WorldWideScience

Sample records for aurates

  1. A new gold(III)-aminoethyl imidazolium aurate salt as precursor for nanosized Au electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballarin, Barbara, E-mail: ballarin@ms.fci.unibo.i [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica e Inorganica, Viale Risorgimento 4, INSTM UdR Bologna, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Cassani, Maria Cristina, E-mail: cassani@ms.fci.unibo.i [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica e Inorganica, Viale Risorgimento 4, INSTM UdR Bologna, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Gazzano, Massimo [Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattivita, CNR, Via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Solinas, Gavino [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica e Inorganica, Viale Risorgimento 4, INSTM UdR Bologna, 40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    In this work the novel, robust, air- and moisture-stable gold(III)-aminoethyl imidazolium aurate salt [Cl{sub 3}AuNH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}ImMe][AuCl{sub 4}](1) has been employed as precursor for the electrosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto ITO electrodes in 0.5 mol dm{sup -3} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution without the use of additional additives and/or stabilizers. The electrode termed ILNH{sub 2}-Au{sub NPs200} prepared at a fixed electrodeposition time (t{sub d}) of 200 s was characterized with AFM, SEM, XRD diffraction as well as cyclic voltammetry (CVs) and compared with an electrode in which the AuNPs have been electrodeposited from KAuCl{sub 4} in the presence of KI as additive at the same t{sub d} (Au{sub NPs200}). The effect of the t{sub d} (i.e. 50 s or 500 s; electrodes ILNH{sub 2}-Au{sub NPs50} and ILNH{sub 2}-Au{sub NPs500}, respectively) was also investigated together with the electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation in alkaline medium of all the prepared electrodes. The comparison with Au{sub NPs} obtained with KI as additive shows that the presence of the amino-functionalized imidazolium moiety although not relevant in relation to the particle size, favours the metal electrodeposition process and plays an important role in the enhancement of the following parameters: (i) surface coverage (S.C.), (ii) electroactive particle coverage {Phi}{sub p} %, (iii) electroactive surface area {sigma}{sub red(exp)}/{sigma}{sub red(theor)} and (iv) catalytic efficiency.

  2. “A Lock of Thy Bright Hair”: The Enlightenment’s Milton and Our Auratic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Lewis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at how English critics, biographers, and poets once sported with the image, idea, and biomaterial of John Milton’s hair. Their play is contextualized within the materialist and instrumental values that were instituted in eighteenth-century literary criticism and biography and that remain central to the humanities today. It was the philologists, antiquarians, bibliophiles, biographers, and anecdotalists of the long eighteenth century who linked the value of cultural objects to their work in the cultural world. The objects sheltered from that world—aesthetic ones in the modern sense—were meanwhile endowed with qualities purloined from an otherwise debunked supernatural register. These contradictory values, all object-centered, cultivated skepticism in observers and thus scripted still-privileged affective postures of mourning and melancholia with respect to objects of inquiry. Dynamic entanglement with Milton’s hair in eighteenth-century critical writing tells a different story. It teaches us to approach that writing as writing and to value “Milton’s hair” as auratic in the communicative sense later displaced by diffident, object-centered models of the aura. Can we define and engage our “material” along the lines of eighteenth-century “entanglement” with Milton’s hair?

  3. Aria de pixel: riprodutibilità aurática digitale Ar de pixel: reprodutibilidade aurática digital Pixel air: digital auratic reprodutibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mássimo Canevacci

    2010-04-01

    . The challenge toward a university based not only on territorial Faculty is open. Different forms of communication are digitally mixing and syncretizing the Benjamin visions on aura and reproducibility. My final perspective is the Digital Auratic Reproducibility.

  4. The Pedagogue of the Auratic Medium--Extending the Argument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Nick Peim has recently revisited the work of Walter Benjamin; specifically his famous essay on art and mechanical reproduction. In this reply, I too draw upon the inspiration of Benjamin to extend the argument to the question of experience and what might count as knowledge, both in a philosophical sense and also in terms of the curriculum. To…

  5. A joint data record of tropospheric ozone from Aura-TES and MetOp-IASI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Hilke; Payne, Vivienne H.; Neu, Jessica L.; Kulawik, Susan S.; Edwards, David P.; Eldering, Annmarie; Worden, Helen M.; Worden, John R.

    2016-08-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on Aura and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on MetOp-A together provide a time series of 10 years of free-tropospheric ozone with an overlap of 3 years. We characterise the differences between TES and IASI ozone measurements and find that IASI's coarser vertical sensitivity leads to a small (< 5 ppb) low bias relative to TES for the free troposphere. The TES-IASI differences are not dependent on season or any other factor and hence the measurements from the two instruments can be merged, after correcting for the offset, in order to study decadal-scale changes in tropospheric ozone. We calculate time series of regional monthly mean ozone in the free troposphere over eastern Asia, the western United States (US), and Europe, carefully accounting for differences in spatial sampling between the instruments. We show that free-tropospheric ozone over Europe and the western US has remained relatively constant over the past decade but that, contrary to expectations, ozone over Asia in recent years does not continue the rapid rate of increase observed from 2004 to 2010.

  6. Extending the satellite data record of tropospheric ozone profiles from Aura-TES to MetOp-IASI

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    H. Oetjen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We apply the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES ozone retrieval algorithm to Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Instrument (IASI radiances and characterise the uncertainties and information content of the retrieved ozone profiles. This study focuses on mid-latitudes for the year 2008. We validate our results by comparing the IASI ozone profiles to ozone sondes. In the sonde comparisons, we find a positive bias in the IASI ozone profiles in the UTLS region of up to 14% on average. For the described cases, the degrees of freedom for signal are on average 3.2, 0.3, 0.8, and 0.9 for the columns 0 km–top of atmosphere, (0–6 km, (0–11 km, and (8–16 km, respectively. We find that our biases with respect to sondes and our degrees of freedom for signal for ozone are comparable to previously published results from other IASI ozone algorithms. In addition to evaluating biases, we validate the retrieval errors by comparing predicted errors to the sample covariance matrix of the IASI observations themselves. For the predicted vs. empirical error comparison, we find that these errors are consistent and that the measurement noise and the interference of temperature and water vapour on the retrieval together mostly explain the empirically derived random errors. In general, the precision of the IASI ozone profiles is better than 20%.

  7. "气场"到哪儿去了?——对文化研究及新自由主义的反思%Where Has the Aura Gone? Reflections on Cultural Studies, Neoliberalism, and Literature as the Auratic Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐钢; 曹雷雨

    2010-01-01

    @@ 我最近在一个评审委员会工作,为某一亚洲国别文学教席确定人选.不少申请者在个人简历和附信中声称,自己的研究领域包括"文化研究",并特别指出,除了具备经典文学方面的专业训练,他们还广泛涉猎了通俗小说(侦探小说、科幻小说等)、电影、性别、种族或民间传统(民间传说、现场表演、动画片等).我和我的同事都为候选人研究领域的多样化而倍感兴奋,可是当细读其著作时,兴奋变成了失望.大多数著作流于肤浅,满篇皆是空洞之辞、泛泛而论和千篇一律的观点.人人似乎无所不知,企图囊括一切流行论题,可是哪个问题都无法澄清.

  8. Four steps in the history of museum technologies and visitors' digital participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis of this article is that the authentic and auratic exhibited objects in museums enter into a dialogue with surrounding paratexts. The paratexts anchor and change the meaning of the exhibited object in the museum context. Recent years have indicated a tendency for museum paratexts to...

  9. Medium Caliber Lead-Free Electric Primer. Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    eliminate the lead styphnate and barium nitrate components in the current 20mm electric primer for the purposes of protecting our troops, production...Lead nitrate is added to the magnesium bis(trinitroresorcinol) to form lead styphnate and magnesium nitrate. The additional ingredient, barium ...conventional lead styphnate primers. On small scale samples, outstanding all-up round action times (AUR-ATs) were obtained for ambient (2.92 ms) and

  10. Human Crashworthiness and Crash Load Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Oo U OTne abbebbtuent ox tue haiaro to a cr*wMtnt«r in a («otential aircratt craan raquirok intormation about nunan tolerance to Omtcnanicai torcas...available uata pointk oo not oenonsrate tnat tne nunan body can tolerate higher acceleration levels as tne auration or tne acceleration pulbe Ik...tust oak caquirco an aBb«b&u«nt tcon tirat pcincipXas since no preecoent exibte. Tua{« ib vtij iitti.« aata avanaoi«: on nunan toieranc« to

  11. La obra de arte en la época de la retuiteabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antonio Gatica Cote

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will study the artistic status and circulation of cultural products in the social network Twitter. To this end, I will take the ideas of Walter Benjamin on the loss of “aura” and the José Luis Brea’s approaches about the electronic cultural capitalism, a new stage of culture characterized by the passage of an auratic monumental logic to an “era of electronic distribution” and its new possibilities of distribution and access.

  12. Ethographic ubiquity: original fake, expanded codex, transurban subject, performative doll

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    Massimo Canevacci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available My essay presents the emerging of fake as a concept that does not mean false, but a post-dualistic mix of false/truth. The relation between digital culture and ubiquitous subjectivity is fundamental during its process; in the same way, the relation between aura and reproducibility cannot be determined dialectically as Benjamin did. Digital auratic reproducibility is the contemporary context and communicational metropolis is characterized by spontaneous and public performance: so, my conclusion is an analysis of some “living” doll and their uncanny presence.

  13. Rapid colorimetric sensing of tetracycline antibiotics with in situ growth of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Li, E-mail: lishen97@163.com [Logistics School, Beijing Wuzi University, Beijing 101149 (China); Chen, Jing; Li, Na [Logistics School, Beijing Wuzi University, Beijing 101149 (China); He, Pingli [State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Li, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2014-08-11

    Highlights: • Tetracyclines directly reduce aurate into gold nanoparticles. • Gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plamson absorbance at 526 nm. • Quantitative detection of tetracyclines with the colorimetric assay. • Tetracyclines spiked urine samples can be detected with the assay. - Abstract: A colorimetric assay utilizing the formation of gold nanoparticles was developed to detect tetracycline antibiotics in fluidic samples. Tetracycline antibiotics showed the capability of directly reducing aurate salts into atomic gold which form gold nanoparticles spontaneously under proper conditions. The resulted gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plasmon absorbance at 526 nm, which can be visualized by naked eyes or with a spectrophotometer. UV–vis absorbance of the resulted gold nanoparticles is correlated directly with the concentrations of tetracycline antibiotics in the solution, allowing for quantitative colorimetric detection of tetracycline antibiotics. Reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature, reaction time, and ionic strength were optimized. Sensitivity of the colorimetric assay can be enhanced by the addition of gold nanoparticle seeds, a LOD as low as 20 ng mL{sup −1} can be achieved with the help of seed particles. The colorimetric assay showed minimum interference from ethanol, methanol, urea, glucose, and other antibiotics such as sulfonamides, amino glycosides etc. Validity of the method was also evaluated on urine samples spiked with tetracycline antibiotics. The method provides a broad spectrum detection method for rapid and sensitive detection of reductive substances such as tetracycline antibiotics in liquid and biological samples.

  14. Single-source precursors for alloyed gold-silver nanocrystals - a molecular metallurgy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopes, David; Hegemann, Corinna; Schläfer, Johannes; Tyrra, Wieland; Mathur, Sanjay

    2015-04-20

    Multiple silver(I)-aurates(I) have been prepared by salt metathesis reactions that act as efficient single-source precursors to colloidal gold silver alloys with the highest possible atom economy in the chemical synthesis of nanostructures. The CF3 group present on the Au cation acts as an in situ reducing agent and can be converted into CO ligands by simple hydrolysis. This ligand-mediated activation and subsequent decomposition of metal-organic precursors impose a molecular control over the nucleation process, producing homogeneously alloyed (Ag-Au) nanoparticles with an atomic Au:Ag ratio of 1:1. The concept also works for the Au-Cu system and acts as a pointer to replace Au (Ag) with less expensive (Cu) metals.

  15. Engineering of poly(ethylene glycol chain-tethered surfaces to obtain high-performance bionanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Nagasaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A poly(ethylene glycol-b-poly[2-(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate] block copolymer possessing a reactive acetal group at the end of the poly(ethylene glycol (PEG chain, that is, acetal-PEG-b-PAMA, was synthesized by a proprietary polymerization technique. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs were prepared using the thus-synthesized acetal-PEG-b-PAMA block copolymer. The PEG-b-PAMA not only acted as a reducing agent of aurate ions but also attached to the nanoparticle surface. The GNPs obtained had controlled sizes and narrow size distributions. They also showed high dispersion stability owing to the presence of PEG tethering chains on the surface. The same strategy should also be applicable to the fabrication of semiconductor quantum dots and inorganic porous nanoparticles. The preparation of nanoparticles in situ, i.e. in the presence of acetal-PEG-b-PAMA, gave the most densely packed polymer layer on the nanoparticle surface; this was not observed when coating preformed nanoparticles. PEG/polyamine block copolymer was more functional on the metal surface than PEG/polyamine graft copolymer, as confirmed by angle-dependent x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We successfully solubilized the C60 fullerene into aqueous media using acetal-PEG-b-PAMA. A C60/acetal-PEG-b-PAMA complex with a size below 5 nm was obtained by dialysis. The preparation and characterization of these materials are described in this review.

  16. Rapid colorimetric sensing of tetracycline antibiotics with in situ growth of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Chen, Jing; Li, Na; He, Pingli; Li, Zhen

    2014-08-11

    A colorimetric assay utilizing the formation of gold nanoparticles was developed to detect tetracycline antibiotics in fluidic samples. Tetracycline antibiotics showed the capability of directly reducing aurate salts into atomic gold which form gold nanoparticles spontaneously under proper conditions. The resulted gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plasmon absorbance at 526 nm, which can be visualized by naked eyes or with a spectrophotometer. UV-vis absorbance of the resulted gold nanoparticles is correlated directly with the concentrations of tetracycline antibiotics in the solution, allowing for quantitative colorimetric detection of tetracycline antibiotics. Reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature, reaction time, and ionic strength were optimized. Sensitivity of the colorimetric assay can be enhanced by the addition of gold nanoparticle seeds, a LOD as low as 20 ng mL(-1) can be achieved with the help of seed particles. The colorimetric assay showed minimum interference from ethanol, methanol, urea, glucose, and other antibiotics such as sulfonamides, amino glycosides etc. Validity of the method was also evaluated on urine samples spiked with tetracycline antibiotics. The method provides a broad spectrum detection method for rapid and sensitive detection of reductive substances such as tetracycline antibiotics in liquid and biological samples.

  17. Improving Air Quality Forecasts with AURA Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newchurch, M. J.; Biazer, A.; Khan, M.; Koshak, W. J.; Nair, U.; Fuller, K.; Wang, L.; Parker, Y.; Williams, R.; Liu, X.

    2008-01-01

    Past studies have identified model initial and boundary conditions as sources of reducible errors in air-quality simulations. In particular, improving the initial condition improves the accuracy of short-term forecasts as it allows for the impact of local emissions to be realized by the model and improving boundary conditions improves long range transport through the model domain, especially in recirculating anticyclones. During the August 2006 period, we use AURA/OMI ozone measurements along with MODIS and CALIPSO aerosol observations to improve the initial and boundary conditions of ozone and Particulate Matter. Assessment of the model by comparison of the control run and satellite assimilation run to the IONS06 network of ozonesonde observations, which comprise the densest ozone sounding campaign ever conducted in North America, to AURA/TES ozone profile measurements, and to the EPA ground network of ozone and PM measurements will show significant improvement in the CMAQ calculations that use AURA initial and boundary conditions. Further analyses of lightning occurrences from ground and satellite observations and AURA/OMI NO2 column abundances will identify the lightning NOx signal evident in OMI measurements and suggest pathways for incorporating the lightning and NO2 data into the CMAQ simulations.

  18. Optimizing growth conditions for electroless deposition of Au films on Si(111) substrates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhuvana; G U Kulkarni

    2006-10-01

    Electroless deposition of Au films on Si(111) substrates from fluorinated-aurate plating solutions has been carried out at varying concentrations, deposition durations as well as bath temperatures, and the resulting films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical profilometry, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Depositions carried out with dilute plating solutions (< 0.1 mM) at 28°C for 30 min produce epitaxial films exhibiting a prominent Au(111) peak in the diffraction patterns, while higher concentrations or temperatures, or longer durations yield polycrystalline films. In both epitaxial and polycrystalline growth regimes, the film thickness increases linearly with time, however, in the latter case, at a rate an order of magnitude higher. Interestingly, the surface roughness measured using atomic force microscopy shows a similar trend. On subjecting to annealing at 250°C, the roughness of the film decreases gradually. Addition of poly (vinylpyrrolidone) to the plating solution is shown to produce a X-ray amorphous film with nanoparticulates capped with the polymer as evidenced by the core-level photoelectron spectrum. Nanoindentation using AFM has shown the hardness of the films to be much higher (∼ 2.19 GPa) than the bulk value.

  19. TECHNOLOGY FOR THE PREPARATION OF LIVESTOCK WASTEWATER FOR IRRIGATION OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domashenko Y. E.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors propose various techniques for the preparation of livestock waste for agricultural use, particularly for irrigation. We have considered resource-saving environmentally safe technology for processing livestock waste pig farms based on the use of the reagent preparation phosphogypsum – residuals of phosphoric acid and fertilizers. The technology was tested and endorsed at the operating company LLC "Aksai field" of the Rostov region. Also based on this technology, we have offered the following technical solution: livestock wastewater is exposed to the vortex field with movable ferromagnetic particles, which contributes to more complete disinfecting effect. Further improvement of the technological scheme of training for livestock waste allowed to get more modern technical solution, including sewage treatment acidifying reagent is a suspension of phosphogypsum and slightly basic by oxychloride brand Aqua-Aurat. With the aim of reducing the cost and simplifying the technology of training we offered using a reagent, obtained from natural raw materials - silica-coagulant on the basis of nepheline instead of the low-base oxychloride brand Aqua-AuraTM. Aluminosilicate coagulant on the basis of nepheline may be used at high values of COD up to 2000 mg O/l and TBOD to 1500 mg O/l, which is a limitation for the use of such coagulants in the preparation of livestock wastewater pig farms. All the proposed technologies are based on the positions of resource and energy efficiency and environmental safety

  20. Four steps in the history of museum technologies and visitors' digital participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Riber Christensen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis of this article is that the authentic and auratic exhibited objects in museums enter into a dialogue with surrounding paratexts. The paratexts anchor and change the meaning of the exhibited object in the museum context. Recent years have indicated a tendency for museum paratexts to grow increasingly allographic, i.e., visitors generate them both in situ and online as a part of Web 2.0 participation. The verification and documentation of this hypothesis are partly empirical, partly historical. The empirical research consists of an examination of the exhibition and display technologies used today in three different museums and galleries: the Bode Museum in Berlin, the Victoria and Albert Museum and Dr. Johnson's House in London.    The historical verification and documentation in this article describe four steps in the development of exhibition technologies: the Boydell Shakespeare Gallery (1789-1805, the post-photographic museum (the 1850s, audio guides, as well as a special focus on how museum paratexts have become independent today in its digital and participatory form. In this way, the article sketches the historical development of curating towards the digital and paratextual participation of visitors and audience. Here the argumentation is based on how the displayed object creates signification in its position between its autonomy and its contexts. The following display technologies are described and analysed: stipple engraving, photography, the audio guide, and the interactive, digital Anota pen and its Internet server.    In conclusion, the article asks where the place of signification or meaning of the exhibited object has moved to in the face of the increased degree of visitor participation. The tentative answer is that the signification generating process has moved away from the historical context of the object and towards the contemporary world of the visitor. The article connects this change in cultural discourse

  1. Application of Semi—rebonded Magnesite—Chrome Bricks of LRCO at RH Lower Vessl of NKK Keihin Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYong; ShintaroSudo

    1998-01-01

    The application results of Semi-rebonded Magnesite-Chrome bricks at RH lower vessl of the NKK Corporation Keihin Works have been analysed.The results indicate that the main reasons that cause the damage of the refractory bricks include chemical at-tack of slag to the Semi-rebonded Magnesite-Chrome bricks;penetration of molten steel and slagn into the bricks;and thermal spalling due to teperature fluctuation during steel making operation. The re-sulits of multiple effection of these factors lead to alternative action of erosion(chemicl attack and penetration) and spalling (thermal spalling and structure peeling) resulting in the damage of the brick,In order to improve the performance of the bricks,it is necessary to promote the resistance to ero-sion and thermal shock resistance as well as to keep the aurate dimensions of the brick .The measures to improve the resistance to erosion of magnesite-chrome bricks taken by the researchers mainly in-clude:lowering the contents of impurities in the bricks (mainly including SiO2,CaO,and next Fe2O3 and Al2O3);promoting the extent of direct bond of the brick;forming a large amount of magnesia-chrome composite spinel well-distributed in the bricks through adding a large amount of synthe-sized materials ;enhancing the resistance to erosion by adding a little amount of high-effective addi-tives,Improvement of thermal shock resistance of the bricks is mainly through introducing some addi-tive to make a certain amount of micro-cracks occur-ing in the brick so as to obtain the effect of increase toughness or through formation of second high tem-perture solid phse in the brick by adopting addi-tive,In ddition,it is needed to improve the quality of the brick appearance and ensure accurate dimen-sions of the brick ,The purpose of this paper is to describe the further improvement of the service life of refactory brick by the measures taken on the basis of the nalysis results to the used bricks.

  2. Isolation of 1,4-Li(2)-C(6)H(4) and its reaction with [(Ph(3)P)AuCl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Kevin R; McGown, A T; Miles, Philip J; Pritchard, Robin G; Warren, John E

    2010-04-14

    The difficulty in generating 1,4-Li2-C6H4 utilising the lithium halogen exchange reaction on 1,4-Br2-C6H4, 1,4-I2-C6H4 and 1-Br-4-I-C6H4 is revisited and only on treatment of 1,4-I2-C6H4 with 2 molar equivalents of n-BuLi can 1,4-Li2-C6H4 1 be isolated in excellent yield. Treatment of 1 with two equivalents of [ClAu(PPh3)] gives [1,4-(Ph3PAu)2-C6H4] 2a in excellent yield. Subsequent treatment of 2a with 2.5 molar equivalents of PPh2Me, PPhMe2 or PMe3 affords the PPh3 substituted compounds [1,4-(LAu)2-C6H4] (L = PPh2Me 2b, PPhMe2 2c, PMe3 2d) in essentially quantitative yields. On treatment of 1,4-Br2-C6H4 or 1-Br-4-I-C6H4 with 2 molar equivalents of n-BuLi only mono-lithiation takes place to give 1-Br-4-Li-C6H4 3 as shown through the isolation of essentially 1:1 molar equivalents of Ph2PC6H4-4-Br and Ph2PBu on treatment with 2 molar equivalents of ClPPh2. Treatment of 3, prepared by lithium/iodine exchange on 1-Br-4-I-C6H4, with [ClAu(PPh3)] affords [(Ph3P)Au(C6H4-4-Br)] 4 as expected and in addition [(Ph3P)Au(n-Bu)(C6H4-4-Br)2] 5, indicating the straightforward chloride/aryl exchange at gold may proceed in competition with oxidative addition of the n-BuI, generated in the initial lithium/iodine exchange reaction, to some aurate complex Li[Au(C6H4-4-Br)2] 6 formed in situ followed by reductive elimination of Br-C6H4-4-n-Bu in a manner that mimics lithium diorganocuprate chemistry. All of the gold-containing compounds have been spectroscopically characterised by 1H and 31P-{1H} NMR and in addition compounds 2a-d and 5 by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The solid state structures observed for 2a-d are dictated by non-conventional hydrogen bonding and the packing requirements of the phosphine ligands. For 2a and 2b there is no close Au...Au approach, however for 2c and 2d the reduction in the number of phenyl rings allows the formation of Au...Au contacts. For 2c and 2d the extended structures appear to be helical chains with Au...Au contact parameters of 3