has an immense influence on the oxidative metabolism of drugs. Praziquantel (PZQ) is a quinoline pyrazine derivative, and widely used in aquaculture as an anti-parasite drug. In this experiment, PZQ was used as a model drug

  2. 不同脂肪源对异育银鲫的生长、体组成和肌肉脂肪酸的影响%DIETARY LIPID SOURCES FOR GIBEL CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO:GROWTH PERFORMANCE, TISSUE COMPOSITION AND MUSCLE FATTY ACID PROFILES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家林; 韩冬; 朱晓鸣; 杨云霞; 解绶启

    2011-01-01

    A 12-week growth trial was conducted with juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) to evaluate their ability by utilize different dietary lipids. Ten diets were supplemented with 8% of either fish oil (FO), coconut oil (CNO), corn oil (CO), linseed oil (LO), soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), 1 : 1 fish oil-coconut oil (FCNO), 1 : 1 fish oil-corn oil (FCO), 1 '. 1 fish oil-linseed oil (FLO) or 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 fish-coconut-corn-linseed oil mixture (MIX). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (initial weight: 3.53 g, 30 ini.) in a recirculation system at (24±1)℃ .Weight gain were the highest in SO and CNO group, followed RO and the lowest in FO, CO and LO group, when used as a single lipid source. Compared to total replacement of fish oil, coconut oil, corn oil or linseed oil substitute 50% fish oil led to a higher weight gain, respectively. Neither the plasma biochemistry nor the lipid and moisture contents in different tissues of gibel carp showed significant difference between groups (P>0.05). Fatty acid composition of muscle in fish generally reflected the composition of the diet. Fish fed CO and SO had higher 20:4n-6, while relative higher 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was detected in fish fed LO. These results suggested that gibel carp had ability to desaturate and elongate 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 to highly unsaturated fatty acid. In conclusion, soybean oil, coconut oil and rapeseed oil were good alternative lipid sources for gibel carp.%配制了十种等氮等能的饲料饲喂3.53 g 的异育银鲫幼鱼12 周,探讨异育银鲫对不同脂肪源的利用效果.十种饲料中分别添加8%的鱼油(FO)、椰子油(CNO)、玉米油(CO)、亚麻油(LO)、大豆油(SO)、菜籽油(RO)、1∶1 鱼油-椰子油(FCNO)、1∶1 鱼油-玉米油(FCO)、1∶1 鱼油-亚麻油(FLO)和1∶1∶1∶1 鱼油-椰子油-玉米油-亚麻油混合油(MIX).每组饲料三个平行,每个平行30 尾.实验在循环水养殖系统中进行,水温控制在(24±1)℃.结果

  3. Extraordinarily long sperm in the socially monogamous cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thünken, Timo; Bakker, Theo C. M.; Kullmann, Harald

    2007-06-01

    The main function of the spermatozoon is the transfer of the male haploid genome during fertilisation. In animals in general and in fishes in particular, there is huge variation in sperm size. In fishes, sperm size ranges from 13 μm in Mugil cephlus to nearly 100 μm in the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. We examined intra-specific variation in sperm morphometry in the socially monogamous cichlid Pelvicachromis taeniatus using scanning electron microscopy. The mean total sperm length of nearly 70 μm was extraordinarily large for cichlids. Furthermore, within-male variation was remarkably high. To our knowledge, P. taeniatus produces the longest cichlid sperm ever documented. Several hypotheses concerning the adaptive significance of these results are presented.

  4. Population characteristics of channel catfish near the northern edge of their distribution: implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Lynn, K. P.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), populations in six lakes in northern Idaho, USA, were sampled to describe their population characteristics. During the summers of 2011 and 2012, 4864 channel catfish were sampled. Channel catfish populations had low to moderate catch rates, and length structure was dominated by fish catfish were in good body condition. All populations were maintained by stocking age-1 or age-2 fish. Growth of fish reared in thermally enriched environments prior to stocking was fast compared to other North American channel catfish populations. After stocking, growth of channel catfish declined rapidly. Once stocked, cold water temperatures, prey resources and (or) genetic capabilities limited growth. Total annual mortality of age 2 and older channel catfish was generally catfish population dynamics and highlights important considerations associated with their ecology and management.

  5. Behaviors of southwestern native fishes in response to introduced catfish predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Figiel, Chester R.

    2013-01-01

    Native fishes reared in hatcheries typically suffer high predation mortality when stocked into natural environments. We evaluated the behavior of juvenile bonytail Gila elegans, roundtail chub Gila robusta, razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus, and Sonora sucker Catostomus insignis in response to introduced channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris. Our laboratory tests indicate these species did not inherently recognize catfish as a threat, but they can quickly (within 12 h) change their behavior in response to a novel predator paired with the sight and scent of a dead conspecific. Chubs appear to avoid predation by swimming away from the threat, whereas suckers reduced movement. Effects of antipredator conditioning on survival of fish reared in hatcheries is unknown; however, our results suggest some native fish can be conditioned to recognize introduced predators, which could increase poststocking survival.

  6. Verification of otolith identity used by fisheries scientists for aging channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Stewart, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Previously published studies of the age estimation of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus based on otoliths have reported using the sagittae, whereas it is likely they were actually using the lapilli. This confusion may have resulted because in catfishes (ostariophyseans) the lapilli are the largest of the three otoliths, whereas in nonostariophysean fish the sagittae are the largest. Based on (1) scanning electron microscope microphotographs of channel catfish otoliths, (2) X-ray computed tomography scans of a channel catfish head, (3) descriptions of techniques used to removed otoliths from channel catfish reported in the literature, and (4) a sample of channel catfish otoliths received from fisheries biologists from around the country, it is clear that lapilli are most often used for channel catfish aging studies, not sagittae, as has been previously reported. Fisheries scientists who obtain otoliths from channel catfish can use the information in this paper to correctly identify otolith age.

  7. Effects of dietary addition of vitamins C and D3 on growth and calcium and phosphorus content of pond-cultured channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launer, C.A.; Tiemeier, O.W.; Deyoe, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed one of three diets: one deficient in vitamin C (ascorbic acid), one deficient in vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), or one containing both vitamins. Semimonthly from May to September and monthly from September to February, calcium and phosphorus were determined in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons by neutron activation analysis. Body weight gains, survival rate, and feed conversion rates were determined for the May to September period. Fish on the three diet regimens showed no significant difference in weight gain, feed conversion, or survival. Interactions between sampling date and diet indicated no correlation between vitamin C or D3 and the calcium and phosphorus in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons of the fish.

  8. Power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture. Semi-annual report, No. 2, 1 November 1977--1 June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, C.R.; Godfriaux, B.L.

    1978-06-01

    The principal objective is to evaluate, at proof-of-concept scale, the potential of intensive aquaculture operations using power plant thermal discharges to enhance productivity. The field experiments involve the rearing of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) for successive periods (semi-annual) in accordance with the temperature of the thermal effluents. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and the freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are also being tested in smaller, laboratory size culture systems. The above mentioned species were selected because of their economic importance. They will be evaluated for food quality and marketability with the cooperation of potential commercial users. Aquaculture facilities were constructed at a steam electric generating plant for studies determining use for waste heat released into condenser cooling water. Growth rates, food conversion ratios, disease problems and mortality rates are being studied in the project. (Color illustrations reproduced in black and white) (Portions of this document are not fully legible)

  9. Aquaculture report 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.K.; Watson, L.; Kent, J.C.; Johnson, D.W.

    1977-04-08

    Growth of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and Tilapia zillii in the Reft River Geothermal Area (RRGT) geothermal waters can equal or surpass that in a commercial aquaculture facility. Fish and prawn mortality over the course of the intermediate term preliminary study did not appear to be related to any inherent geothermal water chemistry conditions. Temperature control was a problem but does not appear to be beyond design control. The absence of temperature-related mortality in channel catfish, Tilapia zilli, and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) indicates increased survival and suggests reduced expenditures for disease control. It may also allow higher fish densities in commercial aquaculture operations using geothermal water. Results of this study indicate potential for commercial aquaculture development at the Raft River Geothermal Testing Site.

  10. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1986 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poe, Thomas P.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center (U.S.)

    1987-02-01

    This report summarizes activities in 1986 to determine the significance of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. Salmonids were the single most important food item (by weight) for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) at McNary tailrace during all sampling periods and at John Day forebay during July. Salmonids accounted for 23.7% of the diet of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in July 1986, which was higher than in previous years (although the sample size examined was low). Salmonids contributed little to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) diet but comprised about 25% of the diet of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Composition of prey taxa in beach seine catches in July 1986 was similar to previous years with chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus), and sand roller (Percopsis transmontana) dominating the catch.

  11. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in the John Day Pool. 1982 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Gerard A.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1984-03-01

    This study was initiated to determine the extent of predation by resident populations of native and introduced fish on juvenile salmonids in main stem Columbia River Reservoirs. The John Day Reservoir and tailrace was selected as the study area. First year objectives were: (1) determine whether native and introduced predators preyed on juvenile salmonids; (2) determine which species were major predators; and (3) locate areas where predation was most intense. Results indicated that juvenile salmonids were consumed by all four predatory fish species studied: northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). However, degree of predation varied among predators as a function of spatial distribution, apparent abundance, size, and temporal feeding behavior. 15 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Exposure-related effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A, on coldwater, coolwater, and warmwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Denise A. Mayer,

    2015-01-01

    The exposure-related effects of a commercially prepared spray-dried powder (SDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A, were evaluated on coldwater, coolwater, and warmwater fish endemic to the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Basins. Nine species of young-of-the-year fish were exposed to SDP for 24 hours by using continuous-flow, serial-dilution exposure systems at temperatures of 12 degrees Celsius (°C; 2 species; Oncorhynchus mykiss [rainbow trout] and Salvelinus fontinalis [brook trout]), 17 °C (3 species; Perca flavescens [yellow perch], Sander vitreus [walleye], and Acipenser fulvescens [lake sturgeon]), or 22 °C (4 species; Micropterus salmoides [largemouth bass], Micropterus dolomieu [smallmouth bass], Lepomis macrochirus [bluegill sunfish], and Ictalurus punctatus [channel catfish]).

  13. Response of GSTase and Liver Esterase in Goldfish (Carrasius auratus) and Topmouth Gudegon (Pseudorasbora parva) after Sublethal Exposure to Cyhalofop-butyl and Profurite-aminium%氰氟草酯、杀虫安亚致死剂量对金鱼Carrasius auratus和麦穗鱼Pseudorasbora parva肝脏酯酶及谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    研究了10%千金乳油(有效成分:氰氟草酯)和78%杀虫安可溶性粉剂对金鱼和麦穗鱼肝脏酯酶及谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶(GST)活性的亚致死剂量效应.发现杀虫安(0.234 mg*L-1)对两种鱼的GST活性均具诱导作用,而氰氟草酯(1,2 mg*L-1)仅诱导了麦穗鱼的GST活性;当杀虫安与氰氟草酯混合处理时,对麦穗鱼GST活性的诱导效应最为明显.在一定的浓度范围内,氰氟草酯(1,2 mg*L-1)和杀虫安(0.117,0.234 mg*L-1)均可诱导金鱼肝脏酯酶活性;对麦穗鱼肝脏酯酶而言,杀虫安为诱导作用,氰氟草酯则抑制其活性.研究结果表明:两种酶的活性直接或间接地受供试药剂的影响,两种试鱼对氰氟草酯和杀虫安的生物反应存在差异.%Investigations were carried to assess the sublethal effects of a herbicide clincher (100 EC) containing cyhalofop-butyl [100 g (a.i)*L-1] as the active ingredient and the insecticide profurite-aminium [78% SP, 780 g (a.i)*kg-1] on liver esterases and hepatic glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva). GST was found to be induced in both goldfish and topmouth gudgeon by the profurite-aminium at concentration of 0.234 mg*L-1. Clincher both at concentration of 1 and 2 mg*L-1 caused GST induction in topmouth gudgeon. The mixture of clincher and profurite-aminium had the highest effect in topmouth gudgeon 722.3 nmol*(min-1*mg-1 protein) with a possible indication of additive toxicity. Liver esterases were induced by both clincher (1 and 2 mg*L-1)and profurite-aminium (0.117 and 0.234 mg*L-1) in goldfish. In topmouth gudgeon liver esterases were induced by profurite-aminium but inhibited by clincher. It is suggested that the two biotransformation enzymes may be directly or indirectly affected by the tested chemicals and that there are differences between them.

  14. Reproductive characteristics of a population of the washboard mussel Megalonaias nervosa (Rafinesque 1820) in the upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, C.A.; Holland-Bartels, L.

    1993-01-01

    The authors examined monthly and age-specific gametogenic development of the washboard mussel, Megalonaias nervosa, from April 1986 to March 1987 in navigation Pool 10 of the upper Mississippi River. The authors found M. nervosa to be a late tachytictic breeder. Female marsupia contained eggs or glochidia primarily from August (17 degree C) through October (9 degree C). Males were mature from July through October. Most females released their glochidia in October. Only one female was gravid in Nov (3 degree C). Most mussels were sexually mature at 8 years of age and then had an estimated average size of 68 mm (shell height). Only 8% of individuals less than or equal to 4 years of age showed any degree of reproductive development, while > 90% of age 5 and older individuals had recognizable reproductive material present. In host specificity studies, three fish species were verified as hosts for the glochidial stage. Green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus), black bullhead (Ictalurus melas), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) produced juveniles after 26-28 days at 17 degree C. White suckers (Catastomus commersoni) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) retained glochidia from 23 up to 26 days, but no juveniles were produced. Glochidia remained attached to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) less than or equal to 3 days. Channel catfish were retested at 12 degree C and produced juveniles after 56 days.

  15. Variants of Microcystin in Southeastern USA Channel Catfish (Ictalurus puntctatus ralfinesque) Production Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A synoptic survey of 486 channel catfish production ponds was made from the southern states (AL, AR, LA, MS) that produce over 90% of commercially grown fish. The survey assessed distribution of microcystin toxins in these ponds. A total of 12 variants of microcystin were detected. The threshold ...

  16. Anatomy, morphology and evolution of the patella in squamate lizards and tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnault, Sophie; Jones, Marc E H; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-05-01

    The patella (kneecap) is the largest and best-known of the sesamoid bones, postulated to confer biomechanical advantages including increasing joint leverage and reinforcing the tendon against compression. It has evolved several times independently in amniotes, but despite apparently widespread occurrence in lizards, the patella remains poorly characterised in this group and is, as yet, completely undescribed in their nearest extant relative Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia). Through radiography, osteological and fossil studies we examined patellar presence in diverse lizard and lepidosauromorph taxa, and using computed tomography, dissection and histology we investigated in greater depth the anatomy and morphology of the patella in 16 lizard species and 19 Sphenodon specimens. We have found the first unambiguous evidence of a mineralised patella in Sphenodon, which appears similar to the patella of lizards and shares several gross and microscopic anatomical features. Although there may be a common mature morphology, the squamate patella exhibits a great deal of variability in development (whether from a cartilage anlage or not, and in the number of mineralised centres) and composition (bone, mineralised cartilage or fibrotendinous tissue). Unlike in mammals and birds, the patella in certain lizards and Sphenodon appears to be a polymorphic trait. We have also explored the evolution of the patella through ancestral state reconstruction, finding that the patella is ancestral for lizards and possibly Lepidosauria as a whole. Clear evidence of the patella in rhynchocephalian or stem lepidosaurian fossil taxa would clarify the evolutionary origin(s) of the patella, but due to the small size of this bone and the opportunity for degradation or loss we could not definitively conclude presence or absence in the fossils examined. The pattern of evolution in lepidosaurs is unclear but our data suggest that the emergence of this sesamoid may be related to the evolution of secondary ossification centres and/or changes in knee joint conformation, where enhancement of extensor muscle leverage would be more beneficial.

  17. Mescaline: its effects on learning rate and dopamine metabolism in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, E A; Couper, G S; Huprikar, S V; Mellow, A M; Moody, R R

    1976-11-15

    The pharmacological action of mescaline on goldfish was studied with the Bitterman-Agranoff shock-avoidance test. In short term experiments with high mescaline doses an increase in learning rates was observed. Similar results were obtained with apomorphine and L-dopa. However, when the fish were exposed to smaller mescaline doses (or to fluphenazine) for 3 days, their ability to avoid electric shock was reduced. Apparently, mescaline induced a release of dopamine which stimulated central dopaminergic systems. Subsequently, MAO destroys the liberated dopamine. Thus, the ensuing dopamine deficit appears to be responsible for the marked changes in behavior in the chronic experiment.

  18. Foraging Behavior in Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus Auratus: Effect of the Distance among Multiple Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cabrera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of travel and the efficiency in foraging behavior was evaluated in four hamsters searching for food within an enclosure with multiple patches. Two different distances among patches were randomly arranged: Near-Patches (10 cm separation and Distant-Patches (21.5 cm separation. Subjects obtained the food by mounting over the cylinders (stations placed in the enclosure of 110 cm2. Results showed that in both, Near and Distant conditions, the distance between responses was longer in late stages of the trials then in early stages. Nonetheless, the most choices to adjacent stations were in Distant-Patches condition, while skips and diagonal-station choices were more frequently showed in the Near-Patches condition.

  19. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

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    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  20. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with simultaneous intestinal Giardia sp., Spironucleus sp., and trichomonad infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Barbara J; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Kondo, Hirotaka

    2013-11-01

    A commercial facility producing hamsters with a history of infection by dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) submitted 15 animals for necropsy and postmortem parasitological and microscopic examination. No tapeworms were detected grossly or microscopically. Fecal examination including gastrointestinal mucosal smears demonstrated mixed intestinal bacteria and low numbers of Giardia sp. Histologic examination of small intestine demonstrated filling of the small intestinal crypts by large numbers of 7-9 µm × 3 µm, rod to crescent or teardrop-shaped flagellates consistent with Spironucleus sp. These organisms had two 1-µm, basophilic, oval nuclei and multiple superficial flagella-like structures. Much larger 10-15 µm × 8-10 µm, oval to pear-shaped organisms were also present in lower numbers and usually located with the crypts. These larger flagellates had multiple flagella and a basophilic rod-shaped nucleus. The larger flagellates included Giardia sp., which had an intimate interface with the surface of the mucosal epithelium, bilaterally symmetry, and binucleation. Lower numbers of trichomonads were also present and were distinguished by an undulating surface membrane and a single nucleus. The mucosa was hyperplastic and moderately inflamed. Although the tapeworm infection was resolved, diagnosis of multiple intestinal flagellates by fecal examination is complicated by the varying sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of different types of fecal analysis for different flagellate types. Key differences in the morphology and location of the different types of flagellates as observed by histology of intestinal tissues provide important additional diagnostic information to distinguish trichomonads, Spironucleus sp., and Giardia sp.

  1. Coexistence of diploid, triploid and tetraploid crucian carp (Carassius auratus in natural waters

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    You Cuiping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crucian carp (abbreviated CC belongs to the genus of Carassius within the family of Cyprinidae. It has been one of the most important freshwater species for Chinese aquaculture and is especially abundant in the Dongting water system of Hunan province. CC used to be considered as all diploid forms. However, coexistence of diploid (abbreviated 2nCC, triploid (abbreviated 3nCC and tetraploid crucian carp (abbreviated 4nCC population of the Dongting water system was first found by our recently researches. Results We examined the ploidy level and compared biological characteristics in different ploidy CC. In reproductive mode, 2nCC was bisexual generative and 4nCC generated all-female offspring by gynogenesis. However, 3nCC generated progenies in two different ways. 3nCC produced bisexual triploid offspring fertilized with 3nCC spermatozoa, while it produced all-female triploid offspring by gynogenesis when its ova were activated by heterogenous spermatozoa. The complete mitochondrial DNA of three different ploidy fishes was sequenced and analyzed, suggesting no significant differences. Interestingly, microchromosomes were found only in 3nCC, which were concluded to be the result of hybridization. Allogenetic DNA fragments of Sox genes were obtained in 3nCC and 4nCC, which were absent in 2nCC. Phylogenetics analysis based on Sox4 gene indicated 3nCC and 4nCC formed a separate group from 2nCC. Conclusions In summary, this is the first report of the co-existence of three types of different ploidy crucian carps in natural waters in China. It was proved that the coexistence of different ploidy CC was reproductively maintained. We further hypothesized that 3nCC and 4nCC were allopolyploids that resulted from hybridization. The different ploidy CC population we obtained in this study possesses great significance for the study of polyploidization and the evolution of vertebrates.

  2. Usefulness of immature golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus as a model for uterotrophic assay

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    Radko Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the sensitivity of immature hamster uterotrophic assay to reference oestrogen agonists/antagonists in order to develop a sensitive model for evaluation of endocrine-active compounds in diets. After performing a baseline for control animals, the sensitivity of immature females (postnatal day 18 to reference compounds was evaluated in a three-day uterotrophic assay. The absolute and adjusted dry uterine weights, fold induction over control for absolute wet uterine weight, and wet uterine weight/body weight ratio (% were used as endpoints. The significantly active doses for reference oestrogens were as follows: 0.6 μg/kg for 17α-ethinyloestradiol (s.c.; 1 μg/kg/day (s.c. and 40 μg/kg (p.o. for diethylstilboestrol; 40 mg/kg (s.c. and 160 mg/kg (p.o. for bisphenol A. Co-treatment with tamoxifen at a dose of 1 mg/kg significantly antagonised the uterotrophic effect induced by 1 μg/kg 17α-ethinyloestradiol, and showed the attenuated proliferative effect in histopathological examination. We found immature hamster uterotrophic assay as a sensitive model that could be a good alternative to the rat assay.

  3. GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    M. Angeles eLuque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian oculomotor nucleus receives a strong -aminobutyric acid (GABAergic synaptic input, whereas such projections have rarely been reported in fish. In order to determine whether this synaptic organization is preserved across vertebrates, we investigated the GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish by combining retrograde transport of biotin dextran amine, injected into the antidromically identified oculomotor nucleus, and GABA immunohistochemistry. The main source of GABAergic afferents to the oculomotor nucleus was the ipsilateral anterior octaval nucleus, with only a few, if any, GABAergic neurons being located in the contralateral tangential and descending nuclei of the octaval column. In mammals there is a nearly exclusive ipsilateral projection from vestibular neurons to the oculomotor nucleus via GABAergic inhibitory inputs; thus, the vestibulooculomotor GABAergic circuitry follows a plan that appears to be shared throughout the vertebrate phylogeny. The second major source of GABAergic projections was the rhombencephalic reticular formation, primarily from the medial area but, to a lesser extent, from the inferior area. A few GABAergic oculomotor projecting neurons were also observed in the ipsilateral nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The GABAergic projections from neurons located in both the reticular formation surrounding the abducens nucleus and the nucleus of the medial reticular formation have primarily been related to the control of saccadic eye movements. Finally, all retrogradely labeled internuclear neurons of the abducens nucleus, and neurons in the cerebellum (close to the caudal lobe, were negative for GABA. These data suggest that the vestibuloocular and saccadic inhibitory GABAergic systems appear early in vertebrate phylogeny to modulate the firing properties of the oculomotor nucleus motoneurons.

  4. Effects of hypoxia, anoxia, and endogenous ethanol on thermoregulation in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R N; Crawshaw, L I; Wallace, H L

    2000-03-01

    Effects of hypoxia, anoxia, and endogenous ethanol (EtOH) on selected temperature (T(sel)) and activity in goldfish were evaluated. Blood and brain EtOH concentrations ([EtOH]) and brain oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) were quantified at crucial ambient oxygen pressures. Below a threshold value near 31 Torr, T(sel) decreased as a function of environmental PO(2). T(sel) of 15 degrees C-acclimated fish was approximately 10 degrees C at the onset of anoxia and changed little over 2 h. Activity showed a similar response pattern. Brain [EtOH] was significantly elevated above control levels after 1 h anoxia. In normoxic water, T(sel) remained different in previously anoxic and normoxic control fish for approximately 20 min. Blood [EtOH] of previously anoxic fish remained significantly elevated ([EtOH] >4.0 micromol/g blood), and activity was significantly depressed at 20 min. Brain PO(2) reached normal levels in <3 min. We conclude that [EtOH] (brain or blood) and brain PO(2) are not proximal causes of either behavioral anapyrexia (hypothermia) or inactivity in goldfish exposed to oxygen-depleted environments.

  5. Optimization protocol for storage of goldfish (Carassius auratus) embryos in chilled state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaluei, F; Imanpoor, M R; Shabani, A; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2014-04-01

    A series of five experiments were conducted to explore suitable conditions for storing of goldfish embryos in a chilled state. The factors studied were embryo stage, storage temperature, physiological saline solutions and goldfish artificial coelomic fluid (GFACF) medium, antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin), antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C), buffer (Hepes, Tris) and BSA (bovine serum albumin). First, goldfish embryos at eight developmental stages were incubated in aerated and dechlorinated tap water at 0 °C for 24 h. Result shows that early developmental stages were most sensitive to chilling. Heartbeat-stage goldfish embryos were chilled at 0, 4 or 8 °C for up to 72 h in water, and chilled storage was possible only for up to 18, 24 and 48 h at 0, 4 and 8 °C, respectively, without a decrease in viability. Chilling of goldfish embryos at 8 °C in GFACF medium and Dettlaff's solution instead of water and other physiological saline solutions prolonged their viability (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, viability of chilled embryos in GFACF medium was slightly, but non-significantly, higher than in Dettlaff's solution. Supplementation of the GFACF medium with antibiotics, Hepes or BSA increased the viability of chilled embryos, but the tested vitamin E analogue Trolox, vitamin C or Tris concentration had no effect on embryo viability. The outcome of this series of experiments shows that heartbeat-stage goldfish embryos could be chilled for 60 h in GFACF supplemented with 25 mm Hepes, 100 U/ml penicillin, 10 μg/l streptomycin and 1 g/l BSA in such a way that embryonic development does not proceed, and viability is not lost.

  6. Morfología de la nefrona de "sparus auratus" / Adelina Zuasti Elizondo.

    OpenAIRE

    Zuasti Elizondo, Adelina

    1983-01-01

    Resumen de Tesis - Universidad de Murcia. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. DEPOSITO. DPT 86 2389. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. DEPOSITO. DPT 107 1122. MEDICINA ARRIXACA. DEPOSITO. DPT-S E-4 14. NEBRIJA. DEPOSITO. F 16 791.

  7. Morphometric and molecular characterization of Dactylogyrus vastator and D. intermedius in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Fei; Tu, Xiao; Huang, Aiguo; Wang, Gaoxue

    2016-05-01

    Goldfish is known to be parasitized by at least seven species of Dactylogyrus and considered as one of the most common hosts. Dactylogyrus vastator and Dactylogyrus intermedius are the dominant species living on the gills of goldfish. However, little information on morphometric characterization is available, which easily causes misidentification. The purpose of this study is to provide comprehensive morphometric and molecular characterization of D. vastator and D. intermedius collected form a fish farm in Henan, China. The characterization was presented based on the high-resolution images and standard molecular markers (18S ribosomal DNA subunit and the internal transcribed spacer region), as well as a total of 10 point-to-point morphometrics characters. In addition, a detailed comparison of morphometric and phylogenetic characterization in D. vastator versus D. intermedius was performed. The results demonstrated that all parameters measured differed significantly between these two species of Dactylogyrus, whereas molecular comparison showed subtle differences between them in nucleotide divergence and genetic distances. These findings suggested that these two species of Dactylogyrus can be distinguished more easily based on morphometric measurements than molecular data for 18S ribosomal DNA + internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1).

  8. THE EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF NECATOR AMERICANUS (HOOK WORM IN GOLDEN HAMSTER, MESOCRICETUS AURATUS

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    H. Khazan

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Hook worm (Necator americanus is one of the major pathogenic parasites in the north of Iran. Neonatal hamsters 1-3 days old showed a high degree of susceptibility to Necator americanus infection and the parasite reached to sexually mature stages in six weeks following skin exposure. This method could be used for production of egg, larvae and adult worms. In this study neonatal hamsters were infected each with 70 third – stage larvae percutaneously and 50% of larvae were developed to sexual maturity.

  9. Intranasal vaccination with leishmanial antigens protects golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus against Leishmania (Viannia Braziliensis infection.

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    Luzinei da Silva-Couto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous results have shown that oral and intranasal administration of particulate Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis antigens (LaAg partially protects mice against L. amazonensis infection. However, vaccination studies on species of the subgenus Viannia, the main causative agent of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in the Americas, have been hampered by the lack of easy-to-handle bio-models that accurately mimic the human disease. Recently, we demonstrated that the golden hamster is an appropriate model for studying the immunopathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (Viannia braziliensis. Using the golden hamster model, our current study investigated whether the protective effect of intranasal immunisation with LaAg can be extended to L. braziliensis infection.Golden hamsters vaccinated with either two intranasal (IN doses of LaAg (10 µg or two intramuscular doses of LaAg (20 µg were challenged 2 weeks post-vaccination with L. braziliensis. The results showed that IN immunisation with LaAg significantly reduced lesion growth and parasitic load as well as serum IgG and IgG2 levels. At the experimental endpoint on day 114 post-infection, IN-immunised hamsters that were considered protected expressed IFN-γ and IL10 mRNA levels that returned to uninfected skin levels. In contrast to the nasal route, intramuscular (IM immunisation failed to provide protection.These results demonstrate for the first time that the nasal route of immunisation can induce cross protection against L. braziliensis infection.

  10. Melatonin synthesis under calcium constraint in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Kulczkowska, E.; Kalamarz, H.; Guerreiro, P.M.G.; Flik, G.

    2008-01-01

    Brain or blood plasma melatonin was analysed as a measure for pineal melatonin production in sea bream. Access to calcium was limited by diluting the seawater to 2.5‰ and removing calcium from the diet or by prolonged feeding of vitamin D-deficient diet. Interactions/relations between melatonin and

  11. Transcriptome analysis of crucian carp (Carassius auratus, an important aquaculture and hypoxia-tolerant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liao

    Full Text Available The crucian carp is an important aquaculture species and a potential model to study genome evolution and physiological adaptation. However, so far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of four cDNA libraries representing brain, muscle, liver and kidney tissues respectively, each with six specimens. The removal of low quality reads resulted in 2.62 million raw reads, which were assembled as 127,711 unigenes, including 84,867 isotigs and 42,844 singletons. A total of 22,273 unigenes were found with significant matches to 14,449 unique proteins. Around14,398 unigenes were assigned with at least one Gene Ontology (GO category in 84,876 total assignments, and 6,382 unigenes were found in 237 predicted KEGG pathways. The gene expression analysis revealed more genes expressed in brain, more up-regulated genes in muscle and more down-regulated genes in liver as compared with gene expression profiles of other tissues. In addition, 23 enzymes in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway were recovered. Importantly, we identified 5,784 high-quality putative SNP and 11,295 microsatellite markers which include 5,364 microsatellites with flanking sequences ≥50 bp. This study produced the most comprehensive genomic resources that have been derived from crucian carp, including thousands of genetic markers, which will not only lay a foundation for further studies on polyploidy origin and anoxic survival but will also facilitate selective breeding of this important aquaculture species.

  12. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catfish Genome Consortium; Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C; Wilson, Melanie; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Lee, Yoona; Chen, Fei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqi; Xu, Peng; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Quilang, Jonas; Sha, Zhenxia; Bao, Baolong; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Qun; Takano, Tomokazu; Nandi, Samiran; Liu, Shikai; Wong, Lilian; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Quiniou, Sylvie; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman; Trant, John; Rokhsar, Daniel; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-03-23

    Background-Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results-A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing the number of catfish ESTs to nearly 500,000. Assembly of all catfish ESTs resulted in 45,306 contigs and 66,272 singletons. Over 35percent of the unique sequences had significant similarities to known genes, allowing the identification of 14,776 unique genes in catfish. Over 300,000 putative SNPs have been identified, of which approximately 48,000 are high-quality SNPs identified from contigs with at least four sequences and the minor allele presence of at least two sequences in the contig. The EST resource should be valuable for identification of microsatellites, genome annotation, large-scale expression analysis, and comparative genome analysis. Conclusions-This project generated a large EST resource for catfish that captured the majority of the catfish transcriptome. The parallel analysis of ESTs from two closely related Ictalurid catfishes should also provide powerful means for the evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications, and for the development of high-density microarrays in catfish. The inter- and intra-specific SNPs identified from all catfish EST dataset assembly will greatly benefit the catfish introgression breeding program and whole genome association studies.

  13. Quantitative trait loci map for growth and morphometric traits using a channel catfish x blue catfish interspecific hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, A M; Liu, Z; Kucuktas, H; Umali-Maceina, G; Su, B; Dunham, R A

    2014-05-01

    Head length, head depth, head width, body depth, body width, caudal depth, and caudal width and total length and BW were measured for 71 backcross full sibs between the interspecific backcross F1 (female channel catfish [Ictalurus punctatus] × male blue catfish [Ictalurus furcatus]) female × blue catfish male. Body measurements were corrected for both size and the relationship between relative body shape and size, which is critical but usually ignored in fish research. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis was used for construction of a QTL map with 44 linkage groups. Eleven of 44 linkage groups had at least 1 significant QTL (P ≤ 0.05) and 11 of 44 at P = 0.10. Linkage group 19 was unique as it had multiple QTL for every trait measured, except for caudal width for which no QTL was identified on any linkage group. Approximately half of the markers measured were associated with positive effects (increase in size) on the traits and half had negative effects (decrease in size). Linkage groups 5, 9, 18, 20, 39, and 40 were significant for multiple traits and always had a trait negative effect. Total length is represented on the map by the most linkage groups and the most markers. The linkage relationships found among BW, total length, and the 7 morphometric traits indicated that multiple trait marker-assisted selection to simultaneously increase BW body depth, body width, and caudal depth while decreasing the head traits with the goal to increase body weight and carcass yield would be very difficult. Multiple genetic enhancement approaches would likely be needed to simultaneously improve BW and body conformation.

  14. An evaluation of agreement between pectoral spines and otoliths for estimating ages of catfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, J.A.; Schramm, Harold; Gerard, Patrick D.; Irwin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths have been shown to provide more accurate ages than pectoral spine sections for several catfish populations; but sampling otoliths requires euthanizing the specimen, whereas spines can be sampled non-lethally. To evaluate whether, and under what conditions, spines provide the same or similar age estimates as otoliths, we examined data sets of individual fish aged from pectoral spines and otoliths for six blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus populations (n=420), 14 channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus populations (n=997), and 10 flathead catfish Pylodictus olivaris populations (n=947) from lotic and lentic waters throughout the central and eastern U.S. Logistic regression determined that agreement between ages estimated from otoliths and spines was consistently related to age, but inconsistently related to growth rate. When modeled at mean growth rate, we found at least 80% probability of no difference in spine- and otolith-assigned ages up to ages 4 and 5 for blue and channel catfish, respectively. For flathead catfish, an 80% probability of agreement between spine- and otolith-assigned ages did not occur at any age due to high incidence of differences in assigned ages even for age-1 fish. Logistic regression models predicted at least 80% probability that spine and otolith ages differed by ≤1 year up to ages 13, 16, and 9 for blue, channel, and flathead catfish, respectively. Age-bias assessment found mean spine-assigned age differed by less than 1 year from otolith-assigned age up to ages 19, 9, and 17 for blue catfish, channel catfish, and flathead catfish, respectively. These results can be used to help guide decisions about which structure is most appropriate for estimating catfish ages for particular populations and management objectives.

  15. Histopathology of repeated, intermittent exposure of chloramine-T to walleye (Sander vitreum) and (Ictalurus punctalus) channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Densmore, Christine L.; Blazer, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    Chloramine-T (Cl-T) has been used safely and effectively to control bacterial gill disease in salmonids at a maximum exposure regimen of up to four consecutive, once-daily exposures administered for 60??min at 20??mg/L. However, data to document safe treatment concentrations of Cl-T are lacking for freshwater-reared fish other than salmonids. We report the histopathology resultant from the administration of 12 consecutive, once-daily, 180-min static immersion baths of 0, 20, 50, or 80??mg Cl-T/L to walleye (20????C) and channel catfish (27????C). Twelve fish of each species were euthanized immediately before the first exposure (initial controls) and then after the twelfth exposure and 7 and 14??days after the twelfth exposure. Only initial controls and fish euthanized immediately after the twelfth exposure were processed for histological review because of the general lack of exposure-related lesions in exposed fish. The only exposure-related histological changes were in the spleen where significantly greater erythrocyte swelling and necrosis was observed in channel catfish exposed at 80??mg/L relative to exposure at 0??mg/L; similar histological changes were insignificant for walleye, though there appeared to be a shift in the general category of histological change with degenerative changes (necrosis, etc.) observed following exposure at 50 or 80??mg/L compared to the inflammatory and hemodynamic changes (congestion, leukocyte infiltrate, etc.) observed in walleye exposed at 0 or 20??mg/L. The only significant change in peripheral blood cytology was that walleye fingerlings exposed at 80??mg/L had significantly fewer mature red blood cells and significantly more immature red blood cells per oil-immersion field than controls. The histopathological changes observed following exposure to Cl-T under an exaggerated exposure regimen suggest that walleye or channel catfish therapeutically exposed to Cl-T will not have treatment-related histological changes.

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: tuatara [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available png Sphenodon_punctatus_NL.png Sphenodon_punctatus_S.png Sphenodon_punctatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Sphenodon+punctatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sphenodon+...punctatus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sphenodon+punctat...us&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sphenodon+punctatus&t=NS ...

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of a C-type lectin in yellow catfish Tachysurus fulvidraco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, F; Zhang, H B; Wang, Y; Hou, L F; Dong, H J; Wang, Z F; Pan, G W; Cao, X Y

    2016-09-01

    This study represents the first report of a C-type lectin (ctl) in yellow catfish Tachysurus fulvidraco. The complete sequence of ctl complementary (c)DNA consisted of 685 nucleotides. The open reading frame potentially encoded a protein of 177 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of c.y 20.204 kDa. The deduced amino-acid sequence contained a signal peptide and a single carbohydrate recognition domain with four cysteine residues and GlnProAsp (QPD) and TrpAsnAsp (WND) motifs. Ctl showed the highest identity (56.0%) to the predicted lactose binding lectin from channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Quantitative real-time (qrt)-PCR analysis showed that ctl messenger (m)RNA was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues in normal fish, with high expression in trunk kidney and head kidney, which was increased following Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in a duration-dependent manner. Purified recombinant Ctl (rCtl) from Escherichia coli BL21 was able to bind and agglutinate Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in a calcium-dependent manner. These results suggested that Ctl might be a C-type lectin of T. fulvidraco involved in innate immune responses as receptors (PRR).

  18. Bait type influences on catch and bycatch in tandem hoop nets set in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Stewart, David R.; Shiflet, Jeremy; Balsman, Dane; Shoup, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    Tandem hoop nets have become the primary gear for sampling channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but suffer from high incidences of bycatch, particularly aquatic turtles that usually drown as a result. We sought to determine if bait type, ZOTE© soap and ground cheese logs, would influence catch of channel catfish (CPUE and mean TL) and bycatch of fishes and aquatic turtles. We sampled with tandem hoop nets in 13 Kentucky reservoirs (5–73 ha) using a crossover design and two sampling events. We found no difference in channel catfish catch rates between bait types, but mean sizes of fish caught using ZOTE© soap were approximately 24 mm longer compared to cheese. Fish bycatch was similar between bait types, but tandem hoop nets baited with ZOTE© soap caught up to 61% fewer turtles and mortality of turtles that were captured was up to 12% lower than those baited with cheese. Depth of net set, water temperature, and Secchi depth were environmental factors measured that affected catch and bycatch, but varied among species. Using ZOTE© soap as bait in tandem hoop nets appears to be a fairly simple and straightforward method for maintaining high catch rates of channel catfish while minimizing turtle mortality.

  19. 越南养殖(鱼芒)鲶的营养与投饲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽

    2004-01-01

    (鱼芒)鲶为亚洲特别是东南亚的本地种,属于鲶形目。该目也包括其它主要的养殖鲶鱼如斑点叉尾鮰(Ictalurus punctatus)、胡鲶(Clarias spp.)和欧鲶(Silurus glanis)。FAO估计1996年世界鲶鱼产量约为8 000 t。这一总产量为估计不足,因为越南该年的鲶鱼产量就达27 000 t。其他生产(鱼芒)鲶的国家主要有柬埔寨和泰国,越南现今已成为生产(鱼芒) 鲶的先行国家,估计其2001年的产量为120 000- 150 000 t。主要产地在越南湄公河三角洲一带,特别是阮朱江省,湄公河就是从柬埔寨流入该省。

  20. 越南养殖(鱼芒)鲶的营养与投饲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽

    2004-01-01

    @@ (鱼芒)鲶为亚洲特别是东南亚的本地种,属于鲶形目.该目也包括其它主要的养殖鲶鱼如斑点叉尾(鱼芒)(Ictalurus punctatus)、胡鲶(Clarias spp.)和欧鲶(Silurus glanis).FAO估计1996年世界鲶鱼产量约为8 000 t.这一总产量为估计不足,因为越南该年的鲶鱼产量就达27 000 t.其他生产(鱼芒)鲶的国家主要有柬埔寨和泰国,越南现今已成为生产(鱼芒)鲶的先行国家,估计其2001年的产量为120 000~150 000 t.主要产地在越南湄公河三角洲一带,特别是阮朱江省,湄公河就是从柬埔寨流入该省. 在越南广泛养殖2种(鱼芒)鲶:巴氏(鱼芒)鲶Pangasius bocourti主要与其它种类在网箱中养殖,而P.hypopthalamus则养于网箱和池塘中.

  1. Zero-inflated modeling of fish catch per unit area resulting from multiple gears: Application to channel catfish and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, A.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Wikle, C.K.; Gentry, C.N.

    2008-01-01

    Fisheries studies often employ multiple gears that result in large percentages of zero values. We considered a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model with random effects to address these excessive zeros. By employing a Bayesian ZIP model that simultaneously incorporates data from multiple gears to analyze data from the Missouri River, we were able to compare gears and make more year, segment, and macrohabitat comparisons than did the original data analysis. For channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, our results rank (highest to lowest) the mean catch per unit area (CPUA) for gears (beach seine, benthic trawl, electrofishing, and drifting trammel net); years (1998 and 1997); macrohabitats (tributary mouth, connected secondary channel, nonconnected secondary channel, and bend); and river segment zones (channelized, inter-reservoir, and least-altered). For shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, the mean CPUA was significantly higher for benthic trawls and drifting trammel nets; 1998 and 1997; tributary mouths, bends, and connected secondary channels; and some channelized or least-altered inter-reservoir segments. One important advantage of our approach is the ability to reliably infer patterns of relative abundance by means of multiple gears without using gear efficiencies. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  2. Efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride bath immersion to control external columnaris disease on walleye and channel catfish fingerlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, J.J.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Rudacille, J.B.; Schleis, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) in controlling external columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare on fingerling walleyes Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in two on-site hatchery trials. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings before treatment confirmed the presence of bacteria with characteristics indicative of F. columnare.in separate trials, walleyes (4.4 g) and channel catfish (1.5 g) were exposed to 60-min static bath treatments of OTC-HCl at 0, 10, and 20 mg/L (walleyes) or 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/L (channel catfish) on three consecutive days. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, and each replicate contained either 30 walleyes or 55 channel catfish. Posttreatment presumptive disease diagnosis indicated that F. columnare was the disease agent causing the mortality in both species of fish. Walleye survival at 10 d posttreatment was greater in the 10- and 20-mg/L treatment groups than in the control group; however, only the 10-mg/L treatment significantly (P catfish trial, survival at 10 d posttreatment was significantly (P catfish infected with F. columnare. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  3. Catch of channel catfish with tandem-set hoop nets and gill nets in lentic systems of Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, Lindsey K.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-six Nebraska water bodies representing two ecosystem types (small standing waters and large standing waters) were surveyed during 2008 and 2009 with tandem-set hoop nets and experimental gill nets to determine if similar trends existed in catch rates and size structures of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus captured with these gears. Gear efficiency was assessed as the number of sets (nets) that would be required to capture 100 channel catfish given observed catch per unit effort (CPUE). Efficiency of gill nets was not correlated with efficiency of hoop nets for capturing channel catfish. Small sample sizes prohibited estimation of proportional size distributions in most surveys; in the four surveys for which sample size was sufficient to quantify length-frequency distributions of captured channel catfish, distributions differed between gears. The CPUE of channel catfish did not differ between small and large water bodies for either gear. While catch rates of hoop nets were lower than rates recorded in previous studies, this gear was more efficient than gill nets at capturing channel catfish. However, comparisons of size structure between gears may be problematic.

  4. Comparative susceptibility of Channel Catfish, Blue Catfish, and their hybrid cross to experimental challenge with Bolbophorus damnificus (Digenea: Bolbophoridae) cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Matt J; Reichley, Stephen R; Khoo, Lester H; Ware, Cynthia; Greenway, Terrence E; Mischke, Charles C; Wise, David J

    2014-06-01

    The digenetic trematode Bolbophorus damnificus has been implicated in significant losses in catfish aquaculture since the late 1990s. The complex life cycle sequentially involves the American white pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, the marsh rams horn snail Planorbella trivolvis, and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Research supports anecdotal reports from the industry, suggesting that the hybrid of Channel Catfish×Blue Catfish I. furcatus is less susceptible to disease agents that have been historically prohibitive to Channel Catfish production, namely the gram-negative bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare, as well as the myxozoan parasite Henneguya ictaluri. This current research compared the susceptibility of Channel Catfish, Blue Catfish, and their hybrid cross to an experimental challenge by B. damnificus. Fish were exposed to 0, 100, 200, and 400 B. damnificus cercariae per fish, and the numbers of metacercariae per fish were determined 14 d postchallenge. Metacercariae were recovered from all challenged fish. There were no significant differences among fish groups challenged with the same dose, suggesting Channel and Blue Catfish and their hybrid are comparably susceptible to B. damnificus infection. As such, it is recommended that producers raising hybrid catfish remain diligent in controlling populations of the snail intermediate host to prevent production losses attributed to B. damnificus, especially when loafing pelicans have been observed at the aquaculture operation.

  5. The efficacy of mass-marking channel catfish fingerlings by immersion in oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been extensively used for marking a variety of fish species, but has never been successfully used to mark channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Channel catfish fingerlings (~ 25 mm TL) obtained from the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation at Byron Fish Hatchery were kept in Living Streams (791 to 1,018 L) equipped with recirculation units. Marking trials consisted of immersing channel catfish in one of three concentrations (250, 450, and 700 mg/L) OTC hydrochloride [HCl] for 6 hours. Samples of channel catfish were obtained from each group at 1-week and 4-week postimmersion. Lapilli otoliths and pectoral spines were removed to assess mark presence with an epi-fluorescent compound microscope. After one week, no marks were detected on pectoral spines for all treatments, mark detection on otoliths depended on concentration, but never exceeded 43% (700 mg/L). After four weeks, all otoliths and pectoral spines were determined marked for 700 mg/L OTC, 20% for fish immersed in 450 mg/L OTC, and 0% were marked after four weeks at the 250 mg/L OTC. Results show, channel catfish fingerlings can be successfully marked with immersion in OTC at 700 mg/L for at least 6 hours.

  6. The channel catfish genome sequence provides insights into the evolution of scale formation in teleosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanjiang; Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Bao, Lisui; Zhang, Jiaren; Li, Yun; Jiang, Chen; Sun, Luyang; Wang, Ruijia; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tao; Zeng, Qifan; Fu, Qiang; Gao, Sen; Li, Ning; Koren, Sergey; Jiang, Yanliang; Zimin, Aleksey; Xu, Peng; Phillippy, Adam M.; Geng, Xin; Song, Lin; Sun, Fanyue; Li, Chao; Wang, Xiaozhu; Chen, Ailu; Jin, Yulin; Yuan, Zihao; Yang, Yujia; Tan, Suxu; Peatman, Eric; Lu, Jianguo; Qin, Zhenkui; Dunham, Rex; Li, Zhaoxia; Sonstegard, Tad; Feng, Jianbin; Danzmann, Roy G.; Schroeder, Steven; Scheffler, Brian; Duke, Mary V.; Ballard, Linda; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Liu, Haixia; Armbruster, Jonathan; Xie, Yangjie; Kirby, Mona L.; Tian, Yi; Flanagan, Mary Elizabeth; Mu, Weijie; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Catfish represent 12% of teleost or 6.3% of all vertebrate species, and are of enormous economic value. Here we report a high-quality reference genome sequence of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), the major aquaculture species in the US. The reference genome sequence was validated by genetic mapping of 54,000 SNPs, and annotated with 26,661 predicted protein-coding genes. Through comparative analysis of genomes and transcriptomes of scaled and scaleless fish and scale regeneration experiments, we address the genomic basis for the most striking physical characteristic of catfish, the evolutionary loss of scales and provide evidence that lack of secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins accounts for the evolutionary loss of scales in catfish. The channel catfish reference genome sequence, along with two additional genome sequences and transcriptomes of scaled catfishes, provide crucial resources for evolutionary and biological studies. This work also demonstrates the power of comparative subtraction of candidate genes for traits of structural significance. PMID:27249958

  7. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1984 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Gerard A.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center (U.S.)

    1986-07-01

    The extent of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir was determined. Salmonids were the single most important food item by weight for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) in the restricted zones at McNary tailrace and John Day forebay during all sampling periods. Salmonids accounted for 18.1% of the weight in the diet of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in 1984 which was at least twice that found in previous years. In smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) salmonids contributed little to their diet whereas for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fish accounted for 64.1% of the weight in their diet with salmonids responsible for approximately half of this weight. An intensive search of the fisheries literature was conducted to review various fish capture and control techniques which might have potential as predation control measures for the major predators of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River system. Most prey protection measures were judged to have high potential and direct predator control measures were judged to have moderate or low potential.

  8. Teleost Chemokines and Their Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Bird

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines that appeared about 650 million years ago, at the emergence of vertebrates, and are responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been identified in diverse fish species evidencing the great differences that exist among fish and mammalian chemokines, and within the different fish species, as a consequence of extensive intrachromosomal gene duplications and different infectious experiences. Subsequently, it has only been possible to establish clear homologies with mammalian chemokines in the case of some chemokines with well-conserved homeostatic roles, whereas the functionality of other chemokine genes will have to be independently addressed in each species. Despite this, functional studies have only been undertaken for a few of these chemokine genes. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish. We have mainly focused on those species for which more research efforts have been made in this subject, specially zebrafish (Danio rerio, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, outlining which genes have been identified thus far, highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation and addressing any known aspects of their biological role in immunity. Finally, we summarise what is known about the chemokine receptors in teleosts and provide some analysis using recently available data to help characterise them more clearly.

  9. Application of Constructed Wetlands on Wastewater Treatment for Aquaculture Ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gu; WU Zhenbin; CHENG Shuiping; LIANG Wei; HE Feng; FU Guiping; ZHONG Fei

    2007-01-01

    A group of constructed wetlands (CWs) were applied to the recirculating aquaculture system. This study assessed the performance of CWs in treating the aquaculture wastewater, examined the water quality condition of aquaculture ponds and the growth and the survival rate of "target" species(Ictalurus punctatus and Megalobrama amblycephala). The results showed that CWs were effective on reducing the concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, at 70.5%), total suspended solids (TSS, at 81.9%),chlorophyll a (Chl-a, at 91.9%), ammonium (NH4+, at 61.5%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N, at 68.0%). Effect of CWs on phosphate (PO43- -P) removal was relatively lower (at 20.0%). The concentrations of BOD5, TSS, Chl-a, NH4+ and TN, TP in the recirculating culture pond were significantly lower than that in the control pond( p < 0.05 ). CWs could help to increase total yield, survival rate of the "target" species and significantly decrease feed conversion ratio ( p < 0.05 ).

  10. 南方鲇生长激素完整cDNA的克隆及其DNA序列分析%CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF FULL LENGTH cDNA IN SILURUS MERIDIONALIS GROWTH HORMONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋平; 胡隐昌; 向筑; 胡珈瑞; 潘云峰

    2002-01-01

    采用RT-PCR法和3′、5′ RACE (Rapid amplification of cDNA ends)法从南方鲇脑垂体RNA克隆出生长激素(Growth hormone, GH) cDNA.此cDNA全长1087nt(含Poly(A)),其5′端非编码区长52nt、阅读框(Open reading frame, ORF)长603nt、3′端非编码区长415nt.其推导的GH由200个氨基酸组成,其中前24个氨基酸为信号肽部分.氨基酸序列比较表明,南方鲇GH与Pangasianodon gigas、 Ictalurus punctatus 和Heteropneustes fossilis 三种鲇类的同源性分别为97.5%和95.0%,与鲢、鳙、草、鲤和鲫鱼的GH同源性达76.0%以上,而与人的GH(Ⅰ、Ⅱ)同源性最低为31.0%和29.5%.

  11. Persistent disturbance by commercial navigation afters the relative abundance of channel-dwelling fishes in a large river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutreuter, S.; Vallazza, J.M.; Knights, B.C.

    2006-01-01

    We provide the first evidence for chronic effects of disturbance by commercial vessels on the spatial distribution and abundance of fishes in the channels of a large river. Most of the world's large rivers are intensively managed to satisfy increasing demands for commercial shipping, but little research has been conducted to identify and alleviate any adverse consequences of commercial navigation. We used a combination of a gradient sampling design incorporating quasicontrol areas with Akaike's information criterion (AIC)-weighted model averaging to estimate effects of disturbances by commercial vessels on fishes in the upper Mississippi River. Species density, which mainly measured species evenness, decreased with increasing disturbance frequency. The most abundant species - gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) - and the less abundant shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) and flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) were seemingly unaffected by traffic disturbance. In contrast, the relative abundance of the toothed herrings (Hiodon spp.), redhorses (Moxostoma spp.), buffaloes (Ictiobus spp.), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), sauger (Sander canadensis), and white bass (Morone chrysops) decreased with increasing traffic in the navigation channel. We hypothesized that the combination of alteration of hydraulic features within navigation channels and rehabilitation of secondary channels might benefit channel-dependent species. ?? 2006 NRC.

  12. Detection of salmonellae from fish in a natural river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, James; Wheeler, Phil E; Obafemi, Shola; Valdez, Jessica; Forstner, Michael R J; Bonner, Timothy H; Hahn, Dittmar

    2008-09-01

    Sediment, water, and fish gut samples taken at three sites near the headwaters of the San Marcos River, Texas, were analyzed for salmonellae Salmonella spp. by culture and molecular techniques. While enrichment cultures from sediment and water samples from the two uppermost sites were negative for salmonellae in polymerase chain reaction analyses, both sediment and water samples were positive at the downstream site. At all sites, salmonellae were present in the guts of different fishes (e.g., largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus). The highest percentage of detection (33% of analyzed fish) occurred at the downstream site, whereas detection percentages at the upper two sites were 18% and 17%. Detection of salmonellae was usually limited to one segment of the gut (i.e., upper or lower part). Serovars were highly variable among individuals and differed between the upper and lower gut in the only individual (a common carp) that had salmonellae in both gut segments. In situ hybridization demonstrated that salmonellae were normally associated with particulate material in the gut and occurred in highly variable numbers ranging from an occasional organism to a majority of the gut microbe population. These results demonstrate the presence of different serovars of potentially human pathogenic salmonellae among four ecologically distinct fishes within natural environments. They also suggest that salmonellae are not components of the indigenous microbial community in fish intestines but rather are ingested with particulate material.

  13. Methylmercury in fish from Owyhee Reservoir in southeast Oregon: scientific uncertainty and fish advisories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, C M; Kauffman, K W; Gilroy, D J

    1997-10-01

    Data collected during 1987-1994 showed elevated levels of mercury (Hg) in fish tissue from the Owyhee Reservoir in southeastern Oregon. Sixty-five percent of the samples analyzed had total Hg levels exceeding the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) health screening value of 0.6 mg/kg. Eighteen out of 89 (20%) fish tissue samples also had total Hg levels greater than the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) mercury action level of 1.0 mg/kg. The overall mean Hg content for all fish collected from the reservoir was 0.75 mg/kg wet weight (wet wt.). Fish muscle taken from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) had the highest mean Hg levels of 0.92, 0.87 and 0.82 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) had the lowest mean Hg content of 0.37 mg/kg. Increases in total Hg concentrations were found to be positively correlated with size for rainbow trout and yellow perch. A weak but significant correlation was also observed between total mercury content and age for smallmouth bass. Based on these data, in 1994 the Oregon Health Division (OHD) issued a fish consumption advisory for the Owyhee Reservoir using a conservative risk-based approach. The process of defining and communicating these consumption limits is the subject of this paper.

  14. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1985: Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Douglas E.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center (U.S.)

    1986-10-01

    This report summarizes activities in 1985 to determine the extent of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. To estimate consumption of juvenile salmonids we used the composition of the natural diet of predators and in the laboratory determined rate of gastric evacuation by predators. Salmonids were the single most important food item for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) at McNary tailrace during all sampling periods and at John Day forebay during July. Salmonids accounted for 11.6% of the diet of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in 1985 which was about twice that found in previous years. Salmonids contributed little to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) diet but comprised about 25% of the diet of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Composition of prey taxa in beach seine catches in 1985 was similar to 1983 and 1984 with chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), northern squawfish, largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus), and sand roller (Percopsis transmontana) dominating the catch at main channel stations and crappies (Pomoxis spp.) and largescale sucker dominating at backwater stations. Preliminary results of beach seine efficiency studies suggest that seine efficiency varied significantly among prey species and between substrate types in 1985. Results of digestion rate experiments indicate that gastric evacuation in northern squawfish can be predicted using water temperature, prey weight, predator weight and time. 19 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Important Considerations for Methemoglobin Measurement in Fish Blood: Assay Choice and Storage Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, Mel Anton; Rodnick, K. J.; J. A. Lacey

    2002-05-01

    Spectrophotometric assays of methaemoglobin (metHb) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, tilapias Tilapia niloticus and Tilapia zillii and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, under baseline conditions, were low (<4%) for each species, and yet higher than human values (<1%). MetHb results for a given fish species varied significantly between assays and two assays were deemed unacceptable for particular animals. For rainbow trout, white sturgeon, and the two species of tilapia, the Dubowski method gave uncharacteristically high estimates of metHb. MetHb could not measured in tilapia blood using the Evelyn & Malloy method due to spectral interference. Only the Horecker & Brackett assay worked well for all species. Storage conditions were extremely important in the quantification of metHb in rainbow trout blood. For consistent values, samples can be stored up to 4 h on ice (0 degrees C) or at least 20 days under liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). Auto-oxidation, however, elevates rainbow trout metHb at -20 and -80 degrees C. It should not be assumed that the blood of fishes and humans perform similarly during assays of metHb.

  16. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  17. Carbon dioxide as a tool to deter the movement of invasive bigheaded carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Donaldson,; Amberg, Jon; Shivani Adhikari,; Cupp, Aaron R.; Jensen, Nathan; Romine, Jason G.; Adam Wright,; Gaikowski, Mark; Cory D. Suski,

    2016-01-01

    Nonnative bigheaded carps are established in the Mississippi River and there is substantial concern about their potential entry into the interconnected Laurentian Great Lakes. While electrical barriers currently exist as a preventative measure, there is need for additional control mechanisms to promote barrier security through redundancy. We tested the effectiveness of infused carbon dioxide gas (CO2) as a tool to influence the movement and behavior invasive bigheaded carps, namely Bighead CarpHypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix, as well as native Bigmouth BuffaloIctiobus cyprinellus, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Paddlefish Polyodon spathula, and Yellow Perch Perca flavescens in an experimental pond. Individuals were monitored with acoustic telemetry before, during, and after CO2 addition to the pond. We noted distinct changes in fish behavior following CO2 addition. Each species except Paddlefish maintained farther distances from the CO2 infusion manifold relative to controls. Both bigheaded carp species had slower persistence velocities (persistence of a movement in a given direction) following CO2 infusion and Bighead Carp used a smaller area of the pond immediately after CO2 addition. Pond pH progressively decreased up to 1.5 units following CO2 infusion. This work provides evidence that could inform future research to enhance existing control measures used to deter high-risk invasive fishes, such as bigheaded carps.

  18. Using an experimental manipulation to determine the effectiveness of a stock enhancement program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2015-01-01

    We used an experimental manipulation to determine the impact of stocking 178 mm channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in six impoundments. The study design consisted of equal numbers (two) of control, ceased-stock, and stocked treatments that were sampled one year before and two years after stocking. Relative abundance, growth, size structure, and average weight significantly changed over time based on samples collected with hoop nets. Catch rates decreased at both ceased-stock lakes and increased for one stocked lake, while growth rates changed for at least one ceased-stock and stocked lake. The average weight of channel catfish in the ceased-stock treatment increased by 6% and 25%, whereas weight decreased by 28% and 78% in both stocked lakes. The variability in observed responses between lakes in both ceased-stock and stocked treatments indicates that a one-size-fits-all stocking agenda is impractical, suggesting lake specific and density-dependent mechanisms affect channel catfish population dynamics.

  19. Using hierarchical Bayesian multi-species mixture models to estimate tandem hoop-net based habitat associations and detection probabilities of fishes in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models are useful tools to evaluate habitat relationships of fishes. We used hierarchical Bayesian multispecies mixture models to evaluate the relationships of both detection and abundance with habitat of reservoir fishes caught using tandem hoop nets. A total of 7,212 fish from 12 species were captured, and the majority of the catch was composed of Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus (46%), Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus(25%), and White Crappie Pomoxis annularis (14%). Detection estimates ranged from 8% to 69%, and modeling results suggested that fishes were primarily influenced by reservoir size and context, water clarity and temperature, and land-use types. Species were differentially abundant within and among habitat types, and some fishes were found to be more abundant in turbid, less impacted (e.g., by urbanization and agriculture) reservoirs with longer shoreline lengths; whereas, other species were found more often in clear, nutrient-rich impoundments that had generally shorter shoreline length and were surrounded by a higher percentage of agricultural land. Our results demonstrated that habitat and reservoir characteristics may differentially benefit species and assemblage structure. This study provides a useful framework for evaluating capture efficiency for not only hoop nets but other gear types used to sample fishes in reservoirs.

  20. Phenotype, virulence and immunogenicity of Edwardsiella ictaluri cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate receptor protein (Crp) mutants in catfish host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Javier; Mitra, Arindam; Curtiss, Roy

    2011-12-01

    Edwardsiella ictaluri is an Enterobacteriaceae that causes lethal enteric septicemia in catfish. Being a mucosal facultative intracellular pathogen, this bacterium is an excellent candidate to develop immersion-oral live attenuated vaccines for the catfish aquaculture industry. Deletion of the cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) receptor protein (crp) gene in several Enterobacteriaceae has been utilized in live attenuated vaccines for mammals and birds. Here we characterize the crp gene and report the effect of a crp deletion in E. ictaluri. The E. ictaluri crp gene and encoded protein are similar to other Enterobacteriaceae family members, complementing Salmonella enterica Δcrp mutants in a cAMP-dependent fashion. The E. ictaluri Δcrp-10 in-frame deletion mutant demonstrated growth defects, loss of maltose utilization, and lack of flagella synthesis. We found that the E. ictaluri Δcrp-10 mutant was attenuated, colonized lymphoid tissues, and conferred immune protection against E. ictaluri infection to zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Evaluation of the IgM titers indicated that bath immunization with the E. ictaluri Δcrp-10 mutant triggered systemic and skin immune responses in catfish. We propose that deletion of the crp gene in E. ictaluri is an effective strategy to develop immersion live attenuated antibiotic-sensitive vaccines for the catfish aquaculture industry.

  1. Intraspecific diversity of Edwardsiella ictaluri isolates from diseased freshwater catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage), cultured in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartie, K L; Austin, F W; Diab, A; Dickson, C; Dung, T T; Giacomini, M; Crumlish, M

    2012-09-01

    A molecular epidemiology study was conducted on 90 Edwardsiella ictaluri isolates recovered from diseased farmed freshwater catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, cultured in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Thirteen isolates of E. ictaluri derived from diseased channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, cultured in the USA were included for comparison. All the E.ictaluri isolates tested were found to be biochemically indistinguishable. A repetitive (rep)-PCR using the single (GTG)(5) primer was shown to possess limited discriminatory power, yielding two similar DNA profiles categorized as (GTG)(5) -PCR group 1 or 2 among the Vietnam isolates and (GTG)(5) -PCR group 1 within the USA isolates. Macrorestriction analysis identified 14 and 22 unique pulsotypes by XbaI and SpeI, respectively, among a subset of 59 E. ictaluri isolates. Numerical analysis of the combined macrorestriction profiles revealed three main groups: a distinct cluster formed exclusively of the USA isolates, and a major and minor cluster with outliers contained the Vietnam isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profiling supported the existence of the three groups. The results indicate that macrorestriction analysis may be regarded as a suitable typing method among the E. ictaluri species of limited intraspecific diversity. Furthermore, the findings suggest that E. ictaluri originating from Vietnam may constitute a distinct genetic group.

  2. Status and future perspectives of vaccines for industrialised fin-fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudeseth, Bjørn Erik; Wiulsrød, Rune; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Lindmo, Karine; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Bordevik, Marianne; Steine, Nils; Klevan, Are; Gravningen, Kjersti

    2013-12-01

    Fin fish farming is developing from extensive to intensive high industrial scale production. Production of fish in high-density growth conditions requires effective vaccines in order to control persistent and emerging diseases. Vaccines can also have significant positive impact on the reduced usage of antibiotics. This was demonstrated when vaccines were introduced in Norway for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the late eighties and early nineties, resulting in a rapid decline of antibiotics consumption. The present review will focus on current vaccine applications for farmed industrialized fish species such as Atlantic salmon, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), cod (Gadus morhua), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), great amberjack (Seriola dumerili), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), japanese flounder (Paralichythys olivaceus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), red sea bream (Pagrus major), rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), seven band grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus), striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This paper will review the current use of licensed vaccines in fin fish farming and describe vaccine administration regimes including immersion, oral and injection vaccination. Future trends for inactivated-, live attenuated - and DNA - vaccines will also be discussed.

  3. Persistence of viral RNA in fish infected with VHSV-IVb at 15°C and then moved to warmer temperatures after the onset of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, A E; Merry, G E; Noyes, A D

    2012-07-01

    Smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu Lacepède, bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque (coppernose strain), koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), were infected by intraperitoneal injection with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV-IVb) at 15 °C. When clinical signs of disease developed, one-third of the fish was moved to 20°C and one-third to 25°C. Mortality in challenged fish at all three temperatures ranged from 25 to 45% in smallmouth bass and from 70 to 90% in bluegill. No koi carp or channel catfish died during the study. Viral copy numbers detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qrt-RTPCR) in fish dying at 20 and 25°C decreased over time. In survivors of the challenge, viral copy numbers were higher in the more susceptible species (smallmouth bass and bluegill) than in the more VHSV-IVb disease-resistant species (koi carp and channel catfish). In fish surviving 28days post-infection, prevalence of infection was 66-100% depending on species and temperature, and VHSV-IVb was detected at 10(3) -10(5) copies μg(-1) host RNA. Our results show that qrt-RTPCR is a useful tool to investigate fish kills even 28days after temperatures are elevated above those known to be permissive for VHSV replication.

  4. Arsenic in freshwater fish in the Chihuahua County water reservoirs (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevárez, Myrna; Moreno, Myriam Verónica; Sosa, Manuel; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Water reservoirs in Chihuahua County, Mexico, are affected by some punctual and non-punctual geogenic and anthropogenic pollution sources; fish are located at the top of the food chain and are good indicators for the ecosystems pollution. The study goal was to: (i) determine arsenic concentration in fish collected from the Chuviscar, Chihuahua, San Marcos and El Rejon water reservoirs; (ii) to assess if the fishes are suitable for human consumption and (iii) link the arsenic contents in fish with those in sediment and water reported in studies made the same year for these water reservoirs. Sampling was done in summer, fall and winter. The highest arsenic concentration in the species varied through the sampling periods: Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) with 0.22 ± 0.15 mg/kg dw in winter and Green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) with 2.00 ± 0.15 mg/kg dw in summer in El Rejon water reservoir. A positive correlation of arsenic contents was found through all sampling seasons in fish samples and the samples of sediment and water. The contribution of the weekly intake of inorganic arsenic, based on the consumption of 0.245 kg fish muscles/body weight/week was found lower than the acceptable weekly intake of 0.015 mg/kg/body weight for inorganic arsenic suggested by FAO/WHO.

  5. Perceptions of fish habitat conditions in Oklahoma tailwater fisheries: a survey of fisheries managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.

    2011-01-01

    While the downstream effects of dams on fish habitat have long been recognized, broad-scale assessments of tailwater fish habitat have rarely been conducted. In this paper, I report on the status of tailwater fisheries in Oklahoma as determined through a web-based survey of fisheries biologists with the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation conducted in July 2010. Respondents addressed 38 tailwaters, encompassing all major areas of the state. The majority of fish species comprising these fisheries included blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), followed by white bass (Morone chrysops), channel catfish (I. punctatus) and flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris). Most respondents indicated no or low concerns with fish habitat in tailwaters under their management supervision; only two tailwaters (Tenkiller Ferry and Fort Gibson) had the majority of concerns with fish habitat identified as high to moderately high. Principal components analysis and subsequent correlation analysis showed that tailwaters that scored high for issues related to shoreline erosion, change in water depth, flow fluctuations, and flow timing were associated with dams with large maximum discharge ability. No other factors related to fish habitat condition in tailwaters were found. In Oklahoma, dams with maximum discharge of at least 6,767.5 m3 sec–1 were more likely to have flow-related fish habitat concerns in the tailwater.

  6. Influence of lipopolysaccharide outer-core in the intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial peptides and virulence in Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Taylor; Diaz, Ignacia; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Almarza, Oscar; Segovia, Cristopher; Curtiss, Roy; Santander, Javier

    2016-04-01

    The genus Edwardsiella consists of bacteria with an intrinsic resistance to cyclic cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). Edwardsiella ictaluri, a pathogen of the catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the causative agent of a systemic infection, is highly resistant to CAMPs. Previously, we determined that the oligo-polysaccharide (O-PS) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) does not play a role in the E. ictaluri CAMP resistance and an intact core-lipid A structure is necessary for CAMPs resistance. Here, we evaluated the influence of the outer-core in the CAMPs resistance and fish virulence. E. ictaluri wabG, a gene that encodes for the UDP-glucuronic acid transferase that links the lipid A-inner-core to the outer-core-oligopolysaccharides, was deleted. Deletion of ΔwabG caused a pleiotropic effect, influencing LPS synthesis, CAMPs resistance, growth, and biofilm formation. E. ictaluri ΔwabG was attenuated in zebrafish indicating the important role of LPS during fish pathogenesis. Also, we evaluated the inflammatory effects of wabG LPS in catfish ligated loop model, showing a decreased inflammatory effect at the gut level respects to the E. ictaluri wild type. We conclude that E. ictaluri CAMPs resistance is related to the molecules present in the LPS outer-core and that fish gut inflammation triggered by E. ictaluri is LPS dependent, reinforcing the hypothesis that fish gut recognizes LPS in an O-PS dependent fashion.

  7. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the channel catfish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldbieser Geoffrey C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is the leading species in North American aquaculture. Genetic improvement of catfish is performed through selective breeding, and genomic tools will help improve selection efficiency. A physical map is needed to integrate the genetic map with the karyotype and to support fine mapping of phenotypic trait alleles such as Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL and the effective positional cloning of genes. Results A genome-wide physical map of the channel catfish was constructed by High-Information-Content Fingerprinting (HICF of 46,548 Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC clones using the SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs with FPC software. The resulting assembly contained 1,782 contigs and covered an estimated physical length of 0.93 Gb. The validity of the assembly was demonstrated by 1 anchoring 19 of the largest contigs to the microsatellite linkage map 2 comparing the assembly of a multi-gene family to Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP patterns seen in Southern blots, and 3 contig sequencing. Conclusion This is the first physical map for channel catfish. The HICF technique allowed the project to be finished with a limited amount of human resource in a high throughput manner. This physical map will greatly facilitate the detailed study of many different genomic regions in channel catfish, and the positional cloning of genes controlling economically important production traits.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ether metabolism in field collected fish from the Gila River, Arizona, USA-Levels, possible sources, and patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Kathy R.; Peterman, Paul H.; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Orazio, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in fish collected from the Gila River, Arizona, a tributary of the Colorado River in the lower part of the Colorado River Basin. Fish samples were collected at sites on the Gila River downstream from Hayden, Phoenix, and Arlington, Arizona in late summer 2003. The Gila River is ephemeral upstream of the Phoenix urban area due to dams and irrigation projects and has limited perennial flow downstream of Phoenix due to wastewater and irrigation return flows. Fifty PBDE congeners were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry using labeled surrogate standards in composite samples of male and female common carp (Cyrpinus carpio), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The predominant PBDE congeners detected and quantified were 47, 100, 153, 49, 28, and 17. Concentrations of total PBDEs in these fish ranged from 1.4 to 12700 ng g-1 wet weight, which are some of the highest concentrations reported in fish from the United States. Differences in metabolism of several PBDE congeners by carp is clear at the Phoenix site; congeners with at least one ring of 2,4,5-substitution are preferentially metabolized as are congeners with 2,3,4-substitution.

  9. 96 h LC50, behavioural alterations and histopathological effects due to wastewater toxicity in a freshwater fish Channa punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Dua, Anish

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxic impact of wastewater from sites 1 and 2 of Tung Dhab drain in the state of Punjab, India, on fish behaviour, morphology and gill histopathological biomarkers in comparison to control group. Static non-renewal tests were conducted for 96 h to determine LC50 of the wastewater for both sites using five concentrations (6.25-100%). Fish were regularly noticed for any deviation in behaviour and external morphology. Physico-chemical analysis of wastewater was done using standard methods recommended by APHA/AWWA/WEF (2005). Chronic toxicity tests were conducted for 15 and 30 days with sublethal concentrations of wastewater (50-90% of LC50) and gill histopathology was assessed. Wastewater near a paper mill was more toxic as observed from LC50 values of 72.45%. There was evident deterioration of water quality as the recorded values of some parameters were higher than the standard discharge limits. The test fish exhibited increased air gulping and surfacing, erratic movements initially and decreased opercular movements as the exposure period increased. Morphological observations include increased body colouration, mucus secretion, scale loss and haemorrhages on the skin and lower lip. Alterations in the gill histology such as complete lamellar fusion, epithelial lifting and intraepithelial oedema, haemorrhages, lamellar necrosis and aneurysm were noted in the test fish. Results demonstrate that the fish exposed to wastewater from both sites showed significantly greater change in gill organ index (IG) as compared to control fish for 15 and 30 days.

  10. Despopulação neuronal cardíaca em hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus cronicamente infectados com o Trypanosoma cruzi Cardiac neuronal depopulation in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Chapadeiro

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se obter um modelo experimental que permitisse estabelecer a despopulação (desnervação neuronal cardíaca procurou-se pesquisar o comportamento do sistema nervoso intracardíaco em hamsters cronicamente infectados com o T. cruzi. Para tal fim, realizaram-se contagens dos neurônios do plexo nervoso autonômico intracardíaco em hamsters inoculados com 35.000 formas sangüíneas de três cepas diferentes, sacrificados 5, 8 e 10 meses depois da infecção. Demonstrou-se, pela primeira vez, destruição neuronal significativa num modelo experimental, similar à que ocorre na doença de Chagas humana.The aim of this study was to obtain an experimental animal model of destruction of cardiac neurons in order to investigate the behavior of the cardiac nervous system of hamsters chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. We counted the neuronal cells of the cardiac autonomic nervous plexus in hamsters inoculated with 35 000 blood forms of three different T. cruzi strains and killed 5, 8 and 10 months after infection. We showed for the first time severe neuronal destruction in an experimental animal model with characteristics similar to those observed in human Chagas'disease.

  11. Vitellogenin mRNA Expression in Wild Crucian Carp(Carassius auratus auratus)from Hun River%浑河流域野生鲫鱼卵黄蛋白原基因表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋双双; 安立会; 郑丙辉; 赵艳民; 李子成; 陈浩; 赵兴茹; 刘代成

    2013-01-01

    为揭示浑河流域水环境内分泌干扰物对水生态的潜在风险,利用兼并引物扩增获得鲫鱼卵黄蛋白原(Vtg)和核糖体蛋白L-7(RPL-7)基因部分碱基序列(分别为825和450 bp),建立以RPL-7为内参基因、定量鲫鱼Vtg基因表达的实时定量逆转录聚合酶链反应(qRT-PCR)方法,并将该方法用于定量浑河野生鲫鱼肝组织Vtg基因表达分析.结果显示:与上游对照点(S1)相比,7月下游各点(S4~S8)雄鱼、S4和S6点雌鱼肝组织的Vtg mRNA表达水平皆显著升高(P <0.05);11月在雄鱼中未检出Vtg mRNA的有效表达,雌鱼也仅在S2和S3点的表达水平升高(P<0.05).研究表明,浑河流域野生鲫鱼尤其是在7月明显受到了环境雌激素类物质的影响.另外,qRT-PCR方法能够灵敏检测出鲫鱼Vtg基因表达的时空差异.

  12. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone reduces sexual motivation but not lordosis behavior in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piekarski, David J; Zhao, Sheng; Jennings, Kimberly J

    2013-01-01

    these neuropeptides serve as neuromodulators to coordinate female sexual behavior with the limited window of fertility has not been thoroughly explored. In the present study, either intact or ovariectomized, hormone-treated female hamsters were implanted for fifteen days with chronic release osmotic pumps filled...

  13. Effect of different concentrations of permeable and non-permeable cryoprotectants on the hatching rate of goldfish (Carassius auratus) embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fardin Shaluei; Mohamad Reza Imanpoor; Ali Shabani; Mohamad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the toxicity of various cryoprotective agents(CPAs) to goldfish embryos. Methods: Heart-beat embryos were immersed in: five permeable CPAs, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), methanol (MeOH), 1,2- propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (Gly), ethylene glycol (EG), and two non-permeable CPAs: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and sucrose in concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% or 20% for 5, 15, or 30 min. The viability of the embryos after the treatments was estimated from hatching rates. Results: The results showed that the toxicity to goldfish embryos of the five permeable CPAs were in the following sequence: PG 0.05). In this experiment none of the concentrations tested for sucrose reduced the hatching rate, but embryos exposed to PVP did not tolerate concentration 20%, at 30 min exposure. Conclusion: These finding will be advantageous for designing optimized Cryo-media for cryopreservation of goldfish embryos.

  14. Analysis of Phospholipids in Crucian Carp(Carassius auratus) Muscle by Offiine HPLC-MALDI-TOF MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-chen; WANG Yan-hong; WU Ren-an; WANG Shi-cheng

    2011-01-01

    The interest in the analysis of phospholipids(PLs), especially phosphatidylcholine(PC), has been increasing due to the importance of them in biochemistry as well as in industry. A method was reported based on the offiine combination of MALDI-TOF MS and normal-phase HPLC for analyzing PLs extracted from crucian carp. Total PLs of crucian carp were extracted and then separated by HPLC before the collected subfractions were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The mass spectra obtained show peaks of H+, Na+ and K+ adducts of PC molecules. It is shown that the prior separation of PLs by HPLC is highly necessary to remove the signal suppressing and to avoid the possible overlapping. With this method, 9 possible PC molecules in crucian carp and the corresponding fatty acid compositions were given from the well-resolved mass spectra.

  15. Orexins and receptor OX2R in the gastroenteric apparatus of two teleostean species: Dicentrarchus labrax and Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Livia; Castaldo, Luciana; de Girolamo, Paolo; Lucini, Carla; Paolucci, Marina; Pelagalli, Alessandra; Varricchio, Ettore; Arcamone, Nadia

    2016-08-01

    Orexin A and B peptides and the receptor OX2R were studied in sea bass and goldfish gastroenteric tract by immunoblotting combined with densitometric analysis using NIH Image J software and immunohistochemical techniques. These teleost species present a different gut organization and diverse feed