WorldWideScience

Sample records for auratus ictalurus punctatus

  1. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  2. Stress Effects in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Fry on Pond Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from previous studies suggested that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry that were housed in very high traffic areas from hatch until reaching 9 g in size were able to survive experimental challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri better than siblings who were hatched and raised in very low...

  3. Morphology and Small-Subunit Ribosomal DNA Sequence of Henneguya Adiposa (Myxosporea) From Ictalurus punctatus (Siluriformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The original description of Henneguya adiposa, a myxozoan parasitizing channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, is supplemented with new data on spore morphology, including photomicrographs and line drawings, as well as 18S small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence. Elongate, translucent, linear...

  4. Developing a low cortisol responsive line of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj G. Chatakondi and Brian C. Peterson USDA ARS Warmwater Aquaculture Research Unit, 141 Experiment Station Road, Stoneville, MS 38776. nagaraj.chatakondi@ars.usda.gov Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus is the most important farm-raised aquacultured species in the USA. Stressors in aquacultu...

  5. Innate immune response of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) mannose-binding lectin to channel catfish virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The channel catfish virus (CCV) is a pathogenic herpesvirus that infects channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in pond aquaculture in the Southeast USA. The innate immune protein mannose-binding lectin (MBL) could play an important role in the innate response of channel catfish by binding to the CC...

  6. Changes of serum myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide in the early stage of Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is an important farm-raised channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), disease. The development of a monitoring system for assessing the catfish health status in hatcheries and ponds is in great demanding. Because of the...

  7. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth and survival after challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed a basal diet that contained major protein (soybean meal, cottonseed meal) and energy (ground corn grain) ingredients that were derived from plant sources. Plant-source ingredients are considered to be low (taurine content. In add...

  8. Using 1-D 1H and 2-D 1H J-resolved NMR metabolomics to understand the effects of anemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...

  9. Using 1-D and 2-D J-resolved 1H-NMR metabolomics to understand the effects of anemia in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...

  10. The functional properties and application of gelatin derived from the skin of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Rui; Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Liping; Cui, Wenzhe; Regenstein, Joe M

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this work was to extract gelatin from skin of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and to study its functional properties and application in ice-cream and beer. SDS-PAGE patterns showed that channel catfish gelatin (CCG) had more high molecular weight components (β and γ chains) than had calf bone gelatin (CBG). The viscosity of CCG was 42mPa.s at 10°C, which was three times more than that of CBG. Compared to CBG, CCG presented higher emulsion capacity and stability, as well as higher foaming stability. CCG conferred the ice-cream samples and beer with better mouth feel and clarification effect, respectively. The results indicated that CCG had great potential to be utilized in the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinação do sexo em catfish de canal (Ictalurus punctatus utilizando endoscopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Souza Mendonça De Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A identificação precoce do sexo em peixes é um procedimento importante para o desenvolvimento de estratégias que facilitem o manejo no plantel de reprodutores. A endoscopia pode ser utilizada para essa identificação, embora em peixes seu uso ainda seja restrito. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi validar o uso do endoscópio rígido via poro urogenital para determinação do sexo do catfish de canal (Ictalurus punctatus. O equipamento utilizado foi um endoscópio Multipurpose Rigid™ 30º com 2,7 mm de diâmetro e 18 cm de comprimento. Foram examinados 60 peixes com peso variando entre 86 e 1.032 gramas nos quais foi introduzido o endoscópio via poro genital e, logo em seguida, eutanaziados para confirmação do sexo. Amostras de tecido gonadal foram coletadas para avaliação histológica do estádio de maturação e confirmação do sexo. Os resultados mostraram que dos 60 peixes examinados, 57 tiveram confirmação positiva do sexo via endoscopia, o que corresponde a 95% da amostra. A utilização da endoscopia para determinação do sexo em I. punctatus via poro genital é viável.

  12. Generation of Myostatin Gene-Edited Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) via Zygote Injection of CRISPR/Cas9 System

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Karim; Elayat, Medhat; Khalifa, Elsayed; Daghash, Samer; Elaswad, Ahmed; Miller, Michael; Abdelrahman, Hisham; Ye, Zhi; Odin, Ramjie; Drescher, David; Vo, Khoi; Gosh, Kamal; Bugg, William; Robinson, Dalton; Dunham, Rex

    2017-01-01

    The myostatin (MSTN) gene is important because of its role in regulation of skeletal muscle growth in all vertebrates. In this study, CRISPR/Cas9 was utilized to successfully target the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, muscle suppressor gene MSTN. CRISPR/Cas9 induced high rates (88?100%) of mutagenesis in the target protein-encoding sites of MSTN. MSTN-edited fry had more muscle cells (p?

  13. Ictalurus punctatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    variable-region diversity in the zebrafish. Immunogenetics, 52: 81-91. Li GN, Jiang DF (2004). The encoding identification of 28 strains pathogenic in aquatic animals. Water Conservancy Fish. pp. 62-64. Li L, Liu ZG, Yu HQ (2006). Study and tracing study of a new oral vaccine against fish diseases. J. Trop. Med. 6: 382-384.

  14. First record of Trichodina heterodentata (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus cultivated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML. Martins

    Full Text Available This study characterises morphologically Trichodina heterodentata Duncan, 1977 from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818 in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Body and gill smears were air-dried at room temperature, impregnated with silver nitrate and/or stained with Giemsa. Ten characteristics were selected to compare the present material with other morphological characterisations of T. heterodentata. Prevalence rate was 100%, mean intensity 89,333.70 (3,125 to 299,100 parasites per host. Trichodina heterodentata was considered medium-sized trichodinid with mean body diameter 59.4 ± 8.5 μm, denticulate ring 38.5 ± 4.5 μm, adhesive disc 60.2 ± 6.7 μm diameter and 24.4 ± 1.6 denticles. In relation to previous reports of T. heterodentata this material resembles in 90% of the analysed characters. This work confirms the biometrical variation that exists in the different populations of T. heterodentata. A list of hosts and comparative measurements of T. heterodentata are presented and the channel catfish is considered a new host.

  15. Short-term feed deprivation alters immune status of surface mucosa in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Liu

    Full Text Available Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease. As columnaris gains entry through the gills and skin of fish, we examined here changes in transcriptional regulation induced in these surface mucosal tissues due to short-term (7 day fasting. RNA-seq expression analysis revealed a total of 1,545 genes perturbed by fasting. Fasting significantly altered expression of critical innate immune factors in a manner consistent with lower immune fitness as well as dysregulating key genes involved in energy metabolism and cell cycling/proliferation. Downregulation of innate immune actors such as iNOS2b, Lysozyme C, and peptidoglycan recognition protein 6 is predicted to impact the delicate recognition/tolerance balance for commensal and pathogenic bacteria on the skin and gill. The highlighted expression profiles reveal potential mechanistic similarities between gut and surface mucosa and underscore the complex interrelationships between nutrition, mucosal integrity, and immunity in teleost fish.

  16. Generation of Myostatin Gene-Edited Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) via Zygote Injection of CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Karim; Elayat, Medhat; Khalifa, Elsayed; Daghash, Samer; Elaswad, Ahmed; Miller, Michael; Abdelrahman, Hisham; Ye, Zhi; Odin, Ramjie; Drescher, David; Vo, Khoi; Gosh, Kamal; Bugg, William; Robinson, Dalton; Dunham, Rex

    2017-08-04

    The myostatin (MSTN) gene is important because of its role in regulation of skeletal muscle growth in all vertebrates. In this study, CRISPR/Cas9 was utilized to successfully target the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, muscle suppressor gene MSTN. CRISPR/Cas9 induced high rates (88-100%) of mutagenesis in the target protein-encoding sites of MSTN. MSTN-edited fry had more muscle cells (p CRISPR/Cas9 is a highly efficient tool for editing the channel catfish genome, and opens ways for facilitating channel catfish genetic enhancement and functional genomics. This approach may produce growth-enhanced channel catfish and increase productivity.

  17. Bioconcentration and endocrine disruption effects of diazepam in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overturf, C L; Overturf, M D; Huggett, D B

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the detection of pharmaceuticals in surface waters has increased worldwide. Pharmaceuticals are typically found in the environment at concentrations well below therapeutic levels in humans; however, their mechanisms of action may be largely unknown in non-target organisms, such as teleost species. Thus, chronic exposure to these types of compounds warrants further investigation. The goal of this study was to examine the potential for diazepam, a model benzodiazepine drug, to bioconcentrate in tissues of channel catfish and to examine its ability to interact with the endocrine system through modulation of steroid hormones and/or steroidogenic genes. To investigate the bioconcentration potential of diazepam, channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were exposed to 1 ng/mL diazepam for seven days, followed by clean water for another seven days, using an abbreviated OECD 305 Fish Bioconcentration Test study design. This concentration of diazepam is well below environmentally relevant concentrations of diazepam (ng/L). To evaluate steroidogenic effects, fish were exposed to 1 ng/mL diazepam for seven days only. Steroid hormone concentrations were analyzed for various tissues, as well as expression of selected steroidogenic genes. Calculated bioconcentration factors for diazepam were well below regulatory threshold values in all tissues analyzed. No changes in steroid hormone concentration were detected in any tissue analyzed; however, the steroidogenic gene cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) was significantly down-regulated at day 5 and 3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) was significantly down-regulated at day 7 in the gonad. These results indicate that although diazepam does not significantly bioconcentrate, low-level chronic exposure to diazepam may have the potential to interact with endocrine function by altering gene expression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Methylmercury accumulation and fluxes across the intestine of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaner, Joy J; Mason, Robert P

    2002-06-01

    The excised intestines of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were perfused at 20 or 4 degrees C for 1 h 45 min, with methylmercury (CH(3)HgCl) alone, or in the presence of excess L-cysteine (L-Cys), D-cysteine (D-Cys), L-methionine (L-Met); or with ouabain or probenecid to identify the potential CH(3)Hg(II) uptake pathways in fish intestines. A temperature effect was noted, with CH(3)Hg(II) concentrations in tissues perfused at 20 degrees C being higher than at 4 degrees C, substantiating the idea that mechanisms requiring metabolic energy are involved in CH(3)Hg(II) uptake in fish intestines. The results indicate that, when CH(3)Hg(II) is complexed as the CH(3)Hg-L-Cys complex, it is taken up via an L-neutral amino acid carrier and rapidly transported to the serosal side of the intestine. Methylmercury uptake could be inhibited by probenecid and ouabain, although probenecid had less impact on CH(3)Hg(II) uptake than ouabain. Our results for CH(3)Hg(II) uptake in the presence of D-Cys, L-Met in excess of L-Cys, or with a metal mixture further established that CH(3)Hg(II) uptake across fish intestines occurs via a variety of pathways, including an energy-dependent L-neutral amino acid carrier, and that the route and amount of accumulation were a function of CH(3)Hg(II) speciation in the digestive tract of the fish.

  19. Putative roles for a rhamnose binding lectin in Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Benjamin H; Farmer, Bradley D; Straus, David L; Li, Chao; Peatman, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare, continues to be a major problem worldwide and commonly leads to tremendous losses of both wild and cultured freshwater fish, particularly in intensively farmed aquaculture species such as channel catfish. Despite its ecologic and economic impacts, the fundamental molecular mechanisms of the host immune response to this pathogen remain unclear. While F. columnare can induce marked pathologic changes in numerous ectopic tissues, the adhesion of F. columnare to the gill in particular is strongly associated with pathogen virulence and host susceptibility. Recently, in this regard, using RNA-seq expression profiling we found that a rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) was dramatically upregulated in the gill of fish infected with F. columnare (as compared to naïve fish). Thus, in the present study we sought to further characterize and understand the RBL response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). We first identified two distinct catfish families with differential susceptibilities to columnaris disease; one family was found to be completely resistant while the other was susceptible (0% mortality versus 18.3% respectively, P catfish RBL that persisted for at least 24 h (P catfish to different doses of the putative RBL ligands l-rhamnose and d-galactose, and found that these sugars, protected channel catfish against columnaris disease, likely through competition with F. columnare binding of host RBL. Finally, we examined the role of nutritional status on RBL regulation and found that RBL expression was upregulated (>120-fold; P feeding. Collectively, these findings highlight putative roles for RBL in the context of columnaris disease and reveal new aspects linking RBL regulation to feed availability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Suspending mammalian LHRHa-injected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus in individual nylon-mesh bag reduces stress and improves reproductive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone induced spawning of channel catfish held communally in tanks is a reliable method to produce channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus ' x blue catfish, I. furcatus ' F1 hybrid catfish fry. However, mature catfish are crowded, and repeatedly handled during the process of induced ovulation. Repe...

  1. Development of phytoplankton communities and common off-flavors in a biofloc technology system used for the culture of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of biofloc technology production systems continues to increase in the aquaculture industry worldwide. Recent research demonstrated that outdoor biofloc systems can be used to produce high yields of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). However, studies have not yet been performed to deter...

  2. Development of phytoplankton communities and common off-flavors in a biofloc technology system used to culture channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of biofloc technology production systems continues to increase in the aquaculture industry worldwide. Recent research demonstrated that outdoor biofloc systems can be used to produce high yields of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). However, studies have not yet been performed to deter...

  3. Effects of feeding frequency on apparent energy and nutrient digestibility/availability of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, reared at optimal and suboptimal temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effects of feeding frequency (daily versus every other day [EOD]) on nutrient digestibility/availability of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, reared at optimal (30 C) and suboptimal (24 C) temperatures. A 28% protein practical diet was used as the test diet, and chromic o...

  4. Identification and characterization of full-length cDNAs in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome annotation projects, gene functional studies, and phylogenetic analyses for a given organism all greatly benefit from access to a validated full-length cDNA resource. While increasingly common in model species, full-length cDNA resources in aquaculture species are scarce. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through in silico analysis of catfish (Ictalurus spp. ESTs, a total of 10,037 channel catfish and 7,382 blue catfish cDNA clones were identified as potentially encoding full-length cDNAs. Of this set, a total of 1,169 channel catfish and 933 blue catfish full-length cDNA clones were selected for re-sequencing to provide additional coverage and ensure sequence accuracy. A total of 1,745 unique gene transcripts were identified from the full-length cDNA set, including 1,064 gene transcripts from channel catfish and 681 gene transcripts from blue catfish, with 416 transcripts shared between the two closely related species. Full-length sequence characteristics (ortholog conservation, UTR length, Kozak sequence, and conserved motifs of the channel and blue catfish were examined in detail. Comparison of gene ontology composition between full-length cDNAs and all catfish ESTs revealed that the full-length cDNA set is representative of the gene diversity encoded in the catfish transcriptome. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the first catfish full-length cDNA set constructed from several cDNA libraries. The catfish full-length cDNA sequences, and data gleaned from sequence characteristics analysis, will be a valuable resource for ongoing catfish whole-genome sequencing and future gene-based studies of function and evolution in teleost fishes.

  5. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  6. Hematological and clinical chemistry changes induced by acute stress during handling and capture of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aguirre-Guzman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. Evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters of culture channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus under acute stress by management and capture practice. Materials and methods. Fish (200 g mean were maintained in culture tanks and divided in two treatments, in duplicate, (n=15x2x2=60 fishes. Thirty catfish were exposed for 5 min to acute stress (TE by management and capture practice, while other group not (control group, TnE. 10 fish for treatment were collected at 0, 6, and 24 h post-stress for blood collection, where TnE fishes were anesthetized along work. Complete blood count (manual method and blood biochemical (spectrophotometry of fish samples were evaluated and their results were analyzed using a Student’s t-distribution. Results. The erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and glucose level of TE animals was significantly higher (p<0.05 at 6 h post-stress, in comparison of TnE. Immune cells in fish TE decreased at 6 and 24 h post-stress, where leukocytes and lymphocytes were significantly lower that TnE (p < 0.05 at 24 h post-stress. Other evaluated parameters did not show significant differences along this study. Conclusions. Those results suggest that several hematological and blood biochemical parameters in fish changed by acute stress generated by management and capture practice

  7. The Effects of Sequential Environmental and Harvest Stressors on the Sensory Characteristics of Cultured Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) Fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramella, Michael A; Kim, Taejo; Avery, Jimmy L; Allen, Peter J; Schilling, M Wes

    2016-08-01

    Stress during fish culture alters physiological homeostasis and affects fillet quality. Maintenance of high-quality seafood is important to ensure the production of a marketable product. This study assessed how sequential stressors affect the sensory and quality characteristics of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets. Three stress trials were conducted where temperature (25 or 33 °C) and dissolved oxygen (DO, approximately 2.5 or >5 mg/L) were manipulated followed by socking and transport stress. After each stage of harvest (environmental stress, socking, and transport), fillet yield, consumer acceptability, descriptive evaluation, cook loss, tenderness, and pH were evaluated. Fillet yield decreased with increasing severity of environmental stress. Fillets from the severe stress treatment (33 °C, approximately 2.5 mg/L) received the highest acceptability scores (P Control fillets (25 °C, >5 mg/L) were the least acceptable (P 6 on a 9 point scale). Socking and transport were identified to positively affect textural characteristics of catfish fillets. Although the effects observed were not likely to negatively impact consumer acceptance, a strict management plan should be followed to maintain consistency in the product and avoid changes in stressors that might alter quality more drastically. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Expression, Purification and Antibacterial Activity of NK-Lysin Mature Peptides from the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurui Cai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are small peptides and play important roles in host innate immune response against microbial invasion. Aquatic animals secrete different kinds of antimicrobial peptides which have antimicrobial activity towards microorganisms. NK-lysins, mature peptides produced by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, are comprised of 74–78 amino acid residues, demonstrating broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and parasites. In this study, three distinct NK-lysin mature peptide (mNKLs, transcripts (76 amino acid residues cloned from the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus head kidney were ligated into plasmid vector pET-32a(+ to express the mNKLs fusion protein. The fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli Rosetta (DE3 under optimized conditions. After purification by affinity column chromatography, the fusion protein was successfully cleaved by enterokinase and released the peptide mNKLs. Tricine-SDS-PAGE results showed that mNKLs (approximately 8.6 kDa were successfully expressed. The purified peptide mNKLs exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli.

  9. Acute columnaris infection in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque): efficacy of practical treatments for warmwater aquaculture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Jinu, S; Goodwin, A E

    2004-01-01

    Columnaris disease was induced in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), by bath exposure to four highly virulent isolates of Flavobacterium columnare. In untreated controls, mortality began 20 h after exposure and reached 100% by 48 h. Mortality in channel catfish given antibiotic treatments with oxytetracycline or a combination of sulphadimethoxine and ormetoprim in feed prior to bacterial challenge was zero with all four strains of F. columnare. Diquat (Zeneca Agricultural Products, Wilmington, DE, USA) was the most effective bath treatment; mortality with all four strains was zero. With potassium permanganate, chloramine-T, hydrogen peroxide and copper sulphate, bath treatment efficacy varied significantly among strains (P = 0.0346) and among treatments (P = 0.0033). Bath treatments with chloramine-T and potassium permanganate significantly reduced (P < 0.05) mortality from 100 to 75 and 69%, respectively, but copper sulphate and hydrogen peroxide treatments were not effective. Based on our results, oral antibiotics prevented columnaris disease but, of the bath treatments, only Diquat produced a dramatic reduction in the mortality of acutely infected fish. Diquat is labelled for aquatic use as an herbicide in the USA but in large ponds it is prohibitively expensive.

  10. Safety of aquaflor (florfenicol, 50% type a medicated article), administered in feed to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Wolf, Jeffery C.; Endris, Richard G.; Gingerich, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Aquaflor, a feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol (50% w/w), is being developed for use to control enteric septicemia (ESC) in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus caused by the gram-negative enterobacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. The recommended dose of Aquaflor to control ESC is 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for 10 days. The study objective was to determine the safety of Aquaflor administered in feed to channel catfish at doses of 0 (control), 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg BW/day for 20 consecutive days. Parameters evaluated included daily mortality, behavioral (appetite, distribution, flight/fright response), and water chemistry observations, initial and terminal weight measurements, and gross and microscopic pathology. Medicated feed consumption was 67-86% of target with group mean doses of 8.5 mg/kg BW/day, 24.6 mg/kg BW/day, and 34.9 mg/kg BW/day. There were no mortalities or clinically observable changes noted at any of the dose levels tested. Aquaflor-related changes were limited to the food consumption and histopathology data. Although Aquaflor-related decreased feed consumption was noted in the 30 and 50 mg/kg BW/day groups, there were no differences in fish growth among the treatment groups. Aquaflor-related histopathology findings were limited to a histomorphologically evident dose-dependent decrease in hematopoietic/lymphopoietic tissue in the anterior kidneys, posterior kidneys, and spleens of channel catfish.

  11. Ultra-structural and histochemical analysis of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus liver treated with fumonisin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Maria Cirra Scaff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The histopathological effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1 injected intraperitoneally (IP, was evaluated in catfish (Ictalurus punctatus. Fishes were divided into four Groups. Groups II, III and IV were treated IP with FB1 injections of 1; 5 and 10 mg/kg bw/day, respectively, during 21 days. At the 7th, 14th and 21st day, fishes were sacrificed. The livers were hystologicaly analysed by the light and transmission electronic microscopy. Livers from the 7th day showed organelles alterations, particularly in the granular endoplasmatic reticle, mitochondria, nucleus and nucleolus mediated by FB1 doses. The occurrence of processes involved in the necrosis and apoptosis was detected. At the highest FB1 dose,the livers presented an intense response with an accentuate tissue disorganization, absence of cell limits and intense cytoplasm vacuolization. The image analysis showed the occurrence of necrosis in some areas, characterized by fully broken or swollen cells. The apoptosis was observed as the cytoplasm contraction and the chromatin formed masses concentrated in the edge of the nucleus. There was strong evidence that the numerous hepatocytes in the liver from the fishes under the toxic dose of FBs were selectively removed by the apoptosis process.Os efeitos histopatológicos da fumonisina B1 (FB1 foram avaliados quando a toxina foi aplicada intraperitoneal (IP em bagre (Ictalurus punctatus. Os peixes foram divididos em 4 Grupos, sendo que os Grupos II, III e IV foram tratados com FB1 em injeções IP nas concentrações de 1; 5 e 10 mg/kg p.c./dia, respectivamente, durante 21 dias. No 7º, 14ºe 21º dia de tratamento, amostras de peixe de cada Grupo foram sacrificadas. Os figados foram analisados histopatologicamente por microscopia de luz e de transmissão eletrônica. Desde o dia 7 de coleta, os fígados apresentaram alterações em diversas organelas, principalmente no retículo endoplasmático, citoplasma, núcleo e nucléolo mediadas pelas doses de FB

  12. Adjuvant Immune Enhancement of Subunit Vaccine Encoding pSCPI of Streptococcus iniae in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Jiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus is an important agricultural fish that has been plagued by Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae infections in recent years, some of them severe. C5a peptidase is an important virulent factor of S. iniae. In this study, the subunit vaccine containing the truncated part of C5a peptidase (pSCPI was mixed with aluminum hydroxide gel (AH, propolis adjuvant (PA, and Freund’s Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA. The immunogenicity of the pSCPI was detected by Western-blot in vitro. The relative percent survival (RPS, lysozyme activity, antibody titers, and the expression of the related immune genes were monitored in vivo to evaluate the immune effects of the three different adjuvants. The results showed that pSCPI exerted moderate immune protection (RPS = 46.43%, whereas each of the three adjuvants improved the immune protection of pSCPI. The immunoprotection of pSCPI + AH, pSCPI + PA, and pSCPI + FIA was characterized by RPS values of 67.86%, 75.00% and, 85.71%, respectively. Further, each of the three different adjuvanted pSCPIs stimulated higher levels of lysozyme activity and antibody titers than the unadjuvanted pSCPI and/or PBS buffer. In addition, pSCPI + FIA and pSCPI + PA induced expression of the related immune genes under investigation, which was substantially higher than the levels stimulated by PBS. pSCPI + AH significantly stimulated the induction of MHC II β, CD4-L2, and IFN-γ, while it induced slightly higher production of TNF-α and even led to a decrease in the levels of IL-1β, MHC I α, and CD8 α. Therefore, we conclude that compared with the other two adjuvants, FIA combined with pSCPI is a more promising candidate adjuvant against S. iniae in channel catfish.

  13. El bagre de canal (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818: estado actual y problemática en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Lara-Rivera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El bagre de canal (Ictalurus punctatus es uno de los peces endémicos de Norte América con mayor potencial para la acuicultura. A pesar de esto, los datos sobre su distribución actual son escasos y se desconocen muchos aspectos de su dinámica y desempeño productivo. En el presente estudio se reportan los resultados de una búsqueda bibliográfica y análisis de campo que permiten describir la situación actual del bagre de canal con respecto a su distribución geográfica histórica y actual, así como de la problemática que enfrentan los sistemas productivos de esta especie en México. Se identificó la falta de información e indicadores que permitan conocer la extensión de su hábitat natural, movilización o potencial productivo. La calidad y disponibilidad del agua figuran entre las principales problemáticas de la industria; el alimento supone el mayor gasto para los productores y existe gran heterogeneidad de manejo tanto en granjas reproductoras como de engorde, gran parte de la dinámica productiva sigue un modelo de ensayo y error. Se requiere optimizar y homologar los procesos del sistema productivo de bagre de canal, así como caracterizar correctamente las poblaciones domésticas y silvestres para aprovechar al máximo su potencial.

  14. An assessment of morphometric indices, blood chemistry variables and an energy meter as indicators of the whole body lipid content in Micropterus dolomieu, Sander vitreus and Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of several non-lethal techniques as indicators of total lipid content in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was investigated. The techniques included (1) the Fulton and relative condition factors, (2) relative mass, (3) plasma indicators of nutritional status (alkaline phosphatase, calcium, cholesterol, protein, triglycerides and glucose) and (4) readings from a hand-held, microwave energy meter. Although simple linear regression analysis showed that lipid content was significantly correlated with several predictor variables in each species, the r2 values for the relations ranged from 0·17 to 0·50 and no single approach was consistent for all species. Only one model, between energy-meter readings and lipid content in I. punctatus, had an r2 value (0·83) high enough to justify using it as a predictive tool. Results indicate that no single variable was an accurate and reliable indicator of whole body lipid content in these fishes, except the energy meter for I. punctatus.

  15. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of a novel immune-type receptor from Ictalurus punctatus and phasing by selenium anomalous dispersion methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrov, David A., E-mail: ostroda@pathology.ufl.edu; Hernández Prada, José A. [Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, 1600 SW Archer Road, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Haire, Robert N. [Department of Pediatrics, University of South Florida College of Medicine, USF/ACH Children’s Research Institute, 830 First Street South, St Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Cannon, John P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of South Florida College of Medicine, USF/ACH Children’s Research Institute, 830 First Street South, St Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Immunology Program, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Avenue, Tampa, FL 33612 (United States); Magis, Andrew T.; Bailey, Kate [Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, 1600 SW Archer Road, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Litman, Gary W. [Department of Pediatrics, University of South Florida College of Medicine, USF/ACH Children’s Research Institute, 830 First Street South, St Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Immunology Program, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Avenue, Tampa, FL 33612 (United States); Department of Molecular Genetics, All Children’s Hospital, 801 Sixth Street South, St Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, 1600 SW Archer Road, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

    2007-12-01

    A highly diversified novel immune-type receptor from catfish, NITR10, was crystallized to reveal novel mechanisms of immune recognition. X-ray diffraction data from crystals of a novel immune-type receptor (NITR10 from the catfish Ictalurus punctatus) were collected to 1.65 Å resolution and reduced to the primitive hexagonal lattice. Native and selenomethionine derivatives of NITR10 crystallized under different conditions yielded P3{sub 1}21 crystals. SeMet NITR10 was phased to a correlation coefficient of 0.77 by SAD methods and experimental electron-density maps were calculated to 1.65 Å. Five NITR10 molecules are predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit based on the Matthews coefficient.

  16. Sulfonation of 17{beta}-estradiol and inhibition of sulfotransferase activity by polychlorobiphenylols and celecoxib in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Liquan [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); James, Margaret O. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)]. E-mail: mojames@ufl.edu

    2007-03-10

    The sulfonation of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) by human liver and recombinant sulfotransferases is influenced by environmental contaminants such as hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), which are potent inhibitors, and the therapeutic drug, celecoxib, which affects positional sulfonation of E2. In some locations, the aquatic environment is contaminated by PCBs, OH-PCBs and widely used therapeutic drugs. The objectives of this study were to investigate the sulfonation kinetics of E2 in liver cytosol from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus); to examine the effect of OH-PCBs on E2 sulfonation; and to determine if celecoxib altered the position of E2 sulfonation, as it does with human liver cytosol. E2 was converted to both 3- and 17-sulfates by catfish liver cytosol. At E2 concentrations below 1{mu}M, formation of E2-3-sulfate (E2-3-S) predominated, but substrate inhibition was observed at higher concentrations. Rates of E2-3-S formation at different E2 concentrations were fit to a substrate inhibition model, with K{sup '}{sub m} and V{sup '}{sub max} values of 0.40+/-0.10{mu}M and 91.0+/-4.7pmol/min/mg protein, respectively and K{sub i} of 1.08+/-0.09{mu}M. The formation of E2-17-S fit Michaelis-Menten kinetics over the concentration range 25nM to 2.5{mu}M, with K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of 1.07+/-0.23{mu}M and 25.7+/-4.43pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The efficiency (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) of formation of E2-3-S was 9.8-fold higher than that of E2-17-S. Several OH-PCBs inhibited E2 3-sulfonation, measured at an E2 concentration of 1nM. Of those tested, the most potent inhibitor was 4'-OH-CB79, with two chlorine atoms flanking the OH group (IC{sub 50}: 94nM). The inhibition of estrogen sulfonation by OH-PCBs may disrupt the endocrine system and thus contribute to the known toxic effects of these compounds. Celecoxib did not stimulate E2-17-S formation, as is the case with human liver cytosol, but did inhibit the

  17. Growth of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), blue catfish (I. furcatus), and their F1, F2, F3, and F1 reciprocal backcross hybrids in earthen ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Brad J; Kuhlers, Daryl L; Liu, Zhanjiang; Dunham, Rex A

    2014-10-01

    The F1 hybrid between a channel catfish female (Ictalurus punctatus) × a blue catfish (I. furcatus) male outperforms both parental species in most environments. However, reproductive isolating mechanisms between the species made it difficult to mass produce the F1 hybrid for commercialization until recent improvements in hormone usage. This study was undertaken to mix the genomes of the 2 species in an attempt to obtain faster-growing catfish that would eventually be easier to reproduce. Despite the recent improvements, it would still be advantageous to have an animal that does not require hormone dosing for reproduction and does not require the growing of 2 separate species by breeders. Additionally, a F1 backcross or a multigeneration backcross has the possibility of being an improvement compared to an F1 hybrid. At low density, there was no difference in growth between channel catfish and channel-blue F1 hybrids. At higher densities, the F1 hybrid grew faster (666 g) than channel catfish (577 g), blue catfish × F1 (520 g), F1 × F1 (508 g), F1 × channel catfish (436 g), blue catfish (396 g), F1 × blue catfish (379 g), channel catfish × F1 (359 g), and F2 × F2 (359 g; P F3 hybrids had high coefficients of variation. This gives a high amount of variation for selection, which might be used to select the faster-growing catfish.

  18. Effects of dietary vitamin E on growth performance as well as intestinal structure and function of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque 1818).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Wang, Kaiyu; Liang, Xiaoxia; Fang, Jing; Geng, Yi; Chen, Zhengli; Pu, Haibo; Hu, Yaodong; Li, Xue; Liu, Ling

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of dietary vitamin E supplementation on growth performance, the intestinal structure and function of channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus , Rafinesque 1818) was investigated. A total of 900 healthy channel catfish (weight, 5.20±0.15 g) were divided into four groups, which received experimental diets with different vitamin E content (0, 50, 100 or 1,000 mg/kg). At the end of the feeding trial (after 15 weeks), the growth and gut performance of the animals was determined. The digestive enzyme activity in hepatopancreas and gut was also detected. In addition, the height of intestinal fold, the thickness of the mucous membrane and the number of somatostatin-positive cells was examined by histological analysis. Dietary vitamin E supplementation at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly improved the growth and gut performance, which also increased the activity of several digestive enzymes compared to that in animals without vitamin E supplementation (PE supplementation also significantly increased the height of intestinal fold and the thickness of the mucous membrane (PE supplementation at appropriate doses also had more somatostatin-positive cells in than those without vitamin E supplementation (PE supplementation at 50 and 100 mg/kg was shown to improve the growth performance as well as intestinal structure and function of channel catfish.

  19. Identification and analysis of genome-wide SNPs provide insight into signatures of selection and domestication in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyang Sun

    Full Text Available Domestication and selection for important performance traits can impact the genome, which is most often reflected by reduced heterozygosity in and surrounding genes related to traits affected by selection. In this study, analysis of the genomic impact caused by domestication and artificial selection was conducted by investigating the signatures of selection using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus. A total of 8.4 million candidate SNPs were identified by using next generation sequencing. On average, the channel catfish genome harbors one SNP per 116 bp. Approximately 6.6 million, 5.3 million, 4.9 million, 7.1 million and 6.7 million SNPs were detected in the Marion, Thompson, USDA103, Hatchery strain, and wild population, respectively. The allele frequencies of 407,861 SNPs differed significantly between the domestic and wild populations. With these SNPs, 23 genomic regions with putative selective sweeps were identified that included 11 genes. Although the function for the majority of the genes remain unknown in catfish, several genes with known function related to aquaculture performance traits were included in the regions with selective sweeps. These included hypoxia-inducible factor 1β. HIFιβ.. and the transporter gene ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 5 (ABCB5. HIF1β. is important for response to hypoxia and tolerance to low oxygen levels is a critical aquaculture trait. The large numbers of SNPs identified from this study are valuable for the development of high-density SNP arrays for genetic and genomic studies of performance traits in catfish.

  20. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  1. RESULTS OF REARING THE MULTIPLE AGE GROUPS OF CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS RAFINESQUE WITH THE USE OF PROBIOTIC FEED SUPPLEMENTS NUPRO® AND BIO-MOS®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vashchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of feed supplements NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of rearing the multiple age groups of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque. Methodology. The study of effect of feed supplements NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of rearing the multiple age groups of channel catfish have been carried out according to conventional methods. The experiments were conducted in the conditions of Pridneprovsky industrial fish farm of Dnepropetrovsk region. Channel catfish larvae were reared in standard trays. Water volume in trays was maintained at a level of 1.4 m3, stocking density of larvae was 20 thousand fish/tray. Rearing of young-of-the-year channel catfish was conducted in 1 m3 cages, stocking density of grown up larvae was 1000 fish/m3. Age 1+ channel catfish was reared in 1 m3 cages, stocking density was 150 fish/m3. Findings. The studies demonstrated that feeding of multiple age groups of channel catfish with balanced combined feeds with the addition of feed supplements NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® compared to the control group, which was fed with the combined feed but without supplements, increased their growth intensity. The use of these feed supplements in the combined feed composition contributes to an increase in fish growth rate and fish output and to a reduction in feed costs for fish rearing. The results of the conducted works allow determining the optimum doses of the addition of feed supplements NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® in the composition of combined feeds for feeding multiple age groups of channel catfish reared in the controlled conditions of aquaculture, which are as follow: NUPRO® when added to the feed of channel catfish larvae – 0.5%, young-of-the-year – 3.0%, age-1+ channel catfish – 5.0%; BIO-MOS® for channel catfish larvae – 0.5%, young-of-the-year and age-1+ channel catfish – 5.0%. Hydrochemical parameters in the experimental ponds were within normal limits, temperature regime was

  2. Δ6-fatty acid desaturase and fatty acid elongase mRNA expression, phagocytic activity and weight-to-length relationships in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fed alternative diets with soy oil and a probiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santerre, A; Téllez-Bañuelos, M C; Casas-Solís, J; Castro-Félix, P; Huízar-López, M R; Zaitseva, G P; Horta-Fernández, J L; Trujillo-García, E A; de la Mora-Sherer, D; Palafox-Luna, J A; Juárez-Carrillo, E

    2015-09-22

    A time-course feeding trial was conducted for 120 days on juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to study the effects of diets differing in oil source (fish oil or soy oil) and supplementation with a commercial probiotic. Relative levels of Δ6-fatty acid desaturase (Δ6-FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) expression were assessed in brain and liver tissues. Both genes showed similar expression levels in all groups studied. Fish weight-to-length relationships were evaluated using polynomial regression analyses, which identified a burst in weight and length in the channel catfish on day 105 of treatment; this increase was related to an increase in gene expression. Mid-intestinal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) count was determined according to morphological and biochemical criteria using API strips. There was no indication that intestinal LAB count was affected by the modified diets. The Cunningham glass adherence method was applied to evaluate phagocytic cell activity in peripheral blood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed through the respiratory burst activity of spleen macrophages by the NBT reduction test. Probiotic-supplemented diets provided a good substrate for innate immune system function; the phagocytic index was significantly enhanced in fish fed soy oil and the probiotic, and at the end of the experimental period, ROS production increased in fish fed soy oil. The substitution of fish oil by soy oil is recommended for food formulation and will contribute to promoting sustainable aquaculture. Probiotics are also recommended for channel catfish farming as they may act as immunonutrients.

  3. Effect of short-term feeding duration of diets containing commercial whole-cell yeast or yeast subcomponents on immune function and disease resistance in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, T L; Lim, C; Yildirim-Aksoy, M; Klesius, P H

    2012-04-01

    Juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed diets supplemented with yeast or yeast subcomponents (YYS) as commercial preparations of β-glucan (MacroGard(®) and Betagard A(®)), mannan oligosaccharide (Bio-Mos(®) Aqua Grade), or whole-cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Levucell SB20(®)) at the manufacturers' recommended levels. Fish were fed experimental diets for 1 or 2 weeks prior to disease challenge (pre-challenge feeding periods) and sampled at the end of each feeding period to measure haematological and immune parameters and to determine the effects of dietary YYS on resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri, the causative agent of enteric septicaemia disease (ESC). Feeding of experimental diets continued for 3 weeks post-challenge. In channel catfish fed diets supplemented with MacroGard(®), Betagard A(®), or Levucell SB20(®), survival in the 1 week pre-challenge feeding group and antibody titres in the 2 week feeding group were significantly higher post-E. ictaluri challenge in relation to catfish fed with the control diet. In fish fed these same three diets, survival to ESC was significantly higher after 1 week vs. 2 weeks feeding, while the antibody response was significantly higher after 2 weeks vs. 1 week. Lysozyme activity was also higher in the 1 week feeding group, but the increased activity was unrelated to diet. Feeding YYS-supplemented diets for a shorter duration of 1 week prior to challenge may prove beneficial in increasing resistance to ESC in channel catfish. However, we cannot discount that feeding YYS diets during the recovery period may have contributed to 'glucan overload' and reduced survival in the 2 week feeding group. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Diseases, Pathology and Recent Developments in US Farm-Raised Catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and now hybrid catfish (I. punctatus x I. furcatus) have been the most economically important aquaculture species in the United States for many years. As such, they continue to be of considerable research interest. The focus of this presentation concerns some re...

  5. Effects of Season, Strain and Body Weight on Testes Development and Quality in Three Strains of Blue Catfish, Ictalurus furcatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial production of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) female x blue catfish (I. furcatus) male hybrids has increased dramatically in the U.S. during the last 10 years. Hybrid fry production requires fertilization of channel catfish eggs with blue catfish sperm obtained by surgical removal ...

  6. Chemical treatments for reducing the yellow discoloration of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yilin; Liu, Shaoyang; Cline, David; Chen, Shengshun; Wang, Yifen; Bell, Leonard N

    2013-10-01

    The effect of chemical pretreatments on the color and carotenoid content of yellow discolored channel catfish fillets was studied. The color and carotenoid content of the fillets were analyzed by the L*a*b* color system and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Untreated fillets turned more yellow and darker after 12-d storage. Sodium bicarbonate had a beneficial effect on reducing the degree of yellowness, but the fillets still turned darker after storage. Sodium bisulfite gave the best results with fillets becoming less yellow and brighter after storage. Ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, citric acid, and sodium metabisulfite were not successful at reducing the discoloration. The sum of carotenoid contents of untreated fillets decreased significantly (P 0.05) different from the fresh or untreated fillets. The appearance of catfish fillets may be improved during storage by pretreating with sodium bisulfite. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Pentachlorophenol-Induced Cytotoxic, Mitogenic, and Endocrine-Disrupting Activities in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Pentachlorophenol (PCP is an organochlorine compound that has been widely used as a biocide in several industrial, agricultural, and domestic applications. Although it has been shown to induce systemic toxicity and carcinogenesis in several experimental studies, the literature is scarce regarding its toxic mechanisms of action at the cellular and molecular levels. Recent investigations in our laboratory have shown that PCP induces cytotoxicity and transcriptionally activates stress genes in human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells [1]. In this research, we hypothesize that environmental exposure to PCP may trigger cytotoxic, mitogenic, and endocrine-disrupting activities in aquatic organisms including fish. To test this hypothesis, we carried out in vitro cultures of male channel catfish hepatocytes, and performed the fluorescein diacetate assay (FDA to assess for cell viability, and the Western Blot analysis to assess for vitellogenin expression following exposure to PCP. Data obtained from FDA experiments indicated a strong dose-response relationship with respect to PCP cytotoxicity. Upon 48 hrs of exposure, the chemical dose required to cause 50% reduction in cell viability (LD50 was computed to be 1,987.0 + 9.6 μg PCP/mL. The NOAEL and LOAEL were 62.5 + 10.3 μg PCP/mL and 125.0+15.2 μg PCP/mL, respectively. At lower levels of exposure, PCP was found to be mitogenic, showing a strong dose- and time-dependent response with regard to cell proliferation. Western Blot analysis demonstrated the potential of PCP to cause endocrine-disrupting activity, as evidenced by the up regulation of the 125-kDa vitellogenin protein the hepatocytes of male channel catfish.

  8. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine is a beta-amino sulfur amino acid found in most animal tissues that has many important biological functions including bile salt conjugation, cellular osmoregulation, neuromodulation, calcium signaling. The benefits of supplementing diets with taurine are just beginning to be realized in a n...

  9. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine is a beta-amino sulfur amino acid found in most animal tissues. It has many important biological functions in mammals including membrane stabilization, antioxidation, cellular osmoregulation, detoxification, neuromodulation, and brain and eye development. Taurine supplementation in juvenil...

  10. Plasma cortisol stress response in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus influences susceptibility to Edwardeseilla ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone in fish as its plasma variations correlate with the occurrence of various stressful situations. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had a reduced ability to resist pathogens. Channel catfish fingerlings th...

  11. Ontogeny of the cortisol stress response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone which is an endocrine signaling molecule in all vertebrates and acts through intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Cortisol affects many biological functions including immunity, stress, growth, ion homeostasis, and reproduction. The objective of this stu...

  12. CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS, LEUKOCYTES SECRETE IMMUNOREACTIVE ADRENAL CORTICOTROPIN HORMONE (ACTH). (R823881)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Sequence genomic organization and expression of two channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Ghrelin receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) genes were isolated from channel catfish tissue and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. The two receptors were characterized by determining tissue distribution, ontogeny of receptor mRNA expression, and effects of exogenous homologous ghrelin administration ...

  14. Envenomation by Bothrops punctatus in southwestern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, Carlos A; Vallejo, Alexandra

    2016-12-15

    Bothrops punctatus (Chocoan forest lancehead) is a semi-arboreal pitviper species distributed in Panamá, Colombia, and Ecuador, whose human envenomation is poorly characterized. We describe two patients bitten by B. punctatus, whose most relevant clinical feature was the development of a severe coagulopathy with few local manifestations (mild edema without signs of necrosis) at the site of the bite. Patients quickly improved their clinical and laboratory abnormalities after polyvalent antivenom application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  16. Effect of nutrient restriction and re-feeding on calpain family genes in skeletal muscle of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Preziosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calpains, a superfamily of intracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, are involved in the cytoskeletal remodeling and wasting of skeletal muscle. Calpains are generated as inactive proenzymes which are activated by N-terminal autolysis induced by calcium-ions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of three calpain genes, clpn1, clpn2, and clpn3 in channel catfish, and assessed the effect of nutrient restriction and subsequent re-feeding on the expression of these genes in skeletal muscle. The clpn1 cDNA sequence encodes a protein of 704 amino acids, Clpn2 of 696 amino acids, and Clpn3 of 741 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences indicate that catfish Clpn1 and Clpn2 share a sequence similarity of 61%; catfish Clpn1 and Clpn3 of 48%, and Clpn2 and Clpn3 of only 45%. The domain structure architectures of all three calpain genes in channel catfish are similar to those of other vertebrates, further supported by strong bootstrap values during phylogenetic analyses. Starvation of channel catfish (average weight, 15-20 g for 35 days influenced the expression of clpn1 (2.3-fold decrease, P<0.05, clpn2 (1.3-fold increase, P<0.05, and clpn3 (13.0-fold decrease, P<0.05, whereas the subsequent refeeding did not change the expression of these genes as measured by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Calpain catalytic activity in channel catfish skeletal muscle showed significant differences only during the starvation period, with a 1.2- and 1.4- fold increase (P<0.01 after 17 and 35 days of starvation, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We have assessed that fasting and refeeding may provide a suitable experimental model to provide us insight into the role of calpains during fish muscle atrophy and how they respond to changes in nutrient supply.

  17. Iron status of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus affected by channel catfish anemia and response to parenteral iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Originally reported in 1983, channel catfish anemia (CCA), also ‘white lip’ or ‘no blood,’ is a major idiopathic disease affecting commercial production in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Affected individuals are characterized by lethargy, anorexia, extreme pallor, and packed cell volumes o...

  18. Characterization and mucosal responses of interleukin 17 family ligand and receptor genes in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin (IL) 17 family cytokines are important mediators of mucosal immune responses, tightly regulated by signals from the complex milieu of pathogenic and commensal microbes, epithelial cells and innate and adaptive leukocytes found at tissue barriers. In mammals, IL17 ligand expression has be...

  19. Expression analysis of the acute phase response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after infection with a Gram-negative bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peatman, Eric; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Terhune, Jeffery; Xu, Peng; Nandi, Samiran; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Li, Ping; Wang, Shaolin; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2007-01-01

    The acute phase response (APR) is a set of metabolic and physiological reactions occurring in the host in response to tissue infection or injury and is a crucial component of the larger innate immune response. The APR is best characterized by dramatic changes in the concentration of a group of plasma proteins known as acute phase proteins (APPs) which are synthesized in the liver and function in a wide range of immunity-related activities. Utilizing a new high-density in situ oligonucleotide microarray, we have evaluated the APR in channel catfish liver following infection with Edwardsiella ictaluri, a bacterial pathogen that causes enteric septicemia of catfish. Our catfish microarray design (28K) builds upon a previous 19K channel catfish array by adding recently sequenced immune transcripts from channel catfish along with 7159 unique sequences from closely related blue catfish. The analysis of microarray results using a traditional 2-fold change in gene expression cutoff and a 10% false-discovery rate revealed a well-developed APR in catfish, with particularly high upregulation (>50-fold) of genes involved in iron homeostasis (i.e. intelectin, hemopexin, haptoglobin, ferritin, and transferrin). Other classical APP genes upregulated greater than 2-fold included coagulation factors, proteinase inhibitors, transport proteins, and complement components. Upregulation of the majority of the complement cascade was observed including the membrane attack complex components and complement inhibitors. A number of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) and chemokines were also differentially expressed in the liver following infection. Independent testing of a selection of differentially expressed genes with real-time RT-PCR confirmed microarray results.

  20. Effect of nutrient restriction and re-feeding on calpain family genes in skeletal muscle of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosa, Elena; Liu, Shikai; Terova, Genciana; Gao, Xiaoyu; Liu, Hong; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Terhune, Jeffery; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2013-01-01

    Calpains, a superfamily of intracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, are involved in the cytoskeletal remodeling and wasting of skeletal muscle. Calpains are generated as inactive proenzymes which are activated by N-terminal autolysis induced by calcium-ions. In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of three calpain genes, clpn1, clpn2, and clpn3 in channel catfish, and assessed the effect of nutrient restriction and subsequent re-feeding on the expression of these genes in skeletal muscle. The clpn1 cDNA sequence encodes a protein of 704 amino acids, Clpn2 of 696 amino acids, and Clpn3 of 741 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences indicate that catfish Clpn1 and Clpn2 share a sequence similarity of 61%; catfish Clpn1 and Clpn3 of 48%, and Clpn2 and Clpn3 of only 45%. The domain structure architectures of all three calpain genes in channel catfish are similar to those of other vertebrates, further supported by strong bootstrap values during phylogenetic analyses. Starvation of channel catfish (average weight, 15-20 g) for 35 days influenced the expression of clpn1 (2.3-fold decrease, Pcatfish skeletal muscle showed significant differences only during the starvation period, with a 1.2- and 1.4- fold increase (P<0.01) after 17 and 35 days of starvation, respectively. We have assessed that fasting and refeeding may provide a suitable experimental model to provide us insight into the role of calpains during fish muscle atrophy and how they respond to changes in nutrient supply.

  1. Effect of Nutrient Restriction and Re-Feeding on Calpain Family Genes in Skeletal Muscle of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Preziosa; Shikai Liu; Genciana Terova; Xiaoyu Gao; Hong Liu; Huseyin Kucuktas; Jeffery Terhune; Zhanjiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calpains, a superfamily of intracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, are involved in the cytoskeletal remodeling and wasting of skeletal muscle. Calpains are generated as inactive proenzymes which are activated by N-terminal autolysis induced by calcium-ions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of three calpain genes, clpn1, clpn2, and clpn3 in channel catfish, and assessed the effect of nutrient restriction and ...

  2. Dietary vitamin E on the reproductive performance of the fantail goldfish Carassius auratus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harton Arfah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was conducted to examine the different dose of vitamin E in the diet on female broodstock reproduction performance of the fantail goldfish Carassius auratus auratus. This research consisted of four treatments with three replications. The use of vitamin E doses was 0, 125, 250, and 375 mg/kg. The vitamin E was dissolved in vegetable oil and mixed with albumen as a binder in feed. The vitamin E was sprayed at feed and was air dried. Female broodstock of the fantail goldfishes were reared for 40 days. The result showed that 375 mg/kg treatment performed the highest quality of reproduction. Egg diameter, gonadosomatic index, fecundity, and germinal vesicle breakdown of fish which are treated by 375 mg/kg vitamin E were respectively 0.92±0.05 mm, 8.86±4.62%, 56.00±29.18%, and 67.35±17.67% higher than control. Thus, 375 mg/kg of dietary vitamin E suplementating was a best dose to improve female broodstock productivity of the fantail goldfish Keywords: female broodstock, fantail goldfish, vitamin E, reproduction quality  ABSTRAK Penelitian dilakukan untuk menguji suplementasi vitamin E dengan dosis berbeda dicampur ke dalam pakan komersial terhadap produktivitas induk betina ikan komet Carassius auratus auratus. Penelitian ini menggunakan empat perlakuan dengan tiga ulangan. Dosis vitamin E yang diberikan, yaitu 0, 125, 250, dan 375 mg/kg pakan. Vitamin E dilarutkan dalam minyak nabati dan dicampur dengan putih telur sebagai perekat pada pakan. Vitamin E disemprotkan ke pakan dan dikeringanginkan. Induk betina ikan komet pascasalin dengan bobot 72,78±19,47 g diberi perlakuan selama 40 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa induk betina ikan komet yang diberi suplementasi vitamin E sebanyak 375 mg/kg dalam pakan memiliki diameter telur 0,92±0,05 mm, gonadosomatic index 8,86±4,62%, fekunditas 56,00±29,18 butir/g ikan, dan germinal vesicle breakdown 67,35±17,67% yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol. Dengan demikian

  3. Ekstrak Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera sebagai Pengendali Infestasi Argulus sp pada Ikan Komet (Carassius auratus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farika E. Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the extract of Moringa oleifera leave on Argulus sp infestation in comet fish, and determine an optimal concentration and time. Moringa oleifera leave was extracted using ethanol 96%. In total, 25 comet fishes (Carassius auratus auratus were used in this research, in which infested by one to five individuals of Argulus sp per fish. This research used pretest and posttest design with four treatments of extract concentration of Moringa oleifera leave, namely, TI 25 mg/l, TII 37.5 mg/l, TIII 50 mg/l, TIV 62.5 mg/l, and T0 without extract as a control. Each treatment was imposed on five comet fishes. The parameter of this study was the amaount of Argulus sp released from the body of the fish. The results showed that the extract of Moringa oleifera leave had an effect on ectoparasite on comet fish. There was an indication that the more concentration of the extract of Moringa oleifera leave, the more Argulus sp released, although statistically, it was not significant (P>0.05. The optimal time of giving the extract of Moringa oleifera leave to Argulus sp infestation was 12-h.

  4. Biochemical modulation in male specimens of Channa punctatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Biochemical modulation in male specimens of Channa punctatus (Bloch) under different habitats and seasons. C. P. Singh1, R. N. Ram2, Mohd. Danish2* and .... were analyzed using titrimetric method. (APHA, 1992) and temperature, pH, total dissolved solids and conductivity were measured using electronic digital meter.

  5. Biochemical enrichment and biophysical characterization of a taste receptor for L-arginine from the catfish, Ictalurus puntatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spielman Andrew I

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is invested with a high density of cutaneous taste receptors, particularly on the barbel appendages. Many of these receptors are sensitive to selected amino acids, one of these being a receptor for L-arginine (L-Arg. Previous neurophysiological and biophysical studies suggested that this taste receptor is coupled directly to a cation channel and behaves as a ligand-gated ion channel receptor (LGICR. Earlier studies demonstrated that two lectins, Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA-I and Phaseolus vulgaris Erythroagglutinin (PHA-E, inhibited the binding of L-Arg to its presumed receptor sites, and that PHA-E inhibited the L-Arg-stimulated ion conductance of barbel membranes reconstituted into lipid bilayers. Results Both PHA-E and RCA-I almost exclusively labeled an 82–84 kDa protein band of an SDS-PAGE of solubilized barbel taste epithelial membranes. Further, both rhodamine-conjugated RCA-I and polyclonal antibodies raised to the 82–84 kDa electroeluted peptides labeled the apical region of catfish taste buds. Because of the specificity shown by RCA-I, lectin affinity was chosen as the first of a three-step procedure designed to enrich the presumed LGICR for L-Arg. Purified and CHAPS-solubilized taste epithelial membrane proteins were subjected successively to (1, lectin (RCA-I affinity; (2, gel filtration (Sephacryl S-300HR; and (3, ion exchange chromatography. All fractions from each chromatography step were evaluated for L-Arg-induced ion channel activity by reconstituting each fraction into a lipid bilayer. Active fractions demonstrated L-Arg-induced channel activity that was inhibited by D-arginine (D-Arg with kinetics nearly identical to those reported earlier for L-Arg-stimulated ion channels of native barbel membranes reconstituted into lipid bilayers. After the final enrichment step, SDS-PAGE of the active ion channel protein fraction revealed a single band at 82–84 k

  6. Pectoral sound generation in the blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Yasha; Ghahramani, Zachary; Fine, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    Catfishes produce pectoral stridulatory sounds by "jerk" movements that rub ridges on the dorsal process against the cleithrum. We recorded sound synchronized with high-speed video to investigate the hypothesis that blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus produce sounds by a slip-stick mechanism, previously described only in invertebrates. Blue catfish produce a variably paced series of sound pulses during abduction sweeps (pulsers) although some individuals (sliders) form longer duration sound units (slides) interspersed with pulses. Typical pulser sounds are evoked by short 1-2 ms movements with a rotation of 2°-3°. Jerks excite sounds that increase in amplitude after motion stops, suggesting constructive interference, which decays before the next jerk. Longer contact of the ridges produces a more steady-state sound in slides. Pulse pattern during stridulation is determined by pauses without movement: the spine moves during about 14 % of the abduction sweep in pulsers (~45 % in sliders) although movement appears continuous to the human eye. Spine rotation parameters do not predict pulse amplitude, but amplitude correlates with pause duration suggesting that force between the dorsal process and cleithrum increases with longer pauses. Sound production, stimulated by a series of rapid movements that set the pectoral girdle into resonance, is caused by a slip-stick mechanism.

  7. Water quality and plankton communities in hybrid catfish (female channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus x male blue catfish, I. furcatus) ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve, 0.4-ha ponds were stocked with 10,000 hybrid catfish fingerlings in March 2015. Six ponds were partially harvested in August to remove fish larger than ~ 0.57 kg. All remaining fish were removed in October and November. Partial harvest of faster-growing fish removed ~26% of fish initially st...

  8. Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Expression is Regulated by Food Intake in the Brain of the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased growth is included as a selection criterion at the USDA Catfish Genetics Research Unit, Stoneville, MS, USA. Faster growth of selected channel catfish is typically attributed to their ability to consume more feed. While endocrine and neural factors and mechanisms that regulate feed intak...

  9. Sequence analysis, characterization and mRNA distribution of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Klesius, Phillip H

    2010-04-15

    Chemokine receptor CXCR4, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, binds selectively CXCL12. This protein plays many important roles in immunological as well as pathophysiological functions. In this study, we identified and characterized the channel catfish CXCR4 transcript. The full-length nucleic acid sequence of channel catfish CXCR4 cDNA comprised of 1994 nucleotides, including an open reading frame, which appears to encode a putative peptide of 357 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 40.1kDa. By comparison with the human counterpart, the channel catfish CXCR4 peptide can be divided into domains, including seven transmembrane domains, four cytoplasmic domains, and four extracellular domains. The CXCR4 transcript was detected in spleen, anterior kidney, liver, intestine, skin and gill of all catfish examined in this study. Because four CXCL of channel catfish have been identified, the result provides valuable information for further exploring the channel catfish chemokine signalling pathways and their roles in immune responses to infection. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Effects of dietary sweet potato leaf meal on the growth, non-specific immune responses, total phenols and antioxidant capacity in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmann, Rebecca T; Islam, Shahidul; Phillips, Harold; Adam, Zelalem; Everette, Jace

    2013-04-01

    Traditional energy sources in catfish diets have become costly, and economical alternatives are needed. Sweet potato leaves are underutilised agricultural by-products that provide energy and substantial amounts of phenols, which affect animal and human health. There is little information on the effects of these compounds on catfish, or the capacity of catfish to accumulate dietary phenols. Catfish enriched with phenols have marketing potential as functional foods. This study investigated the effects of diets with sweet potato leaf meal (SPLM) on growth performance, health and total phenolic compounds in catfish. SPLM was substituted for wheat middlings in three diets fed to groups of juvenile catfish for 10 weeks. Weight gain, feed conversion, survival, alternative complement activity and lysozyme activity were similar among diets. Haematocrit was lower in fish fed diets with SPLM, but within the normal range. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity in the whole body were similar among treatments. SPLM was an effective energy source for catfish up to the maximum level tested (230 g kg(-1) diet). SPLM did not enhance total phenols in catfish, but there were no apparent antinutritional effects of the meal on catfish growth, health or survival. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Alternative complement pathway of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus: molecular characterization and expression analysis of factors Bf/C2 and Df

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complement system important in both innate and adaptive host defense against microbial infection in vertebrates. It contains three pathways: the classical, alternative, and lectin pathways. Complement component factors B and D are two crucial proteases in the alternative pathway. In this study,...

  12. Enhancement effects of dietary wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth, immunology, and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effects of the inclusion of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (WDDGS) at levels of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30 and 40% without (diets 2-5) and with (diets 6-9) lysine supplementation, as substitutes of soybean meal and corn meal mixture on growth, body composition, he...

  13. Estudios inmunologicos en hamsters (Cricetus auratus) infectados con Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Monge; Paulo M Z Coelho; Tavares, Carlos A. P.

    1986-01-01

    Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que el hamster (Cricetus auratus) puede ser utilizado como un modelo experimental para estudios inmunológicos en la infección por Schistosoma mansoni. Los datos obtenidos, relativos a inmunidad concomitante, producción de anticuerpo letal e inmunosupresión se asemejan a los conseguidos en otros modelos experimentales ya establecidos. Estas observaciones indican que el hámster, además de ser un hospedero satisfactorio para el mantenimiento del parásito e...

  14. Feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus Valenciennes, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Loricariidae) in a costal stream from Southeast Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. Mazzoni; CF. Rezende; LR. Manna

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to compare the feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus from a coastal stream from Southeast Brazil with data previously published for the same study site before environmental changes...

  15. Redescription of Pterygoplichthys punctatus and description of a new species of Pterygoplichthys (Siluriformes: Loricariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Armbruster

    Full Text Available Pterygoplichthys punctatus and P. weberi, new species, are unique among hypostomines in having a medially divided buccal papilla. The two species can be separated from one another by color (small spots in P. punctatus, large in P. weberi, condition of the buccal papilla (deeply divided at all ages in P. punctatus vs. shallowly divided in adults of P. weberi, condition of the lateral keel odontodes (fairly short and directed posteriorly in P. punctatus vs. large and directed almost laterally in P. weberi, and body width (SL/cleithral width 3.6-4.0 in P. punctatus vs. 3.3-3.4 in P. weberi. Pterygoplichthys punctatus is known from the rio Madeira drainage and the rio Urubu of Brazil and has published, but unconfirmed localities in the rio Purus and rio Tocantins basin, and P. weberi is known from the Río Marañon, Río Ucayali, and upper Río Amazonas drainages of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

  16. Estudios inmunologicos en hamsters (Cricetus auratus infectados con Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Monge

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que el hamster (Cricetus auratus puede ser utilizado como un modelo experimental para estudios inmunológicos en la infección por Schistosoma mansoni. Los datos obtenidos, relativos a inmunidad concomitante, producción de anticuerpo letal e inmunosupresión se asemejan a los conseguidos en otros modelos experimentales ya establecidos. Estas observaciones indican que el hámster, además de ser un hospedero satisfactorio para el mantenimiento del parásito en el laboratorio, puede ser considerado como un modelo experimental alterno cuyo crecimiento y mantenimiento son relativamente simples y además es un animal de fácil manejo.

  17. Fish Lice (Argulus japonicus) in Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafer, Lemnique N; Whitney, Jesse C; Jensen, V Behrana

    2015-04-01

    Fish lice (Argulus spp; family Argulidae) are branchiuran crustaceans that parasitize both marine and freshwater fishes. Argulus spp can be a major threat to fish health, because heavy infestations can cause significant morbidity and mortality. In addition, fish lice are known to be the vehicle for other fish diseases. During rounds at our facility, Argulus japonicus was collected from the caudal and anal fins of 3 goldfish (Carassius auratus). These goldfish were asymptomatic, and no additional cases were noted after manual removal of the lice. As soon as any Argulus organisms are identified, management and treatment are recommended because infections can escalate rapidly. Currently, there are no FDA-approved drugs for the control and treatment of this parasite, but several chemicals including organophosphates and diflubenzuron have been used with success. The screening and quarantine of incoming fish is the best way to avoid a facility-wide Argulus infestation.

  18. A Cultural Resources Inventory of the Proposed Dry Impoundment Area North of Ross Barnett Reservoir and Field Reconnaissance of the Pearl River, between River Miles 278 and 301, in the Vicinity of Jackson, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    and Lepisosteus spatula ) and several species of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Ictalurus natalis, Ictalurus nebulosus, Ictalurus...1.1 1 kitchen . This struc ture I s in very good condition and is per iod i cal ly iined L_ accomodate visiting guests and relatives at the farm. One

  19. Environmental DNA Detection of the Golden Tree Frog (Phytotriades auratus) in Bromeliads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresdal, Jack D; Farrell, Aidan D; Goldberg, Caren S

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) is a powerful, non-destructive technique for detecting rare or hard to find freshwater organisms. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of environmental DNA analysis as a method for detecting a rare amphibian, the golden tree frog (Phytotriades auratus). These frogs are believed to live exclusively within one species of tank bromeliad, Glomeropitcairnia erectiflora, found on the highest peaks of the island of Trinidad in the West Indies. Previous survey methods for this species involved bromeliad destruction, while here we collected and analyzed water samples from discrete pools within G. erectiflora plants for species-specific DNA. We found 1) that we can identify the presence of P. auratus in the bromeliads using environmental DNA analysis, and 2) that environmental DNA evidence indicates the presence of a previously undiscovered P. auratus population, increasing the species' range from two isolated 'sky islands' to three.

  20. Environmental DNA Detection of the Golden Tree Frog (Phytotriades auratus) in Bromeliads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresdal, Jack D.; Farrell, Aidan D.; Goldberg, Caren S.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) is a powerful, non-destructive technique for detecting rare or hard to find freshwater organisms. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of environmental DNA analysis as a method for detecting a rare amphibian, the golden tree frog (Phytotriades auratus). These frogs are believed to live exclusively within one species of tank bromeliad, Glomeropitcairnia erectiflora, found on the highest peaks of the island of Trinidad in the West Indies. Previous survey methods for this species involved bromeliad destruction, while here we collected and analyzed water samples from discrete pools within G. erectiflora plants for species-specific DNA. We found 1) that we can identify the presence of P. auratus in the bromeliads using environmental DNA analysis, and 2) that environmental DNA evidence indicates the presence of a previously undiscovered P. auratus population, increasing the species’ range from two isolated ‘sky islands’ to three. PMID:28052079

  1. Vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is important to the proper development and functioning of the body, appearing in several metabolic functions. This experiment was conducted with aim evaluate to the vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish Carassius auratus. The experimental was completely randomized with six treatments (0, 2.000, 4.000, 8.000, 16.000 and 32.000 IU of vitamin A kg-1 diet with four repetitions into 24 experimental cages, with capacity for 150 liters useful volume, made of mesh shading, installed inside a masonry circular tank with a capacity of 25 m3 of water. 192 fish with an average initial weight of 6.66±0.57 g and initial length of 7.30±0.33 cm, feed at 8h, 11h, 14h and 17h at satiety were used. Evaluated the effects on productive performance and intensity of yellow-red coloring of the skin of the fish were. The Linear Response Plateau analysis of weight gain and length total, feed conversion and daily growth rate versus vitamin A requirement estimate showed 2,624, 2,385 and 2,358, 4,381 and 2,866 IU of vitamin A per kg diet, respectively. The data indicated that this vitamin has little or no influence on the intensity of the skin color of the Goldfish.

  2. Hierarchical structure and cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhou; Wang, Yukun; Feng, Qingling; Kienzle, Arne; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-10-01

    To study the structure and the cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of fish scales treated with different processing methods. Based on varying morphologies and components, the fish scales can be divided into three regions on the surface and three layers in vertical. The functions of these three individual layers were analyzed. SEM results show that the primary inorganic components are spherical or cubic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. The fish scales have an ~60° overlapped plywood structure of lamellas in the fibrillary plate. The plywood structure consists of co-aligned type I collagen fibers, which are parallel to the HA lamellas. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicate that the main components are HA and type I collagen fibers. MC3T3-E1 cell culture results show a high cytocompatibility and the ability to guide cell proliferation and migration along the scale ridge channels of the fish scales. This plywood structure provides inspiration for a structure-enhanced composite material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  4. POPULATION STRUCTURE OF THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD, BUFO PUNCTATUS, IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the spatial scale at which genetic structure of Bufo punctatus within the MojaveDesert is organized by sequencing a portion of mitochondrial DNA control region for 831 toadscollected from 43 sites around Las Vegas, Nevada. We grouped these collecti...

  5. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late...

  6. Feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus Valenciennes, 1840 in a costal stream from Southeast Brazil/Ecologia trofica de Hypostomus punctatus Valenciennes, 1840 de um riacho costeiro do sudeste do Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mazzoni, R; Rezende, C.F; Manna, L.R

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to compare the feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus from a coastal stream from Southeast Brazil with data previously published for the same study site before environmental changes...

  7. Chlorpheniramine impairs functional recovery in Carassius auratus after telencephalic ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Garção

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of an H1 receptor antagonist on the functional recovery of Carassius auratus submitted to telencephalic ablation. Five days after surgery the fish underwent a spatial-choice learning paradigm test. The fish, weighing 6-12 g, were divided into four groups: telencephalic ablation (A or sham lesion (S and saline (SAL or chlorpheniramine (CPA, ip, 16 mg/kg. For eight consecutive days each animal was trained individually in sessions separated by 24 h (alternate days. Training trials (T1-T8 consisted of finding the food in one of the feeders, which were randomly blocked for each subject. Animals received an intraperitoneal injection of SAL or CPA 10 min after the training trials. The time spent by the animals in each group to find the food (latency was analyzed separately at T1 and T8 by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Student Newman-Keuls test. At T1 the latencies (mean ± SEM of the A-SAL (586.3 ± 13.6 and A-CPA (600 ± 0 groups were significantly longer than those of the S-SAL (226.14 ± 61.15 and S-CPA (356.33 ± 68.8 groups. At T8, the latencies of the A-CPA group (510.11 ± 62.2 remained higher than those of the other groups, all of which showed significantly shorter latencies (A-SAL = 301.91 ± 78.32; S-CPA = 191.58 ± 73.03; S-SAL = 90.28 ± 41 compared with T1. These results support evidence that training can lead to functional recovery of spatial-choice learning in telencephalonless fish and also that the antagonist of the H1 receptor impairs it.

  8. Fin Type Variation of Lionhead Strain Goldfish (Carassius auratus Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syaifudin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available  Lionhead strain goldfish (Carassius auratus inheritance produce many variations in phenotype qualitative traits of their offspring that is not common with the parents. Lionhead is an ornamental freshwater fish, they do not have a dorsal fin, but it is a beauty finfish, is popular to the people and have a high economic value. Of the 846 offspring of lionhead is produced in this experiment, and 57,7% of them have dorsal fin (42,3% normal, 13,1% of them have anal fin which did not similar with their parents, 58,6% caudal fin of them did not have similar to their parents. It might be caused by incompletely segregation in meiosis and many gen responsible to certain phenotype trait. Another abnormalities such as no anal fin, blindness, stumped and no pigmen in their gill lamella also occurred. Key words: Inheritance, fin, phenotype, abnormality   ABSTRAK Ikan maskoki strain lionhead menghasilkan keturunan dengan fenotip yang sangat bervariasi dan berbeda dengan induknya. Ikan ini merupakan ikan hias air tawar yang tidak memiliki sirip punggung namun tetap memiliki keindahan, sehingga menjadi begitu populer di masyarakat dan memiliki nilai ekonomi yang tinggi. Sebanyak 846 keturunan (anakan telah dihasilkan dalam percobaan ini, dan sebanyak 57,7% dari populasi tersebut memiliki sirip punggung (berarti 42,3% merupakan keturunan normal, 13,1% memiliki sirip dubur yang tidak mirip dengan induknya. Variasi keturunan ikan maskoki strain lionhead ini disebabkan oleh segregasi yang tidak sempurna dalam proses meiosis dan banyaknya gen yang terlibat dalam pembentukan penotip tertentu. Abnormalitas lainnya juga terjadi pada keturunan ikan maskoki strain lionhead ini, seperti tidak adanya sirip dubur, mata buta, tubuh pendek dan tidak adanya pigmen pada lemela insang Kata kunci: Keturunan, sirip, fenotip, abnormalitas  

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the heart failure model of cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Liu, Dong-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Song, Jian-Tao; Ji, Xian-Fei; Hou, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Zhen-Hai

    2016-05-01

    In this study we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of a heart failure model of cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,267 bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region.

  10. Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iguchi Kei'ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded; CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and

  11. Antidiabetic Effects of Carassius auratus Complex Formula in High Fat Diet Combined Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  12. Feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus Valenciennes, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Loricariidae) in a costal stream from Southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzoni,R.; Rezende,CF.; Manna,LR.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to compare the feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus from a coastal stream from Southeast Brazil with data previously published for the same study site before environmental changes. Feeding preferences were assessed through a sample of 138 specimens (67 from the dry and 71 from the rainy season) using the Index of Alimentary Importance (IAi). We registered five different food items (detritus, plant fragments, Diatoms, Chloroficeae and Cianobacteries) composing ...

  13. In vitro studies of Coelomomyces punctatus from Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Cyclops vernalis

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Jessica M.; Roberts, Donald W.

    1980-01-01

    Attempts to grow mycelium of Coelomomyces punctatus from Anopheles quadrimaculatus larvae were made using more than 50 combinations of known vertebrate and invertebrate tissue culture media and microbiological media. Growth and/or differentiation of mycelium into sporangia were observed in several media. Significant growth of hyphal fragments and differentiation into young resting sporangia occurred in conditioned Mitsuhashi-Maramorosch insect tissue culture medium. This medium was conditione...

  14. Un caso de xantismo parcial en Aplodactylus punctatus (Teleostei: Aplodactylidae del sur de Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Béarez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez en Ilo, sur del Perú, una jerguilla amarilla (Aplodactylus punctatus. Esa condición de tener una piel de color amarillo se denomina xantismo. Este registro, único, corresponde probablemente a una extensión hacia el norte del rango de distribución de la «jerguilla reina», conocida de la costa central de Chile.

  15. Transcriptome Characterization of Dendrolimus punctatus and Expression Profiles at Different Developmental Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Hui Yang

    Full Text Available The pine moth Dendrolimus punctatus (Walker is a common insect pest that confers serious damage to conifer forests in south of China. Extensive physiology and ecology studies on D. punctatus have been carried out, but the lack of genetic information has limited our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its development and resistance. Using RNA-seq approach, we characterized the transcriptome of this pine moth and investigated its developmental expression profiles during egg, larval, pupal, and adult stages. A total of 107.6 million raw reads were generated that were assembled into 70,664 unigenes. More than 30% unigenes were annotated by searching for homology in protein databases. To better understand the process of metamorphosis, we pairwise compared four developmental phases and obtained 17,624 differential expression genes. Functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes showed positive correlation with specific physiological activities of each stage, and these results were confirmed by qRT-PCR experiments. This study provides a valuable genomic resource of D. punctatus covering all its developmental stages, and will promote future studies on biological processes at the molecular level.

  16. The First Record of Argulus foliacesus (Crustacea: Branchiura) Infestation on Lionhead Goldfish (Carassius auratus) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noaman, V; Chelongar, Y; Shahmoradi, Ah

    2010-06-01

    Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura), or the fish louse, is an ectoparasite of the skin or gill of the fresh water fish species. Clinical signs in infected fish include scratching on aquarium walls, erratic swimming, and poor growth. It causes pathological changes due to direct tissue damage and secondary infections. In the present study, lionhead goldfish (Carassius auratus), taken from a goldfish aquarium with symptoms such as abnormal swimming, poor growth and death, were examined for ectoparasites. The parasites collected from the skin and fins of fish were identified as A. foliaceus. Then, treatment was carried out by trichlorfon. After administration, no parasite was observed on the fish. This is the first report of infection with A. foliaceus of lionhead goldfish (Carassius auratus) in Iran.

  17. Crecimiento de alevines de Ictalurus Balsanus (pisces:ictaluridae) en condiciones de laboratorio.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Luna-Figueroa; Elsah Arce Uribe

    2016-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio para evaluar el efecto de tres dietas sobre el crecimiento de alevines de Ictalurus balsanus en condiciones de laboratorio. La talla inicial de los peces fue 39.68 ± 2.0 mm de longitud total y 411.47 ± 17.00 mg de peso corporal, colocados en grupos de 10 peces por acuario de 80L. Los bagres fueron alimentados con tres dietas diferentes: I(31,13% proteína, 2,70% grasa, 56,53% carbohidratos), II(39,12%, 3,0%, 35,0%), III(53,57%, 19,37%, 4,17%). Los resultados indican que e...

  18. [Effect of arecoline on the structure of rest and active wakefulness in the catfish Ictalurus nebulosus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronov, I B; Karmanova, I G; Titkov, E S; Rukoiatkina, N I

    1977-01-01

    The investigation demonstrated, that in the representative of the Osteichthyes--Ictalurus nebulosus, the hematoencephalic barrier for quaternary ammonium compounds is strongly pronounced. The difference in ability of tertiary and quaternary cholinergic substances to penetrate from the blood into the brain of this fish can be used for study of the presence and functional role of cholinoreceptive brain neurons. The pharmacological analysis showed the presence of cholinoreceptive neurons in the fish brain, participating in the activity of the functional systems which generate the "swimming automatism"--rhythmic movements of the tail, that are not accompanied by progression of the body. Apparently, this "swimming automatism" is the element of the future paradoxical sleep, which appears in its complete form in birds and mammals.

  19. Chemical composition and flavour characteristics of a liquid extract occurring as waste in crab (Ovalipes punctatus) processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Junzhi; Dai, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Tao; Lu, Yanbin; Jiang, Qianqian

    2013-07-01

    The crab processing industry has generated a considerable quantity of by-products, and these untapped residues resulted in environmental problem and waste of natural resources. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to evaluate the further usage potential of Ovalipes punctatus extract. The proximate composition, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids, tasty components (free amino acid, flavour 5'-nucleotides, glycine betaine and inorganic ions) and volatile flavour components were studied. O. punctatus extract was found to have a high protein (31.2 g kg⁻¹), but a low fat content (0.13 g kg⁻¹). The protein contained high amounts of arginine (110.2 g kg⁻¹ protein) and glutamic acid (108.9 g kg⁻¹). The fatty acid profiles were dominated by saturated fatty acids, while C20 n-3 and n-6 fatty acids accounted for 85% of its polyunsaturated fatty acids. Arginine, alanine, glycine, glycine betaine, glutamic acid and chloridion (taste active value greater than 1) were primary taste-active components. A total of 77 volatiles were identified, and benzaldehyde and pyrazines were the major flavour contributors to the aroma of O. punctatus extract. Furthermore, sensory evaluation with a five-point hedonic scale showed that the overall flavour of O. punctatus extract had high acceptance. Results presented in this study indicated that O. punctatus extract could be utilised to produce nutritious food or value-added products. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Revising the distribution of a threatened goby, Apocryptodon punctatus (Perciformes, Oxudercidae, in Japan with the discovery of an isolated population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsunobu Murase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Five specimens of a threatened goby, Apocryptodon punctatus (21.2–40.1 mm in standard length, were collected at a mudflat site of Kushima City, Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu, southern Japan over two seasons, autumn (September 2015 and spring (April 2016. A review of distributional records of A. punctatus revealed that this population represents the southernmost record of the species in Japanese waters, and is isolated ca. 200 km south-southwest from the nearest point of the main range of the species along the Pacific coast of Japan. Publicising this population will help conserve it and its vulnerable habitat.

  1. Growth and liver histology of Channa punctatus exposed to a common biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, S; Matozzo, V; Bhandari, D; Faggio, C

    2018-01-28

    Mustard oil cake (MOC) is widely used as biofertilizer in the field of agriculture and aquaculture. Channa punctatus was exposed to 0.42 g.L -1 sublethal concentration for 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Due to such exposure, body growth and histological changes in liver were observed. It was revealed that weight, length and breadth of fish were gradually increased with the days of exposure in compare to control fish, whereas, liver showed an increase in sinusoidal space and lipidosis during early days, followed by a recovery from the stress of MOC on the 28th day.

  2. Hepatic Cytochrome P450 as Biomarkers of Cypermethrin Toxicity in Freshwater Teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawa Bhutia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Channa punctatus was treated with sub-lethal concentration of cypermethrin (6.6 µg/L for 5, 10 and 15 days and its effect on total CYP 450 and the activity of hepatic CYP450 isoforms measured. Total CYP450 content and CYP1A mediated EROD activity was significantly induced (p<0.05 in all three treated groups compared to control whereas only 15 days treated group showed significant induction in CYP2B mediated N,Ndimethylaniline demethylase activity. CYP2E1 mediated aniline hydroxylase activity showed only a marginal increase while there was inhibition of CYP3A4 mediated erythromycin demethylase activity. Liver somatic index (LSI also showed a marginal increase in all the treated groups. Results showed differential induction of CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP2E1 and inhibition of CYP3A4 isoform due to cypermethrin treatment in C. punctatus. The study clearly showed CYP1A isoform as the most responsive and important biomarker for monitoring the aquatic pollution.

  3. Bioaccumulation, oxidative stress and genotoxicity in fish (Channa punctatus) exposed to a thermal power plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Irshad; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-05-01

    Metal bioaccumulation and induction of biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and DNA damage are potential indicators of stress in Channa punctatus exposed to effluents. In canal water, receiving thermal power plant discharges, Fe and Ni concentrations exceeded the recommended guidelines set by the United Nations Environment Programme Global Environment Monitoring System (UNEPGEMS). Fe was highly bioavailable and accumulated in all organs (liver, kidney, muscle and integument). The highest metal pollution index (MPI) value of 41.2 was observed in kidney and the lowest 13.5 in muscle tissue. LPO, SOD, CAT and GST levels were significantly higher in liver and kidney, whereas GSH levels declined significantly compared to fish from the reference site. Concomitant damage to DNA was observed with significantly higher mean tail length in the exposed fish gill cells (26.5µm) and in liver (20.8µm) compared to reference fish. Therefore, it can be concluded that the thermal power plant effluent had the potential to cause oxidative stress and DNA damage in C. punctatus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus Valenciennes, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Loricariidae) in a costal stream from Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, R; Rezende, C F; Manna, L R

    2010-08-01

    In the present study we aimed to compare the feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus from a coastal stream from Southeast Brazil with data previously published for the same study site before environmental changes. Feeding preferences were assessed through a sample of 138 specimens (67 from the dry and 71 from the rainy season) using the Index of Alimentary Importance (IAi). We registered five different food items (detritus, plant fragments, Diatoms, Chloroficeae and Cianobacteries) composing the species diet. Detritus was the most abundant one both during the rainy and dry seasons (IAirainny = 90.34 and IAidry = 96.30). No significant differences were registered for the volume of food items consumed during the rainy and dry seasons. The Frequency of Occurrence analysis showed that four (detritus, plant fragments, Diatoms and Chloroficeae) among the five all other consumed ones, were always frequent. Comparing our own results with those available for the study site, we suggest that the feeding habit of H. punctatus has changed according to environmental changes and that the species diet is strongly dependent upon environmental conditions.

  5. Feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus Valenciennes, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Loricariidae in a costal stream from Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mazzoni

    Full Text Available In the present study we aimed to compare the feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus from a coastal stream from Southeast Brazil with data previously published for the same study site before environmental changes. Feeding preferences were assessed through a sample of 138 specimens (67 from the dry and 71 from the rainy season using the Index of Alimentary Importance (IAi. We registered five different food items (detritus, plant fragments, Diatoms, Chloroficeae and Cianobacteries composing the species diet. Detritus was the most abundant one both during the rainy and dry seasons (IAirainny = 90.34 and IAidry = 96.30. No significant differences were registered for the volume of food items consumed during the rainy and dry seasons. The Frequency of Occurrence analysis showed that four (detritus, plant fragments, Diatoms and Chloroficeae among the five all other consumed ones, were always frequent. Comparing our own results with those available for the study site, we suggest that the feeding habit of H. punctatus has changed according to environmental changes and that the species diet is strongly dependent upon environmental conditions.

  6. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BUFO PUNCTATUS: LONG TERM EVOLUTION WITHIN THE WARM DESERTS OF NORTH AMERICA AND LATE QUATERNARY RANGE SHIFTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufo punctatus, the red-spotted toad, is a widespread anuran of the warm-desert regions of western North America. This distribution makes this species ideal for evaluating biotic response to geotectonically and climatically mediated episodes of landscape transformation (e.g., ear...

  7. WHEN A PHYLOGENETIC TRICHOTOMY MAKES SENSES: PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BUFO PUNCTATUS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE WARM DESERTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufo punctatus, the red-spotted toad, is a common, desert-adapted anuran with a widespread distribution throughout warm, and regions of North America. This distribution makes this species ideal for evaluating alternative scenarios of biotic response to geotectonically and climat...

  8. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  9. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  10. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  11. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NAUTRALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  12. First Southeast U.S. records for Lacconotus punctatus Leconte (Coleoptera: Mycteridae), an early seasonal canopy specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Ulyshen; Scott Horn; James Hanula

    2010-01-01

    A recent project carried out within the Oconee River watershed in northeastern Georgia produced six specimens of Lacconotus punctatus LeConte, a species formerly known only from the northeastern United States (New Hampshire, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Michigan) and Canada (Ontario, Québec, Nova Scotia) ( Majka and Selig 2006, and references therein). Georgia represents a new...

  13. Annatto in diets Carassius auratus goldfish fingerlings: growth performance and skin pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of adding annatto as agent pigmentation on the staining characteristics of the skin, muscle and productive performance of Carassius auratus, reared in 0.15 m3 (dimensions 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.65 m hapas disposed within a circular masonry tank of 25 m3. We used 336 C. auratus fingerlings completely randomized design in 28 hapas with seven treatments and four replicates with 12 fish per unit. The addition of annatto levels were 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 8.00%. Fish with an average initial weight of 1.12 ± 0.18 g and length of 4.31 ± 0.44 cm, were fed the 08, 11, 14 and 17 hours. The b * colorimetric characteristics (yellow showed significant at 96 and 141 days in the Hunter coordinate system with the addition of 2.0 and 1.0% annatto in the diet, respectively, and the coordinate system of CMYK and 96 days for C (cyan, and 141 days for the Y (yellow, with the addition of 8.0 to 2.0% annatto in the diet, respectively. We observed differences (P <0.05 average final weight, weight gain, feed conversion, daily growth rate and feed efficiency. It is recommended a diet containing 1.0% added annatto to C. auratus to better performance and 1.0 to 4.0% added annatto to intensified light fish skin.

  14. Radioecological studies of {sup 90}Sr in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro [Association of Public Health Promotion, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of {sup 90}Sr in naturally living fishes. The accumulation of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in concentration ratio (CR) between fish and water, in whole body of the fish showed a increasing tendency with the rearing time, and the CR value reached 5.4{+-}0.4 (mean{+-}standard error) at 7th day. On the other hand, the excretion of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing in non-radioactive freshwater following the accumulation above the 7 days demonstrated a rapid decreasing at first few days, and then a gradual decreasing tendency indicating the biological half lives about 4 days and 205 days, respectively. The retention rate resulted in nearly 75% of initial radioactivity, i.e. 25% of excretion, at 25th day. As for the tissues and organs, the CR values of {sup 85}Sr reared in the radioactive freshwater for 7 days were 62.3 (vertebra: bone), 31.1 (scale), 12.5 (gill), 0.6 (viscera) and 0.4 (muscle). On the other hand, higher excretion was found in the viscera and the muscle than that in the bone, the scale and the gill. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide is different among these tissues and organs particularly characterizing higher accumulation and lower excretion in the vertebra (bone) and scale. (author)

  15. Crecimiento de alevines de Ictalurus Balsanus (pisces:ictaluridae en condiciones de laboratorio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luna-Figueroa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para evaluar el efecto de tres dietas sobre el crecimiento de alevines de Ictalurus balsanus en condiciones de laboratorio. La talla inicial de los peces fue 39.68 ± 2.0 mm de longitud total y 411.47 ± 17.00 mg de peso corporal, colocados en grupos de 10 peces por acuario de 80L. Los bagres fueron alimentados con tres dietas diferentes: I(31,13% proteína, 2,70% grasa, 56,53% carbohidratos, II(39,12%, 3,0%, 35,0%, III(53,57%, 19,37%, 4,17%. Los resultados indican que el incremento en el peso y en la longitud total de I. balsanus fueron mayores (P0.05 entre los peces nutridos con los distintos alimentos. Por lo que se concluye que las características propias del alimento vivo y, en particular, la alta concentración proteica de Daphnia sp. Generaron mayor incremento en la tasa de crecimiento especifico de I. balsanus.

  16. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...

  17. Parathyroid hormone-related protein and calcium regulation in vitamin D-deficient sea bream (Sparus auratus).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Hang, X.M.; Guerreiro, P.M.; Spanings, F.A.T.; Ross, H.A.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.

    2007-01-01

    Gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) were fed a vitamin D-deficient diet for 22 weeks. Growth rate, whole body mineral pools and calcium balance were determined. Plasma parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and calcitriol levels were assessed. Expression of mRNA for pthrp and pth1r was

  18. Acute Toxicity and Behavioral Changes of the Gold Fish (Carassius Auratus Exposed to Malathion and Hinosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Shahbazi Naserabad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pesticides are widely used in agriculture. Excessive use of pesticides has health risk for human and threatens non-target organisms. This research aimed to determine lethal concentrations of malathion and Hinosan for Carassius auratus (5±1 gr [mean ± SD]. Methods: Experiments were performed according to O.E.C.D for 4 days (96 h and concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 mg L-1 Hinosan and 0, 1, 2, 4, 16 mg L-1 malathion with three replicates. LC1, LC10, LC30, LC50, LC70, LC90 and LC99 for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were determined using a probit analysis. Results: The results indicated that the 96 h LC50 value of Hinosan and malathion for Gold fish was 4.02 and 4.71 mg/L, respectively. Fishes exhibited irregular, erratic and darting swimming movements, hyper excitability, bruise in the caudal section, loss of equilibrium and sinking to the bottom. Conclusion: Malathion and Hinosan have medium toxicity for C. auratus and could cause irreversible harm and behavioral changes.

  19. Karyotype analysis and ribosomal gene localization of spotted knifejaw Oplegnathus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P Z; Cao, D D; Liu, X B; Wang, Y J; Yu, H Y; Li, X J; Zhang, Q Q; Wang, X B

    2016-12-23

    The spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, is an important aquaculture fish species in China. To better understand the chromosomal microstructure and the karyotypic origin of this species, cytogenetic analysis was performed using Giemsa staining to identify metaphase chromosomes, C-banding to detect C-positive heterochromatin, silver staining to identify the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for physical mapping of the major (18S rDNA) and minor (5S rDNA) ribosomal genes. The species showed a karyotype of 2n = 48 for females, composed of 2 submetacentric and 46 telocentric chromosomes, with a fundamental number (FN) = 50, while the karyotype of males was 2n = 47, composed of 1 exclusive large metacentric, 2 submetacentric, and 44 telocentric chromosomes, with FN = 50. These karyotype results suggest that O. punctatus might have an X 1 X 1 X 2 X 2 /X 1 X 2 Y multiple sex chromosome system. C-positive heterochromatin was distributed in the centromeres of all chromosomal pairs and in the terminal portions of some chromosomes. A single pair of Ag-positive NORs was found to be localized at the terminal regions of the short arms of the subtelocentric chromosome pair, which was supported by FISH of 18S rDNA. After FISH, 5S rDNA were located on the interstitial regions of the smallest telocentric chromosome pair. This study was the first to identify the karyotype of this species and will facilitate further research on karyotype evolution in the order Perciformes.

  20. Feeding ecology of King George whiting Sillaginodes punctatus (Perciformes) recruits in seagrass and unvegetated habitats. Does diet reflect habitat utilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, G P; Syme, A; Macreadie, P I

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the feeding ecology of King George whiting Sillaginodes punctatus recruits to determine how diet composition varies between habitat types (seagrass and unvegetated habitats), and between sites separated by distance. Broad-scale sampling of seagrass and unvegetated habitats at nine sites in Port Phillip Bay (Australia) indicated the diet composition varied more by distance into the bay than by habitat. Near the entrance to the bay the diet was dominated by harpacticoids and gammarid amphipods, in the middle reaches of the bay the diet was completely dominated by harpacticoids, while at sites furthest into the bay, mysids and crab zoea were also important. Abundances of prey in guts was significantly higher between 1000 and 2200 hours compared with other times, indicating diurnal feeding. Laboratory determined gut evacuation rate (based on an exponential model) was estimated to be -0·54. Daily rations were highly variable among sites and habitat types. Sillaginodes punctatus recruits consumed much higher quantities of prey on unvegetated habitat than seagrass habitat at some middle reach sites; with prey consumption of harpacticoid copepods on unvegetated habitat approaching 3000 individuals per day at one site. The results of this study provide insight into why habitat associations of S. punctatus recruits within mosaics of seagrass and unvegetated habitat show high spatial variation. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Antioxidant responses in Carassius auratus and Lolium perenne exposed to the laboratory pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jing; Feng, Mingbao; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Chao; Wang, Xinghao

    2014-03-01

    Experiments conducted in the laboratories can produce numerous wastes, which could potentially affect the health of the researchers. In this study, the antioxidant responses in liver of Carassiua auratus and leaf of Lolium perenne were investigated after chronic exposure to the air pollution in four different laboratories. The obtained data showed that oxidative stress was induced in some laboratories, as indicated by some significantly altered biochemical parameters. Additionally, the toxicity order was tentatively proposed based on these responses. The results indicated that these biochemical indices can be used as the oxidative stress biomarkers to assess the effect of environmental pollution on the living organisms, and this study can facilitate the understanding of the risk assessment of laboratory pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hamsters' (Mesocricetus auratus) memory in a radial maze analog: the role of spatial versus olfactory cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneau, François; Cabrera, Felipe; Corujo, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    The golden hamster's (Mesocricetus auratus) performance on radial maze tasks has not been studied a lot. Here we report the results of a spatial memory task that involved eight food stations equidistant from the center of a circular platform. Each of six male hamsters depleted the food stations along successive choices. After each choice and a 5-s retention delay, the hamster was brought back to the center of the platform for the next choice opportunity. When only one baited station was left, the platform was rotated to evaluate whether olfactory traces guided hamsters' choices. Results showed that despite the retention delay hamsters performed above chance in searching for food. The choice distributions observed during the rotation probes were consistent with spatial memory and could be explained without assuming guidance by olfactory cues. The radial maze analog we devised could be useful in furthering the study of spatial memory in hamsters.

  3. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA COSTIN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes inthe gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin. To getthis goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, seven and fourteendays to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 µg/L. Another group was used ascontrol. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase and gluthatione reductasewere significantly decreased, while the glutathione-S-transferase was up-regulated. Allfish, exposed to 2 µg/L deltamethrin revealed gills morphological alterations after 48h ofexposure which were accentuated after 14 days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion ofsecondary lamellae, epithelial layer rupture and chloride cells proliferation wereobserved. These results suggest that an immediate adaptive response to the oxidativestress appeared, demonstrating alterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in thegills of deltamethrin intoxicated fish.

  4. MALATHION INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS IN GILLS AND KIDNEY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA CRISTINA STAICU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide, used in agriculture and a possible source of environmental poisoning. During malathion metabolization, mitochondria generates reactive oxygen species, responsible for significant structural changes. In this study, gills and kidney histological changes in Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to 0.05 mg/l malathion were investigated. In kidney, the effects were dramatic. The 24 -72 hours exposure to malathion induced cytoplasm vacuolization and changes in cell and nuclear volumes. In addition, necrotic renal tubules appeared, nuclear malformations of epithelial cells, anisokary, nuclei pycnosis and nuclei hypertrophy, were noticed. Epithelial ruptures, secondary lamellae fusion and hyperplasia of branchial epithelium, vascular congestion were the main changes noticed soon after pollutant exposure. We suggest that structural changes in gill and kidney could be used as good response to aquatic pollution with organophosphorous insecticides.

  5. Sequencing, annotation and analysis of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchitchek, Nicolas; Safronetz, David; Rasmussen, Angela L; Martens, Craig; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Porcella, Stephen F; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki; Katze, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    The Syrian hamster (golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus) is gaining importance as a new experimental animal model for multiple pathogens, including emerging zoonotic diseases such as Ebola. Nevertheless there are currently no publicly available transcriptome reference sequences or genome for this species. A cDNA library derived from mRNA and snRNA isolated and pooled from the brains, lungs, spleens, kidneys, livers, and hearts of three adult female Syrian hamsters was sequenced. Sequence reads were assembled into 62,482 contigs and 111,796 reads remained unassembled (singletons). This combined contig/singleton dataset, designated as the Syrian hamster transcriptome, represents a total of 60,117,204 nucleotides. Our Mesocricetus auratus Syrian hamster transcriptome mapped to 11,648 mouse transcripts representing 9,562 distinct genes, and mapped to a similar number of transcripts and genes in the rat. We identified 214 quasi-complete transcripts based on mouse annotations. Canonical pathways involved in a broad spectrum of fundamental biological processes were significantly represented in the library. The Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned to the current release of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell transcriptome and genome to improve the genomic annotation of this species. Finally, our Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned against 14 other rodents, primate and laurasiatheria species to gain insights about the genetic relatedness and placement of this species. This Syrian hamster transcriptome dataset significantly improves our knowledge of the Syrian hamster's transcriptome, especially towards its future use in infectious disease research. Moreover, this library is an important resource for the wider scientific community to help improve genome annotation of the Syrian hamster and other closely related species. Furthermore, these data provide the basis for development of expression microarrays that can be used in functional genomics studies.

  6. The First Record of Argulus Foliacesus (Crustacea: Branchiura Infesta­tion on Lionhead Goldfish (Carassius Auratus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Shahmoradi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura, or the fish louse, is an ectoparasite of the skin or gill of the fresh water fish species. Clinical signs in infected fish include scratching on aquarium walls, erratic swimming, and poor growth. It causes pathological changes due to direct tissue dam­age and secondary infections. In the present study, lionhead goldfish (Carassius auratus, taken from a goldfish aquarium with symptoms such as abnormal swimming, poor growth and death, were examined for ectoparasites. The parasites collected from the skin and fins of fish were identified as A. foliaceus. Then, treatment was carried out by trichlorfon. After administra­tion, no parasite was observed on the fish. This is the first report of infection with A. foliaceus of lionhead goldfish (Carassius auratus in Iran.

  7. Is the red spotted green frog Hypsiboas punctatus (Anura: Hylidae) selecting its preys? The importance of prey availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier A; Scarabotti, Pablo A; Medrano, María C; Ghirardi, Romina

    2009-09-01

    The study of the feeding ecology of amphibians is an old issue in herpetology. Notwithstanding, the lack of food resources data in many studies of amphibians feeding has lead to partial understanding of frog feeding strategies. In this study we evaluate the trophic selectivity of a red spotted green frog (Hypsiboas punctatus) population from a Middle Paraná River floodplain pond in Argentina, and discuss the importance of prey availability data when interpreting results from diet analysis. We analyzed the gut contents of 47 H. punctatus adults and compared frog's diet with the environmental food resources. Prey availability was estimated by systematically seep-netting the microhabitat where anurans were localized foraging. We identified 33 taxonomic categories from gastrointestinal contents. Numerically, the most important prey categories were dipterans, followed by hemipterans, homopterans and coleopterans. The diet similarity between males and females was high and no statistical differences in diet composition were found. The most abundant food resources in the environment were dipterans, coleopterans, homopterans and collembolans. In order to assess whether frogs were selecting their preys, we calculated Pianka's niche overlap index and Jacobs' electivity index comparing gut contents to prey availability data. Trophic niche overlap was medium but significantly higher than expected by chance. The electivity index indicated that H. punctatus foraged dipterans slightly above their environmental abundance. Among the secondary preys, hemipterans were foraged selectively, homopterans were consumed in the same proportion to their occurrence in the environment, coleopterans were foraged quite under their availability and collembolans were practically ignored by frogs. Without food resources data, H. punctatus could be classified as a specialist feeder, but dipterans also were quite abundant in the environment. Our results show that H. punctatus fit better as a

  8. Analysis of Egg Cytosol Proteins in the Polyploid Ginbuna, Carassius auratus langsdorfii, by Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    土方, 誠; 梶島, 孝雄

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gynogenetic development of ginbuna, Carassius auratus langsdorfii, the protein constitution of growing oocytes, full-grown oocytes, matured eggs and fertilized eggs obtained from triploid ginbuna and diploid funa were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results are as follows ; (1) the one polypeptide which exists in bisexual diploid funa and exceptional triploid ginbuna is lacked in gynogenetic triploid ginbuna which does not decondense the p...

  9. Goldspotted spinefoot Siganus punctatus (Siganidae) age-based reproductive life history and fisheries vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, K; Hernandez-Ortiz, D; Ioanis, M; Washington, W; Maxim, S; Olpet, K; Malakai, S

    2017-09-25

    Between February 2015 and 2016, samples of the Indo-Pacific goldspotted spinefoot Siganus punctatus were taken from local fish markets, feeding sites and nursery grounds on the main island of Pohnpei, Micronesia, to ascertain sexual pattern, reproductive seasonality, age, growth and mortality. Microscopic examinations of gonads identified two seasonal peaks in reproduction: February to May and September to December, with evidence of some spawning activity in most months. Ripe females were observed 4 days on either side of the new moon. Females first matured at c. 180 mm fork length (LF ) and 1 year of age, which coincides with their entry into the fishery. Ninety five per cent of individuals were less than 3 years and the oldest fish were 8 years. To examine the species vulnerability to fishing, a tag-and-recapture study was conducted over 4 months in 2015 in a locally managed marine area and at an unprotected site. Findings suggest high residency and high vulnerability to fishing at shallow-water feeding sites and restricted migration overall. The placement of marine protected areas within critical habitat appears to be an effective conservation strategy for this species, particularly when combined with gear and seasonal market restrictions during vulnerable life-history phases. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Population structure of the Korean gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) using multivariate morphometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, Se Hun; Kim, Jin-Koo

    2016-03-01

    The gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus, is one of the most important fish species in Korea, China, Japan and Taiwan, and therefore the implementation of an appropriate population structure analysis is both necessary and fitting. In order to clarify the current distribution range for the two lineages of the Korean gizzard shad (Myoung and Kim 2014), we conducted a multivariate morphometric analysis by locality and lineage. We analyzed 17 morphometric and 5 meristic characters of 173 individuals, which were sampled from eight localities in the East Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Korean Strait. Unlike population genetics studies, the canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) results showed that the two morphotypes were clearly segregated by the center value "0" of CAN1, of which morphotype A occurred from the Yellow Sea to the western Korean Strait with negative values, and morphotype B occurred from the East Sea to the eastern Korean Strait with positive values even though there exists an admixture zone in the eastern Korean Strait. Further studies using more sensitive markers such as microsatellite DNA are required in order to define the true relationship between the two lineages.

  11. Protection of ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus against Aeromonas hydrophila by treating Ixora coccinea active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Paulraj; Thangaviji, Vijayaragavan; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-02-01

    Herbals such as Ixora coccinea, Daemia extensa and Tridax procumbens were selected to screen in vitro antibacterial and immunostimulant activity against the freshwater fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Initial screening results revealed that, ethyl acetate extracts and its purified fraction of I. coccinea was able to suppress the A. hydrophila strains at more than 15 mm of zone of inhibition and positive immunostimulant activity. The purified active fraction, which eluted from H40: EA60 mobile phase was structurally characterized by GC-MS analysis. Two compounds such as Diethyl Phthalate (1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, monobutyl ester) and Dibutyl Phthalate were characterized using NIST database search. In order to study the in vivo immunostimulant influence of the compounds, the crude extracts (ICE) and purified fractions (ICF) were incorporated to the artificial diets at the concentration of 400 mg kg⁻¹ and fed to the ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus for 30 days. After termination of feeding experiment, they were challenged with highly virulent A. hydrophila AHV-1 which was isolated from infected gold fish and studied the survival, specific bacterial load reduction, serum biochemistry, haematology, immunology and histological parameters. The control diet fed fishes succumbed to death within five days at 100% mortality whereas ICE and ICF fed groups survived 60 and 80% respectively after 10 days. The diets also helped to decrease the Aeromonas load after challenge and significantly (P ≤ 0.01) improved the serum albumin, globulin and protein. The diets also helped to increase the RBC and haemoglobin level significantly (P ≤ 0.05) from the control group. Surprisingly the immunological parameters like phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and lysozyme activity were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.001) in the experimental diets. Macrophages and erythrocytes were abundantly expressed in the

  12. Studies on biomarkers of oxidative stress and associated genotoxicity and histopathology in Channa punctatus from heavy metal polluted canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Irshad; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-05-01

    Some investigations were made on the Satha canal water and health of dwelling fish Channa punctatus at Satha village, district Aligarh (U.P). Metal bioaccumulation and induction of biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), DNA damage and histopathology are potential indicators of stress in C. punctatus exposed to effluents. In canal water Cr, Mn, Fe and Ni concentrations were exceeding the permissible limits set by both Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) and WHO. Fe (74%) was highly bioavailable and accumulated in all organs (gill, liver, kidney, muscle and integument). The highest metal pollution index (MPI) value of 53 was observed in gills and the lowest 6 in liver tissue. SOD and LPO were significantly higher in all tissues, whereas CAT, GST and GSH levels declined significantly compared to fish from the reference site. Concomitant damage to DNA was observed with significantly higher mean tail length in the exposed fish gill cells (19 μm) and in liver (12.7 μm) compared to reference fish (5 and 4 μm respectively). Histopathology in gill and liver also show significant damage. Therefore, it can be concluded that the sugar mill effluent has the potential to cause oxidative stress, DNA damage and histopathology in C. punctatus. This canal is a prime source of water and fish food to the local residents of the area. Therefore, the consumers may suffer adverse health effects like that in indicator organism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of pollution of river Ganges by tannery effluents using genotoxicity biomarkers in murrel fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, N S; Srivastava, Rashmi; Kumar, Ravindra; Dabas, Anurag; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Pavan

    2015-07-01

    River pollution due to rapid industrialization and anthropogenic activities adversely affects the aquatic organisms, especially fish. Here, we assessed the genotoxicity, mutagenicity and bioaccumulative aspects of tannery effluents in freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus, an inhabitant of river Ganges. Test specimens were collected from three different polluted sites of the river within and nearby Kanpur area during different seasons and blood samples of these specimens were processed for comet assay and micronucleus test as genotoxicity biomarkers. A significantly (P industry) above the maximum permissible limits as prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). The findings of the present analysis indicated contamination of river Ganges with tannery effluents which induce genotoxicity in fish with seasonal variation.

  14. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Freitas Henriques

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rocio virus (ROCV is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC. ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  15. Composition of Gut Microbiota in the Gibel Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) Varies with Host Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghao; Zhou, Li; Yu, Yuhe; Ni, Jiajia; Xu, Wenjie; Yan, Qingyun

    2017-07-01

    To understand how a bacteria-free fish gut ecosystem develops microbiota as the fish ages, we performed a 1-year study on the gut microbiota of hatchling gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Our results indicate that the gut microbial diversity increases significantly as the fish develop. The gut microbial community composition showed significant shifts corresponding to host age and appeared to shift at two time points despite consistent diet and environmental conditions, suggesting that some features of the gut microbial community may be determined by the host's development. Dietary and environmental changes also seem to cause significant shifts in the fish gut microbial community. This study revealed that the gut microbiota of gibel carp assemble into distinct communities at different times during the host's development and that this process is less affected by the surrounding environment than by the host diet and development. Community phylogenetic analyses based on the net relatedness index further showed that environmental filtering (host selection) deterministically governs the gut microbial community composition. More importantly, the influence of host-associated deterministic filtering tends to weaken significantly over the course of the host's development. However, further studies are needed to assess whether this host development-dependent shift in gut microbiota will still exist under different rearing strategies.

  16. Results of phenol red thread test in clinically normal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Sadjadi, Reza; Sabzevari, Amin; Ghaffari, M Selk

    2013-11-01

    To determine the normal reference range for phenol red thread test (PRTT) values in clinically normal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Sixteen healthy adult Syrian hamsters (eight males and eight females) were used in this study. Ophthalmic examinations were performed without chemical restraint. PRTT values were evaluated in both eyes of all Syrian hamsters using a commercial PRTT strip of a single lot number. No statistically significant differences between right and left eyes were found for any of the results. The mean ± SD PRTT values for the study population were 6.8 ± 2.5 mm/15 s with a range from 3 to 11.5 mm/15 s. Mean PRTTs in male animals were 5.1 ± 1.2 mm/15 s, whereas mean PRTTs in female hamsters were 8.5 ± 2.3 mm/15 s. Comparison between mean PRTT values in males and females showed a significant difference (P = 0.004). Mean weights for males and females were 80.9 ± 4.8 and 90.6 ± 8.5 g, respectively. No linear relationship between mean PRTT and body weight was found in female (P = 0.46) and male (P = 0.92) hamsters. This study provides novel data for normal reference ranges of PRTT values in healthy Syrian hamsters. Results of this study may assist veterinarians in the diagnosis of ocular surface disease and syndromes affecting the tear film in these species. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. Immunomodulatory treatment with thalidomide in experimental leptospirosis in Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luciane Marieta; Macedo, Julio Oliveira; de Azevedo, Everton Cruz; Santos, Cleiton Silva; Sampaio, Marina de Queiroz; dos Santos, Andréia Carvalho; dos Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Athanazio, Daniel Abensur

    2014-02-01

    The benefit of antibiotics in leptospirosis is limited when treatment is started four days after symptoms appear, and new adjuvant therapeutic options are urgently needed. Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were infected by Leptospira interrogans strain L1-130, and groups were assigned based on no treatment (NONE), thalidomide only (TAL), ampicillin only (AMP) or both (AMP-TAL). Treatment was started two days after the onset of symptoms (experiment 1) and immediately after detection of the first death (experiment 2). Experiment 1: all hamsters from the groups AMP and AMP-TAL survived (n=8), while all hamsters from groups NONE (n=6) and TAL (n=8) died. The AMP and the AMP-TAL groups showed no renal or liver pathology and absent or very low leptospiral burden in target organs. Experiment 2: lethal outcome was observed in 6/6 hamsters in the NONE group, 8/8 in the TAL group, and 6/8 in both the AMP and AMP-TAL groups. Thalidomide showed no survival benefit when compared to hamsters treated with ampicillin alone. The TAL, AMP and AMP-TAL groups had very low tissue leptospiral counts. Thalidomide had minimal impact on survival in the late treatment of leptospirosis hamster model.

  18. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  19. Innate immune response and disease resistance in Carassius auratus by triherbal solvent extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Han, Yong-Jae; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2009-09-01

    This study reports the effect of aqueous, ethanol and methanol triherbal solvent extract from Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Curcuma longa on innate immune mechanisms such as phagocytosis activity, respiratory burst activity, alternative complement activity and lysozyme activity and disease resistance in goldfish (Carassius auratus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were intraperitoneally injected with different doses of 0, 5, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) body weight of each triherbal solvent extracts. The functional immunity in terms of percentage mortality and Relative Percent Survival (RPS) and innate immune response was assessed on week 1, 2 and 4 by challenging with live A. hydrophila (1 x 10(7) cells ml(-1)). All the chosen innate immune parameters were enhanced in the ethanol and methanol triherbal solvent extract treatment after week 2. However, the aqueous triherbal extract was enhanced only after week 4. The ethanol and methanol triherbal solvent extracts administration preceding the challenge with live A. hydrophila decreased the percentage mortality in the experimental groups with the consequence increase in RPS values. The study indicates that all the doses of ethanol or methanol triberbal solvent extracts could be positively influence the immune response and protect the heath status of goldfish against A. hydrophila infection. 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effects of dietary antioxidant of tomato extract and lycopene on Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Montoya M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effect on tegument pigmentation, survival, growth and antioxidant capacity in diets supplemented with tomato extract and lycopene as additives in experimental feed for Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus. Materials and methods. The additives were added in different concentrations to a basic diet. We performed beginning and an ending biometrics for 100% of the population in each bioassay. The growth and survival of organisms were evaluated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by ABTS assay, both in the tomato extract sample as well as in foods used in different bioassays. The concentration of lycopene was determined in food and liver and muscle samples of fish fed with it. Acquired pigmentation of fish was assessed through photographs analyzed with Adobe Photoshop®. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance, and when differences were found (p0.05 on pigmentation and growth of the organisms under the established experimental conditions was obtained. Significant differences in antioxidant capacity (p<0.05 were obtained in foods with added lycopene. Conclusions. The inclusion of lycopene or tomato extract in food for the organisms used is not recommended to improve pigmentation, but further studies are needed to demonstrate antioxidant effect.

  1. Histopathological findings on Carassius auratus hepatopancreas upon exposure to acrylamide: correlation with genotoxicity and metabolic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larguinho, Miguel; Costa, Pedro M; Sousa, Gonçalo; Costa, Maria H; Diniz, Mário S; Baptista, Pedro V

    2014-12-01

    Acrylamide is an amide used in several industrial applications making it easily discharged to aquatic ecosystems. The toxicity of acrylamide to aquatic organisms is scarcely known, although previous studies with murine models provided evidence for deleterious effects. To assess the effects of acrylamide to freshwater fish, goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were exposed to several concentrations of waterborne acrylamide and analysed for genotoxic damage, alterations to detoxifying enzymes and histopathology. Results revealed a dose-dependent increase in total DNA strand breakage, the formation of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities and in the levels of hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. In addition, acrylamide induced more histopathological changes to pancreatic acini than to the hepatic parenchyma, regardless of exposure concentration, whereas hepatic tissue only endured significant alterations at higher concentrations of exposure. Thus, results confirm the genotoxic potential of acrylamide to fish and its ability to induce CYP1A, probably as a direct primary defence mechanism. This strongly suggests the substance's pro-mutagenic potential in fish, similarly to what is known for rodents. However, the deleterious effects observed in the pancreatic acini, more severe than in the liver, could indicate a specific, albeit unknown toxic mechanism of acrylamide to fish that overran the organism's metabolic defences against a chemical agent rather than causing a general systemic failure. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Benzocaína e eugenol como anestésicos para o quinguio (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bittencourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os tempos de indução e recuperação de quinguios (Carassius auratus expostos a dois anestésicos, eugenol e benzocaína. Foram utilizados 128 juvenis com peso médio de 2,07±0,53g e comprimento total médio de 5,51±0,56cm. A benzocaína mostrou ser mais eficiente do que o eugenol em relação ao tempo, tanto para indução ao coma quanto para a recuperação à fuga e também no que diz respeito à sobrevivência. As doses de benzocaína com melhores resultados foram de 87,5 e 100mg.L-1. O eugenol proporcionou demora na indução e na recuperação dos animais, além de ter apresentado mortalidades quando as doses anestésicas foram elevadas.

  3. Cloning and characterization of corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin in Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B M; Tellam, D J; Smart, D; Mohammad, Y N; Brennand, J; Rivier, J E; Lovejoy, D A

    1999-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin belong to a superfamily of neuropeptides that includes the urotensins-I in fishes and the insect diuretic peptides. Sequence analysis suggests that urocortin is the mammalian ortholog of urotensin-I, although the physiological role for this peptide in mammals is not known. Within the Rodentia, hamsters belong to a phylogenetically older lineage than that of mice and rats and possess significant differences in hypothalamic organization. We have, therefore, cloned the coding region of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin mature peptide by polymerase chain reaction. Hamster urocortin was prepared by solid-phase synthesis, and its pharmacological actions on human corticotropin-releasing factor R1 and R2 receptors were investigated. The deduced hamster corticotropin-releasing factor amino acid sequence and cleavage site is identical to that in rat, whereas the urocortin sequence is unique among the urocortin/urotensin-I/sauvagine family in possessing asparagine and alanine in positions 38 and 39, respectively. The hamster urocortin carboxy terminus sequence bears greater structural similarity to the insect diuretic peptide family, suggesting either retrogressive mutational changes within the mature peptide or convergent sequence evolution. Despite these changes, human and hamster urocortin are generally equipotent at cAMP activation, neuronal acidification rate, and R1/R2 receptor affinities.

  4. Morphology and morphometric relationships of the sagitta of Diapterus auratus (Perciformes: Gerreidae) from Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Verónica Rivera; Martínez-Pérez, José Antonio; Molina, Jacob Rubio; Emiliano, Rafael; Zuñiga, Quintanar; López, Jonathan Franco

    2013-03-01

    Sagittae otoliths are the most studied because of their morphological variability and size; the sagittae may also have valuable taxonomic use and for D. auratus has not yet been described. In the present study we present a morphological description of the sagitta otolith and an analysis of its correlation with various morphometric parameters. The biological material was captured with a beach seine in the coasts of Alvarado and Port of Veracruz, from November 2009 to June 2010. Sagittae were extracted, cleaned, photographed (SEM and optical), and measured. The analysis included the correlations between sagitta's length and width, versus the fish standard length, height and weight, for a total of 449 fishes. The comparison between left and right sagitta showed no significant difference in both otolith length and width (t-tests, p<0.05) for each sex. The right otolith was used for the correlations for both males and females and the Fisher test (d.f. 161 and 143, p<0.001) showed no significant differences in the slopes and intersections between them. The otolith length vs. fish weight correlation showed a positive allometric growth in males (b=3.9754, p<0.05) and females (b=4.3168, p<0.05).

  5. The effects of stimulus parameters on auditory evoked potentials of Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabon, Jessica R; Higgs, Dennis M

    2017-11-01

    Whole-brain responses to sound are easily measured through auditory evoked potentials (AEP), but it is unclear how differences in experimental parameters affect these responses. The effect of varying parameters is especially unclear in fish studies, the majority of which use simple sound types and then extrapolate to natural conditions. The current study investigated AEPs in goldfish (Carassius auratus) using sounds of different durations (5, 10, and 20 ms) and frequencies (200, 500, 600 and 700 Hz) to test stimulus effects on latency and thresholds. We quantified differences in latency and threshold in comparison to a 10-ms test tone, a duration often used in AEP fish studies. Both response latency and threshold were significantly affected by stimulus duration, with latency patterning suggesting that AEP fires coincident with a decrease in stimulus strength. Response latency was also significantly affected by presentation frequency. These results show that stimulus type has important effects on AEP measures of hearing and call for clearer standards across different measures of AEP. Duration effects also suggest that AEP measures represent summed responses of duration-detecting neural circuit, but more effort is needed to understand the neural drivers of this commonly used technique.

  6. Sex ratio bias and extinction risk in an isolated population of Tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine L Grayson

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms underlying population declines is critical for preventing the extinction of endangered populations. Positive feedbacks can hasten the process of collapse and create an 'extinction vortex,' particularly in small, isolated populations. We provide a case study of a male-biased sex ratio creating the conditions for extinction in a natural population of tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus on North Brother Island in the Cook Strait of New Zealand. We combine data from long term mark-recapture surveys, updated model estimates of hatchling sex ratio, and population viability modeling to measure the impacts of sex ratio skew. Results from the mark-recapture surveys show an increasing decline in the percentage of females in the adult tuatara population. Our monitoring reveals compounding impacts on female fitness through reductions in female body condition, fecundity, and survival as the male-bias in the population has increased. Additionally, we find that current nest temperatures are likely to result in more male than female hatchlings, owing to the pattern of temperature-dependent sex determination in tuatara where males hatch at warmer temperatures. Anthropogenic climate change worsens the situation for this isolated population, as projected temperature increases for New Zealand are expected to further skew the hatchling sex ratio towards males. Population viability models predict that without management intervention or an evolutionary response, the population will ultimately become entirely comprised of males and functionally extinct. Our study demonstrates that sex ratio bias can be an underappreciated threat to population viability, particularly in populations of long-lived organisms that appear numerically stable.

  7. Antifungal activity of the pygidial gland secretion of Laemostenus punctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) against cave-dwelling micromycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Marija; Ljaljević-Grbić, Milica; Stupar, Miloš; Vukojević, Jelena; Ćirić, Ana; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Živković, Nemanja; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2017-06-01

    The antifungal potential of the pygidial gland secretion of the troglophilic ground beetle Laemostenus punctatus from a cave in Southeastern Serbia against cave-dwelling micromycetes, isolated from the same habitat, has been investigated. Eleven collected samples were analyzed and 32 isolates of cave-dwelling fungi were documented. A total of 14 fungal species were identified as members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Arthrinium, Aureobasidium, Epicoccum, Talaromyces, and Fusarium. Five isolates were selected for testing the antifungal activity of the pygidial gland secretion: Talaromyces duclauxi, Aspergillus brunneouniseriatus, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, and Trichoderma viride. The microdilution method has been applied to detect minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). The most sensitive isolate was Penicillium sp., while the other isolates demonstrated a high level of resistance to the tested agent. L. punctatus has developed a special mechanism of producing specific compounds that act synergistically within the secretion mixture, which are responsible for the antifungal action against pathogens from the cave. The results open opportunities for further research in the field of ground beetle defense against pathogens, which could have an important application in human medicine, in addition to the environmental impact, primarily.

  8. Invasion of the Indo-Pacific blenny Omobranchus punctatus (Perciformes: Blenniidae on the Atlantic Coast of Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Lasso-Alcalá

    Full Text Available We examined 308 specimens of the Indo-Pacific blenniid Omobranchus punctatus deposited in four museum collections, and analyzed data on their collection locations to assess its invasion on the Atlantic coast of Central and South America. This species occurs in shoreline estuarine and marine habitats in the Indo-West Pacific. Previous sampling and recent records in the Tropical West Atlantic from 1930 to 2004 produced 20 records for: Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Brazil. In this work, we provide data on 17 new records for the Gulfs of Venezuela and Paria in Venezuela, as well as four records for Maranhão and Pará states in NE Brazil. The temporal pattern of collections (1930 - 2009 and the proximity of most localities to ports and zones of ship traffic indicate that O. punctatus was initially introduced to the Atlantic by ships travelling from India to Trinidad. Within Brazil the introduction is linked to shipping connected to petroleum platforms. In Maranhão and Pará the introduction may have occurred as a result of fish sheltering in fouling on hulls of ships moving between ports around the mouth of the Amazon River. Alternatively, the spread of this species along of the American coast may reflect the expansion of the range of O. puntactus through larval dispersal in northward flowing currents. We recommend monitoring of this introduced species, and studies of its ecology in West Atlantic areas.

  9. CRYPTIC NEOGENE VICARIANCE AND QUATERNARY DISPERSAL OF THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD (BUFO PUNCTATUS) INSIGHTS ON THE EVOLUTION OF NORTH AMERICAN WARM DESERT BIOTAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We define the geographic distributions of embedded evolutionary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages (clades) within a broadly distributed, arid- dwelling toad, Bufo punctatus, and evaluate these patterns as they relate to hypothesized vicariant events leading to the formation of b...

  10. Skin healing and scale regeneration in fed and unfed sea bream, Sparus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canario Adelino VM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish scales are an important reservoir of calcium and phosphorus and together with the skin function as an integrated barrier against environmental changes and external aggressors. Histological studies have revealed that the skin and scales regenerate rapidly in fish when they are lost or damaged. In the present manuscript the histological and molecular changes underlying skin and scale regeneration in fed and fasted sea bream (Sparus auratus were studied using a microarray 3 and 7 days after scale removal to provide a comprehensive molecular understanding of the early stages of these processes. Results Histological analysis of skin/scales revealed 3 days after scale removal re-epithelisation and formation of the scale pocket had occurred and 53 and 109 genes showed significant up or down-regulation, respectively. Genes significantly up-regulated were involved in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation and adhesion, immune response and antioxidant activities. 7 days after scale removal a thin regenerated scale was visible and only minor changes in gene expression occurred. In animals that were fasted to deplete mineral availability the expression profiles centred on maintaining energy homeostasis. The utilisation of fasting as a treatment emphasised the competing whole animal physiological requirements with regard to barrier repair, infection control and energy homeostasis. Conclusions The identification of numerous genes involved in the mitotic checkpoint and cell proliferation indicate that the experimental procedure may be useful for understanding cell proliferation and control in vertebrates within the context of the whole animal physiology. In response to skin damage genes of immune surveillance were up-regulated along with others involved in tissue regeneration required to rapidly re-establish barrier function. Additionally, candidate fish genes were identified that may be involved in cytoskeletal re

  11. The environmental regulation of maturation in goldfish, Carassius auratus: effects of various LED light spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Suk; Habibi, Hamid R; Choi, Cheol Young

    2014-02-01

    While there have been a number of studies on the effects of photoperiod and duration of light and dark exposure, much less information is available on the importance of light intensity. This study investigated the effects of exposure of goldfish, Carassius auratus exposed to white fluorescent bulbs, and red (peak at 630nm), and green (530nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at approximately 0.9W/m(2) (12-h light:12-h dark) for four months on a number of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the effects of native GnRH molecules (gonadotropin-releasing hormones; salmon GnRH, sGnRH; and chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II), gonadotropin hormones (GTHα; follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH-β; luteinizing hormone, LH-β2), kisspeptin 1 (Kiss1) and G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) mRNA levels. Furthermore, we measured LH and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone levels in plasma and we performed gonad histological observations. GnRHs, Kiss1, GPR54 and GTH mRNA and plasma LH and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone levels in the in vivo and in vitro groups exposed to green LEDs were significantly higher than the other groups. Histological analysis revealed the presence of oocytes in the yolk stage in fish exposed to green light. These results suggest that green wavelengths regulate the HPG axis and enhance sexual maturation in goldfish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Parsons

    Full Text Available Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  13. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Darren M; Middleton, Crispin; Spong, Keren T; Mackay, Graeme; Smith, Matt D; Buckthought, Dane

    2015-01-01

    Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  14. Calcium handling in Sparus auratus: effects of water and dietary calcium levels on mineral composition, cortisol and PTHrP levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Bevelander, G.S.; Rotllant, J.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.; 10-40 g body mass) were acclimatized in the laboratory to full strength (34 per thousand) or dilute (2.5 per thousand) seawater and fed normal, calcium-sufficient or calcium-deficient diet for nine weeks. Mean growth rate, whole-body calcium and

  15. Phenotypic and molecular variation in the green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus (Anura: Dendrobatidae from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa D Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus exhibits high intraspecific variation in hue color and pattern throughout its range, making it a very popular species in the pet trade. We analyzed the correspondence between color variation and molecular variation of D. auratus from Costa Rica using RAPD analysis. Twenty-six random primers were analyzed for variation in 99 individuals from seven populations. Color pattern was scored from digital images of the dorsal and ventral views. In general, frogs from the Caribbean coast had significantly more light coloration than black color but cannot be grouped by population based only on hue pattern. Only 3 RAPD primers were found to be polymorphic, representing a total of 16 loci. Most of the molecular variation encountered here occurs within populations, thus making unclear the degree of population structure and differentiation. Further examination of COI mtDNA sequences from our samples also supports these results. Partial Mantel correlations suggested that the pattern of molecular variation is not congruent with the variation in color pattern in this species, an outcome that is discussed in terms of phenotypic evolution. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 313-321. Epub 2009 November 30.

  16. Electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative damage induced by tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Huahong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: huahongshi@tom.com; Wang Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo Yi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Su Yan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2005-09-30

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs). To confirm its putative oxidative stress-inducing activity, freshwater fish Carassius auratus were injected intraperitoneally with TBBPA. One experiment lasted 3 h to 28 days after a single injection of 100 mg/kg TBBPA, and the other lasted 24 h after a single injection of 0-300 mg/kg TBBPA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were trapped by phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Protein carbonyl (PCO) and lipid peroxidation product (LPO) content were also determined. A six-line EPR spectrum was detected in the sample prepared in air, and a multiple one was obtained in nitrogen. The observed spectrum in nitrogen fits the simulation one with PBN/{center_dot}OCH{sub 3} and PBN/{center_dot}CH{sub 3} quite well. As compared to the control group, TBBPA significantly induced ROS production marked by the intensity of the prominent spectra in liver and bile. TBBPA (100 mg/kg) also significantly increased PCO content in liver starting 24 h and LPO content 3 days after injection. Either PCO or LPO content showed significant relation with ROS production. Based on the hyperfine constants and shape of the spectrum, ROS induced by TBBPA was determined as {center_dot}OH. The results clearly indicated that TBBPA could induce {center_dot}OH generation and result in oxidative damage in liver of C. auratus.

  17. In vitro and in vivo antiparasitic activity of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. in Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

    2012-05-01

    Argulus is one of the most common and predominant ectoparasites which cause serious parasitic disease and is a potent carrier of viruses and bacteria in the ornamental fish industry. In recent years, organic (herbs)-based medicines are widely used to cure the disease, and neem (Sarbaroganibarini) medicine is very popular and effective throughout the world. The present study was conducted to find the effects of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. on Carassius auratus under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) for Azadirachtin EC 25% against Carassius auratus was found to be 82.115 mg L(-1). The antiparasitic activity test under in vitro and in vivo was evaluated at 1 (T1), 5 (T2), 10 (T3), 15 (T4) and 20 mg L(-1) (T5) to treat Argulus for 3 h and 72 h, respectively. In vitro effect of Azadirachtin solution led to 100% mortality of Argulus at 20 and 15 mg L(-1) for 2.5 and 3 h, respectively. Whereas, under in vivo test, the 100% antiparasitic efficacy of Azadirachtin solution was found at 15 and 20 mg L(-1) for 72 and 48 h, respectively. The EC(50) for 48 h was 20 mg L(-1), and thus, therapeutic index is 4.10. The results provided evidence that Azadirachtin can be used as a potential agent for controlling Argulus.

  18. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of the searobin Prionotus punctatus (Scorpaeniformes, Triglidae at two different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gomes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Routine oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were measured at 20ºC and 25ºC in the searobin Prionotus punctatus collected in Ubatuba region (22º30'S, SP, Brazil, in western South Atlantic, to investigate energy expenditure and losses through metabolic processes. IndividuaIs ranging from 1.00g to 88.47g and from 1.79g to 56.50g were used in experiments at 20ºC and 25ºC, respectively. At 20ºC and 25ºC, the averages of weight-specific oxygen consumption for the weight class of 1.00 - 10.00g, common to both temperatures, were 162.46µ 39.51 µ.10z/g/h and 200.47µ 92.46 µ.10z/g/h, respectively; for the weight class of 50.01 - 60.00g these values were 112.30 µ 22.84 µ.10z/g/h and 114.60 µ 20.36 µ.10zlg/h. At 20ºC and 25ºC, the averages of weight-specific ammonia excretion for the weight class of 1.00 to 1O.00g were 1.03 µ 0.37 fJ.M/g/h and 1.21 µ 0.65 µ.M/g/h, respectively; for the weight class of 50.01 -60.00g these values were 0.68 µ 0.13 fJ.M/g/h and 0.60 µ 0.22 µ.M/g/h. The energy budget for the species was calculated at both temperatures using the experimental data and a model for marine teleosts proposed in the literature.O consumo de oxigênio de rotina e a excreção de amônia de Prionotus punctatus coletados na região de Ubatuba (22º30'S, SP, Brasil, foram medidos a 20ºC e 25ºC, para avaliar os gastos e perdas de energia com os processos metabólicos. Foram utilizados indivíduos variando de 1,00g a 88,47g e de 1,79g a 56,50g, em experimentos a 20ºC e 25ºC, respectivamente. As médias de consumo específico de oxigênio a 20ºC e 25ºC para a classe de peso de 1,00 - 10,00g, comum a ambas as temperaturas, foram 162,46µ 39,51 µ.10z/g/h e 200,47 µ 92,46 µ.10z/g/h, respectivamente; para a classe de peso de 50,01 - 60,00g esses valores foram 112,30 µ 22,84 µ.10z/g/h e 114,60 µ 20,36 µ.10z/g/h. A 20ºC e 25ºC, as médias de excreção específica de amônia para a classe de peso de 1,00 a 10,00g foram 1

  19. A long-lost relic from the Eastern Ghats: Morphology, distribution and habitat of Sepsophis punctatus Beddome, 1870 (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta-roy, Aniruddha; Mohapatra, Pratyush P; Duttai, Sushil K; Giri, Varad B; Veerappan, Deepak; Maddock, Simon T; Raj, Prudhvi; Agarwal, Ishan; Karanth, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Sepsophis punctatus Beddome 1870, the only species of a monotypic genus, was described based on a single specimen from the Eastern Ghats of India. We rediscovered the species based on specimens from Odisha and Andhra Pradesh state, India, after a gap of 137 years, including four specimens from close to the type locality. The holotype was studied in detail, and we present additional morphological characters of the species with details on natural history, habitat and diet. The morphological characters of the holotype along with two additional specimens collected by Beddome are compared with the specimens collected by us. We also briefly discuss the distribution of other members of the subfamily Scincinae and their evolutionary affinities.

  20. Role of catecholamines and nitric oxide on pigment displacement of the chromatophores of freshwater snakehead teleost fish, Channa punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Saikat P; Jadhao, Arun G; Palande, Nikhil V

    2014-04-01

    We are reporting for the first time that the catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) inhibit the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on melanosome dispersion in freshly isolated scales of the freshwater snakehead fish, Channa punctatus. We studied the effect of NO and catecholamines on the pigment displacement by observing the changes in the melanophore index. The scales when treated with solution containing NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) showed dispersion of melanosomes, whereas NO synthase blocker N-omega-Nitro-L-arginine suppresses this action of SNP. Treatment with adrenaline and noradrenaline on the isolated scales caused aggregation of melanosomes. Scales treated with solution containing catecholamines and SNP resulted in aggregation of melanosomes suggesting that catecholamines mask the effect of SNP. These results suggest that the catecholamines are inhibiting the effect of NO and causing the aggregation of the melanosomes may be via surface receptors.

  1. An experimental model for amoebic abscess production in the cheek pouch of the Syrian golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, M A; Kobayashi, S; Hussainy, A S; Hamada, A; Okuzawa, E; Smego, R A; Hussain, R

    2004-09-01

    A new experimental model was developed in hamsters for amoebic abscess caused by Entamoeba histolytica. E. histolytica trophozoites were cultured in a liquid axenic medium, and then injected intradermally into the cheek pouch of the Syrian golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Inoculation consistently resulted in abscess formation at the site in 20 of 22 (91%) study animals. The amoebic nature of the abscesses was confirmed by light microscopy and histopathologic examination. Abscess formation was maximal at day 12 post-inoculation. Potential applications of this simple and reliable model include further elucidation of the pathogenesis of invasive amoebiasis, studies of the host response to amoebae, and in vivo evaluation of chemotherapeutic agents that show in vitro efficacy against E. histolytica.

  2. Seco-limonoid derived from Raputia heptaphylla promotes the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Falla, Diana; Gomez-Galindo, Angela; Daza, Alejandro; Robledo, Sara; Coy-Barrera, Carlos; Cuca, Luis; Delgado, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    The rational search of novel bioactive molecules against pathogens with immunomodulatory activity is presently one of the most significant approaches to discover and design new therapeutic agents for effective control of infectious diseases, such as the infection caused by Leishmania parasites. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the recently characterized immunomodulatory compound 11α,19β-dihydroxy-7-acetoxy-7-deoxoichangin, a seco-limonoid derived from the bark of Raputia heptaphylla (Pittier) using: (1) peritoneal macrophages and (2) Mesocricetus auratus hamsters infected with Leishmania (V.) panamensis and Leishmania (L.) amazonensis. We observed the ability of this seco-limonoid to induce the effective control of the parasite either in vitro [determining an effective concentration 50 (EC50) of 59 µ m at the infection model] and in vivo (inducing clinical improvement or even cure in infected animals treated compared with the groups of animals treated with vehicle solution or meglumine antimoniate).

  3. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanbo; Yan, Xuxia; Fu, Linglin

    2013-01-01

    Nano-selenium (Se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp.

  4. INDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND ASSOCIATED TOXICITY IN LIVERS OF HARDHEAD CATFISH, ARIUS FELIS, FROM CONTROL AND EPIZOOTIC SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier work with a live channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen, Edwardsiella ictaluri, demonstrated the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the head kidney, paralleling enteric septicemia (Hawke et al. 1981; Schoor and Plumb 1994). However, another study exposing...

  5. Water hardness influences Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to determine aspects of water chemistry responsible for large differences in pathogenesis and mortality rates in challenges of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus with Flavobacterium columnare; challenges were conducted in water supplying the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Res...

  6. The effect of calcium hardness on hatching success of channel catfish x blue catfish hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was designed to determine the optimal level of calcium hardness in hatching waters to incubate channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus ' x blue catfish I. furcatus ' hybrid catfish eggs. Hatching success of hybrid catfish eggs was higher (phardness (C...

  7. COMPARATIVE VITELLOGENIC RESPONSES IN THREE TELEOST SPECIES: EXTRAPOLATION TO IN SITU FIELD STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) was compared among three teleostean species to determine their relative sensitivity of exposure to 17b-estradiol (E2). Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), sunshine bass (Morone saxatalis x Morone chrysops) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) ...

  8. Persistence of duplicated PAC1 receptors in the teleost, Sparus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Melody S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Duplicated genes are common in vertebrate genomes. Their persistence is assumed to be either a consequence of gain of novel function (neofunctionalisation or partitioning of the function of the ancestral molecule (sub-functionalisation. Surprisingly few studies have evaluated the extent of such modifications despite the numerous duplicated receptor and ligand genes identified in vertebrate genomes to date. In order to study the importance of function in the maintenance of duplicated genes, sea bream (Sparus auratus PAC1 receptors, sequence homologues of the mammalian receptor specific for PACAP (Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, were studied. These receptors belong to family 2 GPCRs and most of their members are duplicated in teleosts although the reason why both persist in the genome is unknown. Results: Duplicate sea bream PACAP receptor genes (sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, members of family 2 GPCRs, were isolated and share 77% amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR with specific primers for each gene revealed that they have a differential tissue distribution which overlaps with the distribution of the single mammalian receptor. Furthermore, in common with mammals, the teleost genes undergo alternative splicing and a PAC1Ahop1 isoform has been characterised. Duplicated orthologous receptors have also been identified in other teleost genomes and their distribution profile suggests that function may be species specific. Functional analysis of the paralogue sbPAC1s in Cos7 cells revealed that they are strongly stimulated in the presence of mammalian PACAP27 and PACAP38 and far less with VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide. The sbPAC1 receptors are equally stimulated (LOGEC50 values for maximal cAMP production in the presence of PACAP27 (-8.74 ± 0.29 M and -9.15 ± 0.21 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0.05 and PACAP38 (-8.54 ± 0.18 M and -8.92 ± 0.24 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0

  9. The study of the peptide composition of the supernatants from mealworm Tenebrio molitor larvae and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. К. Гулевский

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular-mass distribution of peptides from supernatants, obtained from the tissues of larvae Tenebrio molitor and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation, has been determined by chromatography. The results showed that peptide spectrum of the supernatants from larvae T. molitor and C. auratus varied during cold acclimation. The supernatants from non-acclimated larvae of T. molitor and deacclimated fish possessed the highest number of peptide fractions. Furthermore, the cold-acclimated larvae of T. molitor had the peptide fractions of the low molecular weight (ca. 5.4×102 ÷22.6×102 Da, and non-acclimated insects had the peptides of the high molecular weight (ca. 46.8×102÷66×102 Da. Next, the organ-specific changes of the peptide composition of the goldfish during winter deacclimation have been revealed. Specifically, the low molecular weight peptides (ca. (14.1 ± 0.3×102 and (6.75 ± 0.25×102 Da, have been detected in the C. auratus muscles, and both the high (ca. (67.83 ± 0.21×102 ( ca. 64.16 ± 0.26×102 Da and low (ca. (34.1 ± 1.0×102 and (14.29 ± 0.15×102 Da molecular weight peptides have been detected in the liver. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the peptide spectra from supernatants of the T. molitor and C. auratus during cold acclimation could be one of the mechanisms of their natural adaptation to low temperatures.

  10. One year in the life of Bufo punctatus: annual patterns of body temperature in a free-ranging desert anuran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Candice M.; Starkweather, Peter L.; van Breukelen, Frank

    2008-06-01

    The Mojave Desert is characterized by hot dry summers and cold winters. The red-spotted toad ( Bufo ( Anaxyrus) punctatus) is the predominant anuran species; yet little is known of their thermal histories and strategies to avoid temperature extremes. We measured body temperature ( T b) in free-ranging adult toads across all four seasons of a year using implanted data loggers. There is marked individual variation in the temperatures experienced by these toads. As expected, toads generally escape extreme seasonal and diel temperature fluctuations. However, our data demonstrate a much wider estimated T b range than was previously assumed. Though often for short periods, red-spotted toads do experience T b as low as 3.1°C and as high as 39.1°C. All animals showed periods of prolonged thermal stability in cooler months and wider diel oscillations in warmer months. Red-spotted toad thermal history is likely a function of site choice; the exploitation of different refuges results in diverse thermal experiences. These data represent the most complete record of thermal experiences for a desert anuran and reveal greater extremes in body temperature than previously suggested.

  11. DNA damage and oxidative stress modulatory effects of glyphosate-based herbicide in freshwater fish, Channa punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwani, C D; Nagpure, N S; Kumar, Ravindra; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Lakra, W S

    2013-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the genotoxic and oxidative stress modulatory effects of commercial formulation of glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup(®)) in freshwater fish Channa punctatus. Three sublethal test concentrations of the herbicide viz., SL-I (1/10th of LC50=∼3.25mgL(-1)), SL-II (1/8th of LC50=∼4.07mgL(-1)) and SL-III (1/5th of LC50=∼6.51mgL(-1)) were calculated using 96-LC50 value and the test specimens were exposed to these concentrations. Blood and gill cells of the exposed specimens were sampled on day 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 to examine the DNA damage using comet assay and to assess the alteration in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities. The highest DNA damage was observed on day 14 at all test concentrations followed by gradual non-linear decline. Induction of oxidative stress in the blood and gill cells were evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation level, while antioxidants namely superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase responded in a concentration-dependent manner. The results supported the integrated use of comet and antioxidant assays in determining the toxicity of water pollutants which could be used as part of monitoring programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Ashish K. [Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Mohanty, Banalata, E-mail: drbana_mohanty@rediffmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India)

    2009-09-01

    Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  13. Multiple biomarker responses (serum biochemistry, oxidative stress, genotoxicity and histopathology) in Channa punctatus exposed to heavy metal loaded waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Md Irshad; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2017-05-10

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the health of fish Channa punctatus inhabiting heavy metal-loaded waste water. Heavy metals in the order of Fe > Mn > Zn > Co > Ni > Cu = Cr were present in the waste water. Gills had high metal load followed by liver and then kidney. Albumin, albumin to globulin (A:G) ratio, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were found to be lower but phospholipid, low density lipoprotein (LDL), total protein, lipid and cholesterol were higher as compared to the reference. Oxidative stress markers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were significantly higher in all tissues, whereas reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were comparatively low. Damage to DNA was observed with significantly higher mean tail length of comets in the exposed fish gill cells (30.9 µm) followed by liver (24.3 µm) and kidney (20.6 µm) as compared to reference fish (5.2, 4.8 and 5.9 µm respectively). Histopathology in gill, liver and kidney also showed marked damage. Integrated biochemical, oxidative stress, genotoxicity and histopathological findings are valuable biomarkers for native fish adaptive patterns, and monitoring of water quality/pollution of freshwater ecosystems.

  14. Report on the observed response of Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) upon encountering a reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Prayitno, Bambang; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2016-04-01

    We observed an encounter between a reticulated python (Python reticulatus) and a group of wild Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) at the Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. A python (about 2 m in length) moved toward a group of lutungs in the trees. Upon seeing the python, an adult male and several adult female lutungs began to emit alarm calls. As the python approached, two adult and one sub-adult female jumped onto a branch near the python and began mobbing the python by shaking the branch. During the mobbing, other individuals in the group (including an adult lutung male) remained nearby but did not participate. The python then rolled into a ball-like shape and stopped moving, at which point the lutungs moved away. The total duration of the encounter was about 40 min, during which time the lutungs stopped feeding and grooming. Group cohesiveness during and after the encounter was greater than that before the encounter, indicating that lutungs adjust their daily activity in response to potential predation risk.

  15. STUDIES REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF TOPSIN M 70 PU FUNGICIDE ON CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH L. 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Mihai Udroiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to see how the metylthiophanate fungicide influences the energetic metabolism and the breathing rhythm at Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch L. 1758. Experimental samples were subjected to under-lethal concentrations of 3.75mg/l, 7.5mg/l, 15mg/l and 30mg/l methyl-thiophanate fungicide from 24 to 336 hours. The physiologic parameter with the highest growth rate was the oxygen consumption, which, at the concentration of 7.5mg/l grew by 40.3% in 6 hours, compared to the witness values, registering the value of 179.52 mg oxygen/l/h compared to 127.95 mg oxygen/l/h. Also, the breathing rhythm grew at the concentration of 7.5 mg/l by 24.76% in 6 hours, compared to the witness values. At the concentration of 30mg/l, both physiologic parameters decreased. So, after 6 hours, the oxygen consumption decrease up to 31.38% from the witness values, registering the value of 51.503mg oxygen/l/h compared to 164.09mg oxygen/l/h, and the breathing rhythm decreased to 84.3% compared to the witness martor.

  16. Zn subcellular distribution in liver of goldfish (carassius auratus) with exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles and mechanism of hepatic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenhong; Li, Qian; Yang, Xiuping; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have attracted increasing concerns because of their widespread use and toxic potential. In this study, Zn accumulations in different tissues (gills, liver, muscle, and gut) of goldfish (Carassius auratus) after exposure to ZnO NPs were studied in comparison with bulk ZnO and Zn(2+). And the technique of subcellular partitioning was firstly used on the liver of goldfish to study the hepatic accumulation of ZnO NPs. The results showed that at sublethal Zn concentration (2 mg/L), bioaccumulation in goldfish was tissue-specific and dependent on the exposure materials. Compared with Zn(2+), the particles of bulk ZnO and the ZnO NPs appeared to aggregate in the environmentally contacted tissues (gills and gut), rather than transport to the internal tissues (liver and muscle). The subcellular distributions of liver differed for the three exposure treatments. After ZnO NPs exposure, Zn percentage in metal-rich granule (MRG) increased significantly, and after Zn(2+) exposure, it increased significantly in the organelles. Metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) were the main target for Zn(2+), while MRG played dominant role for ZnO NPs. The different results of subcellular distributions revealed that metal detoxification mechanisms of liver for ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and Zn(2+) were different. Overall, subcellular partitioning provided an interesting start to better understanding of the toxicity of nano- and conventional materials.

  17. Standard metabolic rate predicts growth trajectory of juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus under changing food availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qing Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic traits vary greatly within populations and can have a significant influence on aspects of performance. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of individual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR on growth rate and tolerance to food deprivation in juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus under varying levels of food availability. To address this issue, 19 high and 16 low SMR individuals were randomly assigned to a satiation diet for 3 weeks, whereas another 20 high and 16 low SMR individuals were assigned to a restricted diet (approximately 50% of satiation for the same period. Then, all fish were completely food-deprived for another 3 weeks. High SMR individuals showed a higher growth rate when fed to satiation, but this advantage of SMR did not exist in food-restricted fish. This result was related to improved feeding efficiency with decreased food intake in low SMR individuals, due to their low food processing capacity and maintenance costs. High SMR individuals experienced more mass loss during food deprivation as compared to low SMR individuals. Our results here illustrate context-dependent costs and benefits of intraspecific variation in SMR whereby high SMR individuals show increased growth performance under high food availability but had a cost under stressful environments (i.e. food shortage.

  18. Standard metabolic rate predicts growth trajectory of juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus) under changing food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ling-Qing; Zhang, An-Jie; Killen, Shaun S; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2017-09-15

    Phenotypic traits vary greatly within populations and can have a significant influence on aspects of performance. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of individual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR) on growth rate and tolerance to food deprivation in juvenile Chinese crucian carp ( Carassius auratus ) under varying levels of food availability. To address this issue, 19 high and 16 low SMR individuals were randomly assigned to a satiation diet for 3 weeks, whereas another 20 high and 16 low SMR individuals were assigned to a restricted diet (approximately 50% of satiation) for the same period. Then, all fish were completely food-deprived for another 3 weeks. High SMR individuals showed a higher growth rate when fed to satiation, but this advantage of SMR did not exist in food-restricted fish. This result was related to improved feeding efficiency with decreased food intake in low SMR individuals, due to their low food processing capacity and maintenance costs. High SMR individuals experienced more mass loss during food deprivation as compared to low SMR individuals. Our results here illustrate context-dependent costs and benefits of intraspecific variation in SMR whereby high SMR individuals show increased growth performance under high food availability but had a cost under stressful environments (i.e. food shortage). © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. The stimulatory effect of LED light spectra on genes related to photoreceptors and skin pigmentation in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Suk; Choi, Cheol Young

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to assess differences in genes related to skin color of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to light-emitting diodes (LEDs): red, green, and purple. We investigated differences in the expression of mammalian-like melanopsin (Opn4m), rhodopsin (RH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), melanin-concentrating hormone receptor (MCH-R), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in goldfish exposed to different LED light spectra. Opn4m, RH, MCH, and MCH-R mRNA levels were significantly higher in the green and purple LED groups than in the white fluorescent bulb (control) and red LED groups. Furthermore, skin cells were isolated to measure the MCH-R mRNA expression levels. The results show that the mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in the green and purple LED groups than in the control and red LED groups. In addition, body weights in the green and purple LED groups were significantly higher than those in the control and red LED groups. However, POMC mRNA expression levels in the green and purple LED groups were significantly lower than those in the control and red LED groups. These results suggest that specific wavelengths regulate fish skin color through neuropeptide hormones and photoreceptors, and POMC, which is related to stress hormones and melatonin, is associated with stress levels as well as skin color.

  20. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  1. Cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding haptoglobin, an acute phase protein in Syrian hamster, Mesacricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Matsui, I; Nakatani, T; Matsuura, K; Sinohara, H

    1998-02-01

    One of the most prominent acute phase proteins in Syrian hamster (Mesacricetus auratus) was identified as haptoglobin and cDNA encoding this protein was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature protein is 83.6, 80.5, 79.6, and 76.1% identical to those of mouse, rat, human (1 s isoform), and dog homologues, respectively. As compared with six known members of this family, including human haptoglobin-related protein, hamster haptoglobin had 11 unique substitutions and one unique codon deletion, that is, the corresponding residues have been conserved in all other members. This indicates that hamster haptoglobin gene has accumulated these unique mutations after the time of cricetid-murid split while the ancestral sequence has been conserved in all other species examined. Hamster haptoglobin, however, contains nine cysteine residues, all of which are found in conserved positions in primate and rodent homologues. Molecular phylogenetic trees of alpha- and beta-chains show that the alpha-chain is more divergent than the beta-chain and that the difference in genetic distance between canine and hamster alpha-chains is much greater than that of corresponding beta-chains.

  2. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Enciso, N. A.; Coy-barrera, E. D.; Patiño, O. J.; Cuca, L. E.; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  3. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in farmed in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Renata Serantoni Moyses

    Full Text Available Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration. Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean. The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  4. Preliminary study on the relationship between dexamethasone and pathogen susceptibility on crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Zhou; Li, Dong-Liang; Tu, Xiao; Song, Chen-Guang; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2016-12-01

    Dexamethasone, a known immunosuppressant, can inhibit the immune response and increase the amount of pathogen in body, but the role of dexamethasone affecting susceptibility of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) to pathogen is unclear. The effects of dexamethasone on susceptibility of crucian carp to Aeromonas hydrophila were investigated in this study. The fish were divided into four groups randomly and injected intraperitoneally by dexamethasone for 0 day (group D), 3 days (group C), 6 days (group B), and 9 days (group A), respectively. The serum lysozyme activity was significantly declined in group A, B and C. Relative immune gene expression such as il-1β, cxcl-8, tnfα and crp in kidney were down-regulation compared to group D. After that crucian carp were infected with A. hydrophila, crucian carp treated by dexamethasone had higher mortality (group A 95%, group B 76%, group C 31%) when compared to group D (4% mortality); the amount of pathogen in was significantly increased (P dexamethasone may be induced by the decrease of lysozyme activity and the down-regulation of some immune genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perception of Frequency, Amplitude and Azimuth of a Vibratory Dipole-Source by the Octavolateralis System of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Deena D.; Braun, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were conditioned to suppress respiration to a 40 Hz vibratory source and subsequently tested for stimulus generalization to frequency, stimulus amplitude and position (azimuth). Animals completely failed to generalize to frequencies separated by octave intervals, both lesser and greater than the CS. However they did appear to generalize weakly to an aerial loudspeaker stimulus of the same frequency (40 Hz) after conditioning with an underwater vibratory source. Animals had a gradually decreasing amount of generalization to amplitude changes, suggesting a perceptual dimension of loudness. Animals generalized largely or completely to the same underwater source presented at a range of source azimuths. When these azimuths were presented at a transect of 3 cm, some animals did show decrements in generalization, while others did not. This suggests that although azimuth may be perceived more saliently at distances closer to a dipole source, perception of position is not immediately salient in conditioned vibratory source detection. Differential responding to test stimuli located towards the head or tail suggests the presence of perceptual differences between sources that are rostral or caudal with respect to the position of the animal or perhaps the head. PMID:21574689

  6. (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach to study the toxic effects of dichlorvos on goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Ting; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Hua-Dong; Jia, Ai-Qun; Zhang, Jian-Fa; Wang, Jun-Song

    2015-11-01

    Dichlorvos (DDVP), one of the most widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), has caused serious pollution in environment. In this study, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach combined with histopathological and immunohistochemical examination, and biochemical assays were used to investigate toxicities of DDVP on goldfish (Carassius auratus). After 10 days' exposure of DDVP at three dosages of 5.18, 2.59 and 1.73 mg/L, goldfish tissues (gill, brain, liver and kidney) and serum were collected. Histopathology revealed severe impairment of gills, livers and kidneys, and immunohistochemistry disclosed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive reactive astrocytes in brains. Orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) of NMR profiles disclosed that DDVP influenced many metabolites (glutamate, aspartate, acetylcholine, 4-aminobutyrate, glutathione, AMP and lactate in brain; glutathione, glucose, histamine in liver; BCAAs, AMP, aspartate, glutamate, riboflavin in kidney) dose-dependently, involved with imbalance of neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and disorders of energy and amino acid metabolism. Several self-protection mechanisms concerning glutamate degradation and glutathione (GSH) redox system were found in DDVP intoxicated goldfish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of propofol as an anesthetic and its efficacy on some hematological values of ornamental fish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipourkanani, Hosna; Ahadizadeh, Samaneh

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of anesthesia attained in Carassius auratus using a propofol bath administration and using values of haematological profile of blood and examinations, to assess the effects of the fish exposure to that anaesthetic. Acute toxicity values of propofol for gold fish were found 96 h LC50 6.353 mg/L, 96 h LC1 2.966 mg/L and 96 h LC99 13.609 mg/L. Time to induce anesthesia in propofol experiment was significantly higher than Clove oil (p leukogram indices (p > 0.05). MCHC (%) level of propofol experiment (13.93 ± 1.36) showed significant (p < 0.05) decrease than Clove oil anesthesia (94.95 ± 24.50) and control (62.46 ± 21.90). Hb(g/dl) content (5.20 ± 0.73) showed decrease in propofol exposure compared with control (15.41 ± 4.76) and clove oil experiment (25.39 ± 5.73) (p < 0.05).

  8. Ghrelin Facilitates GLUT2-, SGLT1- and SGLT2-mediated Intestinal Glucose Transport in Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Ramesh, Naresh; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-03-24

    Glucose homeostasis is an important biological process that involves a variety of regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, modulates intestinal glucose transport in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Three intestinal glucose transporters, the facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and the sodium/glucose co-transporters 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2), were studied. Immunostaining of intestinal sections found colocalization of ghrelin and GLUT2 and SGLT2 in mucosal cells. Some cells containing GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2 coexpressed the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Intraperitoneal glucose administration led to a significant increase in serum ghrelin levels, as well as an upregulation of intestinal preproghrelin, ghrelin O-acyltransferase and ghs-r1 expression. In vivo and in vitro ghrelin treatment caused a concentration- and time-dependent modulation (mainly stimulatory) of GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2. These effects were abolished by the GHS-R1a antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122, suggesting that ghrelin actions on glucose transporters are mediated by GHS-R1a via the PLC/PKC signaling pathway. Finally, ghrelin stimulated the translocation of GLUT2 into the plasma membrane of goldfish primary intestinal cells. Overall, data reported here indicate an important role for ghrelin in the modulation of glucoregulatory machinery and glucose homeostasis in fish.

  9. Spontaneous polyploidy, gynogenesis and androgenesis in second generation (F2) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delomas, T A; Gomelsky, B; Anil, A; Schneider, K J; Warner, J L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genetics of second generation (F 2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids. Spermatozoa produced by a novel, fertile F 1 male were found to be diploid by flow-cytometric analysis. Backcross (F 1 female × C. carpio male and C. carpio female × F 1 male) juveniles were triploid, confirming that female and male F 1 hybrids both produced diploid gametes. The vast majority of surviving F 2 juveniles was diploid and small proportions were aneuploid (2·1n-2·3n and 3·1n-3·9n), triploid (3n) and tetraploid (4n). Microsatellite genotyping showed that F 2 diploids repeated either the complete maternal or the complete paternal genotype. Fish with the maternal genotype were female and fish with the paternal genotype were male. This demonstrates that F 2 diploids were the result of spontaneous gynogenesis and spontaneous androgenesis. Analysis of microsatellite inheritance and the sex ratio in F 2 crosses showed that spontaneous gynogenesis and androgenesis did not always occur in equal proportions. One cross was found to have an approximate equal number of androgenetic and gynogenetic offspring while in several other crosses spontaneous androgenesis was found to occur more frequently than spontaneous gynogenesis. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Exploring the binding properties and structural stability of an opsin in the chytrid Spizellomyces punctatus using comparative and molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Ahrendt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Opsin proteins are seven transmembrane receptor proteins which detect light. Opsins can be classified into two types and share little sequence identity: type 1, typically found in bacteria, and type 2, primarily characterized in metazoa. The type 2 opsins (Rhodopsins are a subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, a large and diverse class of seven transmembrane proteins and are generally restricted to metazoan lineages. Fungi use light receptors including opsins to sense the environment and transduce signals for developmental or metabolic changes. Opsins characterized in the Dikarya (Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes are of the type 1 bacteriorhodopsin family but the early diverging fungal lineages have not been as well surveyed. We identified by sequence similarity a rhodopsin-like GPCR in genomes of early diverging chytrids and examined the structural characteristics of this protein to assess its likelihood to be homologous to animal rhodopsins and bind similar chromophores. Methods We used template-based structure modeling, automated ligand docking, and molecular modeling to assess the structural and binding properties of an identified opsin-like protein found in Spizellomyces punctatus, a unicellular, flagellated species belonging to Chytridiomycota, one of the earliest diverging fungal lineages. We tested if the sequence and inferred structure were consistent with a solved crystal structure of a type 2 rhodopsin from the squid Todarodes pacificus. Results Our results indicate that the Spizellomyces opsin has structural characteristics consistent with functional animal type 2 rhodopsins and is capable of maintaining a stable structure when associated with the retinaldehyde chromophore, specifically the 9-cis-retinal isomer. Together, these results support further the homology of Spizellomyces opsins to animal type 2 rhodopsins. Discussion This represents the first test of structure/function relationship of a type 2 rhodopsin

  11. Haematological changes in South Indian fresh water murrel, Channa punctatus have both EUS and A. hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podeti, Koteshwar Rao; Benarjee, G

    2017-06-01

    The mixed infection in fishes is a common feature and in this Pathogens like Bacteria, Fungi and Protozoan's are found together to cause ill health to the fishes known as Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS). In this syndrome the low temperature and aquatic pollution aggravates the infection in fishes. In the present study the fresh water edible fish, Channa punctatus (Murrel) was found infected with the bacteria namely, Aeromonas hydrophila, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella salmonicida. The fungi, Aphanomyces invadans was also found. The major objective of this study is to understand the microbial intensity in various organs of fish and hematological variations in both control and EUS infected fish. The highest microbial load of 8.2 ± 0.12 × 107 cfu g-1was observed in the skin where as the lowest load of 3.2 ± 0.8 × 103 cfu g-1 was found in the pancreas. From the microbial diagnosis, A. hydrophila has been isolated from different organs indicating its predominant presence. In comparison with the control the haemotological indices like WBC, MCV, Lymophocytes, Eosinophils and Basophils were found increased in the infected by (17 %), (16 %), (5 %), (58 %) and (27 %) respectively. The variations in microbial load found in fish in the study can be attributed to feeding habits, behavior, fish adaptations among the different fish species. These conditions are being caused by the presence of environmental pollution and are high in heavy native fishes. Thus the results showed that low of Haemoglobin value Packed Cell Volume and Red Blood Corpuscles indicated the presence of anemic conditions in the EUS infected fish found in Warangal.

  12. Major Histocompatibility Complex Genes Map to Two Chromosomes in an Evolutionarily Ancient Reptile, the Tuatara Sphenodon punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hilary C; O'Meally, Denis; Ezaz, Tariq; Amemiya, Chris; Marshall-Graves, Jennifer A; Edwards, Scott

    2015-05-07

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are a central component of the vertebrate immune system and usually exist in a single genomic region. However, considerable differences in MHC organization and size exist between different vertebrate lineages. Reptiles occupy a key evolutionary position for understanding how variation in MHC structure evolved in vertebrates, but information on the structure of the MHC region in reptiles is limited. In this study, we investigate the organization and cytogenetic location of MHC genes in the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), the sole extant representative of the early-diverging reptilian order Rhynchocephalia. Sequencing and mapping of 12 clones containing class I and II MHC genes from a bacterial artificial chromosome library indicated that the core MHC region is located on chromosome 13q. However, duplication and translocation of MHC genes outside of the core region was evident, because additional class I MHC genes were located on chromosome 4p. We found a total of seven class I sequences and 11 class II β sequences, with evidence for duplication and pseudogenization of genes within the tuatara lineage. The tuatara MHC is characterized by high repeat content and low gene density compared with other species and we found no antigen processing or MHC framework genes on the MHC gene-containing clones. Our findings indicate substantial differences in MHC organization in tuatara compared with mammalian and avian MHCs and highlight the dynamic nature of the MHC. Further sequencing and annotation of tuatara and other reptile MHCs will determine if the tuatara MHC is representative of nonavian reptiles in general. Copyright © 2015 Miller et al.

  13. Initial Response by a Native Beetle, Chrysochus auratus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), to a Novel Introduced Host-Plant, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Gentianales: Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    deJonge, R B; Bourchier, R S; Smith, S M

    2017-06-01

    Native insects can form novel associations with introduced invasive plants and use them as a food source. The recent introduction into eastern North America of a nonnative European vine, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., allows us to examine the initial response of a native chrysomelid beetle, Chrysochus auratus F., that feeds on native plants in the same family as V. rossicum (Apocynaceae). We tested C. auratus on V. rossicum and closely related or co-occurring native plants (Apocynum spp., Asclepias spp., and Solidago canadensis L.) using all life stages of the beetle in lab, garden, and field experiments. Experiments measured feeding (presence or absence and amount), survival, oviposition, and whether previous exposure to V. rossicum in the lab or field affected adult beetle feeding. Beetles fed significantly less on V. rossicum than on native Apocynum hosts. Adult beetles engaged in exploratory feeding on leaves of V. rossicum and survived up to 10 d. Females oviposited on V. rossicum, eggs hatched, and larvae fed initially on the roots; however, no larvae survived beyond second instar. Beetles collected from Apocynum cannabinum L. field sites intermixed with V. rossicum were less likely to feed on this novel nonnative host than those collected from colonies further from and less likely to be exposed to V. rossicum (>5 km). Our experimental work indicates that V. rossicum may act as an oviposition sink for C. auratus and that this native beetle has not adapted to survive on this recently introduced novel host plant. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Invasion and Colonisation of a Tropical Stream by an Exotic Loricariid Fish: Indices of Gradual Displacement of the Native Common Pleco (Hypostomus punctatus) by the Red Fin Dwarf Pleco (Parotocinclus maculicauda) over Fifteen Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Rosana; Costa da Silva, Raquel; Pinto, Míriam Plaza

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of invasive species represents a major threat to the integrity of stream-dwelling fish populations worldwide, and this issue is receiving increasing attention from scientists, in particular because of potential impact on biodiversity. In this study, we analysed the dispersal of an exotic loricariid fish the red fin dwarf pleco (Parotocinclus maculicauda) in a stream of the Atlantic Forest biome in coastal south-eastern Brazil and evaluated the effects of this invasion on the native loricariid common pleco (Hypostomus punctatus). Specimens were collected at eight sites located along the course of the stream over a 15-year period. The distribution and density of the two species were determined by the Successive Removal Method. The introduction of P. maculicauda occurred in the medium sector of the stream, and during the course of the study, the species dispersed to new sites further upstream. By the end of the study, it was found at all points upstream from the original site. Hypostomus punctatus was registered at all sample sites both before and after the introduction of P. maculicauda, but its density decreased at all upstream sites after the arrival of the exotic species. Our analysis shows that colonisation by P. maculicauda seems to have a negative effect on H. punctatus densities. The maintenance of H. punctatus densities at the sites not colonised by P. maculicauda reinforces the conclusion that the colonisation of the stream by the exotic species had deleterious effects on the density of the resident H. punctatus populations, either by direct or indirect action.

  15. Invasion and Colonisation of a Tropical Stream by an Exotic Loricariid Fish: Indices of Gradual Displacement of the Native Common Pleco (Hypostomus punctatus by the Red Fin Dwarf Pleco (Parotocinclus maculicauda over Fifteen Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Mazzoni

    Full Text Available The introduction of invasive species represents a major threat to the integrity of stream-dwelling fish populations worldwide, and this issue is receiving increasing attention from scientists, in particular because of potential impact on biodiversity. In this study, we analysed the dispersal of an exotic loricariid fish the red fin dwarf pleco (Parotocinclus maculicauda in a stream of the Atlantic Forest biome in coastal south-eastern Brazil and evaluated the effects of this invasion on the native loricariid common pleco (Hypostomus punctatus. Specimens were collected at eight sites located along the course of the stream over a 15-year period. The distribution and density of the two species were determined by the Successive Removal Method. The introduction of P. maculicauda occurred in the medium sector of the stream, and during the course of the study, the species dispersed to new sites further upstream. By the end of the study, it was found at all points upstream from the original site. Hypostomus punctatus was registered at all sample sites both before and after the introduction of P. maculicauda, but its density decreased at all upstream sites after the arrival of the exotic species. Our analysis shows that colonisation by P. maculicauda seems to have a negative effect on H. punctatus densities. The maintenance of H. punctatus densities at the sites not colonised by P. maculicauda reinforces the conclusion that the colonisation of the stream by the exotic species had deleterious effects on the density of the resident H. punctatus populations, either by direct or indirect action.

  16. Leptins and leptin receptor expression in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Regulation by food intake and fasting/overfeeding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Ana Belén; Nisembaum, Laura Gabriela; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, María Jesús; de Pedro, Nuria

    2012-04-01

    Leptin is a hormone involved in feeding and body weight regulation in vertebrates, but the relationship between energy status and leptin has not been clearly established in fish. The aim of this study was to investigate in a teleost, the goldfish (Carassius auratus), the tissue expression pattern of two leptins (gLep-aI and gLep-aII) and leptin receptor (gLepR); and the effect of feeding on expression of these genes. Leptin system expression in goldfish was firstly analyzed in fish under overfeeding (2 weeks) or fasting (1 week), and secondly, at different postfeeding times (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12h). Goldfish has two Lep-a paralog genes, gLep-aI was widely expressed in central and peripheral tissues, whereas gLep-aII was preferentially expressed in brain. This different distribution pattern of leptins suggests that they can play different physiological roles in goldfish. The gLepR mRNA was ubiquitous expressed, with the highest expression in the telencephalon and hypothalamus. No significant differences in the leptin system expression were found among control, overfed and fasting groups, suggesting an apparent lack of correlation between nutritional status and leptin system in goldfish. Hepatic expression of gLep-aI significantly increased 9h after feeding time, while hypothalamic leptin system expression did not change after feeding. In summary, leptin in goldfish could signal short-term changes in food intake, as postprandial satiety, but seems to be independent of fasting/overfeeding conditions in this teleost. The widespread distribution of leptins and leptin receptor in goldfish strongly supports that this hormone may have pleitropic actions in fish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroids: Aggression and anxiety during exposure predict behavioral responding during withdrawal in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Lesley A; Morrison, Thomas R; Melloni, Richard H

    2013-11-01

    In the U.S. and worldwide anabolic/androgenic steroid use remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic/androgenic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior during exposure and anxiety during withdrawal. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that an inverse behavioral relationship exists between anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced aggression and anxiety across adolescent exposure and withdrawal. In the first experiment, we examined aggression and anxiety during adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid administration produced significant increases in aggression and decreases in anxiety during the exposure period followed by significant decreases in aggression and increases in anxiety during anabolic/androgenic steroid withdrawal. In a second experiment, anabolic/androgenic steroid exposed animals were separated into groups based on their aggressive response during the exposure period and then tested for anxiety during exposure and then for both aggression and anxiety during withdrawal. Data were analyzed using a within-subjects repeated measures predictive analysis. Linear regression analysis revealed that the difference in aggressive responding between the anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal periods was a significant predictor of differences in anxiety for both days of testing. Moreover, the combined data suggest that the decrease in aggressive behavior from exposure to withdrawal predicts an increase in anxiety-like responding within these same animals during this time span. Together these findings indicate that early anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure has potent aggression- and anxiety-eliciting effects and that these behavioral changes occur alongside a predictive relationship that exists between these two behaviors over time. © 2013.

  18. Adolescent Anabolic/Androgenic Steroids: Aggression and Anxiety During Exposure Predict Behavioral Responding During Withdrawal in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Lesley A.; Morrison, Thomas R.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S. and worldwide anabolic/androgenic steroid use remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic/androgenic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior during exposure and anxiety during withdrawal. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that an inverse behavioral relationship exists between anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced aggression and anxiety across adolescent exposure and withdrawal. In the first experiment, we examined aggression and anxiety during adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid administration produced significant increases in aggression and decreases in anxiety during the exposure period followed by significant decreases in aggression and increases in anxiety during anabolic/androgenic steroid withdrawal. In a second experiment, anabolic/androgenic steroid exposed animals were separated into groups based on their aggressive response during the exposure period and then tested for anxiety during exposure and then for both aggression and anxiety during withdrawal. Data were analyzed using a within subjects repeated measures predictive analysis. Linear regression analysis revealed that the difference in aggressive responding between the anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal periods was a significant predictor of differences in anxiety for both days of testing. Moreover, the combined data suggest that the decrease in aggressive behavior from exposure to withdrawal predicts an increase in anxiety-like responding within these same animals during this time span. Together these findings indicate that early anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure has potent aggression- and anxiety- eliciting effects and that these behavioral changes occur alongside a predictive relationship that exists between these two behaviors over time. PMID:24126136

  19. Kinetic analysis of the swimming behavior of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to nickel: Hypoactivity induced by sublethal concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellgaard, E.G.; Ashley, S.E.; Langford, A.E. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The discharge of nickel into aquatic environments from numerous industries poses a threat to fish populations because of its toxcity. Although little is known, however, about the precise mechanism of its toxicity in freshwater fish, it produces some of the symptoms associated with heavy-metal poisoning in general; it accumulates in fish tissues and results in alterations in gill structure, including hypertrophy of respiratory and mucous cells, separation of the epithelial layer from the pillar cell system, cauterization and sloughing, and necrosis of the epithelium. The destruction of the gill lamellae decreases the ventilation rate and if severe, as after acute exposure, may cause blood hypoxia and death. The effects of short-term exposure of fish to sublethal concentrations of nickel and not as well defined. The kinetic method of Ellgaard et al., which uses locomotor activity to assess the general health of fish, is ideally suited to examine whether sublethal concentrations of nickel adversely affect fish. In previous studies, the measured changes in locomotor activity observed when fish are exposed to pollutants correlate with more specific changes, e.g., physiological, biochemical, histological or neurosensory changes, which occur under the same conditions. Thus, the kinetic method also meets the criterial for pollution early warning systems as discussed by Cairns and van der Schale. This method has previously been used to demonstrate that short-term exposure to sublethal concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium, chromium, and zinc and copper are detrimental to the health of bluegills. The present study examines the effects of short-term exposures of sublethal concentrations of nickel on the locomotor activity of the goldfish, Carassius auratus. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition regulates cardiac SERCA activity in a hibernator, the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Giroud

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6 lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (T(b and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca(2+-ATPase 2a (SERCA in the heart of hibernators. We tested the hypotheses that high proportions of n-6 PUFA in general, or specifically high proportions of LA (C18:2 n-6 in SR phospholipids (PL should be associated with increased cardiac SERCA activity, and should allow animals to reach lower minimum T(b in torpor. We measured activity of SERCA from hearts of hibernating and non-hibernating Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus in vitro at 35 °C. Further, we determined the PL fatty acid composition of the SR membrane of these hearts. We found that SERCA activity strongly increased as the proportion of LA in SR PL increased but was negatively affected by the content of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3. SR PL from hibernating hamsters were characterized by high proportions of LA and low proportions of DHA. As a result, SERCA activity was significantly higher during entrance into torpor and in torpor compared to inter-bout arousal. Also, animals with increased SERCA activity reached lower T(b during torpor. Interestingly, a subgroup of hamsters which never entered torpor but remained euthermic throughout winter displayed a phenotype similar to animals in summer. This was characterized by lower proportions of LA and increased proportions of DHA in SR membranes, which is apparently incompatible with torpor. We conclude that the PUFA composition of SR membranes affects cardiac function via modulating SERCA activity, and hence determines the minimum T(b tolerated by hibernators.

  1. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minghui [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Junsong, E-mail: wang.junsong@gmail.com [Center for Molecular Metabolism, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiao Ling Wei Street, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Kong, Lingyi, E-mail: cpu_lykong@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment.

  2. Growth of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in cell culture and experimental infection of goldfish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Ozaki, Akiyuki; Sano, Motohiko; Fukuda, Hideo; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2013-09-03

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis has caused great economic damage to goldfish Carassius auratus aquaculture in Japan. The existence of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), the causative agent, has also been reported from several other countries. To prevent spread to other areas, basic virological information such as viral kinetics in infected fish is essential. Experimental infection trials using reliably prepared CyHV-2 for defining viral kinetics are difficult to carry out because successful and sustainable propagation of this virus in cell culture has previously been limited. Here we describe a method for sustainable propagation of CyHV-2 in cell culture, and the results of fish infection experiments using the propagated virus. We found that goldfish fin (GFF) cells and standard Ryukin Takafumi (SRTF) cells established from goldfish fin can be used for continuous propagation of CyHV-2. Experimental infections using 2 varieties of goldfish, Ryukin and Edonishiki, were performed with the virus passaged 7 times in GFF cells. In transmission experiments with water temperature at 20°C, cumulative mortality was 30% in Ryukin infected by immersion, and 90 and 100% in Edonishiki and Ryukin intraperitoneally injected with the virus, respectively. In an experiment carried out at 25°C, 90% of Edonishiki challenged by immersion died. PCR detection of viral DNA from the organs of infected fish showed that systemic infection occurs and also that the kidney is a main viral multiplication site. Moreover, CyHV-2 was successfully re-isolated in GFF cells from the dead fish.

  3. Antiparasitic efficacy of piperine against Argulus spp. on Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758): in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Vikash; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Saurav

    2012-11-01

    Argulus are common aquatic ectoparasites that create one of the major threats to aquaculture due to absence of suitable therapy. Piperine, a bioactive component of Piper longum, has medicinal properties and acts as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal, considering eco-friendliness and cost-effectiveness. The present study aimed to evaluate antiparasitic effect of piperine against an ectoparasite Argulus spp. on Carassius auratus. Artificial Argulus infection was carried out by cohabitation method, and the fishes were selected for in vivo study when intensity of Argulus infestation was observed to be 15-20 Argulus per fish. In vitro and in vivo studies were performed at different concentration 1.0 (T (1)), 3.0 (T (2)), 5.0 (T (3)), 7.0 (T (4)), and 9.0 mg l(-1) (T (5)) of piperine solution to treat Argulus for 3 and 72 h, respectively. The acute toxicity test for piperine EC 97 % against goldfish was performed for 96 h. The 96 h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) for piperine was found to be 52.64 mg l(-1). In vitro effect of piperine solution led to 100 % mortality of Argulus at 9.0 mg l(-1) in 3 h whereas, under in vivo test, the 100 % antiparasitic efficacy of piperine solution was found at 9.0 mg l(-1) in 48 h. The EC(50) for 48 h was 9.0 mg l(-1), and thus, therapeutic index is 5.8. The results revealed that piperine at a concentration of 9.0 mg l(-1) can be used as a potential natural agent for controlling Argulus parasite.

  4. Effect of azadirachtin on haematological and biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mallesh, B; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

    2013-08-01

    Argulosis hampers aquaculture production and alters the host physiology and growth. Azadirachtin is recognized as a potential antiparasitic agent against Argulus sp. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentration of azadirachtin solution on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus. Ninety Argulus-infested goldfish were randomly divided into six equal groups. Fish of group 1-5 were treated with azadirachtin solution through bath of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively, and group 6 was exposed to 2% DMSO solution without azadirachtin and considered as negative control T0(-). Along with six treatment groups, a positive control T0(+) of healthy goldfish free from Argulus infestation was also maintained. Parasitic mortality was evaluated after 3 days of consecutive bath treatment. After 7 days of post-treatment, the blood and serum were drawn from each of the treatment groups and haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Total leucocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), blood glucose, total protein (TP), globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were significantly (p Argulus infestation altered marked haematological and serum biochemical parameters. However, in treated groups complete elimination of Argulus was found in T4 and T5 groups. Also significant (p Argulus spp. from infested goldfish could be eliminated using bath treatment with solution of azadirachtin having concentration of 15 mg L(-1) and that also shifted haematological and serum biochemical parameters towards homeostasis.

  5. Estudio anatomopatológico de aislados de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua en Mesocricetus auratus como biomodelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Jirón T.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar en el biomodelo Mesocricetus auratus la sintomatología y lesiones anatomopatológicas que provocan 5 aislados clínicos de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua. Materiales y métodos. Con este fin se inocularon 50 hámster por vía i.p con 1mL del cultivo de cada una de las cepas en fase exponencial teniendo una concentración celular de 7.5 x 106 leptospira/mL (10 animales por cepa, evaluándose signos de la enfermedad, mortalidad durante 14 días, lesiones anatomopatológicas macroscópicas y microscópicas mediante tinción con hematoxilina-eosina y tinción de Warthyn Starryn. Resultados. Todas las cepas presentaron alta mortalidad, mostrando un cuadro tanto clínico, como lesional característico de la infección experimental. Además, causaron la muerte al 100% de los animales entre el tercer y décimo día postinfección. En el estudio anatomopatológico la cepa del serogrupo Ballum y la del serogrupo Pomona produjeron focos de hemorragias específicamente en el riñón y pulmones. De forma similar ocurrió una congestión hepática y renal, mientras que la hemorragia renal fue observada con mayor frecuencia en la cepa del serogrupo Pomona, diferenciándose del resto de las cepas que mostraron esta lesión con menos frecuencia. Conclusiones. Este trabajo permitió una mayor caracterización de estas cepas siendo utilizadas como futuras candidatas vacunales frente a una nueva epidemia de Leptospirosis en Nicaragua.

  6. (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach to study the toxic effects of herbicide butachlor on goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-Dong; Wang, Jun-Song; Li, Ming-Hui; Liu, Yan; Chen, Ting; Jia, Ai-Qun

    2015-02-01

    Butachlor, one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture, has been reported with high ecotoxicity to aquatic plants and animals. In this study, a (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach combined with histopathological examination and biochemical assays was applied to comprehensively investigate the toxic effects of butachlor on four important organs (gill, brain, liver and kidney) of goldfish (Carassius auratus) for the first time. After 10 days' butachlor exposure at two dosages of 3.2 and 0.64 μmol/L, fish tissues (gill, brain, liver and kidney) and serum were collected. Histopathological inspection revealed severe impairment of gill filaments and obvious cellular edema in livers and kidneys. The increase of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in gill and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) level in four tissues reflected the disturbance of antioxidative system in the intoxicated goldfish. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and creatinine (CRE) level were increased in butachlor exposure groups, suggesting liver and kidney injuries induced by butachlor. Orthogonal signal correction partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) of NMR profiles disclosed metabolic changes that were related to the toxic effects of butachlor including oxidative stress, disorder of energy metabolism and amino acids metabolism, and disturbance of neurotransmitter balance in butachlor exposed goldfish. This integrated metabolomics approach provided a molecular basis underlying the toxicity of butachlor and demonstrated that metabolomics was a powerful and highly effective approach to elucidate the toxicity and underlying mechanisms of herbicides and pesticides, applicable for their risk assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidative stress responses in gills of goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to the metribuzin-containing herbicide Sencor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, Viktor V; Mosiichuk, Nadia M; Maksymiv, Ivan V; Storey, Janet M; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2016-07-01

    Metribuzin belongs to the family of asymmetrical triazine compounds and is an active ingredient in many commercial herbicides including Sencor. Effects on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) of exposure for 96h to 7.14, 35.7 or 71.4mgL(-1) Sencor 70 WG (corresponding to 5, 25 and 50mgL(-1) of metribuzin) were examined by evaluating oxidative stress markers and activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes in gills. Fish exposed to the lowest Sencor concentration (7.14mgL(-1)) showed a 94% increase in levels of protein carbonyls in gills as well as 45% and 144% increases in the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase. Exposure to the highest Sencor concentration (71.4mgL(-1)) resulted in reduced levels of protein carbonyls by 56% and lipid peroxides by 40%, as compared with controls, but enhanced levels of low and high molecular mass thiols by 71% and 36%, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase were increased in gills of goldfish exposed to 71.4mgL(-1) Sencor. At any concentration tested, Sencor did not affect the activities of glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase or acetylcholine esterase in gills. The results of this study indicate that acute exposure of goldfish to Sencor had effect on free radical processes in gills and glutathione-dependent antioxidants effectively protect proteins and lipids from oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Deplazes, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47), Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11) and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS) (n = 9...

  9. Combined or Individual Effects of Dietary Probiotic Pedicoccus acidilactici and Nucleotide on Growth Performance, Intestinal Microbiota, Hemato-biochemical Parameters, and Innate Immune Response in Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdinejad, Nooshin; Imanpour, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Valiollah

    2017-06-21

    This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of probiotic Pedicoccus acidilactici and nucleotide (separately or combined) on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, hemato-immunological parameters, and immunity response in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fish (average weight 5-6 g) were acclimatized and divided into eight experimental diets supplemented with P. acidilactici of different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% diet) and nucleotides (0 and 0.5% diet) for 6 months. Fish fed with experimental diets showed significant differences in terms of final weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, daily growth rate, and condition factor when compared to control diet (P < 0.05). Fish fed with probiotic (0.3%) separately and combined with nucleotide (0.5%) had highest RBC and WBC when compared to other diets (P < 0.05), while the highest values for Hb and Hct as well as total protein, glucose, albumin, and globulin were observed in probiotic (0.2%) and nucleotide (0.5%) combined diet. Serum lysozyme and anti-protease activities were significantly higher in probiotic (0.1 and 0.2%) and nucleotide (0.5%) combined diets. Similarly, these two diets combined showed the highest colonization of P. acidilactici when compared to other diets. In conclusion, combined dietary probiotic and nucleotide improve the growth performance, hemato-biochemical parameters, and intestine growth in C. auratus.

  10. The toxicity of cadmium to three aquatic organisms (Photobacterium phosphoreum, Daphnia magna and Carassius auratus) under different pH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, R-J; Wang, X-H; Feng, M-B; Li, Y; Liu, H-X; Wang, L-S; Wang, Z-Y

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of pH on cadmium toxicity to three aquatic organisms: Photobacterium phosphoreum, Daphnia magna and Carassius auratus. The acute toxicity of Cd(2+) to P. phosphoreum and D. magna at five pH values (5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0) was assessed by calculating EC50 values. We determined that Cd(2+) was least toxic under acidic conditions, and D. magna was more sensitive to the toxicity of Cd than P. phosphoreum. To evaluate Cd(2+)-induced hepatic oxidative stress in C. auratus at three pH levels (5.0, 7.25, 9.0), the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), the level of glutathione and the malondialdehyde content in the liver were measured. Oxidative damage was observed after 7d Cd exposure at pH 9.0. An important finding of the current research was that Cd(2+) was generally more toxic to the three test organisms in alkaline environments than in acidic environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and Application of an eDNA Method to Detect the Critically Endangered Trinidad Golden Tree Frog (Phytotriades auratus) in Bromeliad Phytotelmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozio, Sarah; Manson, Chloe; Gourevitch, Eleanor; Burns, Thomas J; Greener, Mark S; Downie, J Roger; Hoskisson, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) to monitor rare and elusive species has great potential for conservation biology. Traditional surveying methods can be time-consuming, labour-intensive, subject to error or can be invasive and potentially damaging to habitat. The Trinidad golden treefrog (Phytotriades auratus) is one such species that would benefit from such an approach. This species inhabits the giant bromeliad (Glomeropitcairnia erectiflora) on two peaks on the Caribbean island of Trinidad. Traditional survey methods for this species have required the destruction of the giant bromeliad, which is the only known habitat of this frog. Here we described the development of an eDNA PCR-based assay that uses water drawn from the water-filled phytotelmata of the giant bromeliad along with the use of a synthetic DNA positive control that can be easily amplified in the bacterium Escherichia coli. The assay can detect to a DNA concentration of 1.4ng. Sampling of 142 bromeliads using this method revealed 9% were positive for P. auratus DNA. These data suggest that eDNA methods also have great potential for revealing the presence of elusive species in arboreal habitats.

  12. Development and Application of an eDNA Method to Detect the Critically Endangered Trinidad Golden Tree Frog (Phytotriades auratus in Bromeliad Phytotelmata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brozio

    Full Text Available The use of environmental DNA (eDNA to monitor rare and elusive species has great potential for conservation biology. Traditional surveying methods can be time-consuming, labour-intensive, subject to error or can be invasive and potentially damaging to habitat. The Trinidad golden treefrog (Phytotriades auratus is one such species that would benefit from such an approach. This species inhabits the giant bromeliad (Glomeropitcairnia erectiflora on two peaks on the Caribbean island of Trinidad. Traditional survey methods for this species have required the destruction of the giant bromeliad, which is the only known habitat of this frog. Here we described the development of an eDNA PCR-based assay that uses water drawn from the water-filled phytotelmata of the giant bromeliad along with the use of a synthetic DNA positive control that can be easily amplified in the bacterium Escherichia coli. The assay can detect to a DNA concentration of 1.4ng. Sampling of 142 bromeliads using this method revealed 9% were positive for P. auratus DNA. These data suggest that eDNA methods also have great potential for revealing the presence of elusive species in arboreal habitats.

  13. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Deplazes, Peter; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2016-08-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47), Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11) and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS) (n = 9) with an E. multilocularis egg suspension that contained 100 eggs with viable oncospheres and performed post mortem examination 6, 8 (M. glareolus) and 10 weeks post inoculation (wpi). C57BL/6j mice (n = 4) were used as positive controls as they have been shown to exhibit macroscopic liver lesions 4 wpi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to experimentally assess susceptibility in the ostensibly competent host M. glareolus. Lesions were only detected in 2 of 47 M. glareolus (4.3%) at 8 and 10 wpi and although both contained protoscolices (1675 at 8 wpi and 88 at 12 wpi) the low percentage of infected animals brings into question their role as transmitters of the parasite. Significant differences were observed between inbred and outbred mice with E. multilocularis infection in the former demonstrating increased establishment (p ≤ 0.0001) and growth (p ≤ 0.0001). No lesions were found in all 11 M. auratus.

  14. Goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) as a model system to study the growth factors, receptors and transcription factors that govern myelopoiesis in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenback, Barbara A; Katakura, Fumihiko; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2016-05-01

    The process of myeloid cell development (myelopoiesis) in fish has mainly been studied in three cyprinid species: zebrafish (Danio rerio), ginbuna carp (Carassius auratus langsdorfii) and goldfish (C. auratus, L.). Our studies on goldfish myelopoiesis have utilized in vitro generated primary kidney macrophage (PKM) cultures and isolated primary kidney neutrophils (PKNs) cultured overnight to study the process of macrophage (monopoiesis) and neutrophil (granulopoiesis) development and the key growth factors, receptors, and transcription factors that govern this process in vitro. The PKM culture system is unique in that all three subpopulations of macrophage development, namely progenitor cells, monocytes, and mature macrophages, are simultaneously present in culture unlike mammalian systems, allowing for the elucidation of the complex mixture of cytokines that regulate progressive and selective macrophage development from progenitor cells to fully functional mature macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, we have been able to extend our investigations to include the development of erythrocytes (erythropoiesis) and thrombocytes (thrombopoiesis) through studies focusing on the progenitor cell population isolated from the goldfish kidney. Herein, we review the in vitro goldfish model systems focusing on the characteristics of cell sub-populations, growth factors and their receptors, and transcription factors that regulate goldfish myelopoiesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative transcriptome analysis of ovary and testis reveals potential sex-related genes and pathways in spotted knifejaw Oplegnathus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xinxin; Wang, Bo; Liu, Xiumei; Liu, Xiaobing; He, Yan; Zhang, Quanqi; Wang, Xubo

    2017-12-30

    The spotted knifejaw (Oplegnathus punctatus) is a newly emerging fishery species inhabiting the Pacific Ocean around Hawaii, China, Japan and Korean Peninsula. Little information on the mechanism of gonadal development and gametogenesis in this species could be used for research and breeding work. In this study, RNA-seq technology was applied to generate a deep-coverage sequencing data of spotted knifejaw testis and ovary. A total of 262,392,754 reads (ovary 133,403,270, testis 128,989,484) were generated from the cDNA library. After filtering and assembling, a total of 113,794 unigenes were obtained with the N50 of 1658bp. Unigenes were annotated with multiple public databases, including non-redundant protein databases (NR) (42,460, 37.31%), Swiss-Prot (33,632, 29.56%), eukaryotic Orthologus Groups (KOG) (26,195, 23.02%), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) (10,978, 9.65%), and Gene Ontology (GO) (30,514, 26.82%). By comparing ovary and testis, 4496 differentially expressed unigenes (1986 in female, 2510 in male) were identified, in which 469 were specially expressed in females and 859 in males. The expression levels of 12 unigenes were confirmed by qRT-PCR. In addition, 35,054 simple sequence repeats were identified. By GO and KEGG analyses, a set of unigenes related to gonadal development and gametogenesis were filtered. foxl2 was deduced to be a key regulator for gonadal development and gametogenesis in females and dmrt1 in males. bmp15, nanos3, sox9 and amh were likely to function in the regulation of gonad physiology and germ line cells maintenance in ovary and testis. Interestingly, p53, apoptosis, Jak-STAT and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathways were found to be pivotal in regulating gonadal development and gametogenesis of spotted knifejaw in various aspects. This study provides a fundamental support for further research in reproduction biology, population genetics and functional genomics in spotted knifejaw. Copyright © 2017

  16. Feeding ecology and energetic relationships with habitat of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, and flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, in the lower Mississippi River, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, M.A.; Schramm, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined feeding of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, and flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, collected from floodplain lake, secondary (side) river channel, and main river channel habitats in the lower Mississippi River (LMR), U.S.A. We described the feeding ecology of two large river catfish species within the context of whether off-channel habitats in the LMR (i.e., floodplain lakes and secondary channels) potentially provided energetic benefits to these fishes as purported in contemporary theory on the ecology of large rivers. We used diet composition and associated caloric densities of prey consumed as indicators of energetic benefit to catfishes. Differences in diet among habitats were strong for blue catfish, but weak for flathead catfish; consumed foods generally differed among habitats in caloric (energy) content. Caloric densities of consumed foods were generally greatest in floodplain lakes, least in the main river channel, and intermediate in secondary river channels. Strong between-year variation in diet was observed, but only for blue catfish. Blue catfish fed disproportionately on lower-energy zebra mussels in the main river channel during 1997, and higher-energy chironomids and oligochaetes in floodplain lakes during 1998. Results suggested that although off-channel habitats potentially provided greater energetic return to catfishes in terms of foods consumed, patterns of feeding and subsequent energy intake may vary annually. Energetic benefits associated with off-channel habitats as purported under contemporary theory (e.g., the 'flood-pulse concept') may not be accrued by catfishes every year in the LMR.

  17. Annual changes in serum calcium and inorganic phosphate levels and correlation with gonadal status of a freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Srivastav

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult Channa punctatus murrels of both sexes (60-80 g were collected locally from Ramgarh Lake during the second week of every month (10 individuals of each sex/month throughout the year. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for serum calcium and phosphate levels by the methods of Trinder (1960 and Fiske and Subbarow (1925, respectively. Gonads were fixed to judge the state of maturation of the fish. Males exhibited no change in serum calcium levels throughout the year in correlation with testicular maturation. However, serum phosphate levels exhibited a rise in correlation with the increased gonadosomatic index. Females showed marked seasonal changes in serum calcium and phosphate levels which were associated with ovarian maturation (vitellogenesis.

  18. Assessment of water pollution in the Tronto River (Italy) by applying useful biomarkers in the fish model Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, F A; Mosconi, G; Angeletti, M; Polzonetti-Magni, A M

    2008-08-01

    The Tronto River (southern Marche region of central Italy) is located in an area with neighboring industrial activities and is contaminated with domestic and industrial wastewater. Water quality data analyses revealed the presence of a mixture of low levels of heavy metals and organic compounds. The effects of long-term exposure to Tronto River water on juvenile Carassius auratus were evaluated with an integrated approach using xenoestrogens biomarkers, such as vitellogenin (VTG) and ER beta-1 mRNA expression, and stress parameters (i.e., cortisol and glucose in the blood and glycogen in the liver). Treatment with Tronto River water did not induce VTG synthesis in fish and did not affect ER beta-1 mRNA expression. Moreover, cortisol titers found in the plasma of fish exposed to Tronto River water were lower than those found in the control group. Regarding energy parameters, treatment with Tronto River water induced an increase in plasma glucose and a depletion of liver glycogen reserves.The effects of Tronto River water were studied in parallel with those of 4-NP and CdCl(2). The 4-NP at the dose of 22 microg/L induced the synthesis of peripheral vitellogenin and increase of ER beta-1 titers; on the contrary, CdCl2 exposure at the concentration of 22 microg/L did not induce significant changes on plasma VTG and/or hepatic ER beta-1 levels. In addition, no significant changes in plasma cortisol levels in fish exposed to 4-NP or CdCl(2) were found. Fish exposed to CdCl(2) displayed liver glycogen depletion, but no significant increase in plasma glucose was observed. On the contrary, a 30-day exposure to 4-NP induced only a slight decrease of glycogen reserves without any changes in plasma glucose levels. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term exposure of juvenile goldfish to the water of the Tronto River significantly affects both stress and energy parameters. There is evidence that pollutants, present in Tronto River water, were not able to induce

  19. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide causes disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in adult male goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2013-11-01

    The thyroid hormones (THs) 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) and l-thyroxine (T4) exert a wide range of biological effects on physiological processes of fish. To elucidate the thyroid disruption effects of monocrotophos (MCP), an organophosphate pesticide, on male goldfish (Carassius auratus), thyroid follicle histology, plasma total T3 (TT3), total T4 (TT4), free T3 (FT3) and free T4 levels, and the mRNA expression of indices involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis) were examined following 21-day exposure to 0.01, 0.10 and 1.00mg/L of a 40% MCP-based pesticide. The results showed that MCP exposure induced the hyperplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid follicular epithelium and led to decreased plasma TT3 levels and TT3-to-TT4 ratios, without effect on plasma TT4 levels. Profiles of the changes in the relative abundance of deiodinase (D1, D2 and D3) transcripts were observed in the liver, brain and kidneys, during MCP exposure. An increase in the metabolism of T3, expressed as highly elevated hepatic d1 and d3 mRNA levels, might be associated with the reduction in plasma TT3 levels in both the 0.01 and 0.10mg/L groups, while in the 1.00mg/L MCP group, inhibited hepatic d2 transcripts might have also resulted in decreased TT3 levels by preventing the activation of T4 to T3. As a compensatory response to decreased T3 levels, pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone β subunit mRNA transcription was up-regulated by the MCP pesticide. Decreases in plasma FT3 levels were also correlated with the modulation of hepatic transthyretin mRNA expression. Overall, the MCP pesticide exhibited thyroid-disrupting effects via interference with the HPT axis at multiple potential sites, resulting in disturbance of TH homeostasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of polymer-coated metal oxide nanoparticles on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) neutrophil viability and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, V A; Katzenback, B A; Stafford, J L; Belosevic, M; Goss, G G

    2015-02-01

    Exposure effects from polyacrylic acid (PAA) metal-oxide nanoparticles (TiO2, CeO2, Fe2O3, ZnO) on fish neutrophil viability and effector functions (degranulation, respiratory burst, inflammatory gene expression) were investigated using primary kidney goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) neutrophils as a model. Several studies have reported cytotoxic effects of NPs but there are limited reports on their potential to perturb the innate immune system of aquatic organisms. PAA-TiO2 significantly decreased neutrophil viability in a time and dose-dependent manner at all measured time points (0-48 h) and concentrations (0-200 µg/mL). Maximum viability decreased by (mean ± SEM): 67.1 ± 3.3%, 78.4 ± 4.2% and 74.9 ± 5.0% when exposed to 50, 100 and 200 µg/mL for 48 h, respectively. PAA-ZnO also significantly decreased neutrophil viability but only at 48 h exposures at higher concentrations. Neutrophil degranulation increased by approximately 3% after 30 min and by 8% after 4 h when exposed to sublethal doses (10 µg/mL) of PAA-CeO2 or PAA-Fe2O3. All PAA-NPs induced an increase in neutrophil respiratory burst when exposed to 10 µg/mL for 30 and 60 min, however, PAA-Fe2O3 was the only NP where the response was significant. Lastly, NPs altered the expression of a number of pro-inflammatory and immune genes, where PAA-TiO2 most significantly increased the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory genes (il-1b, ifng) in neutrophils by 3 and 2.5 times, respectively. Together, these data demonstrate that goldfish neutrophils can be negatively affected from exposures to PAA-coated NPs and are functionally responsive to specific core-material properties at sublethal doses. These changes could perturb the innate response and affect the ability of fish to respond to pathogens.

  1. PROPOFOL AS AN IMMERSION ANESTHETIC AND IN A MINIMUM ANESTHETIC CONCENTRATION (MAC) REDUCTION MODEL IN GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balko, Julie A; Wilson, Sarah K; Lewbart, Gregory A; Gaines, Brian R; Posner, Lysa P

    2017-03-01

    Propofol is a novel immersion anesthetic in goldfish ( Carassius auratus ). Objectives were to characterize propofol as an anesthetic and assess its suitability in a minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) reduction model. Using a crossover design, eight goldfish were submerged in 1, 5, or 10 mg/L propofol. Data included induction time, recovery time, heart rate, opercular rate, and response to supramaximal stimulation. Baseline MAC (Dixon's up-and-down method) was determined, and 15 fish were anesthetized with propofol on 4 consecutive days with MAC determination on the fifth day, weekly, for 1 mo. Using a crossover design, MAC of propofol (n = 15) was determined 1 hr following administration of i.m. butorphanol 0.05, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, dexmedetomidine 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04 mg/kg, ketoprofen 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg, morphine 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg, or saline 1 ml/kg. Comparisons were performed with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (P Propofol at 1 mg/L did not produce anesthesia. Induction time with 10 mg/L (112, 84-166 s) was faster than 5 mg/L (233, 150-289 s; P = 0.0078). Heart and opercular rates for 5 and 10 mg/L were 36 (24-72) beats/min, 58 (44-68) operculations/min and 39 (20-48) beats/min, 57 (48-80) operculations/min, respectively. Recovery time was 249 (143-396) s and 299 (117-886) s with 5 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Response to supramaximal stimulation was not significantly different with 5 mg/L (1/8) compared with 10 mg/L (0/8). Baseline and weekly MAC following daily exposure was 8.4 and 9.0, 8.1, 8.1, and 8.7 mg/L, respectively. MAC reduction was no more than 8% following any drug or dosage. Propofol at 5 and 10 mg/L produced anesthesia, and anesthetic needs were similar following repeated exposure. Propofol was not suitable to test MAC reduction in goldfish in this study.

  2. Single and combined effects of aluminum (Al2O3) and zinc (ZnO) oxide nanoparticles in a freshwater fish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, María; Fernández-Lodeiro, Javier; Coelho, Pedro; Lodeiro, Carlos; Diniz, Mário S

    2016-12-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) worldwide has raised some concerns about their impact on the environment. The aim of the study was to assess the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles, singly or combined, in a freshwater fish (Carassius auratus). The fish were exposed for 7, 14, and 21 days to different concentrations of NPs (10 μg Al2O3.L(-1), 10 μg ZnO.L(-1), 10 μg Al2O3.L(-1) plus 10 μg ZnO.L(-1), 100 μg Al2O3.L(-1), 100 μg ZnO.L(-1), and 100 μg Al2O3.L(-1) plus 100 μg ZnO.L(-1)). At the end of each exposure period, antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase), lipid peroxidation, and histopathology were assessed in the gills and livers of C. auratus. The results show an increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the gills and livers of fish, especially after 14 days of exposure to single and combined NPs, followed by a reduction at 21 days. An increase in glutathione S-transferase (GST) was observed in gills after 7 days for all tested NP concentrations (single and combined); while in livers, a significant increase was determined after 14 days of exposure to 100 μg.L(-1) of both single ZnO and Al2O3 NPs. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) significantly increased in gills after 7 days of exposure to 100 μg.L(-1) Al2O3 NPs (single or combined). In livers, LPO increased significantly after 7 days of exposure to all tested concentrations of both single ZnO and Al2O3 (except for 10 μg Al2O3.L(-1)), and after 14 days of exposure to ZnO (10 and 100 μg.L(-1)) and Al2O3 (100 μg.L(-1)). The results from histological observations suggest that exposure to metal oxide NPs affected both livers and gills, presenting alterations such as gill hyperplasia and liver degeneration. However, the most pronounced effects were found in gills. In general, this study shows that the tested NPs, single or combined, are capable of causing sub-lethal effects on C. auratus, but when

  3. Detection of cytogenetic and DNA damage in peripheral erythrocytes of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to a glyphosate formulation using the micronucleus test and the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaş, Tolga; Könen, Serpil

    2007-07-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used broad-spectrum weed control agent. In the present study, an in vivo study on the genotoxic effects of a technical herbicide (Roundup) containing isopropylamine salt of glyphosate was carried out on freshwater goldfish Carassius auratus. The fish were exposed to three doses of glyphosate formulation (5, 10 and 15 ppm). Cyclophosphamide at a single dose of 5 mg/l was used as positive control. Analysis of micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities and DNA damage were performed on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at intervals of 48, 96 and 144 h posttreatment. Our results revealed significant dose-dependent increases in the frequencies of micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities as well as DNA strand breaks. Our findings also confirmed that the alkaline comet assay and nuclear deformations in addition to micronucleus test on fish erythrocytes in vivo are useful tools in determining the potential genotoxicity of commercial herbicides.

  4. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat® for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath B. Shivappa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat® on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio. The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat®, when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat® without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells.

  5. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  6. Parasitological and histological analysis of a new species of the genus Thalohanellus and description of a myxozoan parasite (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida from cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Saha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An ornamental fish parasitological survey of West Bengal, India during the year 2014–16 revealed that goldfish, Carassius auratus, was the most susceptible species for myxozoan infestation. This communication revealed the presence of two myxosporean species belonging to the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. Although myxozoan infestation has been determined by isolating small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal plasmodia up to 0.5–2.5 mm were filled with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. M. ichkeulensis and one new species T. dipaki n. sp. have been isolated infecting the ornamental goldfish (Carassius auratus for the first time in India. In the present study, new host, and new locality for M. ichkeulensis have been reported. The description of M. ichkeulensis is being considered as a first report from India. Spore of T. dipaki n. sp. measures uniquely 13.99 ± 0.60 × 9.82 ± 0.60 μm in size, having a one globular pyriform polar capsule measuring 7.45 ± 0.62 × 5.91 ± 0.39 μm. The severity of newly isolated myxozoan infestation has also been assessed by the histopathological changes of fins of the hostfish. A combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observation along with its severity of infestation, comparison of same and closely related species has been incorporated to identify the new species. The paper deals with the diversity, distribution and taxonomic descriptions of new and known myxozoan species along with new host, locality records and incidence of infestation.

  7. Evolution of gustatory reflex systems in the brainstems of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Thomas E

    2009-03-01

    The great number of species of teleosts permits highly specialized forms to evolve to occupy particular niches. This diversity allows for extreme variations in brain structure according to particular sensory or motor adaptations. In the case of the taste system, goldfish (Carassius auratus L., 1758) and some carps have evolved a specialized intraoral food-sorting apparatus along with corresponding specializations of gustatory centers in the brainstem. A comparison of circuitry within the complex vagal lobe of goldfish, and of the simpler gustatory lobes in catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) shows numerous similarities in organization and neurotransmitters. Double labeling studies using horseradish peroxidase and biotinylated dextran amine in catfish shows a direct projection from the vagal lobe to the motoneurons of nucleus ambiguous which innervate oropharyngeal musculature. Therefore, a three neuron reflex arc connects gustatory input to motor output. In the vagal lobe of goldfish, a similar three neuron arc can be identified: from primary gustatory afferent, to vagal lobe interneuron, thence to dendrites of the vagal motoneurons that innervate the pharyngeal muscles. Therefore, despite large differences in the gross appearance of the vagal gustatory systems in the brains of catfish and goldfish, the essential connectivity and circuitry is similar. This suggests that evolutionary change in the central nervous system largely proceeds by rearrangement and elaboration of existing systems, rather than by addition of new structures or circuits.

  8. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRUSSIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (BLOCH, 1782 COMMERCIAL STOCK OF THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. Heina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To provide the biological assessment of the silver Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782 commercial stock of the Dnieper-Bug estuary in the conditions of the transformed Dnieper river flow. Methodology. During the analysis of the biological state of the Prussian carp commercial stock, the main attention was given to the dynamics of age and sexual structure, length-weight growth rate, absolute fecundity and condition factor. The basic data were collected during the work of control-observation stations of the Institute of Fisheries in the Dnieper-Bug estuary during the current century. The collection and processing of ichthyological materials were performed in accordance with the generally accepted methodologies. Findings. The analysis showed that during the current century, the age structure of the Prussian carp of the Dnieper-Bug estuary was the most labile among other commercial cyprinids. It was found that as a result of an increase in the right wing of the age series, there was a gradual increase of the mean weighted age of its commercial stock. At the beginning of studies (2001-2002, the core of the stock was formed by age-3-6 fish (up ; however in subsequent years, a displacement of dominant groups toward the dominance of age-4-7 fish (more than 80% of the total stock was observed. At the same time, the relative number of age-3 fish (recruits was at a relatively high level – up to 10.6%. The linear growth varied more intensively until the age-5, but it reduced with ageing and did not show high variability. The body weight most variable was in age-4 fish (Cv=9.62%. The noted insignificant deviations in the body weight growth rate of the right wing of the age series was due to stable predominance of females in the stock structure, which were characterized by a variability of the mean weight as a result of different development of gonads. The dynamics of the age-related changes in the condition factor indicated on a

  9. Development of a simple multi-residue determination method of 80 veterinary drugs in Oplegnathus punctatus by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Gao, Xin; Tang, Zhixu; Luo, Xin; Wu, Miaomiao; Xu, Jiachao; Fu, Xiaoting

    2017-10-15

    A simple, rapid and sensitive multi-residue analytical method was developed and validated for 80 veterinary drugs in Oplegnathus punctatus using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The analytes belong to 12 different families include benzimidazoles, β-lactams, lincosamides, macrolides, nitromidazoles, quinolones, sulfonamides and trimethoprim, tetracyclines, triphenylmethane dyes, amphenicols, nonsteroidal estrogens and steroid hormones. The sample preparation was optimized base on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) procedure. A very simple and sufficient preparation procedure without salting-out and complex clean-up process was studied. It had been proved that water in the extract was helpful for extracting hydrophilic compounds and precipitating the lipids during the subsequent cleaning process. In addition, an appropriate percent of methanol was necessary to some analytes. Finally, a mixture of acetonitrile, methanol and water (3:1:1, v/v/v) which include 1% acetic acid and 10mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt 2-hydrate was selected as the extraction solvent, and the clean-up step consisted of a low temperature procedure and two times of high-speed centrifugation to deproteinize and remove lipids. The detection and quantification of all compounds were performed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry in positive and negative ion mode. This methodology was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11945/2015. The recoveries ranged from 60.74%-109.85% with relative standard deviations (RSDs)<20%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.25-25ug/kg, for the analytes which the MRL or MRPL had been established in fish tissue, the LOQs were all lower than their own legal tolerances. The values of decision limit (CCα) and detection capability

  10. Toxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine: Effects on Lipid Peroxidation and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Freshwater Fish Channa Punctatus (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Srivastava

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity and effects of a commercial formulation of the herbicide atrazine (Rasayanzine on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system in the freshwater air breathing fish Channa punctatus. The 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 of atrazine, calculated by probit analysis, were determined to be 77.091, 64.053, 49.100, 44.412 and 42.381 mg·L-1, respectively, in a semi static system with significant difference (p < 0.05 in LC10-90 values obtained for different times of exposure. In addition to concentration and time dependent decrease in mortality rate, stress signs in the form of behavioral changes were also observed in response to the test chemical. In fish exposed for 15 days to different sublethal concentrations of the herbicide (1/4 LC50 = ~10.600 mg·L-1, 1/8 LC50 = ~5.300 mg·L-1 and 1/10 LC50 = ~4.238 mg·L-1 induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidence by increased lipid peroxidation levels. The antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR responded positively in a concentration dependent pattern, thus, suggesting the use of these antioxidants as potential biomarkers of toxicity associated with contaminations exposure in freshwater fishes.

  11. Dermatomycosis caused by Paranannizziopsis australasiensis in five tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) and a coastal bearded dragon (Pogona barbata) in a zoological collection in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, N J; Alexander, S; Jackson, B; Sigler, L; Chatterton, J; Harvey, C; Gibson, R; Humphrey, S; Rawdon, T G; Spence, R P; Ha, H J; McInnes, K; Jakob-Hoff, R

    2016-09-01

    Health monitoring of tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) at Auckland Zoo between 2001 and 2009 showed that 58/93 tuatara had been affected by dermatitis of unknown origin. From 2011 onwards, cases of suspected fungal dermatitis underwent extensive diagnostic investigations. Six cases of dermatomycosis were attributed to Paranannizziopsis australasiensis, five in tuatara and one in a coastal bearded dragon (Pogona barbata). Cases presented typically as raised, yellow to brown encrustations on the skin. Severe cases progressed to necrotising ulcerative dermatitis, and in the bearded dragon to fatal systemic mycosis. Following topical and systemic treatments, lesions resolved in all five tuatara. Histopathological examination of skin biopsy samples revealed dermatitis with intralesional septate branching hyphae. Fungal culture yielded isolates morphologically resembling Chrysosporium species, and isolates were submitted for molecular confirmation and sequencing of DNA. All six cases were confirmed as dermatitis due to infection with P. australasiensis, on the basis of fungal culture and DNA sequencing of isolates. These are the first reported cases of dermatomycosis associated with P. australasiensis infection in tuatara, and the first cases in which systemic therapeutic agents have been used in the treatment of such disease. Tuatara at the Auckland Zoo are now routinely examined every 3 months and tissue samples from any lesions sent for histopathology and fungal culture. Further work to elucidate the epidemiology and significance of P. australasiensis infections in reptiles in New Zealand is important for both welfare and conservation purposes.

  12. Transgenic loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plants expressing a modified delta-endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis with enhanced resistance to Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and Crypyothelea formosicola Staud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Tian, Yingchuan

    2003-02-01

    A synthetic version of the CRY1Ac gene of Bacillus thuringiensis has been used for the transformation of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using particle bombardment. Mature zygotic embryos were used to be bombarded and to generate organogenic callus and transgenic regenerated plants. Expression vector pB48.215 DNA contained a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) CRY1Ac coding sequence flanked by the double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator sequences, and the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene controlled by the promoter of the nopaline synthase gene was introduced into loblolly pine tissues by particle bombardment. The transformed tissues were proliferated and selected on media with kanamycin. Shoot regeneration was induced from the kanamycin-resistant calli, and transgenic plantlets were then produced. More than 60 transformed plants from independent transformation events were obtained for each loblolly pine genotype tested. The integration and expression of the introduced genes in the transgenic loblolly pine plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) analysis, by Southern hybridization, by Northern blot analysis, and by Western blot analysis. Effective resistance of transgenic plants against Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and Crypyothelea formosicola Staud was verified in feeding bioassays with the insects. The transgenic plants recovered could represent a good opportunity to analyse the impact of genetic engineering of pine for sustainable resistance to pests using a B. thuringiensis insecticidal protein. This protocol enabled the routine transformation of loblolly pine plants that were previously difficult to transform.

  13. Yellow fever virus isolated from a fatal post vaccination event: an experimental comparative study with the 17DD vaccine strain in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the pathogenicity of the virus strain GOI 4191 that was isolated from a fatal adverse event after yellow fever virus (YFV vaccination, an experimental assay using hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus as animal model and YFV 17DD vaccine strain as virus reference was accomplished. The two virus strains were inoculated by intracerebral, intrahepatic and subcutaneous routes. The levels of viremia, antibody response, and aminotransferases were determined in sera; while virus, antigen and histopathological changes were determined in the viscera. No viremia was detected for either strain following infection; the immune response was demonstrated to be more effective to strain GOI 4191; and no significant aminotransferase levels alterations were detected. Strain GOI 4191 was recovered only from the brain of animals inoculated by the IC route. Viral antigens were detected in liver and brain by immunohistochemical assay. Histothological changes in the viscera were characterized by inflammatory infiltrate, hepatocellular necrosis, and viral encephalitis. Histological alterations and detection of viral antigen were observed in the liver of animals inoculated by the intrahepatic route. These findings were similar for both strains used in the experiment; however, significant differences were observed from those results previously reported for wild type YFV strains.

  14. Effects of melatonin and green-wavelength LED light on the physiological stress and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to high water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Ji Yong; Choi, Young-Ung; Heo, Youn Seong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of increasing water temperature (22-30 °C) on the physiological stress response and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the ability of green light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation or melatonin injections to mitigate this temperature-induced stress. To evaluate the effects of either green-wavelength LED light or melatonin on stress in goldfish, we measured plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mRNA expression; plasma cortisol and glucose; and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme mRNA expression. The thyroid hormone activities, TR mRNA expression, and plasma cortisol and glucose were higher in goldfish exposed to high-temperature water, but were lower after exposure to melatonin or green-wavelength LED light. Lysozyme mRNA expression and plasma IgM activity and protein expression were lower after exposure to high water temperatures and higher after melatonin or green-wavelength LED light treatments. Therefore, high water temperature induced stress and decreased immunity; however, green-wavelength LED light and melatonin treatments mitigated the effects of stress and enhanced immunity. The benefits of melatonin decreased with time, whereas those of green-wavelength LED treatment did not.

  15. Effects of melatonin injection or green-wavelength LED light on the antioxidant system in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-05-01

    We tested the mitigating effects of melatonin injections or irradiation from green-wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to thermal stress (high water temperature, 30 °C). The effects of the two treatments were assessed by measuring the expression and activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, plasma hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, and lysozyme. In addition, a comet assay was conducted to confirm that high water temperature damaged nuclear DNA. The expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, plasma hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher after exposure to high temperature and were significantly lower in fish that received melatonin or LED light than in those that received no mitigating treatment. Plasma lysozyme was significantly lower after exposure to high temperature and was significantly higher after exposure to melatonin or LED light. The comet assay revealed that thermal stress caused a great deal of damage to nuclear DNA; however, treatment with melatonin or green-wavelength LED light prevented a significant portion of this damage from occurring. These results indicate that, although high temperatures induce oxidative stress and reduce immune system strength in goldfish, both melatonin and green-wavelength LED light inhibit oxidative stress and boost the immune system. LED treatment increased the antioxidant and immune system activity more significantly than did melatonin treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of the leptospirosis by experimental infection in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus with Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola, strain LO4, by intact and scratched skin exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Sousa Américo Batista

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and evolution of leptospirosis in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus by experimental infection with Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola, LO4 strain, by intact and scratched skin exposures, having as control the intraperitoneal route, were evaluated. Hundred-twenty female hamsters distributed in two groups according to inoculation route (intact and scratched skin were used. Infectious inoculum was constituted by a pure culture of L. interrogans serovar Canicola (strain LO4, isolated from liver from a slaughtered swine in Londrina, Paraná state and typified by agglutinins adsortion technique with monoclonal antibody kit at the Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The animals were observed twice a day during 21 days. Animals that died were necropsied and kidneys, liver, genital tract (uterus and ovaries and brain were aseptically collected. On the 21st post-inoculation day, surviving animals were euthanized. In these animals, serum samples were also collected by cardiac puncture to antileptospires agglutinins research using microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Fresh direct microscopy and microbiological culture were used for the detection of leptospires. Scratched skin route induced larger lethality when compared to intact skin route, with establishment and evolution of leptospirosis. On the other hand, intact skin route induced renal and/or genital carrier state more frequently. LO4 strain presented low immunogenic power, characterized by soroconversion at the MAT in only one inoculated animal.

  17. Time-dependent bidirectional effects of chronic caffeine on functional recovery of the dorsal light reflex after hemilabyrinthectomy in the goldfish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, N B; Brockhoff, B L; Huston, J P; Spieler, R E

    2015-04-30

    Caffeine works through a variety of complex mechanisms to exert an often bidirectional set of functional and structural neurological changes in vertebrates. We investigated the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on functional recovery of the dorsal light reflex (DLR) in hemilabyrinthectomized common goldfish, Carassius auratus. In this lesion model, the unilateral removal of the vestibular organs results in a temporary loss of gravitationally modulated postural control which is quantifiable via the DLR. We compared the functional recovery over 24 days of post-surgery goldfish continuously held in a caffeine solution of 2.5mg/L (n=10), 5.0mg/L (n=10), 10.0mg/L (n=11), or 0.0mg/L control (n=9). Comparison to a sham surgery group (n=11) indicated statistically significant changes in the DLR of all hemilabyrinthectomized fish on day 1. The control group recovered over the study period and approached, but did not reach sham surgery DLR. Although the caffeine-treated fishes appeared to initiate some postural recovery within the first 2 weeks, beginning on day 10, all caffeine groups diverged from the control group with a deterioration of postural control. All three caffeine groups were significantly deficient in comparison with the control on days 10-24. These results suggest that caffeine exposure can at first be benign, but that high dosage or prolonged exposure hinders functional recovery. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Organization and variation analysis of 5S rDNA in gynogenetic offspring of Carassius auratus red var. (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, QinBo; Wang, Juan; Wang, YuDe; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun

    2015-03-13

    The offspring with 100 chromosomes (abbreviated as GRCC) have been obtained in the first generation of Carassius auratus red var. (abbreviated as RCC, 2n = 100) (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (abbreviated as BSB, 2n = 48) (♂), in which the females and unexpected males both are found. Chromosomal and karyotypic analysis has been reported in GRCC which gynogenesis origin has been suggested, but lack genetic evidence. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with species-specific centromere probes directly proves that GRCC possess two sets of RCC-derived chromosomes. Sequence analysis of the coding region (5S) and adjacent nontranscribed spacer (abbreviated as NTS) reveals that three types of 5S rDNA class (class I; class II and class III) in GRCC are completely inherited from their female parent (RCC), and show obvious base variations and insertions-deletions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with the entire 5S rDNA probe reveals obvious chromosomal loci (class I and class II) variation in GRCC. This paper provides directly genetic evidence that GRCC is gynogenesis origin. In addition, our result is also reveals that distant hybridization inducing gynogenesis can lead to sequence and partial chromosomal loci of 5S rDNA gene obvious variation.

  19. Mitochondrial genetic variations of an introduced freshwater fish, goldfish Carassius auratus at the frontier between Europe and Asia (western Anatolia, Turkey): proximity to Europe rather than East Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğaç, Ersin; Ağdamar, Sevan; Keskin, Emre; Tarkan, Ali Serhan; Yapıcı, Sercan; Acar, Ümit

    2016-11-01

    Carassius auratus is one of the most significant ornamental and food fishes of the world that is globally distributed and well known. Although it is known to have existed at least for six decades and expanding its distribution range in Turkish waters, there is a dearth of information on genetic structure and variations of goldfish in Turkey. In this study, four mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase II, 12S ribosomal RNA, and 16S ribosomal RNA) were used to infer the genetic variations of goldfish populations sampled from western part of Anatolia, Turkey. Three populations were clustered under three haplotypes for each gene and all haplotypes were special. Cytochrome b was found to have more variable sites and higher genetic diversity than other genes. According to the haplotype networks, goldfish populations in Turkey showed high level of genetic structuring and originated from the common haplotype known in native East Asian populations of the species. Extensive sampling scheme covering whole Anatolia should provide better understanding on the dispersal pattern of the species.

  20. Gametogenesis and reproductive cycle of Melanorivulus aff. punctatus (Boulenger, 1895 (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae in Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cassel

    Full Text Available The comprehension of the reproductive cycle allows to understand which are the morphological changes that develop in the gonad during this interval. Thus, many studies have been undertaken in order to describe and classify the stages of gonadal development and reproductive status of Neotropical fishes. For this purpose, specimens of Melanorivulus aff. punctatus were collected in a permanent dam in Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The gonads were prepared for analysis by light microscopy. The oogenesis and spermatogenesis have been described, characterizing the stages of gonadal development, together with assessments of the gonadosomatic ratio, germ cell count and verification of variation of mature oocytes in females. Throughout the year the male gonads presented themselves as capable of reproducing, characterized by the presence of undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia, spermatocytes organized into cysts, spermatids in cysts whose wall was thicker and the spermatozoa was free in the lumen and the duct. This can indicate a continuous reproductive cycle with split spermiation. The females had gonads in the development stage from May to September with undifferentiated and differentiated oogonias and early oocytes always facing the lumen, abundant pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes and some atresias. In the phase capable of spawning, observed from October to March, the mature oocytes are abundant, there are many post-ovulatory complexes and some atresia in advanced stage. The regression, observed in some individuals from February to April, is characterized by ovaries with many atresias and post-ovulatory complexes. The same results were found in the quantitative assessments. Therefore, it may be characterized as discontinuous cycle with split spawning. Thus, the reproductive cycle of this species can be characterized as continuous for males and discontinuous for females, which have a most intense phase of reproduction

  1. Communication intraspécifique d'origine phéromonale chez le carassin doré immature, Carassius auratus L. 1. Mise en évidence olfactométrique du phénomène

    OpenAIRE

    Le Martret, M.A.; SAGLIO P.

    1982-01-01

    L'observation en olfactomètre de Carassins (Carassius auratus) immatures soumis à un effluent provenant d'un aquarium contenant des densités variables de conspécifiques (5, 10, 20, 30 poissons) a permis de mettre en évidence l'existence d'une communication de type phéromonal sans relation avec le comportement reproducteur, chez cette espèce. L'effet phéromonal de cet effluent, défini par rapport aux témoins soumis à de l'eau pure, s'exprime par les modifications qu'il est susceptible de produ...

  2. Effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose induced metabolic stress on testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: Role of photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-12-01

    The driving force underlying the evolution of reproductive seasonality is the marked seasonal fluctuation in energy availability. It is well established that photoperiod regulates testicular steroidogenesis through modulation of circulatory and local melatonin levels and MT1R expression in golden hamster. However, photoperiodic variation in energy availability and its impact on testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status has never been investigated for any seasonal breeder. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to elucidate the role of photoperiod in modulation of metabolic stress induced variation in steroidogenesis and antioxidant status in testes. We experimentally reduced energy availability via administration of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), a synthetic glucose analog, in critical- (CP), long- (LD) and short-day (SD) exposed golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus and examined testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Administration of 2-DG decreased testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant enzyme activity in CP and LD experienced hamsters as compared to CP- and LD-control groups. Moreover, a decrease in the plasma- and local-melatonin level and MT1R expression in testes with a simultaneous increase in plasma corticosterone level was noted following 2-DG administration in CP and LD exposed hamsters. In contrast, no significant effect of 2-DG administration was observed on the parameters investigated under SD condition. Therefore, it can be suggested that the reduction in energy availability under CP and LD condition suppressed testicular steroidogenesis and increased oxidative damage in testis whereas SD induced melatonin might have buffered the 2-DG induced suppression of testicular steroidogenesis and maintained testicular antioxidant status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Short-term exposure to L-type calcium channel blocker, verapamil, alters the expression pattern of calcium-binding proteins in the brain of goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palande, Nikhil V; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Biswas, Saikat P; Jadhao, Arun G

    2015-01-01

    The influx of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) is responsible for various physiological events including neurotransmitter release and synaptic modulation. The L-type voltage dependent calcium channels (L-type VDCCs) transport Ca(2+) across the membrane. Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) bind free cytosolic Ca(2+) and prevent excitotoxicity caused by sudden increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+). The present study was aimed to understand the regulation of expression of neuronal CaBPs, namely, calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) following blockade of L-type VDCCs in the CNS of Carassius auratus. Verapamil (VRP), a potent L-type VDCC blocker, selectively blocks Ca(2+) entry at the plasma membrane level. VRP present in the aquatic environment at a very low residual concentration has shown ecotoxicological effects on aquatic animals. Following acute exposure for 96h, median lethal concentration (LC50) for VRP was found to be 1.22mg/L for goldfish. At various doses of VRP, the behavioral alterations were observed in the form of respiratory difficulty and loss of body balance confirming the cardiovascular toxicity caused by VRP at higher doses. In addition to affecting the cardiovascular system, VRP also showed effects on the nervous system in the form of altered expression of PV. When compared with controls, the pattern of CR expression did not show any variations, while PV expression showed significant alterations in few neuronal populations such as the pretectal nucleus, inferior lobes, and the rostral corpus cerebellum. Our result suggests possible regulatory effect of calcium channel blockers on the expression of PV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to six current-use brominated flame retardants: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •A combined experimental and theoretical approach was used for risk assessments of six BFRs in fish. •Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured for toxicity identification. •Toxicity order was proposed via the integrated biomarker response. •Theoretical calculations were performed to analyze the BFRs toxicity. -- Abstract: Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and several non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are persistent halogenated contaminants ubiquitously detected in aquatic systems. However, data on comparative toxicological effects of these BFRs are lacking for fish. In this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was used to compare and analyze the effects of these BFRs on biochemical biomarkers in liver of Carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with different doses (10 and 100 mg/kg) for 7, 14 and 30 days. Oxidative stress was evoked evidently for the prolonged exposure, represented by the significantly altered indices (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index ranked biotoxicity as: PBT > HBB > HBCD > TBBPA > BDE-209 > DBDPE. Quantum chemical calculations (electronic parameters, frontier molecular orbitals, and Wiberg bond order) were performed for theoretical analysis. Notably, some descriptors were correlated with the toxicity order, probably implying the existence of a potential structure–activity relationship when more BFRs were included. Besides, theoretical calculations also provided some valuable information regarding the molecular characteristics and metabolic pathways of these current-use BFRs, which may facilitate the understanding on their environmental behavior and fate. Overall, this study adopted a combined

  5. Tooth Morphogenesis and FGF4 Expression During Development of Molar Tooth in Three Muroid Rodents: Calomyscus elburzensis (Calomyscidae), Mesocricetus auratus (Cricetidae) and Mus musculus (Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Kordiyeh; Darvish, Jamshid; Matin, Maryam M; Javanmard, Athar Sadat; Kilpatrick, C William

    2017-08-14

    To date, no studies have examined the tooth formation during developmental stages of brush-tailed mice (Calomyscidae) and true hamsters (Cricetidae). Herein, we compared the timing of tooth morphogenesis and FGF4 expression pattern during development of the first lower molar in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse, Calomyscus elburzensis with two other muroid rodents; the house mouse, Mus musculus (Muridae), model organism for tooth morphogenesis, and the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus which shares great similarities in cusp pattern with brush-tailed mice. All three species were bred in captivity and developing embryos were isolated at different embryonic days (E). Histological evaluation of lower molars was performed and spatiotemporal pattern of FGF4 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results indicated that morphogenesis of the tooth cusps starts at the beginning of the cap stage of the first lower molar (E14 in house mouse, about E11.5 in golden hamster and E22 in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse). During the cap to bell stage (E15 in house mouse, E12 in golden hamster and at about E24 in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse), a decrease in the expression of FGF4 was observed in the mesenchyme, except for the cusp tips. According to our observations, the developmental process of the first lower molar formation in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse began much later as compared with the other two species. Despite the differences in the temporal pattern of molar development between these three members of the same superfamily (Muroidea), the correlation in the expression of FGF4 with specific stages of tooth morphogenesis supported its regulatory function. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Seasonal variation and site specificity of external parasites in gold fish (Carassius auratus L. and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in Rambadagalle Ornamental Fish Breeding Center, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G.D. Sumuduni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation and site specificity of external parasites in gold fish (Carassius auratus and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio cultured at Rambadagalle fish breeding and training center were estimated during wet (February-July and dry (August-November seasons in 2013. According to the proportion of the total harvest, samples of 30 gold fish and 50 koi carps in same cohort were collected from two separated harvesting ponds. Their gills, skin scrape and fins were examined in the laboratory for ectoparasites, and the percentage prevalence of parasites at each site of two fish species during two seasons were calculated and compared statistically. Ten external parasite species (Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Tripartiella sp., Chilodonella sp., Ichthyobodo necator, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Centrocestus sp., Posthodiplostomum cuticola, Argulus sp. were recorded from both fish species during two seasons. Posthodiplostomum cuticola and Chilodonella sp. were not recorded from koi carp while Argulus sp. was not detected from gold fish. Koi carps were highly parasitized during dry season while it was wet season for gold fish. During two seasons, for both fish species, percentage prevalence of Trichodina sp. (skin: ranged from 58%-100%, fins: 12% -97% and Apiosoma sp. (skin: ranged from koi 28% - 100%, fins: 12% -82% were high in skin and fins. In contrast, during two seasons, for both fish species high percentage prevalence of Dactylogyrus sp. (ranged from 37%-54% and Centrocestus sp. (ranged from 62%-90% were recorded from gills. For each fish species, total number of parasites infected in skin, fins and gills were significantly different (p<0.05 between two seasons.

  7. Size-relative Effectiveness of Clove Oil as an Anaesthetic for Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 and Goldfish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Perdikaris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the size-relative effectiveness of clove oil as an anaesthetic for rainbow trout and goldfish. In total, 128 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (two groups of 20-23 and 30-33 cm mean fork length and 160 goldfish (Carassius auratus (four size groups of 1.5-2.5, 5-7, 11-15 and 20-25 cm were anaesthetized at different clove oil concentrations of 50, 100, 150 mg·l-1 for trouts and 75, 100, 150 mg·l-1 for goldfish. Rainbow trout exhibited total loss of balance and no response to external stimuli with shorter induction time as dosage increased (120.5 s, 64.4 s and 44.3 s, respectively. Goldfish exhibited total loss of balance and no response to external stimuli after induction time that varied with dosage used and body size of fish. The small fish (1.5-7 cm exhibited shorter induction time which ranged from 84.28 s at 75 mg·l-1 clove oil to 41.14 s at 150 mg·l-1 clove oil. The larger fish had a longer induction time inversely related to the dosage. Recovery time was longer than induction time in both species. Both species recovered within 6 min after anaesthesia at 150 mg·l-1 clove oil. Clove oil did not produce marked changes (P compared to the control. However, marked changes (P P > 0.05. For both fish species, clove oil was effective, producing minimum stress and zero mortalities, and can be recommended as an effective anaesthetic.

  8. Ammonia exposure alters the expression of immune-related and antioxidant enzymes-related genes and the gut microbial community of crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Zhou; Xue, Ming-Yang; Yang, Shi-Bo; Zha, Ji-Wei; Wang, Gao-Xue; Ling, Fei

    2017-11-01

    Chronic exposure of ammonia in fish can affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes but few studies investigate the influence of ammonia exposure on the expression of immune-related and antioxidant enzymes-related genes. Also, there is no study demonstrates the effect of ammonia exposure on gut microbial community of fish. In this study, crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were exposed to the ammonia concentrations, 0 (control), 10 mg L-1 (low) or 50 mg L-1 (high) for consecutive 30 days at 25 ± 1 °C temperature, respectively, and after that, the fish from all exposure groups were maintained in control conditions for another 15 days. The results showed that low concentration ammonia increased the expression of immune-related genes and antioxidant enzymes-related genes, but high concentration ammonia inhibited the expression of immune-related genes and antioxidant enzymes-related genes. After a 15-day treatment without ammonia, the expression of antioxidant enzymes-related genes and immune-related genes showed no significant changes compared with control. The results of high-throughput sequencing showed that gut microbial communities were significantly differentiated following ammonia exposure. The abundance of Bacteroides and Cetobacterium (two kinds of potential probiotics) increased while fish exposed to 10 mg L-1 ammonia. The Flavobacterium (a potential fish pathogen) showed increasing trends when the exposure dose reached 50 mg L-1, while the Bacteroides and Cetobacterium showed almost no abundance. The results also revealed that ammonia exposure concentration or time can alter the intestinal microbial community. In conclusion, ammonia exposure could induce the immune response in crucian carp, and alter the gut microbial community. The results may help us understand the correlations of gut microbial community shift and ammonia exposure and extend our knowledge to comprehend the effects of environmental factors on intestinal microbial community

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis of molecular mechanism underlying gray-to-red body color formation in red crucian carp (Carassius auratus, red var.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqin; Liu, Jinhui; Peng, Liangyue; Ren, Li; Zhang, Huiqin; Zou, Lijun; Liu, Wenbin; Xiao, Yamei

    2017-10-01

    Red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) is an ornamental fish with vivid red/orange color. It has been found that the adult body color of this strain forms a gray-to-red change. In this study, skin transcriptomes of red crucian carp are first obtained for three different stages of body color development, named by gray-color (GC), color-variation (CV), and red-color (RC) stages, respectively. From the skins of GC, CV, and RC, 103,229; 108,208; and 120,184 transcripts have been identified, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis reveals that 2483, 2967, and 4473 unigenes are differentially expressed between CV and GC, RC and CV, and RC and GC, respectively. A part of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are involved in the signaling pathway of pigment synthesis, such as the melanogenesis genes (Mitfa, Pax3a, Foxd3, Mc1r, Asip); tyrosine metabolism genes (Tyr, Dct, Tyrp1, Silva, Tat, Hpda); and pteridine metabolism genes (Gch, Xdh, Ptps, Tc). According to the data of transcriptome and quantitative PCR, the expression of Mitfa and its regulated genes which include the genes of Tyr, Tyrp1, Dct, Tfe3a, and Baxα, decreases with gray-to-red change. It is suggested that Mitfa and some genes, being related to melanin synthesis or melanophore development, are closely related to the gray-to-red body color transformation in the red crucian carp. Furthermore, the DEGs of cell apoptosis and autophagy pathway, such as Tfe3a, Baxα, Hsp70, Beclin1, Lc3, Atg9a, and Atg4a, might be involved in the melanocytes fade away of juvenile fish. These results shed light on the regulation mechanism of gray-to-red body color transformation in red crucian carp, and are helpful to the selective breeding of ornamental fish strains.

  10. Tissue-specific expression of ghrelinergic and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 systems in goldfish (Carassius auratus) is modulated by macronutrient composition of diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén M; Bertucci, Juan I; Delgado, María J; Valenciano, Ana I; Unniappan, Suraj

    2016-05-01

    The macronutrient composition of diets is a very important factor in the regulation of body weight and metabolism. Several lines of research in mammals have shown that macronutrients differentially regulate metabolic hormones, including ghrelin and nesfatin-1 that have opposing effects on energy balance. This study aimed to determine whether macronutrients modulate the expression of ghrelin and the nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) encoded nesfatin-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fish were fed once daily on control, high-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat and very high-fat diets for 7 (short-term) or 28 (long-term) days. The expression of preproghrelin, ghrelin O-acyl transferase (goat), growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1 (ghs-r1) and nucb2/nesfatin-1 mRNAs was quantified in the hypothalamus, pituitary, gut and liver. Short-term feeding with fat-enriched diets significantly increased nucb2 mRNA levels in hypothalamus and liver, preproghrelin, goat and ghs-r1 expression in pituitary, and ghs-r1 expression in gut. Fish fed on a high-protein diet exhibited a significant reduction in preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNAs in the liver. After long-term feeding, fish fed on high-carbohydrate and very high-fat diets had significantly increased preproghrelin, goat and ghs-r1 expression in pituitary. Feeding on a high-carbohydrate diet also upregulated goat and ghs-r1 transcripts in gut, while feeding on a high-fat diet elicited the same effect only for ghs-r1 in liver. Nucb2 expression increased in pituitary, while it decreased in gut after long-term feeding of a high-protein diet. Collectively, these results show for the first time in fish that macronutrients differentially regulate the expression of ghrelinergic and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 systems in central and peripheral tissues of goldfish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Elucidation of the sex-pheromone biosynthesis producing 5,7-dodecadienes in Dendrolimus punctatus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) reveals Delta 11- and Delta 9-desaturases with unusual catalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Wang, Hong-Lei; Zhao, Cheng-Hua; Piskur, Jure; Johansson, Tomas; Löfstedt, Christer

    2010-06-01

    Sex pheromones produced by female moths of the Lasiocampidae family include conjugated 5,7-dodecadiene components with various oxygenated terminal groups. Here we describe the molecular cloning, heterologous expression and functional characterization of desaturases associated with the biosynthesis of these unusual chemicals. By homology-based PCR screening we characterized five cDNAs from the female moth pheromone gland that were related to other moth desaturases, and investigated their role in the production of the (Z)-5-dodecenol and (Z5,E7)-dodecadienol, major pheromone constituents of the pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus punctatus. Functional expression of two desaturase cDNAs belonging to the Delta 11-subfamily, Dpu-Delta 11(1)-APSQ and Dpu-Delta 11(2)-LPAE, showed that they catalysed the formation of unsaturated fatty acyls (UFAs) that can be chain-shortened by beta-oxidation and subsequently reduced to the alcohol components. A first (Z)-11-desaturation step is performed by Dpu-Delta 11(2)-LPAE on stearic acid that leads to (Z)-11-octadecenoic acyl, which is subsequently chain shortened to the (Z)-5-dodecenoic acyl precursor. The Dpu-Delta 11(1)-APSQ desaturase had the unusual property of producing Delta 8 mono-UFA of various chain lengths, but not when transformed yeast were grown in presence of (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acyl, in which case the biosynthetic intermediate (Z9,E11)-hexadecadienoic UFA was produced. In addition to a typical Z9 activity, a third transcript, Dpu-Delta 9-KPSE produced E9 mono-UFAs of various chain lengths. When provided with the (Z)-7-tetradecenoic acyl, it formed the (Z7,E9)-tetradecadienoic UFA, another biosynthetic intermediate that can be chain-shortened to (Z5,E7)-dodecadienoic acyl. Both Dpu-Delta 11(1)-APSQ and Dpu-Delta 9-KPSE thus exhibited desaturase activities consistent with the biosynthesis of the dienoic precursor. The combined action of three desaturases in generating a dienoic sex-pheromone component emphasizes the

  12. Técnica para obtenção do aparelho geniturinário e dosagem do PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus Technique for collecting blood for PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen dosing and genitourinary system obtaining in syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Expor a técnica utilizada na colheita de sangue para dosagem do PSA ( Prostate Specific Antigen e retirada do aparelho geniturinário no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus, e correlacionar os achados do PSA com as alterações histológicas dos anexos sexuais desse roedor. Métodos: Foram usados no experimento trinta (n= 30 Hamsters: dez (n=10 animais considerados jovens com idade média no momento da morte de 47,5 dias e vinte (n=20 animais considerados adultos com idade superior à um ano. Após serem anestesiados com cloridrato de quetamina e diazepam, foi colhido diretamente da veia cava, em nível de abdome superior, cerca de 1,5mL a 2,0mL de sangue para dosagem do PSA totalpelo método ELISA, com antígeno humano. Morriam após colheita do sangue. Constatado a morte do animal, fazia-se a laparotomia retirando-se em monobloco todo aparelho geniturinário para estudo histológico dos anexos sexuais. Correlacionou-se o PSA com as alterações histológicas encontradas. Resultados: Os animais após serem anestesiados com cloridrato de quetamina e diazepam intraperitonealmente, obteve-se um excelente plano anestésico, que possibilitou colher via trans-dérmica da veia cava inferior em abdome superior sangue para dosagem do PSA. O animal morria após colheita do sangue. Fazia-se a laparotomia, com retirada em monobloco do aparelho geniturinário para estudo histológico e comparação das alterações encontradas nos anexos sexuais com o PSA dosado. Entre os Hamsters Jovens a média do PSA encontrado foi de 0,252ng/mL. Desvio Padrão (DP = 0,36. Entre os Hamsters adultos esta média foi de 0,325 ng/mL, DP= 0,12 . Quando comparou-se as médias do PSA entre os dois grupos de jovens e adultos obteve-se p= 0,0427. Dentre os Hamsters jovens, três apresentaram PSA não detectado. A análise histológica mostrou que, entre os animais jovens, não foi identificada qualquer alteração das estruturas microscópicas da próstata, ves

  13. In Situ Localization and Rhythmic Expression of Ghrelin and ghs-r1 Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain and Gastrointestinal Tract of Goldfish (Carassius auratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída Sánchez-Bretaño

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide hormone, which binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R to regulate a wide variety of biological processes in fish. Despite these prominent physiological roles, no studies have reported the anatomical distribution of preproghrelin transcripts using in situ hybridization in a non-mammalian vertebrate, and its mapping within the different encephalic areas remains unknown. Similarly, no information is available on the possible 24-h variations in the expression of preproghrelin and its receptor in any vertebrate species. The first aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor subtype in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our second aim was to characterize possible daily variations of preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNA expression in central and peripheral tissues using real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Results show ghrelin expression and immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract, with the most abundant signal observed in the mucosal epithelium. These are in agreement with previous findings on mucosal cells as the primary synthesizing site of ghrelin in goldfish. Ghrelin receptor was observed mainly in the hypothalamus with low expression in telencephalon, pineal and cerebellum, and in the same gastrointestinal areas as ghrelin. Daily rhythms in mRNA expression were found for preproghrelin and ghs-r1 in hypothalamus and pituitary with the acrophase occurring at nighttime. Preproghrelin, but not ghs-r1a, displayed a similar daily expression rhythm in the gastrointestinal tract with an amplitude 3-fold higher than the rest of tissues. Together, these results described for the first time in fish the mapping of preproghrelin and ghrelin receptor ghs-r1a in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish, and provide the first evidence for a daily regulation

  14. Effects of experimentally induced infections of goldfish Carassius auratus with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) at various water temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2014-08-11

    In this study, we examined the influence of water temperature on the development of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus after experimentally induced infection with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2). In Expt 1, Ryukin goldfish were infected with CyHV-2 by intraperitoneal injection and maintained at 4 different water temperatures. Cumulative mortalities of the 15, 20, 25 and 30°C groups were 10, 90, 90 and 60%, respectively. Therefore, the temperature range of 20-25°C is considered highly permissive for HVHN. One of 6 surviving fish of the 15°C group died after a rapid temperature increase to 25°C at 30 d post infection. All 3 Edonishiki goldfish, co-reared with the surviving Ryukin in tanks where the water temperature was increased from 15 to 25°C, died. In Expt 2, Edonishiki goldfish were exposed to CyHV-2 by bath immersion at 13 or 24°C, resulting in cumulative mortalities of 0 and 87%, respectively, at 28 d post-exposure. No mortality of the surviving Edonishiki in the 13°C treatment was observed when the water temperature was increased to 24°C. In addition, in Expt 2, no mortality was observed in any Ranchu co-reared with CyHV-2-immersed Edonishiki in the group where water temperature was increased from 13 to 24°C, even after re-immersion challenge with CyHV-2. It is interesting to note that CyHV-2 DNA was detected in the kidneys of 4 of the 5 surviving Ranchu co-reared with the CyHV-2-immersed Edonishiki group where the water temperature was increased from 13 to 24°C. Therefore, it is likely that the surviving Edonishiki of the 13°C group were virus carriers. This study indicates that most fish infected with CyHV-2 at 13-15°C acquire resistance to HVHN, but as carriers they are able to infect naïve fish.

  15. О находке Ranunculus punctatus (Ranunculaceae в Республика Тыва

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Erst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Сообщается о находке на территории Республики Тыва (хребты Чайлалыг-Даг и Обручева нового для Сибири вида Ranunculus punctatus (Ranunculaceae, считавшегося до настоящего времени эндемиком Чукотки.

  16. Food habits of Bald Eagles breeding in the Arizona desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    1995-01-01

    Of 1814 foraging attempts, prey captures, or nest deliveries by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in 14 Arizona breeding areas during 1983-1985, 1471 observations were identifiable to at least class: fish (76%), mammal (18%), bird (4%), and reptile/amphibian (2%). Forty-five species were recorded: catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Pylodictis olivaris), suckers (...

  17. Variation of whole body amino acid profile in Eurasian perch Perca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    amino acid needs of other fish in order to design and improve their test diets. Wilson and Poe (1985) have reported that the amino acid patterns of fish eggs and whole body tissue have been used for this purpose in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Rumsey and Ketola (1975) reported that improved growth was observed ...

  18. Hydrogen peroxide treatments for channel catfish eggs infected with water molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi, or water molds Saprolegnia spp., on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus eggs can lower fry production. This requires the producer to spawn more catfish or face fingerling shortages. Few treatments have been tested against channel catfish eggs infested with an identified fungus. Hydrogen pe...

  19. Dietary copper effects survival of channel catfish challenged with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease is one of the most important bacterial diseases of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, commercially grown in the US. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) has also been shown to be both therapeutic and prophylactic as a water treatment for columnaris disease. As copper is an essential dietar...

  20. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U07539-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 97474 ) AU_BAC014A1F03_T7 CHORI212 Ictalurus punctatus ge... 46 1.2 1 ( ES528821 ) BIG_AF_36642 Brine Shrimp... embryos, 15 hours after... 46 1.2 1 ( ES521817 ) BIG_AF_29636 Brine Shrimp embry

  2. Antibacterial activity of acylglucinol derivatives against Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease is one of the most common bacterial diseases of pond-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in the southeastern United States of America. The Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium Flavobacterium columnare is the cause of columnaris disease. Direct economic losses to catfish pr...

  3. Evaluation of Various Feeding Regimens in A Multiple-Batch Cropping System of Channel Catfish Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    A four-year pond study was conducted to compare gross production, feed conversion, processing yield, and body composition of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fed once daily or every other day to satiation, or # 110 kg/ha per day in a multiple-batch cropping system. The greatest amount of feed fed...

  4. Acute toxicity and histopathology of channel catfish fry exposed to peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus yolk-sac fry and swim-up fry were exposed to peracetic acid (PAA) for 48h in static toxicity bioassays at 23C. The test water was 217 and 126 mg/L (as CaCO3) total alkalinity and total hardness, respectively. Probit LC50 values were estimated with the trimmed Sp...

  5. Potential roles of fish, birds, and water in swamp privet (Forestiera acuminata) seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan B. Adams; Paul B. Hamel; Kristina Connor; Bryce Burke; Emile S. Gardiner; David Wise

    2007-01-01

    Forestiera acuminata (swamp privet) is a common wetland shrub/small tree native to the southeastern United States. We examined several possible dispersal avenues for the plant. We tested germination of seeds exposed to various treatments, including passage through Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfi sh) guts, and conducted other...

  6. Bacterial Bioaugmentation of Channel Catfish Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve, 0.1-ha earthen ponds at Stoneville, Mississippi were used in a 2-year, double-blind study of the effects of a Bacillus-based bacterial bioaugmentation product on water quality and production of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Each year, six ponds were treated weekly with the microbial ...

  7. Proximate Composition and Collagen Concentration of Processing Residue of Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residues (including heads, skin, viscera, frames, and trimmings) from the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus processing industry have generally been made into catfish meal and catfish oil that are used in animal feeds. There may be more efficient uses for these materials, such as producing collagen...

  8. Development of a culture independent method to characterize the chemotactic response of Flavobacterium columnare to fish mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease, is a significant pathogen of many freshwater fish species worldwide and is considered one of the most important pathogens impacting the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque) industry in the United States. Recent researc...

  9. Degradation of chitin and chitosan by a recombinant chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  10. Function of a recombinant Chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  11. Effect of stocking biomass on solids, phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and production parameters in a channel catfish biofloc technology production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of initial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque, 1818) fingerling biomass (1.4, 1.8, or 2.3 kg m-3) on phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and stocker catfish production parameters was evaluated in biofloc technology production tanks. Stocker catfish size (145.5 – 1...

  12. Threadfin shad impacts phytoplankton and zooplankton community structures in channel catfish ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plankton community structure and chlorophyll a concentration were compared in 12 0.1-ha earthen ponds co-stocked with channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) in multiple-batch culture (initial biomass = 5,458 kg ha-1) and a planktivore, threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense Güther, 1867;...

  13. Laboratory mass culture of the freshwater oligochaete Dero digitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proliferative gill disease (PGD) in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus is caused by the myxozoan parasite Henneguya ictaluri, which uses the freshwater oligochaete Dero digitata as an alternate host. Controlled studies on the transmission of PGD require sustainable D. digitata mass cultures. We d...

  14. Impact of Copper Sulfate on Plankton in Channel Catfish Nursery Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many fish culturists are interested in applying copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP) to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery ponds as a prophylactic treatment for trematode infection and proliferative gill disease by killing snails and Dero sp., respectively, before stocking fry. However, copp...

  15. Channel catfish polyculture with fathead minnows or threadfin shad effects on pond plankton communities and catfish fillet flavor, color, and fatty acid composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense, or fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, were co-cultured with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, in earthen ponds to determine the effects of planktivory on plankton community dynamics and catfish fillet quality. Fathead minnows had no effect on the plankton c...

  16. Evaluation of Zooplankton in Hatchery Diets for Channel Catfish Fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of zooplankton as a supplemental hatchery diet for fry of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated. When a commercial diet is used as a reference, fry fed exclusively on zooplankton–either live or dried–performed poorly in their growth rate. However, when live or dried zooplan...

  17. Dose-confirmation of copper sulfate for treating fungus on channel catfish eggs at a commercial hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study at a commercial hatchery was required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to provide independent substantiation of the results of a previous laboratory dose confirmation study to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus eggs with copper sulfate (CuSO4)...

  18. Effect of paternal blue catfish strain effects on hatchery fry production and performance of channel catfish X blue catfish F1 hybrid fry production and fingerling performance under commercial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four hundred four-year old mature Gold Kist strain channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus were induced to spawn with 10 mg common carp pituitary extract (CPE) /kg BW in 8 spawning trials. The stripped eggs were fertilized with sperm of either D&B or Rio Grande blue catfish, I.furcatus to produce D&B ...

  19. Evaluation of Peanut Meal as an Alternative Dietary Protein Source for Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of peanut meal as an alternative protein source in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in a 9-week study under controlled laboratory conditions. Five practical diets (28% crude protein and 6% crude lipid) were formulated to contain 0, 10, 15, 20, and 25% peanut meal as a ...

  20. The channel catfish genome sequence provides insights into the evolution of scale formation in teleosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), characteristic of its scaleless skin and prominent barbels, is an ideal species to study osteogenesis, development of appendages, olfactory sensing, and immunological adaptation. It is the leading aquaculture species in the United States. A high quality refere...

  1. Influences of cyclic, high temperatures on juvenile channel catfish growth and feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of high summer temperatures on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) are poorly understood, particularly for thermal regimes that mimic pond aquaculture conditions. Therefore, this study examined the effects of three cycling upper-range temperature regimes (23-27ºC, 27-31ºC, and 31-35ºC) cha...

  2. Control of Eurasian Water Milfoil, Fort Peck Project Area, Various Counties, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    spathula), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), cisco (Coregonus artedi) and spottail shiners (Notropis hudsonius). The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus...normal feeding , breeding, and sheltering. Recreational opportunities and activities at Fort Peck Project Area would likely be directly impacted if a...protected as native species thrive. Fish would be allowed to conduct their normal feeding , breeding, and sheltering absent the large stand of the noxious

  3. Final Environmental Assessment for Temporary Use of tbe Columbus Police Department Outdoor Firing Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    pathway for wildlife. Birds and animals feeding on earthworms, soil insects, fallen seeds and other foods at the surface of the soil can mistakenly eat...macrochirus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), longear sunfish (Lepomis mega/otis) and spotted bass (Micropterus

  4. Dicty_cDB: VSF223 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 196315 |pid:none) Auxenochlorella protothecoides rib... 271 2e-71 BC054263_1( BC054263 |pid:none) Xenopus la...F402813 |pid:none) Ictalurus punctatus 40S ribosomal ... 271 2e-71 FJ196315_1( FJ

  5. mRNA’S SECONDARY STRUCTURE FOR HAPLOTYPES OF THE GENE WHICH DETERMINS THE CYTOCHROME’S B SYNTHESIS, FOR CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH. 1783 INDIVIDUALS SAMPLED FROM MOVILENI AND IASI POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gorgan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available : In present paper, the main purpose was to establish the mRNA’s secondary structure for the gene which determines the cytochrome’s b synthesis, for Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch. 1783 individuals, having the origin in two different populations - Movileni and Iaşi, as well as those structures’s comparison, with similar models of the same gene, taken from the GenBank, for different species and subspecies of Carassius genera. Thus, regions from mtDNA were sequenced for 10 individuals of each analyzed population, based on a purified DNA matrix, using a method with phenol : chloroform : izoamyl alcohol (25:24:1. Those genes were subsequently amplified and sequenced using two complementary universal primers, obtaining both complementary chains, which ulterior formed a unique strand.MRNA’s secondary structure transcription and modeling was made using the GeneQuest module of LaserGene’s program.

  6. Potential for bias in using hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in endocrine studies: a first report of hybrids in Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Orsak, Erik; Sharma, Prakash; Ruessler, Shane

    2013-01-01

    During a 2008 study to assess endocrine and reproductive health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Mead, Nevada (U.S.A.) we identified two fish, one male and one female, as hybrids with goldfish (Carassius auratus) based on morphology, lateral line scale count, and lack of anterior barbels. Gross examination of the female hybrid ovaries indicated presence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles; whereas histological evaluation of the male hybrid testes showed lobule-like structures with open lumens but without germ cells, suggesting it was sterile. Because common carp/goldfish hybrids are more susceptible to gonadal tumors and may have different endocrine profiles than common carp, researchers using common carp as a model for endocrine/reproductive studies should be aware of the possible presence of hybrids.

  7. Photoperiodic modulation of thyroid hormone receptor (TR-α), deiodinase-2 (Dio-2) and glucose transporters (GLUT 1 and GLUT 4) expression in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rakesh; Haldar, Chandana

    2016-12-01

    Phenomenon of seasonal reproduction is being regulated by changes in day length or photoperiod. The molecular mechanism underlying the event of photoperiodic regulation of testis and thyroid functions along with glucose uptake transporters has never been reported for golden hamster, M. auratus. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of photoperiod on the expression of key thyroid hormone receptor (TR-α), deiodinase-2 (Dio-2) and glucose uptake transporters (GLUT-1 & GLUT-4) in testicular germ cell and Leydig cells, and its correlation with the testicular androgen receptor (AR), germ cell proliferation factor (PCNA) and cell survival factor (Bcl-2) in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Hamsters were exposed to different photoperiodic regimes i.e. critical photoperiod (CP), short day (SD) and long day (LD) for 10weeks. LD induces upregulation of thyroidal and gonadal activity as evident by active thyroid gland and testicular histoarchitecture, peripheral total thyroid (tT3, tT4) and testosterone hormone profiles when compared with SD exposed hamsters. Further, LD increased the expression of testicular TR-α, Dio-2, GLUT-1, GLUT-4 along with testicular AR and glucose content thereby enhancing germ cell proliferation and survival as reflected by increased PCNA and Bcl-2 expression when compared to SD exposed hamsters. Thus, it can be suggested that testicular thyroid hormone status is being regulated by photoperiod and is possibly involved in seasonal adaptation to reproductive phenomenon of golden hamster. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for municipal reuse water: Assessing micropollutant degradation and estrogenic impacts on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zengquan; Singh, Arvinder; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry; Bolton, James R; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Low concentrations (ng/L-μg/L) of emerging micropollutant contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents affect the possibility to reuse these waters. Many of those micropollutants elicit endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic organisms resulting in an alteration of the endocrine system. A potential candidate for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment of these micropollutants is ultraviolet (UV)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) which was currently applied to treat the secondary effluent of the Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant (GBWWTP) in Edmonton, AB, Canada. A new approach is presented to predict the fluence-based degradation rate constants (kf') of environmentally occurring micropollutants including carbamazepine [(0.87-1.39) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ] and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) [(0.60-0.91) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ for 2,4-D] in a medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 system based on a previous bench-scale investigation. Rather than using removal rates, this approach can be used to estimate the performance of the MP UV/H2O2 process for degrading trace contaminants of concern found in municipal wastewater. In addition to the ability to track contaminant removal/degradation, evaluation of the MP UV/H2O2 process was also accomplished by identifying critical ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e., estrogenicity) of the treated wastewater. Using quantitative PCR, mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive (ER) genes ERα1, ERα2, ERβ1, ERβ2 and NPR as well as two aromatase encoding genes (CYP19a and CYP19b) in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were measured during exposure to the GBWWTP effluent before and after MP UV/H2O2 treatment (a fluence of 1000 mJ/cm(2) and 20 mg/L of H2O2) in spring, summer and fall. Elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes in goldfish exposed to UV/H2O2 treated effluent (a 7-day exposure) suggested that the UV/H2O2 process may induce acute estrogenic disruption to goldfish principally because

  9. Japon Balığı (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758 Dokularında Bor Akümülasyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Okan Genç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, model bir balık türü olabilen Japon balığının (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758 karaciğer ve kas dokusundaki, yem ve su kaynaklı bor birikiminin dağılımı incelenmiştir. Her bir uygulama için her bir akvaryuma 12 adet birey. Uygulamalarda, akvaryum gruplarının suyuna belirli oranlarda (1 mg/L, 10 mg/L ve 20 mg/L borik asit ve borik asit emdirilmesi ile elde edilen yemlerden (1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg ve 10 mg/kg verilmiştir. Dokulardaki bor birikimi mikrodalga yaş yakma ile çözündürme işleminin ardından indüktif olarak eşleştirilmiş kütle spektroskopisi (ICP-MS tekniği ile belirlenmiştir. Japon balıklarının farklı dokularında belirlenen maksimum bor konsantrasyonu 20mg/L sulandırılmış borik asit uygulamasında karaciğer dokusunda (1.78±0.02 mg/kg tespit edilmiştir. Ancak 1 mg/kg yem uygulamasında kas dokusunda birikim olmadığı gözlemlenmiştir. Borlu su grupların için Transfer faktör (TF en düşük dozda en yüksek oranda iken doz miktarı arttıkça TF azalmış ve neredeyse 0.1’e yakın bir sabitlik göstermiştir. Bor ilaveli yem kullanılan deney gruplarında TF en düşük dozda (1 mg/kg 0 iken yemde kullanılan borun doz miktarı arttıkça (5 mg/kg TF değerinin yaklaşık 0.06’ya kadar çıktığı tespit edilmiştir. Bu çalışmada önemli iki tespit ortaya konulmuştur; bor birikiminde hedef organlardan biri karaciğer iken kas dokusunun birikim açısından hedef olmadığı ve yem ile alınan borun dokularda birikiminin düşük olmasıdır.

  10. Immune responses to live and inactivated Nocardia seriolae and protective effect of recombinant interferon gamma (rIFN γ) against nocardiosis in ginbuna crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Sukanta Kumar; Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Nakanishi, Teruyuki

    2014-08-01

    Looking into the fact that substantial mortality and morbidity is associated with intracellular Gram +ve bacterium, Nocardia seriolae infection, an effective vaccine against this pathogen is necessary to control the significant losses in aquaculture practices. Therefore, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of live (sub-lethal) and inactivated (antigenic form) N. seriolae on cellular and humoral immunity in ginbuna crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfii as well as the therapeutic potency of recombinant interferon gamma (rIFN γ) against N. seriolae infection. Effect of live and inactivated N. seriolae immunisation on the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells, CD8α(+) T cells and surface Ig M(+) cells in peripheral blood leucocytes, spleen, head kidney and trunk kidney of ginbuna was studied after 1st, 3rd, 7th, 15th and 30th day post immunisation. The percentage of CD8α(+) T cells in spleen and head kidney of ginbuna was significantly higher at 3rd day post immunisation. Similarly, surface Ig M(+) cells level was found to increase in both live and inactivated N. seriolae immunised groups. On the contrary, high percentage of CD4(+) T cells was observed in live N. seriolae immunised group in both the head and trunk kidneys at 30th day post immunisation. The humoral immune response to live and inactivated N. seriolae immunised ginbuna showed high antibody titre at 15th day post immunisation but the level declined subsequently in both the immunised groups. On challenge with virulent N. seriolae (1.2 × 10(8) CFU/ml), the relative percent survival was 62.5 and 75 in live and inactivated N. seriolae immunised groups, respectively. Furthermore, we have also studied the therapeutic potency of rIFN γ and found the possible involvement of IFN γ in resistance mechanism in fish. Administration of rIFN γ into ginbuna (at 10 μg/fish) one day before challenge study was found to protect ginbuna. The relative percent survival of ginbuna was 43.75 and 60 when

  11. Effect of finasteride on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA and on prostate of hamster Mesocricetus auratus (hMa Efeito da finasterida no antígeno prostático específico (PSA sérico e na próstata do hamster Mesocricetus auratus (hMa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the effects of finasteride on the serum PSA and on the prostate of hamster-Mesocricetus auratus(hMa. METHODS: Twenty hMa male adults were split in groups control and experimental (n=10. Animals of the experimental group received 7.14ng/mL of finasteride, subcutaneously (SC on the back three times per week, during 90 days. The finasteride dose was equivalent to 5.0mg administered to a 70kg man. At the end of the experiment the mean age for the animals in the control group was 15.2±1.13months and for the experimental group was 17.7±0.67 months. There was a statistically significant difference between mean ages of both groups (t value=5.98; p=0.001. The animals of the control group weighted 129.0±18.8g and the experimental group weighted 145.0±15.5g, t=1.88 e p=0.0514. The serum PSA was assessed through ELISA method. Prostates of those animals were collected and processed to histology and morphometry: the diameter of the acinous glands and the acinous epithelium, apoptosis, AgNORs and cellularity were assessed in both groups. RESULTS: Serum PSA decreased in the experimental group, 0.003ng/mL versus 0.763ng/mL, H= 7.982 e p= 0.0047. Decrease in the acinous area occurred in animals that received finasteride, 238.000±24.600 μm² versus 398.600±55.320 μm²; t= 2.653; p= 0.0122. A remarkable decrease in the area of the acinous epithelium occurred in the animals that received finasteride, 111.900±12.820 μm² versus 160.400±18.430 μm² t= 2.162; p= 0.0361. AgNORs were less expressed in finasteride treated animals, 2.846±0.877 versus 3.68 ±1.07 argyrophilic clusters for μm², p= OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da finasterida no PSA sérico e na próstata do hamster-Mesocricetus auratus (hMa. MÉTODOS: 20 hMa adultos machos foram divididos em grupos de 10 animais. No experimento foram administrados 7,14 ng/mL de finasterida, subcutâneo (SC, no dorso, três vezes por semana, por 90 dias, dose equivalente a 5,0 mg usada em homem

  12. Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from chloroform extract of Carica papaya seed and it's in vivo antibacterial potentiality in Channa punctatus against Klebsiella PKBSG14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subarna; Saha, Mandira; Bandyopadhyay, Probir Kumar; Jana, Monoranjan

    2017-10-01

    The relative efficacy of the isolated pure compound, extracted from Carica papaya seed has been tested against live fish, Channa punctatus infected with pathogenic strains of KlebsiellaPKBSG14 (gene bank accession no.KJ162158) at a dose of 0.75 CFU/ml in vivo. The isolated compound has been characterized by chromatography and mass spectroscopy studies using FTIR, 1HNMR and 13c NMR to identify as well as to determine the nature of the pure compound. This study revealed the extracted biological molecule is oleic acid, a long chained saturated fatty acid (LFAs) with a molecular formula C18H34O2. Later this compound was analyzed for its efficacy as an antibacterial agent in vivo through cytotoxicological and genotoxicological assays. A dose of 0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg b.w of isolated pure oleic acid has been tested and it showed effective result in regard to DNA fragmentation, comet tail length and toxicity biomarkers like ROS generation. The results of in vivo studies showed similar effects on spleen cells with regard to cell viability by PI staining, cell cycle analysis and also Annexin-FITC assay. Thus, the overall results suggest that oleic acid increases drug bioavailability and thereby has a better chemo-preventive action against bacterial infection in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocricetus auratus L. alimentado con base en harina de lombriz roja (Eisenia spp. y fuentes convencionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó durante 21 días el efecto de cuatro dietas proteicas con base en harina de Lombriz Roja (Hl (Eisenia spp. (nivel de inclusión de Hl: D1: 21; D2: 24; D3: 27 y D4: 30% y dos alimentos convencionales: Conejarina ® (D0 y Ratarina® (D5 en algunos parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocrisetus auratus L. mediante un diseño totalmente aleatorizado para un factor, en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela. El hematocrito (37.65-41.01%, la hemoglobina (10.83-12.25%, la bilirrubina total, directa e indirecta (0.20-0.40; 0.10-0.22; 0.10-0.20mg/ dL, respectivamente, las lipoproteínas de muy baja densidad (Vldl (15.12-41.27mg/dL; los triglicéridos (95.42-190.54mg/dL; así como los valores de Calcio (Ca (9.83-12.32 mg/dL y Potasio (4.24-5.43mg/dL no exhibieron diferencias significativas entre dietas (P>0,05. Los leucocitos (Lto, las plaquetas (Plq, el conteo diferencial (neutrófilos/linfocitos (Linf/eosinófilos, la glicemia (Glc, la amilasa, el colesterol total, las lipoproteínas de elevada (Hdl y baja densidad y el Fósforo mostraron variaciones sustanciales entre los tratamientos (P<0,05. Los niveles crecientes de proteína de las dietas no afectaron los parámetros evaluados. Sin embargo, se observó una relación negativa entre la inclusión de Hl y las cantidades de Lto (r=-0.76**, Plq (r=-0.76**, Linf (r=-0.71**, Glc (r=-0.58* y Hdl (r=-0.50*. La adición de hl en proporciones de 24, 27 y 30% para obtener alimentos formulados entre 13.5 y 19.6% de proteína, para M. auratus, afecta algunos de los parámetros hematológicos y la concentración sérica de metabolitos relacionados con la composición nutricional de la dieta.

  14. Ghrelin modulates gene and protein expression of digestive enzymes in the intestine and hepatopancreas of goldfish (Carassius auratus) via the GHS-R1a: Possible roles of PLC/PKC and AC/PKA intracellular signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-02-15

    Ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, is involved in the regulation of gastric functions in mammals. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin modulates digestive enzymes in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Immunofluorescence microscopy found colocalization of ghrelin, GHS-R1a and the digestive enzymes sucrase-isomaltase, aminopeptidase A, trypsin and lipoprotein lipase in intestinal and hepatopancreatic cells. In vitro ghrelin treatment in intestinal and hepatopancreas explant culture led to a concentration- and time-dependent modulation (mainly stimulatory) of most of the digestive enzymes tested. The ghrelin-induced upregulations of digestive enzyme expression were all abolished by preincubation with the GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6, and most of them by the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 or the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. This indicates that ghrelin effects on digestive enzymes are mediated by GHS-R1a, partly by triggering the PLC/PKC and AC/PKA intracellular signaling pathways. These data suggest a role for ghrelin on digestive processes in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interspecies differences in plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and dermal Vitamin D synthesis of kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), and New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Madhumita S; Dittmer, Keren E; Roe, Wendi D; Gartrell, Brett D

    2017-07-28

    Vitamin D plays a central role in calcium homeostasis of most vertebrates, and is obtained in different species through diet, dermal synthesis, or a combination of both. The aim of this study was to determine the predominant routes of Vitamin D synthesis in three disparate species, brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), and New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri). We surveyed plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3, analysed environmental conditions and life history factors, and determined the ability of skin samples to synthesise Vitamin D3 on exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation. There was variation in the plasma/serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations between and within the species studied, with wild kiwi having the lowest concentrations and NZ sea lions the highest. Kiwi skin produced small but measurable amounts of Vitamin D3, while tuatara skin produced Vitamin D3 concentrations higher than that of kiwi. New Zealand sea lion skin produced the highest amount of Vitamin D3 and differed from the other two species in this study in that Vitamin D3 was present in skin before UV-B exposure. The results from this study show that all three species studied retained the ability to use both dietary and dermal sources of Vitamin D, although there was interspecies variation in the magnitude of dermal synthesis. Comparisons between these species show that there are differences in their Vitamin D pathways, but suggest that there are more factors contributing to these pathways than might be expected solely from life history characteristics.

  16. Identification of the putative goldfish (Carassius auratus) magnesium transporter SLC41a1 and functional regulation in the gill, kidney, and intestine in response to dietary and environmental manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodzhahinchev, Vladimir; Kovacevic, Drago; Bucking, Carol

    2017-04-01

    While magnesium requirements for teleost fish highlight the physiological importance of this cation for homeostasis, little is known regarding the molecular identity of transporters responsible for magnesium absorption or secretion. The recent characterization of the vertebrate magnesium transporter solute carrier 41a1 (SLC41a1) in the kidney of a euryhaline fish has provided a glimpse of possible moieties involved in piscine magnesium regulation. The present study obtained a novel SLC41a1 coding sequence for Carassius auratus and demonstrated ubiquitous expression in all tissues examined. Transcriptional regulation of SLC41a1 in response to dietary and environmental magnesium concentrations was observed across tissues. Specifically, decreased environmental magnesium correlated with decreased expression of SLC41a1 in the intestine, whereas the gill and kidney were unaffected. Dietary magnesium restriction correlated with decreased expression of SLC41a1 in the intestine and gill, while again no effects were detected in the kidney. Finally, elevated dietary magnesium correlated with increased expression of SLC41a1 in the kidney, while expression in the intestine and gill remained stable. Plasma magnesium was maintained in all treatments, and dietary assimilation efficiency increased with decreased dietary magnesium. Consumption of a single meal failed to impact SLC41a1 expression, and transcript abundance remained stable over the course of digestion in all treatments. Transcriptional regulation occurred between 7 and 14days following dietary and environmental manipulations and short-term regulation (e.g. magnesium loss or secretion across tissues in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of Myxobolus indica n. sp. and a report of three Myxozoan (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida parasites of cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L. for the first time in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Saha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental fish industry is an economically viable sector in India which suffers from different ectoparasitic infestations, including the myxozoan parasites. An icthyoparasitological survey of myxozoan infections in ornamental fish farms in India revealed the presence of four myxozoan parasites belonging to the family Myxobolidae, in the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. The myxozoan spores were small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal in size. The plasmodia measured 0.5–3.0 mm in diameter with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. During the survey the authors identified for the first time in India, three previously described species, namely, M. mehlhorni, T. nikolskii and T. batae; and one new species M. indica n. sp., all infecting the ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus. The present study thus reports a new host, and a new locality for T. batae and M. mehlhorni. The description of T. nikolskii is the first record found in India. The spore of M. indica n. sp. measures 5.8 ± 0.2 × 4.1 ± 0.5 μm in size, having two equal shaped pyriform polar capsules measuring 4.1 ± 0.4 × 2.7 ± 0.6 μm. The results from a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observations along with a comparison with closely related species were incorporated here. Molecular data is needed to complete the description of the new species.

  18. O impacto na expressão agnors e apoptose na próstata do hamster-mesocricetus auratus (HMA submetido à aplicação de finasterida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto na expressão AgNORs e apoptose na próstata do hamster-Mesocricetus auratus (hMa submetido à aplicação de finasterida. MÉTODOS: Vinte roedores da espécie hMa (n=20, machos foram separados aleatoriamente em grupos de dez animais: grupo-Finasterida (n=10 e grupo-Controle (n=10. No grupo-finasterida foi administrado 7,14 ng/mL de finasterida, subcutâneo (SC, no dorso, três vezes por semana, por 90 dias. Foi avaliada a expressão AgNORs como marcador de proliferação celular e a apoptose como marcador de morte celular. RESULTADOS: A expressão de AgNORs foi menor no grupo-finasterida, 2,846±0,877 versus 3,68 ±1,07 grumos argilófilos por micrômetro ao quadrado (µm² no grupo-controle, p= < 0,0001. A apoptose foi mais frequente no grupo-finasterida, 53,62±1,389 versus 14,76 ± 2,137 µm² no grupo-controle, p= 0,0408. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se diminuição da expressão de AgNORs e promoção da apoptose na próstata dos roedores em estudo, que foram submetidos à aplicação de finasterida.

  19. Influência da via de inoculação sobre o estabelecimento e a evolução da leptospirose em hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus experimentalmente infectados com Leptospira interrogans sorovar pomona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicodemos Alves de Macedo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigada a influência da via de inoculação sobre o estabelecimento e a evolução da leptospirose em hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus experimentalmente infectados com Leptospira interrogans sorovar pomona. As vias de inoculação ensaiadas foram: intraperitoneal, subcutânea, oral, conjuntival e escarificação cutânea. O inóculo infeccioso foi constituído por uma cultura em meio de Fletcher, com 20 a 30 leptospiras por campo microscópio no aumento de 200 vezes. Os animais controle foram inoculados apenas com meio de Fletcher. Foram colhidas amostras de soro sanguíneo e fragmentos de rins na fase agônica da doença ou no 21º dia pós-infecção, quando todos os animais foram sacrificados. Para a pesquisa de leptospiras, foi feito o exame direto com microscopia óptica em campo escuro e cultivo em meio de Fletcher, pela técnica das diluições seriadas. A detecção de aglutininas anti-leptospiras foi realizada pela técnica de soroaglutinação microscópica. A instalação e evolução da leptospirose foram afetadas pela via de inoculação. A via oral foi a menos efetiva em estabelecer a infecção. Não foi observada associação estatística entre a freqüência de portadores e a via de inoculação.

  20. Monocrotophos pesticide decreases the plasma levels of total 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine and alters the expression of genes associated with the thyroidal axis in female goldfish (Carassius auratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Zhang

    Full Text Available Our recent study showed that monocrotophos (MCP pesticide disrupted the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis in male goldfish (Carassius auratus; however, the effects of MCP on the thyroid system in female goldfish are remain unclear. In the present study, plasma thyroid hormone (TH and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels were evaluated in female goldfish exposed to 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L of 40% MCP-based pesticide for 21 days in a semi-static exposure system. Expression profiles of HPT axis-responsive genes, including transthyretin (ttr, deiodinases (d1, d2, and d3, tshβ, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (trh, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (crh, were determined. The results indicated that MCP decreased the plasma levels of total 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (TT3 and the ratio of TT3 to total 3,3',5,5'-l-thyroxine (TT4, and induced alternative expression of TH-related genes. Exposure to 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L MCP pesticide resulted in the up-regulation of ttr mRNA. The reduction of plasma TT3 levels was partly attributed to an increase in the metabolism of T3 in the liver, as revealed by the highly elevated hepatic d1 and d3 mRNA levels in the MCP treatment groups, and the expression of hepatic d3 showed a negative correlation with the plasma TT3/TT4 levels in females. Moreover, the plasma TSH levels were lower in females exposed to 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L MCP pesticide, whereas the up-regulation of tshβ mRNA levels was compensated by the decreased plasma TT3 levels. These results indicated that MCP had the potential to influence several pathways of HPT axis homeostasis in female goldfish.

  1. Ghrelin suppresses cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the intestine, and attenuates the anorectic effects of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Delgado, María Jesús; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-07-01

    Ghrelin is an important gut-derived hormone with an appetite stimulatory role, while most of the intestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are appetite-inhibitors. Whether these important peptides with opposing roles on food intake interact to regulate energy balance in fish is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the putative crosstalk between ghrelin and CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We first determined the localization of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in relation to ghrelin and its main receptor GHS-R1a (growth hormone secretagogue 1a) in the goldfish intestine by immunohistochemistry. Colocalization of ghrelin/GHS-R1a and CCK/PYY/GLP-1 was found primarily in the luminal border of the intestinal mucosa. In an intestinal explant culture, a significant decrease in prepro-cck, prepro-pyy and proglucagon transcript levels was observed after 60min of incubation with ghrelin, which was abolished by preincubation with the GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (except for proglucagon). The protein expression of PYY and GLP-1 was also downregulated by ghrelin. Finally, intraperitoneal co-administration of CCK, PYY or GLP-1 with ghrelin results in no modification of food intake in goldfish. Overall, results of the present study show for the first time in fish that ghrelin exerts repressive effects on enteric anorexigens. It is likely that these interactions mediate the stimulatory effects of ghrelin on feeding and metabolism in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. La inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus mediante la detección de coproantígenos*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Escalante A

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la técnica de inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus "hámsters" mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Materiales y métodos: Se produjo en Oryctolagus cunniculus "conejo" IgG anti-antígenos de excreción/secreción (ES de T. solium y en Capra hircus "cabra" IgG anti-IgG de conejo. Parte de las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium fue conjugado con oro coloidal. La inmunocromatografía se llevó a cabo utilizando tiras de nitrocelulosa en las cuáles se fijó dos bandas con anticuerpos de captura; en la primera, las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium (banda de prueba, y en la segunda las IgG anti-IgG de conejo (banda control. La técnica fue evaluada con un "pool" de tres muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES de T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum y de larvas de Anisakis simplex, así como con un "pool" de tres muestras fecales de hámsters no parasitados, de parasitados por H. nana y de siete muestras fecales de hámsters parasitados por T. Solium. Resultados: La inmunocromatografía permitió detectar antígenos de T. solium en muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES específicas y en heces de hámsters parasitados por T. solium mediante la coloración de la banda de prueba, siendo negativo cuando se utilizó medios con ES de otros helmintos y sin antígenos, así como con muestras de heces de hámsters infectados por otros parásitos y de no parasitados. En todas las tiras usadas se observó coloración de la banda control. Conclusión: La técnica de inmunocromatografía es capaz de detectar antígenos de T. solium, tanto en medio de cultivo como en heces de hámsters, faltando evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad con muestras fecales humanas para el diagnóstico de la teniosis mediante la detección de coproantígenos.

  3. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M L; Marchiori, N; Roumbedakis, K; Lami, F

    2012-05-01

    In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

  4. Concentration of elements in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  5. Dicty_cDB: CHA884 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHA884 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16381-1 - (Link to Original site) CHA884F...CHA884F 147 - - - - - - Show CHA884 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHA884 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas...RN708T7 Sea urchin radial nerve Lambda Zap cDNA library Heliocidaris erythrogramma cDNA 3', mRNA sequence...1 BM424783 |BM424783.1 IpSpn00680 Spleen cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5', mRNA sequence. 28

  6. Anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-isotope dilution-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for speciation analysis of metal complexes with metallothionein isoforms in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) exposed to environmental metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Heidi Goenaga; Van Campenhout, Karen; Blust, Ronny; Adams, Freddy C

    2006-07-21

    The capability of post-column isotope dilution (ID) combined with anion-exchange HPLC-ICP-time-of-flight (TOF)-MS was for the first time investigated for environmental quality assessment through metal speciation analysis of metallothionein (MT) isoforms in cytosols of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), used as biomarkers for environmental metal exposure. A full spectral scanning of the biological sample (with 50 microl injection volume) using ICP-TOF-MS in transient mode allowed fast multi-isotope screening of cytosolic metal-containing fractions and to investigate the presence of matrix-induced interferences. The MT cytosolic fraction of liver and kidney of the carp, sampled at three different sampling sites in Belgium, was partially purified using size-exclusion (SE) HPLC. Quantification of the elements Cd (toxic) and Zn and Cu (essential) associated with MT isoforms in this fraction was addressed using an hybrid approach based on post-column addition of the enriched isotopes 65Cu, 67Zn, 106Cd and monitoring on-line the isotope ratios 63Cu/65Cu, 64Zn/67Zn and 114Cd/106Cd by ICP-MS with a time of flight instrument, which was coupled to anion-exchange HPLC. With this separation method, baseline separation of up to five MT isoforms, which is required for quantitative metal speciation by HPLC-ICP-IDMS, was achieved within a run of 15 min. The MT fraction of the cytosols was also analysed for the total metal content using IDMS with size-exclusion HPLC-ICP-MS and species-unspecific calibration. Results showed significant differences between speciation results and total MT concentrations of control fish and fish from the most contaminated sampling sites, revealing the potential of gibel carp MT for sequestering excess intracellular free-ions (essential and toxic elements) and for its protection against metal toxicity. Preferences for metal sequestration of metal complexes with MT isoforms were also found to be tissue-specific: excess of Cd was found preferably

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: gold crucian carp [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gold crucian carp Carassius auratus auratus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_L.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_NL.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_S.png Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NS ...

  8. Enhanced longevity in tau mutant Syrian hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Daan, Serge

    The single-gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster shortens the circadian period by about 20% in the homozygous mutant and simultaneously increases the mass-specific metabolic rate by about 20%. Both effects might be expected to lead to a change in longevity. To test such expectations, the life span

  9. Sensibility of the hamster (Cricetus auratus to the Treponema pertenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nery-Guimarães

    1955-05-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments, 8 Hamsters inoculated with material from yaws lesions (Treponema pertenue, developed skin lesions considered specific by their clinical and histopathological aspects and by the presence of treponemae. These lesions appeared on the scrotumm, testicle, prepuce, anus, tail, muzzle, back and hinders paws (palm surface. In the internal organs no treponemae were found in direct examinations and inoculation of brain, spleen and lymph node. The incubation period was of 35 days for the testicle, 55 days for the scrotum and 107 days for peritoneal cavity inoculation. Positive sub-inoculations were obtained. The serum reactions (Qasserman's and Kahn's were negative in all 5 tested Hamsters. Out of 4 normal females matched to infected males two developed nasal lesions resulting from direct contact. Apparently the genital lesions hindered copulation. Hamsters are very well suited for an experimental study of yaws.Em 2 experiências, 8 Hamsters inoculados com material direto de lesões boubáticas (Treponema pertenue, desenvolveram lesões cutâneas consideradas específicas, pelo aspecto clínico e histopatológico e pela presentça de treponemas. Essas lesões se manifestaram no escrôto, testículo, prepúcio, anus, cauda, focinho, dorso e patas posteriores (face palmar. Nos órgãos internos não foram vistos treponemas ao exame direto e, uma vez, por inoculação de cérebro, baço e gânglio linfático. O período incubativo foi de 35 dias pela via testicular, 55 dias pela via escrotal e 107 dias pela via peritonial. Foram obtidas sub-inoculações positivas para Hamsters normais. As experiências continuam. De 4 fêmeas normais, acasaladas com 4 hamsters infectados apenas 2 mostraram lesões positivas resultantes de contágio direto. Aparentemente, não houve copulação e, se esta ocorreu, não determinou fecundação.

  10. Rudimentary coronary artery in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A C; Arqué, J M; Fernández, B; Fernández, M C; Fernández-Gallego, T; Rodríguez, C; Sans-Coma, V

    2009-08-01

    Congenital underdevelopment of one or more main branches of the coronary arteries has been reported in man, but not in non-human mammals. In man, this defective coronary artery arrangement may cause myocardial ischaemia and even sudden death. The main goal of this study was to describe the coronary artery distribution patterns associated with the presence of a markedly underdeveloped (rudimentary) coronary artery in Syrian hamsters. Moreover, an attempt was made to explain the morphogenesis of these patterns, according to current knowledge on coronary artery development. Eleven affected hamsters belonging to a laboratory inbred family were examined by means of internal casts of the heart, great arterial trunks and coronary arteries. The aortic valve was tricuspid (normal) in seven hamsters and bicuspid in the other four. A rudimentary coronary artery arose from the right side of the aortic valve in four specimens, from the left side of the aortic valve in a further three, and from the dorsal aortic sinus in the remaining four. In all cases, a second, well-developed coronary artery provided for all the coronary blood flow. Except for the existence of a rudimentary coronary artery, the present anomalous coronary artery distribution patterns are similar to coronary artery patterns reported in Syrian hamsters, dogs and humans in association with a solitary coronary ostium in aorta. We suggest that an unusual prolonged time interval in the development of the embryonic coronary stems might be a key factor in the formation of coronary arteries displaying significantly dissimilar developmental degrees.

  11. The role of ornamental goldfish Carassius auratus in transfer of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oreochromis niloticus and Cyprinus carpio were mainly infested with several species of Trichodina and monogeneans. The presence of Dermocystidium sp. in carp, and viral particles in the liver and spleen of O. niloticus and C. carpio, was uncommon. Microscopically, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the hepatic cells ...

  12. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1986 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poe, Thomas P.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center (U.S.)

    1987-02-01

    This report summarizes activities in 1986 to determine the significance of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. Salmonids were the single most important food item (by weight) for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) at McNary tailrace during all sampling periods and at John Day forebay during July. Salmonids accounted for 23.7% of the diet of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in July 1986, which was higher than in previous years (although the sample size examined was low). Salmonids contributed little to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) diet but comprised about 25% of the diet of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Composition of prey taxa in beach seine catches in July 1986 was similar to previous years with chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus), and sand roller (Percopsis transmontana) dominating the catch.

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15971-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AC148721 ) Ictalurus punctatus clone CH212-49F22, WORKING DR... 58 4e-04 1 ( AC132520 ) Rattus norvegicus...CH230-53M11, WORKING DRAF... 58 4e-04 1 ( AC096320 ) Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-169E3, WORKING DRAF.....AC115427 ) Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-207B16, WORKING DRA... 56 0.002 1 ( AC114503 ) Rattus norvegicus...CH230-9M1, WORKING DRAFT ... 56 0.002 1 ( AC111838 ) Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-170E2, WORKING DRAF....CH230-86C24, WORKING DRAF... 56 0.002 1 ( AC096613 ) Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-106O1, WORKING DRAF..

  14. Quarterly Progress Report Covering Period October 1 Through December 31, 1978 Biocide By-Products in Aquatic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.; Bean, R.M.; Gibson, C.I.

    1979-03-01

    Analysis of water samples from several locations across the U.S. is underway. We have completed analysis using the Purge and Trap and headspace techniques on several locations. In the freshwater phase of the program we have completed fifteen chloroform acute toxicity bioassays with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Results indicate, in all cases, the LC-50 is well above that which could be expected to be discharged due to power plant chlorination. The LC-50's range from about 15 to 50 ppm chloroform depending on the species. Histological analysis is underway on clams from long-term chlorination by-product exposures. If the results of the histological analysis indicate an effect, further histological examination of samples from other concentrations will be conducted.

  15. Exposure-related effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A, on coldwater, coolwater, and warmwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Denise A. Mayer,

    2015-01-01

    The exposure-related effects of a commercially prepared spray-dried powder (SDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A, were evaluated on coldwater, coolwater, and warmwater fish endemic to the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Basins. Nine species of young-of-the-year fish were exposed to SDP for 24 hours by using continuous-flow, serial-dilution exposure systems at temperatures of 12 degrees Celsius (°C; 2 species; Oncorhynchus mykiss [rainbow trout] and Salvelinus fontinalis [brook trout]), 17 °C (3 species; Perca flavescens [yellow perch], Sander vitreus [walleye], and Acipenser fulvescens [lake sturgeon]), or 22 °C (4 species; Micropterus salmoides [largemouth bass], Micropterus dolomieu [smallmouth bass], Lepomis macrochirus [bluegill sunfish], and Ictalurus punctatus [channel catfish]).

  16. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in the John Day Pool. 1982 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Gerard A.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1984-03-01

    This study was initiated to determine the extent of predation by resident populations of native and introduced fish on juvenile salmonids in main stem Columbia River Reservoirs. The John Day Reservoir and tailrace was selected as the study area. First year objectives were: (1) determine whether native and introduced predators preyed on juvenile salmonids; (2) determine which species were major predators; and (3) locate areas where predation was most intense. Results indicated that juvenile salmonids were consumed by all four predatory fish species studied: northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). However, degree of predation varied among predators as a function of spatial distribution, apparent abundance, size, and temporal feeding behavior. 15 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Vertebrate Adaptive Immunity—Comparative Insights from a Teleost Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry W. Dickerson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and the ciliated protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis are used to study pathogen-specific protective immunity. In this review, we briefly describe this host–parasite system and discuss the comparative insights it provides on the adaptive immune response of vertebrates. We include studies related to cutaneous mucosal immunity, B cell memory responses, and analyses of αβ T cell receptor (TCR repertoires. This host–parasite model has played an important role in elucidating host protective responses to parasite invasion and for comparative studies of vertebrate immunity. Recent findings from bioinformatics analyses of TCR β repertoires suggest that channel catfish preferentially expand specific clonotypes that are stably integrated in the genome. This finding could have broad implications related to diversity in lymphocyte receptors of early vertebrates.

  18. Validation of a qPCR assay for the detection of Ictalurid herpesvirus-2 (IcHV-2) in fish tissues and cell culture supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, A E; Marecaux, E

    2010-04-01

    Ictalurid herpesvirus-2 (IcHV-2) is a pathogen of cultured black bullhead, Ameiurus melas (Rafinesque), and has been shown to produce high mortality in experimental exposures of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque). During acute infections, the virus grows readily in cell cultures but produces a cytopathic effect (CPE) similar to that of Ictalurid herpesvirus-1 (IcHV-1) and the channel catfish reovirus. We have developed a quantitative PCR assay that can be used to detect IcHV-2 in fish tissues and cell culture supernatants. The assay does not amplify other fish herpesviruses tested or host DNA. It is quantitative over a range of eight logs, and the limit of detection is cell cultures, and for the detection of latent infections in carrier fish.

  19. Power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture. Semi-annual report, No. 2, 1 November 1977--1 June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, C.R.; Godfriaux, B.L.

    1978-06-01

    The principal objective is to evaluate, at proof-of-concept scale, the potential of intensive aquaculture operations using power plant thermal discharges to enhance productivity. The field experiments involve the rearing of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) for successive periods (semi-annual) in accordance with the temperature of the thermal effluents. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and the freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are also being tested in smaller, laboratory size culture systems. The above mentioned species were selected because of their economic importance. They will be evaluated for food quality and marketability with the cooperation of potential commercial users. Aquaculture facilities were constructed at a steam electric generating plant for studies determining use for waste heat released into condenser cooling water. Growth rates, food conversion ratios, disease problems and mortality rates are being studied in the project. (Color illustrations reproduced in black and white) (Portions of this document are not fully legible)

  20. Aquaculture report 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.K.; Watson, L.; Kent, J.C.; Johnson, D.W.

    1977-04-08

    Growth of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and Tilapia zillii in the Reft River Geothermal Area (RRGT) geothermal waters can equal or surpass that in a commercial aquaculture facility. Fish and prawn mortality over the course of the intermediate term preliminary study did not appear to be related to any inherent geothermal water chemistry conditions. Temperature control was a problem but does not appear to be beyond design control. The absence of temperature-related mortality in channel catfish, Tilapia zilli, and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) indicates increased survival and suggests reduced expenditures for disease control. It may also allow higher fish densities in commercial aquaculture operations using geothermal water. Results of this study indicate potential for commercial aquaculture development at the Raft River Geothermal Testing Site.

  1. Effects of dietary addition of vitamins C and D3 on growth and calcium and phosphorus content of pond-cultured channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launer, C.A.; Tiemeier, O.W.; Deyoe, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed one of three diets: one deficient in vitamin C (ascorbic acid), one deficient in vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), or one containing both vitamins. Semimonthly from May to September and monthly from September to February, calcium and phosphorus were determined in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons by neutron activation analysis. Body weight gains, survival rate, and feed conversion rates were determined for the May to September period. Fish on the three diet regimens showed no significant difference in weight gain, feed conversion, or survival. Interactions between sampling date and diet indicated no correlation between vitamin C or D3 and the calcium and phosphorus in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons of the fish.

  2. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillets of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus dolomieu, Morone chrysops), walleye (Sander vitreus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected from 21 sites as part of the Department's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Long-pincered crayfish (Orconectes longidigitus) were collected from one site to assess trophic transfer of metals to fish. Fish muscle plugs were collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at two different locations from one site.

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15078-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7 |pid:none) Ictalurus punctatus NK-lysin type ... 58 3e-07 EU960507_1( EU960507 |pid:none) Zea mays clone 225521 surfactant..... 54 5e-06 ( P22355 ) RecName: Full=Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B... 53 1e-05 AJ719872_1( AJ719...length cDNA clone ZM... 52 1e-05 BC072466_1( BC072466 |pid:none) Rattus norvegicus surfactant...for aspartic protease, compl... 49 1e-04 DQ841161_1( DQ841161 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis surfactant protein ....(EC 3.4.23.-) - cardoon &X81984_1(X8198... 49 1e-04 M16764_1( M16764 |pid:none) Human pulmonary surfactant-a

  4. Population characteristics of channel catfish near the northern edge of their distribution: implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Lynn, K. P.; Quist, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), populations in six lakes in northern Idaho, USA, were sampled to describe their population characteristics. During the summers of 2011 and 2012, 4864 channel catfish were sampled. Channel catfish populations had low to moderate catch rates, and length structure was dominated by fish Channel catfish were in good body condition. All populations were maintained by stocking age-1 or age-2 fish. Growth of fish reared in thermally enriched environments prior to stocking was fast compared to other North American channel catfish populations. After stocking, growth of channel catfish declined rapidly. Once stocked, cold water temperatures, prey resources and (or) genetic capabilities limited growth. Total annual mortality of age 2 and older channel catfish was generally channel catfish population dynamics and highlights important considerations associated with their ecology and management.

  5. Experimental assessment of the effects of a Neotropical nocturnal piscivore on juvenile native and invasive fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra F. G. N. Santos

    Full Text Available We experimentally examined the predator-prey relationships between juvenile spotted sorubim Pseudoplastystoma corruscans and young-of-the-year invasive and native fish species of the Paraná River basin, Brazil. Three invasive (peacock bass Cichla piquiti, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and two native (yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae and streaked prochilod Prochilodus lineatus fish species were offered as prey to P. corruscans in 300 L aquaria with three habitat complexity treatments (0%, 50% and 100% structure-covered. Prey survival was variable through time and among species (C. piquiti < O. niloticus < A. altiparanae < P. lineatus < I. punctatus, depending largely on species-specific prey behavior but also on prey size and morphological defenses. Habitat complexity did not directly affect P. corruscans piscivory but some prey species changed their microhabitat use and shoaling behavior among habitat treatments in predator's presence. Pseudoplatystoma corruscans preyed preferentially on smaller individuals of those invasive species with weak morphological defensive features that persisted in a non-shoaling behavior. Overall, our results contrast with those in a companion experiment using a diurnal predator, suggesting that nocturnal piscivores preferentially prey on different (rather diurnal fish species and are less affected by habitat complexity. Our findings suggest that recovering the native populations of P. corruscans might help controling some fish species introduced to the Paraná River basin, particularly C. piquiti and O. niloticus, whose parental care is expected to be weak or null at night.

  6. [Daily form of rest in the catfish Ictalurus nebulosus and the frog Rana temporaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmanova, I G; Churnosov, E V; Popova, D I

    1976-01-01

    By means of recording the cardiac rhythm, respiration rate and motor activity in unrestrained animals, studies have been made on the dynamics of formation of cataleptic-like immobilization in the teleost I. nebulosus. Rhythmic illumination at a rate 3/min. (10 sec light on - 10 sec light off) in the daytime gradually caused the onset of immobilization in the fish. This immobilization is characterized by the specific heart rate, type of respiration and the degree of plastic tone. Under the same experimental conditions, the formation of photogenic catalepsy in the frog Rana temporaria was confirmed. Typical heart rate, respiration pattern and the degree of plastic tone were determined as well. The role of illumination rhythm in the onset of all conditions which are characteristic for the "awakefulness-rest" cycle is discussed.

  7. Anatomy, morphology and evolution of the patella in squamate lizards and tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnault, Sophie; Jones, Marc E H; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-05-01

    The patella (kneecap) is the largest and best-known of the sesamoid bones, postulated to confer biomechanical advantages including increasing joint leverage and reinforcing the tendon against compression. It has evolved several times independently in amniotes, but despite apparently widespread occurrence in lizards, the patella remains poorly characterised in this group and is, as yet, completely undescribed in their nearest extant relative Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia). Through radiography, osteological and fossil studies we examined patellar presence in diverse lizard and lepidosauromorph taxa, and using computed tomography, dissection and histology we investigated in greater depth the anatomy and morphology of the patella in 16 lizard species and 19 Sphenodon specimens. We have found the first unambiguous evidence of a mineralised patella in Sphenodon, which appears similar to the patella of lizards and shares several gross and microscopic anatomical features. Although there may be a common mature morphology, the squamate patella exhibits a great deal of variability in development (whether from a cartilage anlage or not, and in the number of mineralised centres) and composition (bone, mineralised cartilage or fibrotendinous tissue). Unlike in mammals and birds, the patella in certain lizards and Sphenodon appears to be a polymorphic trait. We have also explored the evolution of the patella through ancestral state reconstruction, finding that the patella is ancestral for lizards and possibly Lepidosauria as a whole. Clear evidence of the patella in rhynchocephalian or stem lepidosaurian fossil taxa would clarify the evolutionary origin(s) of the patella, but due to the small size of this bone and the opportunity for degradation or loss we could not definitively conclude presence or absence in the fossils examined. The pattern of evolution in lepidosaurs is unclear but our data suggest that the emergence of this sesamoid may be related to the evolution of secondary ossification centres and/or changes in knee joint conformation, where enhancement of extensor muscle leverage would be more beneficial. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

  8. Distribution of the portunid crab Ova/ipes punctatus (De Haan) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (mean 140) larvae were transferred to 200-ml beakers contain- ing 80 ml of sea water. The beakers were then floated in water baths at the desired temperature. A number of combinations were tested in which the salinity ranged from 10 to 35%0 and the temperature from 5 to 35°C. The temperature change took. 30 to 60 min ...

  9. Intranasal vaccination with leishmanial antigens protects golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) against Leishmania (Viannia) Braziliensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Couto, Luzinei; Ribeiro-Romão, Raquel Peralva; Saavedra, Andrea Franco; da Silva Costa Souza, Beatriz Lilian; Moreira, Otacílio Cruz; Gomes-Silva, Adriano; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Pinto, Eduardo Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    Previous results have shown that oral and intranasal administration of particulate Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis antigens (LaAg) partially protects mice against L. amazonensis infection. However, vaccination studies on species of the subgenus Viannia, the main causative agent of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in the Americas, have been hampered by the lack of easy-to-handle bio-models that accurately mimic the human disease. Recently, we demonstrated that the golden hamster is an appropriate model for studying the immunopathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (Viannia) braziliensis. Using the golden hamster model, our current study investigated whether the protective effect of intranasal immunisation with LaAg can be extended to L. braziliensis infection. Golden hamsters vaccinated with either two intranasal (IN) doses of LaAg (10 µg) or two intramuscular doses of LaAg (20 µg) were challenged 2 weeks post-vaccination with L. braziliensis. The results showed that IN immunisation with LaAg significantly reduced lesion growth and parasitic load as well as serum IgG and IgG2 levels. At the experimental endpoint on day 114 post-infection, IN-immunised hamsters that were considered protected expressed IFN-γ and IL10 mRNA levels that returned to uninfected skin levels. In contrast to the nasal route, intramuscular (IM) immunisation failed to provide protection. These results demonstrate for the first time that the nasal route of immunisation can induce cross protection against L. braziliensis infection.

  10. Fasting goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, use different metabolic strategies when swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Hon Jung; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Mauro, Nathalie; Diricx, Marjan; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-11-01

    Fish need to balance their energy use between digestion and other activities, and different metabolic compromises can be pursued. We examined the effects of fasting (7 days) on metabolic strategies in goldfish and common carp at different swimming levels. Fasting had no significant effect on swimming performance (U(crit)) of either species. Feeding and swimming profoundly elevated total ammonia (T(amm)) excretion in both species. In fed goldfish, this resulted in increased ammonia quotients (AQ), and additionally plasma and tissue ammonia levels increased with swimming reflecting the importance of protein contribution for aerobic metabolism. In carp, AQ did not change since oxygen consumption (MO(2)) and T(amm) excretion followed the same trend. Plasma ammonia did not increase with swimming suggesting a balance between production and excretion rate except for fasted carp at U(crit). While both species relied on anaerobic metabolism during exhaustive swimming, carp also showed increased lactate levels during routine swimming. Fasting almost completely depleted glycogen stores in carp, but not in goldfish. Both species used liver protein for basal metabolism during fasting and muscle lipid during swimming. In goldfish, feeding metabolism was sacrificed to support swimming metabolism with similar MO(2) and U(crit) between fasted and fed fish, whereas in common carp feeding increased MO(2) at U(crit) to sustain feeding and swimming independently. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni--Entamoeba histolytica coinfection in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolabella, Silvio Santana; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Borçari, Izabela Torquetti; Mello, Nelson Azevedo Santos Teixeira; Andrade, Zilton de Araújo; Silva, Edward Felix

    2007-01-01

    Data on Schistosoma mansoni-Entamoeba histolytica coinfection are scarce in the literature. In the present study, hamsters that had been infected for 70 days with Schistosoma mansoni (LE strain) were inoculated via the portal vein with two strains of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica: ICB-EGG (highly virulent) and ICB-RPS (non-virulent). The most evident result of coinfection was increased morbidity and mortality, in comparison with either of the infections alone. Histologically, there were no evident signs of interaction between these two infections. The morphological findings of schistosomal granuloma and amoebic abscesses in the liver were similar to those seen in the respective single-infection controls. However, there was severe wasting of the animals with both infections and greater numbers of amoebic lesions in their livers. The results obtained indicated that schistosomiasis aggravates the course of amoebiasis in hamsters.

  12. Entamoeba histolytica: liver invasion and abscess production by intraperitoneal inoculation of trophozoites in hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, M; Campos-Rodríguez, R; Ramírez-Rosales, A; Flores-Romo, L; Espinosa-Cantellano, M; Martínez-Palomo, A; Tsutsumi, V

    1998-01-01

    Intraperitoneal inoculation of axenically cultured Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites constitutes an easy to perform, highly reproducible procedure for inducing amebic liver abscesses in hamsters. Efficiency in abscess production (95% of infected animals after 1 week) was similar to data reported using direct intrahepatic or intraportal inoculation. The morphological sequence of infection shows that amebas in the peritoneal cavity initially produce a large exudate constituted mainly of acute inflammatory cells. These cells form a rim of polymorphonuclear leukocytes surrounding the amebas, which adhere to the trophozoite and can sometimes be observed polarized to one end of the parasite, suggesting capping of surface receptors. Early stages are also characterized by the production of distant inflammatory reactions in the hepatic portal spaces. At 6 h postintraperitoneal inoculation, larger foci of inflammatory reactions surrounding amebas are developed in the peritoneum, extending to and damaging the liver surface membranes as well as the serosa of other internal organs. Thereafter, tissue damage progresses deeper into the liver parenchyma, and a few days later, coalescing granulomas and large necrotic areas are observed in the liver tissue. Based on the present morphological time-sequence study, we suggest that inflammatory cells associated with E. histolytica trophozoites play an important role in commencing the damage of liver sheaths and producing the subsequent parenchymal lesions. The simplicity and reliability of this model are important factors to consider when large numbers of experimentally induced amebic liver abscesses are needed.

  13. Entamoeba histolytica: induction of cyclooxygenase-2 expression during amoebic liver abscess formation in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ramírez, B; Ramírez-Gil, M; Vázquez-Moctezuma, I; Ramos-Martínez, E; Talamás-Rohana, P

    2004-01-01

    Experimental amoebic liver abscess in hamsters curses with an increase in both, systemic levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) and local cyclooxygenase activity in liver microsomes. The cellular source of PGE(2) and the isoform of cyclooxygenase responsible are not completely evidenced. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and gene expression were demonstrated on macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells as a result of Entamoeba histolytica infection in hamsters at 2, 4, and 7 days postinfection by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. E. histolytica trophozoites located in the lesion showed a strong positive signal for COX-2, however the enzyme was not detected in cultured trophozoites by Western blot. Our results indicate that the increment in PGE(2) is the result of COX-2 activity from cells of the reticuloendothelial system and reinforce the possibility that PGE(2) production by enzyme induction in macrophages may be a mechanism by which E. histolytica modulates the host immune response in this parasitic infection.

  14. Morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni--Entamoeba histolytica coinfection in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dolabella, Silvio Santana; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Borçari, Izabela Torquetti; Mello, Nelson Azevedo Santos Teixeira; Andrade, Zilton de Araújo; Silva, Edward Felix

    2007-01-01

    .... In the present study, hamsters that had been infected for 70 days with Schistosoma mansoni (LE strain) were inoculated via the portal vein with two strains of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica...

  15. Melatonin reduces body weight in goldfish (Carassius auratus): effects on metabolic resources and some feeding regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pedro, Nuria; Martínez-Alvarez, Rosa M; Delgado, María Jesús

    2008-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of chronic melatonin (10 microg/g body weight) on body weight and the main energetic reserves, particularly hepatic and muscle content of proteins, lipids and glycogen in goldfish. In addition, we studied plasma leptin and ghrelin, and hypothalamic content of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and monoamines after chronic melatonin treatment in order to elucidate a possible interplay between melatonin and these feeding regulators on the body weight regulation in this species. Body weight gain and specific growth rate were reduced (74% and 76%, respectively) after chronic (10 days) intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment with melatonin. The carbohydrate and lipid metabolism was regulated by melatonin in goldfish, because this indoleamine reduced muscle glycogen stores and increased lipid mobilization. A suppressive trend, but not statistically significant, in circulating ghrelin was observed after chronic treatment with melatonin. Chronic melatonin administration significantly reduced noradrenergic metabolism and increased dihydroxiphenylacetic acid content in the hypothalamus, without significant modifications in the serotoninergic system. Thus, it could be suggested that melatonin may mediate its action on energy balance in fish, at least in part, via interactions with hypothalamic catecholaminergic system. Plasma leptin and hypothalamic NPY remained unaltered after melatonin treatment, suggesting that these feeding regulators may not be involved in the effects of melatonin on energy homeostasis in fish.

  16. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  17. Isolation of a novel aquaglyceroporin from a marine teleost (Sparus auratus): function and tissue distribution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, C.R.; Estevao, M.D.; Fuentes, J.; Cardoso, J.C.; Fabra, M.; Passos, A.L.; Detmers, F.J.M.; Deen, P.M.T.; Cerda, J.; Power, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aquaporins (formerly called the major intrinsic protein family) are transmembrane channel proteins. The family includes the CHIP group, which are functionally characterised as water channels and the GLP group, which are specialised for glycerol transport. The present study reports the

  18. PTHrP and calcium balance in gilthead sea bream, Sparus auratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, Wolter

    2007-01-01

    The research aimed to elucidate hypercalcemic regulation in juvenile sea bream confronted with an experimentally induced limited access to environmental calcium. The principle to restrict sea bream in its access to calcium in water and diet was to activate hypercalcemic regulatory factors such as

  19. Effects of fluoxetine on the reproductive axis of female goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennigen, Jan A; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Crump, Kate; Xiong, Huiling; Zhao, E; Popesku, Jason; Anisman, Hymie; Cossins, Andrew R; Xia, Xuhua; Trudeau, Vance L

    2008-11-12

    We investigated the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on neuroendocrine function and the reproductive axis in female goldfish. Fish were given intraperitoneal injections of fluoxetine twice a week for 14 days, resulting in five injections of 5 microg fluoxetine/g body wt. We measured the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in addition to their metabolites with HPLC. Homovanillic acid, a metabolite in the dopaminergic pathway, increased significantly in the hypothalamus. Plasma estradiol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and were significantly reduced approximately threefold after fluoxetine treatment. We found that fluoxetine also significantly reduced the expression of estrogen receptor (ER)beta1 mRNA by 4-fold in both the hypothalamus and the telencephalon and ERalpha mRNA by 1.7-fold in the telencephalon. Fluoxetine had no effect on the expression of ERbeta2 mRNA in the hypothalamus or telencephalon. Microarray analysis identified isotocin, a neuropeptide that stimulates reproductive behavior in fish, as a candidate gene affected by fluoxetine treatment. Real-time RT-PCR verified that isotocin mRNA was downregulated approximately sixfold in the hypothalamus and fivefold in the telencephalon. Intraperitoneal injection of isotocin (1 microg/g) increased plasma estradiol, providing a potential link between changes in isotocin gene expression and decreased circulating estrogen in fluoxetine-injected fish. Our results reveal targets of serotonergic modulation in the neuroendocrine brain and indicate that fluoxetine has the potential to affect sex hormones and modulate genes involved in reproductive function and behavior in the brain of female goldfish. We discuss these findings in the context of endocrine disruption because fluoxetine has been detected in the environment.

  20. A mathematical analysis of the peripheral auditory system mechanics in the goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, J J; Hastings, M C

    2000-09-01

    The dynamic response of the goldfish peripheral auditory system has been analyzed using lumped-parameter mechanical and fluid system models for the swimbladder, Weberian apparatus, and saccule. The swimbladder is treated as a two degree-of-freedom mechanical system consisting of two coupled mass-spring-damper arrangements. The swimbladder is coupled to the Weberian ossicles using a phenomenological analysis of the anterior swimbladder tunica externa which permits both stretching and sliding. Analysis of the saccule features only a single degree of freedom, corresponding to the direction of orientation of the ciliary bundles. Inputs to the saccule consist of the transverse canal fluid motion and the motion of the animal's head (assumed to match the local acoustic particle motion). Mechanical properties required for the system equations were estimated from published literature, direct measurements, and curve fits to experimental data for the motions of the swimbladders. The results indicate that the Weberian apparatus has a significant impact on hearing ability over the entire auditory bandwidth, not just at higher frequencies, and that the saccule functions as a displacement sensor above approximately 300 Hz.

  1. Opportunity of integrated production of "Ceratophyllum demersum" in a nutrition trial with "Carassius auratus"

    OpenAIRE

    Santana García, Gustavo Julián

    2016-01-01

    [EN]The integrated culture of fish and plant in a recirculated system is called aquaponics, where a mutual benefit have been demonstrated for the cocultured species. Today this practice is still not well known for the most studied consumed freshwater species, and almost nothing has been done for aquarium species. The objective of present work was to study the opportunity of growing one of the most selled aquarium plant coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum) in a coculture with the goldfish (Carass...

  2. PTHrP regulation and calcium balance in sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) under calcium constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Bevelander, G.S.; Hang, X.; Lu, W.; Guerreiro, P.M.; Spanings, T.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile gilthead sea bream were exposed to diluted seawater (2.5 per thousand salinity; DSW) for 3 h or, in a second experiment, acclimated to DSW and fed a control or calcium-deficient diet for 30 days. Branchial Ca(2+) influx, drinking rate and plasma calcium levels were assessed. Sea bream

  3. Foraging Behavior in Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus Auratus: Effect of the Distance among Multiple Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cabrera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of travel and the efficiency in foraging behavior was evaluated in four hamsters searching for food within an enclosure with multiple patches. Two different distances among patches were randomly arranged: Near-Patches (10 cm separation and Distant-Patches (21.5 cm separation. Subjects obtained the food by mounting over the cylinders (stations placed in the enclosure of 110 cm2. Results showed that in both, Near and Distant conditions, the distance between responses was longer in late stages of the trials then in early stages. Nonetheless, the most choices to adjacent stations were in Distant-Patches condition, while skips and diagonal-station choices were more frequently showed in the Near-Patches condition.

  4. The effects of salinity on growth of Goldfish, Carassius auratus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adunet

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... In isosmotic water, food uptake and growth rate increases. Fish converts more feed to energy and uses less energy for standard metabolic rate, including osmoregulation. A lot of the remaining energy is saved for growth. Most of the studies have been conducted to estimate the effect of salinity on growth of.

  5. Effect of temperature on the concentration of plasma gonadotropine and spermatogenesis of the goldfish Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillet, C.; Billard, R.; Breton, B.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoreactive plasma gonadotropin (c-GtH) were measured for goldfish kept at conditions of temperature held constant or increasing between 10 and 30/sup 0/C, between February and July. At temperatures of 17/sup 0/C or above the levels of plasma c-GtH were significantly (P < 0.005) higher during April and May than at 10/sup 0/C. In April the pituitary concentration of c-GtH was maximum for fish held at 17/sup 0/C or above and the minimum for fish held below 17/sup 0/C, but in June the situation was reversed. A study of the gonads showed that spermatogenesis is faster at 17--24/sup 0/C than at 10/sup 0/C, but at 30/sup 0/C spermatogenic activity was inhibited.

  6. Argulus japonicus: sperm transfer by means of a spermatophore on Carassius auratus (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenant-Oldewage, Annemarié; Everts, Lourelle

    2010-10-01

    The process of sperm transfer is somewhat enigmatic in Argulus, even though copulation has been witnessed. A breeding colony of Argulus japonicus was kept under laboratory conditions in order to study reproduction in the species. Pairs in copula were removed and studied with histology and scanning electron microscopy to describe the mechanism of sperm transfer. Sections of copulating pairs revealed sperm on the accessory copulatory structures of the male's swimming legs; and scanning electron microscopy showed that sperm transfer occurs in three phases which can be differentiated to 10 different stages. Sperm transfer occurs via a spermatophore which is extruded from the genital aperture of the male and is then transferred to the socket on the third pair of legs of the male, before being transferred into the spermathecae of the female via the spermathecal spines. This is the first observation of a spermatophore in Argulus. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Apoptosis and molecular pathways in the seminiferous epithelium of aged and photoinhibited Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eva; Ferrer, Concepcion; Zuasti, Adelina; Garcia-Borron, Jose C; Canteras, Manuel; Pastor, Luis M

    2007-01-01

    Aging and short photoperiod exposure induce germ cell apoptosis in the Syrian hamster; however, the specific germ cells affected and the molecular pathways triggered have not been elucidated. We analyzed germ cell apoptosis and the expression of the Fas/Fas-L system, Bcl-2 family, and p53 in aged and photoinhibited hamsters and compared with those young maintained in natural photoperiod. Aging increased apoptosis in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, but in photoinhibited hamster testes only an increase in apoptotic spermatocytes was observed. Apoptosis was higher in aged hamsters in stages I-IV, V-VI and VII-VIII. Aging increased apoptosis of spermatogonia in stages I-IV and V-VI. Apoptotic pachytene spermatocytes were significantly higher in stages I-IV, V-VI, and VII-VIII in aging. Apoptotic preleptotene and pachytene spermatocytes were higher in aging, but no differences were observed in leptotene-zygotene. Fas-L was expressed by Sertoli cells, of young, aged, and photoinhibited hamsters. Bcl-x(L) was strongly expressed in germ cells on young hamsters and slightly in aging and after short photoperiod exposure. Spermatocytes of photoinhibited hamsters were intensively stained with Fas, Bax, Bcl-xs/L, and p53. In conclusion, aging increases apoptosis in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, depending on the stage of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, whereas after a short photoperiod exposure only an increase in apoptotic spermatocytes is observed. The results suggest that Fas, Bcl-x(L), Bax, and p53 participate in germ cell apoptosis induction after short photoperiod exposure, whereas only Bcl-x(L) is involved in aging.

  8. Separate origin of the main components of the left coronary artery in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A C; Arqué, J M; Fernández, B; Fernández, M C; Fernández-Gallego, T; Sans-Coma, V

    2007-08-01

    This study describes a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly in the Syrian hamster; namely, the separate origin of the obtuse marginal and left circumflex arteries which are the main components of the left coronary artery. The hearts of nine affected animals were examined by means of a corrosion-cast technique and histology. The hamsters belonged to a laboratory inbred family with a high incidence of coronary artery anomalies and bicuspid aortic valve. The aortic valve was tricuspid in three hamsters and bicuspid in the other six hamsters. In all cases, the right coronary artery was normal, whereas the left coronary artery main trunk was absent. The present anomalous coronary artery patterns could be classified into two main entities: (i) ectopic origin of the obtuse marginal artery from the right aortic sinus or from the right coronary artery, with the left circumflex artery arising from the left side of the aortic valve; and (ii) ectopic origin of both the obtuse marginal artery from the right aortic sinus or from the right coronary artery and left circumflex artery from the dorsal aortic sinus. In all cases, the obtuse marginal artery coursed to the right side of the heart through the ventral wall of the right ventricular outflow tract. When the left circumflex artery arose from the dorsal aortic sinus, it formed an acute angle with the aortic wall. This report seems to be the first to describe the separate origin of the main components of the left coronary artery in a non-human mammalian species. In man, the congenital coronary artery and aortic valve defects reported herein may entail the risk of clinical complications. However, none of the affected hamsters showed signs of disease.

  9. GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles eLuque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian oculomotor nucleus receives a strong -aminobutyric acid (GABAergic synaptic input, whereas such projections have rarely been reported in fish. In order to determine whether this synaptic organization is preserved across vertebrates, we investigated the GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish by combining retrograde transport of biotin dextran amine, injected into the antidromically identified oculomotor nucleus, and GABA immunohistochemistry. The main source of GABAergic afferents to the oculomotor nucleus was the ipsilateral anterior octaval nucleus, with only a few, if any, GABAergic neurons being located in the contralateral tangential and descending nuclei of the octaval column. In mammals there is a nearly exclusive ipsilateral projection from vestibular neurons to the oculomotor nucleus via GABAergic inhibitory inputs; thus, the vestibulooculomotor GABAergic circuitry follows a plan that appears to be shared throughout the vertebrate phylogeny. The second major source of GABAergic projections was the rhombencephalic reticular formation, primarily from the medial area but, to a lesser extent, from the inferior area. A few GABAergic oculomotor projecting neurons were also observed in the ipsilateral nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The GABAergic projections from neurons located in both the reticular formation surrounding the abducens nucleus and the nucleus of the medial reticular formation have primarily been related to the control of saccadic eye movements. Finally, all retrogradely labeled internuclear neurons of the abducens nucleus, and neurons in the cerebellum (close to the caudal lobe, were negative for GABA. These data suggest that the vestibuloocular and saccadic inhibitory GABAergic systems appear early in vertebrate phylogeny to modulate the firing properties of the oculomotor nucleus motoneurons.

  10. The effects of salinity on growth of goldfish, Carassius auratus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of four different salinities (SW, 50% SW, 100% SW and 150% SW) on specific growth rate, weight gain, food intake and survival of goldfish and crucian carp were investigated for 20 days. Both species were respectively adapted to water source, which has salinity of 8 ppt in the experimental unit for one month and ...

  11. Nitric oxide improves the hemodynamic performance of the hypoxic goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imbrogno, Sandra; Capria, C.; Tota, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Goldfish tolerate prolonged and severe hypoxia, thus representing a well-suited model to study the maintenance of cardiac function when O2 availability represents a limiting factor. Using a working heart preparation, we explored the role of the intracardiac nitric oxide synthase (NOS)- derived...... nitric oxide (NO) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Cardiac performance was examined both under basal (constant preload and afterload) and loading conditions, i.e. preload-induced increases in stroke volume (SV) and hence cardiac output at constant afterload (the Frank–Starling response). Hypoxic...

  12. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with simultaneous intestinal Giardia sp., Spironucleus sp., and trichomonad infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Barbara J; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Kondo, Hirotaka

    2013-11-01

    A commercial facility producing hamsters with a history of infection by dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) submitted 15 animals for necropsy and postmortem parasitological and microscopic examination. No tapeworms were detected grossly or microscopically. Fecal examination including gastrointestinal mucosal smears demonstrated mixed intestinal bacteria and low numbers of Giardia sp. Histologic examination of small intestine demonstrated filling of the small intestinal crypts by large numbers of 7-9 µm × 3 µm, rod to crescent or teardrop-shaped flagellates consistent with Spironucleus sp. These organisms had two 1-µm, basophilic, oval nuclei and multiple superficial flagella-like structures. Much larger 10-15 µm × 8-10 µm, oval to pear-shaped organisms were also present in lower numbers and usually located with the crypts. These larger flagellates had multiple flagella and a basophilic rod-shaped nucleus. The larger flagellates included Giardia sp., which had an intimate interface with the surface of the mucosal epithelium, bilaterally symmetry, and binucleation. Lower numbers of trichomonads were also present and were distinguished by an undulating surface membrane and a single nucleus. The mucosa was hyperplastic and moderately inflamed. Although the tapeworm infection was resolved, diagnosis of multiple intestinal flagellates by fecal examination is complicated by the varying sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of different types of fecal analysis for different flagellate types. Key differences in the morphology and location of the different types of flagellates as observed by histology of intestinal tissues provide important additional diagnostic information to distinguish trichomonads, Spironucleus sp., and Giardia sp.

  13. Foraging Behavior in Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus Auratus): Effect of the Distance among Multiple Patches

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Cabrera

    2008-01-01

    The pattern of travel and the efficiency in foraging behavior was evaluated in four hamsters searching for food within an enclosure with multiple patches. Two different distances among patches were randomly arranged: Near-Patches (10 cm separation) and Distant-Patches (21.5 cm separation). Subjects obtained the food by mounting over the cylinders (stations) placed in the enclosure of 110 cm2. Results showed that in both, Near and Distant conditions, the distance between responses was longer i...

  14. The effects of salinity on growth of Goldfish, Carassius auratus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adunet

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... more energy to regulate osmotic balance. Therefore, less ... Several other ions contribute to salinity (such as calcium .... Water osmolality, temperature and pH of goldfish in the four salinity treatments (mean±SD). Parameter.

  15. Melatonin synthesis under calcium constraint in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Kulczkowska, E.; Kalamarz, H.; Guerreiro, P.M.G.; Flik, G.

    2008-01-01

    Brain or blood plasma melatonin was analysed as a measure for pineal melatonin production in sea bream. Access to calcium was limited by diluting the seawater to 2.5‰ and removing calcium from the diet or by prolonged feeding of vitamin D-deficient diet. Interactions/relations between melatonin and

  16. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catfish Genome Consortium; Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C; Wilson, Melanie; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Lee, Yoona; Chen, Fei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqi; Xu, Peng; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Quilang, Jonas; Sha, Zhenxia; Bao, Baolong; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Qun; Takano, Tomokazu; Nandi, Samiran; Liu, Shikai; Wong, Lilian; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Quiniou, Sylvie; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman; Trant, John; Rokhsar, Daniel; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-03-23

    Background-Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results-A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing the number of catfish ESTs to nearly 500,000. Assembly of all catfish ESTs resulted in 45,306 contigs and 66,272 singletons. Over 35percent of the unique sequences had significant similarities to known genes, allowing the identification of 14,776 unique genes in catfish. Over 300,000 putative SNPs have been identified, of which approximately 48,000 are high-quality SNPs identified from contigs with at least four sequences and the minor allele presence of at least two sequences in the contig. The EST resource should be valuable for identification of microsatellites, genome annotation, large-scale expression analysis, and comparative genome analysis. Conclusions-This project generated a large EST resource for catfish that captured the majority of the catfish transcriptome. The parallel analysis of ESTs from two closely related Ictalurid catfishes should also provide powerful means for the evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications, and for the development of high-density microarrays in catfish. The inter- and intra-specific SNPs identified from all catfish EST dataset assembly will greatly benefit the catfish introgression breeding program and whole genome association studies.

  17. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C; Wilson, Melanie; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Lee, Yoona; Chen, Fei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqi; Xu, Peng; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Quilang, Jonas; Sha, Zhenxia; Bao, Baolong; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Qun; Takano, Tomokazu; Nandi, Samiran; Liu, Shikai; Wong, Lilian; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Quiniou, Sylvie; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman; Trant, John; Rokhsar, Daniel; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-01-22

    Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing the number of catfish ESTs to nearly 500,000. Assembly of all catfish ESTs resulted in 45,306 contigs and 66,272 singletons. Over 35% of the unique sequences had significant similarities to known genes, allowing the identification of 14,776 unique genes in catfish. Over 300,000 putative SNPs have been identified, of which approximately 48,000 are high-quality SNPs identified from contigs with at least four sequences and the minor allele presence of at least two sequences in the contig. The EST resource should be valuable for identification of microsatellites, genome annotation, large-scale expression analysis, and comparative genome analysis. This project generated a large EST resource for catfish that captured the majority of the catfish transcriptome. The parallel analysis of ESTs from two closely related Ictalurid catfishes should also provide powerful means for the evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications, and for the development of high-density microarrays in catfish. The inter- and intra-specific SNPs identified from all catfish EST dataset assembly will greatly benefit the catfish introgression breeding program and whole genome association studies.

  18. Quantitative trait loci map for growth and morphometric traits using a channel catfish x blue catfish interspecific hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, A M; Liu, Z; Kucuktas, H; Umali-Maceina, G; Su, B; Dunham, R A

    2014-05-01

    Head length, head depth, head width, body depth, body width, caudal depth, and caudal width and total length and BW were measured for 71 backcross full sibs between the interspecific backcross F1 (female channel catfish [Ictalurus punctatus] × male blue catfish [Ictalurus furcatus]) female × blue catfish male. Body measurements were corrected for both size and the relationship between relative body shape and size, which is critical but usually ignored in fish research. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis was used for construction of a QTL map with 44 linkage groups. Eleven of 44 linkage groups had at least 1 significant QTL (P ≤ 0.05) and 11 of 44 at P = 0.10. Linkage group 19 was unique as it had multiple QTL for every trait measured, except for caudal width for which no QTL was identified on any linkage group. Approximately half of the markers measured were associated with positive effects (increase in size) on the traits and half had negative effects (decrease in size). Linkage groups 5, 9, 18, 20, 39, and 40 were significant for multiple traits and always had a trait negative effect. Total length is represented on the map by the most linkage groups and the most markers. The linkage relationships found among BW, total length, and the 7 morphometric traits indicated that multiple trait marker-assisted selection to simultaneously increase BW body depth, body width, and caudal depth while decreasing the head traits with the goal to increase body weight and carcass yield would be very difficult. Multiple genetic enhancement approaches would likely be needed to simultaneously improve BW and body conformation.

  19. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of a hepcidin gene from yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Siluriformes: Bagridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Zhang, Dai-Zhen; Jiang, Sen-Hao; Chai, Xin-Yue; Wang, Zheng-Fei; Li, Chao-Feng; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Hepcidin is a small, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide with a highly conserved β-sheet structure that plays a vital role in innate host immunity against pathogenic organisms. In this study, a hepcidin gene was identified in Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, an economically important freshwater fish in China. The gene is named PfHep. The complete PfHep cDNA was 723 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 102 bp, a 3'-UTR of 339 bp and an open reading frame of 282 bp encoding a polypeptide of 93 amino acids, which includes a predicted signal peptide and the Hepcidin domain. The predicted mature, cationic PfHep protein has a typical hepcidin RX (K/R)R motif and eight conserved cysteine residues. The deduced PfHep protein sequence has 70%, 54% and 39% percent identity with hepcidins from Ictalurus punctatus, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens, respectively. The predicted tertiary structure of PfHep is very similar to that of hepcidin in other animals. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PfHep is closely related to the hepcidins of I. punctatus and I. furcatus. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that the PfHep gene was expressed most in liver of healthy P. fulvidraco, and expressed to some extent in all the tissues tested. After challenge with lipopolysaccharide and polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C), respectively, the expression levels of PfHep were markedly upregulated in liver, spleen, head kidney and blood at different time points. Together these results imply that PfHep may be an important component of the innate immune system and be involved in immune defense against invading pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Histopathology of repeated, intermittent exposure of chloramine-T to walleye (Sander vitreum) and (Ictalurus punctalus) channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Densmore, Christine L.; Blazer, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    Chloramine-T (Cl-T) has been used safely and effectively to control bacterial gill disease in salmonids at a maximum exposure regimen of up to four consecutive, once-daily exposures administered for 60??min at 20??mg/L. However, data to document safe treatment concentrations of Cl-T are lacking for freshwater-reared fish other than salmonids. We report the histopathology resultant from the administration of 12 consecutive, once-daily, 180-min static immersion baths of 0, 20, 50, or 80??mg Cl-T/L to walleye (20????C) and channel catfish (27????C). Twelve fish of each species were euthanized immediately before the first exposure (initial controls) and then after the twelfth exposure and 7 and 14??days after the twelfth exposure. Only initial controls and fish euthanized immediately after the twelfth exposure were processed for histological review because of the general lack of exposure-related lesions in exposed fish. The only exposure-related histological changes were in the spleen where significantly greater erythrocyte swelling and necrosis was observed in channel catfish exposed at 80??mg/L relative to exposure at 0??mg/L; similar histological changes were insignificant for walleye, though there appeared to be a shift in the general category of histological change with degenerative changes (necrosis, etc.) observed following exposure at 50 or 80??mg/L compared to the inflammatory and hemodynamic changes (congestion, leukocyte infiltrate, etc.) observed in walleye exposed at 0 or 20??mg/L. The only significant change in peripheral blood cytology was that walleye fingerlings exposed at 80??mg/L had significantly fewer mature red blood cells and significantly more immature red blood cells per oil-immersion field than controls. The histopathological changes observed following exposure to Cl-T under an exaggerated exposure regimen suggest that walleye or channel catfish therapeutically exposed to Cl-T will not have treatment-related histological changes.

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: tuatara [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available png Sphenodon_punctatus_NL.png Sphenodon_punctatus_S.png Sphenodon_punctatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Sphenodon+punctatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sphenodon+...punctatus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sphenodon+punctat...us&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sphenodon+punctatus&t=NS ...

  2. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1985: Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Douglas E.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center (U.S.)

    1986-10-01

    This report summarizes activities in 1985 to determine the extent of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. To estimate consumption of juvenile salmonids we used the composition of the natural diet of predators and in the laboratory determined rate of gastric evacuation by predators. Salmonids were the single most important food item for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) at McNary tailrace during all sampling periods and at John Day forebay during July. Salmonids accounted for 11.6% of the diet of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in 1985 which was about twice that found in previous years. Salmonids contributed little to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) diet but comprised about 25% of the diet of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Composition of prey taxa in beach seine catches in 1985 was similar to 1983 and 1984 with chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), northern squawfish, largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus), and sand roller (Percopsis transmontana) dominating the catch at main channel stations and crappies (Pomoxis spp.) and largescale sucker dominating at backwater stations. Preliminary results of beach seine efficiency studies suggest that seine efficiency varied significantly among prey species and between substrate types in 1985. Results of digestion rate experiments indicate that gastric evacuation in northern squawfish can be predicted using water temperature, prey weight, predator weight and time. 19 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Characterization of Histopathological and Ultrastructural Changes in Channel Catfish Experimentally Infected with Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Abdelhamed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A highly virulent clonal population of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh has been the cause of recent motile Aeromonas septicemia epizootic in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus farms in the Southeastern United States. The pathology of the disease caused by vAh has not been studied well yet. Thus, our aim was to determine histopathological and ultrastructural changes in channel catfish following vAh challenge. To accomplish this, catfish fingerlings were challenged with vAh (strain ML09-119 by bath. Six fish per each time point were collected at 1, 3, 5, 6, 24, and 48 h for light microscopy, and six fish were collected at 48 h for transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The first pathological lesions were detected in the spleen and stomach at 1 h post-challenge (HPC while intestine, gills, kidney, and liver lesions were observed at 24 and 48 HPC. Histopathological examination revealed degenerative changes, necrosis, extensive edema, and inflammation in internal organs. The TEM showed severe tissue destruction with multiple bacterial cells secreting outer membrane vesicles, especially in spleen and gills and far number in the stomach. Degenerated bacterial cells were observed in the intestinal lumen and the phagosomes of phagocytic kidney cells. We identified, for the first time, degranulate eosinophilic granular cells, and dendritic cells like (DC-like cells in the necrotic intestinal epithelium. These findings suggest that vAh rapidly proliferated and spread through the catfish organs following bath challenge.

  4. Reduction of the pectoral spine and girdle in domesticated Channel catfish is likely caused by changes in selection pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Michael L; Lahiri, Shweta; Sullivan, Amanda D H; Mayo, Mark; Newton, Scott H; Sismour, Edward N

    2014-07-01

    Locked pectoral spines of the Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus more than double the fish's width and complicate ingestion by gape-limited predators. The spine mates with the pectoral girdle, a robust structure that anchors the spine. This study demonstrates that both spine and girdle exhibit negative allometric growth and that pectoral spines and girdles are lighter in domesticated than in wild Channel Catfish. This finding could be explained by changes in selection pressure for spine growth during domestication or by an epigenetic effect in which exposure to predators in wild fish stimulates pectoral growth. We tested the epigenetic hypothesis by exposing domesticated Channel Catfish fingerlings to Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides predators for 13 weeks. Spines and girdles grow isometrically in the fingerlings, and regression analysis indicates no difference in proportional pectoral growth between control and predator-exposed fish. Therefore a change in selection pressure likely accounts for smaller pectoral growth in domesticated Channel Catfish. Decreasing spine growth in older fish suggests anti-predator functions are most important in smaller fish. Additionally, growth of the appendicular and axial skeleton is controlled differentially, and mechanical properties of the spine and not just its length are an important component of this defensive adaptation. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Anti-immunoglobulin antisera used in an ELISA to detect antibodies in barramundi Lates calcarifer to Cryptocaryon irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, M S; Lee, R P; Lester, R J; Whittington, R J

    1999-04-15

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) in serum from barramundi vaccinated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and affinity chromatography using BSA as the ligand. The BSA-binding activity of eluted putative Ig fractions was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before being pooled and characterised by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Double affinity purification did not improve the purity of the Ig preparation compared to single affinity purification. Barramundi Ig were injected into sheep to produce anti-Ig antisera which were assessed in an indirect ELISA as the secondary antibody to detect serum Ig in barramundi vaccinated with Cryptocaryon irritans theronts. Affinity-purified Ig induced a more specific reagent for use as secondary antibody in ELISA than did normal whole-barramundi sera. The heavy (H) chain of barramundi Ig had an apparent molecular weight of 70 kDa while that of the light (L) chain was 27 kDa in SDS-PAGE studies. Under non-reducing conditions 2 putative populations of Ig were identified, at 768 and 210 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of the barramundi Ig H chain showed 78% homology with channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Ig H chain sequence.

  6. Efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride bath immersion to control external columnaris disease on walleye and channel catfish fingerlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, J.J.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Rudacille, J.B.; Schleis, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) in controlling external columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare on fingerling walleyes Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in two on-site hatchery trials. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings before treatment confirmed the presence of bacteria with characteristics indicative of F. columnare.in separate trials, walleyes (4.4 g) and channel catfish (1.5 g) were exposed to 60-min static bath treatments of OTC-HCl at 0, 10, and 20 mg/L (walleyes) or 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/L (channel catfish) on three consecutive days. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, and each replicate contained either 30 walleyes or 55 channel catfish. Posttreatment presumptive disease diagnosis indicated that F. columnare was the disease agent causing the mortality in both species of fish. Walleye survival at 10 d posttreatment was greater in the 10- and 20-mg/L treatment groups than in the control group; however, only the 10-mg/L treatment significantly (P treatment groups relative to controls. Results from these trials indicated that OTC-HCl treatments effectively reduced mortality in walleyes (10 mg/L only) and channel catfish infected with F. columnare. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  7. Using hierarchical Bayesian multi-species mixture models to estimate tandem hoop-net based habitat associations and detection probabilities of fishes in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models are useful tools to evaluate habitat relationships of fishes. We used hierarchical Bayesian multispecies mixture models to evaluate the relationships of both detection and abundance with habitat of reservoir fishes caught using tandem hoop nets. A total of 7,212 fish from 12 species were captured, and the majority of the catch was composed of Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus (46%), Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus(25%), and White Crappie Pomoxis annularis (14%). Detection estimates ranged from 8% to 69%, and modeling results suggested that fishes were primarily influenced by reservoir size and context, water clarity and temperature, and land-use types. Species were differentially abundant within and among habitat types, and some fishes were found to be more abundant in turbid, less impacted (e.g., by urbanization and agriculture) reservoirs with longer shoreline lengths; whereas, other species were found more often in clear, nutrient-rich impoundments that had generally shorter shoreline length and were surrounded by a higher percentage of agricultural land. Our results demonstrated that habitat and reservoir characteristics may differentially benefit species and assemblage structure. This study provides a useful framework for evaluating capture efficiency for not only hoop nets but other gear types used to sample fishes in reservoirs.

  8. Heme oxygenase induction and biliverdin excretion: implications for the bile fluorescence biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Peter

    2006-07-01

    The measurement of bile fluorescence has become a popular biomarker to demonstrate the exposure of fish to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Conflicting data have been published on how to normalize bile fluorescence. To investigate if normalization to biliverdin is a suitable method, experiments were performed to study the mechanisms related to biliverdin excretion in fish. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were dosed with mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene and cadmium, chlorinated phenols or borneol. The results showed that under increasing toxicant stress, more biliverdin was excreted per amount of protein. To investigate if the increased biliverdin excretion was related to increased heme degradation, enzymatic activity of heme oxygenase (HO) was measured in liver homogenates. The fish dosed with chemical mixtures had significantly higher HO activity than the control fish, and a significant correlation was observed between HO activity and biliverdin concentration in the bile. It is concluded that chemical mixtures of environmental pollutants can induce HO activity and that this chemical stress leads to increased biliverdin excretion. The elucidation of this mechanistic pathway warrants that bile fluorescence is better expressed per amount of bile protein than per biliverdin absorption.

  9. Bile fluorescence, heme oxygenase induction, and increased biliverdin excretion by mixtures of environmental toxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurk, Peter van den [Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Clemson University, Pendleton, SC (United States)]. E-mail: pvdhurk@clemson.edu

    2006-05-01

    The measurement of bile fluorescence has become a popular biomarker to demonstrate the exposure of fish to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Conflicting data has been published on how to normalize bile fluorescence. To investigate if normalization to biliverdin is a suitable method, experiments were performed to study the mechanisms related to biliverdin excretion in fish. In two separate experiments channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were dosed with mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene with cadmium, chlorinated phenols or borneol. The results showed linear relationships between bile protein and biliverdin for each treatment group, but the slope of this relationship was significantly increased when fish received more chemical stress. Thus, under increasing toxicant stress, more biliverdin was excreted per amount of protein. To investigate if the increased biliverdin excretion was related to increased heme degradation, enzymatic activity of heme oxygenase (HO) was measured in liver homogenates of the dosed fish. The fish dosed with chemical mixtures had a significantly higher HO activity than the control fish, and in both experiments a significant correlation was observed between HO activity and biliverdin concentration in the bile. It is concluded that mixtures of environmental pollutants can induce HO activity and that this chemical stress leads to increased biliverdin excretion. The elucidation of this mechanistic pathway warrants that bile fluorescence should not be expressed per biliverdin absorption, and that expression per bile protein would be a more reliable method.

  10. Bile fluorescence, heme oxygenase induction, and increased biliverdin excretion by mixtures of environmental toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Peter

    2006-05-01

    The measurement of bile fluorescence has become a popular biomarker to demonstrate the exposure of fish to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Conflicting data has been published on how to normalize bile fluorescence. To investigate if normalization to biliverdin is a suitable method, experiments were performed to study the mechanisms related to biliverdin excretion in fish. In two separate experiments channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were dosed with mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene with cadmium, chlorinated phenols or borneol. The results showed linear relationships between bile protein and biliverdin for each treatment group, but the slope of this relationship was significantly increased when fish received more chemical stress. Thus, under increasing toxicant stress, more biliverdin was excreted per amount of protein. To investigate if the increased biliverdin excretion was related to increased heme degradation, enzymatic activity of heme oxygenase (HO) was measured in liver homogenates of the dosed fish. The fish dosed with chemical mixtures had a significantly higher HO activity than the control fish, and in both experiments a significant correlation was observed between HO activity and biliverdin concentration in the bile. It is concluded that mixtures of environmental pollutants can induce HO activity and that this chemical stress leads to increased biliverdin excretion. The elucidation of this mechanistic pathway warrants that bile fluorescence should not be expressed per biliverdin absorption, and that expression per bile protein would be a more reliable method.

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ether metabolism in field collected fish from the Gila River, Arizona, USA-Levels, possible sources, and patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Kathy R.; Peterman, Paul H.; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Orazio, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in fish collected from the Gila River, Arizona, a tributary of the Colorado River in the lower part of the Colorado River Basin. Fish samples were collected at sites on the Gila River downstream from Hayden, Phoenix, and Arlington, Arizona in late summer 2003. The Gila River is ephemeral upstream of the Phoenix urban area due to dams and irrigation projects and has limited perennial flow downstream of Phoenix due to wastewater and irrigation return flows. Fifty PBDE congeners were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry using labeled surrogate standards in composite samples of male and female common carp (Cyrpinus carpio), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The predominant PBDE congeners detected and quantified were 47, 100, 153, 49, 28, and 17. Concentrations of total PBDEs in these fish ranged from 1.4 to 12700 ng g-1 wet weight, which are some of the highest concentrations reported in fish from the United States. Differences in metabolism of several PBDE congeners by carp is clear at the Phoenix site; congeners with at least one ring of 2,4,5-substitution are preferentially metabolized as are congeners with 2,3,4-substitution.

  12. Channel catfish BAC-end sequences for marker development and assessment of syntenic conservation with other fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P; Wang, S; Liu, L; Peatman, E; Somridhivej, B; Thimmapuram, J; Gong, G; Liu, Z

    2006-08-01

    In the present study, 25 195 BAC ends for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were sequenced, generating 20 366 clean BAC-end sequences (BES), with an average read length of 557 bp after trimming. A total of 11 414 601 bp were generated, representing approximately 1.2% of the catfish genome. Based on this survey, the catfish genome was found to be highly AT-rich, with 60.7% A+T and 39.3% G+C. Approximately 12% of the catfish genome consisted of dispersed repetitive elements, with the Tc1/mariner transposons making up the largest percentage by base pair (4.57%). Microsatellites were detected in 17.5% of BES. Catfish BACs were anchored to the zebrafish and Tetraodon genome sequences by BLASTN, generating 16% and 8.2% significant hits (E < e(-5)) respectively. A total of 1074 and 773 significant hits were unique to the zebrafish and Tetraodon genomes, respectively, of which 417 and 406, respectively, were identified as known genes in other species, providing a major genome resource for comparative genomic mapping.

  13. Teleost Chemokines and Their Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Bird

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines that appeared about 650 million years ago, at the emergence of vertebrates, and are responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been identified in diverse fish species evidencing the great differences that exist among fish and mammalian chemokines, and within the different fish species, as a consequence of extensive intrachromosomal gene duplications and different infectious experiences. Subsequently, it has only been possible to establish clear homologies with mammalian chemokines in the case of some chemokines with well-conserved homeostatic roles, whereas the functionality of other chemokine genes will have to be independently addressed in each species. Despite this, functional studies have only been undertaken for a few of these chemokine genes. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish. We have mainly focused on those species for which more research efforts have been made in this subject, specially zebrafish (Danio rerio, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, outlining which genes have been identified thus far, highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation and addressing any known aspects of their biological role in immunity. Finally, we summarise what is known about the chemokine receptors in teleosts and provide some analysis using recently available data to help characterise them more clearly.

  14. Phenoscape: Identifying Candidate Genes for Evolutionary Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Richard C.; Su, Baofeng; Balhoff, James P.; Eames, B. Frank; Dahdul, Wasila M.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Vision, Todd J.; Dunham, Rex A.; Mabee, Paula M.; Westerfield, Monte

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypes resulting from mutations in genetic model organisms can help reveal candidate genes for evolutionarily important phenotypic changes in related taxa. Although testing candidate gene hypotheses experimentally in nonmodel organisms is typically difficult, ontology-driven information systems can help generate testable hypotheses about developmental processes in experimentally tractable organisms. Here, we tested candidate gene hypotheses suggested by expert use of the Phenoscape Knowledgebase, specifically looking for genes that are candidates responsible for evolutionarily interesting phenotypes in the ostariophysan fishes that bear resemblance to mutant phenotypes in zebrafish. For this, we searched ZFIN for genetic perturbations that result in either loss of basihyal element or loss of scales phenotypes, because these are the ancestral phenotypes observed in catfishes (Siluriformes). We tested the identified candidate genes by examining their endogenous expression patterns in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. The experimental results were consistent with the hypotheses that these features evolved through disruption in developmental pathways at, or upstream of, brpf1 and eda/edar for the ancestral losses of basihyal element and scales, respectively. These results demonstrate that ontological annotations of the phenotypic effects of genetic alterations in model organisms, when aggregated within a knowledgebase, can be used effectively to generate testable, and useful, hypotheses about evolutionary changes in morphology. PMID:26500251

  15. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the channel catfish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldbieser Geoffrey C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is the leading species in North American aquaculture. Genetic improvement of catfish is performed through selective breeding, and genomic tools will help improve selection efficiency. A physical map is needed to integrate the genetic map with the karyotype and to support fine mapping of phenotypic trait alleles such as Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL and the effective positional cloning of genes. Results A genome-wide physical map of the channel catfish was constructed by High-Information-Content Fingerprinting (HICF of 46,548 Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC clones using the SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs with FPC software. The resulting assembly contained 1,782 contigs and covered an estimated physical length of 0.93 Gb. The validity of the assembly was demonstrated by 1 anchoring 19 of the largest contigs to the microsatellite linkage map 2 comparing the assembly of a multi-gene family to Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP patterns seen in Southern blots, and 3 contig sequencing. Conclusion This is the first physical map for channel catfish. The HICF technique allowed the project to be finished with a limited amount of human resource in a high throughput manner. This physical map will greatly facilitate the detailed study of many different genomic regions in channel catfish, and the positional cloning of genes controlling economically important production traits.

  16. Bait type influences on catch and bycatch in tandem hoop nets set in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Stewart, David R.; Shiflet, Jeremy; Balsman, Dane; Shoup, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    Tandem hoop nets have become the primary gear for sampling channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but suffer from high incidences of bycatch, particularly aquatic turtles that usually drown as a result. We sought to determine if bait type, ZOTE© soap and ground cheese logs, would influence catch of channel catfish (CPUE and mean TL) and bycatch of fishes and aquatic turtles. We sampled with tandem hoop nets in 13 Kentucky reservoirs (5–73 ha) using a crossover design and two sampling events. We found no difference in channel catfish catch rates between bait types, but mean sizes of fish caught using ZOTE© soap were approximately 24 mm longer compared to cheese. Fish bycatch was similar between bait types, but tandem hoop nets baited with ZOTE© soap caught up to 61% fewer turtles and mortality of turtles that were captured was up to 12% lower than those baited with cheese. Depth of net set, water temperature, and Secchi depth were environmental factors measured that affected catch and bycatch, but varied among species. Using ZOTE© soap as bait in tandem hoop nets appears to be a fairly simple and straightforward method for maintaining high catch rates of channel catfish while minimizing turtle mortality.

  17. The bacterial community associated with the leech Myzobdella lugubris Leidy 1851 (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae) from Lake Erie, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, C; Faisal, M

    2010-06-01

    Leeches are widespread in the Great Lakes Basin, yet their potential to harbor disease-causing agents has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacterial community of the commonly occurring leech, Myzobdella lugubris, within the Lake Erie Watershed. Leech samples were collected from the pectoral fins of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens, from Lake Erie in commercial trap nets and pooled into two samples based on host attachment. Bacteria from within the viscera of M. lugubris were identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA (rDNA) gene of amplified community bacterial DNA extracted from pooled leech homogenate samples and were checked for similarity in two public databases: the Ribosomal Database Project and BLAST. Bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes, beta-proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and unclassified Bacteria were present in the leech samples. A large number of bacteria found within leeches attached to channel catfish consisted of sequences that could not be classified beyond the Domain Bacteria. However, many of these sequences were homologous (leech homogenates was Flavobacterium psychrophilum, a serious fish pathogen that causes Bacterial Cold Water Disease. While the occurrence of genera varies, bacteria associated with the two fish species were similar.

  18. The bacterial community associated with the leech Myzobdella lugubris Leidy 1851 (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae from Lake Erie, Michigan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Leeches are widespread in the Great Lakes Basin, yet their potential to harbor disease-causing agents has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacterial community of the commonly occurring leech, Myzobdella lugubris, within the Lake Erie Watershed. Leech samples were collected from the pectoral fins of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens, from Lake Erie in commercial trap nets and pooled into two samples based on host attachment. Bacteria from within the viscera of M. lugubris were identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA (rDNA gene of amplified community bacterial DNA extracted from pooled leech homogenate samples and were checked for similarity in two public databases: the Ribosomal Database Project and BLAST. Bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes, β-proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and unclassified Bacteria were present in the leech samples. A large number of bacteria found within leeches attached to channel catfish consisted of sequences that could not be classified beyond the Domain Bacteria. However, many of these sequences were homologous (< 45 % to the phylum Bacteroidetes. One of the five genera detected in the leech homogenates was Flavobacterium psychrophilum, a serious fish pathogen that causes Bacterial Cold Water Disease. While the occurrence of genera varies, bacteria associated with the two fish species were similar.

  19. Thidiazuron uptake, distribution and metabolism in bluegills and channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, C O; Benezet, H J; Mayer, F L

    1980-01-01

    Bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to 0.1 ppm of thidiazuron-14C cotton defoliant for 28 days under continuous flow conditions accumulated relatively low levels of radiocarbon. The maximum detected was 5.4 ppm in fillet tissue after 1 day. During a 14 day depuration period, radioactivity declined to 1.0 ppm or less. Fractionation of offal and fillet tissues from bluegills collected at 28 days indicated that most of the radioactive material was water soluble, although appreciable amounts of organosoluble radioactive material also were present. When bluegills were injected intraperitoneally with thidiazuron-14C, metabolism and elimination were relatively rapid. Organosoluble radioactive material isolated from fish tissue included thidiazuron, its 2-hydroxyphenyl derivative, phenylurea, and several unknowns. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed under static conditions to a system containing 0.15 ppm of thidiazuron-14C incorporated into soil also accumulated only low concentrations of radiocarbon. The maximum detected was 2.5 ppb in offal tissue at 7 days. In fillet tissue, radioactivity did not exceed 0.5 ppb. There was no evidence from these studies to indicate that thidiazuron would pose a hazard to the aquatic ecosystem.

  20. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2011 Missouri Department of Conservation general contaminant monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillet samples of yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis), golden redhorse (Moxostoma erythrurum), longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from six sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation’s Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs were collected from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at eight of the sites, and crayfish from two sites. Following preparation and analysis of the samples, highlights of the data were as follows: cadmium and lead residues were most elevated in crayfish tissue samples from the Big River at Cherokee Landing, with 1 to 8 micrograms per gram dry weight and 22 to 45 micrograms per gram dry weight, respectively. Some dorsal muscle plugs from largemouth bass collected from Clearwater Lake, Lake St. Louis, Noblett Lake, Hazel Creek Lake, and Harrison County Lake contained mercury residues (1.7 to 4.7 micrograms per gram dry weight) that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Criterion of 1.5 micrograms per gram dry weight of fish tissue (equivalent to 0.30 micrograms per gram wet weight).

  1. Multiplex-PCR for simultaneous detection of 3 bacterial fish pathogens, Flavobacterium columnare, Edwardsiella ictaluri, and Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panangala, Victor S; Shoemaker, Craig A; Van Santen, Vicky L; Dybvig, Kevin; Klesius, Phillip H

    2007-03-13

    A multiplex PCR (m-PCR) method was developed for simultaneous detection of 3 important fish pathogens in warm water aquaculture. The m-PCR to amplify target DNA fragments from Flavobacterium columnare (504 bp), Edwardsiella ictaluri (407 bp) and Aeromonas hydrophila (209 bp) was optimized by adjustment of reaction buffers and a touchdown protocol. The lower detection limit for each of the 3 bacteria was 20 pg of nucleic acid template from each bacteria per m-PCR reaction mixture. The sensitivity threshold for detection of the 3 bacteria in tissues ranged between 3.4 x 10(2) and 2.5 x 10(5) cells g(-1) of tissue (channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the m-PCR was evaluated with 10 representative isolates of each of the 3 bacteria and 11 other Gram-negative and 2 Gram-positive bacteria that are taxonomically related or ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. Except for a single species (A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida), each set of primers specifically amplified the target DNA of the cognate species of bacteria. m-PCR was compared with bacteriological culture for identification of bacteria in experimentally infected fish. The m-PCR appears promising for the rapid, sensitive and simultaneous detection of Flavobacterium columnare, E. ictaluri and A. hydrophila in infected fish compared to the time-consuming traditional bacteriological culture techniques.

  2. Using an experimental manipulation to determine the effectiveness of a stock enhancement program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2015-01-01

    We used an experimental manipulation to determine the impact of stocking 178 mm channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in six impoundments. The study design consisted of equal numbers (two) of control, ceased-stock, and stocked treatments that were sampled one year before and two years after stocking. Relative abundance, growth, size structure, and average weight significantly changed over time based on samples collected with hoop nets. Catch rates decreased at both ceased-stock lakes and increased for one stocked lake, while growth rates changed for at least one ceased-stock and stocked lake. The average weight of channel catfish in the ceased-stock treatment increased by 6% and 25%, whereas weight decreased by 28% and 78% in both stocked lakes. The variability in observed responses between lakes in both ceased-stock and stocked treatments indicates that a one-size-fits-all stocking agenda is impractical, suggesting lake specific and density-dependent mechanisms affect channel catfish population dynamics.

  3. Teleost Chemokines and Their Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Steve; Tafalla, Carolina

    2015-11-11

    Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines that appeared about 650 million years ago, at the emergence of vertebrates, and are responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been identified in diverse fish species evidencing the great differences that exist among fish and mammalian chemokines, and within the different fish species, as a consequence of extensive intrachromosomal gene duplications and different infectious experiences. Subsequently, it has only been possible to establish clear homologies with mammalian chemokines in the case of some chemokines with well-conserved homeostatic roles, whereas the functionality of other chemokine genes will have to be independently addressed in each species. Despite this, functional studies have only been undertaken for a few of these chemokine genes. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish. We have mainly focused on those species for which more research efforts have been made in this subject, specially zebrafish (Danio rerio), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), outlining which genes have been identified thus far, highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation and addressing any known aspects of their biological role in immunity. Finally, we summarise what is known about the chemokine receptors in teleosts and provide some analysis using recently available data to help characterise them more clearly.

  4. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Terry D.; Marking, Leif L.; Howe, George E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. We determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222) , metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degree C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin. We also determined the effects of selected levels of water temperature, hardness, and pH on the toxicity of chloramine-T, formalin, malachite green, and Roccal. There were no differences in toxicity for any of the chemicals at any water quality variable tested except for chloramine-T, which was about 25 times more toxic in soft, acid water than in soft, alkaline water. Our data show that the striped bass is as sensitive to fishery chemicals as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but is generally less resistant than bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

  5. Dietary uptake efficiency of HCBP in channel catfish: The effect of fish contaminant body burden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowska, H.; Fisher, S.W.; Dabrowski, K.; Staubus, A.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Groups of juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were exposed for 10 days to control or contaminated sediment, spiked with {sup 14}C-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP, 130 {micro}g{center_dot}kg{sup {minus}1} dry weight), in order to establish a known body burden. At the completion of that exposure, subsamples of fish were taken for HCBP analysis and the remaining fish were transferred to clean media. Each group transferred to clean media was then divided into two subgroups and offered either control or contaminated diet for 4 weeks. The contaminated diet (Tubifex worms) was spiked with {sup 14}C-HCBP (16.6 {micro}g{center_dot}kg{sup {minus}1} wet weight). Feeding rates of Tubifex were quantified as were fish growth rates and lipid levels. Fish (five specimens) were collected at the beginning of the dietary exposure and after 10, 20, and 30 days of exposure. Average individual growth rate constants were similar in all fish groups and ranged from 0.005 d{sup {minus}1} to 0.007 d{sup {minus}1}. Both fish groups fed contaminated Tubifex accumulated HCBP in an apparent linear fashion over the study period. The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were 1.38 and 1.66 for accumulation from sediment and uptake from food, respectively. The dietary uptake efficiency for HCBP was found not to be affected by contaminant present in the fish body.

  6. Effects of variable periods of food deprivation on the development of enteric septicemia in channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, David J; Greenway, Terry; Li, Menghe H; Camus, Alvin C; Robinson, Edwin H

    2008-03-01

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most significant bacterial disease affecting channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Withholding feed during outbreaks of ESC is a widely accepted industry practice used to control losses from the disease. Scientific evidence concerning the validity of the practice is contradictory. Two studies were conducted to further evaluate the survival of channel catfish fingerlings following variable periods of feed deprivation before and after exposure to E. ictaluri in controlled aquarium experiments. In the first study, feed was withheld for varying time periods before bacterial challenge. After bacterial challenge, feed was either withheld or fish were fed daily. The second study utilized fish fed daily or fish deprived of feed 7 d before bacterial challenge. Daily feeding was resumed 4, 48, and 96 h after fish were exposed to E. ictaluri. In both experiments, the prechallenge feed treatments did not affect mortality. In contrast, withholding feed after bacterial challenge reduced mortalities by 52% in experiment 1 and by 45% in experiment 2. The highest mortality was observed when fish were fed immediately after immersion exposure and the lowest when fish were completely denied feed or fed daily starting 96 h after challenge. This reduction in mortality occurred when the concentration of E. ictaluri in aquarium water was negligible. These data suggest that when E. ictaluri is present in the water, feeding fish increases mortality by enhancing oral exposure to the pathogen.

  7. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1984 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Gerard A.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center (U.S.)

    1986-07-01

    The extent of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir was determined. Salmonids were the single most important food item by weight for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) in the restricted zones at McNary tailrace and John Day forebay during all sampling periods. Salmonids accounted for 18.1% of the weight in the diet of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in 1984 which was at least twice that found in previous years. In smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) salmonids contributed little to their diet whereas for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fish accounted for 64.1% of the weight in their diet with salmonids responsible for approximately half of this weight. An intensive search of the fisheries literature was conducted to review various fish capture and control techniques which might have potential as predation control measures for the major predators of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River system. Most prey protection measures were judged to have high potential and direct predator control measures were judged to have moderate or low potential.

  8. Carbon dioxide as a tool to deter the movement of invasive bigheaded carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Donaldson,; Amberg, Jon; Shivani Adhikari,; Cupp, Aaron R.; Jensen, Nathan; Romine, Jason G.; Adam Wright,; Gaikowski, Mark; Cory D. Suski,

    2016-01-01

    Nonnative bigheaded carps are established in the Mississippi River and there is substantial concern about their potential entry into the interconnected Laurentian Great Lakes. While electrical barriers currently exist as a preventative measure, there is need for additional control mechanisms to promote barrier security through redundancy. We tested the effectiveness of infused carbon dioxide gas (CO2) as a tool to influence the movement and behavior invasive bigheaded carps, namely Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix, as well as native Bigmouth Buffalo Ictiobus cyprinellus, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Paddlefish Polyodon spathula, and Yellow Perch Perca flavescens in an experimental pond. Individuals were monitored with acoustic telemetry before, during, and after CO2 addition to the pond. We noted distinct changes in fish behavior following CO2 addition. Each species except Paddlefish maintained farther distances from the CO2 infusion manifold relative to controls. Both bigheaded carp species had slower persistence velocities (persistence of a movement in a given direction) following CO2 infusion and Bighead Carp used a smaller area of the pond immediately after CO2 addition. Pond pH progressively decreased up to 1.5 units following CO2 infusion. This work provides evidence that could inform future research to enhance existing control measures used to deter high-risk invasive fishes, such as bigheaded carps.

  9. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo panctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the la...

  10. Morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni - Entamoeba histolytica coinfection in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus Morbidade em hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus devido à co-infecção Schistosoma mansoni - Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Santana Dolabella

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Data on Schistosoma mansoni-Entamoeba histolytica coinfection are scarce in the literature. In the present study, hamsters that had been infected for 70 days with Schistosoma mansoni (LE strain were inoculated via the portal vein with two strains of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica: ICB-EGG (highly virulent and ICB-RPS (non-virulent. The most evident result of coinfection was increased morbidity and mortality, in comparison with either of the infections alone. Histologically, there were no evident signs of interaction between these two infections. The morphological findings of schistosomal granuloma and amoebic abscesses in the liver were similar to those seen in the respective single-infection controls. However, there was severe wasting of the animals with both infections and greater numbers of amoebic lesions in their livers. The results obtained indicated that schistosomiasis aggravates the course of amoebiasis in hamsters.Dados sobre a co-infecção Schistosoma mansoni-Entamoeba histolytica são escassos na literatura. No presente estudo, hamsters com 70 dias de infecção por Schistosoma mansoni (cepa LE foram inoculados com trofozoítos de Entamoeba histolytica, cepa ICB-EGG (virulenta e cepa ICB-RPS (não virulenta, via veia porta. O mais evidente resultado da co-infecção foi o aumento da morbidade e mortalidade, quando comparado com os animais com somente uma das infecções. Histologicamente, não houve sinais evidentes da interação entre as duas infecções. O aspecto morfológico do granuloma esquistossomótico e do abcesso hepático amebiano são similares aos observados nos controles, com somente uma infecção. Entretanto, foi observado que os animais co-infectados apresentavam-se mais debilitados e com maior número de lesões amebianas no fígado. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a esquistossomose agrava o curso da infecção amebiana em hamsters.

  11. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone reduces sexual motivation but not lordosis behavior in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piekarski, David J; Zhao, Sheng; Jennings, Kimberly J

    2013-01-01

    these neuropeptides serve as neuromodulators to coordinate female sexual behavior with the limited window of fertility has not been thoroughly explored. In the present study, either intact or ovariectomized, hormone-treated female hamsters were implanted for fifteen days with chronic release osmotic pumps filled...

  12. Behavioral and hormonal changes associated with the infective dose in experimental taeniasis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Roldan, Rosa; Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Sciutto, Edda; Hernández, Marisela; Aguirre-Flores, Virginio; García-Jiménez, Sara; Báez-Saldaña, Armida; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván

    2016-07-01

    It has been reported that behavioral changes relate to infection in different parasitoses. However, the relation between the extent of the behavioral changes and the magnitude of the infection has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between different doses of infection and the behavioral changes induced in the experimental Taenia pisiformis taeniasis in golden hamsters. Groups of nine hamsters were infected with three or six T. pisiformis metacestodes. The locomotor activity was quantified daily in an open field test during the 21 days after infection; anxiety test was performed in an elevated plus-maze with a dark/light area at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection, and serum cortisol levels were determined by radioimmunoassay before infection and at day 22 after infection. The challenge itself induced modifications on behavior and cortisol levels in hamsters, with or without successful infection (taenia development). Animals challenged with three metacestodes induced a decrease in locomotor activity and an increase in anxiety in infected animals. A higher and earlier decrease in locomotor activity and increased anxiety levels were observed in hamsters challenged with six cysticerci, which were accompanied by higher levels of sera cortisol at the end of the experiment. At necropsy, 44-55% of hamster became infected with an efficiency of implantation of 22-26%, challenged with three or six cysticerci respectively. The challenge of hamsters with metacestodes, promote behavioral changes in an extent dependent on the magnitude of the challenge, disregarding the effectiveness of the infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating Color and Fading of Red-Shafted Flicker (Colaptes auratus cafer) Feathers: Technical and Cultural Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Pearlstein, Ellen; Keene, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    Fading behavior of undyed feathers has not received much attention in conservation literature and as a result feathers are categorized with other natural materials as being fugitive to display lighting, based on anecdotal evidence. The authors investigated Red-shafted Flicker feathers, which have carotenoid-based colorant systems and significance in North American native regalia, to demonstrate how lighting guidelines could be informed by a multivariate approach that considers material sensit...

  14. Signal-to-noise ratio for source determination and for a comodulated masker in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Richard R

    2011-05-01

    The masking effects of white and amplitude comodulated noise were studied with respect to simple signal detection and sound source determination in goldfish. A stimulus generalization method was used to determine the signal-to-noise ratio required to completely determine the signal's characteristics. It was found that the S∕N required for this determination is about 4 dB greater than that required for signal detection, or was about 4 dB greater than the critical masking ratio. This means that the potential harm to fish of a given masking noise is at least 4 dB greater than previously thought, based on critical masking ratios. However, for amplitude comodulated noise between 10 and 50 Hz modulation rate, the potential harmful effects are up to 5.3 dB less than would be predicted from the critical masking ratio for unmodulated noise.

  15. Cell growth-promoting activity of fluid from eye sacs of the bubble-eye goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatari, Etsuko; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Matsumura, Takaharu; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yokoyama, Yoshihiro; Wakamatsu, Yuko

    2009-04-01

    The growth-promoting effects of fish body fluids, such as serum and embryonic extract, on fish cell cultures have been widely demonstrated. The bubble-eye variety of aquarium goldfish is characterized as having a large sac filled with fluid (sac fluid) under each eye. These sacs are believed to contain lymph, which is similar in composition to serum or blood plasma. In order to test whether the sac fluid can be used as an additive for fetal bovine serum (FBS) in growth factor supplements, we compared cell growth in media containing FBS together with different concentrations of sac fluid. A dose-dependent growth-promotion effect was observed in early passage caudal fin cells from both medaka and zebrafish. Cell-growth promotion was also confirmed in early passage medaka blastula cells and in a zebrafish embryonic cell line (ZF4). Replacement of the fluid in the eye sacs of bubble-eyes occurs within a couple of months after the sac fluid has been harvested, and the cell-growth promoting activity of the new fluid is similar to that of the fluid that was tapped initially. These findings suggest that sac fluid can be used as a growth-promoting supplement for fish cell culture. Importantly, the ability of the goldfish to replace the fluid combined with the fact that equipotent fluid can be repeatedly harvested from the eye sacs means that a sustainable source of the fluid can be obtained without needing to sacrifice the fish.

  16. Structural and Functional Studies of the Protamine 2-Zinc Complex from Syrian Gold Hamster (Mesocricetus Auratus) Spermatids and Sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Cheryl E. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-08-30

    The research described in this dissertation consists of four major areas: (1) sequence analysis of protamine 2 from Muroid rodents to identify potential zinc-binding domain(s) of protamine 2; (2) structural studies of the protamine 2-zinc complex from Syrian Gold hamster sperm and spermatids to elucidate the role of zinc during spermiogenesis; (3) structural studies of an unique protamine 2-zinc complex from chinchilla sperm; and (4) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies of soluble complexes of hairpin oligonucleotides with synthetic arginine-rich peptides or protamine 1 isolated from bull sperm. First, zinc was quantitated in spermatids and sperm by Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) to determine whether zinc is present in the early stages of spermiogenesis. The PIXE results revealed the zinc content varies proportionately with the amount of protamine 2 in both spermatid and sperm nuclei. An exception was chinchilla sperm containing twice the amount of protamine 2 than zinc. Further analyses by PIXE and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) of zinc bound to protamines isolated from hamster sperm confirmed the majority of the zinc is bound to protamine and identified the zinc ligands of protamine 2 in hamster spermatids and sperm in vivo. These studies established that zinc is bound to the protamine 2 precursor in hamster spermatids and the coordination of zinc by protamine 2 changes during spermiogenesis. Finally, the sequence analysis combined with the XAS results suggest that the zinc-binding domain in protamine 2 resides in the amino-terminus. Similar analyses of chinchilla sperm by XAS were performed to clarify the unusual PIXE results and revealed that chinchilla has an atypical protamine 2-zinc structure. Two protamine 2 molecules coordinate one zinc atom, forming homodimers that facilitate the binding of protamine 2 to DNA and provide an organizational scheme that would accommodate the observed species-specific protamine stoichiometry in mammalian sperm. Based on these results, we propose the binding of zinc to protamine 2 molecules stabilizes a dimerization domain in other mammalian sperm. Future experiments will use the knowledge we gained of the interactions between protamine 1 and DNA from the NMR studies to obtain structural data for the DNA-protamine 2-zinc complex.

  17. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) oronasally inoculated with a Nipah virus isolate from Bangladesh or Malaysia develop similar respiratory tract lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseler, L; de Wit, E; Scott, D P; Munster, V J; Feldmann, H

    2015-01-01

    Nipah virus is a paramyxovirus in the genus Henipavirus, which has caused outbreaks in humans in Malaysia, India, Singapore, and Bangladesh. Whereas the human cases in Malaysia were characterized mainly by neurological symptoms and a case fatality rate of ∼40%, cases in Bangladesh also exhibited respiratory disease and had a case fatality rate of ∼70%. Here, we compared the histopathologic changes in the respiratory tract of Syrian hamsters, a well-established small animal disease model for Nipah virus, inoculated oronasally with Nipah virus isolates from human cases in Malaysia and Bangladesh. The Nipah virus isolate from Bangladesh caused slightly more severe rhinitis and bronchointerstitial pneumonia 2 days after inoculation in Syrian hamsters. By day 4, differences in lesion severity could no longer be detected. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated Nipah virus antigen in the nasal cavity and pulmonary lesions; the amount of Nipah virus antigen present correlated with lesion severity. Immunohistochemistry indicated that both Nipah virus isolates exhibited endotheliotropism in small- and medium-caliber arteries and arterioles, but not in veins, in the lung. This correlated with the location of ephrin B2, the main receptor for Nipah virus, in the vasculature. In conclusion, Nipah virus isolates from outbreaks in Malaysia and Bangladesh caused a similar type and severity of respiratory tract lesions in Syrian hamsters, suggesting that the differences in human disease reported in the outbreaks in Malaysia and Bangladesh are unlikely to have been caused by intrinsic differences in these 2 virus isolates. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Immunosuppression-Induced Susceptibility of Inbred Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to Lethal-Disease by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Genovesi* and C. J. Peters L..’ Army Medical Research Institute in Infectious Diseases. -- f) Department of Viral Pathogenesis and Inmunology . Disease...strains. WE and Armstrong (ARM), caused systemic infections _ and induced comparable serum LC3IV-antibodv titers. However. lethal wasting-disease occurred...protects hamsters from disease and mortality by LCMV -- - -- [29, 42, 47]. - In the past there has been no reliable experimental host-virus system to

  19. Molecular evolution of vertebrate VIP receptors and functional characterization of a VIP receptor from goldfish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, B K; Yuen, T T; Chan, K W

    1997-02-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide that has numerous physiological actions and is widely distributed in the body. However, as yet, there is no sequence information about VIP receptors in lower vertebrates. Partial cDNA fragments spanning transmembrane domains 2 to 6 of VIP receptors were isolated from six nonmammalian vertebrate species, including chicken, pigeon, frog, lizard, salmon, and goldfish. Sequence comparison of these receptors revealed essential structural motifs responsible for receptor function. In addition, the first nonmammalian full-length VIP receptor cDNA was obtained by screening a goldfish brain and pituitary cDNA library. Functional expression of this receptor in mammalian COS-7 cells showed that it is coupled to cAMP production in a VIP and PACAP concentration-dependent manner; the EC50 of VIP was determined to be 1 nM. At 100 nM peptide, the relative potency of various peptides in stimulating cAMP in the transfected cells was VIP > PACAP > GHRH = secretin > PHM > PTH > glucagon > GLP-1 > GIP. Characterization of the VIP receptors in lower vertebrates should enhance our understanding of the molecular evolution and physiology of VIP in vertebrates.

  20. Mechanosensory Lateral Line Nerve Projections to Auditory Neurons in the Dorsal Descending Octaval Nucleus in the Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Catherine A; Gallagher, Shannon; Cantu-Hertzler, Evan; Woodrick, Scarlet

    2016-01-01

    The nucleus medialis is the main first-order target of the mechanosensory lateral line (LL) system. This report definitively demonstrates that mechanosensory LL inputs also terminate in the ipsilateral dorsal portion of the descending octaval nucleus (dDO) in the goldfish. The dDO, which is the main first-order auditory nucleus in bony fishes, includes neurons that receive direct input from the otolithic end organs of the inner ear and project to the auditory midbrain. There are two groups of such auditory projection neurons: medial and lateral. The medial and the lateral groups in turn contain several neuronal populations, each of which includes one or more morphological cell types. In goldfish, the exclusively mechanosensory anterior and posterior LL nerves terminate only on specific cell types of auditory projection neurons in the lateral dDO group. Single neurons in the lateral dDO group may receive input from both anterior and posterior LL nerves. It is possible that some of the lateral dDO neurons that receive LL input also receive input from one or more of the otolithic end organs. These results are consistent with functional studies demonstrating low frequency acoustic sensitivity of the mechanosensory LL in teleosts, and they reveal that the anatomical substrate for sensory integration of otolithic and LL inputs is present at the origin of the central ascending auditory pathway in an otophysine fish. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Prevalence of Argulus foliaceus in ornamental fishes [goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Koi (Cyprinus carpio)] in Kerman, southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khovand, H

    2015-12-01

    The genus Argulus (Crustacea: Branchiura), or fish louse, are common parasites of freshwater fish. This parasite have a direct life cycles and mature females leave the host and lay several hundred eggs on vegetation and various objects in the water. It caused pathological changes due to direct tissue damage and secondary infections. Besides the damage and stress caused by Argulus itself, one of the main worries for fish producers are the associated secondary infestations and infections that can result from infestation with this ecto-parasite. From 300 samples, only 20 (6.67 %) samples were infested with this parasite and 280 (93.33 %) not infested. In the present study, Argulus foliaceus was reported on goldfish and Koi which this was first recorded in Kerman, southeast of Iran. According to the presented study, it is clear that A. foliaceus can act as a potential risk factor for natural ecosystems and native fish population of Iran and other countries, that should be mentioned to prevent the burst of new parasitic fauna to Iran and different countries as well as stop direct economic losses caused by mortality derived from infestation with this ecto-parasite.

  2. Social housing and social isolation: Impact on stress indices and energy balance in male and female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy P; Norvelle, Alisa; Choi, Dennis C; Walton, James C; Albers, H Elliott; Huhman, Kim L

    2017-08-01

    Although Syrian hamsters are thought to be naturally solitary, recent evidence from our laboratory demonstrates that hamsters may actually prefer social contact. Hamsters increase their preference for a location associated with an agonistic encounter regardless of whether they have "won" or "lost". It has also been reported that social housing as well as exposure to intermittent social defeat or to a brief footshock stressor increase food intake and body mass in hamsters. By contrast, it has also been suggested that housing hamsters in social isolation causes anxiety-induced anorexia and reductions in body mass selectively in females. The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological consequences of housing hamsters in social isolation versus in social groups. Male and female hamsters were housed singly or in stable groups of 5 for 4weeks after which they were weighed and trunk blood was collected. In addition, fat pads and thymus and adrenal glands were extracted and weighed. Serum and fecal cortisol were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Housing condition had no effect on serum or fecal cortisol, but socially housed hamsters displayed modest thymus gland involution. Socially housed females weighed more than did any other group, and socially housed females and males had more fat than did socially isolated hamsters. No wounding or tissue damage occurred in grouped hamsters. Overall, these data suggest that Syrian hamsters tolerate both stable social housing and social isolation in the laboratory although social housing is associated with some alteration in stress-related and bioenergetic measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pneumonitis in Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Rio Mamoré virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Eyzaguirre, Eduardo J; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2014-10-13

    Rio Mamoré virus is an etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in South America. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in Syrian golden hamsters is pathogenic. None of 37 adult hamsters infected by intramuscular injection of HTN-007, including 10 animals killed on Day 42 or 43 post-inoculation, exhibited any symptom of disease. Histological abnormalities included severe or moderately severe pneumonitis in 6 (46.2%) of the 13 animals killed on Day 7 or 10 post-inoculation. The primary target of infection in lung was the endothelium of the microvasculature. Collectively, these results indicate that Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in adult Syrian golden hamsters can cause a nonlethal disease that is pathologically similar to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pneumonitis in Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Río Mamoré virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Eyzaguirre, Eduardo J.; Fulhorst, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Rio Mamoré virus is an etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in South America. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in Syrian golden hamsters is pathogenic. None of 37 adult hamsters infected by intramuscular injection of HTN-007, including 10 animals killed on Day 42 or 43 post-inoculation, exhibited any symptom of disease. Histological abnormalities included severe or moderately severe pneumonitis in 6 (46.2%) of the 13 animals killed on Day 7 or 10 post-inoculation. The primary target of infection in lung was the endothelium of the microvasculature. Collectively, these results indicate that Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in adult Syrian golden hamsters can cause a nonlethal disease that is pathologically similar to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. PMID:25064267

  5. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young, E-mail: choic@kmou.ac.kr

    2016-07-22

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m{sup 2}). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  6. Ultrasonic vocalizations in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus reveal modest sex differences and nonlinear signals of sexual motivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Fernández-Vargas

    Full Text Available Vocal signaling is one of many behaviors that animals perform during social interactions. Vocalizations produced by both sexes before mating can communicate sex, identity and condition of the caller. Adult golden hamsters produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV after intersexual contact. To determine whether these vocalizations are sexually dimorphic, we analyzed the vocal repertoire for sex differences in: 1 calling rates, 2 composition (structural complexity, call types and nonlinear phenomena and 3 acoustic structure. In addition, we examined it for individual variation in the calls. The vocal repertoire was mainly composed of 1-note simple calls and at least half of them presented some degree of deterministic chaos. The prevalence of this nonlinear phenomenon was confirmed by low values of harmonic-to-noise ratio for most calls. We found modest sexual differences between repertoires. Males were more likely than females to produce tonal and less chaotic calls, as well as call types with frequency jumps. Multivariate analysis of the acoustic features of 1-note simple calls revealed significant sex differences in the second axis represented mostly by entropy and bandwidth parameters. Male calls showed lower entropy and inter-quartile bandwidth than female calls. Because the variation of acoustic structure within individuals was higher than among individuals, USV could not be reliably assigned to the correct individual. Interestingly, however, this high variability, augmented by the prevalence of chaos and frequency jumps, could be the result of increased vocal effort. Hamsters motivated to produce high calling rates also produced longer calls of broader bandwidth. Thus, the sex differences found could be the result of different sex preferences but also of a sex difference in calling motivation or condition. We suggest that variable and complex USV may have been selected to increase responsiveness of a potential mate by communicating sexual arousal and preventing habituation to the caller.

  7. Vegetation Structure of Ebony Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus auratus) Habitat in Kecubung Ulolanang Nature Preservation Central Java-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervina, Rahmawati; Wasiq, Hidayat Jafron

    2018-02-01

    Kecubung Ulolanang Nature Preservation is ebony leaf monkey's habitats in Central Java Indonesia. Continuously degradation of their population is caused by illegal hunting and habitat degradation that made this species being vulnerable. Habitat conservation is one of important aspects to prevent them from extinction. The purpose of this research was to analyze the vegetation's structure and composition, which was potentially, becomes habitat and food source for the monkeys. Data collected using purposive sampling with line transect method of four different level of vegetation. Data analysis used Important Value Index and Diversity Index. There were 43 species of vegetation at seedling stage, 18 species at sapling stage, 8 species at poles stage and 27 species at trees stage. Species that had the highest important value index at seedling was Stenochlaena palustri , at the sapling was Gnetum gnemon, at pole was Swietenia mahagoni and at tree was Tectona grandis . Species of trees those were potentially to become habitat (food source) for ebony leaf monkey were T. grandis, Dipterocarpus gracilis, Quercus sundaica and Ficus superba. The highest diversity index was at seedling gwoth stage.

  8. Effects of European mistletoe (Viscum album L. subsp. album) extracts on activity rhythms of the Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Alper; Turker, Arzu Ucar; Gunduz, Bulent

    2008-01-01

    Antitumor drugs may have some significant nervous system side-effects such as disrupted sleep, eating and drinking patterns. European Mistletoe has been investigated for many decades for its potential use against cancer. To test the hypothesis that the non-antineoplastic effects of mistletoe might be mediated by the actions on the circadian timing system, we have applied mistletoe extracts and vehicle and have measured locomotor activity, feeding and drinking rhythms under constant darkness. Four groups (vehicle, 20 mg kg(-1) ip injection, 40 mg kg(-1) ip injection and 6 g kg(-1) oral administration) were performed for both heat-treated and freeze-dried extracts. None of the administrations changed the locomotor activity, feeding and drinking rhythms in the groups except for 40 mg kg(-1) freeze-dried injected group. The locomotor activity levels decreased in 40 mg kg(-1) freeze-dried extract injected group. These results suggest that, side-effects of mistletoe on circadian timing system of the Syrian hamster depend on the dose and the preparation method of the extract.

  9. ESTIMA, a tool for EST management in a multi-project environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Harris A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-pass, partial sequencing of complementary DNA (cDNA libraries generates thousands of chromatograms that are processed into high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs, and then assembled into contigs representative of putative genes. Usually, to be of value, ESTs and contigs must be associated with meaningful annotations, and made available to end-users. Results A web application, Expressed Sequence Tag Information Management and Annotation (ESTIMA, has been created to meet the EST annotation and data management requirements of multiple high-throughput EST sequencing projects. It is anchored on individual ESTs and organized around different properties of ESTs including chromatograms, base-calling quality scores, structure of assembled transcripts, and multiple sources of comparison to infer functional annotation, Gene Ontology associations, and cDNA library information. ESTIMA consists of a relational database schema and a set of interactive query interfaces. These are integrated with a suite of web-based tools that allow a user to query and retrieve information. Further, query results are interconnected among the various EST properties. ESTIMA has several unique features. Users may run their own EST processing pipeline, search against preferred reference genomes, and use any clustering and assembly algorithm. The ESTIMA database schema is very flexible and accepts output from any EST processing and assembly pipeline. ESTIMA has been used for the management of EST projects of many species, including honeybee (Apis mellifera, cattle (Bos taurus, songbird (Taeniopygia guttata, corn rootworm (Diabrotica vergifera, catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, and apple (Malus x domestica. The entire resource may be downloaded and used as is, or readily adapted to fit the unique needs of other cDNA sequencing projects. Conclusions The scripts used to create the ESTIMA interface are freely available to academic users in

  10. Systematic variation in the pattern of gene paralog retention between the teleost superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de la Serrana, Daniel; Mareco, Edson A; Johnston, Ian A

    2014-04-01

    Teleost fish underwent whole-genome duplication around 450 Ma followed by diploidization and loss of 80-85% of the duplicated genes. To identify a deep signature of this teleost-specific whole-genome duplication (TSGD), we searched for duplicated genes that were systematically and uniquely retained in one or other of the superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii. TSGD paralogs comprised 17-21% of total gene content. Some 2.6% (510) of TSGD paralogs were present as pairs in the Ostariophysi genomes of Danio rerio (Cypriniformes) and Astyanax mexicanus (Characiformes) but not in species from four orders of Acanthopterygii (Gasterosteiformes, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodon nigroviridis; Perciformes, Oreochromis niloticus; and Beloniformes, Oryzias latipes) where a single copy was identified. Similarly, 1.3% (418) of total gene number represented cases where TSGD paralogs pairs were systematically retained in the Acanthopterygian but conserved as a single copy in Ostariophysi genomes. We confirmed the generality of these results by phylogenetic and synteny analysis of 40 randomly selected linage-specific paralogs (LSPs) from each superorder and completed with the transcriptomes of three additional Ostariophysi species (Ictalurus punctatus [Siluriformes], Sinocyclocheilus species [Cypriniformes], and Piaractus mesopotamicus [Characiformes]). No chromosome bias was detected in TSGD paralog retention. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed significant enrichment of GO terms relative to the human GO SLIM database for "growth," "Cell differentiation," and "Embryo development" in Ostariophysi and for "Transport," "Signal Transduction," and "Vesicle mediated transport" in Acanthopterygii. The observed patterns of paralog retention are consistent with different diploidization outcomes having contributed to the evolution/diversification of each superorder.

  11. Effects of depletion sampling by standard three-pass pulsed DC electrofishing on blood chemistry parameters of fishes from Appalachian streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Christine L.; Panek, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse effects on fishes captured by electrofishing techniques have long been recognized, although the extent of associated physical injury and behavioral alterations are highly variable and dependent on a number of factors. We examined the effects of three-pass pulsed DC (PDC) electrofishing on two salmonid species (Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) and five other genera (Green Sunfish Lepomis cyanellus, Potomac Sculpin Cottus girardi, Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus) common to Appalachian streams. We examined the corresponding effects of PDC electroshock on the following physiological indicators of stress and trauma: blood glucose and serum lactate, as well as on other blood chemistry, namely, enzymes, electrolytes, minerals, and proteins. All species demonstrated physiological responses to PDC electroshock, indicated by the biochemical differences in blood parameters in unshocked and shocked groups of fish with or without gross evidence of hemorrhagic trauma. Serum lactate was the most consistent indicator of these effects. Significant differences in whole blood glucose levels were also noted in treatment groups in all species except Green Sunfish, although the patterns observed were not as consistent as for serum lactate. Elevations in the serum enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, in the electroshocked fish occurred only in the two salmonid species. In many instances, although blood parameters were elevated in electroshocked fish compared with the unshocked controls for a given species, there were no differences in those levels in electroshocked fish based on the presence of gross hemorrhagic trauma to axial musculature. While some of the blood parameters examined correlated with both the occurrence of electroshock and the resultant tissue injury, there was no apparent link between the altered blood chemistry and

  12. Frequency and Severity of Trauma in Fishes Subjected to Multiple-pass Depletion Electrofishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Frank; Densmore, Christine L.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and severity of trauma associated with multiple-pass electrofishing and the effects on short-term (30-d) survival and growth of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and five representative co-inhabiting nontarget or bycatch species were examined. Fish were held in four rectangular fiberglass tanks (190 × 66 cm) equipped with electrodes, a gravel–cobble stream substrate, and continuous water flow. Fish were exposed to one, two, or three electroshocks (100-V, 60-Hz pulsed DC) spaced 1 h apart or were held as a control. The heterogeneous field produced a mean (±SD) voltage gradient of 0.23 ± 0.024 V/cm (range = 0.20–0.30 V/cm) with a duty cycle of 30% and a 5-s exposure. Radiographs of 355 fish were examined for evidence of spinal injuries, and necropsies were performed on 303 fish to assess hemorrhagic trauma in soft tissue. Using linear regression, we demonstrated significant relationships between the number of electrical shocks and the frequency and severity of hemorrhagic and spinal trauma in each of the nontarget species (Potomac Sculpin Cottus girardi, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Green Sunfish Lepomis cyanellus, and Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides). Most of the injuries in these species were either minor or moderate. Rainbow Trout and Brook Trout generally sustained the highest incidence and severity of injuries, but those injuries were generally independent of the number of treatments. The 30-d postshock survival for the trout species was greater than 94%; survival for the bycatch species ranged from 80% (Fathead Minnow) to 100% (Green Sunfish and Channel Catfish). There were no significant differences in 30-d postshock condition factors despite observations of altered feeding behavior lasting several days to 1 week posttreatment in several of the study species.

  13. DExD/H-box RNA helicase genes are differentially expressed between males and females during the critical period of male sex differentiation in channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Changxu; Tan, Suxu; Bao, Lisui; Zeng, Qifan; Liu, Shikai; Yang, Yujia; Zhong, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2017-06-01

    DExD/H-box RNA helicases are motor proteins participating in nearly all aspects of cellular processes, especially in RNA metabolism. In this study, a total of 54 DExD/H-box RNA helicase genes including 37 DDX (DEAD-box) and 17 DHX (DEAH-box) genes were characterized in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and annotated through phylogenetic and syntenic analyses. All the catfish RNA helicases contained conserved helicase signature motifs, demonstrating that the RNA helicase gene family was highly conserved. Analysis of the relative rates of synonymous (dS) and nonsynonymous (dN) substitutions revealed that the RNA helicase genes were subjected to strong negative (purifying) selection. Meta-analysis was conducted to determine expression of the RNA helicase genes during the critical period (90-110days post-fertilization, dpf) of male gonad differentiation. At 90dpf, 24 RNA helicase genes were highly differentially expressed in the gonad tissues between the males and females; similarly, 24 and 18 RNA helicase genes were found highly differentially expressed in the gonad tissues between the males and females at 100 and 110dpf, respectively (p<0.01). In general, the vast majority of the RNA helicase genes (31) were expressed at higher levels in females than in males. In the male gonad, a set of 8 RNA helicases were expressed at a significantly higher level at 110dpf than at 90dpf. These findings suggested that RNA helicases may play important roles in sex development and differentiation in teleosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ontogenetic Characterization of the Intestinal Microbiota of Channel Catfish through 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing Reveals Insights on Temporal Shifts and the Influence of Environmental Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Jacob W.; Peterson, Brian C.; Swanson, Kelly S.; Small, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture recently overtook capture fisheries as the largest producer of food fish, but to continue increasing fish production the industry is in search of better methods of improving fish health and growth. Pre- and probiotic supplementation has gained attention as a means of solving these issues, however, for such approaches to be successful, we must first gain a more holistic understanding of the factors influencing the microbial communities present in the intestines of fish. In this study, we characterize the bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of a highly valuable U.S. aquaculture species, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, over the first 193 days of life to evaluate temporal changes that may occur throughout ontogenetic development of the host. Intestinal microbiota were surveyed with high-throughput DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA V4 gene amplicons derived from fish at 3, 65, 125, and 193 days post hatch (dph), while also characterizing the environmental microbes derived from the water supply and the administered diets. Microbial communities inhabiting the intestines of catfish early in life were dynamic, with significant shifts occurring up to 125 dph when the microbiota somewhat stabilized, as shifts were less apparent between 125 to 193 dph. Bacterial phyla present in the gut of catfish throughout ontogeny include Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and Proteobacteria; with the species Cetobacterium somerae and Plesiomonas shigelloides showing the highest abundance in the catfish microbiota after 3 dph. Comparisons of the gut microbiota to the environmental microbes reveals that the fish gut is maintained as a niche habitat, separate from the overall microbial communities present in diets and water-supply. Although, there is also evidence that the environmental microbiota serves as an inoculum to the fish gut. Our results have implications for future research related to channel catfish biology and culture, and increase our

  15. Removal efficiency and balance of nitrogen in a recirculating aquaculture system integrated with constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Fei; Liang, Wei; Yu, Tao; Cheng, Shui P; He, Feng; Wu, Zhen B

    2011-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) balance for aquaculture is an important aspect, especially in China, and it is attributed to the eutrophication in many freshwater bodies. In recent years, constructed wetlands (CWs) have been widely used in wastewater treatment and ecosystem restoration. A recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) consisting of CWs and 4 fish ponds was set up in Wuhan, China. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings were fed for satiation daily for 168 days with 2 diets containing 5.49 % and 6.53 % nitrogen, respectively. The objectives of this study were to investigate the N budget in the RAS, and try to find out the feasibility of controlling N accumulation in the fish pond. It is expected that the study can provide a mass balance for the fate of N in the eco-friendly treatment system to avoid eutrophication. The results showed that the removal rates of ammonia (NH(+)(4)-N), sum of nitrate & nitrite (NO(-)(X)-N), and total nitrogen (TN) by the CWs were 20-55%, 38-84 % and 39-57 %, respectively. Denitrification in the CWs was the main pathway of nitrogen loss (41.67 %). Nitrogen accumulation in pond water and sediment accounted for 3.39 % and 12.65 % of total nitrogen loss, respectively. The nitrogen removal efficiency and budget showed that the CW could be used to control excessive nitrogen accumulation in fish ponds. From the viewpoint of the nitrogen pollution control, the RAS combined with the constructed wetland can be applied to ensure the sustainable development for aquaculture.

  16. Long-term trends of native and non-native fish faunas in the American Southwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olden, J. D.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and the proliferation of non-native fish species threaten the endemic, and highly unique fish faunas of the American Southwest. The present study examines long-term trends (> 160 years of fish species distributions in the Lower Colorado River Basin and identifies those native species (n = 28 exhibiting the greatest rates of decline and those non-native species (n = 48 exhibiting the highest rates of spread. Among the fastest expanding invaders in the basin are red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, western mosquitofish (Gambussia affinis and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus; species considered to be the most invasive in terms of their negative impacts on native fish communities. Interestingly, non-native species that have been recently introduced (1950+ have generally spread at substantially lower rates as compared to species introduced prior to this time (especially from 1920 to 1950, likely reflecting reductions in human-aided spread of species. We found general agreement between patterns of species decline and extant distribution sizes and official listing status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. ‘Endangered’ species have generally experienced greater declines and have smaller present-day distributions compared to ‘threatened’ species, which in turn have shown greater declines and smaller distributions than those species not currently listed. A number of notable exceptions did exist, however, and these may provide critical information to help guide the future listing of species (i.e., identification of candidates and the upgrading or downgrading of current listed species that are endemic to the Lower Colorado River Basin. The strong correlation between probability estimates of local extirpation and patterns of native species decline and present-day distributions suggest a possible proactive

  17. Use of the p,p'-DDD: p,p'-DDE concentration ratio to trace contaminant migration from a hazardous waste site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkney, Alfred E; McGowan, Peter C

    2006-09-01

    For approximately 50 years, beginning in the 1920s, hazardous wastes were disposed in an 11-hectare area of the Marine Corps Base (MCB) Quantico, Virginia, USA known as the Old Landfill. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT compounds were the primary contaminants of concern. These contaminants migrated into the sediments of a 78-hectare area of the Potomac River, the Quantico Embayment. Fish tissue contamination resulted in the MCB posting signs along the embayment shoreline warning fishermen to avoid consumption. In this paper, we interpret total PCB (t-PCBs) and total DDT (t-DDT, sum of six DDT, DDD, and DDE isomers) data from monitoring studies. We use the ratio of p,p'-DDD to p,p'-DDE concentrations as a tracer to distinguish site-related from regional contamination. The median DDD/DDE ratio in Quantico Embayment sediments (3.5) was significantly higher than the median ratio (0.71) in sediments from nearby Powells Creek, used as a reference area. In general, t-PCBs and t-DDT concentrations were significantly higher in killifish (Fundulus diaphanus) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from the Quantico Embayment compared with Powells Creek. For both species, Quantico Embayment fish had mean or median DDD/DDE ratios greater than one. Median ratios were significantly higher in Quantico Embayment (4.6) than Powells Creek (0.28) whole body carp. In contrast, t-PCBs and t-DDT in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets were similar in Quantico Embayment and Powells Creek collections, with median ratios of 0.34 and 0.26, respectively. Differences between species may be attributable to movement (carp and killifish being more localized) and feeding patterns (carp ingesting sediment while feeding). We recommend that environmental scientists use this ratio when investigating sites with DDT contamination.

  18. Self-imposed length limits in recreational fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Martin, Dustin R.; Hurley, Keith L.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    A primary motivating factor on the decision to harvest a fish among consumptive-orientated anglers is the size of the fish. There is likely a cost-benefit trade-off for harvest of individual fish that is size and species dependent, which should produce a logistic-type response of fish fate (release or harvest) as a function of fish size and species. We define the self-imposed length limit as the length at which a captured fish had a 50% probability of being harvested, which was selected because it marks the length of the fish where the probability of harvest becomes greater than the probability of release. We assessed the influences of fish size, catch per unit effort, size distribution of caught fish, and creel limit on the self-imposed length limits for bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus and white crappie Pomoxis annularis combined, white bass Morone chrysops, and yellow perch Perca flavescens at six lakes in Nebraska, USA. As we predicted, the probability of harvest increased with increasing size for all species harvested, which supported the concept of a size-dependent trade-off in costs and benefits of harvesting individual fish. It was also clear that probability of harvest was not simply defined by fish length, but rather was likely influenced to various degrees by interactions between species, catch rate, size distribution, creel-limit regulation and fish size. A greater understanding of harvest decisions within the context of perceived likelihood that a creel limit will be realized by a given angler party, which is a function of fish availability, harvest regulation and angler skill and orientation, is needed to predict the influence that anglers have on fish communities and to allow managers to sustainable manage exploited fish populations in recreational fisheries.

  19. Influence of throat configuration and fish density on escapement of channel catfish from hoop nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath, Mark T.; Pape, Larry D.; Richters, Lindsey K.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, several state agencies have adopted the use of baited, tandemset hoop nets to assess lentic channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus populations. Some level of escapement from the net is expected because an opening exists in each throat of the net, although factors influencing rates of escapement from hoop nets have not been quantified. We conducted experiments to quantify rates of escapement and to determine the influence of throat configuration and fish density within the net on escapement rates. An initial experiment to determine the rate of escapement from each net compartment utilized individually tagged channel catfish placed within the entrance (between the two throats) and cod (within the second throat) compartments of a single hoop net for overnight sets. From this experiment, the mean rate (±SE) of channel catfish escaping was 4.2% (±1.5) from the cod (cod throat was additionally restricted from the traditionally manufactured product), and 74% (±4.2) from the entrance compartments. In a subsequent experiment, channel catfish were placed only in the cod compartment with different throat configurations (restricted or unrestricted) and at two densities (low [6 fish per net] and high [60 fish per net]) for overnight sets to determine the influence of fish density and throat configuration on escapement rates. Escapement rates between throat configurations were doubled at low fish density (13.3 ± 5.4% restricted versus 26.7 ± 5.6% unrestricted) and tripled at high fish density (14.3 ± 4.9% restricted versus 51.9 ± 5.0% unrestricted). These results suggest that retention efficiency is high from cod compartments with restricted throat entrances. However, managers and researchers need to be aware that modification to the cod throats (restrictions) is needed for hoop nets ordered from manufacturers. Managers need to be consistent in their use and reporting of cod end throat configurations when using this gear.

  20. Morphology and 18S rDNA of Henneguya gurlei (Myxosporea) from Ameiurus nebulosus (Siluriformes) in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Iwanowicz, D.D.; Pote, L.M.; Blazer, V.S.; Schill, W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Henneguya gurlei was isolated from Ameiurus nebulosus captured in North Carolina and redescribed using critical morphological features and 18S small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) gene sequence. Plasmodia are white, spherical, or subspherical, occur in clusters, measure up to 1.8 mm in length, and are located on the dorsal, pectoral, and anal fins. Histologically, plasmodia are located in the dermis and subdermally, and the larger cysts disrupt the melanocyte pigment layer. The spore body is lanceolate, 18.2 ?? 0.3 ??m (range 15.7-20.3) in length, and 5.4 ?? 0.1 ??m (range 3.8-6.1) in width in valvular view. The caudal appendages are 41.1 ?? 1.1 ??m (range 34.0-49.7) in length. Polar capsules are pyriform and of unequal size. The longer polar capsule measures 6.2 ?? 0.1 ??m (range 5.48-7.06), while the shorter is 5.7 ?? 0.1 ??m (range 4.8-6.4) in length. Polar capsule width is 1.2 ?? 0.03 ??m (range 1.0-1.54). The total length of the spore is 60.9 ?? 1.2 ??m (range 48.7-68.5). Morphologically, this species is similar to other species of Henneguya that are known to infect ictalurids. Based on SSU rDNA sequences, this species is most closely related to H. exilis and H. ictaluri, which infect Ictalurus punctatus. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2008.

  1. Limiting Size of Fish Fillets at the Center of the Plate Improves the Sustainability of Aquaculture Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen F. Cross

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available North American dining customers like to have a singular large piece of protein in the center of the plate. When fish is the protein of choice, the portion size from many species is limited by the overall size of the fish. Therefore, for these species, the means to achieve a singular larger portion of “center of the plate” protein is to grow a larger animal. However, fish become less efficient in converting feed to protein as they age. A second option would be to provide two smaller fillets originating from younger, more efficient fish. Here, the sustainability ramifications of these two protein provisioning strategies (single large or two small fillets are considered for three species of fish produced in aquaculture. Growth data for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus produced in ponds, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss in raceways, and sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria in marine net pens, were modeled to assess the total biomass and overall food conversion ratio for the production of small, medium or large fish. The production of small fish added an additional 50% or more biomass per year for trout, catfish, and sablefish compared to the production of large fish. Feed conversion ratios were also improved by nearly 10% for the smaller compared to larger fish of each species. Thus, even though all of these species tend to be considered aquaculture species of low environmental impact (and hence “green” or sustainable options, the product form requested by retailers and served by chefs can further increase the sustainability of these species.

  2. Summary of total mercury concentrations in fillets of selected sport fishes collected during 2000-2003 from Lake Natoma, Sacramento County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Slotton, Darrell G.; May, Thomas W.; Ayers, Shaun M.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes results of total mercury measurements in skinless fillets of sport fishes collected during August 2000, September?October 2002, and July 2003 from Lake Natoma, a small (8,760 acre-feet) afterbay for Folsom Dam on the lower American River. The primary objective of the study was to determine if mercury concentrations in fillets approached or exceeded guidelines for human consumption. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) human-health action level for methylmercury in commercially caught fish is 1.0 ?g/g (microgram per gram); the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human-health criterion for methylmercury residue in fish tissue is 0.30 ?g/g. Wet weight concentrations of total mercury in skinless fillets were as high as 0.19 ?g/g in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), 0.39 ?g/g in redear sunfish (L. microlophus), 1.02 ?g/g in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and 1.89 ?g/g in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Maximum concentrations of mercury in other fish species varied from 0.10 ?g/g in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 0.56 ?g/g in white catfish (A-meiurus catus). Altogether, 1 of 86 largemouth bass and 11 of 11 channel catfish exceeded the FDA human-health action level. In addition, 1 of 20 redear sunfish, 26 of 86 largemouth bass, 2 of 3 spotted bass (M. punctulatus), 1 of 1 brown bullhead (A. nebulosus), and 1 of 1 white catfish exceeded the USEPA human-health criterion. These results indicate that some fish species inhabiting Lake Natoma contain undesirably high concentrations of mercury in their skinless fillets.

  3. Disease spread models to estimate highly uncertain emerging diseases losses for animal agriculture insurance policies: an application to the U.S. farm-raised catfish industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagmutt, Francisco J; Sempier, Stephen H; Hanson, Terril R

    2013-10-01

    Emerging diseases (ED) can have devastating effects on agriculture. Consequently, agricultural insurance for ED can develop if basic insurability criteria are met, including the capability to estimate the severity of ED outbreaks with associated uncertainty. The U.S. farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry was used to evaluate the feasibility of using a disease spread simulation modeling framework to estimate the potential losses from new ED for agricultural insurance purposes. Two stochastic models were used to simulate the spread of ED between and within channel catfish ponds in Mississippi (MS) under high, medium, and low disease impact scenarios. The mean (95% prediction interval (PI)) proportion of ponds infected within disease-impacted farms was 7.6% (3.8%, 22.8%), 24.5% (3.8%, 72.0%), and 45.6% (4.0%, 92.3%), and the mean (95% PI) proportion of fish mortalities in ponds affected by the disease was 9.8% (1.4%, 26.7%), 49.2% (4.7%, 60.7%), and 88.3% (85.9%, 90.5%) for the low, medium, and high impact scenarios, respectively. The farm-level mortality losses from an ED were up to 40.3% of the total farm inventory and can be used for insurance premium rate development. Disease spread modeling provides a systematic way to organize the current knowledge on the ED perils and, ultimately, use this information to help develop actuarially sound agricultural insurance policies and premiums. However, the estimates obtained will include a large amount of uncertainty driven by the stochastic nature of disease outbreaks, by the uncertainty in the frequency of future ED occurrences, and by the often sparse data available from past outbreaks. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Parasites of native and nonnative fishes of the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-yr, seasonal, parasitological study of 1,435 fish, belonging to 4 species of native fishes and 7 species of nonnative fishes from the lower Little Colorado River (LCR) and tributary creeks, Grand Canyon, Arizona, yielded 17 species of parasites. These comprised 1 myxozoan (Henneguya exilis), 2 copepods (Ergasilus arthrosis and Lernaea cyprinacea), 1 acarine (Oribatida gen. sp.), 1 piscicolid leech (Myzobdella lugubris), 4 monogeneans (Gyrodactylus hoffmani, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus extensus, and Ligictaluridus floridanus), 4 nematodes (Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp., Rhabdochona sp., and Truttaedacnitis truttae), 3 cestodes (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Corallobothrium fimbriatum, and Megathylacoides giganteum), and 2 trematodes (Ornithodiplostomum sp. and Posthodiplostomum sp.). Rhabdochona sp. was the only adult parasite native to the LCR. Infection intensities of Ornithodiplostomum sp. and B. acheilognathi were positively correlated with length of the humpback chub Gila cypha. Adult helminths showed a high degree of host specificity, except B. acheilognathi, which was recovered from all fish species examined but was most abundant in cyprinids. Abundance of B. acheilognathi in the humpback chub was highest in the fall and lowest in the summer in both reaches of the LCR. There was no major taxonomic difference in parasite assemblages between the 2 different reaches of the river (LC1 and LC2). Parasite community diversity was very similar in humpback chub, regardless of sampling site or time. The parasite fauna of the LCR is numerically dominated by B. acheilognathi and metacercariae of Ornithodiplostomum sp. The richest and most diverse component community occurred in a nonnative species, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but infracommunity species richness was highest in a native host, humpback chub.

  5. Distribution and abundance of nonnative fishes in streams of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, C.B.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents data from one of the largest standardized stream surveys conducted in he western United States, which shows that one of every four individual fish in streams of 12 western states are nonnative. The states surveyed included Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. The most widely distributed and abundant nonnative fishes in the western USA were brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, brown trout Salmo trutta, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, common carp Cyprinus carpio, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus, fathead minnow Pimephales promelas, yellow perch Percaflavescens, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, cutthroat trout O. clarkii, western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis, golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and red shiner Cyprinella lutrensis. The greatest abundance and distribution of nonnative fishes was in interior states, and the most common nonnatives were introduced for angling. Nonnative fishes were widespread in pristine to highly disturbed streams influenced by all types of land use practices. We present ranges in water temperature, flow, stream order, riparian cover, human disturbance, and other environmental conditions where the 10 most common introduced species were found. Of the total western U.S. stream length bearing fish, 50.1% contained nonnative fishes while 17.9% contained physical environment that was ranked highly or moderately disturbed by humans. Introduced fishes can adversely affect stream communities, and they are much more widespread in western U.S. streams than habitat destruction. The widespread distribution and high relative abundance of nonnative fishes and their documented negative effects suggest their management and control should elicit at least as much attention as habitat preservation in the protection of native western U.S. stream

  6. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide for treating saprolegniasis in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, G.E.; Gingerich, W.H.; Dawson, V.K.; Olson, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery-reared fish and their eggs are commonly afflicted with saprolegniasis, a fungal disease that can cause significant losses in production. Fish culturists need safe and effective fungicides to minimize losses and meet production demands. The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide was evaluated for preventing or controlling mortality associated with saprolegniasis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Saprolegniasis was systematically induced in channel catfish so various therapies could be evaluated in a controlled laboratory environment. Both prophylactic and therapeutic hydrogen peroxide bath treatments of 50, 100, and 150 ??L/L for 1 h were administered every other day for seven total treatments. All untreated positive control fish died of saprolegniasis during the prophylactic and therapeutic tests. Hydrogen peroxide treatments of 150 ??L/L were harmful (relative to lower concentrations) to test fish and resulted in 73-95% mortality. Mortality was attributed to a combination of abrasion, temperature, chemical treatment, and disease stressors. Treatments of 100 ??L/L were less harmful (relatively) but also appeared to contribute to mortality (60-79%). These treatments, however, significantly reduced the incidence of mortality and infection compared with those observed for fish of the positive control or 150-??L/L treatment groups. Overall, treatments of 50 ??L/L were found to be the most safe and effective of those tested. Mortality with this concentration ranged from 16% in therapeutic tests to 41% in prophylactic tests. The statistical model employed estimated that the optimum treatment concentration for preventing or controlling mortality, reducing the incidence of infections, and enhancing the recovery of infected fish was 75 ??L H2O2/L.

  7. Biochemical and Functional Insights into the Integrated Regulation of Innate Immune Cell Responses by Teleost Leukocyte Immune-Type Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenjie Fei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Across vertebrates, innate immunity consists of a complex assortment of highly specialized cells capable of unleashing potent effector responses designed to destroy or mitigate foreign pathogens. The execution of various innate cellular behaviors such as phagocytosis, degranulation, or cell-mediated cytotoxicity are functionally indistinguishable when being performed by immune cells isolated from humans or teleost fishes; vertebrates that diverged from one another more than 450 million years ago. This suggests that vital components of the vertebrate innate defense machinery are conserved and investigating such processes in a range of model systems provides an important opportunity to identify fundamental features of vertebrate immunity. One characteristic that is highly conserved across vertebrate systems is that cellular immune responses are dependent on specialized immunoregulatory receptors that sense environmental stimuli and initiate intracellular cascades that can elicit appropriate effector responses. A wide variety of immunoregulatory receptor families have been extensively studied in mammals, and many have been identified as cell- and function-specific regulators of a range of innate responses. Although much less is known in fish, the growing database of genomic information has recently allowed for the identification of several immunoregulatory receptor gene families in teleosts. Many of these putative immunoregulatory receptors have yet to be assigned any specific role(s, and much of what is known has been based solely on structural and/or phylogenetic relationships with mammalian receptor families. As an attempt to address some of these shortcomings, this review will focus on our growing understanding of the functional roles played by specific members of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus leukocyte immune-type receptors (IpLITRs, which appear to be important regulators of several innate cellular responses via classical as well

  8. Survival of cool and warm freshwater fish following chloramine-T exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Larson, W.J.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Chloramine-T is presently available in the USA to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris only through an Investigational New Animal Drug Permit authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Its US approval hinges on FDA's acceptance of several key data, including those describing animal safety. Chloramine-T is presently applied in US aquaculture, by permit only, once daily on consecutive or alternate days for 1??h at 10 to 20??mg/L to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris. Our objective was to determine the safety of chloramine-T bath exposures at multiples of the proposed maximum treatment concentration (i.e., 0, 20, 60, 100, and 200??mg/L) administered on four consecutive days at 20????C to lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, northern pike Esox lucius, and walleye Sander vitreum, or at 27????C to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. All fish were tested as five to eight week old fry except for walleye and channel catfish which were tested as both fry and fingerling (fingerlings were at least four weeks older than the fry tested). Walleye and channel catfish were selected to evaluate the effects of life stage (fry vs. fingerling), temperature (walleye - 15, 20, or 25????C; channel catfish - 22, 27, or 32????C), exposure duration (60 vs. 180??min), and water chemistry (walleye only - reconstituted soft water vs. well water). Except for channel catfish fry, survival was significantly reduced only when fish were treated at 100 or 200??mg/L. Channel catfish fry survival was significantly reduced when exposed at 60??mg/L for 180??min at 27????C. Based on our mortality data, chloramine-T administered once daily for 60??min on four consecutive days at concentrations of up to 20??mg/L is not likely to adversely affect survival of cool or warmwater fish cultured in freshwater. Crown Copyright ?? 2007.

  9. Liquid chromatographic determination of para-toluenesulfonamide in edible fillet tissues from three species of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J.R.; Schmidt, L.J.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Chloramine-T (N-sodium-N-chloro-p-toluene-sulfonamide) is a candidate therapeutic drug for treating bacterial gill disease, a predominant disease of a variety of fish species. Research has been initiated to obtain the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approval for the use of chloramine-T on a variety of fish species. An attribute of a therapeutic aquaculture drug that must be characterized before the FDA approves its use is depletion of the drug's marker residue (the drug's parent compound or metabolite of highest concentration in an edible tissue). Para-Toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA) is the primary degradation product and marker residue for chloramine-T in rainbow trout. To conduct residue depletion studies for chloramine-T in fish, a robust analytical method sensitive and specific for p-TSA residues in edible fillet tissue from a variety of fish was required. Homogenized fillet tissues from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were fortified at nominal p-TSA concentrations of 17, 67, 200, 333, and 1000 ng/g. Samples were analyzed by isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) with absorbance detection at 226 nm. Mean recoveries of p-TSA ranged from 77 to 93.17%; relative standard deviations ranged from 1.5 to 14%; method quantitation limits ranged from 13 to 18 ng/g; and method detection limits ranged from 3.8 to 5.2 ng/g. The LC parameters produced p-TSA peaks without coelution of endogenous compounds and excluded chromatographic interference from at least 20 chemicals and drugs of potential use in aquaculture.

  10. Effect of bait and gear type on channel catfish catch and turtle bycatch in a reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartabiano, Evan C.; Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hoop nets have become the preferred gear choice to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus but the degree of bycatch can be high, especially due to the incidental capture of aquatic turtles. While exclusion and escapement devices have been developed and evaluated, few have examined bait choice as a method to reduce turtle bycatch. The use of Zote™ soap has shown considerable promise to reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles when used with trotlines but its effectiveness in hoop nets has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effectiveness of hoop nets baited with cheese bait or Zote™ soap and trotlines baited with shad or Zote™ soap as a way to sample channel catfish and prevent capture of aquatic turtles. We used a repeated-measures experimental design and treatment combinations were randomly assigned using a Latin-square arrangement. Eight sampling locations were systematically selected and then sampled with either hoop nets or trotlines using Zote™ soap (both gears), waste cheese (hoop nets), or cut shad (trotlines). Catch rates did not statistically differ among the gear–bait-type combinations. Size bias was evident with trotlines consistently capturing larger sized channel catfish compared to hoop nets. Results from a Monte Carlo bootstrapping procedure estimated the number of samples needed to reach predetermined levels of sampling precision to be lowest for trotlines baited with soap. Moreover, trotlines baited with soap caught no aquatic turtles, while hoop nets captured many turtles and had high mortality rates. We suggest that Zote™ soap used in combination with multiple hook sizes on trotlines may be a viable alternative to sample channel catfish and reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles.

  11. Development of real-time PCR assays for evaluation of immune response and parasite load in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) infected by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Romão, Raquel Peralva; Saavedra, Andrea Franco; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Pinto, Eduardo Fonseca; Moreira, Otacilio C

    2016-06-27

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected disease with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from small cutaneous nodules to severe mucosal tissue destruction. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the main species attributed to CL in the Americas. However, studies of experimental infection are limited in the murine model due to the self-resolutive pattern of the disease. Previously, our group demonstrated that the hamster model reproduces many of the clinical and histopathological features observed in humans. Herein, we standardized a RT-qPCR gene expression assay to evaluate a panel of immunological markers and a qPCR assay in order to quantify with high sensitivity and reproducibility the parasite load in skin lesions. Hamsters were intradermally infected in the footpad with 10(5) promastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis and 110 days post-infection skin lesions and popliteal lymph nodes were removed for RNA and DNA extraction, both from the same tissue fragment. Gene expression of IFN-ɣ, IL-10, TGF-β TNF, IL-4, IL-6, iNOS and arginase were measured using non-infected animal tissue as a calibrator. Parasite load was quantified from DNA extracted from lesions by qPCR targeting Leishmania kDNA and normalized by hamster GAPDH, using a SYBR Green-based absolute quantification methodology. A relative quantification RT-qPCR assay was standardized for the evaluation of mRNA levels from skin and lymph node samples of golden hamsters, with PCR efficiencies ranging from 92.3 to 116.4 %. In uninfected animals, higher basal mRNA levels in lymph nodes were observed for IFN-ɣ, TGF-β, TNF and IL-4 (111.4 ± 92.2; 5.6 ± 1.2; 5.3 ± 1.7; and 60.3 ± 26.8, respectively) in comparison to skin. In golden hamsters infected with L. (V.) braziliensis, an increase in the expression of all immunological markers evaluated was observed, ranging from 2.7 ± 0.2 for TGF-β to 1018.5 ± 809.0 for iNOS in skin lesions, and 2.4 ± 1.6 for TGF-β to 600.2 ± 666.4 for iNOS in popliteal lymph nodes. Interestingly, significantly higher levels of IFN-ɣ, TNF and IL-10 mRNA were observed in skin in comparison to lymph nodes, while a lower significant level of arginase mRNA was observed in skin. In parallel, parasite loads were quantified by qPCR from the skin lesions of infected animals, ranging from 27.0 to 6647.0, with a median of 553.4 (416.7-1504.0) parasites/mg skin equivalents, whereas lesion size varied from 0.3 to 3.1 mm. Despite the tendency of larger lesions to present higher parasite load, the correlation observed was not statistically significant. In this study, we describe for the first time a sensitive, reproducible and cheaper molecular assay to quantify from the same tissue fragment the gene expression of immunological markers and the parasite load in skin lesions, observing a mixed profile of immune response in the hamster model infected by L. (V.) braziliensis.

  12. Testicular histomorphometry and the proliferative and apoptotic activities of the seminiferous epithelium in Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) during regression owing to short photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Rovira, V; Beltrán-Frutos, E; Ferrer, C; Saez, F J; Madrid, J F; Canteras, M; Pastor, L M

    2015-05-01

    During the non-breeding season some animals exhibit testicular atrophy, decreased testicular weight and reduced seminiferous tubule diameter accompanied by depletion of the seminiferous epithelium. Some cellular factors involved in this depletion are changes in germ cell proliferation and apoptosis. In the Syrian hamster this depletion has been studied histologically and in terms of the involvement of proliferation and apoptosis in the seminiferous epithelium of fully regressed testes. The objectives of this study included the histomorphometrical characterization of the testis and the determination of the proliferative and apoptotic activity of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium during testicular regression owing to short photoperiod. The study was performed using conventional light microscopy (hematoxylin and eosin), proliferating cell nuclear antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP in situ nick end labelling staining, image analysis software, and transmission electron microscopy in three established regression groups: mild regression (MR), strong regression (SR), and total regression (TR). Morphometrically a gradual decrease in total tubular area and in the testicular, tubular, and epithelial volumes was observed during testicular regression. Interstitial and luminal volumes decreased from the MR group onwards. The tubular length decreased from MR to SR. As regards spermatogonial proliferation, only an initial decrease in proliferative activity was observed, whereas apoptotic germ cell activity increased throughout regression. The number of germ cells studied decreased throughout the process of testicular regression. In conclusion, testicular regression in Syrian hamster comprises two histomorphometrical phases, the first involving a decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter and volume and the second involving shortening of the seminiferous tubule and a decrease in interstitial volume. At the cellular level, there is an initial decrease in proliferation and increase in apoptosis involving all germ cells. At the end of regression, the proliferative and apoptotic activities of the spermatogonia recover the values observed prior to regression in preparation for recrudescence. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  13. Estudo da patogenia do vírus da raiva por meio de amostras ERA e PV administradas por via oral em hamsters (M. auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Martins Alves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hamsters inoculados oralmente com as amostras de vírus rábico ERA e PV foram sacrificados após 24, 48 e 72 horas, 21 e 30 dias. Fragmentos do cérebro foram analisados através da imunofluorescência direta (IFD e heminested-PCR (hn-PCR. Os fragmentos do estômado, sangue, coração e pulmão foram examinados somente com a técnica de hn-PCR. Soros de outros hamsters, inoculados de modo similar e obtidos 30 dias após a inoculação, foram submetidos ao teste de soroneutralização (SNT em camundongos. No 45º dia pós-inoculação, os hamsters foram desafiados intracerebralmente com a amostra CVS, contendo 10(2,7DL50 em camundongos/0,03 mL. Os fragmentos do cérebro foram todos negativos ao teste de imunofluorescência. A hn-PCR detectou a presença de RNA do vírus da raiva no pulmão de um animal inoculado com a amostra ERA e, no cérebro, estômago, sangue e pulmão de hamsters inoculados com a amostra PV. As amostras de vírus inoculadas oralmente foram capazes de se replicar em diferentes órgãos, no entanto, todos od hamsters morreram ao desafio, indicando uma resposta imunológica insuficiente.

  14. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbik, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)]. E-mail: rzbienia@kinga.cyf-kr.edu.pl; Mikolajczyk, T. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Socha, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Chyb, J. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Epler, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)

    2006-05-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g{sup -1} of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g{sup -1}) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g{sup -1}) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g{sup -1} did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g{sup -1}) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an important role in the accumulation of this element in fish tissues and can influence vital physiological processes.

  15. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Du, Wenchao, E-mail: du@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Guo, Hongyan, E-mail: hyguo@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • Elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO{sub 2} to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO{sub 2} for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO{sub 2} levels.

  16. Inference in a social context: A comparative study of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshikazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    Four species (capuchin monkeys, tree shrews, rats, and hamsters) performed an inference task situated in a social context. In Experiment 1, capuchin monkeys first explored food sites under 1 of 2 conditions: In 1 condition, food was refilled after it was eaten (replenished condition), whereas it was not refilled (depleted condition) in the other condition. Two food sites were presented for each condition. In the test phase, a subject watched a conspecific demonstrator visit 1 of the food sites in either the replenished or depleted condition. A screen placed in front of the sites prevented the subject from seeing the demonstrator actually eat the food. When the demonstrator was removed, the subject explored the cage. Three of 4 monkeys tended to go to the unvisited sites in the depleted condition, but tended to go to the visited site in the replenished condition. This suggests that they inferred that there was no food because the demonstrator had eaten it. In Experiment 2, using the same procedure, 2 nongroup-living species (tree shrews and hamsters) were indifferent to demonstrator behavior and visited sites only randomly, and group-living rats showed a strong tendency to follow demonstrators, irrespective of the type of food site. These tendencies were unchanged when olfactory information was added in Experiment 3 and when motivation to compete increased in Experiment 4. These results suggest that only capuchin monkeys have the ability to solve an inference task when cued by social information. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Involvement of aurantiactinomyxon in the life cycle of Thelohanellus testudineus (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) from allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio, with morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan Dan; Zhai, Yan Hua; Liu, Yang; Wang, Si Jia; Gu, Ze Mao

    2017-07-13

    During the investigation of actinosporean fauna diversity from commercial fish ponds in Hubei Province, China, a novel aurantiactinomyxon type was found from Branchiura sowerbyi. Spore body of the aurantiactinomyxon was ellipsoidal in side view and triangular in apical view, 15.5 ± 0.5 (14.5-16.4) μm in diameter; three leaf-like caudal processes were approximately equal, measuring 13.2 ± 0.9 (11.5-16.2) μm long and 7.4 ± 0.4 (6.7-8.0) μm wide at the base; three polar capsules were located at the apex of spore body, globular in apical view, 2.2 ± 0.1 (2.0-2.3) μm in diameter, and pyriform in side view, 2.5 ± 0.2 (2.3-2.9) μm in length and 2.0 ± 0.2 (1.8-2.4) μm in width; a total of 32 germ cells were observed within the sporoplasm. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the development was asynchronous between pansporocysts but synchronous within a pansporocyst. The formation of sporoblast and the development of sporogonic stage were also described and discussed. The 18S ribosomal DNA sequences of the current aurantiactinomyxon type corresponded to that of a previously reported Thelohanellus testudineus, suggesting that the newly identified aurantiactinomyxon type is the actinosporean stage in the life cycle of T. testudineus.

  18. PATHOMORPHOLOGICAL AND CYTOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF BLOOD RED CELLS OF AGE-2 PRUSSIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (BLOCH, 1782 IN THE CONDITIONS OF INTOXICATION WITH COPPER IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sharamok

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To detect the effect of elevated copper ion concentrations (10 aquaculture Maximum Permissible Limits on morphological and cytometric parameters of erythrocytes of age-2 Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782 in experimental and natural conditions. Methodology. During the work, summarized results of studies performed in 2015-2016 were used. Morphological and cytometric parameters of Prussian carp erythrocytes were determined in the conditions of natural habitats (Zaporizhzhia reservoir and an experiment. Copper ion concentration both in the experiment and natural conditions was similar and was 0.01 mg/L (10 aquaculture Maximum Permissible Limits. Experimental studies were performed during 21 days. In the control aquarium, fish were kept in the settled tap water; while in the experimental aquaria, intoxication of fish with copper ions was modelled by introducing CuSO4 in water. Blood smears were examined under 40x and 100 x magnifications with the use of microphotography (digital camera Sciencelab T500 5.17 M. Findings. The performed hematological studies showed that under the conditions of experimental chronic intoxication with copper ions (0.01 mg/L, age-2 Prussian carp had an increase in the share of immature forms of erythrocytes, increase in the number of erythrocytes with pathological signs (cell wall destruction, atypical forms, increase in the nucleus-cytoplasm ration, but the difference in cytometric parameters of erythrocytes between experimental and control fish was not significant. When comparing the morphometric parameters of erythrocytes of fish kept in experimental and natural conditions with similar copper ion concentrations (0.01 mg/L, a significant increase in the nucleus areas of mature erythrocytes was detected and, correspondingly, an increase in the nucleus-cytoplasm ratio of erythrocytes (by almost 30% in fish in experimental conditions compared to fish, which lived in the Zaporizhzhia reservoir. An increase in these parameters indirectly indicate on the inhibition of erythrocyte functional activity. Originality. For the first time, an analysis of the effect of copper ions at a concentration of 0.01 mg/L (10 aquaculture Maximum Permissible Limits on cytometric parameters of Prussian carp erythrocytes in experimental and natural conditions was presented. Practical value. The obtained results can be used for detecting adaptation reactions in fish organisms under the conditions of the effect of heavy metals as well as for hydroecological monitoring for detecting the levels of heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems dangerous for hydrobionts.

  19. Impairment of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system and oxidative stress in liver of crucian carp (Carassius auratus L.) exposed to microcystins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Ping; Fan, Huihui; Zhao, Sujuan

    2014-01-01

    Hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) are produced by cyanobacteria in diverse water bodies and the pathophysiology includes induction of reactive oxygen species and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion in cells. In this study, we evaluated MCs induced changes in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in mitochondria of crucian carp liver. Fish were subdivided into two groups that were intraperitoneally injected with two doses of MCs (50 and 200 MC-LReq μg/kg bw) and were sacrificed at 1, 3, 12, 24, and 48 h postinjection. The activities of five enzyme complexes of electron transport chain and mRNA expression of mitochondrial-encoded genes (cox1, cox2, cox3, and atp6) were significantly reduced in a time-dependent pattern after injection. There were also changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure, decreases in ATPase activities and reduction in antioxidant level after MCs exposure. Disorder in the OXPHOS system and decreased activities of antioxidative enzymes might contribute to bioenergy deficiency and consequent hepatocyte damage induced by MCs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effects of repeated handling and air exposure on the immune response and the disease resistance of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) over winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bingyuan; Wang, Cuicui; Tu, Yongqin; Hu, Huihua; Han, Dong; Zhu, Xiaoming; Jin, Junyan; Yang, Yunxia; Xie, Shouqi

    2015-12-01

    High mortalities and suppressed immune functions of farmed fish over winter are the universal problems in aquaculture. It is necessary to improve the immune response and disease resistance in the overwintering fish. A recent study suggested that repeated handling increased innate immune mechanisms and disease resistance in Senegalese sole. Therefore, the present study evaluated the hypothesis that appropriate repeated handling could compromise the immune depression and increase the disease resistance in gibel carp over winter. The experiment was executed in field net cages (2 m × 2 m × 2 m) from Dec. 4, 2012 to Apr. 2, 2013. Three cages with 50 fish per cage were randomly designed as the control group and did not receive any interfere over winter. The other three cages received repeated handling with an air exposure for 5 min every week during the experiment. Fish were not fed over winter. At the end of the trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a dose of 1.5 × 10(8) CFU ml(-1). The results showed that no significant difference of final body weight was found between groups. The spleen and kidney somatic index increased in the control fish after bacterial challenge and showed a rising trend but not a statistical change in repeated handled fish. Plasma cortisol levels significantly increased in the control fish at 6 h post bacterial challenge and then declined. However, repeated handled fish did not show any significant change in plasma cortisol levels after challenge. The reduced inducement of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expressions by repeated handling was found in gibel carp post bacterial challenge. After overwintering, the repeated handled fish exhibited increased catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Enhanced plasma CAT activities and reduced plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were found in repeated handled fish over time against invading bacteria. Up-regulation of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and interleukin 11 (IL11) was observed in repeated handled fish over time after bacterial challenge. The overexpression of IL11 was significantly reduced by repeated handling against invading bacteria compared to the control group. The present results implied that a MyD88-dependent signaling pathway was involved in the innate immune responses of gibel carp by repeated handling over winter against invading bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Glucose, amino acids and fatty acids directly regulate ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas of goldfish (Carassius auratus) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Canosa, Luis Fabián; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-04-01

    Ghrelin and nesfatin-1 are two peptidyl hormones primarily involved in food intake regulation. We previously reported that the amount of dietary carbohydrates, protein and lipids modulates the expression of these peptides in goldfish in vivo. In the present work, we aimed to characterize the effects of single nutrients on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas. First, immunolocalization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in goldfish hepatopancreas cells was studied by immunohistochemistry. Second, the effects of 2 and 4hour-long exposures of cultured intestine and hepatopancreas sections to glucose, l-tryptophan, oleic acid, linolenic acid (LNA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 gene and protein expression were studied. Co-localization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the cytoplasm of goldfish hepatocytes was found. Exposure to glucose led to an upregulation of preproghrelin and a downregulation of nucb2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine. l-Tryptophan mainly decreased the expression of both peptides in the intestine and hepatopancreas. Fatty acids, in general, downregulated NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine, but only the longer and highly unsaturated fatty acids inhibited preproghrelin. EPA exposure led to a decrease in preproghrelin, and an increase in nucb2/nesfatin-1 expression in hepatopancreas after 2h. These results show that macronutrients exert a dose- and time-dependent, direct regulation of ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas, and suggest a role for these hormones in the digestive process and nutrient metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE CHANGES OF SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AT THE PRUSSIAN CARP (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch 1782 UNDER THE ACTION OF THE DUAL GOLD 960 EC HERBICIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Diana Biţu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides are chemical substances with selective toxic action (limited for some vegetal species or general (for any species, used to fight against weeds in the crops, fruit and grapes-growing fields, parks etc. The administration of herbicides though has complex effects on the biocenosis. In the aquatic environment, they have proved to be toxic not only for the aimed plants, but also for numerous species of animals. The deterioration of the aquatic environment is accentuated by the fact that plants that had died due to the treatment decompose themselves in a rapid manner, leading to the decrease of the oxygen level in the water, the final consequence being the increase in the death rate of the animals. This paper has studied the action of the Dual Gold 960 EC herbicide in different concentrations on some physiological indicators for the Prussian carp (Carassiusauratusgibelio Bloch 1782. The herbicide has had an inhibitive effect on the researched parameters for all the used concentrations.

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Catfish and Carp Collected from the Rio Grande Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert J. Gonzales

    2008-05-12

    Concern has existed for years that the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a complex of nuclear weapons research and support facilities, has released polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the environment that may have reached adjacent bodies of water through canyons that connect them. In 1997, LANL's Ecology Group began measuring PCBs in fish in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of ephemeral streams that cross LANL and later began sampling fish in Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs, which are situated on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL, respectively. In 2002, we electroshocked channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and common carp (Carpiodes carpio) in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL and analyzed fillets for PCB congeners. We also sampled soils along the Rio Chama and Rio Grande drainages to discern whether a background atmospheric source of PCBs that could impact surface water adjacent to LANL might exist. Trace concentrations of PCBs measured in soil (mean = 4.7E-05 {micro}g/g-ww) appear to be from background global atmospheric sources, at least in part, because the bimodal distribution of low-chlorinated PCB congeners and mid-chlorinated PCB congeners in the soil samples is interpreted to be typical of volatilized PCB congeners that are found in the atmosphere and dust from global fallout. Upstream catfish (n = 5) contained statistically (P = 0.047) higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 2.80E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream catfish (n = 10) (mean = 1.50E-02 {micro}g/g-ww). Similarly, upstream carp (n = 4) contained higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 7.98E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream carp (n = 4) (3.07E-02 {micro}g/g-ww); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.42). The dominant PCB homologue in all fish samples was hexachlorobiphenyls. Total PCB concentrations in fish in 2002 are lower than 1997; however, differences in analytical methods and other uncertainties

  4. The ecology of cormorants: some research needs and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Nettleship, David N.; Duffy, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Concerns about Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) have arisen because of their rapid population increase across North America and their economic impact on several aquaculture and commercial fish industries. In spite of the concern for cormorants, little published research is available that addresses either basic population biology questions or management issues. Based on a literature review, I recommend that research be conducted in four areas. First, a large-scale banding and marking program should be initiated so that population models can be used to estimate age- and sex-specific survival and fecundity (as has been done for the Shag [P. aristotelis] in Europe). By marking individual birds, survival and movement rates can be estimated between nesting colonies, which will provide information about potential source versus sink colonies. Second, studies of movements during migration and winter are required. Presently, no data are available on habitat use during migration or on the length-of-stay by individual birds. This has important implications to how cormorants interact with other fish and wildlife species over a broad range. Studies of movements during winter with radio-marked birds should indicate whether the 'problem birds' at aquaculture sites are merely a few specialists. Third, limiting factors, such as contaminants and disease, should receive further investigation, especially in light of recent concerns over the outbreak of Newcastle disease. The relationship between contaminant levels and developmental abnormalities in young cormorants in certain areas of the Great Lakes in Canada and the United States remains equivocal. Fourth, further studies are needed to document the economic impacts of cormorants on Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and other cultured fishes and to determine ways to reduce predation by fish-eating birds. Mesocosm experiments should be conducted to evaluate how different fish extraction rates affect final

  5. Reliability of fish size estimates obtained from multibeam imaging sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Magowan, Kevin J.; Brown, Lori M.; Fox, Dewayne A.

    2013-01-01

    Multibeam imaging sonars have considerable potential for use in fisheries surveys because the video-like images are easy to interpret, and they contain information about fish size, shape, and swimming behavior, as well as characteristics of occupied habitats. We examined images obtained using a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) multibeam sonar for Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, striped bass Morone saxatilis, white perch M. americana, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus of known size (20–141 cm) to determine the reliability of length estimates. For ranges up to 11 m, percent measurement error (sonar estimate – total length)/total length × 100 varied by species but was not related to the fish's range or aspect angle (orientation relative to the sonar beam). Least-square mean percent error was significantly different from 0.0 for Atlantic sturgeon (x̄  =  −8.34, SE  =  2.39) and white perch (x̄  = 14.48, SE  =  3.99) but not striped bass (x̄  =  3.71, SE  =  2.58) or channel catfish (x̄  = 3.97, SE  =  5.16). Underestimating lengths of Atlantic sturgeon may be due to difficulty in detecting the snout or the longer dorsal lobe of the heterocercal tail. White perch was the smallest species tested, and it had the largest percent measurement errors (both positive and negative) and the lowest percentage of images classified as good or acceptable. Automated length estimates for the four species using Echoview software varied with position in the view-field. Estimates tended to be low at more extreme azimuthal angles (fish's angle off-axis within the view-field), but mean and maximum estimates were highly correlated with total length. Software estimates also were biased by fish images partially outside the view-field and when acoustic crosstalk occurred (when a fish perpendicular to the sonar and at relatively close range is detected in the side lobes of adjacent beams). These sources of

  6. An Assessment of the Bioaccumulation of PCBs and Chloridane Near the U.S. Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.

    2003-12-30

    important component of this effort, the fish sampling locations and species collected were essentially the same as in previous studies. In general, locations were chosen upstream and downstream of major KCP outfalls to help evaluate the importance of those outfalls as sources of PCBs. Green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were again the primary species collected.

  7. Assessing native and introduced fish predation on migrating juvenile salmon in Priest Rapids and Wanapum Reservoirs, Columbia River, Washington, 2009--11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Burgess, Dave S.; Simmons, Katrina E.; Holmberg, Glen S.; Rogala, Josh A.; Polacek, Rochelle R.

    2012-01-01

    Hydroelectric development on the mainstem Columbia River has created a series of impoundments that promote the production of native and non-native piscivores. Reducing the effects of fish predation on migrating juvenile salmonids has been a major component of mitigating the effects of hydroelectric development in the Columbia River basin. Extensive research examining juvenile salmon predation has been conducted in the lower Columbia River. Fewer studies of predation have been done in the Columbia River upstream of its confluence with the Snake River; the most comprehensive predation study being from the early 1990s. The Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington initiated a northern pikeminnow removal program in 1995 in an attempt to reduce predation on juvenile salmonids. However, there has been no assessment of the relative predation within the Priest Rapids Project since the removal program began. Further, there is concern about the effects of piscivores other than northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis), such as channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and walleye (Sander vitreus, formerlyStizostedion vitreum). The Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington and the Priest Rapids Coordinating Committee requested that the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, assist them in evaluating the effects of native and introduced predatory fish on migrating juvenile salmon. From 2009 to 2010, we conducted sampling in the 103 kilometers (64 river miles) of the Columbia River from the tailrace of Rock Island Dam downstream to the tailrace of Priest Rapids Dam. To assess predation, we used electrofishing to collect northern pikeminnow, smallmouth bass, and walleye to analyze their diets during 2009 and 2010. In 2009, we used methods to allow comparisons to a previous study conducted in 1993. During 2009, we also used an alternate sampling

  8. Provisional clinical chemistry parameters in the African Sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Myburgh

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a reprint of Myburgh, J.G. Botha, C.J. Booyse, D.G. & Reyers, F., 2008, 'Provisional clinical chemistry parameters in the African Sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus', Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 79(4, 156-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v79i4.265:Pollution affects aquatic systems worldwide and there is an urgent need for efficient monitoring. Fish are generally sensitive to their environment and are thus considered to be valuable bioindicator species. The African Sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus is particularly important in this respect because of its very wide distribution. In order to use C. gariepinus as a bioindicator species its baseline clinical chemistry must be defined. Existing data are scarce, and the objective of this work was therefore to establish clinical chemistry parameters for C. gariepinus. Blood was collected from male and female catfish and a number of clinical chemistry parameters were determined. Plasma protein values, but particularly those of plasma albumin, were found to be very low, approximately half the value for dogs, but similar to the values in Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus. Plasma urea values in Sharptooth catfish were found to be much lower than in dogs, but only marginally lower than in Channel catfish. Plasma creatinine in Sharptooth catfish, however, was only a quarter of that of dogs and one third of that found in Channel catfish. These findings may have implications for using urea and / or creatinine as an index of renal glomerular filtration, as is done in mammals. Plasma enzyme activity ranges were much lower in Sharptooth catfish than in dogs, particularly for alkaline phosphatase (ALP and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. By comparison, Channel catfish have an even lower ALT activity range but an ALP range that is very similar to dogs. The implications for using these enzymes as markers for liver disease are not clear from these data, as factors such as

  9. A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for quantification of Edwardsiella ictaluri in catfish pond water and genetic homogeneity of diagnostic case isolates from Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Matt J; Mauel, Michael J; Greenway, Terrence E; Khoo, Lester H; Wise, David J

    2011-12-01

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed for the detection and quantification of Edwardsiella ictaluri in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus pond water using modifications to a published E. ictaluri-specific qPCR assay and previously established protocols for the molecular detection of myxozoan parasites in catfish ponds. Genomic DNA equivalents indicative of the number of bacteria in a sample were determined and standard curves correlating to bacterial numbers were established. The assay was found to be highly repeatable and reproducible, with a linear dynamic range of five orders of magnitude. There was no interference of the assay from the presence of large quantities of nontarget DNA. Known quantities of bacteria were added to sample volumes of 40 or 500 mL of pond water collected from several different ponds. The minimum level of detection was approximately 100 cell equivalents (CE) in 40 (2.5 CE/mL) or 500 mL of pond water (0.2 CE/mL). Sample volumes of 40 mL yielded the most consistent results, which were not significantly different from those obtained from broth culture alone. Cell equivalents determined by qPCR in 40-mL pond water samples spiked with known quantities of bacteria were within one order of magnitude of the actual number of cells added. Repetitive element-based polymerase chain reaction analysis of archived isolates demonstrated the genetic homogeneity of E. ictaluri, and consistent amplification of these isolates by qPCR analysis demonstrated the stability of the PCR target. The assay described here provides a reliable method for the detection and quantification of E. ictaluri in pond water and will be an invaluable tool in epidemiological studies. Additionally, the assay provides a way to evaluate the effects that vaccination, antibiotic treatments, and restricted feeding practices have on E. ictaluri populations during an outbreak. Information obtained with these tools will aid in optimizing disease management

  10. [The bipolarity of the genetic structure of communities of the crucian carp (Carassius linnaeus, 1758) as a reflection of paradoxal reproductive relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhzherin, S V; Kokodiy, S V; Kulish, A V; Pukhtaevitch, P P

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of 133 populations of Carasiius spp. from water bodies in Ukraine showed their polyspecific structure: 62% of individuals of the studied 3453 specimens. turned out to be bisexual goldfishes C. auratus, 25%. were unisexual Prissian carps C. gibelio, 6% accounted for the aboriginal species crucian carp C. carassius, and 6% were hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius. In this case a clear trend has been revealed towards the formation of homogeneous alternative populations, specifically: either C. auratus, or C. gibelio. Individuals of C. carassius and the hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius typically comprise an admixture in various populations. The cause of the bipolar distribution of individuals of C. auratus and C. gibelio between various water bodies is the instability of mixed populations as far as individuals of C. auratus very quickly replace females of C. gibelio due to their low reproductive potential.

  11. Importation of CyHV-2-infected goldfish into the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Haenen, Olga L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis in goldfish Carassius auratus auratus. However, the virus has also been detected in Prussian carp C. gibelio and crucian carp C. carassius from European and Asian countries. To prevent spread of

  12. Comparison of clinical hematological changes under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to compare the clinical hematological changes under anesthetization in Crucian carp (Carassius auratus auratus) due to treatment with local anesthetics. Our data indicate that the values declined significantly (P < 0.05) with dissolved oxygen amount after anesthetization, furthermore, the ...

  13. Structure and origin of the tooth pedicel (the so-called bone of attachment) and dental-ridge bone in the mandibles of the sea breams Acanthopagrus australis, Pagrus auratus and Rhabdosargus sarba (Sparidae, Perciformes, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D R; Bassett, J R; Moffat, L A

    1994-01-01

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were used to show that the pedicels of fish teeth (the so-called "bones of attachment") consist of three types of dentine that lie concentrically around a pulp cavity lined with typical odontoblasts with cytoplasmic processes in dentinal tubules. Circumpulpal canalar dentine forms on a thin layer of orthodentine that is encased in mantle dentine. Canalar dentine is a new name given to a dentine that is similar to vasodentine in canal arrangement, but not apparently in canal content. An inner series of wide, radial canals and an outer series of highly-branched thin canals of two diameters are inhabited by a population of cells, the osteodentocytes, and collagen fibril bundles. The flat, oval osteodentocytes appear to be quiescent cells, lying on the sides of the tubules and covered by a sheath. Plump, intensely metachromatic osteodentocytes appear to be more synthetically active. The canals and the osteodentocytes originate from blood capillaries enclosed in the predentine during dentinogenesis. New teeth begin within the small cavities present in spongy bone that were enlarged by multinucleated osteoclasts during tooth growth. Pedicel formation is initiated by the extension of the crown mantle dentine, forming the outer layer of the crimped ligament and outlining the future length and curvature of the pedicel. Central and inner ligament zones are subsequently formed as orthodentine is secreted in both crown and pedicel, and canalar dentine in the pedicel. Spongy bone osteogenesis begins during stage 1 of pedicel formation with the aggregation of osteoblasts and blood capillaries in the bone cavities and in the dermis between the pedicels. Loose fibrillar osteoid condenses into incomplete thin trabeculae bordered by intensely metachromatic osteoblasts. Osteoblasts become enclosed in the developing trabeculae that thicken to give mature spongy bone with osteocytes throughout. We conclude that the pedicels are the true bases of teeth, that the dental ridge is formed from pedicels and spongy bone, and that sea bream spongy bone is cellular. The term "bone of attachment" is inappropriate for the pedicel. It can be used for the spongy bone between the compact bone of the jaw and between adjacent pedicel.

  14. Contaminación aguda por vertidos textiles: Tratamiento de carpines dorados (Carassius auratus) con dicromato potásico; determinación de la toxicidad y niveles de cromo en branquias.

    OpenAIRE

    Riva Juan, María del Carmen; Flos Bassols, Rosa; Crespi Rosell, Martí; Balash, J.

    1980-01-01

    El cromo es el metal pesado cuantitativamente más importante en el vertido de la Industria Textil; procede esencialmente de los procesos de tintura con colorantes cromatables. Hemos sometido carpines dorados al tratamiento agudo con dicromato potásico disuelto en el agua de tanques experimentales. Se determina la toxicidad y los niveles de cromo en branquias. La concentración de cromo en el tejido branquia1 se halla mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, previa digestión c...

  15. Roles of nitric oxide, nitrite and myoglobin on myocardial efficiency in trout (Oncorthynchus mykiss) and goldfish (Carassius auratus): implications for hypoxia tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Faggiano, Serena; Helbo, Signe

    2010-01-01

    in both trout and goldfish myocardium, with trout showing a significant increase in the O2 utilization efficiency, i.e. the ratio of twitch force to O2 consumption, suggesting an increased anaerobic metabolism. NOS inhibition enhanced myocardial O2 consumption and decreased efficiency, indicating...... that mitochondrial respiration is under a tone of NOS-produced NO. When trout myocardial twitch force and O2 consumption are enhanced by adrenaline, this NO tone disappears. Consistent with its conversion to NO, nitrite reduced O2 consumption and increased myocardial efficiency in trout but not in goldfish...

  16. Antidepressants blunt the effects of inescapable stress on male mating behaviour and decrease corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordner, A P; Herwood, M B; Helmreich, D L; Parfitt, D B

    2004-07-01

    Stress decreases sexual activity. However, emerging research suggests that the psychological aspect of control prevents the detrimental effects of stress on male mating behaviour. The present study examined the effects of chronic escapable/inescapable stress on mating behaviour in the male Syrian hamster. Additionally, the ability of the antidepressant clomipramine to prevent the adverse effects of stress on mating behaviour was explored. In this paradigm, two groups received the same electric footshock stress, but differed in the psychological aspect of control. Cohorts were divided into two groups. One group received clomipramine via a sugar water solution while the other received plain sugar water. Mating behaviour was quantified before and after 12 consecutive days of stress. The morning following the final stress and behaviour session, trunk blood and brains were collected to assess: (i) plasma concentrations of testosterone and glucocorticoids and (ii) corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). In the drug-free groups, several aspects of mating behaviour were disrupted by inescapable but not escapable stress, including anogenital investigation before the first ejaculation and time of first ejaculation. Additionally, both escapable and inescapable stress caused a decrease in total hit rate compared to the no-stress control group. Unlike the sugar-water treated animals, hamsters in either stress condition receiving clomipramine showed no differences in anogenital investigation, time of first ejaculation, hit rate, or any other aspect of mating behaviour measured, compared to the clomipramine no-stress control males. The stress-induced inhibition of mating behaviour could not be explained by changes in baseline plasma concentrations of testosterone or total glucocorticoids; these values did not vary between any of the six treatment groups. It was found that clomipramine lowers CRH mRNA expression in the PVN by 74%, regardless of stressor conditions. The results of the present study have broad implications for understanding the relationships between stress, depression and reproduction, and for the treatment of people and animals suffering from the adverse effects of stress.

  17. Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) in goldfish (Carassius auratus): role in the regulation of feeding and locomotor behaviors and interactions with the orexin system and cocaine- and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Meagan; Volkoff, Hélène

    2011-02-01

    TRH is a peptide produced by the hypothalamus which major function in mammals is the regulation of TSH secretion by the pituitary. In fish, TRH does not appear to affect TSH secretion, suggesting that it might regulate other functions. In this study, we assessed the effects of central (intracerebroventricular, icv) injections of TRH on feeding and locomotor behavior in goldfish. TRH at 10 and 100 ng/g, but not 1 ng/g, significantly increased feeding and locomotor behaviors, as indicated by an increase in food intake and in the number of total feeding acts as compared to saline-injected fish. In order to assess possible interactions between TRH and other appetite regulators, we examined the effects of icv injections of TRH on the hypothalamic expression of orexin, orexin receptor and CART. The mRNA expression levels of all three peptides were significantly increased in fish injected with TRH at 100 ng/g as compared to saline-injected fish. Fasting increased TRH, orexin, and orexin receptor hypothalamic mRNA levels and decreased CART hypothalamic mRNA levels. Our results suggest that TRH is involved in the regulation of feeding/locomotor activity in goldfish and that this action is associated with a stimulation of both the orexin and CART systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SPAWNING IN CONDITION OF THE NORTH-WESTERN PART OF THE MIDDLE CASPIAN OF BLACK SEA ACCLIMATIZED FAMILY MUGILIDAE. TWO SPECIES OF THE GENUS LIZA (L. AURATUS AND (L. SALIENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R Adueva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the number of migration changes, adaptive and plastic peculiarities of Mugilidae family two species of grey mullet from Liza family the acclimatization of which in the Caspian Sea formed the shoal of quite valuable marketable fish. Grey mullet sexual puberty in the Caspian Sea happens at the age of 3 or 4. The length and the rate of growth increases. The weight of the Caspian-sea grey mullet is bigger than that of the Black-sea grey mullet.

  19. Mercury concentrations in fishes of the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From March 9 to May 31, 1991, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), bowfin (Amia calva), Florida gar (Lepisosteus platyrhincus), brown bullhead (Ictalurus...

  20. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge contaminants survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bullheads (Ictalurus sp.), carp (Cyprinus carpio), a quillback (Carpiodes cyprinus), a bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), and a turtle were collected from Elk,...

  1. On the specific status of Hedotettix cristatus Karny, 1915 (Tetrigidae: Tetriginae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skejo, Josip; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2015-09-17

    Hedotettix cristatus Karny, 1915 is a species described from a single male specimen from Taiwan. Wagan & Kevan in 1992 synonymised the species with Hedotettix punctatus Hancock, 1909. We re-evaluated the specific status of H. cristatus and made a detailed comparison between valuable diagnostic characters. Females of H. cristatus are reported and new localities for the species, found on amateur photos from Taiwan, are presented. H. cristatus stat.rev. is a valid species, endemic to Taiwan, while H. punctatus is a species with a disjunctive distribution, partly in India and partly in China (Hainan, Guangdong, Hubei). The main diagnostic differences between two species are: 1) antennal grooves position: in H. cristatus antennal grooves are situated at the level of the lower margin of the compound eyes or slightly below it, while in H. punctatus, however, antennal grooves are situated slightly above the lower margin of the compound eyes, never at its level or below, 2) scutellum morphology: in H. cristatus, frontal costa bifurcation starts in about upper ¼ of the compound eye height, while in H. punctatus it starts at the level of upper margin of compound eyes or slightly below (with rare exceptions), 3)  ratio of femora length/width: H. cristatus is species of robust femora, while H. punctatus has slender femora and 4) prozonal carinae: indistinguishable in H. cristatus, clear and elevated in H. punctatus. H. cristitergus Hancock, 1915 syn.nov. is synonymized with H. punctatus, as already proposed in some old papers.

  2. Mercury concentrations in water, and mercury and selenium concentrations in fish from Brownlee Reservoir and selected sites in Boise and Snake Rivers, Idaho and Oregon, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.

    2014-01-01

    advise of allowable fish consumption from specific water bodies. The geometric mean Hg concentration of 10 fish of a single species collected from a single water body (lake or stream) in Idaho is compared to the action level to determine if a fish consumption advisory should be issued. The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed individual fillets of mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) for Hg. The median Hg concentration of 0.32 mg/kg exceeded the Idaho water-quality criterion at the site in Brownlee Reservoir. Average Hg concentrations from Brownlee Reservoir (0.32 mg/kg) and the Boise River at mouth (0.33 mg/kg) exceeded the Hg RPTE threshold (>0.24 mg/kg). IFCAP action levels also were exceeded at the sites on Brownlee Reservoir and at the mouth of the Boise River. Median Hg concentrations in fish at the remaining four river sites were less than 0.20 mg/kg with average concentrations ranging from 0.14 to 0.21 mg/kg Hg. Selenium (Se) analysis also was conducted on one composite fish tissue sample per site to screen for general concentrations and to provide information for future risk assessments. Concentrations of Se ranged from 0.07 to 0.49 mg/kg wet weight; average concentrations were highest in smallmouth bass (0.40 mg/kg) and lowest in mountain whitefish (0.12 mg/kg).

  3. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Echols, K.R.; Gross, T.S.; May, T.W.; Anderson, P.J.; Coyle, J.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus spp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from 14 sites in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the CRB, and pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (> 1.0????g/g ww) at all CRB sites except the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (> 0.1????g/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p???-DDE were relatively high in fish from the Gila River at Arlington, Arizona (> 1.0????g/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (> 0.5????g/g ww). Concentrations of other formerly used pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Currently used pesticides such as Dacthal, endosulfan, ??-HCH, and methoxychlor were also greatest in fish from the Gila River downstream of Phoenix. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; > 0.11????g/g ww) and TCDD-EQs (> 5??pg/g ww) exceeded wildlife guidelines in fish from the Gila River at Phoenix. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also relatively high in carp from the Gila River at Phoenix and in bass from the Green River at Ouray NWR. Fish from some sites showed

  4. Bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne copper and zinc to fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Susan J.; Farag, Aïda M.; Meyer, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    To date, most researchers have used dietborne metal concentrations rather than daily doses to define metal exposure and this has resulted in contradictory data within and between fish species. It has also resulted in the impression that high concentrations of dietborne Cu and Zn (e.g.>900 mg kg−1 dry diet) are relatively non-toxic to fish. We re-analyzed existing data using rations and dietborne metal concentrations and used daily dose, species and life stage to define the toxicity of dietborne Cu and Zn to fish. Partly because of insufficient information we were unable to find consistent relationships between metal toxicity in laboratory-prepared diets and any other factor including, supplemented metal compound (e.g. CuSO4 or CuCl2), duration of metal exposure, diet type (i.e. practical, purified or live diets), or water quality (flow rates, temperature, hardness, pH, alkalinity). For laboratory-prepared diets, dietborne Cu toxicity occurred at daily doses of >1 mg kg−1 body weight d−1 for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), 1–15 mg kg−1 body weight d−1 (depending on life stage) for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and 35–45 mg kg−1 body weight d−1 for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We found that dietborne Zn toxicity has not yet been demonstrated in rainbow trout or turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) probably because these species have been exposed to relatively low doses of metal (<90 mg kg−1 body weight d−1) and effects on growth and reproduction have not been analyzed. However, daily doses of 9–12 mg Zn kg−1 body weight d−1 in laboratory-prepared diets were toxic to three other species, carp Cyprinus carpio, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, and guppy Poecilia reticulata. Limited research indicates that biological incorporation of Cu or Zn into a natural diet can either increase or decrease metal bioavailability, and the relationship between bioavailability and toxicity remains unclear. We have resolved the contradictory data

  5. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers in fish from the Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Timothy S.; Echols, Kathy R.; Davis, Anne P.; May, Tom W.; Orazio, Carl E.; Coyle, James J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2006-01-01

    Seven fish species were collected from 14 sites on rivers in the Colorado River Basin (CDRB) from August to October 2003. Spatial trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants were documented and contaminant effects on the fish were assessed. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Colorado River and on the Yampa, Green, Gunnison, San Juan, and Gila Rivers. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus sp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were the targeted species. Fish were field-examined for external and internal anomalies, selected organs were weighed to compute somatic indices, and tissue and fluid samples were preserved for fish health and reproductive biomarker analyses. Composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site were analyzed for organochlorine and elemental contaminants using performance-based and instrumental methods. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) was measured using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations were elevated throughout the CDRB, and pesticides concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (>1.0 ?g/g ww) at all sites except from the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (>0.1 ?g/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were relatively high in fish from Arlington, Arizona (>1.0 ?g/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (>0.5 ?g/g ww). Concentrations of other banned pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds

  6. The influence of sex and diet on the characteristics of hibernation in Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trefna, Marie; Goris, Maaike; Thissen, Cynthia M C; Reitsema, Vera A; Bruintjes, Jojanneke J; de Vrij, Edwin L; Bouma, Hjalmar R; Boerema, Ate S; Henning, Robert H

    Research on deep hibernators almost exclusively uses species captured from the wild or from local breeding. An exception is Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), the only standard laboratory animal showing deep hibernation. In deep hibernators, several factors influence hibernation quality,

  7. Occurrence and significance of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species : A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1998-01-01

    . The best known diseases associated with atypical A. salmonicida are carp Cyprinus carpio erythrodermatitis, goldfish Carassius auratus ulcer disease, and ulcer disease of flounder Platichthys flesus, but atypical strains are apparently involved in more disease outbreaks than previously suspected...

  8. Dicty_cDB: VHK181 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RP11-288C18... 116 2e-25 EU315008_1( EU315008 |pid:none) Carassius auratus PR110/striatin m... 116 2e-25 BC129211_1(...(cDNA... 116 3e-25 EU315009_1( EU315009 |pid:none) Carassius auratus S/G2 nuclear aut... 115 4e-25 BC081006_1(

  9. Two new species of the Coleopterous genus Acanthocerus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westwood, J.O.

    1883-01-01

    Ovali-rotundatus, convexus, glaber, niger, rude punctatus, punctis ovalibus, setas breves luteas emittentibus, capite punctatissimo; pronoti margine postico valde rotundato; lateribus valde deflexis, rotundatis; scutello sulco transverso basali, apice acuto; elytris stria gracillima suturæ proxima;

  10. Nuevos datos sobre los Pamphagidae (Orthoptera, Caelifera de la Península Ibérica I. Nueva subespecie de Eumigus Bolívar, 1878 de la Sierra de Alcaraz (Albacete, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, M. D.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Eumigus punctatus calarensis, a new subspecies of Pamphagidae, is described from Sierra de Alcaraz, in Albacete province (Spain, and its characteristics are discussed. We present data about its sound production and acoustic signals. New data on other species of Pamphagidae are given; including discussion of the taxonomic status of Acinipe mabillei, its account as valid species is proposed. We present the first known data on sound production by flapping method in Iberian Pamphagidae, for Eumigus punctatus punctatus. Lectotype and paralectotype of Kurtharzia nugatoria are designated.Se describe una nueva subespecie de Pamphagidae, Eumigus punctatus calarensis, de la Sierra de Alcaraz (Albacete, España, discutiéndose sus características diferenciales. Se presentan los datos sobre la producción de sonido y las manifestaciones acústicas. Se aportan nuevos datos sobre otras especies de Pamphagidae; entre ellos se discute la situación taxonómica de Acinipe mabillei, proponiéndose su consideración como especie válida, y se presentan los primeros datos conocidos sobre producción de sonido por el método del batido de tegminas (flapping en panfágidos ibéricos, en Eumigus punctatus punctatus. Se designan lectotipo y paralectotipo de Kurtharzia nugatoria.

  11. Avaliação dos parâmetros hematológicos, bioquímicos e parasitológicos decorrentes da infecção por Ancylostoma ceylanicum em hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) submetidos à dieta hipoprotéica

    OpenAIRE

    Carina de Paula Pacanaro Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Os ancilostomídeos infectam aproximadamente 740 milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo e podem levar a manifestações clínicas graves em seu hospedeiro. Estudos prospectivos de coorte no Brasil mostram altas taxas de reinfecção por ancilostomídeos em crianças desnutridas que já haviam sido tratadas, em comparação a crianças bem nutridas. Além disso, as infecções por geohelmintos podem piorar o estado nutricional da população afetada. Este estudo visa esclarecer os efeitos do estado nutricional do ...

  12. Antibacterial compounds from Rutaceae with activities against Flavobacterium columnare and Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Murraya koenegii (Rutaceae) leaves yielded isomahanine (1) and mahanine (2) with antibacterial activity towards bacteria species that cause columnaris disease and streptococcosis, common diseases in pond-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus ...

  13. Application of the CE-QUAL-W2 Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model to Fort Peck Reservoir, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    catfish (Ictalurus spp.), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Coldwater species present in the reservoir that are recreationally important...more vulnerable to sight- feeding predators and increasing competition for food by sight- adapted predators. In addition, adult fish may be adversely...balance routine computes the difference in observed reservoir storage and simulated reservoir storage by feeding the program observed and simulated pool

  14. Diadophis Puntatus Puntatus (Southern Ring-neck Snake) Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.

    2016-01-01

    DIADOPHIS PUNCTATUS PUNCTATUS (Southern Ring-necked Snake). PREDATION. Here I present the first record of Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk) predator on a Diadophis p. punctatus. At ca. 1100h on l2 February2 013,I observed a B. lineatus eating a katydid in Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary (26.2730'N, 81.6079"W;WGS 84), Collier Co., Florida, USA. The hawk was in a Pond Cypress tree on the edge of a small prairie bordered on one side by a cypress swamp and by pine woodland on the other. Immediately upon consuming the katydid, the hawk flew to the ground ca. 1.5 m from an elevated boardwalk to grab an adult D. punctatus. It then flew with the snake in its talons to a branch 3 m high ca. l0 m from the boardwalk. The hawk stretched and otherwise manipulated the struggling snake (Fig.1) before consuming the still moving snake. Although snakes are a well-known component of B. lineatus diet (Clark1 987A. Field Guide to the Hawks of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, Massachusetts 198 pp.), I found only one literature reference to Red-shouldered Hawks eating Ring-neck Snakes (Fisher 1893.Hawks and Owls of the United States in their Relation to Agriculture. U.S. Dept. Agric., Div Ornith. Mamm. Bull. 3). That specimen was from Canton, New York (taken 26 Oct IBBB) and would be a D. p. edwardisii (Northern Ring-necked Snake), while the snake reported on here is a Diadophis p. punctatus (USNM Herp Image 2847a -c). Based on evidence presented by Fontanella et al. (2008. Mol. Phylogenet Evol.46:1049-1070), D. p. edwardisii and D. p. punctatus are likely different species.

  15. Review of the species of Paratenetus Spinola inhabiting America, north of Mexico (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bousquet

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The North American (north of Mexico species of the tenebrionid genus Paratenetus Spinola are reviewed and a key is presented for their identification. Five species are recognized, P. gibbipennis Motschulsky, P. fuscus LeConte, P. punctatus Spinola and two sp. n., P. exutus [type locality: Tabusintac, Nova Scotia] and P. texanus [type locality: Port Isabel, Cameron County, Texas]. Two syn. n. are proposed: P. cribratus Motschulsky, 1868 with P. gibbipennis Motschulsky, 1868 and P. crinitus Fall, 1907 with P. fuscus LeConte, 1850. A lectotype is selected for Paratenetus punctatus Spinola. A type species is designated for Storthephora Mäklin, 1875 (Storthephora denticollis Mäklin, 1875.

  16. Espécies novas de Anthrenoides Ducke (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Andreninae da Argentina New species of Anthrenoides Ducke (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Andreninae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúncia Urban

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritas e ilustradas as seguintes espécies: A calderensis sp. nov., A. cordobensis sp. nov., A. gibberosus sp. nov., A. neffi sp. nov., A. punctatus sp. nov., A. saltensis sp. nov., A. sanpedroi sp. nov., A. tucumanus sp. nov. e A. villaguayensis sp. nov. É apresentada uma chave para a sua identificação.Anthrenoides calderensis sp. nov., A. cordobensis sp. nov., A. gibberosus sp. nov., A. neffi sp. nov., A. punctatus sp. nov., A. saltensis sp. nov., A. sanpedroi sp. nov., A. tucumanus sp. nov. and A. villaguayensis sp. nov. are described and illustrated. A key to identify the species is presented.

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yates, RD. Vol 2, No 2 (1999): Special Edition - Articles Effect of low temparature on the ventricular myocyte ultrastructure of the syrian hamster (Mesocricerus auratus): A morphometric study. Abstract. ISSN: 0855-3823. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  18. Development of Chronic and Acute Golden Syrian Hamster Infection Models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Science.gov (United States)

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...

  19. Metabolic rate changes proportionally to circadian frequency in tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Hut, RA; Daan, S; Loudon, ASI; Stirland, AJ; Loudon, Andrew S.I.; Stirland, Anne J.

    1997-01-01

    The tau mutation in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) is phenotypically expressed in a period of the circadian rhythm of about 20 h in homozygotes (SS) and about 22 h in heterozygotes (S+). The authors investigate whether this well-defined model for variation in circadian period exhibits

  20. Light microscopic description and histopathological effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A species of Coccidia, Eimeria was found infecting the Nile catfish Chrysichthys auratus. The parasite was found aggregated in mucosa, submucosa and connective tissue between muscle bundles of the intestine, and also in the parenchymal tissue of the liver and the pancreas. The recorded stages were the maturing ...

  1. Temporal changes in cranial size in South African vlei rats ( Otomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We hypothesised that cranial size should vary in space and time within species according to Bergmann's Rule, which predicts an inverse relationship between body size and temperature. We used the greatest length of the skull (GLS) as a robust indicator of body size. Cranial size of both O. auratus and O. angoniensis ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quashie-Sam, SJ. Vol 35, No 1 (2002) - Articles Evaluation of fuel wood quality of four tree species used for fish smoking in the Sene District of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana Details · Vol 35, No 1 (2002) - Articles Effect of fuel wood type on the quality of smoked fish - Chrysichthys auratus. Details. ISSN: 0855-0042.

  3. Evolutionary history of the somatostatin and somatostatin receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... growth through their control pattern of secretion of growth hormone, but the evolutionary history of somatostatin and somatostatin receptors are ill defined. We used comparative whole genome analysis of Danio rerio, Carassius auratus, Xenopus tropicalis, Gallus gallus, Monodelphis domestica, Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, ...

  4. Size, Length-Weight Relationships, Reproduction And Trophic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Size, Length-Weight Relationships, Reproduction And Trophic Biology Of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus And Chrysichthys auratus (Siluriformes: Bagridae) In A ... The high Spearman's rank coefficient (r = 0.75) and the Raabe's factor (R = 59.0%, %FO; 56.8%, VI) show strong similarity and overlap in the food types of the two ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-04-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-04-0022 sp|Q90309|OPSUV_CARAU Ultraviolet-sensitive opsin (Ultraviolet co...ne photoreceptor pigment) dbj|BAA12889.1| ultraviolet-sensitive visual pigment [Carassius auratus] Q90309 1e-173 87% ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    John, G. Vol 34, No 2 (2009) - Articles The role of ornamental goldfish Carassius auratus in transfer of some viruses and ectoparasites to cultured fish in Egypt: comparative ultrapathological studies. Abstract. ISSN: 1727-9364. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diab, AS. Vol 34, No 2 (2009) - Articles The role of ornamental goldfish Carassius auratus in transfer of some viruses and ectoparasites to cultured fish in Egypt: comparative ultrapathological studies. Abstract. ISSN: 1727-9364. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of ornamental goldfish Carassius auratus in transfer of some viruses and ectoparasites to cultured fish in Egypt: comparative ultrapathological studies. Abstract · Vol 39, No 4 (2014) - Articles Efficiency of using green algae as biological controllers against toxic algal taxa in cultured Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, ...

  9. Metabolic and histological studies on the effect of garlic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chrysichthys auratus fish were orally administered with doses of garlic (Allium sativum) juice equivalent to 2g per kg body wt, as a single dose or the same dose every 48h for 5 and 11 days. The results showed a hypoglycaemia, hypolipidaemia, hypocholesterolaemia, hypotriglyceridaemia and drop in serum TFAA as well ...

  10. Cyclic changes of steroid production activity in the ovary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-07-25

    Jul 25, 1986 ... punctatus by Malhotra, Jyoti & Gupta (1978). Results concerning the stages of oocyte development and the corresponding stage of ovary recrudescence during the different seasons of the breeding cycle will be reported in a separate paper. In special theca cells 313-HSO activity was evident throughout the ...

  11. The tadpole of Hypsiboas atlanticus (Anura, Hylidae from northeastern Brazil O girino de Hypsiboas atlanticus (Anura, Hylidae do nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe A. C. do Nascimento

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The tadpole of Hypsiboas atlanticus (Caramaschi & Velosa, 1996 is described from the municipality of Maceió, State of Alagoas, Brazil. At stage 36 the larvae have an overall elliptical body in lateral and dorsal views, oral disc anteroventral, spiracular tube sinistral, and labial tooth row formula 2(1,2/3(1. The oral disc is surrounded, almost completely (anterior medial gap present by a single row of marginal papillae. Described tadpoles of the H. punctatus species group can be differentiated by a combined disc oral features. Additional descriptions of H. punctatus (Schneider, 1799 tadpoles from populations throughout South America may be helpful in determining the status of these populations.O girino de Hypsiboas atlanticus (Caramaschi & Velosa, 1996 é descrito a partir de indivíduos coletados em Maceió, Estado de Alagoas, Brasil. No estágio 36 o corpo é elíptico em vistas lateral e dorsal, o disco oral é anteroventral e o espiráculo é sinistro. A fórmula dental é 2(1,2/3(1. O disco oral é rodeado por uma única fileira de papilas marginais, ausentes anteriormente. Os girinos do grupo de H. punctatus podem ser diferenciados por um conjunto de características do disco oral. Descrições adicionais de girinos de populações de H. punctatus (Schneider, 1799 em toda América do Sul poderá ser útil em determinar seus status.

  12. Fenthion induced toxicity and histopathological changes in gill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersoo

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... to the herbicide, glyphosate. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 5:2480-2487. Pandey S, Kumar R, Sharma S, Napure NS, Srivastava SK, Verma MS. (2005). Acute toxicity bioassays of mercuric chloride and malathion on air-breathing fish Channa punctatus (Bloch). Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 61:114-120. Peter JV, Cherian ...

  13. Relative effectiveness of carp pituitary extract, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog LHRHa injections and LHRHa implants for producing hybrid catfish fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption of the hybrid catfish (channel catfish, Ictalruus punctatus, female x blue catfish, I. furcatus, male) is increasing in the catfish industry. The most effective way to produce fry is hormone induced spawning of females coupled with hand stripping and in vitro fertilization. The success of...

  14. Amfibieen rond Ambleteuse 1977

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, Jeroen; Leeuwen, van Frits

    1979-01-01

    In 1977 hebban we in het gebied rond Ambleteuse amfibieën bestudeerd. Bij inventarisatie troffen we Triturus vulgaris, T. helveticus, T.alpestris, T.cristatus. Rana temporaria, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, B. calamita, Alytes obstetricans, Pelodytes punctatus en Salamandra salamandra aan. Verschillend

  15. Structures dendritiques des cônes antennaires apicaux de diplopodes (Myriapoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Duy-Jacquemin, Monique

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study of four antennal apical cones of diplopods is undertaken in two julids, Typhloblaniulus lorifer Brölemann and Cylindroiulus punctatus (Leach), and in a penicillate, Polyxenus lagurus (Linnaeus). The sensory cones, with an apical pore, show a comparatively similar structure.

  16. osmoregulation by means of a hitherto unsuspected osmoregulatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of its position, seems unlikely to serve any digestive function. The possibility that this organ is concerned with water excretion was investigated by us. In hypotonic external media, ligaturing of the diverticulum in vivo upsets the osmoregu- latory ability of the grapsid crabs Cyclograpsus punctatus Milne-Edwards and Plagusia.

  17. The effect of temperature and salinity on oxygen consumption in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aquatic oxygen consumption of the estuarine brachyuran crab, Cyclograpsus punctatus, was investigated after a 24-hour acclimation period at different temperature (12.5, 20, 30°C) and salinity (9, 17.5, 35, and 44‰) combinations . Salinity had no significant effect on oxygen consumption at 12.5 and 20°C in both large ...

  18. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furhan T. Mhaisen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio, the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided.

  19. Comparative study of infection with Tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharon, G.; Leibowitz, M. Pimenta; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Tetrahymena is a ciliated protozoan that can infect a wide range of fish species, although it is most commonly reported in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility to infection with Tetrahymena of five different ornamental fish species from two...... different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order...... of the Acanthopterygii super order. Guppies were the most susceptible to Tetrahymena infection, exhibiting a mortality rate of 87% and 100% in two separate experiments. A high mortality rate was also observed in platy (77%), while that of molly and angelfish was significantly lower (23% and 33%, respectively). Goldfish...

  20. マラウィ湖産シクリッド魚類の臀鰭斑紋型と繁殖行動との関係について

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Koichiro; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki; Imabayashi, Hiromichi

    2001-01-01

    Mating behavior was observed on 8 mouth-brooding Malawian cichlid species in aquarium, and was discussed from a viewpoint of the spot type on the male anal fin. The mating behavior for the pair was divided into seven steps; step 1, display; step 2, navigation; step 3, stimulation; step 4, oviposition; step 5, egg collection; step 6, fertilization; and step 7, mimic fertilization. Spots on the anal fin were categorized into four types; oval (Labidochromis caeruleus, Melanochromis auratus and P...