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Sample records for aurantium peel extract

  1. Protective effects of a polymethoxy flavonoids-rich Citrus aurantium peel extract on liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seol-Wa; Lee, Dong-Ryung; Choi, Bong-Keun; Kim, Hong-Suk; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the possible protective effect of Citrus aurantium peel extract (CAE) against apoptosis in cholestatic liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation in mice. Male ICR mice were divided to 5 groups: 1) Control group (Sham-operated mice), 2) Cholestatic liver injury group induced by bile duct ligation (BDL), 3) BDL mice treated with silymarin (200 mg/kg) for 4 weeks, 4) BDL mice treated with 50 mg/kg CAE for 4 weeks, 5) BDL mice treated with 200 mg/kg CAE for 4 weeks. Mice were sacrificed and liver fibrosis was evaluated by serum and hepatic tissue biochemistry tests and liver histopathological examination. Effects of CAE on inflammation and apoptosis gene regulation were investigated through real-time PCR. CAE effect on lipid metabolism related signaling was determined by western blot analysis. In BDL mice, administration of CAE for 4 weeks markedly attenuated liver fibrosis based on histopathological alteration. Serum and hepatic tissue biochemistry results revealed that CAE (50 and 200 mg/kg) decreased the levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total bilirubin, nitric oxide, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis showed that CAE regulated inflammation, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism factors increased by BDL. Interleukin family, tumor necrosis factor α, and related apoptosis factors mRNA levels were increased by BDL treatment. However, these increases were suppressed by CAE administration. In addition, CAE effectively increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, and related cytoprotective proteins. CAE can efficiently regulate BDL-induced liver injury with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical Compositions of the Peel Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium and its Natural Larvicidal Activity against the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae in Comparison with Citrus paradisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, essential oils and extracts derived from plants have received much interest as potential bioactive agents against mosquito vectors.Methods: The essential oils extract from fresh peel of ripe fruit of Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi were tested against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae under laboratory condition. Then chemical com­position of the essential oil of C. aurantium was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS.Results: The essential oils obtained from C. aurantium, and C. paradisi showed good larviciding effect against An. stephensi with LC50 values 31.20 ppm and 35.71 ppm respectively. Clear dose response relationships were established with the highest dose of 80 ppm plant extract evoking almost 100% mortality. Twenty-one (98.62% constituents in the leaf oil were identified. The main constituent of the leaf oil was Dl-limonene (94.81.Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggest that the limonene of peel essential oil of C. aurantium is promising as larvicide against An. stephensi larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds.

  3. Hydroalcohol Fruit Peel Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L) fruit peel using 80 % ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Methods: Male ... Conclusion: The study shows indicates the antiulcer properties of the methanol extracts of north white ... experimentation, Cimetidine was obtained from.

  4. Toxic effects of Citrus aurantium and C. limon essential oils on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Emilio; Tolosa, Diego; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Citrus aurantium and C. limon were selected in the search for natural plant insecticides. The essential oils of C. aurantium and C. limon and ethanol extracts of the seeds, pulp, albedo, and peel of C. aurantium were incorporated into the larval diet of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Larval and pupal mortality were quantified and adult malformation was observed. C aurantium essential oil had antifeedant action and the mixture of albedo ethanol extract and C aurantium essential oil had toxic effects on S. frugiperda larvae at early stages, when they had not yet produced major damage to the crop. Our results indicated that a mixture of ethanol extract of albedo and C. aurantium essential oil (250 microg of extract mix per g of diet) deterred feeding by 46% and had the highest larval mortality (100%) of the materials tested. The peel extract (250 microg per g of diet) produced an increment in growth rate and diet consumption. However, 40% of the larval and 45% of the pupal populations died after 96 h of treatment. The blend of essential oil and C. aurantium albedo ethanol extract showed the lowest consumption and a poor nutrient conversion into biomass. Finally, the presence of D-limonene and nootkatone in the peel ethanol extract, and C. limon and C. aurantium essential oils, may be the cause of the response in the feeding behavior and toxic effects found on S. frugiperda.

  5. Absence of furanocoumarins in Advantra Z® (Citrus aurantium, bitter orange) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Miller, Howard; Romano, Felice

    2014-09-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) juice is known for its ability to alter drug metabolism through inhibition of the cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) system, and result in drug-food interactions that may be life threatening. The primary active ingredients in grapefruit responsible for these effects are the furanocoumarins bergapten, bergamottin, and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB). Bergamottin and DHB appear to be the most important in terms of adverse drug interactions. Furanocoumarins are present in the juices and fruits of other Citrus species including C. aurantium (bitter oranges). Bergapten is the predominant furanocoumarin in bitter orange. Bitter orange extracts are widely used in products associated with weight loss, sports performance, and energy production. Questions have been raised about the potential of bitter orange extracts to cause drug interactions. This study examined the furanocoumarin content of four standardized bitter orange extracts (Advantra Z®) by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The results indicated that the total furanocoumarin content of each of the four extracts was less than 20 μg/g, amounts insufficient to exert significant effects on the metabolism of susceptible drugs in human subjects at the doses commonly used for these extracts.

  6. Comparative study on the antioxidant capacity and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Citrus aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso and Poit. peel essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; Menichini, Federica; Mastellone, Vincenzo; Colica, Carmela; Menichini, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The interest in medicinal plant research and in the aroma-therapeutic effects of essential oils in humans has increased in recent years, especially for the treatment of pathologies of relevant social impact such as Alzheimer's disease. The present study was taken up to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the peel essential oils from three Citrus species, C. aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso & Poit. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and they contain mainly limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-terpinene, and linalyl acetate. C. aurantifolia oil showed the highest radical scavenging activity on ABTS assay (IC₅₀ value of 19.6 μg/mL), while C. bergamia exhibited a good antioxidant activity evaluated by the β-carotene bleaching test (IC₅₀ = 42.6 μg/mL after 60 min of incubation). C. aurantifolia inhibited more selectively AChE. Obtained data suggest a potential use of Citrus oils as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly. The demonstrated antioxidant activity and procholinesterase properties of Citrus essential oils suggested their use as a new potential source of natural antioxidant to added as extra-nutrient for using in food industries as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Concentrations of p-synephrine in fruits and leaves of Citrus species (Rutaceae) and the acute toxicity testing of Citrus aurantium extract and p-synephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbo, M D; Larentis, E R; Linck, V M; Aboy, A L; Pimentel, A L; Henriques, A T; Dallegrave, E; Garcia, S C; Leal, M B; Limberger, R P

    2008-08-01

    Dietary supplements containing bitter orange unripe fruit extract/p-synephrine are consumed worldwide for lose weight. This study were conducted to determine the concentration of p-synephrine in unripe fruits and leaves from Citrus aurantium Lin, C. sinensis Osbeck, C. deliciosa Ten, C. limon Burm and C. limonia Osbeck, collected in Southern Brazil, and to evaluate the acute toxicity of C. aurantium extract and p-synephrine. A high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was optimized and validated for determination of p-synephrine. The results indicate that all of analyzed samples present p-synephrine in amounts that range from 0.012% to 0.099% in the unripe fruits and 0.029 to 0.438% in the leaves. Acute oral administration of C. aurantium extracts (2.5% p-synephrine, 300-5,000 mg/kg) in mice produced reduction of locomotor activity, p-synephrine (150-2,000 mg/kg) produced piloerection, gasping, salivation, exophtalmia and reduction in locomotor activity, which was confirmed in spontaneous locomotor activity test. All the effects were reversible and persisted for 3-4h. The toxic effects observed seem to be related with adrenergic stimulation and should alert for possible side effects of p-synephrine and C. aurantium.

  8. Thermal stability of liquid antioxidative extracts from pomegranate peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was carried out to assess the potential of using the natural antioxidants in pomegranate peel extracts as replacement for synthetic antioxidants. As a result the thermal stability of pomegranate peel extract products during sterilization and storage, and its effect on industrial, color...

  9. Extraction kinetics and properties of proanthocyanidins from pomegranate peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    With an objective of developing a safe and efficient method to extract proanthocyanidins products from pomegranate peel for use in nutraceuticals or as food additives, the effects of extraction parameters on the production efficiency, product properties, and extraction kinetics were systematically s...

  10. Corrosion Inhibitor of Carbon Steel from Onion Peel Extract

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    Muhammad Samsudin Asep

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon steels composed by two main elements, they are iron (Fe and carbon (C elements which widely used in industrial because of its resistance and more affordable than stainless steel, but their weakness is they have low corrosion resistance. One way to modify carbon steel is by coating them with antioxidant compounds that can delay, slow down, and prevent lipid oxidation process, which obtained from onion peel extract. Several studies on corrosion inhibitors have been performed. However, the efficiency was not reach the optimum. This study aims to examine the effect of onion peel extract concentration on the efficiency of corrosion inhibitor and characterization of the green corrosion inhibitor from onion peel extract. This research method begins by extracting onion peel to 200 ml solvent which we use aquadest and methanol and mixed with 5 grams of crushed onion peel, then let them be extracted for 60 minutes with room temperature. Once it was filtered and the solution obtained, followed by evaporating process with rotary evaporator to decrease the content of solvent. The product is ready to be used as a green corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in 1 mol/L HCl. While the analysis used is HPLC qualitative analysis, and electroplatting process. The impedance is measured at a frequency of 100 kHz to 4 mHz with an AC current of 10mV. Inhibitor concentrations are vary between 2 ml and 4 ml of onion peel extract. Electroplatting is done within 30 minutes with 10 minutes each checking time. Furthermore, quantitative analysis was done for the analysis of corrosion rate and weight loss. Based on HPLC analysis, it is known that the extract of onion peel contains 1mg/L of quercetin, which is belong to flavonoid group as green inhibitor. While electroplatting process, aquadest solvent having average efficiency of 99,57% for 2 ml of extract, and 99,60% for 4 ml of extract. Methanol solvent having average efficiency of 99,52% for 2 ml of extract and 99

  11. Antibacterial effects of Solanum tuberosum peel ethanol extract in vitro

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    Amanpour Raana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, medicinal plants are being widely used due to being natural, available, and cheaper than synthetic drugs and having minimum side effects. Since there were reports about the antibacterial properties of Solanum tuberosum (SE, the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of SE ethanol extract in vitro condition on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Ethanol extract of SE peel was prepared by maceration method. Initially, antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of SE was qualitatively determined by disk diffusion test; then, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were qualitatively determined by micro-dilution method. Results: SE peel extract had antibacterial properties and its effect was more pronounced on gram-positive bacteria, especially S. aureus (0.62±0.00 mg/ml. The extract had antibacterial activity on gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, too (8.33±2.88 mg/ml. Conclusion: SE peel extract has antibacterial activity and its effect on gram-positive bacteria was more pronounced than the investigated gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, it is suggested that SE peel constituent compounds be determined and to determine the exact mechanism of its antibacterial properties, and more comprehensive research be done to apply it, clinically.

  12. Citrus aurantium L. dry extracts promote C/ebpβ expression and improve adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciti, Gregory Alexander; Fiory, Francesca; Campitelli, Michele; Desiderio, Antonella; Spinelli, Rosa; Longo, Michele; Nigro, Cecilia; Pepe, Giacomo; Sommella, Eduardo; Campiglia, Pietro; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco; Miele, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic and/or endocrine dysfunction of the white adipose tissue (WAT) contribute to the development of metabolic disorders, such as Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Therefore, the identification of products able to improve adipose tissue function represents a valuable strategy for the prevention and/or treatment of T2D. In the current study, we investigated the potential effects of dry extracts obtained from Citrus aurantium L. fruit juice (CAde) on the regulation of 3T3-L1 cells adipocyte differentiation and function in vitro. We found that CAde enhances terminal adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells raising the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/Ebpβ), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (Pparγ), glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4). CAde improves insulin-induced glucose uptake of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as well. A focused analysis of the phases occurring in the pre-adipocytes differentiation to mature adipocytes furthermore revealed that CAde promotes the early differentiation stage by up-regulating C/ebpβ expression at 2, 4 and 8 h post the adipogenic induction and anticipating the 3T3-L1 cell cycle entry and progression during mitotic clonal expansion (MCE). These findings provide evidence that the exposure to CAde enhances in vitro fat cell differentiation of pre-adipocytes and functional capacity of mature adipocytes, and pave the way to the development of products derived from Citrus aurantium L. fruit juice, which may improve WAT functional capacity and may be effective for the prevention and/or treatment of T2D.

  13. Biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles in banana peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guang Ju; Li, Shuo Hao; Zhang, Yu Cang; Fu, Yun Zhi

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using banana peel extract as a convenient, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green' capping agent. Cadmium nitrate and sodium sulfide are main reagents. A variety of CdS NPs are prepared through changing reaction conditions (banana extracts, the amount of banana peel extract, solution pH, concentration and reactive temperature). The prepared CdS colloid displays strong fluorescence spectrum. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the successful formation of CdS NPs. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrogram indicates the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the formation of CdS NPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) result reveals that the average size of the NPs is around 1.48 nm.

  14. Extraction, Modelling and Purification of Flavonoids from Citrus Medica Peel

    OpenAIRE

    M. Parvathi Nandan; Vangalapati Meena

    2015-01-01

    Soxhlet extraction technique is widely employed for the extraction and separation of chemical constituents in the medicinal plants. Citrus medica L commonly called as Citron belongs to family Rutaceae, is a slow-growing shrub. It is mainly cultivated for the production of edible fruits which are sour in taste like lime and lemon and the main content of a citron fruit is the thick rind, which is very adherent to the segments. From the phytochemical analysis the peel extract is rich source of p...

  15. Extraction and characterisation of cellulose nanocrystals from pineapple peel

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    Ana Raquel Madureira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential of pineapple peel as a source of cellulose nanocrystals was evaluated. Peels skin from fresh-cut fruit was used as raw material. These residues were purified to remove pigments, lipids and hemicellulose, and a bleaching process for delignification was carried out for 4-6 h. All resulting products were characterised for their lignin, hemicellulose, cellulose and ash contents using standard techniques. Dry matter at the end was low (ca. 50% compared with the raw material (ca. 90%. The process applied resulted in ca. 20% (m/m of purified cellulose (ca. 80% purity, with ineligible levels of lignin and hemicellulose present, especially when using 6h of bleaching. The purified cellulose was subject to acid hydrolysis for nanocrystal extraction with two testing times, 30 and 60 minutes. These cellulose nanocrystals had small sizes (< 1000 nm, with high variability and negative zeta potential values. The time of extraction did not affect the nanocrystals’ chemical and physical properties. The use of 6 h of bleaching treatment during purification was shown to be more effective than 4 h. Pineapple peel was demonstrated to be a good source of cellulose for the production of cellulose nanocrystals.

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of citrus peel extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatha, S.A.S.; Hussain, A.I.; Asi, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts of three different locally grown citrus varieties; grape fruit, lemon and mussambi, was assessed using some antioxidant assays like estimation of total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC), percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and DPPH free radical scavenging capacity. The yield of extracts was found in the range of 17.92-30.8%. TPC, TFC, percent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and DPPH radical scavenging capacity of different citrus peel extracts were found in range of 2.72 - 3.77 g/100g as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE), 2.20-2.98 g/100g as Catechine Equivalent (CE), 68.20 - 91.78% and 19.53 - 41.88 mg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant (p < 0.05) variations in the yield and antioxidant potentials of the extracts with respect to different species and solvent systems. From the results it is reasonable to say that methanolic extracts of citrus peels have exhibited varying degree of antioxidant potentials. (author)

  17. Nutrient, phytochemical, and antinutrient composition of Citrus maxima fruit juice and peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Peace Nwanneka; Abel, Happiness Chiamaka

    2018-05-01

    Nutrient, phytochemical, and antinutrient composition of Citrus maxima fruit juice and peel extract were determined. The fruit was procured from a garden in Trans-Ekulu, Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. Mature undamaged Citrus maxima fruits were thoroughly washed with distilled water to remove contamination, dirt, and air-dried. The peel was separated from the pulp. The pulp (100 g) was blended and filtered through a muslin cloth to obtain a clear juice. The peel (50 g) was macerated with 200 ml of ethanol for 20 min. The peel extract was filtered through filter paper. The supernatant was concentrated by rotary evaporation. The peel extract was weighed and stored in a plastic container until needed. Proximate, mineral, vitamins, antinutrient, and phytochemical composition of the juice and peel extract were determined using standard procedures. Citrus maxima peel extract contains significantly ( p  maxima juice. Alkaloid, phenolics, and flavonoids were also significantly ( p   Na > Ph > Fe > Mg > K in the juice and Ca > Ph > Na > Fe > K > Mg in the peel extract. Vitamin C content of the juice and peel extract were 26.36 mg/100 g and 19.34 mg/100 g, respectively. Citrus maxima peel is highly nutritive and rich in phytochemicals, further research is recommended to investigate its therapeutic effect.

  18. Fruit peel extract mediated green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, O. J.; Soto-Robles, C. A.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, C. M.; Vilchis-Nestor, A. R.; Castro-Beltrán, A.; Olivas, A.; Luque, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a study of the effects on the photocatalytic capabilities of zinc oxide nanoparticles when prepared via green synthesis using different fruit peel extracts as reducing agents. Zinc nitrate was used as a source of the zinc ions, while Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Citrus sinensis (orange), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) and Citrus aurantifolia (lemon) contributed their peels for extracts. The Synthesized Samples were studied and characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). All samples presented a band at 618 cm-1, indicating the presence of the Znsbnd O bond. The different samples all presented the same hexagonal crystal growth in their structure, the Wurtzite phase. The surface morphology of the nanoparticles showed that, depending on the extract used, the samples vary in size and shape distribution due to the chemical composition of the extracts. The photocatalytic properties of the zinc oxide samples were tested through UV light aided degradation of methylene blue. Most samples exhibited degradation rates at 180 min of around 97%, a major improvement when compared to chemically synthesized commercially available zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  19. Microwave-assisted extraction of pectin from cocoa peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah, M.; Hanum, F.; Rizky, M.; Hisham, M. F.

    2018-02-01

    Pectin is a polymer of d-galacturonate acids linked by β-1,4 glycosidic bond. This study isolates pectin from cocoa peel (Theobroma cacao) using citric acid as solvent by microwave-assisted extraction method. Cocoa peels (moisture content of 10%) with citric acid solution (pH of 1.5) irradiated by microwave energy at various microwave power (180, 300, 450 and 600 W) for 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes respectively. Pectin obtained from this study was collected and filtrated by adding 96% ethanol to precipitate the pectin. The best results obtained from extraction process using microwave power of 180 Watt for 30 minutes. This combination of power and time yielded 42.3% pectin with moisture content, ash content, weight equivalent, methoxyl content and galacturonate levels were 8.08%, 5%, 833.33 mg, 6.51% and 58,08%, respectively. The result finding suggested that microwave-assisted extraction method has a great potency on the commercial pectin production.

  20. Effects of banana peel-ash-extract on cooking time and acceptability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana peel ash-extract, widely used in indigenous processing of dry beans, was evaluated for chemical composition and potential in reducing cooking time of beans with HTC defect. The peel ash-extract was found to contain substantial amounts of sodium (0.36 g/ml), chloride (0.07 g/ml) and magnesium (0.04g/ml) ions.

  1. Physico-chemical and viscoelastic properties of high pressure homogenized lemon peel fiber fraction suspensions obtained after sequential pectin extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, K.L.D.D.; Panozzo, A.; Moelants, K.; Debon, S.J.J.; Desmet, C.; Cardinaels, R.M.; Moldenaers, P.; Wallecan, J.; Hendrickx, M.E.G.

    2017-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of high pressure homogenized lemon peel cell wall fiber suspensions, obtained after sequential selective pectin extraction, were investigated in the current study. For comparison, a general pectin extraction was additionally performed on lemon peel under acid thermal

  2. Banana peel extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankar, Ashok; Joshi, Bhagyashree; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita

    2010-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using banana peel extract (BPE) as a simple, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green material'. The boiled, crushed, acetone precipitated, air-dried peel powder was used to reduce chloroauric acid. A variety of nanoparticles were formed when the reaction conditions were altered with respect to pH, BPE content, chloroauric acid concentration and temperature of incubation. The reaction mixtures displayed vivid colors and UV-vis spectra characteristic of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size of the nanoparticles under standard synthetic conditions was around 300nm. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) confirmed these results. A coffee ring phenomenon, led to the aggregation of the nanoparticles into microcubes and microwire networks towards the periphery of the air-dried samples. X-ray diffraction studies of the samples revealed spectra that were characteristic for gold. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the synthetic process. The BPE mediated nanoparticles displayed efficient antimicrobial activity towards most of the tested fungal and bacterial cultures.

  3. High Pressure Extraction of Antioxidants from Solanum stenotomun Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique J. Martínez de la Ossa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the work described here, two techniques for the recovery of anthocyanins from potato peel were studied and compared. One of the techniques employed was supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with pure CO2 or with CO2 and ethanol as cosolvent and the other technique was pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, where the solvent used was ethanol in water acidified to pH 2.6. The effects of pressure and temperature were studied and the anthocyanin contents obtained were statistically analyzed. In SFE the use of low pressure (100 bar and high temperature (65 °C was desirable for the anthocyanin extraction. With PLE the anthocyanin contents are increased considerably, and the best yields were obtained at 100 bar and 80 °C. This result is in correspondence with antioxidant activity index values (1.66 obtained in a DPPH antioxidant activity assay. In the extracts obtained with PLE the phenolic compounds were also determined, but the main compounds presented in the extract are anthocyanins.

  4. Investigating the effect of antioxidant extract from orange peel on lipids oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak G. AKPAN*

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research involved investigation of the extraction yield and antioxidant property of orange peel on lipid oxidation. Orange peel was oven dried, grinded to powder and extraction procedure carried out using methanol as solvent in a soxhlet extractor. The effects of time and temperature on the extraction process were considered and results obtained showed an optimum extraction temperature and time of 50ºC and 120 minutes respectively. X-ray fluorescence analysis of the orange peel extract showed that potassium and calcium are the major elements by percentag mposition of 55.5 and 32.65 respectively. In studying the effects of oran eel extract on the melon oil sample, peroxide, free fatty acid and pH analysis were carried out for a period of 60 day. The result obtained confirmed the of ability orange peel extract as antioxidant agent.

  5. Influence of different extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of soursop peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei Zin; Chang, Sui Kiat; Khoo, Hock Eng; Sia, Chiaw Mei; Yim, Hip Seng

    2016-01-01

    Soursop is a healthy fruit. Peels form about 20% of the soursop fruit and are usually discarded as waste product. With a view to utilizing soursop peel as a source of valuable compounds, this study aimed to investigate the influence of different extraction conditions on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of soursop (Annona muricata L.) peel. Different ethanol concentrations (20-100%, v/v), extraction temperatures (25- 60°C), and extraction time (1-5 h) were tested. Extracts were prepared on the basis of the best optimal extraction conditions (20% ethanol, 40°C the extraction temperature, and 4 h of extraction time), an optimal TPC and AC was determined for the soursop peel using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assays. The different extraction conditions tested at best optimum conditions have significantly affected the TPC and AC of the soursop peel. Soursop peel extract extracted in the best optimal extraction conditions had moderate levels of TPC (52.2 μg GAE/ml), and FRAP value (58.9 μg TE/ml extract). The extract demonstrated high BCB inhibitory activity (80.08%). The EC50 values of the extract were high, 1179.96 and 145.12 μg/ml, as assessed using DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. The TPC was positively and highly correlated with the AC of soursop peel assessed by ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assay, but it was moderately correlated with DPPH radical scavenging activity. A moderate correlation of TPC with DPPH suggested that polyphenols in the extracts were partially responsible for the AC. By-products of soursop such as its peel could be an inexpensive source of good natural antioxidants with nutraceutical potential in the functional food industry.

  6. [Mass Transfer Kinetics Model of Ultrasonic Extraction of Pomegranate Peel Polyphenols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-yi; Zhang, Li-hua; Wang, Yu-hai; Zhang, Yuan-hu; Ma, Li; Zheng, Dan-dan

    2015-05-01

    The dynamic mathematical model of ultrasonic extraction of polyphenols from pomegranate peel was constructed with the Fick's second law as the theoretical basis. The spherical model was selected, with mass concentrations of pomegranate peel polyphenols as the index, 50% ethanol as the extraction solvent and ultrasonic extraction as the extraction method. In different test conditions including the liquid ratio, extraction temperature and extraction time, a series of kinetic parameters were solved, such as the extraction process (k), relative raffinate rate, surface diffusion coefficient(D(S)), half life (t½) and the apparent activation energy (E(a)). With the extraction temperature increasing, k and D(S) were gradually increased with t½ decreasing,which indicated that the elevated temperature was favorable to the extraction of pomegranate peel polyphenols. The exponential equation of relative raffinate rate showed that the established numerical dynamics model fitted the extraction of pomegranate peel polyphenols, and the relationship between the reaction conditions and pomegranate peel polyphenols concentration was well reflected by the model. Based on the experimental results, a feasible and reliable kinetic model for ultrasonic extraction of polyphenols from pomegranate peel is established, which can be used for the optimization control of engineering magnifying production.

  7. Citrus aurantium Naringenin Prevents Osteosarcoma Progression and Recurrence in the Patients Who Underwent Osteosarcoma Surgery by Improving Antioxidant Capability

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lirong; Xu, Xiaohua; Jiang, Tiechao; Wu, Kunzhe; Ding, Chuanbo; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Xuanhe; Yu, Tianhua; Song, Changlong

    2018-01-01

    Citrus aurantium is rich in flavonoids, which may prevent osteosarcoma progression, but its related molecular mechanism remains unclear. Flavonoids were extracted from C. aurantium and purified by reparative HPLC. Each fraction was identified by using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Three main components (naringin, naringenin, and hesperetin) were isolated from C. aurantium. Naringenin inhibited the growth of MG-63 cells, whereas naringin and hesperetin had no inhibitory f...

  8. Influence of extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yuh Shan; Sia, Chiaw Mei; Khoo, Hock Eng; Ang, Yee Kwang; Chang, Sui Kiat; Chang, Sui Kiat; Yim, Hip Seng

    2014-01-01

    As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The extraction conditions were selected from different percentages of ethanol (0-100%, v/v), extraction times (60-300 min), and extraction temperatures (25-60°C) that based on the optimal percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The selected extraction condition was applied for further determination of total phenolic content (TPC) of the passion fruit peel extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay, while the antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. The best extraction conditions were 40% ethanol, 60 min extraction time, and extraction temperature of 30°C. The chosen extraction conditions have contributed to the high TPC and antioxidant activity of passion fruit peel. The levels of antioxidant activity obtained from the passion fruit peel were also lower compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. Positive correlations were observed between TPC and antioxidant activities as assessed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assays. As a waste of passion fruit consumption or by-product of fruit juice industry, its peel could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for possible functional food and industrial applications.

  9. AND Citrus senensis PEEL EXTRACTS ON Aeromonas hydrophila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    peel contains calcium, phosphorus, potassium, ascorbic acid, and vitamin A, as well as volatile oil and ..... A. comosus peel and C. senensis peel at 1:1 ratio against the isolates. Test organism. MIC value (mg/ml). MBC value (mg/ml). S. paratyphi B1. 0.25. 1.00. S. paratyphi B2. 0.25. 0.50. S. paratyphi B3. 0.25. -. S. paratyphi ...

  10. Recovery of Steroidal Alkaloids from Potato Peels Using Pressurized Liquid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad B. Hossain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A higher yield of glycoalkaloids was recovered from potato peels using pressurized liquid extraction (1.92 mg/g dried potato peels compared to conventional solid–liquid extraction (0.981 mg/g dried potato peels. Response surface methodology deduced the optimal temperature and extracting solvent (methanol for the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE of glycoalkaloids as 80 °C in 89% methanol. Using these two optimum PLE conditions, levels of individual steroidal alkaloids obtained were of 597, 873, 374 and 75 µg/g dried potato peel for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Corresponding values for solid liquid extraction were 59%, 46%, 40% and 52% lower for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of extracts from Musa sapientum peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuaklee, Pathompong; Ruangnoo, Srisopa; Itharat, Arunporn

    2012-01-01

    Many parts of Musa sapientum Linn. (Musaceae) are used in Thai traditional medicine as drugs, food supplements and cosmetics. The banana peel is used as an astringent in foot care, the unripe fruit is used to treat diarrhea and, the ripe fruit is used as tonic. To evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of banana peel extracts obtained from different extraction methods and to determine their total phenolic content. Four extraction methods were used to extract unripe and ripe peels. Nitric oxide inhibitory and DPPH scavenging assays were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, respectively. Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent was used to determine total phenolic content. The water extract of fresh ripe peel exhibited the most potent NO inhibitory activity (IC50 = 6.68 +/- 0.34 microg/ml), but apparently exhibited no antioxidant activity. The decoction extract of fresh unripe peel exhibited strong antioxidant activity as well as had the highest total phenolic compound. The antioxidant activity exhibited a correlation with the total phenolic content. This study supports the use of Musa sapientum peel in Thai Traditional Medicine for treatment of inflammatory-related diseases.

  12. Unavoidable food supply chain waste: acid-free pectin extraction from mango peel via subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H; Matharu, A S

    2017-09-21

    Mango peel is the major by-product of mango processing, and compromises 7-24% of the total mango weight. In this study, pectin was extracted from mango peel waste by using subcritical water extraction (SWE) in the absence of mineral acid. A highest yield of 18.34% was achieved from the Kesar variety and the pectin was characterised using ATR-IR spectroscopy, TGA and 13 C solid-state NMR spectroscopy to confirm the structure. The degree of esterification (DE) of the pectin was analysed with both titrimetry and 13 C solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and a high DE (>70%) was observed for all three varieties (Keitt, Sindhri and Kesar). This is the first report on acid-free subcritical water extraction of pectin from mango peel, which provides a green route for the valorisation of mango peel waste and contributes to a source of biobased materials and chemicals for a sustainable 21 st century.

  13. Use of Banana (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) Peel Extract as an Antioxidant Source in Orange Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Lucía; Dorta, Eva; Gloria Lobo, M; González-Mendoza, L Antonio; Díaz, Carlos; González, Mónica

    2017-03-01

    Using banana peel extract as an antioxidant in freshly squeezed orange juices and juices from concentrate was evaluated. Free radical scavenging capacity increased by adding banana peel extracts to both types of orange juice. In addition, remarkable increases in antioxidant capacity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical were observed when equal or greater than 5 mg of banana peel extract per ml of freshly squeezed juice was added. No clear effects were observed in the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Adding 5 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice did not substantially modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of either type of juice. However, undesirable changes in the sensory characteristics (in-mouth sensations and colour) were detected when equal or greater than 10 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice was added. These results confirm that banana peel is a promising natural additive that increases the capacity to scavenge free radicals of orange juice with acceptable sensory and physicochemical characteristics for the consumer.

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Some Extracts from GAMMA Irradiated Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Peel and Seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, I.A; Afify, S.A; Hasanin, F.R; El Sahy, K.M

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel and seed (obtained as waste from juice extraction) using different solvents as diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol 50 ⁒, ethanol 80⁒: methanol 50⁒, methanol 80⁒ and distilled water. The measurements of the antioxidant activity of all extracts were carried out using a radical scavenging activity against 2,2 ' ,-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-Carotene⁒linoleic acid bleaching and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Moreover, the effect of gamma irradiation at dose levels of 3, 6 and 9 kGy on, antioxidant activity of the best pomegranate peel and seed samples that possessed highest antioxidant activity was investigated. Results showed that ethanolic 50⁒ peel extract had a higher total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) in both peel and seed, (9323.17 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) 100 g -1 , 2998.05 mg quercetin equivalent (QE) 100 g -1 and 352.09 mg GAE 100 g -1 ,106.78 mg QE 100 g -1 dry weight (DW), respectively than other extracts. Ethanolic 50⁒ extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than other peel and seed extracts. In addition, ethanolic 50⁒ extract of irradiated pomegranate peel and seed at dose level of 6 kGy extract had higher TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity compared to other doses. Thus, ethanolic 50⁒ extract of irradiated pomegranate peel and seed at 6 kGy may be considered as a good source of natural compounds with-antioxidant activity which could be suitable as potential ingredient for food products.

  15. An Overview on Citrus aurantium L.: Its Functions as Food Ingredient and Therapeutic Agent

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    Ipek Suntar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae, commonly known as bitter orange, possesses multiple therapeutic potentials. These biological credentials include anticancer, antianxiety, antiobesity, antibacterial, antioxidant, pesticidal, and antidiabetic activities. The essential oil of C. aurantium was reported to display marked pharmacological effects and great variation in chemical composition depending on growing locations but mostly contained limonene, linalool, and β-myrcene. Phytochemically, C. aurantium is rich in p-synephrine, an alkaloid, and many health-giving secondary metabolites such as flavonoids. Animal studies have demonstrated a low affinity of p-synephrine for adrenergic receptors and an even lower affinity in human models. The present review focuses on the different biological activities of the C. aurantium in animal and human models in the form of extract and its pure secondary metabolites. Finally, it is concluded that both the extract and isolated compounds have no unwanted effects in human at therapeutic doses and, therefore, can confidently be used in various dietary formulations.

  16. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla) peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Stella Sye Chee; Chang, Sui Kiat; Sia, Winne Chiaw Mei; Yim, Hip Seng

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic compounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm)  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C) for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), p-anisidine value (p-AnV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (FFA) content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the application of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  17. Wound healing and antioxidant capacity of Musa paradisiaca Linn. peel extracts

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    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Musa paradisiaca has several biological activities within them wound healing, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, among others. However, these properties in peel have been poorly explored. Aims: Evaluate the wound healing activity induced by an incision wound model using methanolic, hexanoic and chloroformic extracts from M. paradisiaca peel. Methods: Dehydrated M. paradisíaca peel was mixed with methanol, hexane, and chloroform. The presence of bioactive substances of the M. paradisiaca peel extracts was carried out by the Trease and Evans methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Acute toxicity was realized according to up and down OECD procedure in BALB/c mice. Wound healing activity was evaluated in male Wistar rats. Histological analyses of tissues were made by microscopy using staining methods of hematoxylin and eosin and Masson-trichrome. Results: Treated groups with methanolic and hexanoic extracts of M. paradisiaca peel showed better wound healing activity in comparison with the group treated with chloroformic extract, with an inhibition of DPPH radical bleaching of 89-90%. It may be due to the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and phenols as principal constituents by conferring antioxidant capacity. The extract did not induce any toxicity. Conclusions: The findings showed the wound healing and antioxidant capacity of M. paradisiaca peel extract. It was observed that depending on the extraction solvent; there is a variation in the antioxidant capacity that also affects the effectiveness of the restoration of tissue, suggesting that the antioxidant capacity could play a major role in the process of wound healing.

  18. Use of red pigment extracted from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) peels as natural antioxidant and colorant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to extract of red pigment from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) peels by using ethanol ( 70%) acidified with 1.5N HCl ( 85:15 v/v). In addition to study the effect of gamma irradiation at dose levels of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy on total phenolic compounds, total antioxidant activity and total anthocyanins of red pigment extracted from eggplant peels and the effect of using non-irradiated pigment as food colorants on the sensory attributes of food items used. The results illustrated that the non-irradiated red pigment extracted from eggplant peel samples had a higher content of total phenolic compounds, total anthocyanins and exhibited high antioxidant activities compared with irradiated samples. Thus, based on these results, the effect ph values ( 1 and 10) and heat treatment ( 50 and 100°C) on color stability and on retention anthocyanins, respectively in samples of non-irradiated red pigment extracted from eggplant peel samples were investigated. Furthermore, the results showed that the concentration of color changes with the values of ph, where he was more concentrated at low values of ph. Also, the results exhibited retain the red pigment extracted from the eggplant peels high concentrations of authenticity after heat treatment at different temperatures and for different periods. Moreover, the results of sensory evaluation obvious that the natural red pigment extracted from eggplant peels could be blended with meat products beef sausage, some fruit juices such as strawberry, red grape and pomegranate to substitute the losses that may occur in the anthocyanins during heat treatments as pasteurization. Therefore, this study suggested that the red pigment extracted from eggplant can be used as natural food additives to increase antioxidant activity and colorant in many foods as an alternative to synthetic dyes that are harmful to health effects.

  19. Effectiveness of the Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel Extract as the Colorant, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial on Beef Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri M Manihuruk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus peel extracts addition on beef sausages. Red dragon fruit peel extracts were obtained by maceration using solvent at pH 5. Phytochemical characteristics, total phenols, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the peel extracts were observed. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were associated with high phytochemical compounds and total phenols contained in the extracts. Red dragon fruit peel extracts with various percentages (0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were added on beef sausages, and their physicochemical characteristics, nutrients, antioxidant activity, and microbiological profile were analyzed. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test. Results showed that the addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts significantly reduced texture values, but increased intensity of luminosity, intensity of red color, and intensity of yellow color (P<0.05 beef sausages. It could be concluded that red dragon fruit peel extract containing phytochemical compounds was effective as an antibacterial agent and natural antioxidant. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts was effective in increasing the antioxidant activity and decreasing TBARS values. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extract did not affect the reddish colorization of beef sausages, but it was capable of increasing the yellowish colorization on beef sausage.

  20. Antivirulence effects of pomegranate peel extracts on most common urinary tract infection pathogens in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Wafaa Sadeq Al-Wazni; Bashair Sami Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study includes the investigation of antibacterial and antivirulence activities of three types of pomegranate peel extracts and then determines the interaction between the extracts and antibiotic in vitro. Methods The ability of most common isolated bacteria from urinary tract infection (UTI) to produce different virulence factors were tested and the effect of plant extracts on virulence factors were determined; in addition the correlation between extracts and antibioti...

  1. Banana peel extract suppressed prostate gland enlargement in testosterone-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamine, Kiichiro; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Yazawa, Kazunaga

    2009-09-01

    A methanol extract of banana peel (BPEx, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly suppressed the regrowth of ventral prostates and seminal vesicles induced by testosterone in castrated mice. Further studies in the androgen-responsive LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line showed that BPEx inhibited dose-dependently testosterone-induced cell growth, while the inhibitory activities of BPEx did not appear against dehydrotestosterone-induced cell growth. These results indicate that methanol extract of banana peel can inhibit 5alpha-reductase and might be useful in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia.

  2. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of pumpkin seeds and pomegranate peels extracts against Ascaridia galli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer R. Abdel Aziz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo and Pomegranate peel (Punica granatum have anthelmintic properties. The aim of this study was to compare the anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seeds ethanolic extract and pomegranate peel aqueous extract against Ascaridia galli in vitro and in vivo in Baladi chicks. On adult worms, the extracts of the two herbs were compared in vitro at concentrations of 25, 50, and 75 mg/ml with fenbendazole at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. Chicks were infected with Ascaridia galli eggs containing second stage larva and treated with 2000 mg/kg of each of the extracts compared with 100 mg/kg fenbendazole. In vitro, all concentrations of pumpkin seed extract and the concentration of 75 mg/ml pomegranate peel extract exhibited a nearly similar effect to fenbendazole. In vivo, the mortality rate of the worms extracted from the 2000 mg/kg pumpkin seeds extract-treated chicken was non-significantly different from that of fenbendazole for 48 h. While pomegranate peels extract exhibited a lower lethal effect than fenbendazole. The anthelmintic efficacy was dependent on time and concentration. The study presented the anthelmintic efficacy of the pumpkin seeds and pomegranate peel extracts on Ascaridia galli. Pumpkin seed extract was more effective than pomegranate peel extract. Future studies to determine the optimal dose to maximize their effectiveness especially for pumpkin seeds as anthelmintic therapeutic are required. Keywords: Pomegranate peel, Pumpkin seeds, Anthelmintic, Ascaridia galli, In vitro, In vivo

  3. Evaluation of nutritional value and antioxidant activity of tomato peel extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Elbadrawy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the nutritional composition and the antioxidant activity of some tomato peel extracts. Preliminary chemical composition, minerals content, amino acids, fatty acids and phenolic compounds of the peels were determined. The extracts which had been obtained by using different solvents; petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were assayed for their antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by the determination of peroxide, malondialdehyde (MDA, P-anisidine and total carbonyl values during four weeks storage of cottonseed oil at 60 °C. Also, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH radical scavenging was carried out. The results revealed that most of the extracts showed significant increases in DPPH scavenging activity as compared to butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT, an artificial antioxidant. On the other hand, significant decreases in peroxide, P-anisidine, malondialdehyde and carbonyl values were observed in the oil samples treated with the extracts in comparing with the untreated sample (control. Due to tomato peel content of many nutrients and its antioxidant activities, tomato peel or its extracts can be used as a food supplement.

  4. Optimization of Extraction of Novel Pectinase Enzyme Discovered in Red Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Khanani Zohdi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant peels could be a potential source of novel pectinases for use in various industrial applications due to their broad substrate specificity with high stability under extreme conditions. Therefore, the extraction conditions of a novel pectinase enzyme from pitaya peel was optimized in this study. The effect of extraction variables, namely buffer to sample ratio (2:1 to 8:1, X1, extraction temperature (−15 to +25 °C, X2 and buffer pH (4.0 to 12.0, X3 on specific activity, temperature stability, storage stability and surfactant agent stability of pectinase from pitaya peel was investigated. The study demonstrated that the optimum conditions for the extraction of pectinase from pitaya sources could improve the enzymatic characteristics of the enzyme and protect its activity and stability during the extraction procedure. The optimum extraction conditions cause the pectinase to achieve high specific activity (15.31 U/mg, temperature stability (78%, storage stability (88% and surfactant agent stability (83%. The most desirable conditions to achieve the highest activity and stability of pectinase enzyme from pitaya peel were the use of 5:1 buffer to sample ratio at 5 °C and pH 8.0.

  5. Effect of solvent type and ratio on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of extracts from Hylocereus polyrhizus flesh and peel by supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathordoobady, Farahnaz; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Selamat, Jinap; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abd

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of solvent type and ratio as well as the extraction techniques (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The peel and flesh extracts obtained by SFE at 25MPa pressure and 10% EtOH/water (v/v) mixture as a co-solvent contained 24.58 and 91.27mg/100ml total betacyanin, respectively; while the most desirable solvent extraction process resulted in a relatively higher total betacyanin in the peel and flesh extracts (28.44 and 120.28mg/100ml, respectively). The major betacyanins identified in the pitaya peel and flesh extracts were betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin, butyrylbetanin, isophyllocactin and iso-butyrylbetanin. The flesh extract had the stronger antioxidant activity than the peel extract when the higher proportion of ethanol to water (E/W) was applied for the extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasonication-Assisted Solvent Extraction of Quercetin Glycosides from ‘Idared’ Apple Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn M. Huber

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are physiologically active flavonol molecules that have been attributed numerous health benefits. Recovery of such molecules from plant matrices depends on a variety of factors including polarity of the extraction solvent. Among the solvents of a wide range of dielectric constants, methanol recovered the most quercetin and its glycosides from dehydrated ‘Idared’ apple peels. When ultra-sonication was employed to facilitate the extraction, exposure of 15 min of ultrasound wavelengths of dehydrated apple peel powder in 80% to 100% (v/v methanol in 1:50 (w:v solid to solvent ratio provided the optimum extraction conditions for quercetin and its glycosides. Acidification of extraction solvent with 0.1% (v/v or higher concentrations of HCl led to hydrolysis of naturally occurring quercetin glycosides into the aglycone as an extraction artifact.

  7. Technique of optimum extraction of pectin from sour orange peels and its chemical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, H.; Hussain, A.; Ali, J.

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of pectin from sour orange peels and effect of pH, temperature, extraction time on the yield and quality of pectin was studied. The extracting reagent was 0.1 N sulphuric acid and variables were pH (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5), extraction time (30, 60 and 120 minutes) and temperature (70 degree C, 80 degree C arid 90 degree C). These variables were significantly affected the extraction of pectin. The best yield (16.10 %) was obtained on soaking the finely ground peels in the sulphuric acid solution of pH, 25 at 80 degree C for 120 minutes. Anhydrogalacturonic acid, methoxyl content were 7310 % and 9.93 %, respectively, while equivalent weight value 945 was obtained by using pH, 2.5 at 80 degree C for 120 minutes. (author)

  8. Mangosteen peel extract reduces formalin-induced liver cell death in rats

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    Afiana Rohmani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Formalin is a xenobiotic that is now commonly used as a preservative in the food industry. The liver is an organ that has the highest metabolic capacity as compared to other organs. Mangosteen or Garcinia mangostana Linn (GML peel contains xanthones, which are a source of natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mangosteen peel extract on formalin-induced liver cell mortality rate and p53 protein expression in Wistar rats. Methods Eighteen rats received formalin orally for 2 weeks, and were subsequently divided into 3 groups, consisting of the formalin-control group receiving a placebo and treatment groups 1 and 2, which were treated with mangosteen peel extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kgBW/day, respectively. The treatment was carried out for 1 week, and finally the rats were terminated. The differences in liver cell mortality rate and p53 protein expression were analyzed. Results One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant differences in liver cell mortality rate among the three groups (p=0.004. The liver cell mortality rate in the treatment group receiving 400 mg/kgBW/day extract was lower than that in the formalin-control group. There was no p53 expression in all groups. Conclusions Garcinia mangostana Linn peel extract reduced the mortality rate of liver cells in rats receiving oral formalin. Involvement of p53 expression in liver cell mortality in rats exposed to oral formalin is presumably negligible.

  9. Antioxidant and lipase inhibitory activities and essential oil composition of pomegranate peel extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrich, Fatma; Cher, Slim; Gargouri, Youssef Talel; Adel, Sayari

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil, antioxidant and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of various solvent extracts obtained from pomegranate peelTunisian cultivar was evaluated. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine the composition of the PP essential oil. Nine-teen components were identified and the main compounds were the camphor (60.32%) and the benzaldehyde (20.98%). The phenolic and flavonoids content varied from 0 to 290.10 mg Gallic acid equivalent and from 5.2 to 20.43 mg catechin equivalent/g dried extract. The antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from pomegranate peel was also investigated using various in vitro assays as the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method, β-carotene bleaching and reducing power assays.Methanol and ethanol extracts showed the most potent antioxidant activity in all assays tested followed by water and acetone extracts. The inhibitory effect of the pomegranate peelextracts on porcine pancreatic lipase was evaluated and the results showed that ethanol and methanol extracts markedly reduced lipase activity. Generally, the highestlipase activity inhibitory (100%) was observed at a concentration of 1 mg/ml after 30 min of incubation. LC-MS analysis of ethanol extract showed the presence of four components which are cholorogenic acid, mannogalloylhexoside, gallic acid and ellagic acid. Our findings demonstrate that the ethanol extract from pomegranate peel might be a good candidate for furtherinvestigations of new bioactive substances.

  10. Drying Kinetics and Optimisation of Pectin Extraction from Banana Peels via Response Surface Methodology

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    Bee Lin Chua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels which are the waste in abundance, are used to extract valuable pectin. The gelling ability of the pectin has gained attention in food and pharmaceutical industries. This research aims to select the best drying kinetic model for banana peels and also optimize the pectin extraction process using Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD. Determination of pectin gelling mechanism using degree of esterification (DE is also focused in this research. In this study, oven drying with temperature 50°C was chosen as the best drying temperature due to highest extraction yield. Furthermore, Page-Two-term model was selected as the best model to describe the drying kinetics of banana peels due to highest R2 value (0.9991 and lowest RMSE value (0.001. The optimal extraction conditions given by BBD were 75°C extraction temperature, 23 min extraction time and 1:33.3 g/ml solid-liquid ratio. Likewise, the DE for both pectins extracted using unoptimised and optimised conditions were 71.92±1.38% and 76.1±2.07% respectively. Both of the pectins were classified as high-methoxyl pectins. The pectin with higher DE also indicated that the rate of gel formation is higher. The results showed that the pectin yield and gelling time has successfully improved after optimised the pectin extraction process.

  11. THE COMBINATION OF MANGOSTEEN PEEL EXTRACT WITH ROSELLA FLOWER PETALS EXTRACT AND ANTHILL PLANT EXTRACT AS CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDES REDUCER ON MALE WHITE RATS

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    Anjar Mahardian Kusuma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a disease associated with high levels of cholesterol and LDL levels in the blood. Utilization of the commercial drugs can be given; however apart from the expensive price, adverse side effects might occur. It makes people choose alternative medication with herbal medicine through the use of natural materials. This study aimed to determine the effect of the combination of mangosteen peel extract-extract of roselle calyx and mangosteen peel extract-extract the ant nest plant as lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels in male rats. The method used in this study was a laboratory experimental method using device posttest only control group design (simple experimental design. This study used 25 male rats of Wistar strain, divided into 5 groups; Group I: group without treatment, group II: control group solvent (NaCMC 1%, group III: positive control group (Simvastatin, Group IV: combination group mangosteen peel extract (200 mg / kg - extract of roselle calyx (250 mg / kg, group V: group combination of mangosteen peel extract 200 mg / kg - extract anthill (270 mg / kg. Induction of cholesterol in rats using quail egg yolk (10 ml / kg. The results showed that there was no significant difference in cholesterol and triglycerides between the combination of both extracts of mangosteen peel with a positive control (p<0,05.

  12. Extraction and quantification of polyphenols from kinnow (Citrus reticulate L. peel using ultrasound and maceration techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad N. Safdar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to extract polyphenols from the peel of kinnow (Citrus reticulate L. by maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE techniques. The antioxidant potential of these polyphenols was evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and superoxide radical scavenging assays; and their antimicrobial activity was assessed against bacterial strains Staphyloccoccus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium. The highest extraction yield was obtained through the solvent ethanol at 80% concentration level, whereas UAE was a more efficient technique and yielded comparatively higher polyphenol contents than maceration. Maximum polyphenols were extracted with 80% methanol [32.48 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g extract] using UAE, whereas minimum phenolics (8.64 mg GAE/g extract were obtained with 80% ethyl acetate through the maceration technique. Elevated antioxidant activity of kinnow peel extracts was exhibited in three antioxidant assays, where 80% methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant activity (27.67±1.11mM/100 g for FRAP and the highest scavenging activity, 72.83±0.65% and 64.80±0.91% for DPPH and superoxide anion radical assays, respectively. Strong correlations between total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were recorded. Eleven phenolic compounds—including five phenolic acids and six flavonoids—were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Ferulic acid and hesperidin were the most abundant compounds whereas caffeic acid was the least abundant phenolic compound in kinnow peel extracts. Maximum inhibition zone was recorded against S. aureus (16.00±0.58 mm whereas minimum inhibition zone was noted against S. typhimurium (9.00±1.16 mm. It was concluded that kinnow mandarin peels, being a potential source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, may be used as an ingredient for

  13. Combined Effect of Kimchi Powder and Onion Peel Extract on Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausages Prepared with Irradiated Pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of kimchi powder and onion peel extract on the quality characteristics of emulsion sausage manufactured with irradiated pork. The emulsion sausages were formulated with 2% kimchi powder and/or 0.05% onion peel extract. The changes in pH value of all treatments were similar, depending on storage periods. The addition of kimchi powder increased the redness and yellowness of the emulsion sausage. The addition of onion peel extract decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value of the emulsion sausages prepared with irradiated pork. The volatile basic nitrogen value of the emulsion sausage prepared with kimchi powder was the highest, whereas that of the emulsion sausage prepared with onion peel extract was the lowest. The treatment without kimchi powder or onion peel extract and the treatments prepared with onion peel extract showed lower microbial populations than the other treatment. Sensory evaluations indicated that a higher acceptability was attained when kimchi powder was added to the emulsion sausages manufactured with irradiated pork. In conclusion, our results suggest that combined use of kimchi powder and onion peel extract could improve quality characteristics and shelf stability of the emulsion sausage formulated with irradiated pork during chilled storage. PMID:26761840

  14. Molecular characterization and enzymatic hydrolysis of naringin extracted from kinnow peel waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Munish; Kaur, Aneet; Schwarz, Wolfgang H; Singh, Satbir; Kennedy, J F

    2011-01-01

    Kinnow peel, a waste rich in glycosylated phenolic substances, is the principal by-product of the citrus fruit processing industry and its disposal is becoming a major problem. This peel is rich in naringin and may be used for rhamnose production by utilizing α-L-rhamnosidase (EC 3.2.1.40), an enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of terminal rhamnosyl groups from naringin to yield prunin and rhamnose. In this work, infrared (IR) spectroscopy confirmed molecular characteristics of naringin extracted from kinnow peel waste. Further, recombinant α-L-rhamnosidase purified from Escherichia coli cells using immobilized metal-chelate affinity chromatography (IMAC) was used for naringin hydrolysis. The purified enzyme was inhibited by Hg2+ (1 mM), 4-hydroxymercuribenzoate (0.1 mM) and cyanamide (0.1 mM). The purified enzyme established hydrolysis of naringin extracted from kinnow peel and thus endorses its industrial applicability for producing rhamnose. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars. Methods Antibacterial activity was tested on Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) using a microdilution method. Several potential antioxidant activities, including radical-scavenging ability (RSA), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were evaluated. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine) and diphenolase (DOPA), with arbutin and kojic acid as positive controls. Furthermore, phenolic contents including total flavonoid content (TFC), gallotannin content (GTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) were determined using colourimetric methods. HPLC-ESI/MSn analysis of phenolic composition of methanolic extracts was also performed. Results Methanolic peel extracts showed strong broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/ml. At the highest concentration tested (1000 μg/ml), radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in Arakta (83.54%), Ganesh (83.56%), and Ruby (83.34%) cultivars (P50%) against monophenolase and diphenolase activities at the highest screening concentration. The most active peel extract was the Bhagwa cultivar against monophenolase and the Arakta cultivar against diphenolase with IC50 values of 3.66 μg/ml and 15.88 μg/ml, respectively. High amounts of phenolic compounds were found in peel extracts with the highest and lowest total phenolic contents of 295.5 (Ganesh) and 179.3 mg/g dry extract (Molla de Elche), respectively. Catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid and gallic acid were found in all cultivars, of which ellagic acid was the most abundant comprising

  16. Comparative antioxidant effect of BHT and water extracts of banana and sapodilla peels in raw poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Kumboj, Ritu; Paul, Devosmita

    2014-02-01

    Antioxidant properties of banana (Musa paradisiaca) and Sapodilla/Chikoo (Manilkara zapota) peel extracts in chicken patties were evaluated. Four treatments viz., I. Control (meat + 2% salt), II.BHT (meat + 2% salt + 0.1% BHT), III. BPE (meat + 2% salt + 2% banana peel extract) and IV. SPE (meat + 2% salt + 2% sapodilla/chikoo peel extract) were compared for changes in colour and lipid oxidation during 8 days refrigerated storage (4 ± °C). The average phenolic content was 550.2 and 550.8 mg gallic acid equivalent per 10 g peel in BPE and SPE respectively. Free radical scavenging activity was 66.9 and 67.8% in BPE and SPE respectively. Banana peel extract had significantly (P peel extract (0.91). During refrigerated storage period, all color parameters decreased significantly in all treatments. Observation on lipid oxidation showed a significantly (P banana and sapodilla peels could be explored as natural antioxidants in poultry meat and meat products.

  17. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Pomegranate Juice and Peel Extracts on Cariogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmaria Fabrizio Ferrazzano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. peel and juice, against the microorganisms considered the main etiologic agents of dental caries. Methods. The values of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined against Streptococcus mutans Clarke ATCC® 25175™ strain and Rothia dentocariosa clinical isolate. Results. Peel extracts inhibit effectively the growth and survival of S. mutans ATCC 25175 strain and R. dentocariosa clinical isolate with MIC and MBC values of 10 μg/μl and 15 μg/μl, respectively. Furthermore, the pomegranate juice extract showed high inhibitory activity against S. mutans ATCC 25175 strain with a MIC value of 25 μg/μl and a MBC value of 40 μg/μl, whereas, against R. dentocariosa, it has displayed a moderate inhibitory activity, with MIC and MBC values of 20 μg/μl and 140 μg/μl, respectively. Conclusions. In vitro microbiological tests demonstrate that the hydroalcoholic extracts of pomegranate juice and peel are able to contrast the main cariogenic bacteria involved in tooth decay. Although being preliminary data, our results suggest that pomegranate polyphenolic compounds could represent a good adjuvant for the prevention and treatment of dental caries.

  19. Storage stability of sterilized liquid extracts from pomegranate peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomegranate marc, a byproduct of commercial juice production, has shown promise as a starting material for the recovery of health promoting phenolic compounds. The stability of aqueous extracts prepared from pomegranate marc was evaluated in preparation to directly using these extracts as nutraceuti...

  20. Effect of mangosteen peel extract combined with demineralized freezed-dried bovine bone xenograft on osteoblast and osteoclast formation in post tooth extraction socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utari Kresnoadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction, a common procedure in dentistry, can cause bone resorption during socket healing. Therefore, it is important to perform socket preservation procedure to maintain alveolar bone. Providing a combination of mangosteen peel extract with demineralized freezed-dried bovine bone xenograft (DFDBBX in tooth extraction socket was expected to accelerate alveol bone formation. Purpose: This study aims to determine the effect of mangosteen peel extract combined with DFDBBX introduced into the socket of post tooth extraction on the formation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Method: Twenty-eight (28 Cavia cobayas were divided into four groups. Extraction to the lower left incisor of Cavia cobaya was performed. The extraction socket was filled with 25 gram of PEG (group I as a control, active materials consisted of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 0.5% (group II, active materials consisted of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 1% (group III, and active materials consisted of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 2% (group IV. After thirty days, those Cavia cobayas were sacrificed. By using HE on Histopatological examination, the number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were measured by light microscope with 400 times of magnification. The statistical analysis was then performed using oneway Anova & TukeyHSD test. Result: The component active materials consisted of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 2% had the most significant results related to the formation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Conclusion: Mangosteen peel extract combined with DFDBBX can increase osteoblasts and decrease osteoclasts in the socket of tooth extraction in Cavia cobaya. The combination of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 2% is the most effective material in increasing osteoblast and decreasing osteoclast.

  1. Effect of pomegranate peel extract on lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Sebahattin Serhat; Soyer, Ayla; Işıkçı, Fatma

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant effect of pomegranate peel extract (PE) to retard lipid and protein oxidation was investigated in meatballs during refrigerated storage at 4±1°C. Concentrated lyophilised water extract of pomegranate peel was incorporated into freshly minced beef meat at 0.5% and 1% concentrations and compared with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a reference and control (without any antioxidant). PE showed high phenolic content and antioxidant activity. In PE added samples, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, peroxide formation, loss of sulfhydryl groups and formation of protein carbonyls were lower than control (Pmeatballs prolonged the refrigerated storage up to 8 days. Addition of both 0.5 and 1% PE in meatballs reduced lipid and protein oxidation and improved sensory scores. These results indicated that PE was effective on retarding lipid and protein oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring the Possibilities of Biological Fabrication of Gold Nanostructures Using Orange Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of nanotechnology requires a constant innovation and improvement in many materials. The exploration of natural resources is a promising eco-friendly alternative for physical and chemical methods. In the present work, colloidal gold nanostructures were prepared using orange peel extract as a stabilizing and reducing agent. The initial pH value of the solution and the concentration of the gold precursor had an effect on the formation and morphology of nanoparticles. The method developed is environmentally friendly and allows control of nanoparticles. By controlling the pH and, especially, the gold concentration, we are able to synthesize crystalline gold nanowires using orange peel extract in the absence of a surfactant or polymer to direct nanoparticle growth, and without external seeding. UV-VIS spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to characterize the nanoparticles obtained by biosynthesis.

  3. Antioxidant activity and antiaging gel formulation grapefruit peel (Citrus maxima Merr.) ethanolic extract

    OpenAIRE

    Nazliniwaty; Karsono; Zebua, Nilsya Febrika; Febrika, Nilsya

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to conduct the antioxidant activity test of grapefruit peel ethanolic extracts and gel formulation. Grapefruit (Citrus maxima Merr.) is a plant of the Rutaceae family, which has been known to contain ph enolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins). Grapefruit skin was very thick (>30% of the total weight of the fr uit) and always considered as waste that has not been utiliz ed properly....

  4. AND Citrus senensis PEEL EXTRACTS ON Aeromonas hydrophila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    the two plant extracts against some clinical isolates: six Salmonella paratyphi B, one S. typhi and three A. ... century make the medicines and drugs of vegetables origin lost their ... in preventing heart disease. ... is a remedy for edema.

  5. ORANGE PEEL POWDER AND ITS EXTRACTS AS PRE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Ethanolic crude extract gave the least F1 adult emergence compared with other treatments and control. ... Synthetic chemical insecticides have been an important part of pest ..... Vigna unguiculata with the neem seed Pro- tection ecology 5: ...

  6. Process optimization and analysis of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-11-04

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. The extracting parameters were optimized by using four-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. 3D response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on extraction of pectin. The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum yield of pectin were power of 400 W, temperature of 45 °C, extracting time of 20 min and solid-liquid ratio of 24 g/mL. Under these conditions, 7.5% of pectin was extracted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of grape (vitis labrusca b.) peel and seed extracts on phenolics, antioxidants and anthocyanins in grape juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, K.; Juhaimi, F.; Choi, Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    Grape peel and seed are good sources of important bioactive components such as phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidants. Recovery of these components and their proper utilization is important for the development of functional foods. We have utilized the extracts of grape peel and seed obtained by ultrasonic-assisted (UAE) and supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) for the enrichment of Campbell Early grape juice (CEJ). CEJ samples were analyzed for different functional compounds and it was observed that the addition of these extracts in CEJ significantly improved total phenolic compounds, antioxidants, anti radical activities and total anthocyanin contents. HPLC analysis of CEJ samples containing these extracts showed that the phenolic acids (benzoic and cinnamic acids) and catechins contents were also significantly improved with the addition of grape peel and seed extracts. Generally SFE extracts proved to be of superior quality for the functional enrichment in CEJ. The sensory evaluation revealed that the CEJ samples containing the extracts had good overall acceptability. (author)

  8. The effect of cold aqueous extract of lemon peel against types of bacteria isolated from the cooling devices Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf S. Hassan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial effect of citrus peel lemon against the bacterial strains obtained from the filters of air conditioners have been selected based on the presence most in these filters such as Streptococcus, Bacillus spp, Pseudomonas, E coli. agar well diffusion method used to evaluate antibacterial activity of citrus peels water extract. through the results became clear to us that the cold aqueous extract of lemon peel showed a significant effect on the growth of bacterial species through the diameters of inhibition zone that appeared in all concentrations of the extract (125, 250, 500, 1000 mg/ml. Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus spp were the most affected Where the diameters of inhibition zone (18, 15, 12, 0, 0 mm respectively, while The Gram-negative bacteria E coli least affected. The results obtained in this study indicate that citrus lemon peel can be used in the treatment of diseases caused by organisms for the purposes of the pharmaceutical.

  9. Antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities of pumpkin (cucurbit) peel and puree extracts - an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Sherazi, Tauqir A; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Hussain, Zaib; Mahmood, Hassan; Mahmood, Nasir

    2017-07-01

    Natural resources right from the beginning of the human civilization has paved the way to human being to combat different challenges. The big challenge was to safe the human being from diseases and shortage of food. Plants helped the man in both areas very efficiently. No doubt when plants are used as food actually we are also taking lot of compounds of medicinal values in an excellent combination which naturally reduce the risk of diseases. Extraction and purification of several medicinally important compounds also gave the way to develop pharmaceutical industry in addition to its own therapeutic effects against different lethal diseases. Pumpkin is one of the several medicinal important vegetables used in different way on the behalf of its admirable power to combat different diseases. Antioxidant and biological studies showed very important results. A good coherence was found among extraction yield (10.52 to 18.45%), total phenolics (1.13 to 6.78 mg GAE/100g), total flavonoids (0.23 to 0.72mg CE/100g) and antioxidant potential (≻70%). Antibacterial assays of peel and puree extracts advocated good potential to stop the growth and division of pathogenic bacteria. Further biological activity study was carried out using MDBK cancer cell line. The growth inhibitory effect on cancer cell line using MTT assay showed methanol extracts of peel and puree both remained efficient to inhibit growth (≻35%) and cell division of cancer cells. Our results showed that extracts of pumpkin puree and its waste, peel, may be utilize to prepare functional food against pathogenic born diseases and most active compounds may also be extracted, concentrated and converted into tablets or suspension form for therapeutic purposes.

  10. Antidepressant-like effect of the water extract of the fixed combination of Gardenia jasminoides, Citrus aurantium and Magnolia officinalis in a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hang; Zhang, Kuo; Zhang, Ruowen; Shi, Huiyan; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-12-01

    Water extract of the fixed combination of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit, Citrus aurantium L. fruit and Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils. bark, traditional name - Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po (ZZHPD) is used for treatment of depressive-like symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The present study aimed to explore antidepressant-like effects and potential mechanisms of ZZHPD in a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Antidepressant-like effects of ZZHPD were investigated through behavioral tests, and potential mechanism was assessed by neuroendocrine system, neurotrophin and hippocampal neurogenesis. Antidepressant-like effects of ZZHPD (3.66, 7.32 and 14.64 g/kg/day) were estimated through coat state test, sucrose preference test, forced swimming test and open-field test. Effects of ZZHPD on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were evaluated by hormones measurement and dexamethasone suppression test. In addition, the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus was measured, as well as hippocampal neurogenesis was investigated by doublecortin (DCX) and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine/neuronal nuclei (BrdU/NeuN). The results demonstrated that ZZHPD significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors, normalized the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT), restored the negative feedback loop of HPA axis and improved the levels of BDNF, DCX and BrdU/NeuN compared with those in CUMS-induced rats. The above results revealed that ZZHPD exerted antidepressant-like effects possibly by normalizing HPA axis function, increasing expression of BDNF in hippocampus and promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Extraction, characterisation, and enzymatic degradation of lemon peel pectins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, J.M.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    The albedo of Spanish lemons (16.0% w/w of lemon fresh weight) was extracted to obtain a chelating agent soluble pectin fraction, a diluted sodium hydroxide soluble pectin fraction and a residue (4.2, 1.8, and 5.0% w/w of fresh albedo, respectively). These fractions represented 61.3, 12.4, and 10.4%

  12. EXTRACTION AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF ASCORBIC ACID FROM BANANA PEEL MUSA ACUMINATA ‘KEPOK’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Anwar Mohamad Said

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extraction of an antioxidant compound, which is ascorbic acid or vitamin C, from a banana peel using an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method. The type of banana used was Musa acuminata also known as “PisangKepok” in Malaysia. The investigation includes the effect of solvent/solid ratio (4.5, 5 g and 10  ml/g, sonication time (15, 30 and 45 mins and temperature variation (30 , 45  and 60oC on the extraction of ascorbic acid compounds from the banana peel to determine the best or optimum condition of the operation. Out of all extract samples analyzed by redox titration method using iodine solution, it was found that the highest yield was 0.04939 ± 0.00080 mg that resulted from an extraction at 30oC for 15 mins with 5 ml/g solvent-to-solute ratio.KEYWORDS:  Musa acuminata; ultrasound-assisted extraction; vitamin C; redox titration

  13. In vivo anti-carcinogenic property of a formulated citrus peel extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Suzawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is one of the two leading fatal diseases humans face. Synthesized drugs available for cancer intervention have many limitations in applications and effectiveness and are often associated with serious of side effects, which can further damage the patients’ quality of life. Recently, the development of natural-product-based and therapeutically sound anti-cancer agents have gained popularity in the fields of functional and medical foods, which may exhibit advantages of minimal toxicity and multiple active molecular components. Citrus peel or its extract has been reported to have potent pharmacological activities and health benefits because of abundant flavonoids present in citrus fruits, particularly in the peels. Results: The results of these studies demonstrated the efficacy of Gold Lotion (GL, an extract of multiple varieties of citrus peels that contains abundant flavonoids, including a high percentage of polymethoxylflavones (PMFs, which can protect against skin cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer in mice. These results are clearly promising and warrant a human trial with GL in future studies. Summary: Briefly, these data have demonstrated that GL is efficacious in preventing and treating cancer in several model systems. This review summarizes the results of currently available data regarding the in vivo anti-cancer activity of GL, and identifies opportunities for subsequent human clinical trials to assess preventive and therapeutic effects in the near future.

  14. Chitosan Associated with the Extract of Unripe Banana Peel for Potential Wound Dressing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bataglini Franco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the preparation of chitosan membranes associated with the extract of unripe banana peel. Extracts were prepared by decoction, using boiling distilled water. The extraction process was repeated three times. First and third extracts served as solvent to prepare chitosan membranes by solvent evaporation technique. The chitosan membranes associated with the first and third extracts of unripe banana peel exhibit good flexibility, transparency, and uniformity. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed dense membranes. Brownish color of membranes was observed due to the presence of tannins, which was confirmed by Infrared Spectroscopy analysis. Thermal properties of the membranes were evaluated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, which exhibited good thermal stability at physiological temperature (37°C. At this temperature and pH 7.2, membranes were also able to absorb fluids. The hydrophilic character of the membranes was determined by contact angle measurements. The membranes demonstrated their capacity for gaseous exchange and exhibited water-vapor permeability (WVP rates comparable to injured skin one. Finally, high number of viable dermal fibroblasts was observed by indirect cytotoxicity assay suggesting potential application of these membranes as skin wound dressing.

  15. Application of a molecularly imprinted polymer for the extraction of kukoamine a from potato peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletska, Elena V; Burns, Rosemary; Terry, Leon A; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2012-01-11

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the purification of N(1),N(12)-bis(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermine (kukoamine A) was computationally designed and tested. The properties of the polymer were characterized. The protocol of the solid phase extraction (SPE) of kukoamine A from potato peels was optimized. A HPLC-MS method for the quantification of kukoamine A was developed and used for all optimization studies. The capacity of the MIP in relation to kukoamine A from the potato peels extract was estimated at 54 mg/g of the polymer. The kukoamine A purified from potato extract using MIP was exceptionally pure (≈ 90%). Although the corresponding blank polymer was less selective than the MIP for the extraction of kukoamine A from the potato extract, it was shown that the blank polymer could be effectively used for the purification of the crude synthetic kukoamine (polymer capacity = 80 mg of kukoamine A/g of the adsorbent, kukoamine A purity ≈ 86%). Therefore, selective adsorbents could be computationally designed for other plant products, allowing their purification in quantities that would be sufficient for more detailed studies and potential practical applications.

  16. Effect ofPunica granatum peel extract on learning and memory in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shalini Adiga; Prabhav Trivedi; Ravichandra V; Debashree Deb; Forum Mehta

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate potential memory enhancing effect ofPunica granatum peel extract on rats.Methods: Healthy adult male albino rats of Wistar strain were used. Each group of6 rats were administered either distilled water or50mg/kg of extract or100 mg/kg of extract for 15days and subjected to passive avoidance test or T-maze test. In the next phase rats were administered distilled water or100 mg/kg of extract for15 days and the rats were given injection diazepam before subjecting them to the tests.Results:The overall performance was better in test groups compared to control groups. Among the test groups,100 mg/kg rats performed better than50mg/kg. The effect on spatial learning parameters like mean number of alternations and mean percentage bias was more marked compared to retention testing parameters like latency. 100 mg/kg Punica extract treated group also improved performance of diazepam treated rats. Conclusions:There is a definite trend of memory improvement byPunica granatum peel with effects being more marked on spatial learning tendency and long term memory than on retention capacity.

  17. Preparation and characterization of biocompatible silver nanoparticles using pomegranate peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiriboroumand, Majid; Montazer, Majid; Barani, Hossein

    2018-02-01

    The potential application of any nanoparticles, including silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), strongly depends on their stability against aggregation. In the current study, an aqueous extract of pomegranate peel was used as a stabilizer during synthesis of AgNPs. Nanoparticles have been prepared by the chemical reduction method from an aqueous solution of silver nitrate in the presence of sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. The AgNPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential measurements, UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The antibacterial efficiency of AgNPs against Escherichia coli was investigated. The size, polydispersity index, FWHM, and colloidal stability of nanoparticles in dispersion depends on the extract concentrations. In the presence of pomegranate peel extract, the nanoparticles suspension shows colloidal stability at least for a week. Our studies show that synthesized AgNPs with the above described procedure were stable at pH = 3-12 and in the temperature range of 25-85 °C. Additionally, AgNPs exhibit antibacterial properties, especially at the lowest amount of extract to silver ratio (K Extract/Ag ). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Yield and quality of pectins extractable from the peels of thai mango cultivars depending on fruit ripeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisakulwat, Suparat; Nagel, Andreas; Sruamsiri, Pittaya; Carle, Reinhold; Neidhart, Sybille

    2008-11-26

    Pectins, recovered from the peels of four mango ( Mangifera indica L.) cultivars by mimicking industrial techniques, were evaluated in terms of yield, composition, macromolecular properties, and technofunctional quality. Freeze-dried peels of mature-green fruits, after major mesocarp softening, and at full ripeness were extracted using hot acid. The pectins were precipitated in propan-2-ol and their crude yields quantified as alcohol-insoluble substance. Like apple pomace, the dried peels provided hardly acetylated (DAc implied by arabinose/galactose ratios of 8-15 and 33-56 mol/100 mol, respectively. Limited galacturonic acid contents made the mango peel pectins less valuable than commercial apple pectins with regard to gelling capacity and thickening properties. Whereas starch and matrix glycan fragments almost completely degraded during ripening, depolymerization of pectins and galactans was insignificant. Technofunctional properties, modulated by extraction at different pH values, were ascribed to structural differences influencing macromolecular entanglements.

  19. Corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in acidic medium by orange peel extract and its main antioxidant compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M’hiri, Nouha; Veys-Renaux, Delphine; Rocca, Emmanuel; Ioannou, Irina; Boudhrioua, Nourhéne Mihoubi; Ghoul, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Catechol and derived functions are responsible for flavonoids antioxidant activity. • Antioxidant activity of adsorbed molecules explains cathodic inhibition. • Orange peel extract inhibition is enhanced by the precipitation of a covering film. - Abstract: Chemical compounds of orange peel extracts were identified and their antioxidant activities were determined. The inhibiting effect on acidic steel corrosion brought by the extract and selected antioxidant compounds (neohesperidin, naringin, ascorbic acid) was evaluated separately by electrochemical methods. Whatever the extract concentration, a significant inhibition is observed, whereas selected antioxidant compounds show only a slight effect. Both electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results and scanning electron microscopy observations after immersion reveal that the inhibiting efficiency of orange peel extract is not only due to the antioxidant activity of its compounds but also to the precipitation of a surface film.

  20. Salak plum peel extract as a safe and efficient antioxidant appraisal for cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Lourith, Nattaya; Ospondpant, Dusadee; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Pongpunyayuen, Siriluck; Chansriniyom, Chaisak

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of Salak plum (Salacca edulis) peel extracts were assessed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction was the most potent (DPPHIC50=2.932 ± 0.030 µg/mL, ABTSIC50=7.933 ± 0.049 µg/mL, FRAPEC=7,844.44 ± 40.734). Chlorogenic acid was detected as the marker (1.400 ± 0.102 g/kg). The EtOAc fraction was non-cytotoxic in vero and normal human fibroblast (NHF) cells. It exhibited cellular oxidative prevention and damage treatment at 5-40 µg/mL in NHF cells. Salak plum peel loaded liposome consisting of lecithin and hydrophobically modified hydroxyethylcellulose (HMHEC) was developed and found stable with adequate entrapment efficacy. Thus Salak plum peel was highlighted as a potential ecological antioxidant for health promotion aspects, and for cosmetics.

  1. Investigation of fruit peel extracts as sources for compounds with antioxidant and antiproliferative activities against human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonkarn, Ruttiros; Okonogi, Siriporn; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Anuchapreeda, Songyot

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against human cell lines of fruit peel extracts from rambutan, mangosteen and coconut. The highest antioxidant activity was found from rambutan peel crude extract where the highest radical scavenging capacity via ABTS assay was from its ethyl acetate fraction with a TEAC value of 23.0mM/mg and the highest ferric ion reduction activity via FRAP assay was from its methanol fraction with an EC value of 20.2mM/mg. Importantly, using both assays, these fractions had a higher antioxidant activity than butylated hydroxyl toluene and vitamin E. It was shown that the ethyl acetate fraction of rambutan peel had the highest polyphenolic content with a gallic acid equivalent of 2.3mg/mL. The results indicate that the polyphenolic compounds are responsible for the observed antioxidant activity of the extracts. Interestingly, the hexane fraction of coconut peel showed a potent cytotoxic effect on KB cell line by MTT assay (IC(50)=7.7 microg/mL), and no detectable cytotoxicity toward normal cells. We concluded that the ethyl acetate fraction of rambutan peel is a promising resource for potential novel antioxidant agents whereas the hexane fraction of coconut peel may contain novel anticancer compounds. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mutagenicity of the Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae) fruit peel extract in mouse peripheral blood cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, C U B; Perazzo, F F; Maistro, E L

    2008-01-01

    Plants are a source of many biologically active products and nowadays they are of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, the mutagenic potential of the Musa paradisiaca fruit peel extract was assessed by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and micronucleus assays. Animals were treated orally with three different concentrations of the extract (1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight). Peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice were collected 24 h after treatment for the SCGE assay and 48 and 72 h for the micronucleus test. The results showed that the two higher doses of the extract of M. paradisiaca induced statistically significant increases in the average numbers of DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes for the two higher doses and a significant increase in the mean of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the three doses tested. The polychromatic/normochromatic erythrocyte ratio scored in the treated groups was not statistically different from the negative control. The data obtained indicate that fruit peel extract from M. paradisiaca showed mutagenic effect in the peripheral blood cells of Swiss albino mice.

  3. Keeping quality of beef sausage using ethanolic extract of gamma-irradiated pomegranate peel powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ibrahim Ali Soliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts from gamma-irradiated pomegranate (Punica granatum peel powder (PE at the dose levels of 0, 3, 6, and 9 kGy. The аntioxidant activity of the extracts was estimated using the radical scavenging activity against 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•, β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching system, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. Antibacterial activity of the extracts was assessed against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsilla penumoneae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhumurium. The results showed that PE treated with 6 kGy had a higher content of total phenolic compounds (TPC, total flavonoid compounds (TFC, and antioxidant activity. Hence, the PE of 6 kGy-irradiated peels were selected to be added to beef sausage. Different concentrations of 6 KGy-irradiated PE were applied to improve beef sausage hygienic quality and extend the shelf life during cold storage (4°C. The results indicated that when 12 mL of the extract were added to one kg of beef sausage, the shelf-life of the sausage was extended from 15 days to 50 days (at 4°C, compared with the control, without changes of the microbiological, chemical, and sensory attributes.

  4. Anti-corrosion and Anti-bacteria Property of Modified Pomegranate Peel Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xue-Fan; Chang, Xiao-Feng; Cheng, Chao; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yong-Ming; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-01

    Using weight loss method, the pomegranate peel extract (PPE), that is a green corrosion inhibitors, have been studied in the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel in 1M hydrochloric acid solution at 30°C, 45°C, 60°C, respectively. The inhibition rate of extract varies with the extraction concentration in the range of 10 ∼ 1000mg / L, up to 92.7%. Extract inhibits corrosion through adsorption mechanisms. Besides polyphenols hydroxyl and ether groups can slow down corrosion by capturing H+. Polyphenols can remove the dissolved O2, and curb oxygen reducing corrosion. PPE is antifungal active against TGB and FB, but not so active against SRB.

  5. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Chemical peels Overview Chemical peels: Overview Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do ... Overview Chemical peels: FAQs Chemical peels: Preparation FAQs Chemical peels: FAQs To help you decide whether this ...

  6. Antimicrobial properties of black grape (Vitis vinifera L.) peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Devbrat; Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Pramod; Mishra, Diwaker

    2015-01-01

    Black grape peel possesses a substantial amount of polyphenolic antimicrobial compounds that can be used for controlling the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity of black grape peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds, respectively. Peel of grape was subjected to polyphenolic extraction using different solvents viz., water, ethanol, acetone, and methanol. Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli were screened for the antibacterial activity of different grape extracts. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using agar well diffusion method. Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus versicolor were screened for the antifungal activity. Antifungal activity was determined by counting nongerminated spores in the presence of peel extracts. As compared to other solvent extracts, methanol extracts possessed high antibacterial and antifungal activity. S. typhimurium and E. coli showed complete resistance against antibacterial action at screened concentrations of grape peel extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition was found in case of S. aureus, i.e., 22 mm followed by E. faecalis and E. aerogenes, i.e., 18 and 21 mm, respectively, at 1080 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/ml. The maximum and minimum percent of growth inhibition was shown by P. expansum and A. niger as 73% and 15% at 1080 TAE/ml concentration of grape peel extract, respectively. Except S. typhimurium and E. coli, growth of all bacterial and mold species were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by all the solvent extracts.

  7. Continuous extraction of phenolic compounds from pomegranate peel using high voltage electrical discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jun; He, Lang; Yan, Liang-Gong

    2017-09-01

    Pomegranate peel, a waste generated from fruit processing industry, is a potential source of phenolic compounds that are known for their anti-oxidative properties. In this study, a continuous high voltage electrical discharge (HVED) extraction system was for the first time designed and optimized for phenolic compounds from pomegranate peel. The optimal conditions for HVED were: flow rate of materials 12mL/min, electrodes gap distance 3.1mm (corresponding to 29kV/cm of electric field intensity) and liquid to solid ratio 35mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of phenolic compounds was 196.7±6.4mg/g, which closely agreed with the predicted value (199.83mg/g). Compared with the warm water maceration, HVED method possessed higher efficiency for the extraction of phenolic compounds. The results demonstrated that HVED technique could be a very effective method for continuous extraction of natural compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization of continuous and intermittent microwave extraction of pectin from banana peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Gabriela John; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan

    2017-04-01

    Continuous and intermittent microwave-assisted extractions were used to extract pectin from banana peels. Extraction parameters which were employed in the continuous process were microwave power (300-900W), time (100-300s), pH (1-3) and in the intermittent process were microwave power (300-900W), pulse ratio (0.5-1), pH (1-3). The independent factors were optimized with the Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) (three factor three level) with the desirability function methodology. Results indicate that the independent factors have substantial effect on the pectin yield. Optimized solutions for highest pectin yield (2.18%) from banana peels were obtained with microwave power of 900W, time 100s and pH 3.00 in the continuous method while the intermittent process yielded the highest pectin content (2.58%) at microwave power of 900W, pulse ratio of 0.5 and pH of 3.00. The optimized conditions were validated and close agreement was observed with the validation experiment and predicted value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultrasound assisted extraction of pectin from waste Artocarpus heterophyllus fruit peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, I Ganesh; Maran, J Prakash; Ilakya, S; Anitha, S L; Sabarima, S Pooja; Priya, B

    2017-01-01

    Four factors three level face centered central composite response surface design was employed in this study to investigate and optimize the effect of process variables (liquid-solid (LS) ratio (10:1-20:1ml/g), pH (1-2), sonication time (15-30min) and extraction temperature (50-70°C)) on the maximum extraction yield of pectin from waste Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit) peel by ultrasound assisted extraction method. Numerical optimization method was adapted in this study and the following optimal condition was obtained as follows: Liquid-solid ratio of 15:1ml/g, pH of 1.6, sonication time of 24min and temperature of 60°C. The optimal condition was validated through experiments and the observed value was interrelated with predicted value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were (a) to extract the phenolic fraction from the peels of two Danish varieties of potatoes, viz. Sava and Bintje, and examine their antioxidant capacity in in-vitro systems (b) to evaluate the effect of these extracts on the storage stability of a fish- rapeseed...... oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety...... in emulsions. Thus, the results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing waste potato peel as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation....

  11. Kinetics of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from Balinese orange peel using Pseudo-homogeneous model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, Wulansarie, Ria; Faiz, Merisa Bestari; Adi, Susatyo; Sammadikun, Waliyuddin

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this work was to study the homogeneous kinetics of pectin extraction of Balinese orange peel conducted using Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE). The experimental data showed that the power increases (180 to 600 W), so that the extraction yield of pectin also increases (12.2 to 30.6 % w/w). Moreover, the extraction time is longer (10, 15, and 20 min) the yield of pectin increases (8.8, 20.2, and 40.5). At time after of 20 min (25 and 30 min), the yield starts to decrease (36.6 and 22.9). This phenomena shows pectin degradation. Therefore, pectin extraction is a series reaction, i.e. extraction and degradation. The calculation result showed that pseudo series homogeneous model can quantitatively describe the extraction kinetics. The kinetic constants can be expressed by Arrhenius equation with the frequency factors of 1.58 × 105 and 2.29 × 105 1/min, while the activation energies are 64,350 and 56,571 J/mole for extraction and degradation, respectively.

  12. In vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of Isolated Compounds and Various Extracts of Peel of Punica granatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Janani; Lakshmanapermalsamy, P; Illuri, Ramanaiah; Bhosle, Damaji; Sangli, Gopala Krishna; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak

    2018-01-01

    Punica granatum L. ( Lythraceae ) peel has been proven to exhibit widespread pharmacological application against multitude of diseases due to the presence of bioactive principles. The objective is to isolate the bioactive compounds from the pericarp of P. granatum and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of various extracts. Dried peel of P. granatum was extracted with aqueous acetone and chromatographed on Diaion HP-20. Enriched fractions were rechromatographed on Sephadex LH-20 and purified on preparative high-performance liquid chromatography to identify individual compounds. The dried peel was extracted with different solvents to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. On the chemical investigation, three compounds were isolated and characterized as punicalagin, 2,3-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-D-glucose, and punicalin, using various spectroscopic techniques. Results indicate that the isolated compounds have possessed antioxidant activity, and aqueous, methanol, and aqueous acetone extract showed significant scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. In vitro antioxidant activity of Punica granatum extracts was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assayDried peel of P. granatum was extracted with different solvents to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extractsAqueous acetone extract was found to be most active and chromatographed further to afford punicalagin, 2,3-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-D-glucose, and punicalinThe presence of antioxidant properties of three compounds in the peel of P. granatum has been demonstrated. Abbreviations Used: HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography; HHDP: Hexahydroxydiphenoyl; DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; ABTS: 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid); UV: Ultraviolet; PDA: Photodiode array; LC: Liquid chromatography; NMR: Nuclear magnetic resonance; MHz

  13. Averrhoa carambola L. peel extract suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Asyifah Mohamed; Lu, Kaihui; Yip, Yew Mun; Zhang, Dawei

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of many chronic diseases. Recently, a growing body of evidence has shown that phytochemicals may inhibit adipogenesis and obesity. In this study, we report for the first time, the ability of Averrhoa carambola L. peel extract commonly known as star fruit (SFP) to effectively suppress adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and therefore, address it as a potential candidate to treat obesity and its related diseases. (-)-Epicatechin was identified as a bioactive compound likely responsible for this suppression. As the genetic expression studies revealed that the adipogenic activity of SFP extract was due to the simultaneous downregulation of the C/EBPα and PPARγ as well as the upregulation of PPARα receptor genes, a detailed computational docking study was also elucidated to reveal the likely binding mode of (-)-epicatechin to the receptor of interest, accounting for the likely mechanism that results in the overall suppression of adipocyte differentiation.

  14. Citrus peel extract incorporated ice cubes to protect the quality of common pandora: Fish storage in ice with citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Gokoglu, Nalan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ice with albedo and flavedo fragments of Citrus (Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.)) extracts on the quality of common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus). Concentrated citrus extracts were diluted with distilled water (1/100 w/v) before making of ice. The ice cubes were spread on each layer of fishes and stored at 0 °C for 15 days. The pH value showed a regular increase in all samples. TVB-N levels of bitter orange treatment groups were recorded lower than the other groups reaching to 25.11 ± 0.02 mg/100 g at the end of the storage. The TMA-N values of bitter orange treatment groups were lower than that of control and grapefruit treatment groups. In terms of TBARS value, alteration was observed in the control samples and this value significantly (p extracts treatment groups at the end of storage since their antioxidant capacity. The oxidation was suppressed in citrus extracts treatment groups, especially in bitter orange flavedo treatment. The results showed the bitter orange albedo and bitter orange flavedo extracts in combination with ice storage have more effectiveness in controlling the biochemical indices in common pandora.

  15. Effect of extraction condition on properties of pectin from banana peels and its function as fat replacer in salad cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneerat, Nitjaree; Tangsuphoom, Nattapol; Nitithamyong, Anadi

    2017-02-01

    Banana peels are wasted from banana processing industry. Pectin is a soluble dietary fibre usually prepared from fruit and vegetable processing wastes. Pectin extraction from banana peels thus should be an effective way of waste utilization. This study aimed to determine the effect of extraction condition on the properties of pectin from peels of Nam Wa banana ( Musa (ABB group) 'Kluai Nam Wa') and its role as fat replacer in salad cream. Banana peel pectin (BPP) was extracted with HCl (pH 1.5) and water (pH 6.0) for 30-120 min at 90 ± 5 °C. Acid extraction yielded 7-11% pectin on a dry basis with galacturonic acid content (GalA), degree of methylation (DM), and viscosity-average molecular weight (M v ) of 42-47, 57-61%, and 17-40 kDa, respectively; while water-extracted BPP contained lower DM but higher GalA and M v . Prolonged extraction raised the pectin yield but lowered the M v of BPP and the viscosity of their solutions. Incorporation of BPP obtained from 60 min acid- and water-extraction into salad cream at 30% oil substitution level resulted in the decreases in viscosity and lightness. All reduced-fat samples were stable to cream separation during 3-weeks storage although the formula containing water-extracted BPP had larger oil droplet size and greater extent of droplet flocculation. There was no difference in sensory scores rated by 50 panelists on thickness, smoothness, and overall acceptability of the full- and reduced-fat salad creams. Therefore, Nam Wa banana peels can be an alternative source of pectin with potential application as fat replacer in food products.

  16. Pomegranate peel extract attenuates oxidative stress by decreasing coronary angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in hypertensive female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Roger L; Dellacqua, Lais O; Delgado, Nathalie T B; Rouver, Wender N; Podratz, Priscila L; Lima, Leandro C F; Piccin, Mariela P C; Meyrelles, Silvana S; Mauad, Helder; Graceli, Jones B; Moyses, Margareth R

    2016-01-01

    Based on the antioxidant properties of pomegranate, this study was designed to investigate the effects of pomegranate peel extract on damage associated with hypertension and aging in a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model. The influence of pomegranate consumption was examined on systolic blood pressure (SBP), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) coronary activity, oxidative stress, and vascular morphology. Four- or 28-wk-old SHR model rats were treated for 30 d, with terminal experimental animal age being 8 and 32 wk, respectively, with either pomegranate extract (SHR-PG) or filtered water (SHR). Data showed significant reduction in SBP and coronary ACE activity in both age groups. The levels of superoxide anion, a measure of oxidative stress, were significantly lower in animals in the SHR-PG group compared to SHR alone. Coronary morphology demonstrated total increases in vascular wall areas were in the SHR group, and pomegranate peel extract diminished this effect. Pomegranate peel extract consumption conferred protection against hypertension in the SHR model. This finding was demonstrated by marked reduction in coronary ACE activity, oxidative stress, and vascular remodelling. In addition, treatment was able to reduce SBP in both groups. Evidence indicates that the use of pomegranate peel extract may prove beneficial in alleviating coronary heart disease.

  17. Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Exploiting the Reducing Potential of Trapa bispinosa Peel Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S.; Mewada, A.; Thakur, M.; Shinde, S.; Shah, R.; Oza, G.; Sharon, M.

    2013-01-01

    Present work reports exceptionally high reducing capacity of Trapa bispinosa to synthesize monodispersed silver nanoparticles (SNPs) within 120 seconds at 30 degree C which is the shortest tenure reported for SNP synthesis using plants. Moreover, we also instigated impact of different ph values on fabrication of SNPs using visible spectroscopy with respect to time. Percentage conversion of Ag + ions into Ag was calculated using ICP-AES analysis and was found to be 97% at pH = 7. To investigate the reduction of Ag + ions to SNPs, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and open circuit potential (OCP) using 0.1M KNO 3 were performed. There was prompt reduction in cathodic and anodic currents after addition of the peel extract which indicates the reducing power of T. bispinosa peel. Stability of the SNPs was studied using flocculation parameter (FP) which was found to be least at all the pH values. FP was found to be indirectly proportional to stability of the nanoparticles

  18. The extract from Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel induces apoptosis and impairs metastasis in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanle; Li, Yali; Yang, Fangfang; Zeng, Anqi; Yang, Shuping; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Yiwen; Xie, Yongmei; Ye, Tinghong; Xia, Yong; Yin, Wenya

    2017-09-01

    Prostate cancer is a big threat to male for its poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Natural compounds are important resources of many anticancer drugs. Pomegranate is a kind of antioxidant-rich fruit and its peel and seed has potential anticancer activities. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PoPx) on the apoptosis and metastasis of prostate cancer cells and the related mechanism. We found that PoPx showed growth inhibition on prostate cancer cells. Nuclei morphological and flow cytometer (FCM) analysis indicated that PoPx could induce prostate cancer apoptosis. Further investigation indicated that mitochondrial mediated intrinsic pathway is involved in the apoptosis. Exposure to PoPx led to loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δym), accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Western blot analysis showed that PoPx could increase the expression ratio of Bax/Bcl2 and activation of apoptosis executor caspase 3. Wound healing assay and transwell migration and invasion assay implied that PoPx has the potential to inhibit migration and invasion, two critical steps in prostate cancer metastasis. Downregulation of MMP2/MMP9 and upregulation of TIMP2 showed accordance with the inhibition of migration and invasion. In summary, the present data showed that PoPx could be a promising drug candidate to treat prostate cancer, showing us a better way to develop novel drugs from natural compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus maxima peel extract and their catalytic/antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chun-Gang; Huo, Can; Gui, Bing; Cao, Wei-Ping

    2017-08-01

    The peel of Citrus maxima ( C. maxima ) is the primary byproducts during the process of fruit or juice in food industries, and it was always considered as biomass waste for further treatments. In this study, the authors reported a simple and eco-friendly method to synthesise gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using C. maxima peel extract as reducing and capping agents. The synthesised AuNPs were characterised by UV-visible spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-visible spectrum of the AuNPs colloid showed a characteristic peak at 540 nm. The peaks of XRD analysis at (2 θ ) 38.30°, 44.28°, 64.62°, 77.57° and 81.75° were assigned to (111), (200), (220), (311) and (222) planes of the face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice of gold. The TEM images showed that AuNPs were nearly spherical in shape with the size of 8-25 nm. The FTIR spectrum revealed that some bioactive compounds capped the surface of synthesised AuNPs. The biosynthesised AuNPs performed strong catalytic activity in degradation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol and good antibacterial activity against both gram negative ( Escherichia coli ) and gram positive ( Staphylococcus aureus ) bacterium. The synthesis procedure was proved simple, cost effective and environment friendly.

  20. Gastric Ulcers in Middle-Aged Rats: The Healing Effect of Essential Oil from Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Polo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The elderly population has experienced increased life expectancy as well as the increased incidence of gastric ulcers. The peels of fruits from Citrus aurantium L., popularly known in Brazil as orange bitter, are commonly used asatea form for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders, such as ulcer and gastritis. We evaluated the healing effects of essential oil from the peels of Citrus aurantium fruits (OEC on gastric ulcers in middle-aged rats. We examined the effects of a 14-day chronic OEC treatment on gastric mucosa in middle-aged male Wistar rats that were given acetic-acid-induced gastric lesions by morphometric and immunohistological analyses. Oral OEC treatment significantly reduced the lesion area (76% within the gastric mucosa and significantly increased (P<.05 the height of regenerated mucosa (59% when compared to the negative control group. Immunohistochemical analysis of the molecular markers such as COX-2, HSP-70, VEGF, and PCNA in the gastric mucosa confirmed that OEC treatment induced healing effects by increasing the number of new blood vessels and by augmenting gastric mucus in the mucosa glands. These results suggest that the oil from Citrus aurantium effectively heals gastric ulcers in middle-aged animals; however, safe use of OEC demands special care and precautions.

  1. Study on Hydro-Alcoholic Extract Effect of Pomegranate Peel on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Habibipour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Microorganisms form biomass as biofilm in response to many factors, in order to adapt to hostile extracellular environments and biocides. Using different herbal compounds are of those strategies to deal with biofilm. It has been proved that plants extracts such as pomegranate, raspberry and chamomile essential oils have anti-biofilm effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of black peel pomegranate ex-tract on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation. Materials & Methods: In this experimental research the anti-biofilm effect, reducing the amount of biofilm formation and growth kinetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in different treatments was measured by microtiter and plate colorimetric crystal violet method. Biofilm formation was also examined using a microscope. Statistical analysis of data obtained from the reading of the ELISA was performed using SPSS software, P value 0.05. Results: Findings of this study showed that bacteria cannot form any biofilm in first 6 hours of incubation, in all treatments. The amount of biofilm formation after 12 hours in 0.01 and 0.05 g/ mL treatments were medium. Among treatments, after 18 and 24 hours of incubation 0.001 g/ mL concentration of pomegranate peel extract had medium and strong inhibitory effect on biofilm formation, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that biofilm formation and biofilm reduction percent-age is directly related to the duration of exposure of bacteria that could be due to the different phases of growth. Growth kinetics study also revealed that in the majority of treatments the growth was incremental up to about 15 hours and decrement afterwards due to the effective-ness of different treatments. After 18 hours, treatments have greatest influence on biofilm formation. The foregoing has been fully confirmed by the results of microscopic slides. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (3: 195-202

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF SOYMILK ADDED WITH DRAGON FRUIT AND EGGPLANT PEEL EXTRACTS [Karakteristik Susu Kedelai dengan Penambahan Ekstrak Kulit Buah Naga dan Kulit Terong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sari Kusuma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk has become progressively consumed in Indonesia since early 1990. However, soymilk has a short shelf life due to its high protein content that promotes growth of spoilage microorganisms. This study was aimed at utilizing peel waste of eggplant (Solanum melongena L. and dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus, to prolong shelf life of fresh soymilk through microbial growth inhibition, so that it will not be easily contaminated during storage, transportation and distribution time to meet the needs of consumers. Microbiological analysis showed a notably higher inhibitory effect of dragon fruit peel extract when soymilk was stored at 4ºC and it exhibited lower number of colonies even after 6 days. Interestingly, the antimicrobial activity of eggplant peel extract in cold soymilk could only be observed on day 3 until day 9. Hence, it is assumed that chlorogenic acid, as a primary antimicrobial agent in eggplant peel, needed certain time interval to activate its inhibitory activity against microorganism. However, the two peel extracts could not prolong the shelf life of soymilk stored at ambient temperature. All soymilk samples added with the peel extracts fulfilled the Indonesian National standards (SNI for pH value, protein, and total solid content. Based on the sensory evaluation, the samples with dragon fruit peel extract attained a comparable acceptance level as plain soymilk and were favored over those added with eggplant extract. In conclusion, this research indicated potential applications of usual household waste of dragon fruit and eggplant peels as antimicrobial agents for protein-rich beverages.

  3. Effects of Rambutan Peel Extract to The Number of Erythrocytes and Haemoglobin in Rats Exposed to Cigarette Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisdiana; Dewi, F. K.

    2017-04-01

    Cigarette smoke is one of the exogenous free radicals sources. When it is inhaled, its activity may damage the structure of erythrocyte membrane function. The impacts of free radicals can be reduced through the provision of antioxidants. Rambutan fruit peel contains the phenolic compound in the form of polyphenols that are antioxidants. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of rambutan fruit peel extracts to the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in rats exposed to cigarette smoke. This design used Post Test Control Group Design. A sample of 25 rats was divided into five groups, each group consisting of 5 rats. The positive control group (K+) were given a standard food and drinking water. The negative control group (K) by three cigarettes, the treatment group (KP1, KP2, KP3) by three cigarettes and skin extract of rambutan each treatment group with a dose 15 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 45 mg/kg for 30 days. Data on the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in rat blood was analysed with LSD and to determine the optimum dosage was analysed by using regression test. Research results shown that the content of rambutan fruit peel extract may increase the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin of blood. Conclusions from this research are the rambutan fruit peel extract at a dose of 45 mg/kg body weight can increase and maintain the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in the blood of rat exposed to cigarette smoke.

  4. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Flavonoids from Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) Peel and Their Antioxidant Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin-Zhe; Shao, Ping; Liu, Jian-Hua; Ru, Qiao-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of flavonoids from pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) peel and their antioxidant activity were investigated. Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was employed to maximize the extraction yield of flavonoids. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest extraction yield of flavonoids from pomelo peel were a temperature of 80 °C, a pressure of 39 MPa and a static extraction time of 49 min in the presence of 85% ethanol as modifier. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 2.37%, which matched positively with the value predicted by the model. Furthermore, flavonoids obtained by SC-CO2 extraction showed a higher scavenging activity on hydroxyl, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals than those obtained by conventional solvent extraction (CSE). Therefore, SC-CO2 extraction can be considered as a suitable technique for the obtainment of flavonoids from pomelo peel. PMID:23202938

  5. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Flavonoids from Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck Peel and Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Mei Ru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids from pomelo (Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck peel and their antioxidant activity were investigated. Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was employed to maximize the extraction yield of flavonoids. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest extraction yield of flavonoids from pomelo peel were a temperature of 80 °C, a pressure of 39 MPa and a static extraction time of 49 min in the presence of 85% ethanol as modifier. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 2.37%, which matched positively with the value predicted by the model. Furthermore, flavonoids obtained by SC-CO2 extraction showed a higher scavenging activity on hydroxyl, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals than those obtained by conventional solvent extraction (CSE. Therefore, SC-CO2 extraction can be considered as a suitable technique for the obtainment of flavonoids from pomelo peel.

  6. Neuroprotective Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract after Chronic Infusion with Amyloid-β Peptide in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; Telles, Milena; Mourelle, Danilo; Bachiega, Patricia; Buck, Hudson Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic and degenerative condition that had no treatment until recently. The current therapeutic strategies reduce progression of the disease but are expensive and commonly cause side effects that are uncomfortable for treated patients. Functional foods to prevent and/or treat many conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, represent a promising field of study currently gaining attention. To this end, here we demonstrate the effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract (PPE) regarding spatial memory, biomarkers of neuroplasticity, oxidative stress and inflammation in a mouse model of neurodegeneration. Male C57Bl/6 mice were chronically infused for 35 days with amyloid-β peptide 1–42 (Aβ) or vehicle (control) using mini-osmotic pumps. Another group, also infused with Aβ, was treated with PPE (p.o.– βA+PPE, 800 mg/kg/day). Spatial memory was evaluated in the Barnes maze. Animals treated with PPE and in the control group exhibited a reduction in failure to find the escape box, a finding that was not observed in the Aβ group. The consumption of PPE reduced amyloid plaque density, increased the expression of neurotrophin BDNF and reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme. A reduction in lipid peroxidation and in the concentration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α was also observed in the PPE group. No hepatic lesions were observed in animals treated with PPE. In conclusion, administration of pomegranate peel extract has neuroprotective effects involving multiple mechanisms to prevent establishment and progression of the neurodegenerative process induced by infusion with amyloid-β peptide in mice. PMID:27829013

  7. Optimizaton of extraction of betalain pigments from beta vulgaris peels by microwave pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aruna; Ganesapillai, Mahesh; Gnanasundaram, Nirmala

    2017-11-01

    The effect of microwave assissted extraction of pigments from beetroot peels was studied. Oven Drying followed by microwave assisted extraction was decided as the experimental procedure to be followed because of better absorbance in the range of 0.2-0.4. A microwave assisted extraction procedure is said to open the vacuolar pores inside beetroot powder.The Box-Behnken method was used as the RSM optimization technique. A quadratic model was suggested for both the solvents used. The optimized conditions for Solvent A were pH 5.20, Microwave Power of 224.61MW and Time 57.06 seconds for a Betanin Concentration of 229.264mg/L. The optimized conditions for Solvent B were found to be pH4.74, Microwave Power 384.25MW, Time 74.91 seconds and Betanin Concentration 472.113mg/L. The order of the extraction process was calculated as 1.42 and the rate constant as 0.00126. FTIR results confirm similar functional groups before and after the treatment. FTIR results confirm the presence of O-H stretch, C-H stretch, H-bonded, C-C stretch, N-H bend.

  8. Evaluation of extraction methods for preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; Velázquez-de la Cruz, G; de León, J A Ramírez; Navarro-Ocaña, A

    2014-09-15

    Bioactive compounds have become very important in the food and pharmaceutical markets leading research interests seeking efficient methods for extracting these bioactive substances. The objective of this research is to implement preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) of autochthonous and Ataulfo varieties grown in Nayarit, using emerging extraction techniques. Five extraction techniques were evaluated: maceration, Soxhlet, sonication (UAE), microwave (MAE) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP). Two maturity stages (physiological and consumption) as well as peel and fruit pulp were evaluated for preparative scale implementation. Peels from Ataulfo mango at consumption maturity stage can be considered as a source of mangiferin and lupeol using the UEA method as it improves extraction efficiency by increasing yield and shortening time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of the effects of fresh leaf and peel extracts of walnut (Juglans regia L. on blood glucose and β-cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Somaye Javidanpour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is some report about the hypoglycemic effect of Juglans rejia L. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats and hypoglycemic effect of its fruit peel administered intra peritoneally. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups, to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas β-cells regenerative effects of oral methanolic extracts of leaf and fruit peel of walnut. Rats were made diabetic by intravenous (IV injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (STZ. Negative control group did not get STZ and any treatment. Positive control, leaf extract, peel extract and insulin groups were treated orally by extract solvent, 200 mg kg-1 leaf extract, 200 mg kg-1 peel extract and 5 IU kg-1 of subcutaneous neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin, respectively. Four weeks later, blood was collected for biochemical analysis and pancreases were removed for β-cells counts in histological sections. Diabetes leads to increase of fast blood sugar (FBS and HbA1c, and decrease of β-cell number and insulin. FBS decreased only in leaf extract group. HbA1c decreased in leaf extract and insulin groups. The β-cells number increased in leaf and peel extract groups. Insulin increased moderately in all treatment groups. We showed the proliferative properties of leaves and peel of Juglans regia L. methanolic extract in STZ- induced diabetic rats, which was accompanied by hypoglycemic effect of leaf extract.

  10. Evaluation of a Pomegranate Peel Extract as an Alternative Means to Control Olive Anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangallo, Sonia; Nicosia, Maria G Li Destri; Agosteo, Giovanni E; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Romeo, Flora V; Cacciola, Santa O; Rapisarda, Paolo; Schena, Leonardo

    2017-12-01

    Olive anthracnose is caused by different species of Colletotrichum spp. and may be regarded as the most damaging disease of olive fruit worldwide, greatly affecting quality and quantity of the productions. A pomegranate peel extract (PGE) proved very effective in controlling the disease. The extract had a strong in vitro fungicidal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum sensu stricto, was very effective in both preventive and curative trials with artificially inoculated fruit, and induced resistance in treated olive tissues. In field trials, PGE was significantly more effective than copper, which is traditionally used to control the disease. The highest level of protection was achieved by applying the extract in the early ascending phase of the disease outbreaks because natural rots were completely inhibited with PGE at 12 g/liter and were reduced by 98.6 and by 93.0% on plants treated with PGE at 6 and 3 g/liter, respectively. Two treatments carried out 30 and 15 days before the expected epidemic outbreak reduced the incidence of the disease by 77.6, 57.0, and 51.8%, depending on the PGE concentration. The analysis of epiphytic populations showed a strong antimicrobial activity of PGE, which sharply reduced both fungal and bacterial populations. Because PGE was obtained from a natural matrix using safe chemicals and did not have any apparent phytotoxic effect on treated olive fruit, it may be regarded as a safe and effective natural antifungal preparation to control olive anthracnose and improve olive productions.

  11. [Effect of Characteristic Variable Extraction on Accuracy of Cu in Navel Orange Peel by LIBS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-bing; Yao, Ming-yin; Huang, Lin; Chen, Tian-bing; Zheng, Jian-hong; Fan, Shi-quan; Liu Mu-hua HE, Mu-hua; Lin, Jin-long; Ouyang, Jing-yi

    2015-07-01

    Heavy metals pollution in foodstuffs is more and more serious. It is impossible to satisfy the modern agricultural development by conventional chemical analysis. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging technology with the characteristic of rapid and nondestructive detection. But LIBS' s repeatability, sensitivity and accuracy has much room to improve. In this work, heavy metal Cu in Gannan Navel Orange which is the Jiangxi specialty fruit will be predicted by LIBS. Firstly, the navel orange samples were contaminated in our lab. The spectra of samples were collected by irradiating the peel by optimized LIBS parameters. The laser energy was set as 20 mJ, delay time of Spectral Data Gathering was set as 1.2 micros, the integration time of Spectral data gathering was set as 2 ms. The real concentration in samples was obtained by AAS (atom absorption spectroscopy). The characteristic variables Cu I 324.7 and Cu I 327.4 were extracted. And the calibration model was constructed between LIBS spectra and real concentration about Cu. The results show that relative error of the predicted concentrations of three relational model were 7.01% or less, reached a minimum of 0.02%, 0.01% and 0.02% respectively. The average relative errors were 2.33%, 3.10% and 26.3%. Tests showed that different characteristic variables decided different accuracy. It is very important to choose suitable characteristic variable. At the same time, this work is helpful to explore the distribution of heavy metals between pulp and peel.

  12. Citrus peel extract and powder attenuate hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia using rodent experimental modeling

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    Humaira Ashraf

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Conclusively, inclusion of citrus peel bioflavonoids in dietary therapies is a promising strategy to modulate lipidemic and glycemic attributes without imparting any deleterious effect on hematological parameters.

  13. The Effect of Citrus Aurantium, Foeniculum Vulgare and Rosmarinus Officinalis Essential Oils on Peroxidase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Mohajerani (PhD); Afsaneh Aghae i ( MSc )

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: Peroxidases catalyze protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. The activity of these enzymes in nerve cells is involved in causing disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. This study investigated the effect of Citrus aurantium, Foeniculum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils on activity of peroxidase enzyme. Methods: All three medicinal plants were dried at room temperature. Their essential oil was extracted by steam distillation ...

  14. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Noomhorm, Athapol

    2014-10-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts' yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave method gave higher extraction yield from banana peel than ultrasonic method. The phenolic contents of cinnamon bark and banana peel extracts were 467 and 35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. The flavonoid content found in banana peel and cinnamon bark extracts were 196 and 428 mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. In addition, it was found that cinnamon bark gave higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-1 picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analyzed by measuring the peroxide and p-anisidine values after oxidation of fish oils, stored for a month (30 days) at 25 °C and showed lesser peroxide and p-anisidine values in the fish oils containing the sample extracts in comparison to the fish oil without containing any extract. The banana peel and cinnamon extracts had shown the ability as antioxidants to prevent the oxidation of fish oil and might be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidant.

  15. Aqueous extraction of pectin from sour orange peel and its preliminary physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Saeid; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Sour orange peel, a by-product of the fruit juice industry, was used as a source of pectin. The effects of temperature (75-95°C), time (30-90 min), and liquid-solid ratio (20-40, v/w) were investigated on yield, methoxylation degree (DE), and galacturonic acid content using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. The highest extraction yield (17.95 ± 0.3%) was obtained at temperature of 95°C, time of 90 min, and liquid-solid ratio of 25 (v/w). The DE values for the pectin ranged from 17% to 30.5%, indicating that the pectin was low in methoxyle. The emulsifying activity of pectin extracted under optimal conditions was 45%. The emulsions were 86.6% stable at 4°C and 71.4% at 23°C after 30 days of storage. The pectin exhibited Newtonian flow at low concentrations (≤ 1.0%, w/v); as the concentration increased, pseudoplastic flow became dominant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel extract fractions from different cultivars differentially affect lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Gidley, Michael J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2013-02-26

    Plant phytochemicals are increasingly recognised as sources of bioactive molecules which may have potential benefit in many health conditions. In mangoes, peel extracts from different cultivars exhibit varying effects on adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. In this study, the effects of preparative HPLC fractions of methanol peel extracts from Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride mangoes were evaluated. Fraction 1 contained the most hydrophilic components while subsequent fractions contained increasingly more hydrophobic components. High content imaging was used to assess mango peel fraction effects on lipid accumulation, nuclei count and nuclear area in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. For all three mango cultivars, the more hydrophilic peel fractions 1-3 inhibited lipid accumulation with greater potency than the more hydrophobic peel fractions 4. For all three cultivars, the more lipophilic fraction 4 had concentrations that enhanced lipid accumulation greater than fractions 1-3 as assessed by lipid droplet integrated intensity. The potency of this fraction 4 varied significantly between cultivars. Using mass spectrometry, five long chain free fatty acids were detected in fraction 4; these were not present in any other peel extract fractions. Total levels varied between cultivars, with Irwin fraction 4 containing the highest levels of these free fatty acids. Lipophilic components appear to be responsible for the lipid accumulation promoting effects of some mango extracts and are the likely cause of the diverse effects of peel extracts from different mango cultivars on lipid accumulation.

  17. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Aloe vera peel extract on blood sugar level of alloxan-induced Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniati, E.; Setiadi, E.; Susanti, R.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    Aloe vera peel contains flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and sterols as its secondary metabolites. This research explores the effect of Aloe vera peel extract on blood glucose levels of alloxan-induced Wistar rats in a laboratory experimental scale. Blood glucose examination was performed by using GOD-PAP method. Twenty five 2 months old-white rat (Rattus norvegicus) male wistar strain weigh 150-200 grams body weight, and in healthy condition, was randomly divided into five groups. Those five groups were negative control group (K-), positive control group (K+), treatment group 1 (P1), treatment group 2 (P 2), and treatment group 3 (P 3). Each group was fed by standard diet and ad-libitum drinking. Treatments were given for 28 days. On the day 29, blood glucose level of all groups were analyzed. The results showed that the highest blood glucose levels in control group rat were positive (191.2 mg/dl). Aloe vera extract was able to decrease blood sugar level up to 104,6mg/dl in P3 group treatment rats (served Aloe vera extract 350 mg/kg BW/day). It comes to the conclusion that giving Aloe vera peel extract for 28 days decreases blood sugar level of hyperglycemic rat.

  18. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L. Peel Using Response Surface Methodology

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    Gui-Fang Deng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. is a popular tropical fruit and its peel is a municipal waste. An ultrasound-assisted extraction method was developed for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. Central composite design was used to optimize solvent concentration (13.2%–46.8%, ultrasonic time (33.2–66.8 min, and temperature (43.2–76.8 °C for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. The second-order polynomial models demonstrated a good fit of the quadratic models with the experimental results in respect to total phenolic content (TPC, R2 = 0.9524, p < 0.0001, FRAP (R2 = 0.9743, p < 0.0001, and TEAC (R2 = 0.9610, p < 0.0001 values. The optimal extraction conditions were 20:1 (mL/g of solvent-to-solid ratio, 32.68% acetone, and 67.23 °C for 42.54 min under ultrasonic irradiation. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of total phenolic content was 26.81 (mg GA/g FW. The experimental results obtained under optimal conditions agreed well with the predicted results. The application of ultrasound markedly decreased extraction time and improved the extraction efficiency, compared with the conventional methods.

  19. Ameliorative properties of Iranian Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds and Punica granatum L. peel extracts in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetic guinea pigs

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    Nabil Abdel Salam Ahmed Hasona

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The Iranian T. foenum-graecum seeds and P. granatum peel extracts are significantly potent in ameliorating diabetic condition induced by streptozotocin and improving various biochemical parameters in serum and liver of guinea pigs.

  20. "Rhetoric to Reality"- Efficacy of Punica Granatum Peel Extract on Oral Candidiasis: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madugula, Preethi; Reddy, Sudhakara; Koneru, Jyothirmai; Rao, Atla Srinivasa; Sruthi, Rayapureddi; Dalli, Divya Teja

    2017-01-01

    Global usage of synthetic drugs inadvertently has resulted in deleterious effects and antimicrobial resistance. Phytoextarcts with therapeutic properties appear to be appropriate substitutes for synthetic drugs. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) is a fruit rich in nutraceuticals and therapeutic properties that has lead to its widespread use as folk-medicine for treating innumerable diseases. To determine the in vitro antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum peel extract against the oral Candida compared with clotrimazole. An in vitro study was carried out on 60 saliva samples collected from patients confirmed by clinical and mycological examination as oral candidiasis and subjected to culture on Saborauds Dextrose Agar (SDA) medium and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. The cultured Candida species were subjected to antifungal susceptibility test by agar well diffusion method. Punica granatum peel extract (Group-I), Ethanol (Group-II Negative control), Clotrimazole (Group-III-Positive control) were inoculated in wells and incubated. Zones of inhibitions were measured with a digital Vernier's callipers and subjected to statistical analysis. ANOVA (analysis of variance) was performed to compare inhibition zones and concentrations of all the three groups. Antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum group and Clotrimazole group were statistically significant with p-value Punica granatum approximated with that of the clotrimazole. The present research was just a venture to usual clinical approach. The results of the study reveal that MIC of peel extract of Punica granatum approximated with that of the clotrimazole. Hence, peel extract of Punica granatum may be used as a substitute for antifungal agents in clinical trials with standardization so as to minimize the deleterious effects for patient compliance.

  1. “Rhetoric to Reality”- Efficacy of Punica Granatum Peel Extract on Oral Candidiasis: An in vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sudhakara; Koneru, Jyothirmai; Rao, Atla Srinivasa; Sruthi, Rayapureddi; Dalli, Divya Teja

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Global usage of synthetic drugs inadvertently has resulted in deleterious effects and antimicrobial resistance. Phytoextarcts with therapeutic properties appear to be appropriate substitutes for synthetic drugs. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) is a fruit rich in nutraceuticals and therapeutic properties that has lead to its widespread use as folk-medicine for treating innumerable diseases. Aim To determine the in vitro antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum peel extract against the oral Candida compared with clotrimazole. Materials and Methods An in vitro study was carried out on 60 saliva samples collected from patients confirmed by clinical and mycological examination as oral candidiasis and subjected to culture on Saborauds Dextrose Agar (SDA) medium and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. The cultured Candida species were subjected to antifungal susceptibility test by agar well diffusion method. Punica granatum peel extract (Group-I), Ethanol (Group-II Negative control), Clotrimazole (Group-III-Positive control) were inoculated in wells and incubated. Zones of inhibitions were measured with a digital Vernier’s callipers and subjected to statistical analysis. ANOVA (analysis of variance) was performed to compare inhibition zones and concentrations of all the three groups. Results Antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum group and Clotrimazole group were statistically significant with p-value Punica granatum approximated with that of the clotrimazole. Conclusion The present research was just a venture to usual clinical approach. The results of the study reveal that MIC of peel extract of Punica granatum approximated with that of the clotrimazole. Hence, peel extract of Punica granatum may be used as a substitute for antifungal agents in clinical trials with standardization so as to minimize the deleterious effects for patient compliance. PMID:28274059

  2. HPLC Evaluation of Phenolic Profile, Nutritive Content, and Antioxidant Capacity of Extracts Obtained from Punica granatum Fruit Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middha, Sushil Kumar; Usha, Talambedu; Pande, Veena

    2013-01-01

    This study revealed polyphenolic content, nutritive content, antioxidant activity, and phenolic profile of methanol and aqueous extracts of Punica granatum peel extract. For this, extracts were screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The total phenolics and flavonoid recovered by methanolic (MPE) and the water extract (AQPE) were ranged from 185 ± 12.45 to 298.00 ± 24.86 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/gm and 23.05 ± 1.54 to 49.8 ± 2.14 quercetin (QE) mg/g, respectively. The EC50 of herbal extracts ranged from 100 µg/ml (0.38 quercetin equivalents), for AQPE, 168 µg/ml (0.80 quercetin equivalents), for MPE. The phenolic profile in the methanolic extracts was investigated by chromatographic (HPLC) method. About 5 different flavonoids, phenolic acids, and their derivatives including quercetin (1), rutin (2), gallic acid (3), ellagic acid (4), and punicalagin as a major ellagitannin (5) have been identified. Among both extracts, methanolic extract was the most effective. This report may be the first to show nutritive content and correlation analysis to suggest that phenols and flavonoids might contribute the high antioxidant activity of this fruit peel and establish it as a valuable natural antioxidant source applicable in the health food industry. PMID:23983682

  3. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L.) Peel Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2015-11-17

    Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) is a popular tropical fruit and its peel is a municipal waste. An ultrasound-assisted extraction method was developed for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. Central composite design was used to optimize solvent concentration (13.2%-46.8%), ultrasonic time (33.2-66.8 min), and temperature (43.2-76.8 °C) for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. The second-order polynomial models demonstrated a good fit of the quadratic models with the experimental results in respect to total phenolic content (TPC, R²=0.9524, pextraction conditions were 20:1 (mL/g) of solvent-to-solid ratio, 32.68% acetone, and 67.23 °C for 42.54 min under ultrasonic irradiation. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of total phenolic content was 26.81 (mg GA/g FW). The experimental results obtained under optimal conditions agreed well with the predicted results. The application of ultrasound markedly decreased extraction time and improved the extraction efficiency, compared with the conventional methods.

  4. Antioxidant Effect of Orange Peel Extract on Chemical Quality, Sensory Properties, and Black Spots of Farmed White Shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Vakili

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Black spots are a major problem in commercial shrimp species and can have negative effects on shrimps' appearance, quality, shelf life, economic value, and product acceptance by consumers. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of orange peel extract on chemical and sensory qualities as well as black spots on Litopenaeus vannamei species of white farmed shrimp. Methods: Samples included treated shrimps at concentration of 150 g, orange peel extract for 30 minutes, and control shrimps. After storage for 10 days at 1 ± 4 °C, the samples’ chemical and sensory evaluations were performed with an interval of 5 days. Results: pH factors, peroxide value, and total volatile network (TVN of treated samples were significantly lower compared to those of the control samples (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in the moisture content. Black spots did not appear in the treated sample until the end of refrigerated storage, but melanosis appeared in control shrimp 5 days after storage. Conclusion: The results showed that because of having antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, orange peel extract improved shrimps' chemical and sensory qualities and reduced their black spots in the refrigerator temperature.

  5. IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY TEST OF SOME COMPOUNDS FROM METHANOL EXTRACT PEEL OF BANANA (Musa paradisiaca Linn.

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    Sri Atun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these research was measured activity as antioxidant some compounds in methanol extracts of peel of banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn., isolated some compounds which had activities as antioxidant, and determined this structure. Method of this study was extracted powdered peel of banana with methanol at room temperature. Extract was concentrated in vaccuo and then successively was partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, etyl acetate, and buthanol. Antioxidant test from each fractions was measured by hydroxyl radical scavenger test with Fenton reaction method. The result of this study showed activity each fractions as  hydroxyl radical scavenger activity of chloroform, etyl acetate, and buthanol fraction were IC50 693.15; 2347.40; and 1071.14 mg/mL respectively. The isolation of secondary metabolite compounds from chloroform fraction obtained two isolate compounds. Identification by spectroscopy IR,  MS, 1H and 13C NMR one and two dimension showed that the compounds are 5,6,7,4'-tetrahidroxy-3,4-flavan-diol and a new compound cyclohexenon derivative (2-cyclohexene-1-on-2,4,4-trimethyl-3-O-2'-hydroxypropyl ether.   Keywords: antioxidant, peel of banana, Musa paradisiaca, hydroxyl radical scavenger

  6. Punica granatum peel extracts: HPLC fractionation and LC MS analysis to quest compounds having activity against multidrug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ilyas; Rahman, Hazir; Abd El-Salam, Nasser M; Tawab, Abdul; Hussain, Anwar; Khan, Taj Ali; Khan, Usman Ali; Qasim, Muhammad; Adnan, Muhammad; Azizullah, Azizullah; Murad, Waheed; Jalal, Abdullah; Muhammad, Noor; Ullah, Riaz

    2017-05-03

    Medicinal plants are rich source of traditional herbal medicine around the globe. Most of the plant's therapeutic properties are due to the presence of secondary bioactive compounds. The present study analyzed the High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fractions of Puncia granatum (peel) extracts (aqueous, chloroform, ethanol and hexane) against multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens (Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus). All the fractions having antibacterial activity was processed for bioactive compounds identification using LC MS/MS analysis. Among total HPLC fractions (n = 30), 4 HPLC fractions of P. granatum (peel) showed potential activity against MDR pathogens. Fraction 1 (F1) and fraction 4 (F4) collected from aqueous extract showed maximum activity against P. aeruginosa. Fraction 2 (F2) of hexane showed antibacterial activity against three pathogens, while ethanol F4 exhibited antibacterial activity against A. baumannii. The active fractions were processed for LC MS/MS analysis to identify bioactive compounds. Valoneic acid dilactone (aqueous F1 and F4), Hexoside (ethanol F4) and Coumaric acid (hexane F2) were identified as bioactive compounds in HPLC fractions. Puncia granatum peel extracts HPLC fractions exhibited potential inhibitory activity against MDR bacterial human pathogens. Several bioactive compounds were identified from the HPLC fractions. Further characterization of these compounds may be helpful to conclude it as therapeutic lead molecules against MDR pathogens.

  7. Green synthesis of biocompatible carbon dots using aqueous extract of Trapa bispinosa peel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mewada, Ashmi; Pandey, Sunil, E-mail: gurus.spandey@gmail.com; Shinde, Sachin; Mishra, Neeraj; Oza, Goldie; Thakur, Mukeshchand; Sharon, Maheshwar; Sharon, Madhuri, E-mail: sharonmadhuri@gmail.com

    2013-07-01

    We are reporting highly economical plant based method for the production of luminescent water soluble carbon dots (C-dot) using Indian water plant Trapa bispinosa peel extract without adding any external oxidizing agent at 90 °C. C-dots ranging from 5 to 10 nm were found in the solution with a prominent green fluorescence under UV-light (λ{sub ex} = 365 nm). UV–vis spectra recorded at different time intervals (30–120 min) displayed signature absorption of C-dots between 400 and 600 nm. Fluorescence spectra of the dispersion after 120 min of synthesis exhibited characteristic emission peaks of C-dots when excited at 350, 400, 450 and 500 nm. C-dots were further analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy and Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Structure of the C-dots was found to be turbostratic when studied using XRD. C-dots synthesized by our method were found to be exceptionally biocompatible against MDCK cells. Highlights: • Novel report on biosynthesis of water soluble carbon dots using plant source • Prominent green fluorescence under UV light • Highly biocompatible nanoparticles against MDCK cells • Excellent imaging properties under fluorescent light.

  8. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Punica Granatum Peel Extracts Against Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Abdollahzadeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Punica granatum has been used for many years in folk medicine due to several purposes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Punica granatum peel (MEPGP against Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus,Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Actynomyces viscosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the mentioned oral organisms were cultured in blood agar and mueller-hinton media and then paper disks containing MEPGP at concentrations of 4 mg/ml, 8 mg/ml and 12 mg/ml were inserted on medias. The antimicrobialactivity was evaluated by agar disk diffusion method. The effects of three different concentrations of MEPGP against microorganisms were compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests.Results: All concentrations of MEPGP had antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S.epidermidis. Only at concentration of 8 mg/ml and 12 mg/ml MEPGP was effective against L. acidophilus, S. mutans and S. salivarius. Furthermore; no concentrations ofMEPGP inhibited A. viscosus and C. albicans.Conclusion: This study suggests that MEPGP might be used as an antibacterial agent in controlling oral infections.

  9. Punica granatum peel extract protects against ionizing radiation-induced enteritis and leukocyte apoptosis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toklu, H.Z.; Sehirli, O.; Ozyurt, H.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation-induced enteritis is a well-recognized sequel of therapeutic irradiation. Therefore we examined the radioprotective properties of Punica granatum peel extract (PPE) on the oxidative damage in the ileum. Rats were exposed to a single whole-body X-ray irradiation of 800 cGy. Irradiated rats were pretreated orally with saline or PPE (50 mg/kg/day) for 10 days before irradiation and the following 10 days, while control rats received saline or PPE but no irradiation. Then plasma and ileum samples were obtained. Irradiation caused a decrease in glutathione and total antioxidant capacity, which was accompanied by increases in malondialdehyde levels, myeloperoxidase activity, collagen content of the tissue with a concomitant increase 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (an index of oxidative DNA damage). Similarly, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and lactate dehydrogenase were elevated in irradiated groups as compared to control. PPE treatment reversed all these biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations induced by irradiation. Furthermore, flow cytometric measurements revealed that leukocyte apoptosis and cell death were increased in irradiated animals, while PPE reversed these effects. PPE supplementation reduced oxidative damage in the ileal tissues, probably by a mechanism that is associated with the decreased production of reactive oxygen metabolites and enhancement of antioxidant mechanisms. Adjuvant therapy of PPE may have a potential to support a successful radiotherapy by protecting against radiation-induced enteritis. (author)

  10. Passion fruit peel extract attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilakapati, Shanmuga Reddy; Serasanambati, Mamatha; Manikonda, Pavan Kumar; Chilakapati, Damodar Reddy; Watson, Ronald Ross

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive fatal lung disease characterized by excessive collagen deposition, with no effective treatments. We investigated the efficacy of natural products with high anti-inflammatory activity, such as passion fruit peel extract (PFPE), in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF). C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin to induce PF. Daily PFPE treatment significantly reduced loss of body mass and mortality rate in mice compared with those treated with bleomycin. While bleomycin-induced PF resulted in elevated total numbers of inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid on both days 7 and 21, PFPE administration significantly attenuated these phenomena compared with bleomycin group. On day 7, the decreased superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activities observed in the bleomycin group were significantly restored with PFPE treatment. On day 21, enhanced hydroxyproline deposition in the bleomycin group was also suppressed by PFPE administration. PFPE treatment significantly attenuated extensive inflammatory cell infiltration and accumulation of collagen in lung tissue sections of bleomycin-induced mice on days 7 and 21, respectively. Our results indicate that administration of PFPE decreased bleomycin-induced PF because of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

  11. Ecofriendly Synthesis of nano Zero Valent Iron from Banana Peel Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunardi; Ashadi; Budi Rahardjo, Sentot; Inayati

    2017-01-01

    In this study, nano Zero Valent Iron (nZVI) were synthesized from banana peel extract (BPE) and ferrous sulfate. During the synthesis of nZVI both the precursor and the reducing agent were mixed in a clean sterilized flask in 1:1 proportion. For the reduction of Fe ions, 5 ml of filtered BPE was mixed to 5 ml of freshly prepared 0.001 M - 0.005 M aqueous of FeSO4 solution with constant stirring at room temperature. Within a particular time change in colour from brown to black color obtained by nanoparticles synthesis. A systematic characterization of nZVI was performed using UV-Vis. UV-visible absorption is used to investigate SPR. Characteristic surface plasmon absorption band was observed at 210 nm for the black colored nZVI synthesized from 0.001-0.005 M ferrous sulfate with BPE concentration 5 ml. It has been found that the optimum concentration for the synthesis of nZVI is 0.001M Fe2+ ions. There is small decrease in the intensity of SPR band from 0.001 to 0.005 M. The characterization size of nZVI was performed using TEM. The result shows that formation of particles size of nZVI was more 100 nm.

  12. APPLICATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM PEELS OF ORANGES AS A PARTIAL SUBSTITUTE OF FLOCCULANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kowalczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to determine the optimum conditions of the process of mechanical dewatering of municipal sewage sludge and reduction of odours emitted during this process. The process of dewatering of municipal sewage sludge was carried out using laboratory sedimentation centrifuge of MPW-350 type. Municipal sewage sludge stabilized during anaerobic digestion, taken from Wastewater Treatment Plant Jamno. The dewatering process was aided by cationic flocculant Praestol 855BS of real solution concentration 0.3% and essential oil from orange, which was extracted from orange peels in the process of steam distillation. Constant parameters of dewatering process were: pH, temperature, colour, texture, smell, water content and dry matter content. Independent variables of dewatering process were: centrifugation time (in the range 1–10 min, centrifugation speed (in the range 1000–3000 rotations/min and dose of mixture of flocculant Praestol 855BS (79% + essential oil of orange (21% in the range 0–48 ml/dm3. Water content in the sludge after the process, dry matter content in the effluent and the duration of the smell of oil in the sediment were determined. Studies showed that the essential oil from orange may be used as a partial substitute of flocculant Praestol 855BS in the process of centrifugal sedimentation. Essential oil of orange significantly reduces unpleasant odours which are emitted from sludge during mechanical dewatering. Simultaneous application of both reagents, ie. flocculant Praestol 855BS 79%, and essential oil of orange 21% of volume is recommended.

  13. Development of an active biodegradable film containing tocopherol and avocado peel extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.F. Fidelis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic starch (TPS films and poly(butylene adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT (60/40 m/m containing TOCO-70 (tocopherol/soybean oil 70/30 m/m and avocado peel extract (ExA were produced using blown film extrusion. The formulations of the 5 films (FC/F1/F2/F3 and F4 were established through mixture design with constraints maintaining constant PBAT and TPS proportion, and varying the antioxidant concentrations. Adding antioxidants reduced the water vapour permeability (Kw of the films, with formulation F2 presenting higher decrease in relationto FC, 77.8%. The presence of ExA improved the mechanical properties of the films. The production of the films was determined to be viable after they presented good processability in a pilotextruder, as well as mechanical properties appropriate to production and utilization in industry.The presence of ExA and TOCO 70 provided the films with antioxidant activity; their application as active packaging requires further studies.

  14. Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Extract of Garcinia mangostana Fruit Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Xin Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs is performed by the reduction of aqueous gold metal ions in contact with the aqueous peel extract of plant, Garcinia mangostana (G. mangostana. An absorption peak of the gold nanoparticles is observed at the range of 540–550 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy. All the diffraction peaks at 2θ = 38.48°, 44.85°, 66.05°, and 78.00° that index to (111, (200, (220, and (311 planes confirm the successful synthesis of Au-NPs. Mostly spherical shape particles with size range of 32.96 ± 5.25 nm are measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. From the FTIR results, the peaks obtained are closely related to phenols, flavonoids, benzophenones, and anthocyanins which suggest that they may act as the reducing agent. This method is environmentally safe without the usage of synthetic materials which is highly potential in biomedical applications.

  15. The physiological response of obese rat model with rambutan peel extract treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu Lestari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine body weight gain, expression of Igf-1 and Igf-1 receptor on obese rat model treated with rambutan peel extract (RPE as a physiological response. Methods: Normal and obese rat feed with normal and high calorie diet around 1 2 weeks and continued to treat with ellagic acid, RPE 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg body weight respectively. Physiological responses observed were weight gain and expression of Igf-1 with its receptor. Body weight of rat was weighed once per week. Expression of Igf-1 and igf-1R observed with fluorescence immunohistochemistry. The intensity of Igf-1 and Igf-1R expression was analysis using FSX-BSW software. Results: The lowest weight gain was obtained on obese rat model treated with RPE 30 mg/kg body weight. The expression of Igf-1 and Igf-1R were reduced on obese rat model treated with RPE compared with obese rat model of non treatment (P<0.05. The low expression of Igf-1 and Igf-1R was found on obese rat model treated with ellagic acid and RPE 30 mg/kg body weight. Conclusions: The RPE was effecting to the physiological response on obese rat model. The RPE 30 mg/kg body weight inhibited body weight gain and decreased the expression of Igf-1 and Igf- 1R of obese rat model.

  16. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Punica Granatum Peel Extracts Against Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahzadeh, Sh.; Mashouf, RY.; Mortazavi, H.; Moghaddam, MH.; Roozbahani, N.; Vahedi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Punica granatum has been used for many years in folk medicine due to several purposes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Punica granatum peel (MEPGP) against Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Actynomyces viscosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the mentioned oral organisms were cultured in blood agar and mueller-hinton media and then paper disks containing MEPGP at concentrations of 4 mg/ml, 8 mg/ml and 12 mg/ml were inserted on medias. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by agar disk diffusion method. The effects of three different concentrations of MEPGP against microorganisms were compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: All concentrations of MEPGP had antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Only at concentration of 8 mg/ml and 12 mg/ml MEPGP was effective against L. acidophilus, S. mutans and S. salivarius. Furthermore; no concentrations of MEPGP inhibited A. viscosus and C. albicans. Conclusion: This study suggests that MEPGP might be used as an antibacterial agent in controlling oral infections. PMID:21998800

  17. Ecofriendly Synthesis of nano Zero Valent Iron from Banana Peel Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunardi; Ashadi; Rahardjo, Sentot Budi; Inayati

    2017-01-01

    In this study, nano Zero Valent Iron (nZVI) were synthesized from banana peel extract (BPE) and ferrous sulfate. During the synthesis of nZVI both the precursor and the reducing agent were mixed in a clean sterilized flask in 1:1 proportion. For the reduction of Fe ions, 5 ml of filtered BPE was mixed to 5 ml of freshly prepared 0.001 M – 0.005 M aqueous of FeSO 4 solution with constant stirring at room temperature. Within a particular time change in colour from brown to black color obtained by nanoparticles synthesis. A systematic characterization of nZVI was performed using UV-Vis. UV–visible absorption is used to investigate SPR. Characteristic surface plasmon absorption band was observed at 210 nm for the black colored nZVI synthesized from 0.001–0.005 M ferrous sulfate with BPE concentration 5 ml. It has been found that the optimum concentration for the synthesis of nZVI is 0.001M Fe 2+ ions. There is small decrease in the intensity of SPR band from 0.001 to 0.005 M. The characterization size of nZVI was performed using TEM. The result shows that formation of particles size of nZVI was more 100 nm. (paper)

  18. Antibacterial Effects of Citrus aurantium on Bacteria Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Dadashi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background :  Emerging antibacterial resistance rates and beta-lactamase producing bacteria recovered from UTI is an increasing problem in different regions, limiting therapeutic options. Therefore, this survey consider to use the extract and essence of the citrus aurantium (which have a so many rate of planting in Iran and also survey on extract on bacteria whose cause urinary tract infections, and compare this with common antibiotics. Methods and Materials: This study was experimental design.We have been isolate the E.coli,Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus faecalis from UTI and then determine of antibacterial effect of Citrus aurantium against this bacteria with subculture and put the exact diagnosis on them. Antibacterial effects of the herb extract by well diffusion assay and  nalidixic acid and Co-trimoxazol were evaluated by method of agar disc diffusion. Results:Enterococcus faecalis had 100% sensitivity against of extract,essence and Co-trimoxazole , and 80% against nalidixic acid . E.coli had 100% sensitivity against Co-trimoxazol, nalidixic acid and it was totally resistance to extract and essence.Klebsiella Pneumonie had 80% to Co-trimoxazol, 75% to nalidixic acid and resistance against extract and essence.Streptococcus agalactiae was 100% sensitivity to essence and Co-trimoxazol and 90% against nalidixic acid and shown 80% sensitivity against extract.Staphylococcus aureus MRSA shown 100% sensitivity against Co-trimoxazol and 70% sensitivity against essence, extract and nalidixic acid. Conclusion: Detection of antibiotic resistance among isolates is important in prevention and control of infections. In this study, it was shown that extracts of citrus aurantium have high antibacterial effects on gram positive bacteria compare to gram negative bacteria.

  19. Determination of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of pomegranate peel, seed and juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tadi Beni

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: The results of study indicated that pomegranate juice showed the lowest antioxidant activity and phenolic content in comparison to peel and seed. High antioxidant activity of pomegranate can introduce them as natural food preservatives.

  20. RSM optimized Moringa oleifera peel extract for green synthesis of M. oleifera capped palladium nanoparticles with antibacterial and hemolytic property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, T V; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Rayalu, G Mokesh

    2016-09-01

    Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) are the very good catalytic agents in many coupling reactions, also these are very well biological agents against bacteria and fungus. M. oleifera capped Pd NPs were synthesized from microwave assisted methanolic extract of M. oleifera peel. To optimize the extraction process RSM (Response Surface Methodology) was applied. To get a good extraction yield BBD (Box-Behnken Design) was employed. The better optimized conditions for the extraction was found as 400W, 25mL of CH3OH at 65°C for 2min. We observed 61.66mg of extract yield from this method. Eco-friendly M. oleifera capped Pd NPs were synthesized using M. oleifera peel extract and confirmed using the different characterization techniques like UV- Vis spectroscopy, XRD, SEM and HR-TEM analysis. We found the size of the M. oleifera capped Pd NPs nanoparticles as 27±2nm and shape of the particles as spherical through the TEM analysis. M. oleifera capped Pd NPs exhibits good antibacterial activity against S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) and E. coli (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains and we found the zone inhibition as 0.6 and 0.7mm. The synthesized M. oleifera capped Pd NPs are screened for hemolytic activity and it proved the M. oleifera capped Pd NPs are non-toxic on RBCs cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes, the Antioxidant Activity, and the Polyphenolic Content of Citrus limetta Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme α-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20 mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme α-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125 mg/mL to 42.5% at 20 mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Composition of Chicory Root, Peel, Seed and Leaf Ethanol Extracts and Biological Properties of Their Non-Inulin Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Milala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the ethanol extracts of chicory root, peel, seed and leaf has been determined, in particular their inulin and phenolic fractions. The root and peel extracts were characterized by large mass fractions of inulin (60.1 and 46.8 g per 100 g of fresh mass, respectively, predominantly with degree of polymerization in the range from 3 to 10, while phenolics, determined as caffeoylquinic acids, made up 0.5 and 1.7 g per 100 g of fresh mass, respectively. The leaf and seed extracts had decidedly lower mass fractions of inulin (1.7 and 3.2 g per 100 g of fresh mass, respectively and higher mass fractions of phenolics (9.6 and 4.22 g per 100 g of fresh mass, respectively recognized as caffeoylquinic acids, chicoric acid and quercetin glucuronide. The biological properties of a non-inulin fraction from each extract were determined on Wistar rats fed with diets rich in fructose and saturated fat, as a model of metabolic changes related to westernization of human eating habits. The diets contained the same amount of inulin (6 % with various phenolic fractions. Some changes were noted in the microbial enzymatic activity of the caecum after feeding for 4 weeks with the diet containing the highest mass fraction of phenolics (0.208 %, derived from the mixture of peel and seed extracts (decreased activity of β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase, as well as with the diet containing leaf extract (decreased β-glucuronidase activity. All the diets showed no essential influence on the caecal concentration and profile of short-chain fatty acids, except acetate, whose concentration decreased significantly in rats fed with the diet enriched with root extract. The addition of peel and leaf extracts to the fructose diets significantly increased the serum antioxidant capacity of lipophilic substances. The study indicates that parts of chicory and its byproducts might be a source of valuable compounds to improve the physiological activity of

  3. Protective effect of pineapple (Ananas cosmosus peel extract on alcohol-induced oxidative stress in brain tissues of male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko L Erukainure

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the ability of pineapple peels to protect against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in brain tissues using male albino rat models. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM was used to design a series of experiments to optimize treatment conditions with the aim of investigating the protective effect of pineapple peel extract on alcohol-induced oxidative stress in brain tissues. Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20% w/v at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw. The treatment lasted for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Tissue homogenates were used for the assessment of protein concentration, reduced glutathione (GSH content, catalase, and SOD. Results: Alcohol administration caused a significant decrease (P>0.05 in GSH level in the group which was only fed alcohol. Treatment with pineapple peel extracts caused increase in GSH level in alcohol fed groups. No significant difference (P<0.05 was observed in SOD levels of the negative control and group fed on only pineapple peel extract. Elevated level of catalase was observed in the negative control but pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the levels. Conclusions: This study indicates the protective effect of pineapple peel against alcoholinduced oxidative stress in brain tissues.

  4. Citrus aurantium Naringenin Prevents Osteosarcoma Progression and Recurrence in the Patients Who Underwent Osteosarcoma Surgery by Improving Antioxidant Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aurantium is rich in flavonoids, which may prevent osteosarcoma progression, but its related molecular mechanism remains unclear. Flavonoids were extracted from C. aurantium and purified by reparative HPLC. Each fraction was identified by using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. Three main components (naringin, naringenin, and hesperetin were isolated from C. aurantium. Naringenin inhibited the growth of MG-63 cells, whereas naringin and hesperetin had no inhibitory function on cell growth. ROS production was increased in naringin- and hesperetin-treated groups after one day of culture while the level was always lowest in the naringenin-treated group after three days of culture. 95 osteosarcoma patients who underwent surgery were assigned into two groups: naringenin group (NG, received 20 mg naringenin daily, n=47 and control group (CG, received 20 mg placebo daily, n=48. After an average of two-year follow-up, osteosarcoma volumes were smaller in the NG group than in the CG group (P>0.01. The rate of osteosarcoma recurrence was also lower in the NG group than in CG group. ROS levels were lower in the NG group than in the CG group. Thus, naringenin from Citrus aurantium inhibits osteosarcoma progression and local recurrence in the patients who underwent osteosarcoma surgery by improving antioxidant capability.

  5. Citrus aurantium Naringenin Prevents Osteosarcoma Progression and Recurrence in the Patients Who Underwent Osteosarcoma Surgery by Improving Antioxidant Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lirong; Xu, Xiaohua; Jiang, Tiechao; Wu, Kunzhe; Ding, Chuanbo; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Xuanhe; Yu, Tianhua; Song, Changlong

    2018-01-01

    Citrus aurantium is rich in flavonoids, which may prevent osteosarcoma progression, but its related molecular mechanism remains unclear. Flavonoids were extracted from C. aurantium and purified by reparative HPLC. Each fraction was identified by using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Three main components (naringin, naringenin, and hesperetin) were isolated from C. aurantium . Naringenin inhibited the growth of MG-63 cells, whereas naringin and hesperetin had no inhibitory function on cell growth. ROS production was increased in naringin- and hesperetin-treated groups after one day of culture while the level was always lowest in the naringenin-treated group after three days of culture. 95 osteosarcoma patients who underwent surgery were assigned into two groups: naringenin group (NG, received 20 mg naringenin daily, n = 47) and control group (CG, received 20 mg placebo daily, n = 48). After an average of two-year follow-up, osteosarcoma volumes were smaller in the NG group than in the CG group ( P > 0.01). The rate of osteosarcoma recurrence was also lower in the NG group than in CG group. ROS levels were lower in the NG group than in the CG group. Thus, naringenin from Citrus aurantium inhibits osteosarcoma progression and local recurrence in the patients who underwent osteosarcoma surgery by improving antioxidant capability.

  6. Study of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract containing anthocyanins on fatty streak formation in the renal arteries in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifiyan, Fatemeh; Movahedian-Attar, Ahmad; Nili, Nafiseh; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the supplementation of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins on atherosclerotic plaque formation induced by hypercholesterolemia was investigated in renal arteries in rabbits. After the determination of polyphenol and anthocyanin's content of P. granatum peel hydroalcoholic extract, 30 male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. They were fed basic diet, hypercholesterolemic diet and hypercholesterolemic diet along with P. granatum peel extract (polyphenolic content for each rabbit 1 g/kg diet) for 2 month. Blood samples were collected at the begging, middle and end of the study in order to measure lipid concentration and oxidative and antioxidative status variables, and renal arteries were taken for the assessment of atherosclerotic plaques at the end of the study. The results reveal that P. granatum peel extract significantly increases serum antioxidant capacity in the extract recipient group in comparison with hypercholesterolemic control (P 0.05). The results of this study indicate that consumption of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins (polyphenol content 1 g/kg diet) despite of a significant increase in serum antioxidant capacity cannot protect the kidneys from hypercholesterolemia-induced damages during the treatment period.

  7. Extraction of Cellulose from Kepok Banana Peel (Musa parasidiaca L. for Adsorption Procion Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poedji Loekitowati Hariani

    2016-05-01

    cellulose. The morphology of cellulose more homogenous than kepok banana peel powder. It was observed that the optimum adsorption of Procion dye by cellulose was on the initial concentration of 30 mg/L, pH solution of 5 and contact time within 30 minutes. The obtained result that cellulose has removal percentage to adsorp Procion dye more higher than kepok banana peel powder. The adsorption equilibrium showed the Langmuir isotherm was described well for adsorption process (R2 = 0.991 than Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.922.

  8. Potato peel extract as a natural antioxidant in chilled storage of minced horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus): Effect on lipid and protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Grejsen, Helene Drejer; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to examine the utilisation of potato peel, a waste material, as a source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid and protein oxidation in minced mackerel. Mackerel mince with two different concentrations (2.4 or 4.8g/kg) of water or ethanol extracts of potato...... peel and a control with no added extracts were prepared. The samples were stored at 5°C for 96h and the sampling was done at time points 0, 24, 48 and 96h. The ethanol extracts, which contained high amounts of phenolic compounds, was found to be very effective in retarding lipid and protein oxidation...

  9. Phenolic composition of pomegranate peel extracts using an LC-MS approach with silica hydride columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peels of different pomegranate cultivars (Molla Nepes, Parfianka, Purple Heart, Wonderful and Vkunsyi) were compared in terms of phenolic composition and total phenolics. Analyses were performed on two silica hydride-based stationary phases: phenyl and undecenoic acid columns. Quantitation was ...

  10. The analyze of lung’s GSH number in rats exposed by cigarette smoke and inducted by rambutan peel extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisdiana

    2018-03-01

    The cigarette smoke is one of the pollutants in human and environment. It contains free radical compounds which cause oxidative stress. In the oxidative stress condition, the free radical causing peroxidation of cell membrane lipid as well as damages the cell membrane. One of the biomarkers of oxidative stress happens the number of GSH. The purpose of this study was to analyze the amount of rat's GSH which exposed by cigarette smoke as well as inducted by rambutan pell extract. This study applied to 25 male rats of Wistar which divided into five groups; K1 (control), K2 (negative), K3, K4, and K5 were the treatment groups of rambutan peel extract with various dosage; 3, 6, 12 mg/200 gramBB and cigarette smoke exposure along 30 days. The number of GSH measured by the DTNB of lung tissue. To know the difference of GSH number of each group did the data analysis with one way ANOVA test and LSD advance test. The result of statistic analysis showed that there was a significant difference between the control group and treatment group. The conclusion of this study was the rambutan peel extract with 3 mg/200 gramBB dosage could increase the number of lung's GSH of rats exposed to cigarette smoke.

  11. The addition of pineapple flesh and pineapple peels extracts to increase the quality of used cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumawardani, R.; Hasanah, N.; Sukemi

    2018-04-01

    In Indonesia, reuse of cooking oil is high and common. Heating process and reuse of the cooking oil causes a change in its chemical constituents and decrease its qualities. This research aimed to investigate the addition of pineapple flesh extract (PFE) and pineapple peel extract (PPE) on the increment of the quality of oxidized (used) cooking oil. The cooking oil has been used three times. Treatment was done by mixing the used cooking oil with the extract (2:1) at 50°C. Peroxide value, FFA and iodine number of treated and untreated used cooking oils were measured by using titration method. The result showed that the treatment could increase the quality of the used cooking oils. PPE was better than PFE to increase the quality of the used cooking oil.

  12. Pre-Harvest Dropped Kinnow ( Citrus reticulata Blanco) Waste Management through the Extraction of Naringin and Pectin from their Peels using Indigenous Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxmi Deepak Bhatlu, M.; Katiyar, Prashant; Singh, Satya Vir; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2016-09-01

    About 10-20 % kinnow fruits are dropped in preharvest stage which are waste and are problem to farmer as these create nuisance by rotting and insect rearing ground. The peels of these dropped fruits as well as peels from kinnow processing may be good source of naringin and pectin. Naringin is used in pharmaseutics while pectin is used in food industry. For recovery of naringin and pectn, peels of preharvest dropped kinnow fruits were boiled in water. The extract was passed through macroporus polymeric adsorbent resin Indion PA 800, naringin was adsorbed on it. The adsorbed naringin was desorbed with ethanol. This solution was passed through membrane filter and filtrate was evaporated to obtain naringin. The extract remaining after adsorption of naringin was used to recover pectin using acid extraction method. The recovery of naringin and pectin was about 52 and 58 % respectively. The naringin finally obtained had 91-93 % purity.

  13. Polyphenol-rich apple (Malus domestica L.) peel extract attenuates arsenic trioxide induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells via its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineetha, Vadavanath Prabhakaran; Girija, Seetharaman; Soumya, Rema Sreenivasan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that apple peel has a wide range of polyphenols having antioxidant activity and its consumption has been linked with improved health benefits. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a very effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) but it leads to cardiotoxicity mediated through alterations in various cardiac ion channels and by increasing the intracellular calcium level and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of methanolic extract of apple peel (APME) and aqueous extract of apple peel (APAE) on ATO (5 μM) induced toxicity in the H9c2 cardiac myoblast cell line. We estimated the cellular status of innate antioxidant enzymes, level of ROS, mitochondrial superoxide, glutathione and intracellular calcium with ATO and apple peel extracts. Prior to the cell line based study, we had evaluated the antioxidant potential of apple peel extract by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total reducing power (TRP), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, in addition to quantifying total phenolic and flavonoid content. Both the extracts showed considerable antioxidant activity in cell-free chemical assays. In addition, both APME and APAE prevented the alteration in antioxidant status induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Significant differential alterations had been observed in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, xanthine oxidase, calcium overload and caspase 3 activity with ATO. The overall result revealed the protective property of polyphenol-rich apple peel extract against ATO induced cardiac toxicity via its antioxidant activity.

  14. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate peel extract on lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Sebahattin Serhat; Işıkçı, Fatma; Soyer, Ayla

    2017-07-01

    Antioxidant effect of pomegranate peel extract (PE) to retard lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs was investigated during frozen storage at -18±1°C. Concentrated and freeze dried aqueous extract of pomegranate peel was incorporated into freshly prepared meatball mix at 0.5% and 1.0% concentrations, and compared with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control (without any antioxidant). In PE treated samples, particularly in high PE concentration, peroxide, malondialdehyde and carbonyl formation, loss of total protein solubility and sulfhydryl groups were significantly lower than control after 6months of storage. A diminution of both myofibrillar (MP) and sarcoplasmic (SP) proteins of high molecular weight was detected after 6months of the storage according to gel electrophoresis patterns. The 1.0% PE led to maintain colour intensity (C) and hue (h°) value. The results from sensory analyses revealed that PE addition to meatballs was effective on preventing rancid odour formation. Addition of both 0.5 and 1% PE in meatballs reduced lipid and protein oxidation and improved sensory scores. These results indicated that PE was effective on retarding lipid and protein oxidations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenolics extraction from sweet potato peels: modelling and optimization by response surface modelling and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastácio, Ana; Silva, Rúben; Carvalho, Isabel S

    2016-12-01

    Sweet potato peels (SPP) are a major waste generated during root processing and currently have little commercial value. Phenolics with free radical scavenging activity from SPP may represent a possible added-value product for the food industry. The aqueous extraction of phenolics from SPP was studied using a Central Composite Design with solvent to solid ratio (30-60 mL g -1 ), time (30-90 min) and temperature (25-75 °C) as independent variables. The comparison of response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis on extraction modelling and optimising was performed. Temperature and solvent to solid ratio, alone and in interaction, presented a positive effect in TPC, ABTS and DPPH assays. Time was only significant for ABTS assay with a negative influence both as main effect and in interaction with other independent variables. RSM and ANN models predicted the same optimal extraction conditions as 60 mL g -1 for solvent to solid ratio, 30 min for time and 75 °C for temperature. The obtained responses in the optimized conditions were as follow: 11.87 ± 0.69 mg GAE g -1 DM for TPC, 12.91 ± 0.42 mg TE g -1 DM for ABTS assay and 46.35 ± 3.08 mg TE g -1 DM for DPPH assay. SPP presented similar optimum extraction conditions and phenolic content than peels of potato, tea fruit and bambangan. Predictive models and the optimized extraction conditions offers an opportunity for food processors to generate products with high potential health benefits.

  16. Isolation and extraction of antimicrobial substances against oral bacteria from lemon peel

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Yoshiaki; Hiramitsu, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    We have isolated 4 antibacterial substances that were active against the oral bacteria that cause dental caries and periodontitis, such as Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, from lemon peel, a waste product in the citrus industry. The isolated substances were identified as 8-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin, and phloroglucinol 1-β-D-glucopyranoside (phlorin) upon structural analyses. Among these, 8-Geranyloxypsola...

  17. Anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of spine, skin and rind of Jack fruit peel - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meera, M; Ruckmani, A; Saravanan, R; Lakshmipathy Prabhu, R

    2017-10-09

    The present study was conducted to identify the chemical constituents and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of crude ethanolic extracts of spine, skin and rind of jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) peel. Polyphenol and flavonoid contents were assessed using Folin's Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride methods which revealed 316, 355 and 382 mg tannic acid equivalent/g of polyphenol and 96.7, 131.6 and 164.6 mg quercetin equivalent/g of flavonoid in spine, skin and rind, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity of all three extracts was comparable to diclofenac in vitro and in vivo studies. Skin exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity, rind had preferential inhibition on Cyclooxygenase-2 and spine and skin inhibited both Cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 in vitro.

  18. Novel green synthetic strategy to prepare ZnO nanocrystals using rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) peel extract and its antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvakkumar, R; Suresh, J; Nathanael, A Joseph; Sundrarajan, M; Hong, S I

    2014-08-01

    In the present investigation, we report a sustainable novel green synthetic strategy to synthesis zinc oxide nanocrystals. This is the first report on sustainable biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals employing Nephelium lappaceum L., peel extract as a natural ligation agent. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals was carried out via zinc-ellagate complex formation using rambutan peel wastes. The successful formation of zinc oxide nanocrystals was confirmed employing standard characterisation studies. A possible mechanism for the formation of ZnO nanocrystals with rambutan peel extract was also proposed. The prepared ZnO nanocrystals were coated on the cotton fabric and their antibacterial activity were analyzed. ZnO nanocrystals coated cotton showed good antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli (E. coli), gram negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), gram positive bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Spilmont

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (−31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease.

  20. Antioxidative Activity of Onion Peel Extract in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Ah; Yim, Jung-Eun

    2015-09-01

    Quercetin, found abundantly in onion peel, has been known to have anticholesterol, antithrombotic and insulin-sensitizing properties. Here, we investigated the effect of quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidative defense in obese woman. This study was randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Thirty-seven healthy obese participants were randomly assigned that eighteen subjects received red soft capsuled OPE (100 mg/d, 50 mg bis in die), while the other nineteen subjects received same capsuled placebo for 12 weeks. ROS production and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma were determined by using ROS and SOD assay kits, respectively. Baseline characteristics of anthropometric indicators and blood metabolic profiles were not significantly different between the two groups. Compared with baseline values, OPE consumption significantly reduced waist and hip circumference. Plasma ROS level and SOD activity were decreased in both placebo and OPE groups compared with baseline values. However, plasma ROS level in OPE group was significantly lower than in placebo group while plasma SOD activity in OPE group was significantly higher than in placebo group after 12 weeks of consumption. These findings indicate that OPE consumption may exert antioxidative effect by preventing the decrease of SOD activity as well as the production of ROS in obese women.

  1. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilmont, Mélanie; Léotoing, Laurent; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Pilet, Paul; Rios, Laurent; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2015-11-11

    The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE) could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (-31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice) and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease.

  2. Comparative studies on conventional (water-hot acid) and non-conventional (ultrasonication) procedures for extraction and chemical characterization of pectin from peel waste of mango cultivar chaunsa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, S.; Saeed, A.

    2015-01-01

    Pectin, a naturally occurring heteropolysaccharide, is widely used as a functional ingredient in food and pharmaceutical industries due to its gelling and stabilizing properties. During the present study pectin was extracted from peel of mango (cultivar Chaunsa) using conventional (water-hot acid) and non-conventional (ultrasonication) methods. In conventional method, HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, or HCl was used under variable conditions of pH (2.0, 2.5, 3.0), temperature (70, 80, 90, 100 degree C), duration of extraction (30, 60, 90, 120 min), and solvents (ethanol, methanol, acetone, isopropyl alcohol). Maximum yield of 16.6 g pectin 100 g/sup -1/ peel was obtained with HNO/sub 3/ at pH 2.5, 90 degree C, 90 min extraction, and ethanol. Whereas in non-conventional method, ultrasonication was used for different time intervals (10, 20, 40 min) using HNO/sub 3/ at pH 2.5 and 90 degree C. Maximum yield of 15.8 g pectin 100 g/sup -1/ peel was obtained by this method in 20 min. Pectin extracted by the above two methods was found to be of high quality as was determined in respect of methoxyl and galacturonic acid contents, degree of esterification, equivalent weight, and FTIR spectra. Extraction of pectin from mango peel by employing non-conventional method (ultrasonication) was observed to be an energy efficient method due to its less extraction time (20 min as compared to 90 min in conventional method) suggesting its suitability on commercial scale for the extraction of pectin from mango and other available fruit peel wastes. (author)

  3. Ethanol extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel inhibits α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, and ameliorates diabetes related biochemical parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2015-12-01

    Peel is a major by-product during processing of mango fruit into pulp. Recent report indicates that the whole peel powder ameliorated diabetes. In the present study, ethanolic extract of mango peel was analysed for its bioactive compounds, evaluated for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties, oral glucose tolerance test, antioxidant properties, plasma insulin level and biochemical parameters related to diabetes. In addition to gallic and protocatechuic acids, the extract also had chlorogenic and ferulic acids, which were not reported earlier in mango peel extracts. The peel extract inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, with IC50 values of 4.0 and 3.5 μg/ml. Ethanolic extract of peel showed better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with the extract decreased fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin levels, and increased plasma insulin level. Peel extract treatment decreased malondialdehyde level, but increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes significantly in liver and kidney compared to diabetic rats. These beneficial effects were comparable to metformin, but better than gallic acid treated diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of peel extract may be through different mechanism like increased plasma insulin levels, decreased oxidative stress and inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activities by its bioactive compounds. Thus, results suggest that the peel extract can be a potential source of nutraceutical or can be used in functional foods and this is the first report on antidiabetic properties of mango peel extract.

  4. Optimization of Processing Parameters for Extraction of Amylase Enzyme from Dragon (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Amid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction conditions on the enzymatic properties of thermoacidic amylase enzyme derived from dragon peel. The studied extraction variables were the buffer-to-sample (B/S ratio (1 : 2 to 1 : 6, w/w, temperature (−18°C to 25°, mixing time (60 to 180 seconds, and the pH of the buffer (2.0 to 8.0. The results indicate that the enzyme extraction conditions exhibited the least significant (P<0.05 effect on temperature stability. Conversely, the extraction conditions had the most significant (P<0.05 effect on the specific activity and pH stability. The results also reveal that the main effect of the B/S ratio, followed by its interaction with the pH of the buffer, was significant (P<0.05 among most of the response variables studied. The optimum extraction condition caused the amylase to achieve high enzyme activity (648.4 U, specific activity (14.2 U/mg, temperature stability (88.4%, pH stability (85.2%, surfactant agent stability (87.2%, and storage stability (90.3%.

  5. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle using rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. peel extract and its antibacterial activity against Salmonella parathypi A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestari Puji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs have been synthesized via green method using rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. peel (RP extract. RP extract was prepared by washing the RP using tap water thoroughly and boiling it in distilled water at 70°C for 60 min. RP extract and AgNO3 were used as the starting materials for the synthesis of AgNPs. RP extract was added to 10-3 M AgNO3 solution with a ratio by volume of 1:10 (RP : AgNO3, stirred at room temperature. The solution’s color changes from reddish to dark brown, indicating the reduction of Ag+ in the solution. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer, FTIR Spectrophotometer, and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS instruments. UV-Visible spectra show that the AgNPs have the maximum absorption band at 450 nm which is typical for AgNPs. The FTIR spectra revealed that the protein in RP extract acts as the capping agent for the synthesized AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for their antibacterial activity against Salmonella parathypi A. The antibacterial test shows that 50 μL of AgNPs resulted in the inhibition zone of 4 mm against the aforementioned microorganism.

  6. Study of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. peel extract containing anthocyanins on fatty streak formation in the renal arteries in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sharifiyan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that consumption of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins (polyphenol content 1 g/kg diet despite of a significant increase in serum antioxidant capacity cannot protect the kidneys from hypercholesterolemia-induced damages during the treatment period.

  7. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more ...

  8. Epoxidation of natural limonene extracted from orange peels with hydrogen peroxide over Ti-MCM-41 catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróblewska Agnieszka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the oxidation of natural limonene (extracted from waste orange peels by 60 wt% hydrogen peroxide, in the presence of Ti-MCM-41 catalyst and in methanol as the solvent. The aim of the research was to develop the most favorable technological parameters for the process of limonene oxidation (temperature, molar ratio of limonene to hydrogen peroxide, methanol concentration, Ti-MCM-41 catalyst content and reaction time by analyzing changes in the main functions describing this process: the conversion of limonene, selectivities of appropriate products, the conversion of hydrogen peroxide and the effective conversion of hydrogen peroxide. The process is environmentally friendly process and it uses renewable raw material - limonene and a safe oxidant -hydrogen peroxide. During the study, very valuable oxygenated derivatives of limonene were obtained: 1,2-epoxylimonene, its diol, carvone, carveol, and perillyl alcohol. These compounds are used in medicine, cosmetics, perfumery, food and polymers industries.

  9. Anticoccidial efficacy of naringenin and a grapefruit peel extract in growing lambs naturally-infected with Eimeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fonseca, Agustín; Alcala-Canto, Yazmin; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Alberti-Navarro, Aldo B

    2016-12-15

    The current study aimed to determine the anti-Eimeria efficacy of an extract of grapefruit peels (GF) and commercial naringenin (NAR) in naturally-infected lambs, as well as the influence of these flavonoids on the oxidative status during ovine coccidiosis. Pharmacokinetic profiles were also determined. Extracts were administered per os to Eimeria naturally infected growing lambs during 90 consecutive days. The commercial anticoccidial drug toltrazuril (TTZ) was included in this trial as a standard. Twenty-four lambs were divided into four groups: NAR, lambs given a daily dose of 5mg of a commercial naringenin extract of 98% higher purity per kg body weight; GF, lambs that recived a daily dose of 5mg of ethanolic extract of grapefruit peels per kg body weight; TTZ, lambs treated with 20mg of toltrazuril/kg body weight on days 0 and 15 of the experiment; and CTRL, untreated lambs that received daily dose of 30ml of water. Daily doses of GF and NAR were dissolved in 30ml of water and orally given to animals; whereas toltrazuril was administered as a single dose of an undiluted suspension to lambs of the TTZ group. The CTRL group received 30ml of water; as well as the TTZ group for the period after the single dose administration. Fecal and serum samples were collected from all lambs. Anticoccidial efficacy was estimated by coprological techniques. Generation of nitric oxide levels and the antioxidant capacity of the experimental compounds were determined by the Griess and ABTS assays, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of NAR and the GF extract were obtained. On day 30 post-ingestion, anticoccidial efficacy was 91.76% (NAR) and 89.65% (GF); whereas 99.63% of efficacy was achieved with TTZ 15days after treatment. NAR, GF and TTZ significantly reduced oxidative stress in infected animals. The mean daily weight gain for each group was 122g (NAR), 122g (GF), 143g (TTZ) and 98g (CTRL). Following the oral administration of NAR and GF, values in plasma approached

  10. The cleanliness differences of root canal irrigated with 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract and 2.5% NaOCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Sakinah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Root canal treatment consists of preparation, sterilization, and obturation. During root canal preparation, debris is smeared over the dentinal surface forming a smear layer. Smear layer will reduce the attachment of root canal filling materials. Organic material in smear layer can be substrated for microorganism. Preparation of root canal should be followed by irrigation. NaOCl is common irrigation solution in endodontics. It has been very effective for their disinfecting and tissue-dissolving properties, but it is incapable of removing the smear layer. On the other hand, saponin of mangosteen peel extract has an ability as a surfactant to lower the surface tension, and it can dissolve debris containing of anorganic and organic materials. Purpose: This study aims to know the differences between 2.5% NaOCl and 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract in removing the debris in the root canal after the preparation procedure. Method: Three groups of teeth (7 teeth in each were instrumented with K-file and irrigated as follow: group 1 (control with aquadest; group 2 with 2.5% NaOCl; and group 3 with 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract. Furthermore, those teeth were split horizontally and longitudinally 4mm above the apical. The apical third of root canal walls was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Result: There were significant differences between each group (p<0.05. Median value of the group 3 was score 1 considered as the smallest value. It indicates that Group 3 with 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract was the cleanest group. Conclusion:It can be concluded that 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract can clean the smear layer of the root canal better than 2.5% NaOCl.

  11. [Optimization of SFE-CO2 Extraction for Ursolic Acid from Punica granatum Peel by Plackett-Burman and Central Composite Design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-yi; Jin, Mei-hua; Wang, Yu-hai; Zhang, Li-hua; Bi, Hai-dan; Li, Zhuo-wa

    2015-03-01

    The optimum extraction of ursolic acid from Punica granatum peel by SFE-CO2 was investigated. Based on the design of Plackett-Burman(PB), significant factors influencing the yield of ursolic acid in the operation process were filtered, with the extraction rate of ursolic acid as the index. The results obtained by steepest ascent method approximated the maximum area of ursolic acid yield. Then the Central Composite Design(CCD) design was used to carry on the response surface optimization of significant factors, getting a two order mathematical model affecting the ursolic acid yield, as well as the optimum process conditions. The best technological conditions of the extraction of ursolic acid from Punica granatum peel by SFE-CO2 were that the extraction temperature was 46. 29 °C, extraction time was 91. 6 min and the extraction pressure was 34. 49 MPa. Under the optimal conditions, verification test of ursolic acid yield was 12. 508 mg/g, approximating to the predicted value of 12. 645 mg/g. The PB test and CCD test design are combined to optimize the extraction process of ursolic acid from Punica granatum peel by SFE-CO2. The screening results are statistically significant and the process operation is feasible.

  12. Efficacy of the Punica granatum peels aqueous extract for symptom management in ulcerative colitis patients. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Mohammadali; Tavakoli, Hamid; Khodadoost, Mahmoud; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Gachkar, Latif; Mansourian, Marjan; Adibi, Payman

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the effects of the Punica granatum peel extract on symptoms of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Patients with UC were randomized to receive an aqueous extract of the P. granatum peel (6 g of dry peel/day) or placebo for four weeks complementary to standard medications. Symptoms were assessed using the Lichtiger Colitis Activity Index (LCAI) at baseline, week 4, and week 10 (follow-up). Clinical response was defined by ≥ 3 point decrease in LCAI. The LCAI score was similarly reduced in both the P. granatum (-1.68 ± 3.85, P = 0.019) and placebo groups (-1.39 ± 2.41, P = 0.002). Clinical response was higher with P. granatum compared with placebo at week 4 (41.4% vs. 18.2%, P = 0.055), but not at week 10 (48.3% vs. 36.4%, P = 0.441). The P. granatum peel extract seems effective in complementary management of UC. Further studies in a larger sample of patients are warranted. IRCT2014040617156N1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In Vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Novel Orange Peel Extract and It's Fractions on Leukemia HL-60 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Kawthar A E; Shafik, Reham Ezzat; Yasuda, Shin

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, novel orange peel was extracted with 100%EtOH (ethanol) and fractionated into four fractions namely F1, F2, F3, F4 which were eluted from paper chromatographs using 100%EtOH, 80%EtOH, 50%EtOH and pure water respectively. The crude extract and its four fractions were evaluated for their total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and radical scavenging activity using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Their cytotoxic activity using WST assay and DNA damage by agarose gel electrophoresis were also evaluated in a human leukemia HL-60 cell line. The findings revealed that F4 had the highest TPC followed by crude extract, F2, F3 and F1. However, the crude extract had the highest TFC followed by F4, F3, F2, and F1. Depending on the values of EC50 and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, F4 possessed the strongest antioxidant activity while F1 and F2 displayed weak antioxidant activity. Further, incubation HL-60 cells with extract/fractions for 24h caused an inhibition of cell viability in a concentration- dependent manner. F3 and F4 exhibited a high antiproliferative activity with a narrow range of IC50 values (45.9 - 48.9 μg/ml). Crude extract exhibited the weakest antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 314.89 μg/ml. Analysis of DNA fragmentation displayed DNA degradation in the form of a smear-type pattern upon agarose gel after incubation of HL-60 cells with F3 and F4 for 6 h. Overall, F3 and F4 appear to be good sources of phytochemicals with antioxidant and potential anticancer activities.

  14. Oriented Growth of α-MnO₂ Nanorods Using Natural Extracts from Grape Stems and Apple Peels.

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    Sanchez-Botero, Lina; Herrera, Adriana P; Hinestroza, Juan P

    2017-05-22

    We report on the synthesis of alpha manganese dioxide (α-MnO₂) nanorods using natural extracts from Vitis vinifera grape stems and Malus domestica 'Cortland' apple peels. We used a two-step method to produce highly crystalline α-MnO₂ nanorods: (1) reduction of KMnO₄ in the presence of natural extracts to initiate the nucleation process; and (2) a thermal treatment to enable further solid-state growth of the nuclei. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images provided direct evidence of the morphology of the nanorods and these images were used to propose nucleation and growth mechanisms. We found that the α-MnO₂ nanorods synthesized using natural extracts exhibit structural and magnetic properties similar to those of nanoparticles synthesized via traditional chemical routes. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) shows that the particle growth of the α-MnO₂ nanorods appears to be controlled by the presence of natural capping agents during the thermal treatment. We also evaluated the catalytic activity of the nanorods in the degradation of aqueous solutions of indigo carmine dye, highlighting the potential use of these materials to clean dye-polluted water.

  15. Quality Evaluation Focusing on Tissue Fractal Dimension and Chemical Changes for Frozen Tilapia with Treatment by Tangerine Peel Extract

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    He, Qi; Yang, Zhao; Gong, Bin; Wang, Jingjing; Xiao, Kaijun; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-02-01

    This work aimed to establish an effective approach to evaluate the quality of frozen fish, focusing on changes in fish tissue structure and chemical composition during storage. Fresh tilapia samples were treated by coating with tangerine peel (TP) extract and then stored at -4, -8 and -18 °C, respectively, for 40 days. The frozen fish tissues were analyzed for structural and chemical changes. Fractal dimension, which quantifies the porous structure formed in the tissue samples, texture properties including hardness and springiness, and moisture content and water activity all decreased during the storage, while the extents of lipid oxidation, measured as peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid concentration, and protein degradation, monitored with total volatile basic nitrogen and trichloroacetic acid soluble peptides, increased. The change rates of these parameters decreased with decreasing the storage temperature and by applying TP extract. A model was developed for predicting fractal dimension, which indicated the quality of preserved tilapia and thus can be used to predict the shelf life under different storage temperatures. The results demonstrated that TP extract could extend the shelf life of frozen tilapia by 35-45% by inhibiting changes in tissue structure, moisture loss, lipid oxidation and protein degradation during frozen storage.

  16. Oriented Growth of α-MnO2 Nanorods Using Natural Extracts from Grape Stems and Apple Peels

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    Lina Sanchez-Botero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis of alpha manganese dioxide (α-MnO2 nanorods using natural extracts from Vitis vinifera grape stems and Malus domestica ‘Cortland’ apple peels. We used a two-step method to produce highly crystalline α-MnO2 nanorods: (1 reduction of KMnO4 in the presence of natural extracts to initiate the nucleation process; and (2 a thermal treatment to enable further solid-state growth of the nuclei. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM images provided direct evidence of the morphology of the nanorods and these images were used to propose nucleation and growth mechanisms. We found that the α-MnO2 nanorods synthesized using natural extracts exhibit structural and magnetic properties similar to those of nanoparticles synthesized via traditional chemical routes. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR shows that the particle growth of the α-MnO2 nanorods appears to be controlled by the presence of natural capping agents during the thermal treatment. We also evaluated the catalytic activity of the nanorods in the degradation of aqueous solutions of indigo carmine dye, highlighting the potential use of these materials to clean dye-polluted water.

  17. Free Radical Scavenging and Alpha/Beta-glucosidases Inhibitory Activities of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. Peel Extract

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    Wahyu Widowati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM is associated with oxidative reaction and hyperglycemic condition. Human body has an antioxidant defense system toward free radical, but overproduction of free radical causing imbalance condition between the free radical and the antioxidant defense in the body that lead to several diseases, including DM. Glucosidase is an enzyme that hydrolize carbohydrates causing increase of blood glucose level, so by inhibiting this enzyme blood glucose level in plasma could be effectively decreased. Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. peel has been reported to have many potential roles, such as antioxidant and anti-glycemia. Therefore our current study was conducted to evaluate possible effectivity of Rambutan peel to scavenge free radical and to inhibit α- and β-glucosidases. METHODS: Rambutan peel extraction (RPE was performed based on maceration method. Geraniin was used as control. For antioxidant study, 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging test was performed. For glucosidase inhibitory activity study,  α- and β-glucosidases inhibitory activity tests were performed. Results were analyzed for median of Inhibitory Concentration (IC50. RESULTS: The scavenging activity of RPE was comparable with Geraniin. Meanwhile, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of RPE was higher than the one of Geraniin. The α-glucosidase-inhibitory-activity IC50 of RPE and Geraniin were 0.106±0.080 μg/ml and 16.12±0.29 μg/ml, respectively. The β-glucosidase inhibitory activity of RPE was also higher than the one of Geraniin. The β-glucosidase-inhibitory-activity IC50 of RPE and Geraniin were 7.02±0.99 μg/ml and 19.81±0.66 μg/ml, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Since RPE showed comparable free radical scavenging activity with Geraniin and higher α- and β-glucosidases inhibitory activities than Geraniin, RPE could be suggested as a promising antioxidant and antiglycemic agent.  KEYWORDS

  18. Evaluation of antidiabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum in male Wistar albino rats.

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    Salwe, Kartik J; Sachdev, Devender O; Bahurupi, Yogesh; Kumarappan, Manimekalai

    2015-01-01

    We investigated anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum. Streptozotocin induced diabetic Wister rats were used in this study consisting of seven groups of six animals each. Groups (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, (3) leaves extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (4) leaves extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (5) fruit peel extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (6) peel extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum and (7) glibenclamide respectively. Fasting blood sugar was recorded on 1(st), 7(th), 14(th), 21(st) and 28(th) day. At the end of the experiment Lipid profile and levels of antioxidants were determined. Safety profile of both extracts was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. Higher dose of fruit peel extract of P. granatum (PEPG) and glibenclamide significantly lowered blood glucose level from 7(th) day onwards however glibenclamide was found to be more effective. Leaves extract at higher dose and fruit extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 14(th) day onwards. Leaves extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 21(st) day onwards. Glibenclamide and higher dose of fruit PEPG extract significantly reduced the total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and significantly increased the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Glibenclamide followed by higher dose was found more effective in reducing plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increasing levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). No toxicity was observed even when both extracts were administered at 10 times of higher dose used in this study and no significant changes were seen when it were used chronically. Leaves and fruit PEPG possesses significant anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant properties. This study supports the traditional use of P. granatum in diabetes. Fruit peel which is

  19. Suppressive Effect on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Mediators by Citrus aurantium L. in Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells via NF-κB Signal Pathway

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    Sang-Rim Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits have been used as an edible fruit and a traditional medicine since ancient times. In particular, the peels of immature citrus fruits are used widely in traditional herbal medicine in Korea, as they are believed to contain bioactive components exerting anti-inflammatory activity. This study examined whether the crude methanol extract of Citrus aurantium L. (CME has a suppressive effect on inducible enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway in LPS-stimulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The cells were pretreated with the indicated concentrations of CME (5, 10, 20, and 50 μg/mL and then treated with LPS (1 μg/mL. The results showed that CME (10, 20, and 50 μg/mL inhibited the LPS- (1 μg/mL induced mRNA and protein expression of iNOS in macrophage Raw 264.7 cells. In addition, the expression of COX-2 was inhibited at the mRNA and protein levels by CME in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, were markedly reduced by CME (10, 20, and 50 μg/mL. Moreover, CME clearly suppressed the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunits, which was correlated with its inhibitory effect on I-κB phosphorylation. These results suggest that CME has anti-inflammatory properties by modulating the expression of COX-2, iNOS, and proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  20. Ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit peel using central composite face centered response surface design

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    J. Prakash Maran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four factors at three level central composite face centered design was employed to study and optimize the process variables on extraction of bioactive compounds (total anthocyanin, phenolic and flavonoid content from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit peel. The effect of process variables such as extraction temperature (30–50 °C, power of ultrasound (20–40 W, extraction time (10–30 min and solid–liquid ratio (1:10–1:20 g/ml is studied. Multiple regression analysis was done on the experimental data to develop second-order polynomial models with high coefficient of determination value (R2 > 0.99. The optimal conditions based on both individual and combinations of all process variables (extraction temperature of 50 °C, ultrasound power of 20 W, extraction time of 20 min and solid–liquid ratio of 1:18.6 g/ml were determined by Derringer’s desired function methodology. Under these conditions, total anthocyanin (10.26 ± 0.39 (mg/100 g, phenolics (552.64 ± 1.57 (mg GAE/100 g and flavonoid (104 ± 1.13 (mg RE/100 g content values were determined and it is closely related with the predicted values (10.17 mg/100 g of total anthocyanin, 546.98 mg GAE/100 g of total phenolics and 100.93 mg RE/100 g of total flavonoid content and indicted the suitability of the developed models.

  1. Antioxidant Activity of The Crude Carotenoid Pigment Extract from Yellow Ambon Banana (M. parasidiaca sapientum Peel: Its Potency as Vitamin A Supplement

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    Suparmi Suparmi

    2012-06-01

    Method: The total vitamin A carotenoid in the banana peel was assessed using the double beam Varian Cary 50 spectrophotometer at 470 nm. Then it was converted to microgram per gram of the banana peel using the NAS-NRC equation. The extraction was conducted using acetone. The antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH (1.1-difenil-2-dipikrilhidrazil. The antioxidant activity of carotenoid crude extract was compared to that of marker â-karoten antioxidant (E-Merck, No. 1.02236. IC50 values were calculated using the regression formula. The dried carotenoid crude extract was encapsulated with dextrin filler. Result: The water content level of ambon banana was 50.68 % ± 3.35 %. The peel of the yellow ambon banana has a total carotenoid of 6.203 ± 0.004 μg/g. The converted carotenoid vitamin A was 124.06 ± 0.08 IU. The IC50 value of the yellow ambon banana crude extract was 2350.3 ppm meaning higher than the marker â-caroten (565.76 ppm. The encapsulation technique increased the pigment stabilization of the yellow ambon banana which will be used for vitamin A supplement. Conclusion: The crude extract of carotenoid pigment of the yellow ambon banana peel has an antioxidant potential although it is less efficient compared to that of â-carotene. The IC50 value of the crude extract of carotenoid pigment of the yellow banana ambon is 2350.3 ppm, higher than marker â -caroten (Sains Medika, 4(1:78-88.

  2. Enzymes extracted from apple peels have activity in reducing higher alcohols in Chinese liquors.

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    Han, Qi'an; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Hongliang; Du, Shuangkui

    2014-10-01

    As the unavoidable byproducts of alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols are unhealthy compounds widespread in alcoholic drinks. To investigate the activity of apple crude enzymes toward higher alcohols in liquors, five kinds of apple peels, namely, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Red Star, and Jonagold, were chosen to prepare enzymes, and three kinds of Chinese liquors, namely, Xifeng (containing 45% ethanol), Taibai (containing 50% ethanol), and Erguotou (containing 56% ethanol), were tested. Enzymes were prepared in the forms of liquid solution, powder, and immobilized enzymes using sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan. The treatment was carried out at 37 °C for 1 h. The relative amounts of different alcohols (including ethanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, isoamylol, and 1-hexanol) were measured using gas chromatography (GC). Conditions for preparing SA-immobilized Fuji enzymes (SA-IEP) were optimized, and the obtained SA-IEP (containing 0.3 g of enzyme) was continuously used to treat Xifeng liquor eight times, 20 mL per time. Significant degradation rates (DRs) of higher alcohols were observed at different degrees, and it also showed enzyme specificity according to the apple varieties and enzyme preparations. After five repeated treatments, the DRs of the optimized Fuji SA-IEP remained 70% for 1-hexanol and >15% for other higher alcohols.

  3. Corrosion control of carbon steel using inhibitor of banana peel extract in acid diluted solutions

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    Komalasari; Utami, S. P.; Fermi, M. I.; Aziz, Y.; Irianti, R. S.

    2018-04-01

    Issues of corrosion happened in pipes, it was used as fluid transportation in the chemical industry. Corrosion cannot be preventing, however it could be controlled or blocked. Inhibitor addition is one of the method to control the corrosion inside the pipe. Corrosion inhibitors consisted of inorganic and organic compound inhibitors. Organic inhibitor is composed from synthetic and natural material. This study focused to evaluate the inhibition’s efficiency from banana peel to carbon steel in different concentration of inhibitor and immersing time in acid solution variation. The research employed inhibitor concentration of 0 gram/liter, 2 gram/liter, 4 gram/liter and 6 gram/liter, immersed time of carbon steel for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours. It was immersed in chloride acid solution of 0.5 M and 1.5 M. Carbon Steel AISI 4041 was used as specimen steel. Results were analyzed using corrosion rate evaluation for each specimens and inhibitor efficiencies determination. It was found that the specimen without inhibitor yielded fast corrosion rate in long immersing time and high concentration of HCl. However, the specimens with inhibitor gave lowest corrosion rate which was 78.59% for 6 gram/litre and 10 hours in 0.5 M HCl.

  4. Effect of Punica granatum peel extracts on antimicrobial properties in Walnut shell cellulose reinforced Bio-thermoplastic starch films from cashew nut shells.

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    Harini, K; Chandra Mohan, C; Ramya, K; Karthikeyan, S; Sukumar, M

    2018-03-15

    The main aim of the present study is to extract and characterize cashew nut shell (CNS) starch and walnut shell cellulose (WNC) for development of cellulose reinforced starch films. Moreover, the extraction and characterization of pomegranate peel extract, for incorporation with CNS-WNC films, was investigated. CNS starch was examined to be a moderate amylose starch with 26.32 ± 0.43% amylose content. Thermal degradation temperature of CNS starch was found to be 310 °C. Walnut shell cellulose was found to have high crystallinity index of 72%, with two thermal degradation temperatures of 319 °C and 461 °C. 2% WN cellulose reinforced CNS starch films were examined to have good oxygen transfer rate, mechanical and physical properties. Thermal degradation temperature of CNS-WNC starch films were found to be at the range of 298-302 °C. Surface roughness of CNS-WNC starch films were found to be increasing with increase in concentration of cellulose in films. Hydroxymethylfurfurole, Benzene, 2-methoxy-1,3,4-trimethyl and 1,2,3-Propanetriol, 1-acetate were found to be major active compounds present in hydrophilic extracts of Punica granatum peels. 2% WN cellulose reinforced starch films infused with hydrophilic active compounds of pomegranate peel was examined to be having good active package properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pectin extraction from Citron peel (Citrus medica Linn. and its use in food system

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    Rojanakorn, T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Screening experiments using 25-1 fractional factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and extracting time were the main factors affecting the amount and quality of extracted pectin from Citrus medica Linn. Optimum condition of pectin extraction was studied using central composite design (CCD. Mathematical models relating pH, temperature and extracted time to amount of extracted pectin, equivalent weight, methyl content and anhydrogalacturonic acid content were established. Based on the mathematics models, the condition of pH 2, 100ºC and 105 min was found to be the optimum conditions for pectin extraction from Citrus medica Linn. Mathematical and experimental results were verified. The use of extracted pectin as a gelling agent in pineapple jam revealed no significant difference in gel consistency compared to that of commercial pectin grade 150 (p>0.05. However, the commercial pectin had a higher liking score on the spreadability, texture and overall liking. As a stabilizer in chocolate pasteurised milk, 0.2% of the extracted pectin was required to prevent precipitation of chocolate powder with the similar viscosity obtained from 0.06% κ-carageenan

  6. Biosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using rambutan (Nephelium lappaceumL.) peel extract and their photocatalytic activity on methyl orange dye

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    Karnan, Thenmozhi; Selvakumar, Stanly Arul Samuel

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, describes the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles from rambutan (Nephelium lappaceumL.) peel extract via bio synthesis method and developed a new low cost technology to prepare ZnO nanoparticles. During the synthesis, fruit peel extract act as a natural ligation agent. The successfully prepared product was analyzed with some standard characterization studies like X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS Diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), High resolution transmittance electron microscope (HR-TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and UV-Vis absorption Spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated by photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) dye under UV light and the result depicts around 83.99% decolorisation efficiency at 120 min of illumination. In addition with photodecolorisation, mineralization was also achieved. The mineralization has been confirmed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) values.

  7. Modelling and Optimization of Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Phosphoric Acid by Red Pomegranate Peels Aqueous Extract

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    Khalid Hamid Rashid

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Taguchi experimental design (TED is applied to find the optimum effectiveness of aqueous Red Pomegranate Peel (RPP extract as a green inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in 2M H3PO4 solution. The Taguchi methodology has been used to study the effects of changing, temperature, RPP concentration and contact period, at three levels. Weight-loss measurements were designed by construction a L9 orthogonal arrangement of experiments. Results of the efficiencies of inhibition were embraced for the signal to noise proportion & investigation of variance (ANOVA. The results were further processed with a MINITAB-17 software package to find the optimal conditions for inhibitor usage. Second order polynomial model was used for experimental data fitting. Optimum conditions for achieving the maximum corrosion inhibition efficiency are obtained from optimizing the above model and are found as follow: 39.66 °C temperature of acidic media, 38.29 ml/L inhibitor concentration and 2.95 h contact period. Results demonstrated that rate of corrosion was increased with temperature increasing & decreasing inhibitor concentration. It was concluded that the Taguchi design was adequately useful in the optimization of operating parameters and that RPP sufficiently inhibited the corrosion of steel at the range of variables studied.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract in THP-1 Cells Exposed to Particulate Matter PM10

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    Soojin Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental evidence support health risks associated with the exposure to airborne particulate matter with a diameter of <10 μM (PM10. PM10 stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and inflammatory mediators. Thus, we assumed that natural antioxidants might provide health benefits attenuating hazardous effects of PM10. In the present study, we examined the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE on THP-1 monocytic cells exposed to PM10. PM10 induced cytotoxicity and the production of ROS. It also increased the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and cell adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1. PPE at 10–100 μg mL−1 attenuated the production of ROS and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, and ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1, in THP-1 cells stimulated by PM10 (100 μg mL−1. PPE also attenuated the adhesion of PM10-stimulated THP-1 cells to EA.hy926 endothelial cells. PPE constituents, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated PM10-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and punicalagin was less cytotoxic compared to ellagic acid. The present study suggests that PPE and punicalagin may be useful in alleviating inflammatory reactions due to particulate matter.

  9. Onion peel extracts ameliorate hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in high fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Kim Ji Yeon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quercetin derivatives in onions have been regarded as the most important flavonoids to improve diabetic status in cells and animal models. The present study was aimed to examine the hypoglycemic and insulin-sensitizing capacity of onion peel extract (OPE containing high quercetin in high fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and to elucidate the mechanism of its insulin-sensitizing effect. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the AIN-93G diet modified to contain 41.2% fat and intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight. One week after injection, the rats with fasting blood glucose levels above 126 mg/dL were randomly divided into 4 groups to treat with high fat diet containing 0 (diabetic control, 0.5, or 1% of OPE or 0.1% quercetin (quercetin equivalent to 1% of OPE for 8 weeks. To investigate the mechanism for the effects of OPE, we examined biochemical parameters (insulin sensitivity and oxidative stresses and protein and gene expressions (pro-inflammatory cytokines and receptors. Results Compared to the diabetic control, hypoglycemic and insulin-sensitizing capability of 1% OPE were demonstrated by significant improvement of glucose tolerance as expressed in incremental area under the curve (P = 0.0148. The insulin-sensitizing effect of OPE was further supported by increased glycogen levels in liver and skeletal muscle (P P = 0.0089, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed increased expression of insulin receptor (P = 0.0408 and GLUT4 (P = 0.0346 in muscle tissues. The oxidative stress, as assessed by superoxide dismutase activity and malondialdehyde formation, plasma free fatty acids, and hepatic protein expressions of IL-6 were significantly reduced by 1% OPE administration (P = 0.0393, 0.0237, 0.0148 and 0.0025, respectively. Conclusion OPE might improve glucose response and insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes by alleviating metabolic

  10. Protective effects of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel extract on concanavalin A-induced autoimmune hepatitis in mice.

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    Wang, Tingting; Men, Ruoting; Hu, Mingxing; Fan, Xiaoli; Yang, Xiaoxue; Huang, Xiaojun; Ye, Tinghong; Yang, Li

    2018-04-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease of an unknown etiology, glucocorticoid therapy is currently recognized as an effective treatment for AIH, but conventional application and patient compliance are both hindered by its side effects. The exploration of the AIH pathogenesis and the searching for the new candidate drugs that exert potential activity and low toxicity are urgently needed. Pomegranate peel extract (PoPx) is a natural extract of Punica granatum and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The present study aimed to clarify the effect of PoPx on the concanavalin A (ConA)-induced autoimmune hepatitis in a mouse model that is well established at 12h after tail vein injection with a dose of 20 mg/kg of ConA. C57BL/6 female mice were pretreated with PoPx (250 mg/kg, once daily for 3 days) followed by a ConA challenge. Pretreatment with PoPx significantly alleviated ConA-induced liver injury by down-regulating the levels of plasma alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and cytokine, including TNF-α, interferon (IFN) -γ and interleukin (IL)-6. Moreover, liver hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining displayed a lighter inflammatory infiltration around the portal area in the PoPx-pretreated mice. In addition, the flow cytometry (FCM) data showed that the immune response in the liver was died down in the PoPx-pretreated condition. Specially, pretreatment with PoPx reduced the infiltration of activated CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in the liver. Taken together, these findings contributed to a better understanding of the actions of PoPx against acute AIH and indicated that PoPx might be a potential compound in treating T cell-mediated autoimmune liver injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of heat and mass transfer of different microwave-assisted extraction methods of essential oil from Citrus limon (Lisbon variety) peel.

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    Golmakani, Mohammad-Taghi; Moayyedi, Mahsa

    2015-11-01

    Dried and fresh peels of Citrus limon were subjected to microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), respectively. A comparison was made between MAHD and SFME with the conventional hydrodistillation (HD) method in terms of extraction kinetic, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity. Higher yield results from higher extraction rates by microwaves and could be due to a synergy of two transfer phenomena: mass and heat acting in the same way. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis did not indicate any noticeable differences between the constituents of essential oils obtained by MAHD and SFME, in comparison with HD. Antioxidant analysis of the extracted essential oils indicated that microwave irradiation did not have adverse effects on the radical scavenging activity of the extracted essential oils. The results of this study suggest that MAHD and SFME can be termed as green technologies because of their less energy requirements per ml of essential oil extraction.

  12. Evaluation of different extraction methods from pomegranate whole fruit or peels and the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the polyphenolic fraction.

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    Masci, Alessandra; Coccia, Andrea; Lendaro, Eugenio; Mosca, Luciana; Paolicelli, Patrizia; Cesa, Stefania

    2016-07-01

    Pomegranate is a functional food of great interest, due to its multiple beneficial effects on human health. This fruit is rich in anthocyanins and ellagitannins, which exert a protective role towards degenerative diseases. The aim of the present work was to optimize the extraction procedure, from different parts of the fruit, to obtain extracts enriched in selected polyphenols while retaining biological activity. Whole fruits or peels of pomegranate cultivars, with different geographic origin, were subjected to several extraction methods. The obtained extracts were analyzed for polyphenolic content, evaluated for antioxidant capacity and tested for antiproliferative activity on human bladder cancer T24 cells. Two different extraction procedures, employing ethyl acetate as a solvent, were useful in obtaining extracts enriched in ellagic acid and/or punicalagins. Antioxidative and antiproliferative assays demonstrated that the antioxidant capability is directly related to the phenolic content, whereas the antiproliferative activity is to be mainly attributed to ellagic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethanol extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit peels: Chemical characterization, and antioxidant potentials against free radicals and lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissues

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    Ochuko L. Erukainure

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and antioxidant properties of the ethanolic extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit peels were investigated. Dried peels of T. tetraptera fruits were extracted with ethanol. The extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening using standard procedures. GC–MS was used in identifying the secondary metabolites. The antioxidant properties of the extract were determined by its ferric reducing activity, 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and nitric oxide (NO radicals scavenging activities, and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissues of albino male rats. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and phlebotannin. GC–MS analysis revealed the presence of D-fructose, piperazine, octodrine, glycidol, glyceraldehydes, 6-octadecenoic acid and 9,12-octadecenoic acid, with D–fructose being the most predominant compound. The extract exhibited high antioxidant activities both in vitro and ex vivo, as indicated by its ability to scavenge DPPH and nitric oxide as well as inhibition of lipid peroxidation. This is further portrayed by its ferric reducing activity. These results suggest an antioxidant protective effect of the extract against oxidative hepatic damage and can be attributed to a synergetic action of the identified bioactive compounds. Keywords: Antioxidant, Lipid peroxidation, Phytochemicals, Secondary metabolites

  14. Effect of Dielectric Properties of a Solvent-Water Mixture Used in Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants from Potato Peels

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    Ashutosh Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric properties of a methanol-water mixture were measured at different temperatures from 20 to 80 °C at two frequencies 915 MHz and 2450 MHz. These frequencies are most commonly used on industrial and domestic scales respectively. In this study, the dielectric properties of a methanol-water mixture were found to be dependent on temperature, solvent concentration, and presence of plant matrix. Linear and quadratic equations were developed to establish the dependency between factors. At 2450 MHz, the dielectric constant of methanol-water mixtures was significantly affected by concentration of methanol rather than by temperature, whereas the dielectric loss factor was significantly affected by temperature rather than by methanol concentration. Introduction of potato peel led to an increase in the effect of temperature on the dielectric properties of the methanol fractions. At 915 MHz, both the dielectric properties were significantly affected by the increase in temperature and solvent concentration, while the presence of potato peel had no significant effect on the dielectric properties. Statistical analysis of the dissipation factor at 915 and 2450 MHz revealed that both temperature and solvent concentration had a significant effect on it, whereas introduction of potato peels at 915 MHz reduced the effect of temperature as compared to 2450 MHz. The total phenolic yield of the microwave-assisted extraction process was significantly affected by the solvent concentration, the dissipation factor of the methanol-water mixture and the extraction time.

  15. The Extraction and Determination of Ellagic Acid Content in the Peels of Six Iranian Pomegranates Cultivars Using a New Miniaturized Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Method

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    Fariba Nazari Serenjeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:The peels of six Iranian pomegranates (Punica granatum L. cultivars, as a traditional medicine, were treated with a new miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD method for the HPLC determination of ellagic acid (EA. Materials and Methods:In the proposed method, only 10mg of the sample powder was ground and blended with an equal amount of C18 sorbent in an agate mortar. The use of the agate mortar with smooth surface facilitated the sample transfer into a cartridge and reduced the required amount of sample and sorbent. Micro volumes of dichloromethane, n-hexane and methanol were used as modifier, washing and elution solvents, respectively. The eluate was injected into an HPLC-UV system for the analysis. Results:Several factors such as the type and amount of dispersing sorbent, modifier, washing solvent and eluent were carefully studied and optimized. Six replicated analyses at the optimized conditions resulted in a recovery of 96.7% and a relative standard deviation of 5.87%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of EA in the peels samples. Conclusion:According to the ultimate results, the MSPD method is an efficient technique for the quantitative extraction of EA from the peels of pomegranate. Malas cultivar has the highest amount (18.1 g kg-1 of ellagic acid content compared to the other studied pomegranate cultivars.

  16. Physiological effects following administration of Citrus aurantium for 28 days in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Deborah K., E-mail: deborah.hansen@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, U.S. FDA/NCTR, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); George, Nysia I. [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, U.S. FDA/NCTR, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); White, Gene E. [Toxicological Pathology Associates, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Pellicore, Linda S. [Office of New Drugs, U.S. FDA/Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20903 (United States); Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Fabricant, Daniel [Office of Nutrition, Labeling and Dietary Supplements, U.S. FDA/Center for Food Safety and Nutrition, HFS-810, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Background: Since ephedra-containing dietary supplements were banned from the US market, manufacturers changed their formulations by eliminating ephedra and replacing with other botanicals, including Citrus aurantium, or bitter orange. Bitter orange contains, among other compounds, synephrine, a chemical that is chemically similar to ephedrine. Since ephedrine may have cardiovascular effects, the goal of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of various doses of bitter orange extract and pure synephrine in rats. Method: Female Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for 28 days with synephrine from two different extracts. One extract contained 6% synephrine, and the other extract contained 95% synephrine. Doses were 10 or 50 mg synephrine/kg body weight from each extract. Additionally, caffeine was added to these doses, since many dietary supplements also contain caffeine. Telemetry was utilized to monitor heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and QT interval in all rats. Results and conclusion: Synephrine, either as the bitter orange extract or as pure synephrine, increased heart rate and blood pressure. Animals treated with 95% synephrine showed minimal effects on heart rate and blood pressure; more significant effects were observed with the bitter orange extract suggesting that other components in the botanical can alter these physiological parameters. The increases in heart rate and blood pressure were more pronounced when caffeine was added. None of the treatments affected uncorrected QT interval in the absence of caffeine.

  17. Physiological effects following administration of Citrus aurantium for 28 days in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Deborah K.; George, Nysia I.; White, Gene E.; Pellicore, Linda S.; Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Fabricant, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since ephedra-containing dietary supplements were banned from the US market, manufacturers changed their formulations by eliminating ephedra and replacing with other botanicals, including Citrus aurantium, or bitter orange. Bitter orange contains, among other compounds, synephrine, a chemical that is chemically similar to ephedrine. Since ephedrine may have cardiovascular effects, the goal of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of various doses of bitter orange extract and pure synephrine in rats. Method: Female Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for 28 days with synephrine from two different extracts. One extract contained 6% synephrine, and the other extract contained 95% synephrine. Doses were 10 or 50 mg synephrine/kg body weight from each extract. Additionally, caffeine was added to these doses, since many dietary supplements also contain caffeine. Telemetry was utilized to monitor heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and QT interval in all rats. Results and conclusion: Synephrine, either as the bitter orange extract or as pure synephrine, increased heart rate and blood pressure. Animals treated with 95% synephrine showed minimal effects on heart rate and blood pressure; more significant effects were observed with the bitter orange extract suggesting that other components in the botanical can alter these physiological parameters. The increases in heart rate and blood pressure were more pronounced when caffeine was added. None of the treatments affected uncorrected QT interval in the absence of caffeine.

  18. Effect of onion peel extract on endothelial function and endothelial progenitor cells in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Yong; Lee, Hansongyi; Woo, Jong Shin; Jang, Hyun Hee; Hwang, Seung Joon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Woo-Sik; Kim, Young-Seol; Choue, Ryowon; Cha, Yong-Jun; Yim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Weon

    2015-09-01

    Acute or chronic intake of polyphenol-rich foods has been reported to improve endothelial function. Quercetin, found abundantly in onion, is a potent antioxidant flavonoid. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of onion peel extract (OPE) improves endothelial function in healthy overweight and obese individuals. This was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Seventy-two healthy overweight and obese participants were randomly assigned to receive a red, soft capsule of OPE (100 mg quercetin/d, 50 mg quercetin twice daily; n = 36 participants) or an identical placebo capsule (n = 36) for 12 wk. Endothelial function, defined by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) by flow cytometry, and laboratory test were determined at baseline and after treatment. Baseline characteristics and laboratory findings did not significantly differ between the two groups. Compared with baseline values, the OPE group showed significantly improved FMD at 12 wk (from 12.5 ± 5.2 to 15.2 ± 6.1; P = 0.002), whereas the placebo group showed no difference. Nitroglycerin-mediated dilation did not change in either group. EPC counts (44.2 ± 25.6 versus 52.3 ± 18.6; P = 0.005) and the percentage of EPCs were significantly increased in the OPE group. When FMD was divided into quartiles, rate of patients with endothelial dysfunction defined as lowest quartile (cutoff value, 8.6%) of FMD improved from 26% to 9% by OPE. Medium-term administration of OPE an improvement in FMD and circulating EPCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your expectations. Talk with your doctor about your motivations and expectations, as well as the potential risks. ... the sun permanently to prevent changes in skin color. Keep in mind that chemical peel results might ...

  20. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back Injectable Deoxycholic Acid Injectable Hyaluronic Acid Injectable Poly-l-lactic Acid Injectable Polymethylmethacrylate + Bovine Collagen Filler ... but do not cause a great deal of pain. The gentlest peels use alpha-hydroxy, glycolic, lactic ...

  1. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of pectinase enzyme from guava (Psidium guajava) peel: Enzyme recovery, specific activity, temperature, and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Islam Sarker, Zaidul

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions on the yield, specific activity, temperature, and storage stability of the pectinase enzyme from guava peel. The ultrasound variables studied were sonication time (10-30 min), ultrasound temperature (30-50 °C), pH (2.0-8.0), and solvent-to-sample ratio (2:1 mL/g to 6:1 mL/g). The main goal was to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions to maximize the recovery of pectinase from guava peel with the most desirable enzyme-specific activity and stability. Under the optimum conditions, a high yield (96.2%), good specific activity (18.2 U/mg), temperature stability (88.3%), and storage stability (90.3%) of the extracted enzyme were achieved. The optimal conditions were 20 min sonication time, 40 °C temperature, at pH 5.0, using a 4:1 mL/g solvent-to-sample ratio. The study demonstrated that optimization of ultrasound-assisted process conditions for the enzyme extraction could improve the enzymatic characteristics and yield of the enzyme.

  2. In vivo assessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotypes: Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and saw palmetto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Bill J; Gardner, Stephanie F; Hubbard, Martha A; Williams, D Keith; Gentry, W Brooks; Carrier, Julie; Khan, Ikhlas A; Edwards, David J; Shah, Amit

    2004-11-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single-time point phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of Citrus aurantium , Echinacea purpurea , milk thistle (Silybum marianum), or saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) extracts affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity. Twelve healthy volunteers (6 women, 6 men) were randomly assigned to receive C aurantium , E purpurea , milk thistle, or saw palmetto for 28 days. For each subject, a 30-day washout period was interposed between each supplementation phase. Probe drug cocktails of midazolam and caffeine, followed 24 hours later by chlorzoxazone and debrisoquin (INN, debrisoquine), were administered before (baseline) and at the end of supplementation. Presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic trait measurements were determined for CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP2D6 by use of 1-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam serum ratios (1-hour sample), paraxanthine/caffeine serum ratios (6-hour sample), 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone/chlorzoxazone serum ratios (2-hour sample), and debrisoquin urinary recovery ratios (8-hour collection), respectively. The content of purported "active" phytochemicals was determined for each supplement. Comparisons of presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic ratios suggested that these particular supplements had no significant effect on CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity. Phytochemical profiles indicated that C aurantium was devoid of the CYP3A4 inhibitor 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin. Quantities of fatty acids, flavonolignans, and cichoric acid were consistent with label claims for saw palmetto, milk thistle, and E purpurea , respectively. Botanical supplements containing C aurantium , milk thistle, or saw palmetto extracts appear to pose a minimal risk for CYP-mediated herb-drug interactions in humans. Although the effects of E purpurea on CYP activity were minor, further

  3. Evaluation of Anti-obesity Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Pomegranate Fruit Peel Using Anthropometrical Indices in Male Wistar Rats

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    Mohammad Hassanpour fard

    2015-04-01

    Results: Comparison of weight change before and after the intervention showed a significant reduction in the Group E and a significant increase in group N (p≤0.05. Waist circumference was significantly increased in the experimental group A and control group N (p≤0.05 and reduced in group X (p≤0.05.There was no significant difference in plasma lipid profile between the groups. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of pomegranate fruit peel can be considered as an anti-obesity compound in further studies.

  4. Antimicrobial effect of the Tunisian Nana variety Punica granatum L. extracts against Salmonella enterica (serovars Kentucky and Enteritidis) isolated from chicken meat and phenolic composition of its peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Ben Ajmia; Makni, Mohamed; Ammar, Sonda; Khannous, Lamia; Hassana, Amal Ben; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Es-Safi, Nour Eddine; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-01-16

    Punica granatum L. is widely recognized for its potency against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. The purpose of this study was to explore the inhibitory and the bactericidal activities of Punica granatum against Salmonella strains. The effect of extracts obtained from different parts (peels, seeds, juice and flowers) of pomegranate and using different solvents against Salmonella enterica serovars Kentucky and Enteritidis isolated from chicken meat was thus investigated. Salmonella strains were identified with the standard API-20E system and confirmed by real time PCR. The obtained results showed that the highest antibacterial activity against Salmonella strains was observed with the peels ethanolic extract giving MIC values ranging from 10.75 to 12.5mg/mL. The ethanolic extract of P. granatum Nana peels at 0.8 and 1.6mg/g significantly inhibited the growth of Salmonella Kentucky in chicken meat stored at 4°C. The phenolic composition of the ethanolic peel extract was explored by HPLC coupled to both DAD and ESI/TOF-MS detections. The obtained results allowed the detection of 21 phytochemical compounds among which various phenolic compounds have been identified on the basis of their UV and MS spectra as well as with literature data. Among the detected compounds, anthocyanins, ellagitannins, ellagic acid derivatives and flavanols were further characterized through MS-MS analysis. Our results showed thus that the Tunisian variety Nana pomegranate constitutes a good source of bioactive compounds with potent antimicrobial activity on the growth of Salmonella strains suggesting that the studied pomegranate cultivar could be a natural remedy to minimize the emergence of Salmonella enterica strains which is often involved in food borne illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. RED DRAGON FRUIT (Hylocereus costaricensis Britt. Et R. PEEL EXTRACT AS A NATURAL DYE ALTERNATIVE IN MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATION OF PLANT TISSUES: THE PRACTICAL GUIDE IN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Wagiyanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prepared slide of plant tissue needs to be staining to facilitate observations under microscope. Laboratorium activities in schools usually use synthetic dyes which expensive and can be damaged the student. Therefore the exploration of alternative dyes need to be established, such as utilizing of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus castaricensis Britt. Et R.. This study aims to (1 find out the best concentration of dragon fruit peel extract for staining plant tissue prepared slide and (2 to develop the practical guide related to plant tissue observation. The qualitative research used different concentration of red dragon fruit peel extract, namely: 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% with 3 repetitions. Data were obtained from observation photos of prepared slide. The result showed that the most contrast prepared slide was used red dragon fruit extract in 60% concentration. The result use to arrange practical guide in observation of plant tissues which is validated by material expert. The validation result showed “very good” criteria (86.01%.

  6. Acaricidal, insecticidal, and larvicidal efficacy of fruit peel aqueous extract of Annona squamosa and its compounds against blood-feeding parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhumitha, Gunabalan; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Priya, Kanagaraj Mohana; Saral, Antoneyraj Mary; Khan, Fazlur Rahman Nawaz; Khanna, Venkatesh Gopiesh; Velayutham, Kannaiyaram; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi

    2012-11-01

    Plant products may be alternative sources of parasitic control agents, since they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are eco-friendly and nontoxic products. The plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, fruit peel aqueous extract of Annona squamosa (Annonaceae) extracted by immersion method exhibited adulticidal activity against Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acarina: Ixodidae) and the hematophagous fly, Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), and larvicidal activity against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of A. squamosa fruit peel aqueous extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major chemical constituent of peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa was identified as 1H- cycloprop[e]azulen-7-ol decahydro-1,1,7-trimethyl-4-methylene-[1ar-(1aα,4aα, 7β, 7 a, β, 7bα)] (28.55%) by comparison of mass spectral data and retention times. The other major constituents present in the aqueous extract were retinal 9-cis- (12.61%), 3,17-dioxo-4-androsten-11alpha-yl hydrogen succinate (6.86%), 1-naphthalenepentanol decahydro-5-(hydroxymethyl)-5,8a-dimethyl-y,2-bis(methylene)-(1α,4aβ,5α,8aα) (14.83%), 1-naphthalenemethanol decahydro -5-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-pentenyl)- 1,4a-di methyl - 6-methylene -(1S-[1α, 4aα, 5α(E), 8aβ] (4.44%), (-)-spathulenol (20.75%), podocarp-7-en-3-one13β-methyl-13-vinyl- (5.98%), and 1-phenanthrene carboxaldehyde 7-ethenyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4,5,6,7,9,10,10a-dodecahydro-1,4a,7-trimethyl-[1R-(1α,4aβ.4bα,7β, 10aα)]-(5.98%). The adult and larval parasitic mortalities observed in fruit peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa were 31, 59, 80, 91, and100%; 27, 42, 66, 87, and 100%; and 33, 45, 68, 92, and 100% at the concentrations of 250, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ppm, respectively, against

  7. Effects of Pomegranate peel hydroAlcoholic extract and vitamin E supplementation on Paraoxonase, myeloperoxidase Activities and nitric oxide levels following an exhaustive exercise in rats

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    Saeid Veiskarami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: free radicals produced as a result of heavy training exercise especially oxygen species (ROS damage to body tissues Which can be prevent from this by consuming antioxidant substances timely. The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum peel hydro alcoholic on reduced of oxidative stress induced by an exhaustive exercise. Materials and Methods: Thirty two weight-matched male Wistar rats were evenly divided into: 1 control: received saline (0.2 ml saline/ rat by oral administration via epigastric tube. 2 Received oral administration of 200 mg/kg pomegranate peel hydro alcoholic extract (PPHE200. 3 Received oral administration of 250 mg/kg Pomegranate peel hydro alcoholic extract (PPHE250. 4 Received oral administration of vitamin E (vit E 5 mg/kg. Animals were submitted to swimming exhaustive exercise stress for an 8-week. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for serum. Serum samples were analyzed for paraoxonase-1(PON-1 and myeloperoxidase (MPO activities and nitric oxide levels. Results: Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1 activities serum were significantly increases in PPHE200 (23.03±1.47, PPHE250 (23.59±1.98 and vit E (25.38±2.65 than in the control (18.57±1.380 (p<0.05.In PPHE200 (32.76±9.97 ،PPHE250 (31.45±6.05 and vit E (24.94±4.65 treated animals was determined in serum where myeloperoxidase activities reduced significantly compared with control (40.70±6.14 (p<0.05. Levels of Nitric oxide levels were significantly lower in PPHE 200 (46.59±2.48, PPHE250 (40.27±2.62 and vit E (36.25±3.82 treated than in control (47.18±5.36 (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results indicated that Pomegranate peel hydro alcoholic extract supplementations can strength antioxidant defense system and anti-inflammatory induced by exhaustive exercise.

  8. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Three Cultivars of Banana (Musa acuminata) Fruit Peel on Kidney and Liver Function Indices in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenta, Chidi; Okoduwa, Stanley I R; Okpe, Oche

    2017-10-23

    Background: Musa acuminata fruit peels are used in the northern part of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. The effects of aqueous extracts of ripped fruit peel of three cultivars of Musa acuminata ( Saro, Ominni and Oranta ) on the hepatic and renal parameters of normal rats were examined. Methods: Fruit peel aqueous extracts (FPAE) of the 3 cultivars of Bananas (100 mg/kg b.w.) were administered by oral intubation (that is through esophageal cannula) to normal rats (140-180 g) for a period of 28 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase ALK-P), total protein, albumin, creatinine as well as urea. Results: From the results obtained, there were no significant ( p < 0.05) changes in the ALK-P, AST, ALT, total protein and albumin among the experimental rats administered FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Musa acuminata when compared with the normal control group. There was a significant ( p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum creatinine (in mg/dL) (1.53 ± 0.23) when compared to the normal control (0.72 ± 0.15), Ominni (0.92 ± 0.39) and Oranta (0.74 ± 0.22). Similarly, there was a significant ( p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum urea (in mg/dL) of Saro (41.56 ± 4.68) when compared to the normal control (26.05 ± 0.73), Ommini (28.44 ± 2.43) and Oranta (26.10 ± 2.94). Conclusion: The findings reveal the Saro cultivar of Musa acuminata to be nephrotoxic and not a good potential drug candidate among the cultivars studied hence should be discouraged in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases.

  9. Inhibitory effect of a formulated extract from multiple citrus peels on LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 246.7 macrophages

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    Tadahiro Etoh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Formulated Citrus Peel Extract (GL made from the peels of six citrus fruits available in Japan, namely navel oranges, citrus hassaku, citrus limon, citrus natsudaidai, citrus miyauchi and satsuma, was initially developed as a cosmetic product to protect skin from UV irradiation. Anecdotal evidences of anti-cancer property of GL have been reported by consumers based on the cases such as topical application for melanoma, and oral ingestion for prostate, lung and liver cancers.Those anecdotal reports stimulated us to investigate anti-tumorigenesis activity of GL. In the previous study, we reported that the topical application of GL inhibited DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumor formation by decreasing inflammatory gene parameters.Objective: In this study, we mainly investigated the effect of GL on translocation of NF-kB together with production of nitric-oxide and TNF-α induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells.Results: This investigation showed that GL decreased the release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from macrophage RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GL suppressed the expression of iNOS and nuclear translocation of NF-kB in RAW264.7 cells, inhibited the degradation of IκB-α, and scavenged hydroxyl radicals (DMPO/OH adduct in vitro.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that GL suppresses the inflammation in vitro, and exerts chemopreventive activity through the inhibition of production of TNF-α and iNOS proteins due to the inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-kB and oxidative stress. GL appears to be a novel functional natural product capable of preventing inflammation and inflammation-associated tumorigenesis.Keywords: GL, Citrus peel extract, anti-inflammation, Nitric oxide, iNOS, NF-kB, TNF-α

  10. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Three Cultivars of Banana (Musa acuminata) Fruit Peel on Kidney and Liver Function Indices in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenta, Chidi; Okpe, Oche

    2017-01-01

    Background: Musa acuminata fruit peels are used in the northern part of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. The effects of aqueous extracts of ripped fruit peel of three cultivars of Musa acuminata (Saro, Ominni and Oranta) on the hepatic and renal parameters of normal rats were examined. Methods: Fruit peel aqueous extracts (FPAE) of the 3 cultivars of Bananas (100 mg/kg b.w.) were administered by oral intubation (that is through esophageal cannula) to normal rats (140–180 g) for a period of 28 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase ALK-P), total protein, albumin, creatinine as well as urea. Results: From the results obtained, there were no significant (p < 0.05) changes in the ALK-P, AST, ALT, total protein and albumin among the experimental rats administered FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Musa acuminata when compared with the normal control group. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum creatinine (in mg/dL) (1.53 ± 0.23) when compared to the normal control (0.72 ± 0.15), Ominni (0.92 ± 0.39) and Oranta (0.74 ± 0.22). Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum urea (in mg/dL) of Saro (41.56 ± 4.68) when compared to the normal control (26.05 ± 0.73), Ommini (28.44 ± 2.43) and Oranta (26.10 ± 2.94). Conclusion: The findings reveal the Saro cultivar of Musa acuminata to be nephrotoxic and not a good potential drug candidate among the cultivars studied hence should be discouraged in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. PMID:29065553

  11. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Three Cultivars of Banana (Musa acuminata Fruit Peel on Kidney and Liver Function Indices in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidi Edenta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musa acuminata fruit peels are used in the northern part of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. The effects of aqueous extracts of ripped fruit peel of three cultivars of Musa acuminata (Saro, Ominni and Oranta on the hepatic and renal parameters of normal rats were examined. Methods: Fruit peel aqueous extracts (FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Bananas (100 mg/kg b.w. were administered by oral intubation (that is through esophageal cannula to normal rats (140–180 g for a period of 28 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase ALK-P, total protein, albumin, creatinine as well as urea. Results: From the results obtained, there were no significant (p < 0.05 changes in the ALK-P, AST, ALT, total protein and albumin among the experimental rats administered FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Musa acuminata when compared with the normal control group. There was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in the level of serum creatinine (in mg/dL (1.53 ± 0.23 when compared to the normal control (0.72 ± 0.15, Ominni (0.92 ± 0.39 and Oranta (0.74 ± 0.22. Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in the level of serum urea (in mg/dL of Saro (41.56 ± 4.68 when compared to the normal control (26.05 ± 0.73, Ommini (28.44 ± 2.43 and Oranta (26.10 ± 2.94. Conclusion: The findings reveal the Saro cultivar of Musa acuminata to be nephrotoxic and not a good potential drug candidate among the cultivars studied hence should be discouraged in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases.

  12. Dwindling of cardio damaging effect of isoproterenol by Punica granatum L. peel extract involve activation of nitric oxide-mediated Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway and apoptosis inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mahesh; Sharma, Pallavi; Mazumder, Arindam Ghosh; Patial, Vikram; Singh, Damanpreet

    2015-09-09

    Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) peel is often considered as a food waste in-spite of its high bioactive metabolite composition. Primarily it is rich in therapeutically active phenolics that act on multiple cellular sites, through diverse mechanisms. Hence, the present study was envisaged to investigate the effect of standardised peel extract of P. granatum against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI). ISO administration at a dose of 150 mg/kg; s.c., twice at 24 h interval resulted in electrocardiographic abnormalities with increased heart weight and myocardial tissue damage signifying MI. Pretreatment with the extract at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o., for 21 days prior to ISO intoxication (30 min prior to intoxication on day 22 and 23) attenuated the observed changes, along with increased myocardial tissue superoxide dismutase activity, reduced glutathione and nitrite levels, and decreased lipid peroxidation. The extract treated groups also showed reduced serum marker enzymes of MI, showing maximum effect at highest tested dose. Immunohistochemical studies revealed increased myocardial expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Bcl-2 proteins in the extract treated groups with decreased Bax expression. From the results it can be concluded that the extract pretreatment prevents ISO-induced MI through increased myocardial expression of eNOS, leading to nitric oxide-mediated Nrf2 activation, thus upregulating antioxidant mechanisms, along with inhibition of apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of response surface methodology for the optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of essential oil from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Raofie, Farhad

    2016-07-01

    Essential oils and volatile components of pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) peel of the Malas variety from Meybod, Iran, were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and hydro-distillation methods. The experimental parameters of SFE that is pressure, temperature, extraction time, and modifier (methanol) volume were optimized using a central composite design after a (2 4-1 ) fractional factorial design. Detailed chemical composition of the essential oils and volatile components obtained by hydro-distillation and optimum condition of the supercritical CO 2 extraction were analyzed by GC-MS, and seventy-three and forty-six compounds were identified according to their retention indices and mass spectra, respectively. The optimum SFE conditions were 350 atm pressure, 55 °C temperature, 30 min extraction time, and 150 µL methanol. Results showed that oleic acid, palmitic acid and (-)-Borneol were major compounds in both extracts. The optimum extraction yield was 1.18 % (w/w) for SFE and 0.21 % (v/w) for hydro-distillation.

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF STIRRING SPEED AND STIRRING TIME TOWARD NANOPARTICLE SIZE OF CHITOSAN-SIAM CITRUS PEEL (Citrus nobilis L.var Microcarpa 70% ETHANOL EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wintari Taurina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Siam citrus peel (Citrus nobilis L. var. Microcarpa is a plant derived from Sambas Regency, West Kalimantan Province. Bioavailability of herbal active compounds can be enhanced by formulating extract into nanoparticle. The polymer used was chitosan with crosslinker Na-TPP. Stirring speed and stirring time play an important role to produce small particle size in forming nanoparticle using ionic gelation method. Enhancement of stirring speed and stirring time could reduce particle size. Nanoparticles were prepared using ionic gelation method by mixing Na-TPP, extract and chitosan (1:1:6 with varying the stirring speed 500 rpm, 1000 rpm, 1500 rpm and stirring time 1 hrs, 2 hrs, 3 hrs. The particle size of nanoparticle was found to be 85.3 nm at 1000 rpm of stirring speed and 3 hrs of stirring times, with polidispersity index 0.287, zeta potential +32.37 mV and entrapment efficiency 87.12 %.

  15. The role of pectin in Cd binding by orange peel biosorbents: A comparison of peels, depectinated peels and pectic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiewer, Silke, E-mail: sschiewer@alaska.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 755900, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Iqbal, Muhammad, E-mail: iqbalmdr@brain.net.pk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 755900, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Biosorption by cheaply and abundantly available materials such as citrus peels can be a cost efficient method for removing heavy metals from wastewater. To investigate the role pectin plays in metal binding by citrus peels, native orange peels, protonated peels, depectinated peels, and extracted pectic acid were compared. Kinetic experiments showed that equilibrium was achieved in 1 h. The 1st-order model was more effective in describing the kinetics than the 2nd-order model. Titrations showed two acidic sites with pK{sub a} values around 4 (carboxyl) and 10.5 (hydroxyl), respectively. The pH dependent surface charge was described well by a two-site model. Sorption isotherms were best modeled assuming a 1:2 binding stoichiometry, followed by the Langmuir and the Freundlich model. The binding capacity was highest for pectic acid (2.9 mequiv./g) followed by protonated peels and native peels, being lowest for depectinated peels (1.7 mequiv./g). This showed the importance of pectin in metal binding by citrus peels. However, even depectinated peels were still good sorbents which still provided carboxyl groups that were involved in metal binding. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in all materials and their involvement in metal binding.

  16. The role of pectin in Cd binding by orange peel biosorbents: A comparison of peels, depectinated peels and pectic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiewer, Silke; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Biosorption by cheaply and abundantly available materials such as citrus peels can be a cost efficient method for removing heavy metals from wastewater. To investigate the role pectin plays in metal binding by citrus peels, native orange peels, protonated peels, depectinated peels, and extracted pectic acid were compared. Kinetic experiments showed that equilibrium was achieved in 1 h. The 1st-order model was more effective in describing the kinetics than the 2nd-order model. Titrations showed two acidic sites with pK a values around 4 (carboxyl) and 10.5 (hydroxyl), respectively. The pH dependent surface charge was described well by a two-site model. Sorption isotherms were best modeled assuming a 1:2 binding stoichiometry, followed by the Langmuir and the Freundlich model. The binding capacity was highest for pectic acid (2.9 mequiv./g) followed by protonated peels and native peels, being lowest for depectinated peels (1.7 mequiv./g). This showed the importance of pectin in metal binding by citrus peels. However, even depectinated peels were still good sorbents which still provided carboxyl groups that were involved in metal binding. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in all materials and their involvement in metal binding.

  17. Skin Peeling Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rajeev

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peeling of the skin is an uncommonly encountered disorder. Occurrence of vesicles and bullae in peeling skin syndrome is very rare. We report a case of idiopathic peeling skin syndrome with vesicular lesions.

  18. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Phenolic Extract from Rambutan Peels (Nephelium lappaceum) in High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingyu; Guo, Yan; Sun, Liping; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2017-07-26

    Recent studies have shown that rambutan peel phenolic (RPP) extract demonstrate high antioxidant and antiglycation activities in vitro and in vivo. This study further evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of RPP in a mouse model of Type II diabetes induced by streptozotocin combined with high-fat diet. Results showed that RPP increased the body weight and reduced the fasting blood glucose level of the diabetic mice. RPP significantly reduced the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, and glycated serum protein in diabetic mice in a dose-dependent manner. Glycogen content in mice liver was recovered by RPP, which further increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced lipid peroxidation in diabetic mice. Histological analysis showed that RPP effectively protected the tissue structure of the liver, kidney, and pancreas. In addition, RPP decreased the mesangial index and inhibited the expression of TGF-β in the kidney of diabetic mice.

  19. One-pot preparation of magnetic carbon adsorbent derived from pomelo peel for magnetic solid-phase extraction of pollutants in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Youfang; Peng, Jinghe; Huang, Xiaojia

    2018-04-20

    In this work, magnetic carbon material derived from pomelo peels (MCMPs) was conveniently fabricated utilizing one-pot synthesis method and employed as adsorbent of magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). Several characterized measures including infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer were used to investigate the morphology, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of prepared adsorbent. Apolar parabens and polar fluoroquinolones (FQs) were used to investigate the extraction performance of MCMPs. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the MCMPs displayed satisfactory extraction performance for target analytes. At the same time, the MCMPs/MSPE was combined with HPLC-DAD for the sensitive determination of parabens and FQs in real-life water samples. Results showed that the limits of detection (S/N = 3) for parabens and FQs were in the ranges of 0.011-0.053 μg/L and 0.012-0.46 μg/L, respectively. The spiked recoveries were in the range of 76.6-116% for parabens and 80.2-114% for FQs with good repeatability (relative standard deviations less than 10%). In comparison to reported methods, the developed MCMPs/MSPE-HPLC-DAD showed some merits including low-cost, simplicity, satisfactory sensitivity and green non-pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of an aqueous two-phase micellar system to extract bromelain from pineapple (Ananas comosus) peel waste and analysis of bromelain stability in cosmetic formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spir, Lívia Genovez; Ataide, Janaína Artem; De Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Moriel, Patrícia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; De Borba Gurpilhares, Daniela; Silveira, Edgar; Pessoa, Adalberto; Tambourgi, Elias Basile

    2015-01-01

    Bromelain is a set of proteolytic enzymes found in pineapple (Ananas comosus) tissues such as stem, fruit and leaves. Because of its proteolytic activity, bromelain has potential applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The present study focused on the recovery of bromelain from pineapple peel by liquid-liquid extraction in aqueous two-phase micellar systems (ATPMS), using Triton X-114 (TX-114) and McIlvaine buffer, in the absence and presence of electrolytes CaCl2 and KI; the cloud points of the generated extraction systems were studied by plotting binodal curves. Based on the cloud points, three temperatures were selected for extraction: 30, 33, and 36°C for systems in the absence of salts; 40, 43, and 46°C in the presence of KI; 24, 27, and 30°C in the presence of CaCl2 . Total protein and enzymatic activities were analyzed to monitor bromelain. Employing the ATPMS chosen for extraction (0.5 M KI with 3% TX-114, at pH 6.0, at 40°C), the bromelain extract stability was assessed after incorporation into three cosmetic bases: an anhydrous gel, a cream, and a cream-gel formulation. The cream-gel formulation presented as the most appropriate base to convey bromelain, and its optimal storage conditions were found to be 4.0 ± 0.5°C. The selected ATPMS enabled the extraction of a biomolecule with high added value from waste lined-up in a cosmetic formulation, allowing for exploration of further cosmetic potential. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  1. Evaluation of α-tocopherol acetate, peel and extract pomogrante antioxidative potential in diet contained fish oil on meat quality boiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Salehi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Poultry meat enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 (PUFA Lc n-3 can make a nutritionally meaningful contribution to Western diets in which consumption of PUFA Lc n-3 is low. Enrichment of poultry meat with this fatty acid is usually achieved by inclusion of fish oil in broiler diet (23, 24. However, meat enriched in this way is susceptible to quality deterioration by lipid oxidation during storage or cooking, leading to reduction in nutritive value and accumulation of lipid oxidation products (10. Oxidation is a very general process affecting lipids, pigments, proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and vitamins (11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary α-tocopherol (α-Toc, pomegranate peel extract (PPE and pomegranate peel (PP on fatty acid profile, aoxidation and phenolic compounds in raw thigh and breast meat during refrigeration. Materials and methods Peels of pomegranate were harvested in October 2011 from pomegranate trees (Ardestani, variety in Khorasan Razavi province (East, Iran. Dried powders of peels (2.5 g were extracted with 40 mL of methanol solvent at room temperature for 6 hours. Three hundred and eighty four 1-d-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly allotted to 8 groups with 4 replicates of 12 birds. Eight dietary treatments including control diet without feed additives, control diet mixed with 200 mg/kg α-Toc, control diet mixed with PPE (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, and control diet mixed with PP (1, 2 and 3 g/kg. In all diets 2% fish oil were added to enhance the enrichment of unsaturated n-3 fatty acid in birds. One broiler chick was randomly selected from each pen of 42 d of age. The antioxidative potential and various meat quality characteristics were determined on 0, 7, and 11 days of refrigerated storage. Total phenols content in the aqueous supernatant was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method (33. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging

  2. Antifungal properties of Musa paradisiaca (Plantain) peel and stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of plantain (Musa paradisiaca (L) AAB genomic group) peel and stalk extracts were investigated using percentage inhibition test. Complete inhibition of growth (100%) was observed for Aspergillusniger, Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus stolonifer at 1.0 mg/ml concentration of stalk extract. Peel extract inhibited A.

  3. Carbon-Based Fe3O4 Nanocomposites Derived from Waste Pomelo Peels for Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction of 11 Triazole Fungicides in Fruit Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Keyu; Zhang, Wenlin; Cao, Shurui; Wang, Guomin; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2018-01-01

    Carbon-based Fe3O4 nanocomposites (C/Fe3O4 NCs) were synthesized by a simple one-step hydrothermal method using waste pomelo peels as the carbon precursors. The characterization results showed that they had good structures and physicochemical properties. The prepared C/Fe3O4 NCs could be applied as excellent and recyclable adsorbents for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of 11 triazole fungicides in fruit samples. In the MSPE procedure, several parameters including the amount of adsorbents, extraction time, the type and volume of desorption solvent, and desorption time were optimized in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the good linearity (R2 > 0.9916), the limits of detection (LOD), and quantification (LOQ) were obtained in the range of 1–100, 0.12–0.55, and 0.39–1.85 μg/kg for 11 pesticides, respectively. Lastly, the proposed MSPE method was successfully applied to analyze triazole fungicides in real apple, pear, orange, peach, and banana samples with recoveries in the range of 82.1% to 109.9% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8.4%. Therefore, the C/Fe3O4 NCs based MSPE method has a great potential for isolating and pre-concentrating trace levels of triazole fungicides in fruits. PMID:29734765

  4. Protective effects of orange (Citrus sinensis L.) peel aqueous extract and hesperidin on oxidative stress and peptic ulcer induced by alcohol in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Slimen; Rtibi, Kais; Grami, Dhekra; Sebai, Hichem; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2017-08-14

    Massive alcohol drinking can lead to gastric ulcer. In the present study we investigated the gastroprotective effect of Citrus sinensis peel aqueous extract (CSPE) and Hesperidin (H) in ethanol (EtOH) induced oxidative stress and peptic ulcer in rats. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of 10 each: control, EtOH (4 g/kg b.w.), EtOH + various doses of CSPE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, b.w.), EtOH + Hesperidin (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and EtOH + Omeprazole (OM, 20 mg/kg, p.o.). Animals were perorally (p.o.) pre-treated with CSPE during 15 days and intoxicated with a single oral administration of EtOH (4 g/kg b.w.) during 2 h. Gastric ulcer was induced in rats with a single dose of ethanol (EtOH). Ulcer index, gene expression of gastric cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), malondialdhyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 and Thiol groups (-SH) content in stomach and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and gluthation peroxidise (GPx) were measured. Furthermore, histopathological examinations were performed. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving oxidative stress markers level such as MDA (121 ± 4.45 nmol/mg proteins) and H 2 O 2 (24.62 ± 1.04 μmol/mg proteins), increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α level), as well as the expression of COX-2 in the ethanol group. However, a significant depletion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed, such as, GPx (72%), SOD (57.5%), CAT (41.6%) and -SH (50%). The lesions were associated with severe histopathological damage. The both Citrus sinensis peel aqueous extract (CSPE) and hesperidin significantly protect against all gastric damages caused by ethanol administration in rats. We propose that CSPE and hesperidin exhibit protective effects in EtOH-induced peptic ulcer in rat. This protection might be related in to part its antioxidant properties as well as its opposite effects on some studied

  5. Functionalized hydrothermal carbon derived from waste pomelo peel as solid-phase extractant for the removal of uranyl from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feize; Tang, Yu; Wang, Huilin; Yang, Jijun; Li, Shoujian; Liu, Jun; Tu, Hong; Liao, Jiali; Yang, Yuanyou; Liu, Ning

    2017-10-01

    To develop a high-performance solid-phase extractant for the separation of uranyl f, pomelo peel, a kind of waste biomass, has been employed as carbon source to prepare carbonaceous matrix through low-temperature hydrothermal carbonization (200 °C, 24 h). After being oxidized by Hummers method, the prepared hydrothermal carbon matrix was functionalized with carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups (1.75 mmol g -1 ). The relevant characterizations and batch studies had demonstrated that the obtained carbon material possessed excellent affinity toward uranyl (436.4 mg g -1 ) and the sorption process was a spontaneous, endothermic and rapid chemisorption. The selective sorption of U(VI) from the simulated nuclear effluent demonstrated that the sorbent displayed a desirable selectivity (56.14% at pH = 4.5) for the U(VI) ions over the other 11 competitive cations from the simulated industrial nuclear effluent. The proposed synthetic strategy in the present work had turned out to be effective and practical, which provides a novel approach to prepare functional materials for the recovery and separation of uranyl or other heavy metals from aqueous environment.

  6. Effect of chitosan and alginate based coatings enriched with pomegranate peel extract to extend the postharvest quality of guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M Sneha; Saxena, Alok; Kaur, Charanjit

    2018-02-01

    The influence of chitosan (1% w/v) and alginate (2% w/v) coatings in combination with pomegranate peel extract (PPE; 1% w/v) on quality of guavas (cv Allahabad safeda) were studied. Restricted changes were recorded in respiration rate, ripening index, and instrumental colour values in case of the coated samples as compared to the control for 20days at 10°C. Samples coated with chitosan enriched with PPE (CHE) proved to be the most effective treatment in maintaining the overall fruit quality. Ascorbic acid, total phenolics, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity were recorded with restricted losses of 29%, 8%, 12%, 12% (DPPH) and 9% (FRAP), respectively for CHE samples at the end of storage. A higher degree of correlation (r>0.918) was established between various phytochemicals and AOA. PPE enriched coatings was proved efficient in maintaining the quality of guavas during 20days of low temperature storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Extract of Chinpi, the Dried Peel of the Citrus Fruit Unshiu, Enhances Axonal Remyelination via Promoting the Proliferation of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Tokunaga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging-induced decrease in axonal myelination/remyelination is due to impaired recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs. Our previous studies have shown that a monoclonal antibody to DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp box polypeptide 54 (Ddx54, a member of the DEAD box family of RNA helicases, (1 specifically labels oligodendrocyte lineages, (2 binds to mRNA and protein isoforms of myelin basic proteins (MBP, and (3 regulates migration of OPCs from ventricular zone to corpus callosum in mice. It has also been demonstrated that specific loss of a 21.5 kDa MBP isoform (MBP21.5 reflects demyelination status, and oral administration of an extract of Chinpi, citrus unshiu peel, reversed the aging-induced demyelination. Here, we report that Chinpi treatment induced a specific increase in the MBP21.5, led to the reappearance of Ddx54-expressing cells in ventricular-subventricular zone and corpus callosum of aged mice, and promoted remyelination. Treatment of in vitro OPC cultures with Chinpi constituents, hesperidin plus narirutin, led to an increase in 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation in Ddx54-expressing OPCs, but not in NG2- or Olig2-expressing cell populations. The present study suggests that Ddx54 plays crucial role in remyelination. Furthermore, Chinpi and Chinpi-containing herbal medicines may be a therapeutic option for the aging-induced demyelination diseases.

  8. Ethanol extract grapefruit peel ( Citrus maxima Murr.) gel formulations with gelling agent durian seed gum and carboxy methyl cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Nazliniwaty; Karsono; Zebua, Nilsya Febrika; Nerdy

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the best gel formula of grapefruit ethanol extracts (Citrus maxima Murr.) with gelling agent combination durian seed gum and carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). Durian seed gum was isolated with centrifuge and then combined with CMC-Na in five formulas. Evaluation material of topical gel that is its homogeneity, pH, stability testing, and irritation of the volunteers. All formula gel preparations its ...

  9. A strategy to improve nitrogen utilization, reduce environmental impact, and increase performance and antioxidant capacity of fattening lambs using pomegranate peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, M; Rouzbehan, Y; Rezaei, J

    2017-01-01

    Dietary natural plant secondary metabolites (PSM) extracted from a pomegranate peel (PP) byproduct have the potential to improve milk yield and the milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows. This experiment was performed to assess the influence of different dietary levels of PP extract (PPE) on feedlot performance, ruminal status, nutrient utilization, and antioxidant status in fattening Moghani lambs. Thirty-two lambs (initial BW of 22 ± 1.2 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with a 72-d period and 4 treatments: PPE0 (no extract), PPE15 (15 mL PPE/kg of diet DM), PPE30 (30 mL PPE/kg of diet DM), and PPE45 (45 mL PPE/kg of diet DM). Feed intake, lamb growth, diet digestibility, microbial nitrogen (N) synthesis (MNS), N retention, rumen parameters, and blood metabolites were determined. The addition of PPE to the diet of lambs had no effect on DMI (linear [L], = 0.96; quadratic [Q], = 0.65). In vivo digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, and Ash-free NDF were not affected (L, ≥ 0.28; Q, ≥ 0.26) by different levels of PPE, but it increased ADG (L, = 0.045; Q, = 0.19) and G:F (L, = 0.046; Q, = 0.20). Rumen pH, VFA concentrations, and acetate-to-propionate ratio were not affected (L, ≥ 0.14; Q, ≥ 0.23) by PPE supplementation. Dietary inclusion of PPE decreased the ruminal concentration of ammonia N (L, = 0.014; Q, = 0.67), total protozoa enumeration (L, concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, or albumin-to-globulin ratio. Blood urea N (L, = 0.021; Q, = 0.32) decreased with dietary addition of PPE, while total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the rumen fluid (L, = 0.032; Q, = 0.64) and TAC in the blood (L, = 0.041; Q, = 0.51) increased. Overall, dietary inclusion of PPE, up to 45 mL/kg of diet DM, linearly improved animal growth, N retention, and antioxidant capacities of the blood and rumen fluid. The PPE is a safe natural additive for use in sheep diets that can help to reduce environmental pollution by reducing

  10. Therapeutic effects of gold nanoparticles synthesized using Musa paradisiaca peel extract against multiple antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis biofilms and human lung cancer cells (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, S; Vaseeharan, B; Malaikozhundan, B; Gopi, N; Ekambaram, P; Pachaiappan, R; Velusamy, P; Murugan, K; Benelli, G; Suresh Kumar, R; Suriyanarayanamoorthy, M

    2017-01-01

    Botanical-mediated synthesis of nanomaterials is currently emerging as a cheap and eco-friendly nanotechnology, since it does not involve the use of toxic chemicals. In the present study, we focused on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous peel extract of Musa paradisiaca (MPPE-AuNPs) following a facile and cheap fabrication process. The green synthesized MPPE-AuNPs were bio-physically characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TEM, Zeta potential analysis and EDX. MPPE-AuNPs were crystalline in nature, spherical to triangular in shape, with particle size ranging within 50 nm. The biofilm inhibition activity of MPPE-AuNPs was higher against multiple antibiotic resistant (MARS) Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. Light and confocal laser scanning microscopic observations evidenced that the MPPE-AuNPs effectively inhibited the biofilm of E. faecalis when tested at 100 μg mL -1 . Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that MPPE-AuNPs were effective in inhibiting the viability of human A549 lung cancer cells at higher concentrations of 100 μg mL -1 . The morphological changes in the MPPE-AuNPs treated A549 lung cancer cells were visualized under phase-contrast microscopy. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity of MPPE-AuNPs on the freshwater micro crustacean Ceriodaphnia cornuta were evaluated. Notably, no mortality was recorded in MPPE-AuNPs treated C. cornuta at 250 μg mL -1 . This study concludes that MPPE-AuNPs are non-toxic, eco-friendly and act as a multipurpose potential biomaterial for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microwave-assisted green synthesis of superparamagnetic nanoparticles using fruit peel extracts: surface engineering, T2 relaxometry, and photodynamic treatment potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shazia Bano,1–3 Samina Nazir,2 Alia Nazir,1 Saeeda Munir,3 Tariq Mahmood,2 Muhammad Afzal,1 Farzana Latif Ansari,4 Kehkashan Mazhar3 1Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, 2Nanosciences and Technology Department, National Centre for Physics, 3Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering (IBGE, 4Pakistan Council for Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs have the potential to be used as multimodal imaging and cancer therapy agents due to their excellent magnetism and ability to generate reactive oxygen species when exposed to light. We report the synthesis of highly biocompatible SPIONs through a facile green approach using fruit peel extracts as the biogenic reductant. This green synthesis protocol involves the stabilization of SPIONs through coordination of different phytochemicals. The SPIONs were functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 and succinic acid and were extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, diffused reflectance spectroscopy, fluorescence emission, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and magnetization analysis. The developed SPIONs were found to be stable, almost spherical with a size range of 17–25 nm. They exhibited excellent water dispersibility, colloidal stability, and relatively high R2 relaxivity (225 mM-1 s-1. Cell viability assay data revealed that PEGylation or carboxylation appears to significantly shield the surface of the particles but does not lead to improved cytocompatibility. A highly significant increase of reactive oxygen species in light-exposed samples was found to play an important role in the photokilling of human cervical epithelial malignant carcinoma (HeLa cells. The bio-SPIONs developed

  12. Olfactory mediated interactions between Citrus aurantium Toxoptera citricida and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Interação olfativa entre Citrus aurantium Toxoptera citricida e Lysiphlebus testaceipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetu Bahadoorsingh

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish whether there are olfactory interactions in the Lysiphlebus testaceipes Toxoptera citricida and Citrus aurantium tritrophic system. The response of male and female L. testaceipes to different odour sources of the host plant C. aurantium, the aphid host T. citricida and aphid-plant complex were investigated using a Y-tube olfactometer. Laboratory experiments were conducted by exposing individually aged male and female L. testaceipes to eight different odour treatments. Response of the parasitoids was taken after 15 min exposure to the volatiles from the different odour sources and based on their orientation to the particular chamber. Seventy percent of both male and female L. testaceipes showed high attractivity to aphid infested leaves. There was no significant difference based on age and sex of the parasitoid on their choice of odour. The organic compounds released by these combinations acted as semiochemicals in the tritrophic interactions and it is suggested that insect feeding induced attraction of the parasitoid L. testaceipes.O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se existe interação olfativa no sistema tritrófico entre Lysiphlebus testaceipes Toxoptera citricida e Citrus aurantium. A resposta de machos e fêmeas de L. testaceipes a diferentes fontes de odor da planta hospedeira C. aurantium, o afideo parasita T. citricida e o complexo afideo-planta foram investigados com um olfatômetro do tipo tubo em Y. Os experimentos de laboratório foram conduzidos, expondo-se machos e fêmeas de L. testaceipes de diferentes idades, individualmente, a oito tratamentos com diferentes fontes de odor. A resposta do parasitóide foi tomada depois de 15 minutos de exposição aos voláteis de diferentes fontes de odor, baseando-se na orientação dos parasitóides a uma câmara particular. Setenta por cento de L. testaceipes machos e fêmeas, exibiram maior atração ao odor das folhas infestadas pelo af

  13. Aromatherapy With Citrus Aurantium Oil and Anxiety During the First Stage of Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Namazi, Masoumeh; Amir Ali Akbari, Seddigheh; Mojab, Faraz; Talebi, Atefe; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Jannesari, Sharareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is the most common psychological response of women to labor. Aromatherapy, i.e. the use of fragrant essential oils to stimulate the olfactory system, can create a state of calmness and help to alleviate anxiety. Objectives: The present study tried to determine the efficacy of aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium oil in reducing anxiety during the first stage of labor. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on two groups of pregnant women, referred...

  14. A case of peeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Peeling of paint and plaster from building facades is a well-known phenomenon. This contribution analyses a case of peeling on a villa and its gardens walls, Figure 1. The walls were levelled with cement plaster, before painted with a formally very dense acrylic paint. - The analysis shows...... that the present layer of acryl paint is not very dense because it is applied on a rough plaster surface. - However, the main reason of the peeling seems to be the difference in thermal expansion between the masonry and the cement plaster. It is shown that the peeling takes place both winter and summer....

  15. Production of ethanol from mango ( Mangifera indica L.) peel by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mango fruit processing industries generate two types of waste, including solid waste (peel and stones) and liquid waste (juice and wash ... Direct fermentation of mango peel extract gave only 5.13% (w/v) of ethanol. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  16. Comparative Analyses of the Volatile Components of Citrus Aurantium L. Flowers Using Ultrasonic-Assisted Headspace SPME and Hydrodistillation Combined with GC-MS and Evaluation of their Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Rahimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The volatile components of Citrus aurantium L. flowers were characterized by GC-MS with two different extraction techniques, hydrodistillation (HD and ultrasonic-assisted headspace solid phase microextraction (UA-HS-SPME. In the SPME method, the volatile components of the samples, irradiated by ultrasonic radiation, were collected on a polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS commercial fiber as well as some manually prepared nanoporous fibers from the samples headspace. To reach the better results, the extraction conditions were carefully optimized for the PDMS fiber. Under the optimized conditions (i.e. sonication time 15 min, extraction time 30 min and extraction temperature 55 ºC, 54 compounds were identified by the UA-HS-SPME-GC/MS method. The essential oil components of Citrus aurantium L. flower samples from two different regions of Iran and new and old samples from the same region were compared to one another. The major components identified for the samples with both the SPME and HD methods were linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, β-myrcene, geranyl acetate, and neryl acetate, respectively. However, a substantial variation in the percentages of the components was identified for different samples and different extraction methods. The antimicrobial activities of the oil were also examined against six standard bacteria. There was some activity against Enterococcus fecalis, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus cereus, indicating important biological activities of the oil.

  17. Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Robert, Christelle; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate banana peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in banana peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in banana peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that banana peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins.

  18. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of peel and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studies were carried out using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, ..... Table 4: Antibacterial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of peels and pulp of red and white variety of SP .... naphthoquinones [24].

  19. Aromatherapy with citrus aurantium oil and anxiety during the first stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Masoumeh; Amir Ali Akbari, Seddigheh; Mojab, Faraz; Talebi, Atefe; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Jannesari, Sharareh

    2014-06-01

    Anxiety is the most common psychological response of women to labor. Aromatherapy, i.e. the use of fragrant essential oils to stimulate the olfactory system, can create a state of calmness and help to alleviate anxiety. The present study tried to determine the efficacy of aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium oil in reducing anxiety during the first stage of labor. This randomized clinical trial was conducted on two groups of pregnant women, referred to Vali-Asr Hospital (Tuyserkan, Iran) between June and September 2013. The sample size was comprised of 63 subjects in each group. Gauzes impregnated with 4 mL of C. aurantium distillate and normal saline were attached to the collar of subjects in the aromatherapy and control groups, respectively. The gauzes were changed every 30 minutes. The levels of anxiety in both groups were measured at baseline and after the intervention at dilations of 3-4 and 6-8 cm. The participants were followed up until delivery and the first- and fifth-minute Apgar scores were recorded. Data were collected using a demographic and obstetric characteristics questionnaire, an examination and observation checklist, and Spielberger state-trait anxiety questionnaire. Data analysis was performed with independent-t, Mann-Whitney, and chi-square tests in SPSS-22. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Before the intervention, both groups had same levels of anxiety. However, the levels of anxiety at dilations of 3-4 and 6-8 cm were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group compared with the control group. The results of this study confirmed aromatherapy with C. aurantium blossom oil as a simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and effective intervention to reduce anxiety during labor.

  20. Antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma hormone levels and serum metabolites of finishing broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperature and fed lemon and orange peel extracts and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, A; Golian, A; Kermanshahi, H; De Smet, S; Michiels, J

    2015-02-01

    The negative effects of high ambient temperature during some months of the year on poultry production have been of great concern in many countries. Dietary modifications are among the most practical ways to alleviate the effects of high temperature. Possible effects of dietary supplementation with 200 or 400 mg/kg feed of lemon peel extract (LPE), orange peel extract (OPE) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil (CXEO) under hot conditions (34 °C with 50% relative humidity for 5 h daily starting from day 28 until day 38 of age) on blood antioxidant enzyme activities, biochemical parameters and antibody titres of broiler chickens were investigated. All extracts are rich in phenolic compounds and highly available. Compared to control, supplementation with OPE at 400 mg/kg and CXEO significantly increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, plasma growth hormone concentrations and serum phosphorus, total protein and chloride concentrations and decreased serum low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol concentrations in chickens at 38 days of age. Regarding antibody titres, CXEO supplementation at 400 mg/kg caused a significant increase in bronchitis antibody titres. Supplementation with LPE and OPE gave more inconsistent results. Most interesting, 400 mg/kg LPE significantly increased 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and GH concentration as compared to the control. In conclusion, the herbal extracts tested in this study, in particular CXEO at 400 mg/kg, may relieve some of the changes in blood composition induced by increased ambient temperatures. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of peel and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The extract of peels of red specie (PERS) showed total phenolic contents (TPC) 8.9 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry extract and flavonoids 6.5 mg catechin equivalent (CE)/g dry extract. The extract of PERS also showed promising DPPH free radical scavenging activity, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation ...

  2. The effect of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biogenic synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles using Pisum sativum peels extract and its effect on magnetic and Methyl orange dye degradation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Cheera; Yuvaraja, Gutha; Venkateswarlu, Ponneri, E-mail: ponneri.venkateswarlu@gmail.com

    2017-02-15

    We have been developed facile and ecofriendly method for the synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using an aqueous extract of Pisum sativum peels (PS) is used as reducing and capping agent. The as synthesized PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs are characterized by diverse techniques such as FTIR, powder XRD, TEM, BET and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The results show that the obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles exhibits high specific surface area (∼17.6 m{sup 2}/g) and agglomerated spherical in shape with the size range of 20–30 nm. The magnetic properties of PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs sample clearly exhibits ferromagnetic nature with a saturation magnetization of 64.2 emu/g. Further, the catalytic properties of PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs for degradation of Methyl orange (MO) dye in aqueous solution have been investigated by UV–visible spectroscopy. The results show that PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs is an efficient catalyst for degradation of Methyl orange dye than previously reported ones. - Highlights: • PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs are synthesized using Pisum sativum peels extract. • PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs exhibits high specific surface area 17.6 m{sup 2}/g and ferro magnetic behavior. • PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs exhibits good catalyst for degradation of Methyl orange dye.

  4. Tetramethyl-O-scutellarin isolated from peels of immature Shiranuhi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanol extract of the immature fruit of a citrus, Shiranuhi, and to identify the active ingredient. Methods: The immature Shiranuhi peel was extracted with 80 % ethanol, and the extract was fractionated with solvents (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol) to afford ...

  5. Complications of Macular Peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asencio-Duran, Mónica; Manzano-Muñoz, Beatriz; Vallejo-García, José Luis; García-Martínez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Macular peeling refers to the surgical technique for the removal of preretinal tissue or the internal limiting membrane (ILM) in the macula for several retinal disorders, ranging from epiretinal membranes (primary or secondary to diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment…) to full-thickness macular holes, macular edema, foveal retinoschisis, and others. The technique has evolved in the last two decades, and the different instrumentations and adjuncts have progressively advanced turning into a safer, easier, and more useful tool for the vitreoretinal surgeon. Here, we describe the main milestones of macular peeling, drawing attention to its associated complications. PMID:26425351

  6. Potential effect of Olea europea leaves, Sonchus oleraceus leaves and Mangifera indica peel extracts on aromatase activity in human placental microsomes and CYP19A1 expression in MCF-7 cell line: Comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, N Z; Hegazy, W A; Abdel-Rahman, S M; Awed, O M; Khalil, S A

    2016-08-29

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) provide novel approaches to the adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers. In this study, different plant extracts from Olea europaea leaves (OLE), Sonchus oleraceus L. (SOE) and Mangifera indica peels (MPE) were prepared to identify phytoconstituents and measure antioxidant capacities. The effects of these three extracts on aromatase activity in human placental microsomes were evaluated. Additionally, the effects of these extracts on tissue-specific promoter expression of CYP19A1 gene in cell culture model (MCF-7) were assessed using qRT-PCR. Results showed a concentration-dependent decrease in aromatase activity after treatment with OLE and MPE, whereas, SOE showed a biphasic effect. The differential effects of OLE, SOE and MPE on aromatase expression showed that OLE seems to be the most potent suppressor followed by SOE and then MPE. These findings indicate that OLE has effective inhibitory action on aromatase at both the enzymatic and expression levels, in addition to its cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells. Also, MPE may be has the potential to be used as a tissue-specific aromatase inhibitor (selective aromatase inhibitor) and it may be promising to develop a new therapeutic agent against ER+ breast cancer.

  7. Characterization of essential oil from Citrus aurantium L. flowers: antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hsouna, Anis; Hamdi, Naceur; Ben Halima, Nihed; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium L. essential oil is commonly used as a flavouring agent. In the present study, the essential oil of fresh Citrus aurantium L. (CaEO) flowers cultivated in North East of Tunisia (Nabeul) was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. 33 compounds were identified, representing 99% of the total oil. Limonene (27.5%) was the main component followed by E-nerolidol (17.5%), α-terpineol (14%), α-terpinyl acetate (11.7%) and E. E-farnesol (8%). The antimicrobial activity of the CaEO was evaluated against a panel of 13 bacteria and 8 fungal strains using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Results have shown that the CaEO exhibited moderate to strong antimicrobial activity against the tested species. The investigation of the mode of action of the CaEO by the time-kill curve showed a drastic bactericidal effect after 5 min using a concentration of 624 μg/ml. The antioxidant activities of the CaEO were assayed by DPPH and beta carotene tests. Results showed that CaEO displayed an excellent DPPH scavenging ability with an IC₅₀ of 1.8 μg/ml and a strong Beta-carotene bleaching inhibition after 120 min of incubation with an IC₅₀ of 15.3 μg/ml. The results suggested that the CaEO possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and is therefore a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry.

  8. In vitro interactions with repeated grapefruit juice administration--to peel or not to peel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Shlomo; Zimmermann, Christian; Berger, Karin; Drewe, Juergen; Gutmann, Heike

    2009-03-01

    Interactions of acutely administered grapefruit juice (GFJ) with cytochrome P450 isoform 3A4 (CYP3A4) and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) function are well established. In this study, we investigated in vitro the effect of repeated administration of GFJ and its major constituents (the flavonoid naringin, its aglycone naringenin and the furanocoumarin bergamottin) on mRNA expression of MDR1 and CYP3A4 in LS180 cells. Since the bergamottin content is higher in the peel than in the fruit, we compared GFJ containing peel (GFJP+) with juice without any peel extract (GFJP-). GFJP- (1%) showed no significant effect on MDR1 and CYP3A4 mRNA expression, whereas 1% GFJP+ increased expression of MDR1 3.7-fold (Pextract may have a lower potential for interactions with CYP3A4 or P-glycoprotein.

  9. Skin peeling syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharpuray Mohan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of skin peeling syndrome, a rare disorder in which sudden generalized exfoliation of the stratum corneum occurs. Histopathologically, there was well formed subcorneal pustule filled with polymorphs and nuclear dust, considering this to be a varient of subcorneal pustular dermatosis, we have put the patient on Dapsone.

  10. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae

  11. Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant activities of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L peel in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistriyani,

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rambutan, Nephelium lappaceum L, peel due to consumption of fresh rambutan fruit is taken into account as waste, therefore the exploration of rambutan peel as a natural antioxidant is highly needed. The aim of this study is to investigate the antioxidant activity of rambutan peel from two cultivars (Aceh and Binjai using ABTS radical assay of and ferric reducing activity power (FRAP and to correlate with total phenolics and flavonoids. The powdered rambutan peel is extracted using maceration technique using methanol as extracting solvent. The methanolic extract is added with warm water and fractionated using petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate to get corresponding fractions. Rambutan cultivar Binjai revealed the higher ABTS antiradical activity than that of cultivar Aceh. Furthermore, among methanolic extract and its fraction, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest antiradical activity using ABTS radical with IC50 values of 3.10 μg/mL and 0.77 μg/mL for Aceh and Binjai, respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction also revealed the highest FRAP values of 1424.897 ± 28.56 μg/mg fraction sample (Aceh and 968.57± 7.48 μg/mg fraction sample (Binjai. These activities were correlated with phenolics and flavonoid contents. Rambutan peel exhibited strong antioxidant activities, contained high amounts of phenolics and flavonoid and is potential to be developed as a functional food.

  13. Studies on the development of functional powder from citrus peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H J; Chawla, S P; Jo, C; Kwon, J H; Byun, M W

    2006-03-01

    The suitability of citrus peels, generated as a by-product of the juice industry, as a source of antioxidants was investigated. Citrus peel powder was prepared by lyophilizing 70% ethanol extract from citrus peels. Extraction was carried out at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 72 h. The extract was subjected to gamma-irradiation treatment (20 kGy). The aqueous solutions of citrus peel powder were examined for color characteristics and antioxidant potential in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and nitrite scavenging activities. There were significant changes in Hunter color values due to irradiation. The a*- and b*-values decreased due to radiation treatment. DPPH radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and nitrite scavenging activities were not affected by irradiation treatment. Nitrite scavenging activity was the highest in the extract at pH 1.2 followed by pH 4.2 and 6.0. These functional properties of the aqueous solution were found to be stable in heat treatment. It could significantly improve oxidative stability of lipids in fish meat system. Based on these results there may be opportunities to use citrus peel powder as a functional component in the food processing industry with gamma irradiation treatment improving its color characteristics without adversely influencing the functional properties.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: acral peeling skin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Acral peeling skin syndrome Acral peeling skin syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Acral peeling skin syndrome is a skin disorder characterized by ...

  15. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Zawane Kamarudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata D uchesne ( tropical pumpkin ( C. moschata against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: I n the present study, dichloromethane ( DCM , methanol ( MEOH and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using K irby- B auer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus ( 21 mm whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli ( 8 mm . MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa ( 19 mm . B roth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6 . 25 mg/m L . T he minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. T he minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3 . 12 mg/m L to 100 . 00 mg/m L . T he screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: P eel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  16. Phytochemical screening and in-vitro evaluation of pharmacological activities of peels of Musa sapientum and Carica papaya fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Sarmad; Nawaz, Shamsa; Muhammad, Faqir; Akhtar, Bushra; Aslam, Bilal

    2018-06-01

    Aqueous, absolute and 80% ethanolic extract of fruit peels of Musa sapientum and Carica papaya were investigated for their antibacterial activity, measured by disc diffusion method and antioxidant activity, measured by four different methods. Papaya and banana peels were found to contain terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins steroid, phenols, fixed oils and fats. 80% ethanolic extract of banana peel was found to contain highest total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity but in papaya peel, highest TPC and reducing activity was shown by water extract while, TFC and radical scavenging activity was given by 80% ethanolic extract. In banana, water extract showed highest antibacterial activity against tested bacteria while in case of papaya, absolute ethanolic extract showed highest antibacterial activity. The present study revealed that peels of banana and papaya fruits are potentially good source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

  17. Green approach to corrosion inhibition of mild steel in two acidic solutions by the extract of Punica granatum peel and main constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behpour, M., E-mail: m.behpour@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, I.R. 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghoreishi, S.M.; Khayatkashani, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, I.R. 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltani, N. [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University (PNU), 19395-4697 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-05

    Graphical abstract: Ellagic acid (EA) and tannic acid (TA) were studied as corrosion inhibitors. The electron density HOMO and LUMO of EA and TA were used to explain difference in behavior of them. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The extract of Punica granatum (PG) and their main constituent (ellagic acid (EA)) are found to be good inhibitors for the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 2 M HCl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrochemical inhibitive mechanism is explained by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption of ALLOX on mild steel surface was found to accord with the Temkin adsorption isotherm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of mild steel in 2 M HCl and 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} without and with the PG extract was studied. - Abstract: The effect of the extract of Punica granatum (PG) and their main constituents involve ellagic acid (EA) and tannic acid (TA), as mild steel corrosion inhibitor in 2 M HCl and 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions was investigated by weight loss measurements. The results obtained from the weight loss measurements show that the inhibition efficiency of TA even in high concentration is very low. Thus, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) investigations were used for different concentrations of PG and EA and best concentration of TA. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that PG and EA behave as mixed-type inhibitors. EIS measurements show an increase of the transfer resistance with increasing inhibitor concentration. The temperature effect on the corrosion behavior of steel without and with the PG extract was studied. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  18. Green approach to corrosion inhibition of mild steel in two acidic solutions by the extract of Punica granatum peel and main constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behpour, M.; Ghoreishi, S.M.; Khayatkashani, M.; Soltani, N.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ellagic acid (EA) and tannic acid (TA) were studied as corrosion inhibitors. The electron density HOMO and LUMO of EA and TA were used to explain difference in behavior of them. Highlights: ► The extract of Punica granatum (PG) and their main constituent (ellagic acid (EA)) are found to be good inhibitors for the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H 2 SO 4 and 2 M HCl. ► The electrochemical inhibitive mechanism is explained by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results. ► The adsorption of ALLOX on mild steel surface was found to accord with the Temkin adsorption isotherm. ► The effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of mild steel in 2 M HCl and 1 M H 2 SO 4 without and with the PG extract was studied. - Abstract: The effect of the extract of Punica granatum (PG) and their main constituents involve ellagic acid (EA) and tannic acid (TA), as mild steel corrosion inhibitor in 2 M HCl and 1 M H 2 SO 4 solutions was investigated by weight loss measurements. The results obtained from the weight loss measurements show that the inhibition efficiency of TA even in high concentration is very low. Thus, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) investigations were used for different concentrations of PG and EA and best concentration of TA. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that PG and EA behave as mixed-type inhibitors. EIS measurements show an increase of the transfer resistance with increasing inhibitor concentration. The temperature effect on the corrosion behavior of steel without and with the PG extract was studied. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  19. Research note: Antioxidant properties of plum peel applied to meat batters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Jesús De-la-Vega-Martinez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural origin antioxidants presents in fruit peels like prunes and its application to a meat product were analyzed. Phenolic compound concentration and antioxidant activity were determined to an ethanolic extract of prunes peels. A polyphenols concentration of 84 ug/g was found in the prunes peels extract with an antioxidant activity of 65.77% (TEAC. Two batches of cooked sausages were elaborated (pork meat and poultry paste, adding 5% of dehydrated prunes peels to sausages formulation to determinate the oxidative rancidity (TBA during 14 days of refrigerated storage. Sausageselaborated with poultry paste presented higher amount of malonaldehyde, indicating a higher tendency to lipid oxidation as compared to pork sausages. In same way, the incorporation ofprunes peels decreased oxidative rancidity since the content of antioxidant compounds delayed this process in processed meat products during storage.

  20. Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

  1. Numerical models of delamination behavior in 2G HTS tapes under transverse tension and peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yujie; Ta, Wurui; Gao, Yuanwen

    2018-02-01

    In extreme operating environments, delamination in 2G HTS tapes occurs within and/or near the superconductor layer from high transverse tensile stresses caused by fabrication, Lorentz forces and thermal mismatch, etc. Generally, transverse opening and peeling off are the main delamination modes, and are always studied in anvil and peel tests, respectively. Numerical models of these modes for 2G HTS tape are presented wherein the mixed-mode traction-separation law at the interface of the silver and superconductor layers is considered. Plastic deformations of copper, silver, and Hastelloy® in the HTS tape are taken into account. The results obtained from the transverse opening model show that the maximum average tensile stress is smaller than the delamination tensile strength because delamination is asynchronous in the tape. When a crack appears in the tape, only a small stress ( ≤ 1 MPa) is required to expand the crack to other stress free areas through peeling. Using the peeling model, the dependency of the peel strength on peeling angle is investigated under constant fracture toughness. Peel strength decreases with the peeling angle until the minimum value is reached at 150°, and thereafter increases slightly. Other results indicate that peel strength depends strongly on delamination strength, fracture toughness, and thickness of copper layer. The fracture toughness of the delamination interface, which is difficult to obtain by experiment, can be extracted using the present model.

  2. Lemon peel oil – A novel renewable alternative energy source for diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok, B.; Thundil Karuppa Raj, R.; Nanthagopal, K.; Krishnan, Rahul; Subbarao, Rayapati

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel biofuel is extracted from lemon peels through steam distillation process. • Lemon peel oil is found to be a potential, renewable alternate eco-friendly fuel. • Significant vibration is observed with 100% lemon peel oil. • Reduction of CO, HC and smoke emission are observed with lemon peel oil blends. • Lemon peel oil blends are showed higher brake thermal efficiency than diesel fuel. - Abstract: The present research work has embarked on to exploit the novel renewable and biodegradable source of energy from lemon fruit rinds. A systematic approach has been made in this study to find the suitability of lemon peel oil for internal combustion engines and gensets applications. Extracted lemon peel oil is found to exhibit comparatively very low viscosity, flash point and boiling point than that of conventional diesel. Various blends of lemon peel oil have been prepared with conventional diesel with volumetric concentration of 20%, 40%, 50% and 100% and their physical and chemical properties are evaluated for its suitability in direct injection diesel engine. Lower cetane index of lemon peel oil significantly influences the ignition delay period and peak heat release rate that lead to the penalty in NOx emissions. Interestingly, the diesel engine performance characteristics have been improved to a remarkable level with higher proportions of lemon peel oil in the blends. In addition, the reduction of BSCO, BSHC and smoke emission is proportional to the lemon oil concentration in the blends. Overall diesel engine characteristics indicated that lemon peel oil can partially or completely replace the petroleum diesel usage to a great extent in developing countries like India.

  3. VEGETABLE PEELS: A PROMISING FEED RESOURCE FOR LIVESTOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Emran HOSSAIN; Syeda Ayesha SULTANA; Mohammad Hasanul KARIM; Md. Imran AHMED

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of different vegetable peels available in Rangunia, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Total 10 different vegetable peels i.e., Banana blossom (Musa sapientum), Bottle gourd peel (Lagenaria siceraria), Brinjal peel (Solanum melongena), Gram husk (Cicer arietinum), Green banana peel (Musa sapieutum), Green coconut peel (Cocos nucifera), Pea husk (Pisum sativum), Potato peel (Solanum tuberosum), Pumpkin peel (Cucurbita maxima), Ripe banana peel...

  4. Insecticidal efficacy of Lambdacyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, orange peel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mortality effects of lambdacyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, orange peel oil and Platostoma sp. leaves extracts on adult Anopheles mosquitoes were compared in the laboratory at room temperature of 30± 2oC. Thirty adult Anopheles mosquitoes of age 2-4 days were exposed to the four formulations at concentrations ranging from ...

  5. Bioactive Flavonoids, Antioxidant Behaviour, and Cytoprotective Effects of Dried Grapefruit Peels (Citrus paradisi Macf.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Vazquez, Lucia; Alañón, María Elena; Rodríguez-Robledo, Virginia; Pérez-Coello, María Soledad; Hermosín-Gutierrez, Isidro; Díaz-Maroto, María Consuelo; Jordán, Joaquín; Galindo, María Francisca; Arroyo-Jiménez, María del Mar

    2016-01-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) is an important cultivar of the Citrus genus which contains a number of nutrients beneficial to human health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in bioactive flavonoids, antioxidant behaviour, and in vitro cytoprotective effect of processed white and pink peels after oven-drying (45°C–60°C) and freeze-drying treatments. Comparison with fresh grapefruit peels was also assessed. Significant increases in DPPH, FRAPS, and ABTS values were observed in dried grapefruit peel samples in comparison with fresh peels, indicating the suitability of the treatments for use as tools to greatly enhance the antioxidant potential of these natural byproducts. A total of thirteen flavonoids were quantified in grapefruit peel extracts by HPLC-MS/MS. It was found that naringin, followed by isonaringin, was the main flavonoid occurring in fresh, oven-dried, and freeze-dried grapefruit peels. In vivo assay revealed that fresh and oven-dried grapefruit peel extracts (45°C) exerted a strong cytoprotective effect on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines at concentrations ranging within 0.1–0.25 mg/mL. Our data suggest that grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) peel has considerable potential as a source of natural bioactive flavonoids with outstanding antioxidant activity which can be used as agents in several therapeutic strategies. PMID:26904169

  6. Chemical peeling in ethnic/dark skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Wendy E

    2004-01-01

    Chemical peeling for skin of color arose in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other ancient cultures in and around Africa. Our current fund of medical knowledge regarding chemical peeling is a result of centuries of experience and research. The list of agents for chemical peeling is extensive. In ethnic skin, our efforts are focused on superficial and medium-depth peeling agents and techniques. Indications for chemical peeling in darker skin include acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, scarring, photodamage, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. Careful selection of patients for chemical peeling should involve not only identification of Fitzpatrick skin type, but also determining ethnicity. Different ethnicities may respond unpredictably to chemical peeling regardless of skin phenotype. Familiarity with the properties each peeling agent used is critical. New techniques discussed for chemical peeling include spot peeling for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and combination peels for acne and photodamage. Single- or combination-agent chemical peels are shown to be efficacious and safe. In conclusion, chemical peeling is a treatment of choice for numerous pigmentary and scarring disorders arising in dark skin tones. Familiarity with new peeling agents and techniques will lead to successful outcomes.

  7. In Vitro Studies on Phytochemical Content, Antioxidant, Anticancer, Immunomodulatory, and Antigenotoxic Activities of Lemon, Grapefruit, and Mandarin Citrus Peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Kawthar Ae

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable research on recycling of agroindustrial waste for production of bioactive compounds. The food processing industry produces large amounts of citrus peels that may be an inexpensive source of useful agents. The present work aimed to explore the phytochemical content, antioxidant, anticancer, antiproliferation, and antigenotxic activities of lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin peels. Peels were extracted using 98% ethanol and the three crude extracts were assessed for their total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity using DPPH (1, 1diphenyl2picrylhydrazyl). Their cytotoxic and mitogenic proliferation activities were also studied in human leukemia HL60 cells and mouse splenocytes by CCK8 assay. In addition, genotoxic/ antigenotoxic activity was explored in mouse splenocytes using chromosomal aberrations (CAs) assay. Lemon peels had the highest of TPC followed by grapefruit and mandarin. In contrast, mandarin peels contained the highest of TFC followed by lemon and grapefruit peels. Among the extracts, lemon peel possessed the strongest antioxidant activity as indicated by the highest DPPH radical scavenging, the lowest effective concentration 50% (EC50= 42.97 ?g extract/ mL), and the highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC=0.157). Mandarin peel exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 77.8 ?g/mL) against HL60 cells, whereas grapefruit and lemon peels were ineffective antileukemia. Further, citrus peels possessed immunostimulation activity via augmentation of proliferation of mouse splenocytes (Tlymphocytes). Citrus extracts exerted noncytotoxic, and antigenotoxic activities through remarkable reduction of CAs induced by cisplatin in mouse splenocytes for 24 h. The phytochemical constituents of the citrus peels may exert biological activities including anticancer, immunostimulation and antigenotoxic potential.

  8. Tenacibaculum ascidiaceicola sp. nov., isolated from the golden sea squirt Halocynthia aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ok; Park, In-Suk; Park, Sooyeon; Nam, Bo-Hye; Park, Ji-Min; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2016-03-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-flagellated, non-spore-forming bacterial strain motile by gliding, designated RSS1-6T, was isolated from a golden sea squirt Halocynthia aurantium and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain RSS1-6T grew optimally at 30-37 °C and in the presence of 1.0-4.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain RSS1-6T fell within the clade comprising species of the genus Tenacibaculum, clustering with the type strains of Tenacibaculum discolor, Tenacibaculum litoreum and Tenacibaculum gallaicum with which it exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 98.5-99.5 %. Strain RSS1-6T contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids of strain RSS1-6T were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified lipids, one unidentified aminophospholipid and one unidentified glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 32.5 mol% and the mean DNA-DNA relatedness values with the type strains of T. discolor, T. litoreum and T. gallaicum were 17.3-25.2 %. The differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, revealed that strain RSS1-6T is separated from other recognized species of the genus Tenacibaculum. On the basis of the data presented, strain RSS1-6T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum ascidiaceicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RSS1-6T ( = KCTC 42702T = NBRC 111225T).

  9. Ultrasonic nebulization extraction/low pressure photoionization mass spectrometry for direct analysis of chemicals in matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyuan; Zhu, Yanan; Zhou, Zhongyue; Yang, Jiuzhong; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2015-09-03

    A novel ultrasonic nebulization extraction/low-pressure photoionization (UNE-LPPI) system has been designed and employed for the rapid mass spectrometric analysis of chemicals in matrices. An ultrasonic nebulizer was used to extract the chemicals in solid sample and nebulize the solvent in the nebulization cell. Aerosols formed by ultrasonic were evaporated by passing through a transferring tube, and desolvated chemicals were ionized by the emitted light (10.6 eV) from a Krypton discharge lamp at low pressure (∼68 Pa). First, a series of semi/non-volatile compounds with different polarities, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), amino acids, dipeptides, drugs, nucleic acids, alkaloids, and steroids were used to test the system. Then, the quantification capability of UNE-LPPI was checked with: 1) pure chemicals, such as 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone dissolved in solvent; 2) soil powder spiked with different amounts of phenanthrene and pyrene. For pure chemicals, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) for the standard curve of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in the range of 3 ng-20 μg mL(-1) was 0.9922, and the measured limits of detection (LOD) was 1 ng ml(-1). In the case of soil powder, linear relationships for phenanthrene and pyrene from 10 to 400 ng mg(-1) were obtained with correlation coefficients of 0.9889 and 0.9893, respectively. At last, the feasibility of UNE-LPPI for the detection of chemicals in real matrices such as tablets and biological tissues (tea, Citrus aurantium peel and sage (Salvia officinalis) leaf) were successfully demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploiting fruit byproducts for eco-friendly nanosynthesis: Citrus × clementina peel extract mediated fabrication of silver nanoparticles with high efficacy against microbial pathogens and rat glial tumor C6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratale, Rijuta Ganesh; Shin, Han-Seung; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Benelli, Giovanni; Ghodake, Gajanan S; Jiang, Yuan Yuan; Kim, Dong Su; Saratale, Ganesh Dattatraya

    2018-04-01

    Process byproducts from the fruit industry may represent a cheap and reliable source of green reducing agents to be used in current bio-nanosynthesis. This study reports the use of orange (Citrus × clementina) peel aqueous extract (OPE) for one-pot green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with high effectiveness against various microbial pathogens as well as rat glial tumor C6 cells. The effects of various operational parameters on the synthesis of AgNPs were systematically investigated. The morphology, particle size, and properties of synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that the nanoparticles are mostly spherical in shape and monodispersed, with an average particle size of 15-20 nm. Notably, the OPE-synthesized AgNPs were stable up to 6 months without change in their properties. Low doses of OPE-AgNPs inhibited the growth of human pathogens Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of AgNPs against selected pathogenic bacteria were determined. OPE-AgNPs exhibited strong antioxidant activity in terms of ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical scavenging (IC 50 49.6 μg/mL) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging (IC 50 63.4 μg/mL). OPE-AgNPs showed dose-dependent response against rat glial tumor C6 cells (LD 50 60 μg/mL) showing a promising potential as anticancer agents. Overall, the current investigation highlighted a cheap green technology route to synthesize AgNPs using OPE byproducts and could potentially be utilized in biomedical, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industry.

  11. A case of peeling skin syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Anil K Singhal; Devendra K Yadav; Bajrang Soni; Savita Arya

    2017-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by widespread painless peeling of the skin in superficial sheets. Etiology is still unknown with an autosomal recessive inheritance. Less than 100 cases have been reported in the medical literature. We present a 32-year-old man having asymptomatic peeling of skin since birth. Sheets of skin were peeling from his neck, trunk, and extremities, following friction or rubbing especially if pre-soaked in water but sparin...

  12. Peeling mode relaxation ELM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimblett, C. G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to modelling Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) in which toroidal peeling modes are envisaged to initiate a constrained relaxation of the tokamak outer region plasma. Relaxation produces both a flattened edge current profile (which tends to further destabilise a peeling mode), and a plasma-vacuum negative current sheet which has a counteracting stabilising influence; the balance that is struck between these two effects determines the radial extent (rE) of the ELM relaxed region. The model is sensitive to the precise position of the mode rational surfaces to the plasma surface and hence there is a 'deterministic scatter' in the results that has an accord with experimental data. The toroidal peeling stability criterion involves the edge pressure, and using this in conjunction with predictions of rE allows us to evaluate the ELM energy losses and compare with experiment. Predictions of trends with the edge safety factor and collisionality are also made

  13. Neutron activation analysis of medicinal plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, S.M.; Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sertie, J.A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Solano lycocarpum, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnondedron barbatiman plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing biological reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed is briefly discussed. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  14. Peeling Back the Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image of the rock target named 'Mazatzal' on sol 77 (March 22, 2004). It is a close-up look at the rock face and the targets that will be brushed and ground by the rock abrasion tool in upcoming sols. Mazatzal, like most rocks on Earth and Mars, has layers of material near its surface that provide clues about the history of the rock. Scientists believe that the top layer of Mazatzal is actually a coating of dust and possibly even salts. Under this light coating may be a more solid portion of the rock that has been chemically altered by weathering. Past this layer is the unaltered rock, which may give scientists the best information about how Mazatzal was formed. Because each layer reveals information about the formation and subsequent history of Mazatzal, it is important that scientists get a look at each of them. For this reason, they have developed a multi-part strategy to use the rock abrasion tool to systematically peel back Mazatzal's layers and analyze what's underneath with the rover's microscopic imager, and its Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometers. The strategy began on sol 77 when scientists used the microscopic imager to get a closer look at targets on Mazatzal named 'New York,' 'Illinois' and 'Arizona.' These rock areas were targeted because they posed the best opportunity for successfully using the rock abrasion tool; Arizona also allowed for a close-up look at a range of tones. On sol 78, Spirit's rock abrasion tool will do a light brushing on the Illinois target to preserve some of the surface layers. Then, a brushing of the New York target should remove the top coating of any dust and salts and perhaps reveal the chemically altered rock underneath. Finally, on sol 79, the rock abrasion tool will be commanded to grind into the New York target, which will give scientists the best chance of observing Mazatzal's interior. The Mazatzal targets were named after the home states of

  15. Identification of epoxybergamottin as a CYP3A4 inhibitor in grapefruit peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, H; Molden, E; Christensen, H; Malterud, K E

    2003-02-01

    The oral availability of many drugs metabolised by the enzyme cytochrome P(450) 3A4 (CYP3A4) is increased if co-administered with grapefruit juice. Extracts from grapefruit peel have also demonstrated inhibitory activity and, during commercial manufacturing of grapefruit juice, inhibitory components might be squeezed into the juice from the peel. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to identify CYP3A4 inhibitors in grapefruit peel. Grapefruit peel was extracted with diethyl ether, and the extract was further fractionated by normal-phase chromatography. Fractions demonstrating significant CYP3A4 inhibitory activity, as measured by the relative reduction in N-demethylation of diltiazem in transfected human liver epithelial cells, were subsequently separated by preparative thin-layer chromatography. Constituents of the fractions and isolated compounds were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of diltiazem and N-demethyl-diltiazem was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the identified components in grapefruit peel, only epoxybergamottin demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of the CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation of diltiazem. The IC(50) value was calculated to be 4.2+/-1.1 micro M. Coumarins without the furan ring and flavonoids isolated from grapefruit peel did not interfere with the metabolism of diltiazem. The results indicated the presence of other CYP3A4 inhibitors in grapefruit peel, but these agents were lost during the purification process excluding their identification. The furanocoumarin epoxybergamottin, present in grapefruit peel, is an inhibitor of CYP3A4. In commercial manufacturing of grapefruit juice, epoxybergamottin is possibly distributed into the juice. During manufacturing, however, epoxybergamottin may be hydrolysed to 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, which has been suggested as an important CYP3A4 inhibitor in grapefruit juice.

  16. Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation by Anthocyanins from Defatted Canarium odontophyllum Pericarp and Peel Using In Vitro Bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah; Hamid, Muhajir

    2014-01-01

    Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection. PMID:24416130

  17. Inhibition of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by anthocyanins from defatted Canarium odontophyllum pericarp and peel using in vitro bioassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hock Eng Khoo

    Full Text Available Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD(+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection.

  18. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennet D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Devasier Bennet,1 Se Chan Kang,2 Jongback Gang,3 Sanghyo Kim1,4 1Department of Bionanotechnology, 2Department of Life Science, 3Department of Nano Chemistry, Gachon University, Bokjeong-Dong, Sujeong-Gu, Seongnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 4Graduate Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Medical Center, Inchon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE. The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 µM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. Keywords: apple peel ethanolic extract, antioxidant, cellular uptake, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, phyto-drugs, light-induced damage

  19. Mass Proportion, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Carrot Peel as Affected by Various Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tang Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the mass proportion of carrot root and the effects of four various solvents (methanol, water, ethanol and hexane on the contents of total phenolics and saponins as well as antioxidant capacity of carrot peel to identify an optimal solvent for effective extraction of bioactive compounds from carrot peel for further investigation. The results showed that carrot root consisted of body, heads and peel with their mass proportion of 83.19%, 5.01% and 14.19% by fresh weight, respectively. Among four solvents tested, methanol obtained the highest levels of extraction yield (54.02% by dry weight, total phenolic content (9.02 mg GAE/g dry weight and antioxidant capacity (DPPH radical scavenging capacity, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power from carrot peel, while water extracted the highest content of saponins (272.9 mg EE/g dry weight and possessed the maximum ABTS radical scavenging capacity. Therefore, methanol and water are considered for effective extraction of phenolics and saponins from carrot peel, respectively. The phenolic/saponin-enriched extracts are potential sources for further applications in the healthy food and/or pharmaceutical industries.

  20. Peeling of tomatoes using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of using infrared (IR) dry-peeling as an alternative process for peeling tomatoes without lye and water was studied. Compared to conventional lye peeling, IR dry-peeling using 30 s to 75 s heating time resulted in lower peeling loss (8.3% - 13.2% vs. 12.9% - 15.8%), thinner thickne...

  1. Peeling-angle dependence of the stick-slip instability during adhesive tape peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe

    2014-12-28

    The influence of peeling angle on the dynamics observed during the stick-slip peeling of an adhesive tape has been investigated. This study relies on a new experimental setup for peeling at a constant driving velocity while keeping constant the peeling angle and peeled tape length. The thresholds of the instability are shown to be associated with a subcritical bifurcation and bistability of the system. The velocity onset of the instability is moreover revealed to strongly depend on the peeling angle. This could be the consequence of peeling angle dependance of either the fracture energy of the adhesive-substrate joint or the effective stiffness at play between the peeling front and the point at which the peeling is enforced. The shape of the peeling front velocity fluctuations is finally shown to progressively change from typical stick-slip relaxation oscillations to nearly sinusoidal oscillations as the peeling angle is increased. We suggest that this transition might be controlled by inertial effects possibly associated with the propagation of the peeling force fluctuations through elongation waves in the peeled tape.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose and Nanocellulose from Agro-industrial Waste - Cassava Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiarto, S.; Yuwono, S. D.; Rochliadi, A.; Arcana, I. M.

    2017-02-01

    Cassava peel is an agro-industrial waste which is available in huge quantities in Lampung Province of Indonesia. This work was conducted to evaluate the potential of cassava peel as a source of cellulose and nanocellulose. Cellulose was extracted from cassava peel by using different chemical treatment, and the nanocellulose was prepared by hydrolysis with the use of sulfuric acid. The best methods of cellulose extraction from cassava peels are using alkali treatment followed by a bleaching process. The cellulose yield from this methods was 17.8% of dry base cassava peel, while the yield from nitric and sulfuric methods were about 10.78% and 10.32% of dry base cassava peel respectively. The hydrolysis was performed at the temperature of 50 °C for 2 hours. The intermediate reaction product obtained after each stage of the treatments was characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the removal of non-cellulosic constituent. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystallinity of cellulose increased after hydrolysis. Morphological investigation was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The size of particle was confirmed by Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  3. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT OF GRAPE SEEDS AND PEELS FROM ROMANIAN VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina IUGA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds and peels are valuable by-products from wine production industry that can be valorized in food production. Both grape seeds and peels have a great amount of antioxidants and polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic content of red and white grape seeds and peels and to establish the optimal solvent concentration for highest extraction yield. For this purpose, Folin Ciocâlteu method was used to achieve the phenols content and the antioxidant activity was estimated using 2,2 – diphenyl-1-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH reagent. The total phenolic content ranged from 81.13 mg GAE/g for red peels, 93.47 mg GAE/g for white peels, to 128.47 mg GAE/g for red seeds and 164.70 mg GAE/g for white seeds. The One-Way ANOVA method was used to see if there are differences between the antioxidant activities depending on the solvent concentration. The results showed that the methanol concentration significantly (p < 0.05 influences the antioxidants extraction. The inhibition percent IC50 ranged from 0,24 to 4,37 μg/mL for white peels, from 3,12 to 6,29 μg/mL for red peels, from 5,53 to 5,90 μg/mL for white seeds and from 4,59 to 6,14 μg/mL for red seeds. This study highlighted the possibility to use grape seeds and peels as food ingredients or natural antioxidant to extend the shelf life of food, especial of lipids and lipid-containing foods because of their high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content.

  4. Phytochemicals Screening and Activities of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Antioxidant of Some Fruit Peels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairusy Syakirah Zulkifli; Noriham Abdullah; Aminah Abdullah; Nurain Aziman; Wan Saidatul Syida Wan Kamarudin

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to screen the secondary metabolites compounds including alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids as well as to determine the antioxidant activities of four types of fruit peels namely Psidium guajava (guava), Mangifera indica (Chakonan mango), Citrus sinensis (Navel orange) and Malus sylvestris (Granny Smith apple). The hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities were investigated using three different assays such as Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC). Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and Total Flavonoids Content (TFC) were also conducted and the correlations between the antioxidant assays with TPC and TFC were evaluated. The TPC in the peels extract ranged between 204.90 to 517.00 mg GAE/ g extract weight while TFC ranged between 97.48 to 177.86 mg QE/ g extract weight. The FRAP, EC 50 scavenging activity and ORAC values were 18.78 to 45.36 mM TE/ 100 g extract weight, 0.146 to 0.717 mg/ ml scavenging effect and 37.54 to 60.59 μM TE/ g extract weight respectively. The extract of M. indica peels appeared to be as potent as ascorbic acid with maximum inhibition of 74 % at 200 ppm. M. indica peels showed highest value in all antioxidant assays and in TPC while the highest in TFC was found in M. sylvestris peels. There were strong correlations between all antioxidant assays with TPC but very weak correlations with TFC. This study suggested that the extracts of fruit peels are convenient to be use as functional ingredients in food product development as they are rich in antioxidant activities. (author)

  5. Chemical analysis of Punica granatum fruit peel and its in vitro and in vivo biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barathikannan, Kaliyan; Venkatadri, Babu; Khusro, Ameer; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Agastian, Paul; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Choi, Han Sung; Kim, Young Ock

    2016-07-30

    The medical application of pomegranate fruits and its peel is attracted human beings. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro α-Glucosidase inhibition, antimicrobial, antioxidant property and in vivo anti-hyperglycemic activity of Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit peel extract using Caenorhabditis elegans. Various invitro antioxidant activity of fruit peel extracts was determined by standard protocol. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were determined using disc diffusion and microdilution method respectively. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of fruit peel was observed using fluorescence microscope for in vivo study. The ethyl acetate extract of P. granatum fruit peel (PGPEa) showed α-Glucosidase inhibition upto 50 % at the concentration of IC50 285.21 ± 1.9 μg/ml compared to hexane and methanol extracts. The total phenolic content was highest (218.152 ± 1.73 mg of catechol equivalents/g) in ethyl acetate extract. PGPEa showed more scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with IC50 value 302.43 ± 1.9 μg/ml and total antioxidant activity with IC50 294.35 ± 1.68 μg/ml. PGPEa also showed a significant effecton lipid peroxidation IC50 208.62 ± 1.68 μg/ml, as well as high reducing power. Among the solvents extracts tested, ethyl acetate extract of fruit peel showed broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Ethyl acetate extract supplemented C.elegans worms showed inhibition of lipid accumulation similar to acarbose indicating good hypoglycemic activity. The normal worms compared to test (ethyl acetate extract supplemented) showed the highest hypoglycaemic activity by increasing the lifespan of the worms. GC-MS analysis of PGPEa showed maximum amount of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 4-fluorobenzyl alcohol (48.59 %). In the present investigation we observed various biological properties of pomegranate fruit peel. The results clearly indicated that pomegranate peel extract could be used in preventing

  6. Mesotherapy, Microneedling, and Chemical Peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Johnson C; Daniels, Mark A; Roth, Malcolm Z

    2016-07-01

    Mesotherapy, microneedling, and chemical peels are minimally invasive techniques used to combat facial aging. Chemical peeling is one of the oldest methods of facial rejuvenation. By using different chemicals in various combinations, strengths, and application techniques, plastic surgeons can tailor a patient's treatment for optimal, safe, and consistent results. Mesotherapy and microneedling have emerged in the plastic surgery literature with increasingly complex indications. Both techniques have increased in popularity although research into efficacy and long-term results is lagging. With a thorough understanding of patients and the modalities available, plastic surgeons can use the appropriate minimally invasive technique to provide patients with desired skin changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Line Creep in Paper Peeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosti J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied experimentally the dynamics of the separation of a sheet of paper into two halves in a peeling configuration. The experimental setup consists of a peeling device, where a fracture front is driven along the plane of the paper, with a constant force. The theoretical picture is how an elastic line interacts with a random landscape of fracture toughness. We compare the results with theoretical simulations in several aspects. One recent finding concerns the autocorrelation function of the average front position. The data from the experiments produces so-called cusps or singularities in the correlation function, as predicted by the functional renormalization group theory for elastic lines. Comparisons with simulations with either a short range or a long range elastic kernel demonstrate that the latter agrees with the experimental observations, as expected.

  8. A case of peeling skin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Singhal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peeling skin syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by widespread painless peeling of the skin in superficial sheets. Etiology is still unknown with an autosomal recessive inheritance. Less than 100 cases have been reported in the medical literature. We present a 32-year-old man having asymptomatic peeling of skin since birth. Sheets of skin were peeling from his neck, trunk, and extremities, following friction or rubbing especially if pre-soaked in water but sparing palm and soles. Histologically, there was epidermal separation at the level of stratum corneum, just above the stratum granulosum. This case is being presented due to its rarity.

  9. A Case of Peeling Skin Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anil K; Yadav, Devendra K; Soni, Bajrang; Arya, Savita

    2017-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by widespread painless peeling of the skin in superficial sheets. Etiology is still unknown with an autosomal recessive inheritance. Less than 100 cases have been reported in the medical literature. We present a 32-year-old man having asymptomatic peeling of skin since birth. Sheets of skin were peeling from his neck, trunk, and extremities, following friction or rubbing especially if pre-soaked in water but sparing palm and soles. Histologically, there was epidermal separation at the level of stratum corneum, just above the stratum granulosum. This case is being presented due to its rarity.

  10. Anticoccidial activity of fruit peel of Punica granatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Shazia; Tanveer, Syed; Malik, Tauseef Ahmad; Nawchoo, Irshad Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    In the interests of food safety and public health, plants and their compounds are now re-emerging as an alternative approach to treat parasitic diseases. Here, we studied the anticoccidial effect of different solvent extracts of the fruit peel of Punica granatum-a commercial waste from pomegranate juice industries. The hope underlying these experiments was to find a sustainable natural product for controlling coccidiosis. The plant extracts were prepared using solvents of different polarity. Acute oral toxicity study was first carried out to see the safety of crude extracts. A high dose of crude extracts (300 mg/kg body weight) was tested for possession of anticoccidial activity against experimentally induced coccidial infection in broiler chicken. Activity was measured in comparison to the reference drug amprolium on the basis of oocyst output reduction, mean weight gain of birds and feed conversion ratio. Oocyst output was measured using Mc-Masters counting technique. Acute oral toxicity study showed that crude extracts of P. granatum are safe up to dosage of 2000 mg/kg body weight. LD 50 was not determined as mortalities were not recorded in any of the five groups of chicken. For anticoccidial activity crude methanolic extract (CME) of the fruit peel of P. granatum showed the maximum effect as evident by oocyst output reduction (92.8 ± 15.3), weight gain of birds (1403.0 ± 11.9 g) and feed conversion ratio (1.66 ± 0.04), thereby affirming the presence of alcohol soluble active ingredients in the plant. We also tested different doses (100-400 mg/kg body weight) of the CME of the fruit peel of P. granatum, the most active extract on E. tenella and observed a dose dependent effect. From the present study it can be concluded that alcoholic extract of the fruit peel of P. granatum has significant potential to contribute to the control of coccidian parasites of chicken. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Antioxidant activity and protective effect of banana peel against oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocyte at different stages of ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Shanthy; Anjum, Shadma; Dwivedi, Priyanka; Rai, Gyanendra Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and cytoprotective activities and their therapeutic properties. Banana peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids, and others. In the present study, effect of ripening, solvent polarity on the content of bioactive compounds of crude banana peel and the protective effect of peel extracts of unripe, ripe, and leaky ripe banana fruit on hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis and their antioxidant capacity were investigated. Banana (Musa paradisica) peel at different stages of ripening (unripe, ripe, leaky ripe) were treated with 70% acetone, which were partitioned in order of polarity with water, ethyl acetate, chloroform (CHCl₃), and hexane sequentially. The antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluated by the red cell hemolysis assay, free radical scavenging (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical elimination) and superoxide dismutase activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent assay was used to estimate the phenolic content of extracts. The findings of this investigation suggest that the unripe banana peel sample had higher antioxidant potency than ripe and leaky ripe. Further on fractionation, ethyl acetate and water soluble fractions of unripe peel displayed high antioxidant activity than CHCl₃ and hexane fraction, respectively. A positive correlation between free radical scavenging capacity and the content of phenolic compound were found in unripe, ripe, and leaky ripe stages of banana peel.

  12. Anti-diabetic effect of dietary mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Basha, Shaik Akbar; Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Salimath, Paramahans V; Rao, Ummiti J S Prasada

    2015-03-30

    In the present study, the composition of mango peel powder (MPP) collected from the mango pulp industry was determined and the effect of MPP on ameliorating diabetes and its associated complications was studied. Mango peel was rich in polyphenols, carotenoids and dietary fibre. Peel extract contained various bioactive compounds and was found to be rich in soluble dietary fibre. Peel extract exhibited antioxidant properties and protected against DNA damage. Therefore, the effect of peel on ameliorating diabetes was investigated in a rat model of diabetes. A significant increase in urine sugar, urine volume, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein, and decrease in high density lipoprotein were observed in the rats; however, these parameters were ameliorated in diabetic rats fed with diet supplemented with mango peel at 5% and 10% levels in basal diet. Treatment of diabetic rats with MPP increased antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased lipid peroxidation in plasma, kidney and liver compared to untreated diabetic rats. Glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria levels were ameliorated in MPP treated diabetic group. Mango peel, a by-product, can be used as an ingredient in functional and therapeutic foods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  14. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.) on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Suraj Premal; Pudakalkatti, Pushpa S; Shivanaikar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans). Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  15. Woven fabric composites: Can we peel it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacchetti, Francisco; Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Warnet, Laurent; Villegas, I. Fernandez

    2016-01-01

    The present work focuses on the applicability of the mandrel peel test to quantify the fracture toughness of woven fabric Carbon/PEEK composites. For this purpose, the mandrel peel test was compared to the standardized DCB test. Unstable crack propagation (stick-slip) was observed in both testing

  16. Single cell protein from mandarin orange peel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishio, M.; Magai, J.

    1981-01-01

    As the hydrolysis of mandarin orange peel with macerating enzyme (40 degrees C, 24 h) produced 0.59 g g-1 reducing sugar per dry peel compared to 0.36 by acid-hydrolysis (15 min at 120 degrees C with 0.8 N H2S04), the production of single cell protein (SCP) from orange peel was studied mostly using enzymatically hydrolyzed orange peel. When the enzymatically hydrolyzed peel media were used, the utilization efficiency of reducing sugars (%) and the growth yield from reducing sugars (g g-1) were: 63 and 0.51 for Saccharomyces cerevisiae; 56 and 0.48 for Candida utilis; 74 and 0.69 for Debaryomyces hansenii and 64 and 0.70 for Rhodotorula glutinis. SCP production from orange peel by D. hansenii and R. glutinis were further studied. Batch cultures for 24 h at 30 degrees C using 100g dried orange peel produced 45 g of dried cultivated peel (protein content, 33%) with D. hansenii and 34 g (protein content, 50%) with R. glutinis, and 38 g (protein content, 44%) with a mixture of both yeasts. (Refs. 12).

  17. Development of a kolanut peeling device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, I; Owolarafe, O K; Ajayi, O A

    2014-10-01

    A kolanut peeling machine was designed, constructed and evaluated for the postharvest processing of the seed. The peeling machine consists of a standing frame, peeling unit and hopper. The peeling unit consists of a special paddle, which mixes the kolanut, rubs them against one another and against the wall of the barrel and also conveys the kolanut to the outlet. The performance of the kolanut peeling machine was evaluated for its peeling efficiency at different moisture content (53.0, 57.6, 61.4 % w.b.) and speeds of operation of the machine. The result of the analysis of variance shows that the main factors and their interaction had significant effects (p peeling efficiency of the machine. The result also shows that the peeling efficiency of the machine increased as the moisture content increase and decreased with increase in machine speed. The highest efficiency of the machine was 60.3 % at a moisture content of 61.4 % w.b. and speed of 40 rpm.

  18. Food peeling: conventional and new approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling is an important unit operation in food processing that prepares fruits and vegetables for subsequent processes through removal of inedible or undesirable rind or skin. This chapter covers an exhaustive discussion on advancement in peeling technologies of fruits and vegetables from different ...

  19. Ohmic Heating Assisted Lye Peeling of Pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sarvesh; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2018-05-01

    Currently, high concentrations (15% to 18%) of lye (sodium hydroxide) are used in peeling pears, constituting a wastewater handling and disposal problem for fruit processors. In this study, the effect of ohmic heating on lye peeling of pears was investigated. Pears were peeled using 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 3% NaOH under different electric field strengths at two run times and their peeled yields were compared to that obtained at 2% and 18% NaOH with conventional heating. Results revealed that ohmic heating results in greater than 95% peeled yields and the best peel quality at much lower concentrations of lye (2% NaOH at 532 V/m and 3% NaOH at 426 and 479 V/m) than those obtained under conventional heating conditions. Treatment times of 30 and 60 s showed no significant differences. Within the studied range, the effects of increasing field strength yielded no significant additional benefits. These results confirm that the concentration of lye can be significantly lowered in the presence of ohmic heating to achieve high peeled yields and quality. Our work shows that lye concentrations can be greatly reduced while peeling pears, resulting in significant savings in use of caustic chemicals, reduced costs for effluent treatment and waste disposal. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

  1. Pectic oligosacharides from lemon peel wastes: production, purification, and chemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Belén; Gullón, Beatriz; Yáñez, Remedios; Parajó, Juan C; Alonso, Jose L

    2013-10-23

    Lemon peel wastes were extracted with water to remove free sugars and other soluble compounds, and the insoluble solid was employed as a substrate for the manufacture of pectin-derived oligosaccharides by processing with hot, compressed water. When water-extracted lemon peel wastes were treated with water at 160 °C, the oligomer concentration reached the maximum value (31 g/L). Autohydrolysis liquors were subjected to two membrane filtration stages (diafiltration followed by concentration), yielding a refined product containing about 98 wt % of oligomers at a global yield of 14 kg/100 kg oven-dry lemon peel. The concentrate contained oligogalacturonides (with DP in the range of 2-18) and arabinooligosaccharides (with DP in the range of 2-8).

  2. Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Wampee (Clausena lansium (Lour. Skeels Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nagendra Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activities of wampee peel extracts using five different solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water were determined by using in-vitro antioxidant models including total antioxidant capability, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and superoxide scavenging activity. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions, even higher than synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT. In addition, the EAF exhibited strong anticancer activities against human gastric carcinoma (SGC-7901, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG-2 and human lung adenocarcinoma (A-549 cancer cell lines, higher than cisplatin, a conventional anticancer drug. The total phenolic content of wampee fraction was positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant and anticancer activities of the wampee peel extract. Thus, wampee peel can be used potentially as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants and a possible pharmaceutical supplement.

  3. Chemical peeling in ethnic skin: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, A; Dadzie, O E; Galadari, H

    2013-10-01

    With the growth of cosmetic dermatology worldwide, treatments that are effective against skin diseases and augment beauty without prolonged recovery periods, or exposing patients to the risks of surgery, are increasing in popularity. Chemical peels are a commonly used, fast, safe and effective clinic room treatment that may be used for cosmetic purposes, such as for fine lines and photoageing, but also as primary or adjunct therapies for acne, pigmentary disorders and scarring. Clinicians are faced with specific challenges when using peels on ethnic skin (skin of colour). The higher risk of postinflammatory dyschromias and abnormal scarring makes peels potentially disfiguring. Clinicians should therefore have a sound knowledge of the various peels available and their safety in ethnic skin. This article aims to review the background, classification, various preparations, indications, patient assessment and complications of using chemical peels in ethnic skin. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Pineapple peel wastes as a potential source of antioxidant compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswaty, V.; Risdian, C.; Primadona, I.; Andriyani, R.; Andayani, D. G. S.; Mozef, T.

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is a large pineapple (Ananas comosus) producing country. Food industries in Indonesia processed this fruit for new products and further resulted wastes of which cause an environmental problems. Approximately, one pineapple fruit total weight is 400 gr of which 60 g is of peel wastes. In order to reduce such pineapple peel wastes (PPW), processing to a valuable product using an environmentally friendly technique is indispensable. PPW contained phenolic compound, ferulic acid, and vitamin A and C as antioxidant. This study aimed to PPW using ethanol and water as well as to analyze its chemical properties. Both dried and fresh PPW were extracted using mixtures of ethanol and water with various concentrations ranging from 15 to 95% (v/v) at room temperature for 24 h. The chemical properties, such as antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (Gallic acid equivalent/GAE), and total sugar content were determined. The results showed that the range of Inhibition Concentration (IC)50 value as antioxidant activity of extracts from dried and fresh PPW were in the range of 0.8±0.05 to 1.3±0.09 mg.mL-1 and 0.25±0.01 to 0.59±0.01 mg.mL-1, respectively, with the highest antioxidant activity was in water extract. The highest of total phenolic content of 0.9 mg.g-1 GAE, was also found in water extract.

  5. Effects of Chemical Peeling and Cultivars on the Antinutritional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2205, TMS30572) roots were peeled using three different methods: manual peeling, chemical peeling with either 10% NaOH followed by treatment with 3% citric acid, or 10% NaOH solution followed by treatment with 15% NaCl. Peeled roots ...

  6. Mud peeling and horizontal crack formation in drying clays

    KAUST Repository

    Style, Robert W.; Peppin, Stephen S. L.; Cocks, Alan C. F.

    2011-01-01

    equations for the depth of peeling and the time of peeling as functions of the evaporation rate. Our model predicts a simple relationship between the radius of curvature of a mud peel and the depth of peeling. The model predictions are in agreement

  7. Detection of radiation treatment of dry plant extracts by thermoluminescence and pulsed photostimulated luminescence. Comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, K.; Malec-Czechowska, K.; Stachowicz, W.; Guzik, G.

    2009-01-01

    Results of the examination of the variety of dry plant extracts (Thyme extract, Celery seed extract, Artichoke extract, Citrus aurantium extract and others) by two different detection methods are described. Both PSL and TL methods are presented and discussed. Comparative study based on the analysis of the results obtained by thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) measurements delivered the arguments that preselection of detection methods based on model studies is rational to be adapted in analytical laboratories specialized in the detection of irradiated foods. (authors)

  8. Sexual Competitiveness of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Males Exposed to Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morató, Santiago; Shelly, Todd; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) display increased mating competitiveness following exposure to the odor of certain host and nonhost plants, and this phenomenon has been used in the sterile insect technique to boost the mating success of released, sterile males. Here, we aimed to establish whether males of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens (Loew)) gain a mating advantage when exposed to the aroma of two preferred hosts, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). Under seminatural conditions, we observed that, in trials using wildish males (from a young laboratory colony started with wild flies) exclusively, exposure to the aroma of bitter orange had no effect on male mating success but exposure to the odor grapefruit oil increased male mating success significantly. In a separate test involving both exposed and nonexposed wildish and mass-reared, sterile males, although wildish males were clearly more competitive than sterile males, exposure to grapefruit oil had no detectable effect on either male type. Exposure to oils had no effect on copulation duration in any of the experiments. We discuss the possibility that the positive effect of grapefruit essential oils on wildish male competitiveness may have been linked to exposure of females to grapefruit as a larval food, which may have imprinted them with grapefruit odors during pupal eclosion and biased their response as adults to odors of their maternal host. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Standard guidelines of care for chemical peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khunger Niti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical peeling is the application of a chemical agent to the skin, which causes controlled destruction of a part of or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. Indications for chemical peeling include pigmentary disorders, superficial acne scars, ageing skin changes, and benign epidermal growths. Contraindications include patients with active bacterial, viral or fungal infection, tendency to keloid formation, facial dermatitis, taking photosensitizing medications and unrealistic expectations. Physicians′ qualifications : The physician performing chemical peeling should have completed postgraduate training in dermatology. The training for chemical peeling may be acquired during post graduation or later at a center that provides education and training in cutaneous surgery or in focused workshops providing such training. The physician should have adequate knowledge of the different peeling agents used, the process of wound healing, the technique as well as the identification and management of complications. Facility : Chemical peeling can be performed safely in any clinic/outpatient day care dermatosurgical facility. Preoperative counseling and Informed consent : A detailed consent form listing details about the procedure and possible complications should be signed by the patient. The consent form should specifically state the limitations of the procedure and should clearly mention if more procedures are needed for proper results. The patient should be provided with adequate opportunity to seek information through brochures, presentations, and personal discussions. The need for postoperative medical therapy should be emphasized. Superficial peels are considered safe in Indian patients. Medium depth peels should be performed with great caution, especially in dark skinned patients. Deep peels are not recommended for

  10. [Drusen characteristics after internal limiting membrane peeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, F; Jenisch, T; Helbig, H; Gamulescu, M A

    2015-05-01

    There are some reports showing isolated cases of drusen regression after pars plana vitrectomy (ppV) with peeling of the internal limiting membrane (iLM). Drusen characteristics after iLM peeling was investigated in this study. The data of 527 patients who had received iLM peeling between 2004 and 2012 were retrospectively collected and those patients with retinal drusen were selected for the study. Fundus photographs before and after vitrectomy due to a macular hole or epiretinal gliosis were compared and drusen arrangement in the peeling site was analyzed. The aim of the study was to show whether there was drusen regression 2-5 months after surgery. Out of the 527 patients 11 showed central macular drusen, 4 with confluent large drusen (> 63 µm diameter) and 7 with small hard drusen (≤ 63 µm diameter). One patient showed drusen regression after iLM peeling without any changes in the other eye and all other patients showed no differences in the drusen findings (n = 6) or even some additional drusen (n = 4) without drusen alterations in the other eye. The results of this study could not confirm some reports showing drusen regression after iLM peeling in the peeling site in general and there was only one single case of central drusen regression.

  11. Evaluation of phytochemicals, antioxidant and burn wound healing activities of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne fruit peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roodabeh Bahramsoltani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (pumpkin is a well-known plant with several pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study was to assess burn wound healing activity of C. moschata peel extract (CE. Also, standardized CE was assessed for antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects against major pathogens of burns. Materials and Methods: Healing properties of topical preparation of 10% and 20% concentrations of CE were assessed on second degree burn in rats during a 14-day period as well as histological studies, total antioxidant power, lipid peroxidation and total thiol content of skin tissue samples. Results: Radical scavenging IC50 and ferric-reducing antioxidant power value were 4.015±0.20 mg/ml and 142.63±2.65 mmol Fe2+/g, respectively. Total mucilage content was 13.8%. The optimal results were obtained by 20% CE that showed 90.80±5.86 % wound closure and tissue repair as well as significant reduction of tissue oxidative stress biomarkers. Histological analyses confirmed wound healing activity of pumpkin peel extract. Conclusion: Considering the high mucilage content of the plant, providing a moist environment for wound, C. moschata peel extract could be a natural remedy for treatment of burns. Further clinical studies are suggested to confirm C. moschata peel extract as a wound healing agent.

  12. Evaluation of phytochemicals, antioxidant and burn wound healing activities of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne fruit peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Rahimi, Roja; Samadi, Nasrin; Heidari, Mohammad; Esfandyari, Mohammadamin; Baeeri, Maryam; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Soltani, Saba; Pourvaziri, Ali; Amin, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (pumpkin) is a well-known plant with several pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study was to assess burn wound healing activity of C. moschata peel extract (CE). Also, standardized CE was assessed for antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects against major pathogens of burns. Materials and Methods: Healing properties of topical preparation of 10% and 20% concentrations of CE were assessed on second degree burn in rats during a 14-day period as well as histological studies, total antioxidant power, lipid peroxidation and total thiol content of skin tissue samples. Results: Radical scavenging IC50 and ferric-reducing antioxidant power value were 4.015±0.20 mg/ml and 142.63±2.65 mmol Fe2+/g, respectively. Total mucilage content was 13.8%. The optimal results were obtained by 20% CE that showed 90.80±5.86 % wound closure and tissue repair as well as significant reduction of tissue oxidative stress biomarkers. Histological analyses confirmed wound healing activity of pumpkin peel extract. Conclusion: Considering the high mucilage content of the plant, providing a moist environment for wound, C. moschata peel extract could be a natural remedy for treatment of burns. Further clinical studies are suggested to confirm C. moschata peel extract as a wound healing agent. PMID:28852445

  13. Application of edible coating from cassava peel – bay leaf on avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, M. N.; Karlina, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Cakrawati, D.

    2018-05-01

    Avocados have a fairly short shelf life and are included in climacteric fruits. Edible coating application is one alternative to maintain the shelf life of avocado. Cassava peel starch is potential to be used as raw material for edible coating making. Addition of bay leaf extract containing antioxidants can increase the functional value of edible coating. The purpose of this study is to know the shrinkage of weight, acid number, color change and respiration rate of avocado coated with edible coating from cassava peel starch with an addition of bay leaf extract. The study consisted of making cassava peel starch, bay leaf extraction, edible coating making, edible coating application on avocado, and analysis of avocado characteristics during storage at room temperature. The results showed that addition of bay leaf extract on cassava peel starch edible coating applied to avocado, an effect on characteristics of avocado. Avocado applied edible coating and stored at room temperatures had lower weight loss than avocado without edible coating, lower acid number, tend to be more able to maintain color rather than avocado without edible coating.

  14. Comparison of volatile components of flower, leaf, peel and juice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flower components were extracted by using ultrasound (US) water bath apparatus and then eluted by n-pentane : diethylether (1:2) solvent. ... 37 flower components, 53 leaf components, 54 peel components and 47 juice components including: aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and other ...

  15. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. Keywords: acne scar, melasma, photoaging, chemical peel, alpha-hydroxy peel

  16. Fermentation characteristics and nutritional quality of elephant grass silage added the buriti fruit peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Ribeiro Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluated the inclusion of buriti fruit peel as additive on the fermentation profile, losses, chemical composition and degradability of elephant grass silage. We used a completely randomized design with five levels of buriti fruit peel (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 g kg-1. The silos were opened after 28 days of storage. In situ degradability monitoring was conducted using a split-plot design in which four animals represented the blocks and silage supplemented with five levels of buriti fruit peel represented the treatments. The use of the additive in elephant silage increased dry matter (DM (P < 0.001, ether extract (EE (P < 0.001, ash (P < 0.001, neutral detergent fiber (NDF (P < 0.001 and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P= 0.0000. The pH (P= 0.0000, N-NH3 (P = 0.024 and there was a decrease in gas losses (P < 0.001, effluent losses and dry matter recovery (P = 0.218 not were influenced by the addition of buriti fruit peel. The inclusion of buriti fruit peel linearly reduced the ruminal degradability DM of soluble fraction (a (P < 0.001 and potentially degradable insoluble fraction (b (P < 0.001. The DM content increase with the addition of the buriti fruit peel to the elephant grass silage promotes improvements in the fermentation process, reduces losses of nutrients and ruminal disappearance of dry matter and does not significantly change the chemical composition with the inclusion of 166.7 g kg-1 of the buriti fruit peel.

  17. Fungal enrichment of cassava peels proteins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... animal diseases (Richard et al., 1985) and mycotoxin production (Mossel, 1982) ... Effects of replacing maize with maize bran and cassava peels on broiler ... Abiola SS (1997). Utilization of sun-dried poultry manure as protein.

  18. Investigation of peel and leaf essential oils of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. growing in the south of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thao-Tran Thi; Thi Tran, Thanh-Tram; Hua, Tra-My

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils from peels and leaves of Citrus clementine Hort. ex Tan. were extracted via two methods: conventional hydrodistillation (CHD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD). Their physicochemical properties were investigated. Their chemical compositions of the oils were...... determined by GC/FID and GC/MS. A total of forty-one and seventy-seven compounds of the total essential oil composition of the peels and leaves respectively were identified. The peel oils were dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons in which limonene was the main component (95.48% [CHD], and 95.03% [MAHD......-selinene (4.76% [CHD], and 8.02% [MAHD]) as major components. The oil contents of peels were obtained with 5.31% and 5.67% by CHD method and MAHD method, respectively. The oil contents of the leaves were obtained with 0.33% and 0.20% by CHD method and MAHD method, respectively. The antimicrobial activity...

  19. Suitability of banana peels for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meseguer, C.M.; Silesky, F.; Chacon, G.

    1983-01-01

    Banana (Musa cavendishii) peel in the ripe state (yellow with sufficient spots) has the potential to produce by anaerobic fermentation 0.22 plus or minus 0.03 cubic m biogas/kg dry material. Inhibition of the process can be prevented if the peel is pretreated by oxidation or if the process is carried out at approximately 35 degrees. The inoculate used must be acclimated to the medium.

  20. Antioxidant properties and phenolic profile characterization by LC-MS/MS of selected Tunisian pomegranate peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Mouna; Yaich, Héla; Cheikhrouhou, Salma; Khemakhem, Ibtihel; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Attia, Hamadi; Ayadi, M A

    2017-08-01

    Antioxidant contents and activities of different extracts from four Tunisian pomegranate peels, locally called "Acide", "Gabsi", "Nebli" and "Tounsi", were studied. Peels samples were extracted with three solvents (water, ethanol and acetone). For each extract, the total phenol contents and antioxidant activity were evaluated. The highest values of polyphenol, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins were recorded in the acetone extract of Acide ecotype with 304.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/g; 292.23 mg gallic acid equivalent/g; 15.46 mg Quercetin/g and 54.51 mg cy-3-glu/100 g, respectively. The acetone extract of Acide ecotype also showed the highest free radical-scavenging and reducing power activity compared to other extracts. Besides, the phytochemical analysis by LC-MS/MS revealed a high content of ellagitannins with punicalagin and punicalagin derivatives as the major compounds that might be responsible for promising antioxidant activity of pomegranate peel extracts. Two compounds (Castalagin derivative and Galloyl-bis-HHDP-hex derivative) were detected only in "Acide" ecotype in important contents.

  1. Optimization of free radical scavenging capacity and pH of Hylocereus polyrhizus peel by Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranto, A. W.; Dewi, S. R.; Puspitasari, Y.; Nuriah, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel, a by-product of juice processing, contains a high antioxidant that can be used for nutraceuticals. Hence, it is important to extract and investigate its antioxidant stability. The aim of this study was to optimize the free radical scavenging capacity and pH of H. polyrhizus peel extract using Central Composite Design (CCD) under Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The extraction of H. polyrhizus peel was done by using green-Pulsed Electric Field (PEF)-assisted extraction method. Factors optimized were electric field strength (kV/cm) and extraction time (seconds). The result showed that the correlation between responses (free radical-scavenging capacity and pH) and two factors was quadratic model. The optimum conditions was obtained at the electric field strength of 3.96 kV/cm, and treatment time of 31.9 seconds. Under these conditions, the actual free radical-scavenging capacity and pH were 75.86 ± 0.2 % and 4.8, respectively. The verification model showed that the actual values are in accordance with the predicted values, and have error rate values of free radical-scavenging capacity and pH responses were 0.1% and 3.98%, respectively. We suggest to extract the H. polyrhizus peel using a green and non-thermal extraction technology, PEF-assisted extraction, for research, food applications and nutraceuticals industry.

  2. The role of natural zeolite and of zeolite modified with ammnonium ions to reduce the uptake of lead, zinc, copper and iron ions in Hieracium aurantium and Rumex acetosella grown on tailing ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca PETER

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine if zeolite modified with ammonium ions has a higher capacity than natural zeolite to protect Hieracium aurantium and Rumex acetosella growing on tailing ponds, by reducing the quantity of metal ions these plants would accumulate in their roots and leaves. The influence of the amount of zeolite in the substrate (5% and 10% mass percentage was also studied. The experiments were carried out in laboratory and the concentration of the ions of heavy metal in roots and leaves, after 38 days of growth was established by Flame Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy. The pH, conductivity and redox potential for each of the substrate considered were measured. The results were statistically processed using the one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA. FTIR analyses were performed to establish the structural differences between the natural and modified zeolite. Hieracium aurantium and Rumex acetosella accumulate a smaller quantity of metal ions in roots and leaves in the presence of zeolite modified with ammonium ions than in the presence of natural zeolite. Laboratory tests showed that Hieracium aurantium is more tolerant to ions of heavy metals than Rumex acetosella, as demonstrated by their translocation factors.In terms of reducing the uptake of ions of heavy metals, only the zeolite modified with ammonium has a significant protective effecton Hieracium aurantium, while both natural zeolite and zeolite modified demonstrate a significant role for Rumex acetosella, asrevealed by statistical tests.

  3. Temperature field for radiative tomato peeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccurullo, G; Giordano, L

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays peeling of tomatoes is performed by using steam or lye, which are expensive and polluting techniques, thus sustainable alternatives are searched for dry peeling and, among that, radiative heating seems to be a fairly promising method. This paper aims to speed up the prediction of surface temperatures useful for realizing dry-peeling, thus a 1D-analytical model for the unsteady temperature field in a rotating tomato exposed to a radiative heating source is presented. Since only short times are of interest for the problem at hand, the model involves a semi-infinite slab cooled by convective heat transfer while heated by a pulsating heat source. The model being linear, the solution is derived following the Laplace Transform method. A 3D finite element model of the rotating tomato is introduced as well in order to validate the analytical solution. A satisfactory agreement is attained. Therefore, two different ways to predict the onset of the peeling conditions are available which can be of help for proper design of peeling plants. Particular attention is paid to study surface temperature uniformity, that being a critical parameter for realizing an easy tomato peeling. (paper)

  4. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  5. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements in the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clináscia Rodrigues Rocha Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements of the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora were investigated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and β-carotene methods. The assays based on the DPPH (EC50 = 3.18 g sample/g DPPH, ABTS•+ (1017 μmol Trolox/g sample, FRAP (1676 µM Fe2SO4/g sample and β-carotene/linoleic acid (70% of oxidation inhibition methods indicated a high antioxidant capacity of the fruit peel extract of the plant. The Folin-Denis method was more efficient in determining the total phenolic compound contents in the different solvents than the Folin-Ciocalteu one. Extractions made with 4:1 methanol-water, 4:1 ethanol-water, 3:2 ethanol-water and 3:2 acetone-water solutions using the Folin-Denis method exhibited high contents of phenolic compounds (18.95, 14.06, 12.93 and 11.99 mg GAE/g, respectively. Potassium was the major element found in the fruit peel, followed by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and iron, in that order. As a result, the fruit peel of M. cauliflora can be considered as an important source of natural antioxidants and essential elements of easy access for the population and for application in the food industry.

  6. Carotenoids, Phenolic Profile, Mineral Content and Antioxidant Properties in Flesh and Peel of Prunus persica Fruits during Two Maturation Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, Samia; Maatallah, Samira; Castagna, Antonella; Guizani, Monia; Sghaeir, Wala; Hajlaoui, Hichem; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    Carotenoids and phenolic profile, antioxidant activity as well as concentrations of selected macronutrients (K, N, Mg, Ca and Na) and micronutrients (Zn, Cu and Mn) in flesh and peel of peach fruit were recorded at two harvest dates. Predominant mineral was potassium, followed by calcium, magnesium and sodium. The concentration of most micronutrients was greater in the peel than in the flesh especially in early season. The concentration of most elements in flesh and peel decreased during fruit maturation. Total carotenoids content varied with respect to the cultivar. β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene were the major carotenoids in both tissues and flesh contain the lowest amounts. Neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, rutin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, were detected in both peel and flesh, with chlorogenic acid and catechin being the predominant components. Peel extracts showed markedly higher antioxidant activities, when estimated by ABTS or DPPH assays, than the flesh counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. Overall, total phenolics levels increased at full ripening stage in both peel and flesh. The results found herein provide important data on carotenoids, phenolic and macro- and micronutrient changes during fruit growth, and emphases peach fruit as a potential functional food.

  7. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L. was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia.

  8. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  9. Comparative study of the hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic effects of four agro-waste Citrus peels cultivars and their HPLC standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin M. Fayek

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Citrus is an economically important fruit for Egypt, but its peel also is one of the major sources of agricultural waste. Due to its fermentation, this waste causes many economic and environmental problems. Therefore it is worthwhile to investigate ways to make use of this citrus waste generated by the juice industry. This study was aimed to explore the hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic activities of four varieties of citrus peels agrowastes, to isolate the main flavonoids in the active fractions and to quantify them by HPLC method for nutraceutical purposes. All the tested samples of the agro-waste Citrus fruits peels showed significant decrease in cholesterol, triacylglyceride and glucose. The most decrease in cholesterol level was observed by mandarin peels aqueous homogenate and its hexane fraction (59.3% and 56.8%, respectively reaching the same effect as the reference drug used (54.7%. Mostly, all samples decrease triacylglyceride (by 36%–80.6% better than the reference drug used (by 35%, while, glucose was decreased (by 71.1%–82.8 and 68.6%–79.6%, respectively mostly by the aqueous homogenates (except lime and alcoholic extracts (except mandarin of Citrus fruits peels better than the reference drug used (by 68.3%. All the isolated pectin, from the four cultivars, has significant effect on the three parameters. The comparative HPLC rapid quantification of nobiletin in the different by-product citrus varieties hexane fractions revealed that nobiletin is present in higher concentration in mandarin (10.14% than the other species. Nobiletin and 4′,5,7,8-tetramethoxy flavone were isolated from mandarin peels hexane fraction by chromatographic fractionation. This is the first report of the comparative HPLC quantification of nobiletin and biological studies of different citrus peels species as agro-waste products. Based on these results, we suggest the possibility that Citrus fruits peels may be considered as an antidiabetic and

  10. Effect of fermented Banana peel on Broiler Carcass

    OpenAIRE

    Koni TNI

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to examine effect of inclusion of fermented banana peel by Rhyzopus oligosporus in diets on slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, weight and percentage abdominal fat of broiler. The experiment was done based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chickens. The treatment were R0 = without banana peel fermented, R1 = 5% banana peel fermented, R2 = 10% banana peel fermented...

  11. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  12. Biomethanation of banana peel and pineapple waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardiya, N.; Somayaji, D.; Khanna, S. [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

    1997-10-01

    Biomethanation of banana peel and pineapple wastes studied at various HRTs showed a higher rate of gas production at lower retention time. The lowest possible HRT for banana peel was 25 days, resulting in a maximum rate of gas production of 0.76 vol/vol/day with 36% substrate utilization, while pineapple-processing waste digesters could be operated at 10 days HRT, with a maximum rate of gas production of 0.93 vol/vol/day and 58% substrate utilization. For pineapple-processing waste lowering of retention time did not affect the methane content significantly; however, with banana peel an HRT below 25 days showed a drastic reduction in methane content. (author)

  13. Differential partitioning of triterpenes and triterpene esters in apple peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple peel functions as a protective barrier against biotic and abiotic stresses, and preserving the integrity and appearance of peel critical for market acceptance. Peel epidermal cells and epicuticular wax are a rich source of secondary metabolites, including triterpenes. Several studies have ou...

  14. Development of Infrared Radiation Heating Method for Sustainable Tomato Peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although lye peeling is the widely industrialized method for producing high quality peeled fruit and vegetable products, the peeling method has resulted in negative impacts by significantly exerting both environmental and economic pressure on the tomato processing industry due to its associated sali...

  15. Development of infrared heating technology for tomato peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The commercial lye and steam peeling methods used in tomato processing industry are water- and energy-intensive and have a negative impact on the environment. To develop alternative peeling methods, we conducted comprehensive studies of using infrared (IR) heating for tomato peeling. The three major...

  16. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Neerja

    2012-05-01

    Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma.

  17. Rejuvenescimento da pele por peeling químico: enfoque no peeling de fenol Facial skin rejuvenation by chemical peeling: focus on phenol peeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valéria Robles Velasco

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento da pele é um processo que preocupa muitos indivíduos, que buscam a ajuda especializada do médico para minimizar seus sinais. Um dos recursos para melhorar a qualidade da pele são os peelings químicos, utilizando várias substâncias ativas, como ácido glicólico, retinóico, tricloroacético e o fenol, entre outros, que proporcionam a esfoliação cutânea e posterior renovação celular. Dependendo da concentração e do valor de pH em que são empregados nas formulações, desencadeiam o peeling superficial, médio e profundo. O fenol tem sido utilizado como peeling profundo tanto isoladamente como em associação com outros componentes da fórmula que atuam como promotores de penetração e permeação. A utilização desses produtos resulta no processo de renovação celular intenso, normalizando a pigmentação da pele, atenuando marcas e minimizando as rugas. Devido a sua toxicidade e contra-indicações, o fenol deve ser aplicado cuidadosamente segundo a técnica recomendada, e o paciente deve ser monitorado para se obter a máxima eficácia do peeling e também minimizar os efeitos sistêmicos.The natural aging of facial skin is a source of preoccupation for many, who seek out the aid of a specialized physician to minimize its signs. The skin's youthfulness can be obtained using chemical peeling made from various active substances such as glycolic, retinoic, and trichloroacetic acids and phenol. These substances proportion cutaneous exfoliation with subsequent cellular renovation. Depending on the formula concentration and pH value, peelings may be superficial, medium or deep. Phenol has been used in deep peeling. It is the main component of the Baker/Gordon formula, as well as other formula substances acting as penetration and permeation promoters. The use of these active substances results in an intensive process of cellular renovation. It decreases wrinkles, softens the presence of dark spots and gives the skin

  18. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L. on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Premal Kapadia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim: Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans. Material and Methods: Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. Results: In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. Conclusion: From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  19. Effect of substituted gelling agents from pomegranate peel on colour, textural and sensory properties of pomegranate jam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Mouna; Yaich, Héla; Hidouri, Hayfa; Attia, Hamadi; Ayadi, M A

    2018-01-15

    A series of pomegranate jams were prepared from a Tunisian ecotype (Tounsi) with different amounts of sugar (10, 20 and 30%) and low-methoxylated pectin (0.2, 0.7 and 1.2%). The most appreciated formulation was that contaning 30% sugars and 0.2% pectin. Then, commercial pectin was substituted by other gelling agents (pomegranate peel powders dried at 50°C vs lyophilized, pectin and fibre extracted from pomegranate peel) for the preparation of pomegranate peel-based jams. The elaborated jams were evaluated for physichochemical, colour, texture and sensory characteristics. Results revealed that the jam (JPP2) elaborated with 0.2% pectin extracted from pomegranate peel exhibited similar overall acceptability to that prepared with commercial pectin. However, it was more acceptable than other pomegranate peel-based jams, which was related to a better appreciation of sweetness and colour. According to the colour and texture measurements, this sample (JPP2) was more reddish and less firm than other samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos hidroalcoolicos das folhas de alecrim- pimenta, aroeira, barbatimão, erva baleeira e do farelo da casca de pequi Antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from rosemary, peppertree, barbatimão and erva baleeira leaves and from pequi peel meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o perfil fitoquímico de extratos hidroalcoólicos padrão (EAPs, obtidos a partir das folhas de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides, aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens, erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea e do farelo da casca do fruto do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense e a atividade antimicrobiana de diferentes concentrações desses EAPs contra Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Após coleta e identificação, as folhas das plantas e cascas do pequi foram usadas para preparação dos EAPs e submetidas a rastreamento fitoquímico. A atividade antimicrobiana dos EAPs em diferentes diluições (200, 300, 400 e 500mg mL-1 foi testada pela técnica de difusão em ágar. O rastreamento fitoquímico detectou componentes com potencial antimicrobiano em todos os EAPs. Nos testes de difusão em ágar, os extratos de aroeira (≥200mg mL-1, barbatimão (≥300mg mL-1 e erva-baleeira (≥400mg mL-1 inibiram o crescimento de S. aureus, mas não de E. coli. Os EAPs não mostraram atividade sobre E.coli, todavia as folhas de aroeira, barbatimão e erva-baleeira evidenciaram potencial para inibir o crescimento de S. aureus. O uso das folhas e cascas dessas espécies vegetais pode constituir-se numa alternativa sustentável, viável e acessível para tratamento antimicrobiano.This study evaluated the phytochemical profile of standardized hydroalcoholic extracts (EAPs obtained from leafs of rosemary (Lippia sidoides, peppertree (Myracrodruon urundeuva, barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens, erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea and from the meal of pequi fruit peel (Caryocar brasiliense and the activity of different levels of these EAPs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After collection and identification of the species, plant leaves and pequi peel were separated to prepare the EAPs. The EAPs underwent phytochemical screening. The antimicrobial activity of the EAPs at different dilutions (200, 300

  1. Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling versus No Peeling for Idiopathic Full-Thickness Macular Hole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi; Scott, Neil W

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling improves anatomic and functional outcomes of full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) surgery when compared with the no-peeling technique. DESIGN: Systematic review and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis undertaken...... under the auspices of the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: Patients with idiopathic stage 2, 3, and 4 FTMH undergoing vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling. INTERVENTION: Macular hole surgery, including vitrectomy and gas...... endotamponade with or without ILM peeling. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCdVA) at 6 months postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were BCdVA at 3 and 12 months; best-corrected near visual acuity (BCnVA) at 3, 6, and 12 months; primary (after a single surgery...

  2. Chemical peels for melasma in dark-skinned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma is a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, which has a severe impact on the quality of life. Inspite of tremendous research, the treatment remains frustrating both to the patient and the treating physician. Dark skin types (Fitzpatrick types IV to VI are especially difficult to treat owing to the increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH. The treatment ranges from a variety of easily applied topical therapies to agents like lasers and chemical peels. Peels are a well-known modality of treatment for melasma, having shown promising results in many clinical trials. However, in darker races, the choice of the peeling agent becomes relatively limited; so, there is the need for priming agents and additional maintenance peels. Although a number of new agents have come up, there is little published evidence supporting their use in day-to -day practice. The traditional glycolic peels prove to be the best both in terms of safety as well as efficacy. Lactic acid peels being relatively inexpensive and having shown equally good results in a few studies, definitely need further experimentation. We also recommend the use of a new peeling agent, the easy phytic solution, which does not require neutralisation unlike the traditional alpha-hydroxy peels. The choice of peeling agent, the peel concentration as well as the frequency and duration of peels are all important to achieve optimum results.

  3. Palmoplantar peeling secondary to sirolimus therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L S; McNiff, J M; Colegio, O R

    2014-01-01

    Sirolimus (rapamycin) is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used in transplant recipients. Although sirolimus has less renal toxicity than calcineurin inhibitors, its use has been limited by its side effects. The most common cutaneous pathologies associated with sirolimus are inflammatory acneiform eruptions, lymphedema and aphthous ulcers. We present a novel cutaneous manifestation of sirolimus therapy that limited its use in at least one transplant recipient. Upon commencing sirolimus therapy, four solid organ transplant recipients developed tender, nonpruritic palmoplantar peeling within the first month of therapy. The peeling clinically resembled a mild form of hand-foot syndrome, yet none of the patients had been treated with chemotherapeutics. Desquamation presented on the palms and soles with dry vesicles and minor peeling extending to the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet. Histologically, the lesions were noninflammatory; the epidermis showed subtle separation between keratinocytes, suggesting either spongiosis or a defect in intercellular adhesion. One patient opted to discontinue treatment because of the tenderness associated with the palmoplantar peeling, which resulted in complete resolution within 2 weeks. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. Enzyme-assisted peeling of cold water shrimps (Pandalus borealis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Tem Thi; Gringer, Nina; Jessen, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    An enzymatic method to facilitate the peeling of cold water shrimps (Pandalus borealis) was developed. The protease solutions were used to mature the shrimps to promote shell-loosening prior to peeling. The efficiency of peeling enzyme-treated shrimps was evaluated by a new quantitative measurement......L and 0.25% Exocut-A0 for 20 h resulted in the best peeling of shrimps (100% completely peeled shrimps, 3 mJ/g work and 89% meat yield). Reuse of the enzyme solution was possible due to a 95% retention rate of proteolytic activity after two 20-h cycles of maturation. The studied enzymatic maturation...... of shrimp. This approach would benefit the shrimp processing industry by 1) enhancing peeling efficiency that includes least efforts to remove the shell, high rate of completely peeled shrimps and high meat yield; 2) shortening the duration of maturation but still sufficiently loosening the shell...

  5. Effect of fermented Banana peel on Broiler Carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koni TNI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to examine effect of inclusion of fermented banana peel by Rhyzopus oligosporus in diets on slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, weight and percentage abdominal fat of broiler. The experiment was done based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chickens. The treatment were R0 = without banana peel fermented, R1 = 5% banana peel fermented, R2 = 10% banana peel fermented, R3 = 15% banana peel fermented. Data of the experiment were analyzed, using ANOVA and then continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Result showed that level of fermented banana peel affected slaughter weight and carcass weight. However carcass persentage, weight and percentage of abdominal fat was not affected by treatment. Banana peel fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus could can be used maximally 10% in broiler ration.

  6. Mud peeling and horizontal crack formation in drying clays

    KAUST Repository

    Style, Robert W.

    2011-03-01

    Mud peeling is a common phenomenon whereby horizontal cracks propagate parallel to the surface of a drying clay. Differential stresses then cause the layer of clay above the crack to curl up to form a mud peel. By treating the clay as a poroelastic solid, we analyze the peeling phenomenon and show that it is caused by the gradient in tensile stress at the surface of the clay, analogously to the spalling of thermoelastic materials. For a constant water evaporation rate at the clay surface we derive equations for the depth of peeling and the time of peeling as functions of the evaporation rate. Our model predicts a simple relationship between the radius of curvature of a mud peel and the depth of peeling. The model predictions are in agreement with the available experimental data. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Spatiotemporal patterns formed by deformed adhesive in peeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Toda, Akihiko

    2007-01-01

    Dynamical properties of peeling an adhesive tape are investigated experimentally as an analogy of sliding friction. An adhesive tape is peeled by pulling an elastic spring connected to the tape. Controlling its spring constant k and pulling speed V, peel force is measured and spatiotemporal patterns formed on the peeled tape by deformed adhesive are observed. It is found that there exist two kinds of adhesive state in peeling front. The emergence of multiple states is caused by the stability of a characteristic structure (tunnel structure) formed by deformed adhesive. Tunnel structures are distributed spatiotemporally on adhesive tape after peeling. Based on the spatiotemporal distribution, a morphology-dynamical phase diagram is constructed on k-V space and is divided into the four regions: (A) uniform pattern with tunnel structure, (B) uniform pattern without tunnel structure, (C) striped pattern with oscillatory peeling, and (D) spatiotemporally coexistent pattern

  8. Studies on mould growth and biomass production using waste banana peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, J P; Akpan, E J; Essien, E P

    2005-09-01

    Hyphomycetous (Aspergillus fumigatus) and Phycomycetous (Mucor hiemalis) moulds were cultivated in vitro at room temperature (28 + 20 degrees C) to examined their growth and biomass production on waste banana peel agar (BPA) and broth (BPB) using commercial malt extract agar (MEA) and broth (MEB) as control. The moulds grew comparatively well on banana peel substrates. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in radial growth rates was observed between moulds cultivated on PBA and MEA, although growth rates on MEA were slightly better. Slight variations in sizes of asexual spores and reproductive hyphae were also observed between moulds grown on MEA and BPA. Smaller conidia and sporangiospores, and shorter aerial hyphae (conidiophores and sporangiophores) were noticed in moulds grown on BPA than on MEA. The biomass weight of the test moulds obtained after one month of incubation with BPB were only about 1.8 mg and 1.4 mg less than values recorded for A. fumigatus and M. hiemalis respectively, grown on MEB. The impressive performance of the moulds on banana peel substrate may be attributed to the rich nutrient (particularly the crude protein 7.8% and crude fat 11.6% contents) composition of banana peels. The value of this agricultural waste can therefore be increased by its use not only in the manufacture of mycological medium but also in the production of valuable microfungal biomass which is rich in protein and fatty acids.

  9. Antioxidant capacity of hesperidin from citrus peel using electron spin resonance and cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ashaal, Hanan A; El-Sheltawy, Shakinaz T

    2011-03-01

    Hesperidin is a flavonoid that has various pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. The aim of the study is the isolation of hesperidin from the peel of Citrus sinensis L. (Rutaceae), and the evaluation of its antioxidant capacity and cytotoxicity against different human carcinoma cell lines. In the present work, hesperidin is identified and confirmed using chromatographic and spectral analysis. To correlate between hesperidin concentration and antioxidant capacity of peel extracts, extraction was carried out using 1% HCl-MeOH, MeOH, alkaline solution, the concentration of hesperidin determined qualitatively and quantitatively using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, in vitro antioxidant capacity of hesperidin and the extracts against free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) performed using an electron spin resonance spectrophotometer (ESR). Cytotoxic assay against larynx, cervix, breast and liver carcinoma cell lines was performed. Hesperidin was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent; its capacity reached 36%. In addition, the results revealed that hesperidin exhibited pronounced anticancer activity against the selected cell lines. IC₅₀ were 1.67, 3.33, 4.17, 4.58 µg/mL, respectively. Orange peels are considered to be a cheap source for hesperidin which may be used in the pharmaceutical industry as a natural chemopreventive agent. Hesperidin and orange peel extract could possess antioxidant properties with a wide range of therapeutic applications.

  10. Yield, Esterification Degree and Molecular Weight Evaluation of Pectins Isolated from Orange and Grapefruit Peels under Different Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Mohamed Yassine; Chabir, Rachida; Benyahia, Hamid; Rodi Kandri, Youssef; Ouazzani Chahdi, Fouad; Touzani, Hanan; Errachidi, Faouzi

    2016-01-01

    Orange (Citrus sinensis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradise) peels were used as a source of pectin, which was extracted under different conditions. The peels are used under two states: fresh and residual (after essential oil extraction). Organic acid (citric acid) and mineral acid (sulfuric acid) were used in the pectin extraction. The aim of this study is the evaluation the effect of extraction conditions on pectin yield, degree of esterification “DE” and on molecular weight “Mw”. Results showed that the pectin yield was higher using the residual peels. Moreover, both peels allow the obtainment of a high methoxyl pectin with DE >50%. The molecular weight was calculated using Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation which describes its relationship with intrinsic viscosity. This later was determined using four equations; Huggins equation, kramer, Schulz-Blaschke and Martin equation. The molecular weight varied from 1.538 x1005 to 2.47x1005 g/mol for grapefruit pectin and from 1.639 x1005 to 2.471 x1005 g/mol for orange pectin. PMID:27644093

  11. Banana fruit pulp and peel involved in antianxiety and antidepressant effects while invigorate memory performance in male mice: Possible role of potential antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Noreen; Muneer, Aqsa; Ullah, Najeeb; Zaman, Aqal; Ayaz, M Mazhar; Ahmad, Ijaz

    2017-05-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-stress and memory enhancing effects of banana (Musa sapientum L.) fruit pulp and peel extract in male mice. Locally bred albino Wistar mice were divided into control and 2 test groups (n=10). Control rats received drinking water while test groups were treated with banana fruit pulp (600 mg/kg; oral administration) and extract of banana peel (400mg/kg; oral administration). Behavioral activities of animals were monitored 14 days post administration of banana pulp and peel extract. Depression-like symptoms were measured by forced swimming test (FST). Anxiety like behavior was monitored using light-dark activity (LDA) test and plus maze activity (PMA) test and memory functions of rats were assessed by morris water maze (MWM) test. Following 2 weeks animals were decapitated and brain was removed for estimation of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH). In the present study both banana peel and pulp increased the time spent in light box and open arm, suggesting anxiolytic effects. A significant decrease in immobility time was observed in FST in both banana pulp and peel treated animals suggesting antidepressant like effects. Moreover, learning and memory assessed by MWM showed decrease in time to reach platform in both short term and long term memory test suggested increased memory function in both banana pulp and peel treated animals as compared to control animals. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes were significantly (pbanana pulp and peel treated animals than control. It is concluded that both banana pulp and peel have anti-anxiety, antidepressant effect as well as strengthen the memory possibly via its antioxidant mechanism. Therefore, it is recommended that supplementation of banana could be taken a vital role in stress (anxiety and depression) relief and increased in memory function possibly by phyto-antioxidants.

  12. Efficacy Assessment of Lemon Peel Aromatherpy Againts Airborne Bacteria Experimental Study in ICU Room of Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merin Awu Sari

    2012-06-01

    Design and Method: This experimental study used post test only control groups design. The number of airborne bacteria colonies obtained from ICU room of Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital Semarang treated with lemon peel aromatherapy at the concentration of 100 % and the control group (-.The data were analyzed for normality using Shapiro Wilk followed by independent T-test Result: independent inT-test Independent showed a significant differences in the number of bacterial colonies between the treated groups receiving 100% concentration of lemon peel aromatherapy and control group (- (p < 0.045. Conclusion: Aromatherapy extracts of lemon peel has effect on reducing the number of airborne bacteria in the ICU of Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital Semarang (Sains Medika, 4(1:71-77.

  13. Differential Partitioning of Triterpenes and Triterpene Esters in Apple Peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Brenton C; Buchanan, David A; Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P

    2018-02-28

    Apple peel is a rich source of secondary metabolites, and several studies have outlined the dietary health benefits of ursane-type triterpenes in apple. Changes in triterpene metabolism have also been associated with the development of superficial scald, a postharvest apple peel browning disorder, and postharvest applications of diphenylamine and 1-methylcyclopropene. Previously, studies have generated metabolite profiles for whole apple peel or apple wax. In this study, we report separate metabolic analyses of isolated wax fractions and peel epidermis to investigate the spatial distribution of secondary metabolites in peel. In addition to examining previously reported triterpenes, we identified several unreported fatty acid esters of ursane-type triterpenes (C14-C22). All free pentacyclic triterpenes and triterpenic acids, with the exception of β-amyrin, were localized in the wax layer, along with esters of ursolic acid and uvaol. All sterols, sterol derivatives and α-amyrin esters were localized in the dewaxed peel epidermis.

  14. Apparatus Tests Peeling Of Bonded Rubbery Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Russell A.; Graham, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Instrumented hydraulic constrained blister-peel apparatus obtains data on degree of bonding between specimen of rubbery material and rigid plate. Growth of blister tracked by video camera, digital clock, pressure transducer, and piston-displacement sensor. Cylinder pressure controlled by hydraulic actuator system. Linear variable-differential transformer (LVDT) and float provide second, independent measure of change in blister volume used as more precise volume feedback in low-growth-rate test.

  15. Plantain peel - a potential source of antioxidant dietary fibre for developing functional cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, K B; Persia, Florence; Aswathy, P S; Chandran, Janu; Sajeev, M S; Jayamurthy, P; Nisha, P

    2015-10-01

    Plantain cultivar Nendran is popular as a staple food in many parts of India and deep fried chips made from raw matured Nendran are one of the popular snack items in India. This study aims to utilize peel from Nendran variety- the main byproduct of banana chips industry- to develop high fibre cookies with enhanced bioactive content. Proximate analysis indicated that peels are rich in total dietary fibre (64.33 g/100 g), vitamins (Folic acid- 33.12 mg/100 g) and minerals (Potassium- 35.61 mg/100 g). Nendran Peel Flour (NPF) was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Phenolic and flavonoid content was high for ethyl acetate extract (15.21 and 9.39 mg QE/g dry weight). Methanol extract was more potent in reducing Copper ion (2.36 μM TR/g dry weight) and scavenging NO (IC50-381.71 μg/mL). Ethyl acetate extract was capable of scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical. HPLC profiling showed presence of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, rutin hydrate and quercetin in ethyl acetate extract and gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and vanillic acid in methanol extract. Cookies prepared with NPF possess higher total dietary fibre content. There was a decrease in spread ratio, breaking strength and browning index of cookies as the percentage of NPF increased. NPF incorporation gradually increased the phenolic content from 4.36 to 5.28 mg GAE, compared to control cookie (3.21 mg GAE). DPPH scavenging activity also increased with increase in NPF. Hence NPF is a very good source of antioxidant dietary fibre and acceptable cookies can be produced by replacing wheat flour with 10 % NPF.

  16. Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Sandra Muntz

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed

  17. Retrospective Study: Glycolic Acid Peel in Photoaging Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmantyo, Brama; Indramaya, Diah Mira

    2016-01-01

    Background: Photoaging is premature skin aging that is caused by sun exposure in long periode. Glycolic acid peel is one of photoaging treatment that improve skin at epidermal layer. Improper patient selection and irregular follow-up may become factors of unsuccessful treatment. Purpose: To evaluate gycolic acid peel treatment for photoaging for improvement of medical service in the future. Methods: A retrospective study to photoaging patiens that were managed with glicolyc acid peel in Medic...

  18. Acral peeling skin syndrome: a case of two brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakade, Oojwala; Adams, Beth; Shwayder, Tor

    2009-01-01

    We report two brothers of Middle Eastern descent with consanguineous parents who present with numerous fragile, flaccid blisters on the hands and feet. In addition to spontaneous peeling, they can manually peel skin from acral areas without pain. The symptoms worsen with warm temperatures, excessive water exposure, and perspiration. Two biopsies from flaccid blisters on the feet were taken from the older brother, which revealed cleavage at the level of the stratum corneum. A diagnosis of acral peeling skin syndrome was made.

  19. Katharsis of the skin: Peeling applications and agents of chemical peelings in Greek medical textbooks of Graeco-Roman antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursin, F; Steger, F; Borelli, C

    2018-04-28

    Recipes for peelings date back to medical texts of old Egypt. The oldest medical papyri contain recipes for "improving beauty of the skin" and "removing wrinkles" by use of agents like salt and soda. The Egyptian Queen Cleopatra (69-30 BC) is said to have taken bathes in donkey's milk in order to improve the beauty of her skin. However, little is known about other agents and peeling applications in later Greek medical textbooks. We will discover new agents and describe ancient peeling applications. First, we will have to identify ancient Greek medical terms for the modern terms "peeling" and "chemical peeling". Second, based on the identified terms we will perform a systematic fulltext search for agents in original sources. Third, we will categorize the results into three peeling applications: (1) cleansing, (2) aesthetical improvement of the skin, and (3) therapy of dermatological diseases. We performed a full systematic keyword search with the identified Greek terms in databases of ancient Greek texts. Our keywords for peeling and chemical peeling are "smēxis" and "trīpsis". Our keywords for agents of peeling and chemical peeling are "smégmata", "rhýmmata", "kathartiká", and "trímmata". Diocles (4 th century BC) was the first one who mentioned "smēxis" and "trīpsis" as parts of daily cleansing routine. Criton (2 nd century AD) wrote about peeling applications, but any reference to the agents is lost. Antyllos (2 nd century AD) composed three lists of peeling applications including agents. Greek medical textbooks of Graeco-Roman antiquity report several peeling applications like cleansing, brightening, darkening, softening, and aesthetical improvement of the skin by use of peeling and chemical peeling, as well as therapy of dermatological diseases. There are 27 ancient agents for what is contemporarily called peeling and chemical peeling. We discovered more specific agents than hitherto known to research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  20. Influence of skin peeling procedure in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Park, Hyun Jeong; Cho, Baik Kee; Lee, Jun Young

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis in patients who have previously undergone skin peeling has been rarely studied. We compared the frequency of positive patch test (PT) reactions in a patient group with a history of peeling, to that of a control group with no history of peeling. The Korean standard series and cosmetic series were performed on a total of 262 patients. 62 patients had previously undergone peeling and 200 patients did not. The frequency of positive PT reactions on Korean standard series was significantly higher in the peeling group compared with that of the control group (P peeling group was higher than that of the control group, but lacked statistical significance. The frequency (%) of positive PT reactions on cosmetic series in the high-frequency peel group was higher than that of the low-frequency group, but lacked statistical significance. It appears peeling may not generally affect the development of contact sensitization. Further work is required focusing on the large-scale prospective studies by performing a PT before and after peeling.

  1. Acral peeling skin syndrome: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Elena García; Carreño, Rosario Granados; Martínez González, Miguel A; Reyes, José Jiménez

    2005-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a rare dermatosis characterized by spontaneous and painless peeling of the skin. The authors report two patients with history of spontaneous, asymptomatic, and noninflammatory peeling skin of the acral surfaces after soaking in water. On light microscopy, blisters were located in the mid layers of the stratum corneum, above the granular layer. Ultrastructural examination revealed increased intercellular lipids and abnormal, "moth-eaten," keratohyalin granules, but the authors were unable to determine whether the separation initiated within the horny cells or between adjacent cells. These patients represented a localized variant of peeling skin syndrome.

  2. A Review on Antihyperglycemic and Antihepatoprotective Activity of Eco-Friendly Punica granatum Peel Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middha, Sushil Kumar; Usha, Talambedu; Pande, Veena

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, pomegranate (Punica granatum) is entitled as a wonder fruit because of its voluminous pharmacological properties. In 1830, P. granatum fruit was first recognized in United States Pharmacopeia; the Philadelphia edition introduced the rind of the fruit, the New York edition the bark of the root and further 1890 edition the stem bark was introduced. There are significant efforts and progress made in establishing the pharmacological mechanisms of peel (pericarp or rind) and the individual constituents responsible for them. This review provides an insight on the phytochemical components that contribute too antihyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic effect, and numerous other effects of wonderful, economic, and eco-friendly pomegranate peel extract (PP). PMID:23878603

  3. Effects of irradiation in combination with waxing on the essential oils in orange peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussaid, M.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Boubekri, C.

    2000-01-01

    The study evaluated the effects of waxing and irradiation dose on the essential oils in orange peel. Mature oranges (Maroc late) waxed or unwaxed were treated with 0-2 kGy radiation. Volatiles in the peel were extracted and analyzed by G.C. D-limonene was significantly lower (P≤0.05) in waxed oranges; levels in samples treated with 2 kGy were higher than those treated with 0 or 1 kGy. Linalool, methyl anthranilate and 3.7-dimethyl-2.6-octadienal decreased as the dose increased. The analysis of variance indicates that only linalool was influenced by post-irradiation storage time. The level of this compound increased with storage time. (author)

  4. Efficacy of Modified Jessner's Peel and 20% TCA Versus 20% TCA Peel Alone for the Treatment of Acne Scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Neerja

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies on the use of chemical peels for acne scars among the Asian population. A trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and Jessner's combination chemical peel, originally described by Monheit, is said to be better than a TCA peel alone. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of 20% TCA and Jessner's solution versus 20% TCA alone for the treatment of acne scars. : The patients were divided into two groups of 25 patients each. Chemical peeling was done in both the groups. In Group I, chemical peeling with Jessner's peel followed by 20% TCA was done and in Group II patients chemical peeling with 20% TCA peel alone was done. In Group I (Jessner's peel and 20% TCA), mild improvement of acne scars was seen in 8% cases, moderate improvement in 32% cases and marked improvement of acne scars was seen in 60% patients. In Group II (20% TCA), mild improvement of acne scars was seen in 32% cases, moderate improvement in 40% cases and marked improvement of acne scars was seen in 28% patients. But, the difference in improvement of acne scars was not statistically significant in both the groups (P value > 0.05).

  5. Evaluation of essential oil components from the fruit peelings of sindhri and langra varieties of mango (mangifera indica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, F. S.; Tahir, S. S.; Jilani, N. S.; Khokhar, A. L.; Rajput, M. T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate essential oil contents found in the fruit peelings of the two varieties of Mango (Mangifera indica L.), belonging to family Anacardiaceae which is commonly called Cashew family. Genus Mangifera has about forty species in S.E. Asia and Indo Malaya region. Several Mango varieties are cultivated in many areas of Pakistan. For this study GC-MS was used for the characterization of the extracted essential oil. Two Mango varieties namely, Sindhri and Langra were selected from Mirpurkhas district. Essential oil was extracted from Mango peelings by hydro distillation method. The total 34 essential oil components ranging between 0.16-49.4% identified from the Sindhri and Langra Mango varieties. Bicyclo [4.1.0] hept-3-ene, 3, 7, 7-trimethyl-, (1S) was found abundant in both varieties with 49.46% and 47.93%, respectively. Yield of essential oil was found to be 3.25% in fresh Mango fruit peelings of Sindhri, whereas 1.04% was present in Langra variety. Result of present study indicated that peelings of Mango varieties could be used as a source of many useful components. (author)

  6. Optimization of extraction parameters on the antioxidant properties of banana waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Pui Yee; Leong, Fei Shan; Chang, Sui Kiat; Khoo, Hock Eng; Yim, Hip Seng

    2016-01-01

    Banana is grown worldwide and consumed as ripe fruit or used for culinary purposes. Peels form about 18-33% of the whole fruit and are discarded as a waste product. With a view to exploiting banana peel as a source of valuable compounds, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different extraction parameters on the antioxidant activities of the industrial by-product of banana waste (peel). Influence of different extraction parameters such as types of solvent, percentages of solvent, and extraction times on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of mature and green peels of Pisang Abu (PA), Pisang Berangan (PB), and Pisang Mas (PM) were investigated. The best extraction parameters were initially selected based on different percentages of ethanol (0-100% v/v), extraction time (1-5 hr), and extraction temperature (25-60°C) for extraction of antioxidants in the banana peels. Total phenolic content (TPC) was evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay while antioxidant activities (AA) of banana peel were accessed by DPPH, ABTS, and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assays at optimum extraction conditions. Based on different extraction solvents and percentages of solvents used, 70% and 90% of acetone had yielded the highest TPC for the mature and green PA peels, respectively; 90% of ethanol and methanol has yielded the highest TPC for the mature and green PB peels, respectively; while 90% ethanol for the mature and green PM peels. Similar extraction conditions were found for the antioxidant activities for the banana peel assessed using DPPH assay except for green PB peel, which 70% methanol had contributed to the highest AA. Highest TPC and AA were obtained by applying 4, 1, and 2 hrs extraction for the peels of PA, PB and PM, respectively. The best extraction conditions were also used for determination of AAs using ABTS and β-carotene bleaching assays. Therefore, the best extraction conditions used have given the highest TPC and AAs. By

  7. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) peel: A better source of antioxidants and a-glucosidase inhibitors than pulp, flake and seed, and phytochemical profile by HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Tu, Zong-Cai; Xie, Xing; Wang, Hui; Wang, Hao; Wang, Zhen-Xing; Sha, Xiao-Mei; Lu, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) peel is an underutilized by-product in both, the production and processing of jackfruit. This research compared the antioxidant and hypoglycemic potential of jackfruit peel with jackfruit pulp, flake and seed for the first time. The phytochemical profile of peel extract was characterized with HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Results revealed that peel extract exhibited the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid content, and the phenolics was 4.65, 4.12 and 4.95 times higher than that of pulp, flake and seed extract, respectively. The strongest DPPH and ABTS + scavenging ability, α-glucosidase inhibition were also found in peel extract, and the α-glucosidase inhibition was about 11.8-fold of that of acarbose. The HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis led to the tentative identification of 53 compounds, prenylflavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and glycosides are the predominant bioactive compounds. Above results reveal promising potential of jackfruit peel as a new source of natural antioxidants and hypoglycemic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling versus no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi; Scott, Neil W; Burr, Jennifer; Cook, Jonathan; Boachie, Charles; Tadayoni, Ramin; la Cour, Morten; Christensen, Ulrik; Kwok, Alvin K H

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling improves anatomic and functional outcomes of full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) surgery when compared with the no-peeling technique. Systematic review and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis undertaken under the auspices of the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Patients with idiopathic stage 2, 3, and 4 FTMH undergoing vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling. Macular hole surgery, including vitrectomy and gas endotamponade with or without ILM peeling. Primary outcome was best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCdVA) at 6 months postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were BCdVA at 3 and 12 months; best-corrected near visual acuity (BCnVA) at 3, 6, and 12 months; primary (after a single surgery) and final (after >1 surgery) macular hole closure; need for additional surgical interventions; intraoperative and postoperative complications; patient-reported outcomes (PROs) (EuroQol-5D and Vision Function Questionnaire-25 scores at 6 months); and cost-effectiveness. Four RCTs were identified and included in the review. All RCTs were included in the meta-analysis; IPD were obtained from 3 of the 4 RCTs. No evidence of a difference in BCdVA at 6 months was detected (mean difference, -0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.12 to 0.03; P=0.27); however, there was evidence of a difference in BCdVA at 3 months favoring ILM peeling (mean difference, -0.09; 95% CI, -0.17 to-0.02; P=0.02). There was evidence of an effect favoring ILM peeling with regard to primary (odds ratio [OR], 9.27; 95% CI, 4.98-17.24; Ppeeling was found to be highly cost-effective. Available evidence supports ILM peeling as the treatment of choice for patients with idiopathic stage 2, 3, and 4 FTMH. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantification of Transfer of Salmonella from Citrus Fruits to Peel, Edible Portion, and Gloved Hands during Hand Peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jiin; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2017-06-01

    Although studies have quantified bacterial transfer between hands and various materials, cross-contamination between the surface of fresh citrus fruit and the edible portions during hand peeling has not been reported. This study quantifies transfer of Salmonella to the edible portion of citrus fruit from a contaminated peel during hand peeling. Citrus fruits used for this study were Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) cultivars 'Valencia' and 'Navel', Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarins), Citrus reticulata × Citrus paradisi ('Minneola' tangelo or 'Honeybell'), and C. paradisi (grapefruit) cultivar 'Marsh'. An avirulent Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (ATCC 700720) resistant to rifampin was used for all experiments. The inoculum containing approximately 9 log CFU/mL (50 μL) was spot inoculated onto the equator, stem, or styler of each fruit and allowed to dry for 24 h. Six volunteers put on single-use latex gloves and peeled inoculated fruit. Peel, edible fruit portion, and gloves were collected and enumerated separately. Three replicates of the study were performed in which each volunteer peeled two inoculated fruit of each variety (n = 36 fruit per variety). Cross-contamination from contaminated surface of citrus fruits to edible portion or gloved hands during peeling was affected by inoculation sites. Average Salmonella transfer to the edible portion ranged from 0.16% (Valencia inoculated at the equator) to 5.41% (navel inoculated at the stem). Average Salmonella transfer to gloved hands ranged from 0.41% (grapefruit inoculated at the stem) to 8.97% (navel inoculated at the stem). Most Salmonella remained on the peel of citrus fruits. The average level of Salmonella remaining on the peel ranged from 5.37% (Minneola inoculated at the equator) to 66.3% (Satsuma inoculated at the styler). When grapefruit was inoculated, the Salmonella that remained on the peel showed a bimodal pattern in which some individuals left almost all Salmonella on the peel, while others left

  10. Mangosteen peel can reduce methane production and rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mangosteen peel (MP), an agricultural by-product of tropical countries, has been reported to contain condensed tannins and saponins, which can affect rumen microbes to reduce enteric methane emission. In the present study, the effects of mangosteen peel on in vitro ruminal fermentation, gas production, methane ...

  11. Temperature effects on peel spotting in "Sucrier banana" fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trakulnaleumsai, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Banana fruit of the cultivar `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) develops peel spotting at a relatively early stage of development (when the peel is about as slightly more yellow than green). Holding ripening bananas at 15 and 18 °C instead of room temperature (26¿27 °C) only temporarily reduced

  12. ( Myrciaria jaboticaba ) peel on blood glucose and cholesterol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Berg) peel was lyophilized and the proximate composition, total anthocyanins and polyphenolic content were determined. The effect of the freeze-dried jaboticaba peels (FJP) in the plasmatic levels of glucose, lipid fractions, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in Wistar adult male rats was ...

  13. Banana peel: A novel substrate for cellulase production under solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results indicated that banana peel provided necessary nutrients for cell growth and cellulase synthesis. It can be used as a potential substrate for cellulase production by T. viride GIM 3.0010 under solid-state fermentation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on cellulase production using banana peel.

  14. Single cell protein production from mandarin orange peel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, N.; Nagai, S.

    1981-01-01

    As the hydrolysis of mandarin orange peel with macerating enzyme (40/sup 0/C,24 h)produced 0.59 g g/sup -1/ reducing sugar per dry peel compared to 0.36 by acid-hydrolysis (15 min at 120/sup 0/C with 0.8 N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), the production of single cell protein (SCP) from orange peel was studied mostly using enzymatically hydrolyzed orange peel. When the enzymatically hydrolyzed peel media were used, the utilization efficiency of reducing sugars (%) and the growth yield from reducing sugars (gg/sup -1/)were: 63 and 0.51 for Saccharomyces cerevisiae; 56 and 0.48 for Candida utilis; 74 and 0.69 for Debaryomyces hansenii and 64 and 0.70 for Rhodotorula glutinis. SCP production from orange peel by D. hansenii and R. glutinis were further studied. Batch cultures for 24 h at 30/sup 0/C using 100 g dried orange peel produced 45 g of dried cultivated peel (protein content, 33%) with D. hansenii and 34 g (protein content, 50%) with R. glutinis, and 38 g (protein content, 44%) with a mixture of both yeasts.

  15. Design and fabrication of a cassava peeling machine | Akintunde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and fabrication of a cassava peeling machine. ... Journal Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2005) > ... The varying shapes and sizes of cassava tubers have made cassava peeling to be one of the major problems in the mechanization of cassava ...

  16. Guidelines for chemical peeling in Japan (3rd edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Chemical peeling may be defined as the therapies, procedures and techniques used for the treatment of certain cutaneous diseases or conditions, and for aesthetic improvement. The procedures include the application of one or more chemical agents to the skin. Chemical peeling has been very popular in both medical and aesthetic fields. Because neither its scientific background is well understood nor a systematic approach established, medical and social problems have taken place. This prompted us to establish and distribute a standard guideline of care for chemical peeling. Previous guidelines such as the 2001 and 2004 versions included minimum standards of care such as indications, chemicals, applications, and any associated precautions, including post-peeling care. The principles in this updated version of chemical peeling are as follows: (i) chemical peeling should be performed under the strict technical control and responsibility of a physician; (ii) the physician should have sufficient knowledge of the structure and physiology of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and understand the mechanisms of wound-healing induced by chemical peeling; (iii) the physician should be board-certified in an appropriate specialty such as dermatology; and (iv) the ultimate judgment regarding the appropriateness of any specific chemical peeling procedure must be made by the physician while considering all standard therapeutic protocols, which should be presented to each individual patient. Keeping these concepts in mind, this new version of the guidelines includes a more scientific and detailed approach from the viewpoint of evidence-based medicine. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  17. Killing Unwanted West Indies Mahogany Trees by Peeling and Frilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. W. Nobles; C. B. Briscoe

    1966-01-01

    Peeling and frilling each killed approximately 70 percent of treated West Indies mahogany, but peeling killed a higher percentage of trees between 18 and 33 centimeters (7 and 13 inches) than did frilling. Essentially all mortality occurred within the first 15 months following treatment.

  18. Feasibility of Jujube peeling using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) radiation heating has a promising potential to be used as a sustainable and effective method to eliminate the use of water and chemicals in the jujube-peeling process and enhance the quality of peeled products. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of use IR he...

  19. Efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh y Citrus aurantium L. sobre los niveles de glucosa, colesterol y triacilglicéridos en un modelo de rata diabética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Figueroa-Valverde

    Full Text Available Varias plantas con propiedades hipoglucemicas se han utilizado en medicina popular y sistemas curativos tradicionales en todo el mundo. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar los efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, y Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, en un modelo de rata diabética, a la que se le cuantificaron los niveles de glucosa cada 24 horas por un mes después de la administración gástrica del extracto de las plantas. Además, el colesterol y los triglicéridos fueron evaluados usando técnicas enzimáticas. Los resultados mostraron que la administración de Cnidoscolus chayamansa a dosis de 0.5 a 1.5 g/kg induce un aumento hipoglucemico ( 200 mg/dL. Otros resultados, mostraron que Citrus aurantium ejerce cambios en la concentración de triacilglicéridos (158-172 mg/dL y colesterol (120-128 mg/dL. Finalmente, la administración de Ruta graveolens a dosis de 0.5 g/kg induce un efecto hipoglucemico (< 200 mg/dL. Además, Ruta graveolens a dosis de 0.5 a 1.5 g/kg induce variaciones en los niveles de triacilglicéridos (110-120 mg/dL y colesterol (116-124 mg/dL. En conclusión la administración de Cnidoscolus chayamansa ejerce efectos hipoglucemicos en una manera dosis dependiente en comparación con Ruta graveolens y Citrus aurantium. Además, las plantas evaluadas inducen cambios en los niveles de lípidos dependiente de la dosis.

  20. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Pacheco-Ordaz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5% when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10−6 cm/s than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10−6 cm/s. In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry.

  1. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Ordaz, Ramón; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.

    2018-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5%) when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10−6 cm/s) than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10−6 cm/s). In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry. PMID:29419800

  2. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) Peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Ordaz, Ramón; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2018-02-08

    Mango ( Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5%) when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10 -6 cm/s) than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10 -6 cm/s). In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry.

  3. A randomized controlled trial of peeling and aspiration of Elschnig pearls and neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser capsulotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Bhargava

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare surgical peeling and aspiration and neodymium yttrium garnet laser capsulotomy for pearl form of posterior capsule opacification (PCO.METHODS:A prospective, randomized, double blind, study was done at Rotary Eye Hospital, Maranda, Palampur, India, Santosh Medical College Hospital, Ghaziabad, India and Laser Eye Clinic, Noida India. Consecutive patients with pearl form of PCO following surgery, phacoemulsification, manual small incision cataract surgery and conventional extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE for age related cataract, were randomized to have peeling and aspiration or neodymium yttrium garnet laser capsulotomy. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, intra-operative and post-operative complications were compared.RESULTS:A total of 634 patients participated in the study, and 314 (49.5% patients were randomized to surgical peeling and aspiration group and 320 (50.5% to the Nd:YAG laser group. The mean pre-procedural logMAR CDVA in peeling and neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG laser group was 0.80±0.25 and 0.86±0.22, respectively. The mean final CDVA in peeling group (0.22±0.23 was comparable to Nd:YAG group (0.24±0.28; t test, P=0.240. There was a significant improvement in vision after both the procedures (P<0.001. A slightly higher percentage of patients in Nd:YAG laser group (283/88.3% than in peeling group (262/83.4% had a CDVA of 0.5 (20/63 or better at 9mo (P<0.001. On the contrary, patients having CDVA worse than 1.00 (20/200 was also significantly higher in Nd:YAG laser group as compared to peeling group (25/7.7% vs 15/4.7%, respectively. On application of ANCOVA, there was less than 0.001% risk that PCO thickness and total laser energy had no effect on rate of complications in Nd:YAG laser group and less than 0.001 % risk that PCO thickness had no effect on complications in peeling group respectively. Sum of square analysis suggests that in the Nd:YAG laser group, thick PCO had a stronger impact

  4. Green Synthesis and Biological Activities of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Citrus reticulata, Citrus aurantium, Citrus sinensis and Citrus grandis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, N. U.; Shahid, M.; Ahsan, F.; Khan, I.; Shah, M. R.; Khan, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared at boiling temperature (90-95 degree C) by treating gold ions with Citrus fruit extracts. The effect of mixing ratios of the reactants and concentration of gold hydrochloride was studied. In the standardization process, 10/sup -3/ M solution of HAuCl/sub 4/.3H/sub 2/O was reacted with fruit extracts for half an hour at 90-95 degree C in different ratios. GNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their stability was evaluated against varying pH solutions and volumes of sodium chloride along with metals and antibiotics sensing ability. The gold nanoparticles were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities against various pathogenic strains. The UV-Vis spectra of gold nanoparticles gave surface plasmon resonance at about 540 nm while the AFM images revealed the particle size within the range of 70-100 nm. GNPs showed remarkable stability in varying pH solutions and salt volumes as well as high detection ability towards cobalt, copper, ceftriaxone and penicillin. Moreover, the GNPs possessed moderate antibacterial and good antifungal activity. These results concluded that the Citrus fruit extracts can be utilized for large scale synthesis of cost-effective nanoparticles which may have compatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. (author)

  5. Self-peeling of impacting droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Jolet; Soto, Dan; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2018-01-01

    Whether an impacting droplet sticks or not to a solid surface has been conventionally controlled by functionalizing the target surface or by using additives in the drop. Here we report on an unexpected self-peeling phenomenon that can happen even on smooth untreated surfaces by taking advantage of the solidification of the impacting drop and the thermal properties of the substrate. We control this phenomenon by tuning the coupling of the short-timescale fluid dynamics--leading to interfacial defects upon local freezing--and the longer-timescale thermo-mechanical stresses--leading to global deformation. We establish a regime map that predicts whether a molten metal drop impacting onto a colder substrate will bounce, stick or self-peel. In many applications, avoiding adhesion of impacting droplets around designated target surfaces can be as crucial as bonding onto them to minimize waste or cleaning. These insights have broad applicability in processes ranging from thermal spraying and additive manufacturing to extreme ultraviolet lithography.

  6. Sorbents based on carbonized rice peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurova, R. M.; Taipova, R. A.; Zhylybaeva, N. K.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Bijsenbaev, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The process receiving of sorbents based on carbonized rice peel (RP) was received and their sorption properties were investigated. Processing carbonization of samples leading on station, this was developed in laboratory of hybrid technology. Carbonization of samples was realized in nitric atmosphere on 400-8000 deg. C. On raising temperature of carbonization content of carbon in samples is rice, hydrogen and oxygen is reduce as a result isolation of volatility products is discover. The samples carbonized on 650 deg. C (910 m 2 /g) owners with maximum removed surface is discover. On carbonization temperature 600-800 deh. C the sorption of ions, which carbonized by sorbents based on rice peel is run to 95-100 %. Electron-microscopic investigation of samples leaded on EM-125 mechanism by accelerating pressure 100 kV. From electron-microscopic print of original samples of RP it is evident, that sample consists of carbonic fractions of different species: carbonic fiber of rounded fractions, fractions of ellipsoid form and of more thickly carbonic structure. Increasing sizes of pores and modification structure of synthesized sorbent is occur during carbonization process. The RP-samples, which carbonized by 650 deg. C has the higher specific surface. Samples consist of thin carbonic scum and reducing specific surface, by higher temperature

  7. Manufacturing of par-fried french-fries. Part 2: Modelling yield efficiency of peeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper outlines the yield efficiency of steam peeling. It was proven that peeling potatoes manually with sandpaper results in the lowest possible peel losses. These losses were desired or wanted losses. However, in practice steam peeling results not only in wanted losses but also in substantial

  8. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre.

  9. Development of environmental friendly lost circulation material from banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauki, Arina; Hasan, Nur â.€˜Izzati; Naimi, Fardelen Binti Md; Othman, Nur Hidayati

    2017-12-01

    Loss of expensive mud could lead to major financial problem in executing a drilling project and is one of the biggest problems that need to be tackled during drilling. Synthetic Based Mud (SBM) is the most stable state of the art drilling mud used in current drilling technologies. However, the problem with lost circulation is still inevitable. The focus of this project is to develop a new potential waste material from banana peel in order to combat lost circulation in SBM. Standard industrial Lost Circulation Material (LCM) is used to compare the performance of banana peel as LCM in SBM. The effects of different sizing of banana peels (600 micron, 300 micron and 100 micron) were studied on the rheological and filtration properties of SBM and the bridging performance of banana peel as LCM additive. The tests were conducted using viscometer, HTHP filter press and sand bed tester. Thermal analysis of banana peel was also studied using TGA. According to the results obtained, 300 and 100 micron size of banana peel LCM exhibited an improved bridging performance by 65% as compared to industrial LCM. However, banana peel LCM with the size of 600 micron failed to act as LCM due to the total invasion of mud into the sand bed.

  10. ILM peeling in nontractional diabetic macular edema: review and metanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, M; dell'Omo, R; Morescalchi, F; Semeraro, F; Gambicorti, E; Cacciatore, F; Chiosi, F; Costagliola, C

    2017-10-31

    To evaluate the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling during vitrectomy for nontractional diabetic macular edema. PUBMED, MEDLINE and CENTRAL were reviewed using the following terms (or combination of terms): diabetic macular edema, nontractional diabetic macular edema, internal limiting membrane peeling, vitrectomy, Müller cells. Randomized and nonrandomized studies were included. The eligible studies compared anatomical and functional outcomes of vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling for tractional and nontractional diabetic macular edema. Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness were considered, respectively, the primary and secondary outcomes. Meta-analysis on mean differences between vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling was performed using inverse variance method in random effects. Four studies with 672 patients were eligible for analysis. No significant difference was found between postoperative best-corrected visual acuity or best-corrected visual acuity change of ILM peeling group compared with nonpeeling group. There was no significant difference in postoperative central macular thickness and central macular thickness reduction between the two groups. The visual acuity outcomes in patients affected by nontractional diabetic macular edema using pars plana vitrectomy with ILM peeling versus no ILM peeling were not significantly different. A larger prospective and randomized study would be necessary.

  11. The effects of banana peel preparations on the properties of banana peel dietary fibre concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phatcharaporn Wachirasiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different preparation methods of banana peel, dry milling, wet milling, wet milling and tap water washing, and wet milling and hot water washing were investigated on their effects on the chemical composition and properties of the banana peel dietary fibre concentrate (BDFC. The dry milling process gave the BDFC a significant higher fat, protein, and starch content than the wet milling process, resulting in a lower water holding capacity (WHC and oil holding capacity(OHC. Washing after wet milling could enhance the concentration of total dietary fibre by improving the removal of protein and fat. Washing with hot water after wet milling process caused a higher loss of soluble fibre fraction, resulting in a lower WHC and OHC of the obtained BDFC when compared to washing with tap water. Wet milling and tap water washing gave the BDFC the highest concentration of total and soluble dietary fibre, WHC and OHC.

  12. Phosphorylation and antiaging activity of polysaccharide from Trichosanthes peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from Trichosanthes peel (TPP were obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction. TPP-1 was separated from the TPP by Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Phosphorylation of TPP-1 was carried out and phosphorylated TPP-1 was named as PTTP-1. The results of infrared spectra, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra showed that the main structure of PTPP-1 was similar to that of TPP-1 and -H2PO3 groups which were conjugated to C-6 of →4-α-D-Manp-(1→, C-4 of →6-α-D-Galp-(1→, C-2 and C-3 of →1-α-L-Araf, C-2 of →1-α-L-Araf-(3→, and C-6 and C-3 of →1-α-D-Glcp. In vivo antiaging activity results proved that TTP-1 and PTTP-1 could both significantly improve the body weight, spleen index, and thymus index of the D-galactose-induced aging mice, increase the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduce malondialdehyde contents in the liver, brain, and serum of aging mice. These results indicated that both TPP-1 and PTTP-1 presented significant antiaging activity. Moreover, PTTP-1 showed stronger antiaging effects in aging mice, indicating that phosphorylation improved antiaging effect.

  13. Isolation of flavonoids from apple peel using novel graphene oxide cotton fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z; Peng, R; Chen, X; Ghosh, R; Rupasinghe, H P V

    2017-11-01

    A novel graphene oxide cotton fibre (GOF) was used to adsorb flavonoids from crude ethanol extracts derived from apple peels. Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyse polyphenol content, and the resulting data demonstrated that GOF-based flash chromatography can be used to efficiently separate polyphenols from sugars and can facilitate the removal of 95% of the sugar content. Flavonoids can be easily separated from phenolic acids. Chalcones and flavonols were eluted with 100% methanol and subsequently flavan-3-ols can be eluted with 0.04 M sodium hydroxide. The novel GOF has the potential to be used in the isolation of flavonoids.

  14. Antioxidant and immunostimulatory activities in vitro of polysaccharides from pomegrante peels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, C.L.; Wang, D.; Yao, X.; Xu, H.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the crude polysaccharides from pomegranate peels(CPP) were prepared by water-extraction technology. In vitro antioxidant assay, CPP showed strong inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing ability, moderate 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The immunostimulatory activity of CPP was also evaluated by using in vitro cell models. The results demonstrated that CPP could promote the splenocyte proliferation, increase the activity of acid phosphatase in peritoneal macrophages and strengthen peritoneal macrophages to devour neutral red in vitro. (author)

  15. Relationship between peel damage and the accumulation of limonene in four varieties of irradiated oranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli-Donini, M.L.; Baraldi, D.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of radiation with regard to damage in Citrus fruits are studied in relation to the concentration of limonene, the main component of the oil glands. Control samples of four orange varieties showed no exocarp damage during storage, whereas the irrdiated samples showed varying degrees of browning depending of variety, exposure (100 to 200 krads), storage temperature (5 and 20 0 C) and the ripening stage at which the oranges were irradiated. A correlation has been shown to exist between peel browning during storage and both extracted and volatile limonene content. Irradiation appeared to increase the permeability of the epidermal tissues and the synthesis of limonene. (author)

  16. Acral peeling skin syndrome in two East-African siblings: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kiprono, Samson K; Chaula, Baraka M; Naafs, Bernard; Masenga, John E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis due to a missense mutation in transglutaminase 5. The skin peeling occurs at the separation of the stratum corneum from the stratum granulosum. Case presentation We present a case of two siblings who developed continuous peeling of the palms and soles from the first year of life. This peeling was more severe on the soles than palms and on younger sibling than elder sibling. Peeling is worsened by occl...

  17. A Comprehensive Study on Fast Dispersible and Slow-Releasing Characteristic of Orange Peel Pectin in Relation to Established Synthetic Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pranati; Singh, Mahendra; Bhargava, Shilpi

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, the method to extract, isolate, and characterize orange peel pectin using soxhlation, and thereafter, the use of this polymer-polymer in the formulation of fast dispersable and slow-releasing tablet has been studied. Thereafter, the evaluation and comparison of fast dispersible/slow-releasing tablets using orange peel pectin versus prepared using sodium starch glycolate (SSG) were carried out. In the present investigation, extraction methodology was employed for isolation of pectin from orange peels. Four different batches with each polymer were prepared with varying concentration of superdisintegrant and bulking agent using diclofenac sodium as model drug. Diclofenac sodium stands as easily available, cheap, and good candidate to demonstrate disintegrant property. The formulation involved wet granulation method for the preparation of tablets of each batch. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, wetting time, deaggregation time, and in vitro release characteristic data. It was observed that parameters for batch O2* were comparable with that of synthetic superdisintegrant. This batch gave around 92.12% drug release in period of 90 min. The study showed that orange peel pectin could be a potential candidate for formulation of orodispersible dosage forms in competence to SSG, which is established superdisintegrant. The results led to the conclusion that the use of natural polymers in formulation of pharmaceutical dosage form can be put into practice on industrial scale meeting the similar requirements as done by synthetic polymers. The present work aims to demonstrate and establish the use of naturally derived polymer, i.e., orange peel pectin as a superdisintegrant. The extraction methodology has been discussed followed by comparative analysis with a synthetic polymer. Abbreviations used: O1-O2: Batches Containing Orange peel pectin, S1-S2: Batches containing SSG, SSG: Sodium starch glycolate, NDDS: Novel drug delivery

  18. Bringing diagnostics to developing countries: an interview with Rosanna Peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    Interview with Professor Rosanna Peeling, PhD by Claire Raison (Commissioning Editor) Professor Rosanna Peeling is Chair of Diagnostic Research at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (London, UK) and founded the International Diagnostics Centre at the institution. Professor Peeling previously worked for the WHO in Geneva, Switzerland, and continues to work on innovations for molecular diagnostics for point-of-care use in developing countries, addressing challenges posed by lack of funding and resources, regulatory issues and under-developed healthcare systems in these locations. Here, she discusses her career, recent progress in the field and how connectivity will affect global healthcare.

  19. Complications of medium depth and deep chemical peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanma Nikalji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial and medium depth peels are dynamic tools when used as part of office procedures for treatment of acne, pigmentation disorders, and photo-aging. Results and complications are generally related to the depth of wounding, with deeper peels providing more marked results and higher incidence of complications. Complications are also more likely with darker skin types, certain peeling agents, and sun exposure. They can range from minor irritations, uneven pigmentation to permanent scarring. In very rare cases, complications can be life-threatening.

  20. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Methanoilc and Ethanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous ethanoic and methanolic extracts of Citrus Sinensis Peel were investigated for antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar rats, and compared to a positive control drug, Indomethacin. These extracts were given(IP) in a concentration of 20, and 70mg/kg with extract with a concentration ...

  1. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Methanoilc and Ethanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Aqueous ethanoic and methanolic extracts of Citrus Sinensis Peel were investigated for anti- inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar rats, and compared to a positive control drug,. Indomethacin. These extracts were given(IP) in a concentration of 20, and 70mg/kg with extract with a ...

  2. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.

  3. Ultrastructural observations of chemical peeling for skin rejuvenation (ultrastructural changes of the skin due to chemical peeling).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Tokuya; Sato, Shigeru; Numano, Kayoko; Kawana, Seiji

    2010-02-01

    Chemical peeling of the skin is commonly used as a means to treat photoaging, but the mechanism underlying its efficacy has not yet been fully clarified. We recently conducted chemical peeling of the skin with glycolic acid and lactic acid and observed it at the ultrastructural level. No changes in the horny layer or the upper epidermal layer were observed but there was dissociation and vacuolation between the basal cells and increases in vimentin filaments within fibroblasts and endothelial cells were seen. These findings suggest that chemical peeling of the skin with this type of agent directly induces collagen formation within the dermis and thus directly stimulates remodeling of the dermis.

  4. Stick-slip substructure in rapid tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2010-10-15

    The peeling of adhesive tape is known to proceed with a stick-slip mechanism and produces a characteristic ripping sound. The peeling also produces light and when peeled in a vacuum, even X-rays have been observed, whose emissions are correlated with the slip events. Here we present direct imaging of the detachment zone when Scotch tape is peeled off at high speed from a solid surface, revealing a highly regular substructure, during the slip phase. The typical 4-mm-long slip region has a regular substructure of transverse 220 μm wide slip bands, which fracture sideways at speeds over 300 m/s. The fracture tip emits waves into the detached section of the tape at ∼100 m/s, which promotes the sound, so characteristic of this phenomenon.

  5. Preliminary investigations on the effect of pawpaw peel meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grower female rabbits were fed either a complete concentrate diet or a ... and a higher population of monocytes (P<0.05) than the animals on the pawpaw ... Keywords: rabbits, pawpaw peels, growth, reproductive tract, endocrine, hematology

  6. Biodigestion of cassava peels blended with pig dung for methane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OKOROIGWE

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... Biogas production from cassava (Manihot esculentus) peels and pig dung under a mesophilic ... is a gap to be filled up by further investigation. Ezekoye ..... Biofertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer Application on Maize Production.

  7. Emerging and potential technologies for facilitating shrimp peeling: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Tem Thi; Gringer, Nina; Jessen, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    , ultrasound and microwave can potentially become the alternatives since they have strong peeling effects on lobsters, crabs, bivalve mollusks, eggshells, human skin, fruits and vegetables. Also these technologies offer benefits such as short process time, retained nutritional and sensorial characteristics...

  8. Bioethanol production from cassava peels using different microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioethanol production from cassava peels using different microbial inoculants. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Abstract. The potential of bioethanol production using different microbial inoculants for the simultaneous ...

  9. Surgical outcomes after epiretinal membrane peeling combined with cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Glenn; Marra, Kyle V; Wagley, Sushant; Krishnan, Sheela; Sandhu, Harpal; Kovacs, Kyle; Kuperwaser, Mark; Arroyo, Jorge G

    2013-09-01

    To compare functional and anatomical outcomes after idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling combined with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation versus ERM peeling alone. A retrospective, non-randomised comparative case series study was conducted of 81 eyes from 79 patients who underwent ERM peeling at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center between 2001 and 2010. Eyes that underwent combined surgery for ERM and cataracts (group 1) were compared with those that had ERM peeling alone (group 2) with respect to best-corrected visual acuity at 6 months and 1 year after surgery, postoperative central macular thickness (CMT) as measured on optical coherence tomography, and rates of complications, including elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), ERM recurrence and need for reoperation. Mean logMAR visual acuity improved significantly in both groups at 6 months (ppeeling alone with respect to visual and anatomical outcomes. Further studies are necessary to determine if there may be greater ERM recurrence or need for reoperation after combined surgery.

  10. Understanding Surface Adhesion in Nature: A Peeling Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhen; Li, Siheng; Zhang, Feilong; Wang, Shutao

    2016-07-01

    Nature often exhibits various interesting and unique adhesive surfaces. The attempt to understand the natural adhesion phenomena can continuously guide the design of artificial adhesive surfaces by proposing simplified models of surface adhesion. Among those models, a peeling model can often effectively reflect the adhesive property between two surfaces during their attachment and detachment processes. In the context, this review summarizes the recent advances about the peeling model in understanding unique adhesive properties on natural and artificial surfaces. It mainly includes four parts: a brief introduction to natural surface adhesion, the theoretical basis and progress of the peeling model, application of the peeling model, and finally, conclusions. It is believed that this review is helpful to various fields, such as surface engineering, biomedicine, microelectronics, and so on.

  11. Stick-slip substructure in rapid tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Nguyen, H. D.; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.

    2010-01-01

    The peeling of adhesive tape is known to proceed with a stick-slip mechanism and produces a characteristic ripping sound. The peeling also produces light and when peeled in a vacuum, even X-rays have been observed, whose emissions are correlated with the slip events. Here we present direct imaging of the detachment zone when Scotch tape is peeled off at high speed from a solid surface, revealing a highly regular substructure, during the slip phase. The typical 4-mm-long slip region has a regular substructure of transverse 220 μm wide slip bands, which fracture sideways at speeds over 300 m/s. The fracture tip emits waves into the detached section of the tape at ∼100 m/s, which promotes the sound, so characteristic of this phenomenon.

  12. 24 hydrocarbon degradation in poultry droppings and cassava peels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... This greenhouse study was aimed at determining the potentials of poultry droppings (PD) and cassava peels ... shift in the composition of bacterial community to ..... Oil and Gas Journal. pp. ... Prentice-Hall of India Private Ltd.

  13. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Tasleem

    2015-01-01

    Tasleem Arif Postgraduate Department of Dermatology, STD and Leprosy, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India Abstract: Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of s...

  14. Hydrosols of orange blossom (Citrus aurantium), and rose flower (Rosa damascena and Rosa centifolia) support the growth of a heterogeneous spoilage microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Cécile; Ginies, Christian; Guinebretiere, Marie-Hélène; Renard, Catherine M G C; Cerutti, Céline; Carlin, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Hydrosols are hydrodistillation products of aromatic plants. They contain less than 1g/L of dispersed essential oils giving organoleptic properties. Hydrosols are subjected to microbial proliferation. Reasons for spoilage have to be found in the nature of substrates supporting growth and of microbiological contaminants. The composition in essential oils and the microbiota of 22 hydrosol samples of Citrus aurantium L. ssp. amara L. (orange blossom), Rosa damascena Miller (rose D.), and Rosa centifolia L. (rose C.) flowers were analyzed to determine the factors responsible for decay. The median concentrations in essential oils were 677mg/L for orange blossom hydrosols, 205mg/L for rose D. hydrosols, and 116mg/L for rose C. hydrosols. The dry matter content of these hydrosols varied between 4.0mg/L and 702mg/L, and the carbohydrate content varied between 0.21mg/L and 0.38mg/L. These non-volatile compounds were likely carried over during distillation by a priming and foaming effect, and could be used as nutrients by microorganisms. A microbial proliferation at ambient temperature and also at 5°C has been observed in all studied hydrosols when stored in a non-sterile container. In contaminated hydrosols, maximal counts were about 7log 10 CFU/mL, while the French pharmacopeia recommends a maximal total bacterial count of 2log 10 CFU/mL. Neither yeast nor mold was detected. The isolated microbial population was composed of environmental Gram-negative bacteria, arranged in four major genera: Pseudomonas sp., Burkholderia cepacia complex, and presumably two new genera belonging to Acetobacteraceae and Rhodospirillaceae. Among those bacteria, Burkholderia vietnamiensis and Novosphingobium capsulatum were able to metabolize volatile compounds, such as geraniol to produce 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one or geranic acid, or phenylethyl acetate to produce 2-phenylethanol. EO concentrations in hydrosols or cold storage are not sufficient to insure microbiological stability. Additional

  15. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Phenols and Oleanolic Acid from Mango Peel and Their Cytotoxic Effect on A549 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Bai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mango peel, the main by-product of juice processing, possesses appreciable quantities of bioactive phenolic compounds and is worthy of further utilization. The present work reports for the first time the HPLC analysis and in vitro antioxidant evaluation of mango peel phenols (MPPs and their cytotoxic effect on the A549 lung cancer cell line. These results indicated that mango peel has the total phenolic content of 723.2 ± 0.93 mg·kg−1 dry mango peel (DMP, which consisted mainly of vanillic aldehyde, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, procyanidin B2 and oleanolic acid. Antioxidant assays showed that MPPs had strong antioxidant activities, with 92 ± 4.2% of DPPH radical scavenging rate, 79 ± 2.5% of ABTS radical inhibition rate and 4.7 ± 0.5 μM Trolox equivalents per kg−1 DMP of ferric reducing power. Gallic acid possess a stronger antioxidant capacity than other phenols. In vitro cytotoxic tests suggested that mango peel extract (MPE had an IC50 value of 15 mg·mL−1 and MPPs had a stronger inhibitory effect on the A549 cell line. Oleanolic acid exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity, with an IC50 value of 4.7 μM, which was similar with that of the positive control 5-fluorouracil.

  16. A Pontential Agriculture Waste Material as Coagulant Aid: Cassava Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, N.; Abd-Rahim, N.-S.; Tuan-Besar, S.-N.-F.; Mohd-Asharuddin, S.; Kumar, V.

    2018-02-01

    All A large amount of cassava peel waste is generated annually by small and medium scale industries. This has led to a new policy of complete utilization of raw materials so that there will be little or no residue left that could pose pollution problems. Conversion of these by-products into a material that poses an ability to remove toxic pollutant would increase the market value and ultimately benefits the producers. This study investigated the characteristics of cassava peel as a coagulant aid material and optimization process using the cassava peel was explored through coagulation and flocculation. This research had highlighted that the Cassava peels contain sugars in the form of polysaccharides such as starch and holocellulose. The FTIR results revealed that amino acids containing abundant of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups which has significant capabilities in removing pollutants. Whereas analysis by XRF spectrometry indicated that the CP samples contain Fe2O3 and Al2O3 which might contribute to its coagulation ability. The optimum condition allowed Cassava peel and alum removed high turbidity up to 90. This natural coagulant from cassava peel is found to be an alternative coagulant aid to reduce the usage of chemical coagulants

  17. Duration of hydrothermal treatment and peeling of 'Murcott' tangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Pinheiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal treatment facilitates the peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange fruit and does not alter its quality. The aim of this work was to adapt the technology of peeling for the use of hydrothermal treatment in 'Murcott' tangor and to evaluate its influence in the CO2 production and the physicochemical, microbiologic and sensorial characteristics of fruits. The peeling time, the yield of marketable fruits and the internal temperature of fruits during the treatment were also evaluated. The hydrothermal treatment consisted of placing the fruits in a water-bath at 50 ºC for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min. Fruits were peeled by first opening a gap in the peduncle region with a knife and then manually removing the flavedo and albedo. Fruits were stored at 5 ºC for six days. Hydrothermal treatment caused changes in the fruits' CO2 production for only the first few hours after processing. Internal fruit temperature after 30 min of treatment reached 35 ºC. There were no changes in the physicochemical and microbiologic characteristics of the fruits. The treatment did not change the flavor, improved the fruits' appearance, decreased the peeling time of the treated fruits by 57 % and increased the yield of marketable fruits. In conclusion, the hydrothermal treatment accomplished from 5 to 30 min at 50 ºC can be used as part of the peeling process for 'Murcott' tangor.

  18. Characterization of peeling modes in a low aspect ratio tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongard, M. W.; Thome, K. E.; Barr, J. L.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Redd, A. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2014-11-01

    Peeling modes are observed at the plasma edge in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment under conditions of high edge current density (Jedge ˜ 0.1 MA m-2) and low magnetic field (B ˜ 0.1 T) present at near-unity aspect ratio. Their macroscopic properties are measured using external Mirnov coil arrays, Langmuir probes and high-speed visible imaging. The modest edge parameters and short pulse lengths of Pegasus discharges permit direct measurement of the internal magnetic field structure with an insertable array of Hall-effect sensors, providing the current profile and its temporal evolution. Peeling modes generate coherent, edge-localized electromagnetic activity with low toroidal mode numbers n ⩽ 3 and high poloidal mode numbers, in agreement with theoretical expectations of a low-n external kink structure. Coherent MHD fluctuation amplitudes are found to be strongly dependent on the experimentally measured Jedge/B peeling instability drive, consistent with theory. Peeling modes nonlinearly generate ELM-like, field-aligned filamentary structures that detach from the edge and propagate radially outward. The KFIT equilibrium code is extended with an Akima spline profile parameterization and an improved model for induced toroidal wall current estimation to obtain a reconstruction during peeling activity with its current profile constrained by internal Hall measurements. It is used to test the analytic peeling stability criterion and numerically evaluate ideal MHD stability. Both approaches predict instability, in agreement with experiment, with the latter identifying an unstable external kink.

  19. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Tasleem

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I-III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included.

  20. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tasleem Arif Postgraduate Department of Dermatology, STD and Leprosy, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India Abstract: Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I–III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included. Keywords: acne vulgaris, desmolytic agent, melasma, photodamage, salicylic acid 

  1. Lactic acid peeling in superficial acne scarring in Indian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Silonie

    2010-09-01

    Chemical peeling with both alpha and beta hydroxy acids has been used to improve acne scarring with pigmentation. Lactic acid, a mild alpha hydroxy acid, has been used in the treatment of various dermatological indications but no study is reported in acne scarring with pigmentation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of full strength pure lactic acid 92% (pH 2.0) chemical peel in superficial acne scarring in Indian skin. Seven patients, Fitzpatrick skin type IV-V, in age group 20-30 years with superficial acne scarring were enrolled in the study. Chemical peeling was done with lactic acid at an interval of 2 weeks to a maximum of four peels. Pre- and post-peel clinical photographs were taken at every session. Patients were followed every month for 3 months after the last peel to evaluate the effects. At the end of 3 months, there was definite improvement in the texture, pigmentation, and appearance of the treated skin, with lightening of scars. Significant improvement (greater than 75% clearance of lesions) occurred in one patient (14.28%), good improvement (51-75% clearance) in three patients (42.84%), moderate improvement (26-50% clearance) in two patients (28.57%), and mild improvement (1-25% clearance) in one patient (14.28%). © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Deformation of nanotubes in peeling contact with flat substrate: An in situ electron microscopy nanomechanical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zheng, Meng; Wei, Qing; Ke, Changhong, E-mail: cke@binghamton.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York 13902-6000 (United States); Signetti, Stefano [Laboratory of Bio-Inspired and Graphene Nanomechanics, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Pugno, Nicola M. [Laboratory of Bio-Inspired and Graphene Nanomechanics, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Centre for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo (Trento) (Italy); School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-21

    Peeling of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures from flat substrates is an essential technique in studying their adhesion properties. The mechanical deformation of the nanostructure in the peeling experiment is critical to the understanding of the peeling process and the interpretation of the peeling measurements, but it is challenging to measure directly and quantitatively at the nanoscale. Here, we investigate the peeling deformation of a bundled carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber by using an in situ scanning electron microscopy nanomechanical peeling technique. A pre-calibrated atomic force microscopy cantilever is utilized as the peeling force sensor, and its back surface acts as the peeling contact substrate. The nanomechanical peeling scheme enables a quantitative characterization of the deformational behaviors of the CNT fiber in both positive and negative peeling configurations with sub-10 nm spatial and sub-nN force resolutions. Nonlinear continuum mechanics models and finite element simulations are employed to interpret the peeling measurements. The measurements and analysis reveal that the structural imperfections in the CNT fiber may have a substantial influence on its peeling deformations and the corresponding peeling forces. The research findings reported in this work are useful to the study of mechanical and adhesion properties of 1D nanostructures by using nanomechanical peeling techniques.

  3. Evidence and Considerations in the Application of Chemical Peels in Skin Disorders and Aesthetic Resurfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Diane S.; Cohen, Joel L.; Roberts, Wendy E.; Starker, Isaac; Wang, Beatrice

    2010-01-01

    Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method for treatment of some skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin. This article focuses on chemical peels and their use in routine clinical practice. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels. The depth of the peel is correlated with clinical changes, with the greatest change achieved by deep peels. However, the depth is also associated with longer healing times and the potential for complications. A wide variety of peels are available, utilizing various topical agents and concentrations, including a recent salicylic acid derivative, β-lipohydroxy acid, which has properties that may expand the clinical use of peels. Superficial peels, penetrating only the epidermis, can be used to enhance treatment for a variety of conditions, including acne, melasma, dyschromias, photodamage, and actinic keratoses. Medium-depth peels, penetrating to the papillary dermis, may be used for dyschromia, multiple solar keratoses, superficial scars, and pigmentary disorders. Deep peels, affecting reticular dermis, may be used for severe photoaging, deep wrinkles, or scars. Peels can be combined with other in-office facial resurfacing techniques to optimize outcomes and enhance patient satisfaction and allow clinicians to tailor the treatment to individual patient needs. Successful outcomes are based on a careful patient selection as well as appropriate use of specific peeling agents. Used properly, the chemical peel has the potential to fill an important therapeutic need in the dermatologist's and plastic surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:20725555

  4. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling versus vitrectomy with no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi; Scott, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Several observational studies have suggested the potential benefit of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling to treat idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). However, no strong evidence is available on the potential benefit(s) of this surgical manoeuvre and uncertainty remains among...... vitreoretinal surgeons about the indication for peeling the ILM, whether to use it in all cases or in long-standing and/or larger holes. ...

  5. Cross-validation and Peeling Strategies for Survival Bump Hunting using Recursive Peeling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Choe, Michael; LeBlanc, Michael; Rao, J. Sunil

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a framework to build a survival/risk bump hunting model with a censored time-to-event response. Our Survival Bump Hunting (SBH) method is based on a recursive peeling procedure that uses a specific survival peeling criterion derived from non/semi-parametric statistics such as the hazards-ratio, the log-rank test or the Nelson--Aalen estimator. To optimize the tuning parameter of the model and validate it, we introduce an objective function based on survival or prediction-error statistics, such as the log-rank test and the concordance error rate. We also describe two alternative cross-validation techniques adapted to the joint task of decision-rule making by recursive peeling and survival estimation. Numerical analyses show the importance of replicated cross-validation and the differences between criteria and techniques in both low and high-dimensional settings. Although several non-parametric survival models exist, none addresses the problem of directly identifying local extrema. We show how SBH efficiently estimates extreme survival/risk subgroups unlike other models. This provides an insight into the behavior of commonly used models and suggests alternatives to be adopted in practice. Finally, our SBH framework was applied to a clinical dataset. In it, we identified subsets of patients characterized by clinical and demographic covariates with a distinct extreme survival outcome, for which tailored medical interventions could be made. An R package PRIMsrc (Patient Rule Induction Method in Survival, Regression and Classification settings) is available on CRAN (Comprehensive R Archive Network) and GitHub. PMID:27034730

  6. Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) peel polyphenols modulate LPS-induced inflammation in human THP-1-derived macrophages through NF-κB, p38MAPK and Akt inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija; Refai, Amira; Riahi, Ichrak; Fattouch, Sami; Karoui, Habib; Essafi, Makram

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Quince peel polyphenols inhibit LPS-induced secretion of TNF-α and IL-8. ► Quince peel polyphenols augment LPS-induced secretion of IL-10 and IL-6. ► Quince peel polyphenols-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced secretion of TNF-α is partially mediated by IL-6. ► The anti-inflammatory effects of quince polyphenols pass through NF-κB, p38MAPK and Akt inhibition. -- Abstract: Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of several pathologies, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis and cancer. A wide range of anti-inflammatory chemicals have been used to treat such diseases while presenting high toxicity and numerous side effects. Here, we report the anti-inflammatory effect of a non-toxic, cost-effective natural agent, polyphenolic extract from the Tunisian quince Cydonia oblonga Miller. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of human THP-1-derived macrophages induced the secretion of high levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the chemokine IL-8, which was inhibited by quince peel polyphenolic extract in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, quince polyphenols enhanced the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 secreted by LPS-treated macrophages. We further demonstrated that the unexpected increase in IL-6 secretion that occurred when quince polyphenols were associated with LPS treatment was partially responsible for the polyphenols-mediated inhibition of TNF-α secretion. Biochemical analysis showed that quince polyphenols extract inhibited the LPS-mediated activation of three major cellular pro-inflammatory effectors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), p38MAPK and Akt. Overall, our data indicate that quince peel polyphenolic extract induces a potent anti-inflammatory effect that may prove useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and that a quince-rich regimen may help to prevent and improve the treatment of such diseases.

  7. Effects of Pretreatments and Storage Conditions on the Stability of Orange Peel Carotenoids (Turkish with English Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids, being colorful pigments with colors ranging from yellow to red, are important in food industry providing both lipophilic and hydrophilic groups, provitamin A activity and anticarciogenic properties. The commercial value of carotenoids is closely related to the color stability. Therefore, this work aims to study the stability of enzyme extracted carotenoid pigments under different processing and storage conditions. Orange peels from the wastes of fruit juice production were used as a potential rich source of pigments. Orange peel samples were either directly extracted or pretreatments of blanching, 0.2% sodium-bisulfıte solution or combinations of these two were applied. Extracted pigments were stored at 4 oC, 25 oC (under light and dark and 40 oC. Stability of enzyme extracted pigments were higher than that of solvent extracted whereas pretreatments were resulted in pigment loss. Half-life, defined as the time corresponding 50% loss of pigments, of the samples stored at 4 oC was 78 days in directly extracted, 27 days in blanched, 31 days in Na-bisulfite treated and 30 days in the combination of the last two. This work can be considered as a preliminary study on the industrial scale production and potential usage of the carotenoid pigments as fully natural food coloring agent in food systems.

  8. Acral peeling skin syndrome in two East-African siblings: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiprono Samson K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis due to a missense mutation in transglutaminase 5. The skin peeling occurs at the separation of the stratum corneum from the stratum granulosum. Case presentation We present a case of two siblings who developed continuous peeling of the palms and soles from the first year of life. This peeling was more severe on the soles than palms and on younger sibling than elder sibling. Peeling is worsened by occlusion and sweating. Conclusions Sporadic cases of Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome occur in African population. There is variability in time of presentation and clinical severity even within families.

  9. Acral peeling skin syndrome in two East-African siblings: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprono, Samson K; Chaula, Baraka M; Naafs, Bernard; Masenga, John E

    2012-03-19

    Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis due to a missense mutation in transglutaminase 5. The skin peeling occurs at the separation of the stratum corneum from the stratum granulosum. We present a case of two siblings who developed continuous peeling of the palms and soles from the first year of life. This peeling was more severe on the soles than palms and on younger sibling than elder sibling. Peeling is worsened by occlusion and sweating. Sporadic cases of Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome occur in African population. There is variability in time of presentation and clinical severity even within families.

  10. Combination Superficial Peels With Salicylic Acid and Post-Peel Retinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligman, Douglas E; Draelos, Zoe D

    2016-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) and retinoids, tretinoin (all-trans retinoic acid [ATRA]), and retinol (all-trans retinol) are widely used as topical agents for the improvement of photodamage and acne vulgaris. They can be used in daily take-home products or as part of an in-office procedure, combining the benefits of a keratolytic (SA) and a retinoid. The objective of this research was to compare the efficacy for ameliorating photodamage of topical tretinoin (0.25%) and retinol (0.25%) to baseline and with each other when applied after a 30% salicylic acid peel on human facial skin. Twenty female subjects received a full face 30% SA peel followed by the overnight application of tretinoin to a 1 randomized half-face and retinol to the opposite side (split-face study). The identical procedure was repeated at week 2. Double-blinded subject and investigator assessments of the results were captured at weeks 2 and 4. By investigator evaluation, both peeling regimens were effective in improving photodamage parameters compared to baseline. (ATRA P-values at week 4 were: P=.00008 texture, P=.00013 roughness, P=.00221 pores, P=.00098 dryness, P=.02770 erythema, and P=.00008 overall appearance. Retinol P-values at week 4 were: P=.00019 texture, P=.00053 roughness, P=.00221 pores, P=.00147 dryness, P=.02770 erythema, and P=.0043 overall appearance.) By subject self-assessment compared with baseline, both tretinoin and retinol were effective in improving overall appearance (ATRA P=.0229 and retinol P=.0190). By investigator evaluation comparing tretinoin with retinol, tretinoin was slightly better than retinol at week 4 in improving texture P=.00506, roughness P=.01171, and overall appearance P=.00506. By subject self-assessment comparing tretinoin with retinol, there was no difference in overall appearance (ATRA P=.2367 and retinol P=.3613). Either topical tretinoin (0.25%) or retinol (0.25%) can be used safely and effectively when applied in office immediately after SA peeling to

  11. Peel testing behavior of mushroom-top terminated structured adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossfeld, Craig Kenneth

    Synthetic structured surfaces have been created based on the extraordinary adhesive ability exhibited by insects, spiders, and geckos. The adhesion of synthetic and natural structured adhesives is attributed to the cumulative addition of van der Waals forces acting on the structures of the surface. It has been shown that for synthetic surfaces a "mushroom top" or "flanged" terminating structure exhibits the highest adhesion. Unfortunately, due to the variety of testing and fabrication techniques and the small scale of previous studies, the detachment behavior of these structures is not well understood. This research systematically investigated the effect of peel angle, pillar diameter, flange diameter, and pillar aspect ratio on the force required for peeling. Explicit emphasis was placed on relatively large pillar structures to allow for in situ optical visualization in order to gain insights into fundamental mechanisms which dictate peeling. Traditional molding techniques were used to fabricate optical-scale mushroom terminated structures with pillar diameters of 1mm and 400microm and aspect ratios of 1, 3, and 5. Results were quantitatively compared to peel testing theory for conventional adhesives. It was convincingly demonstrated that the adhesive energy of a patterned surface changes as function of angle, and cannot be treated as a constant. The variability in the energy was linked to mechanistic differences in detachment through in situ observations and finite element analysis. Experimental results show that smaller pillars do not necessarily lead to higher adhesion during peeling, aspect ratio plays little role in peeling adhesive behavior, and pillar flange size is critical to adhesion. The conclusions from this study outline design parameters for mushroom topped dry adhesives in peeling applications.

  12. Gamma Irradiation Induced Degradation of Orange Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Saucedo Luna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, gamma irradiation induced degradation of orange peels (OP was investigated. The lignocellulosic biomass degradation was carried out at doses of 0 (control, 600, 1800 and 3500 kGy using a Co-60 gamma radiation source. The samples were tested for total and reducing sugars. The concentrations of total sugars ranged from 0.530 g∙g−1 in control sample to 0.382 g∙g−1 of dry weight in the sample which received the highest radiation dose. The reducing sugars content varying from 0.018 to 0.184 g∙g−1 of dry weight with the largest rise occurring in the sample irradiated at 3500 kGy. The concentrations of sucrose, glucose and fructose were determined. The changes generated in physico-chemical properties were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and termogravimetric analysis (TG-DTG. The results show that OP was affected, but not significantly, which suggests that lignocellulose and sugars profiles were partially degraded after gamma irradiation.

  13. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Kavitha, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine.

  14. Potential Application of Nanoemulsions for Skin Delivery of Pomegranate Peel Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarin, Thaisa; Lemos-Senna, Elenara

    2017-11-01

    Pomegranate peel and seeds have demonstrated to possess antioxidant compounds with potential application to protect the skin against the ultraviolet radiation damage. However, the photoprotection activity is dependent on the amount of these compounds that reach the viable skin layers. In this paper, we describe the in vitro skin permeation and retention of the major pomegranate peel polyphenols using Franz diffusion cells, after entrapping a ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from Punica granatum peel extract into nanoemulsions (NEs) prepared with pomegranate seed oil (PSO) or medium chain triglyceride oil (MCT). The in vitro skin permeation of gallic acid (GA), ellagic acid (EA), and punicalagin (PC) was evaluated using a HPLC-DAD validated method. After 8 h of skin permeation, all polyphenol compounds were mostly retained in the skin and did not reach the receptor compartment. However, a 2.2-fold enhancement of the retained amount of gallic acid in the stratum corneum was verified after EAF-loaded NEs are applied, when compared with the free EAF. GA and EA were delivered to the viable epidermis and dermis only when nanoemulsions were applied onto the skin. The mean retained amounts of GA and EA in the EP and DE after applying the EAF-loaded PSO-NE were 1.78 and 1.36 μg cm -2 and 1.10 and 0.97 μg cm -2 , respectively. Similar values were obtained after applying the EAF-loaded MCT-NE. The skin permeation results were supported by the confocal microscopy images. These results evidenced the promising application of nanoemulsions to deliver the pomegranate polyphenols into the deeper skin layers.

  15. Patients' self-esteem before and after chemical peeling procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Anargyros; Platsidaki, Eftychia; Christodoulou, Christos; Efstathiou, Vasiliki; Markantoni, Vasiliki; Armyra, Kalliopi; Potouridou, Irene; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Kontochristopoulos, Georgios

    2017-12-29

    Chemical peeling is a safe method, widely used to treat a variety of skin conditions and reduce the aging effects. This study aims to evaluate self-esteem among adolescents who undergo chemical peelings. One hundred and twenty six patients constituted the study group. Sixty seven individuals had undergone chemical peeling for therapeutic reasons and 59 individuals for cosmetic reasons. To assess patients' self-esteem, the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (RSES) was used before and after treatment. The control group included 71 healthy, age- and sex-matched volunteers from the general population. They were also asked to complete the RSES, after the same time interval as the patients. The healthy controls (23.01 ± 3.12) presented statistically significantly higher self-esteem than both the groups of individuals who would be submitted to chemical peeling. Furthermore, patients who would undergo peeling for therapeutic reasons (21.58 ± 3.20) had statistically significantly higher self-esteem than those who would undergo the procedure for cosmetic reasons (18.97 ± 3.36). After the chemical peeling sessions, the self-esteem of patients treated for therapeutic reasons (23.48 ± 2.43) and of patients treated for cosmetic reasons (22.83 ± 3.34) improved statistically significantly, while the self-esteem of the healthy controls remained stable, as expected. Patients who undergo chemical peelings tend to have low levels of self-esteem. Although facial lesions in skin diseases such as acne, acne scars, rosacea, and melasma seem to have negative effect on individuals' self-consciousness, patients who would be submitted to chemical peeling in order to treat wrinkles, loss of radiance, and skin tone clarity have even lower self-esteem. Chemical peelings were shown to favorably affect patient's self-esteem since all patients showed an increase in self-esteem after treatment, while the control group experienced no change.

  16. Extraction, partial purification and characterization of pectinases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pectinase was produced from a culture of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Pectinase synthesis was achieved using mango (Mangifera indica) pectin extract as an inducer during pectinolytic fungi isolation while submerged fermentation process was carried out using ground mango peels as ...

  17. Cadmium ion removal using biosorbents derived from fruit peel wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Saikaew

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fruit peel wastes, corn, durian, pummelo, and banana, to remove cadmium ions from aqueous solution by biosorption were investigated. The experiments were carried out by batch method at 25oC. The influence of particle sizes, solution pH, and initial cadmium ion concentrations were evaluated on the biosorption studies. The result showed that banana peel had the highest cadmium ions removal followed by durian, pummelo, and corn peels at cadmium ions removal of 73.15, 72.17, 70.56, and 51.22%, respectively. There was a minimal effect when using different particle sizes of corn peel as biosorbent, while the particle size of the others had no influence on the removal of cadmium ions. The cadmium ions removal increased significantly as the pH of the solution increased rapidly from 1 to 5. At pH 5, the cadmium ions removal reached a maximum value. The equilibrium process was best described by the Langmuir isotherms, with maximum biosorption capacities of durian, pummelo, and banana peel of 18.55, 21.83, and 20.88 mg/g respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy revealed that carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide groups on the fruit peels’ surface and these groups were involved in the adsorption of the cadmium ions.

  18. Multiple extrafoveal macular holes following internal limiting membrane peeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain N

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nazimul Hussain, Sandip Mitra Department of Ophthalmology, Al Zahra Hospital, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates Objective: Internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling has been the standard of treatment for macular holes. Besides, causing retinal nerve fiber layer surface abnormality, postoperative extrafoveal multiple retinal holes is a rare phenomenon following ILM peeling. We report an unusual complication of eight extrafoveal macular holes occurring following ILM peeling.Case presentation: A 60-year-old male presented with complaints of decreased and distorted vision in the right eye. He was diagnosed as having epiretinal membrane with lamellar macular hole. He underwent 23G pars plana vitrectomy, brilliant blue assisted ILM peeling and fluid gas exchange. Intraoperatively, ILM was found to be adherent to the underlying neurosensory retina. One month after cataract surgery, he underwent YAG capsulotomy in the right eye. He complained of visual distortion. His fundus evaluation in the right eye showed multiple (eight extrafoveal retinal holes temporal to the macula clustered together.Conclusion: This case demonstrated that peeling of ILM, especially when it is adherent to the underlying neurosensory retina, may cause unwanted mechanical trauma to the inner retina. Glial apoptosis and neuronal degeneration may presumably play a role in delayed appearance of multiple (eight extrafoveal macular holes, which has not been reported earlier. Keywords: internal limiting membrane, lamellar macular hole, full thickness macular holes, epiretinal membrane

  19. Multiple extrafoveal macular holes following internal limiting membrane peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Nazimul; Mitra, Sandip

    2018-01-01

    Internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling has been the standard of treatment for macular holes. Besides, causing retinal nerve fiber layer surface abnormality, postoperative extrafoveal multiple retinal holes is a rare phenomenon following ILM peeling. We report an unusual complication of eight extrafoveal macular holes occurring following ILM peeling. A 60-year-old male presented with complaints of decreased and distorted vision in the right eye. He was diagnosed as having epiretinal membrane with lamellar macular hole. He underwent 23G pars plana vitrectomy, brilliant blue assisted ILM peeling and fluid gas exchange. Intraoperatively, ILM was found to be adherent to the underlying neurosensory retina. One month after cataract surgery, he underwent YAG capsulotomy in the right eye. He complained of visual distortion. His fundus evaluation in the right eye showed multiple (eight) extrafoveal retinal holes temporal to the macula clustered together. This case demonstrated that peeling of ILM, especially when it is adherent to the underlying neurosensory retina, may cause unwanted mechanical trauma to the inner retina. Glial apoptosis and neuronal degeneration may presumably play a role in delayed appearance of multiple (eight) extrafoveal macular holes, which has not been reported earlier.

  20. Adhesion strength study of IBAD-MOCVD-based 2G HTS wire using a peel test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: yzhang@superpower-inc.com [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Hazelton, D.W.; Knoll, A.R.; Duval, J.M.; Brownsey, P.; Repnoy, S.; Soloveichik, S.; Sundaram, A.; McClure, R.B. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Majkic, G.; Selvamanickam, V. [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    A peel test was used to study the adhesion strength of a commercial grade 2G HTS wire which features a characteristic multilayer structure with the rare earth-based MOCVD superconducting film deposited on an IBAD-MgO template. The peel test could be carried out at various peeling angles (from 90 Degree-Sign to 180 Degree-Sign) and the peel strength of a wire was defined as the steady-state peeling load determined from a load-displacement curve. The test results had good reproducibility and accuracy, making the test a reliable and useful method for studying the adhesion strength of the wire. By characterizing the peeled surfaces the weakest interface in a wire could be identified. The peel strength data of the wire was analyzed together with the performance of the experimental magnet coils fabricated using the wire. The effect of the silver contact layer annealing on the peel strength is discussed.

  1. “Self-Peel-Off” Transfer Produces Ultrathin Polyvinylidene-Fluoride-Based Flexible Nanodevices

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Here, a new strategy, self-peel-off transfer, for the preparation of ultrathin flexible nanodevices made from polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF) is reported. In this process, a functional pattern of nanoparticles is transferred via peeling from a

  2. Adhesion strength study of IBAD-MOCVD-based 2G HTS wire using a peel test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Hazelton, D.W.; Knoll, A.R.; Duval, J.M.; Brownsey, P.; Repnoy, S.; Soloveichik, S.; Sundaram, A.; McClure, R.B.; Majkic, G.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2012-01-01

    A peel test was used to study the adhesion strength of a commercial grade 2G HTS wire which features a characteristic multilayer structure with the rare earth-based MOCVD superconducting film deposited on an IBAD-MgO template. The peel test could be carried out at various peeling angles (from 90° to 180°) and the peel strength of a wire was defined as the steady-state peeling load determined from a load-displacement curve. The test results had good reproducibility and accuracy, making the test a reliable and useful method for studying the adhesion strength of the wire. By characterizing the peeled surfaces the weakest interface in a wire could be identified. The peel strength data of the wire was analyzed together with the performance of the experimental magnet coils fabricated using the wire. The effect of the silver contact layer annealing on the peel strength is discussed.

  3. The peeling behaviour of a graphene sheet on a nano-scale corrugated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao; Chen, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    The peeling process and average peeling force of a graphene (GE) sheet on a corrugated surface are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. It is found that the peeling behaviour varies with the substrate surface roughness and the peeling angle. Three kinds of typically peeling behaviours include (a) GE sheet directly passing the valley of the substrate roughness; (b) bouncing off from the substrate; and (c) continuously peeling off similarly to that on a flat substrate. As a result, the average peeling force is strongly dependent of the peeling behaviours. Furthermore, some interesting phenomena are caught, such as partial detaching and partial sliding of GE sheet in the valley of the substrate roughness, which are mainly due to the effects of pre-tension in GE sheet and the reduction of friction resistance. The results in this paper should be useful for the design of nano-film/substrate systems. (paper)

  4. Trace element concentrations in the fruit peels and trunks of Musa paradisiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selema, M D; Farago, M E

    1996-08-01

    Chemical analyses for the elementary compositions of the ashes of the fruit peels and trunks of the tropical plantain Musa paradisiaca have been undertaken. The elements, categorized as trace elements, generally are found to have higher mean concentrations in the fruit peels than in the trunks (except in the case of Zn). Their peel-trunk uptake ratios have been calculated and range between 1 and 4, showing normal levels of accumulations in the fruit peels over the trunks.

  5. Observations of peeling of a polyisobutynele-based pressure-sensitive adhesive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren. F.; Everland, Hanne.; Hassager, Ole

    1998-01-01

    A pressure-sensitive adhesive(PSA) was prepared by mixing low- and high-molecular-weight polyisobutylenes(PIB). Peeling of the adhesive from polycarbonate was observed from the side and from below at three different peel rates.......A pressure-sensitive adhesive(PSA) was prepared by mixing low- and high-molecular-weight polyisobutylenes(PIB). Peeling of the adhesive from polycarbonate was observed from the side and from below at three different peel rates....

  6. A randomized controlled trial of peeling and aspiration of Elschnig pearls and neodymium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser capsulotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Sharma, Shiv Kumar; Kaur, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    To compare surgical peeling and aspiration and neodymium yttrium garnet laser capsulotomy for pearl form of posterior capsule opacification (PCO). A prospective, randomized, double blind, study was done at Rotary Eye Hospital, Maranda, Palampur, India, Santosh Medical College Hospital, Ghaziabad, India and Laser Eye Clinic, Noida India. Consecutive patients with pearl form of PCO following surgery, phacoemulsification, manual small incision cataract surgery and conventional extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) for age related cataract, were randomized to have peeling and aspiration or neodymium yttrium garnet laser capsulotomy. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), intra-operative and post-operative complications were compared. A total of 634 patients participated in the study, and 314 (49.5%) patients were randomized to surgical peeling and aspiration group and 320 (50.5%) to the Nd:YAG laser group. The mean pre-procedural logMAR CDVA in peeling and neodymium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser group was 0.80±0.25 and 0.86±0.22, respectively. The mean final CDVA in peeling group (0.22±0.23) was comparable to Nd:YAG group (0.24±0.28; t test, P=0.240). There was a significant improvement in vision after both the procedures (Ppeeling group (262/83.4%) had a CDVA of 0.5 (20/63) or better at 9mo (Ppeeling group (25/7.7% vs 15/4.7%, respectively). On application of ANCOVA, there was less than 0.001% risk that PCO thickness and total laser energy had no effect on rate of complications in Nd:YAG laser group and less than 0.001 % risk that PCO thickness had no effect on complications in peeling group respectively. Sum of square analysis suggests that in the Nd:YAG laser group, thick PCO had a stronger impact on complications (Fischer test probability, Prpeeling group, thick PCO and preoperative vision had a stronger effect on complications than thin PCO, respectively (Fischer test probability, Prpeeling group. Retinal detachment was more common in patients

  7. Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy O.; Riker, Paul W.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20 kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50 kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure "fracture" bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions.

  8. Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy O.

    2014-03-21

    We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20 kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50 kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure "fracture" bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions.

  9. The electrostatics of charged insulating sheets peeled from grounded conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, M J; Horenstein, M N

    2008-01-01

    The physics of a charged, insulating sheet peeled from a ground-plane conductor is examined. Contact charging is ensured by charging a sheet to 10-12 kV with corona to establish intimate electrostatic contact with the underlying conductor. The surface potential is next forced to zero by sweeping the sheet with a stainless-steel brush, and the surface recharged to a new potential between 0 and 11 kV. The sheet is then peeled from the ground plane and its residual charge density is measured. Results show that the residual charge equals the breakdown-limiting value, but its polarity depends on the surface potential acquired just prior to peeling. The results have relevance to studies of industrial webs and insulating sheets.

  10. External kink (peeling) modes in x-point geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huysmans, G T A

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the separatrix on the stability of edge current driven external kink (peeling) modes has been studied. Two approaches have been compared: taking the limit towards the separatrix using linear ideal and resistive MHD stability codes and including the complete x-point geometry using a new resistive MHD code. A strong stabilizing effect has been observed for the ideal and the resistive peeling mode for instabilities driven by the edge current gradient. Both approaches are in good agreement. A new resistive instability remains unstable and is not significantly affected by the separatrix. This mode is a combination of a kink and a tearing type mode and could be called a peeling-tearing mode

  11. Peeled film GaAs solar cell development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilt, D.M.; Thomas, R.D.; Bailey, S.G.; Brinker, D.J.; DeAngelo, F.L.

    1990-01-01

    Thin film, single crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells could exhibit a specific power approaching 700 W/Kg including coverglass. A simple process has been described whereby epitaxial GaAs layers are peeled from a reusable substrate. This process takes advantage of the extreme selectivity (>10 6 ) of the etching rate of aluminum arsenide (AlAs) over GaAs in dilute hydrofloric acid (HF). The intent of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the peeled film technique to fabricate high efficiency, low mass GaAs solar cells. We have successfully produced a peeled film GaAs solar cell. The device, although fractured and missing the aluminum gallium arsenide (Al x Ga 1 - x As) window and antireflective (AR) coating, had a Voc of 874 mV and a fill factor of 68% under AMO illumination

  12. comparative analysis of type 1 and type 2 cassava peeling machines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    to design a cassava peeling machine that is capable of efficiently peeling .... the peeling chamber to the chute. Both the ... A belt and pulley mechanism was used to transfer the motion ... conveyor shaft that will not allow cassava tubers to drop ...

  13. Demonstration tests of infrared peeling system with electrical emitters for tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) dry-peeling is an emerging technology that could avoid the drawbacks of steam and lye peeling of tomatoes. The objectives of this research was to evaluate the performance of an IR peeling system at two tomato processing plants located in California and to compare product quality, peela...

  14. Effect of chemical peeling on the skin in relation to UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funasaka, Yoko; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Kawana, Seiji; Nishigori, Chikako

    2012-07-01

    Chemical peeling is one of the dermatological treatments available for certain cutaneous diseases and conditions or improvement of cosmetic appearance of photoaged skin. However, it needs to be clarified whether the repetitive procedure of chemical peeling on photodamaged skin is safe and whether the different chemicals used for peeling results in similar outcomes or not. In this article, we reviewed the effect of peeling or peeling agents on the skin in relation to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The pretreatment of peeling agents usually enhance UV sensitivity by inducing increased sunburn cell formation, lowering minimum erythematous dose and increasing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. However, this sensitivity is reversible and recovers to normal after 1-week discontinuation. Using animals, the chronic effect of peeling and peeling agents was shown to prevent photocarcinogenesis. There is also an in vitro study using culture cells to know the detailed mechanisms of peeling agents, especially on cell proliferation and apoptotic changes via activating signalling cascades and oxidative stress. It is important to understand the effect of peeling agents on photoaged skin and to know how to deal with UV irradiation during the application of peeling agents and treatment of chemical peeling in daily life. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Predictive modeling of infrared radiative heating in tomato dry-peeling process: Part I. Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) dry-peeling has emerged as an effective non-chemical alternative to conventional lye and steam methods of peeling tomatoes. Successful peel separation induced by IR radiation requires the delivery of a sufficient amount of thermal energy onto tomato surface in a very short duration. Th...

  16. Bio-Diesel Production from Oil of Orange ( Citrus Sinensis ) Peels as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, in Nigeria orange peels are considered as a waste, this study is intended to convert the waste into wealth by establishing the production of biodiesel with oil obtained from orange peels; using transeterification process. Oil from sun-dried/ ground orange peels were extractedusing n-hexane. Transesterification ...

  17. Effect of pomegranate peel alone and in combination with rosiglitazone on hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shujaat, A.; Hussain, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of pomegranate peel extract with or without rosiglitazone on plasma glucose and lipid profile in insulin resistant diabetic rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, in collaboration with National Institute of Health (N.I.H), Islamabad from 1st January 2011 to 28th May 2011. Material and Methods: Type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced in sixty healthy rats. The diabetic rats were divided into four groups, namely diabetic control group which received intraperitoneal injection of normal saline daily, pomegranate group which was treated similar to control group and also received pomegranate peel extract (200mg/kg body weight) orally once daily, rosiglitazone group which received intraperitoneal injection of rosiglitazone (5mg/kg body weight) daily and the combined group received both pomegranate extract (100 mg/kg body weight, orally) and intraperitoneal injection of rosiglitazone (2.5 mg/kg body weight) daily for 28 days. After four weeks of treatment, terminal intracardiac sampling was done to measure plasma glucose and lipid profile. Results: The plasma glucose and mean serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins was significantly reduced (p<0.001) in pomegranate, rosiglitazone and combined groups respectively as compared to the diabetic control. The mean serum levels of high density lipoproteins were significantly (p<0.001) elevated in above mentioned groups as compared to the diabetic control. Conclusion: Pomegranate peel extract is hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic agent in low doses when used alone or in combination with rosiglitazone in type 2 diabetic rats. (author)

  18. Modeling Transfer of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus During Peeling of Raw Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xingning; Pang, Haiying; Wang, Wen; Fang, Weihuan; Fu, Yingchun; Li, Yanbin

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to qualify the transfer of Vibrio parahaemolyticus during the shrimp peeling process via gloves under 3 different scenarios. The 1st 2 scenarios provided quantitative information for the probability distribution of bacterial transfer rates from (i) contaminated shrimp (6 log CFU/g) to non-contaminated gloves (Scenario 1) and (ii) contaminated gloves (6 log CFU/per pair) to non-contaminated shrimp (Scenario 2). In Scenario 3, bacterial transfer from contaminated shrimp to non-contaminated shrimp in the shrimp peeling process via gloves was investigated to develop a predictive model for describing the successive bacterial transfer. The range of bacterial transfer rate (%) in Scenarios 1 and 2 was 7% to 91.95% and 0.04% to 12.87%, respectively, indicating that the bacteria can be transferred from shrimp to gloves much easier than that from gloves to shrimp. A Logistic (1.59, 0.14) and Triangle distribution (-1.61, 0.12, 1.32) could be used to describe the bacterial transfer rate in Scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. In Scenario 3, a continuously decay patterning with fluctuations as the peeling progressed has been observed at all inoculation levels of the 1st shrimp (5, 6, and 7 log CFU/g). The bacteria could be transferred easier at 1st few peels, and the decreasing bacterial transfer was found in later phase. Two models (exponential and Weibull) could describe the successive bacterial transfer satisfactorily (pseudo-R 2 > 0.84, RMSE peeling process. The bacterial transfer rate distribution and predictive model derived from this work could be used in risk assessment of V. parahaemolyticus to ensure peeled shrimp safety. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Utilization of banana peel as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production by Halobacteriaceae archaeon AS65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooklin, Chanika Saenge; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, biosurfactant-producing bacteria was evaluated for biosurfactant production by using banana peel as a sole carbon source. From the 71 strains screened, Halobacteriaceae archaeon AS65 produced the highest biosurfactant activity. The highest biosurfactant production (5.30 g/l) was obtained when the cells were grown on a minimal salt medium containing 35 % (w/v) banana peel and 1 g/l commercial monosodium glutamate at 30 °C and 200 rpm after 54 h of cultivation. The biosurfactant obtained by extraction with ethyl acetate showed high surface tension reduction (25.5 mN/m), a small critical micelle concentration value (10 mg/l), thermal and pH stability with respect to surface tension reduction and emulsification activity, and a high level of salt tolerance. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a lipopeptide by using a biochemical test FT-IR, NMR, and mass spectrometry. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and had the ability to emulsify oil, enhance PAHs solubility, and oil bioremediation.

  20. Protective effects of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and their bioactive compounds on oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-Tsi; Chu, Heuy-Ling; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Chu, Chin-Chen; Duh, Pin-Der

    2012-12-15

    Protective effects of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and their bioactive compounds on oxidative stress were investigated. According to HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS analysis, hesperidin (HD), hesperetin (HT), nobiletin (NT), and tangeretin (TT) were present in water extracts of sweet orange peel (WESP). The cytotoxic effect in 0.2mM t-BHP-induced HepG2 cells was inhibited by WESP and their bioactive compounds. The protective effect of WESP and their bioactive compounds in 0.2mM t-BHP-induced HepG2 cells may be associated with positive regulation of GSH levels and antioxidant enzymes, decrease in ROS formation and TBARS generation, increase in the mitochondria membrane potential and Bcl-2/Bax ratio, as well as decrease in caspase-3 activation. Overall, WESP displayed a significant cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress, which may be most likely because of the phenolics-related bioactive compounds in WESP, leading to maintenance of the normal redox status of cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitation of Rotundone in Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) Peel and Juice by Stable Isotope Dilution Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Akira; Fukushima, Yusuke; Miyazawa, Norio; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Maeda, Tomoko; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko

    2017-06-21

    Aroma extract dilution analyses of the aromas of peels and juices of white and pink grapefruits revealed that rotundone, responsible for peppery, spicy, and woody odors, was detected for the first time at high flavor dilution factors of 256-1024. In both juices, rotundone was detected at the highest flavor dilution factor of 1024. Rotundone in grapefruits was quantitated by a stable isotope dilution assay with a newly synthesized deuterium-labeled internal standard, rotundone-d 2,3 : its levels were 2180 and 1920 ng/kg in white and pink grapefruit peels and 29.6 and 49.8 ng/kg in white and pink grapefruit juices, respectively. On the basis of these results, sensory analysis was performed to assess the effects of rotundone on a white grapefruit juice aroma reconstitute. This sensory analysis revealed that rotundone does not impart a woody odor or affect any of the existing attributes, but increases various attributes, thus confirming that rotundone is indispensable for the aroma of grapefruit juice.

  2. Novel biocomposite of carboxymethyl chitosan and pineapple peel carboxymethylcellulose as sunscreen carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkom, Lucksanee; Jimtaisong, Ampa

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to prepare of biocomposite of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from Ananas comosus (pineapple) peel for use as broad spectrum sunscreen carrier. Biocomposite was produced by using ferulic acid (FA), a plant extract, as crosslinker with the optimal ratio of CMC: CM-chitosan: FA at 1:2:4%w. FT-IR technique demonstrated that crosslinking may occur at amine group of CM-chitosan and carboxyl group of FA and hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl group of CMC and carboxyl group of FA. Biocomposite is pale yellow powder and present fibre bundle-like surface in the SEM image. DSC, TGA and XRD results indicated that new compound was formed. The particle size of biocomposite is 626nm determined by using Zetasizer. Hydrophilic TiO 2 and phenylbenzimidazole sulphonic acid (PBSA) were used as sunscreen agent at ratio of TiO 2 : PBSA at 2:1%w. The biocomposite sunscreen possesses the SPF value of 2.47 with boost star rating of 3 at 2% compound. The results obtained indicate that the biocomposite was successfully prepared from CM-chitosan and pineapple peel CMC and the system can be used as matrix delivery system for hydrophilic sunscreens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The therapeutic value of glycolic acid peels in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover C

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical peeling or chemexfoliation has become increasingly popular in recent years for treatment of a number of cosmetic skin problems. Topical glycolic acid in the concentration of 10-30% for 3-5 minutes at fortnightly intervals was investigated as a therapeutic peeling agent in 41 patients having acne (39%, melasma (36.5%, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (12% and superficial scarring of varied etiology (12%. A final evaluation done at 16 weeks revealed that this modality is useful especially in superficial scarring and melasma, moderately successful in acne patients with no response in dermal pigmentation. No significant untoward effects were seen.

  4. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Power, Polyphenols, Flavonoids and Betacyanins of the Peel and Pulp of Three Tunisian Opuntia Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila K.; Guyot, Sylvain; Sotin, Hélène; Ayadi, Malika T.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of methanol extracts from peel and pulp belonging to two species of Tunisian prickly pears Opuntia ficus indica (spiny and thornless forms) and Opuntia stricta have been studied. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The total phenolic compound (TPC) and the total flavonoid content were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method, respectively. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that O. stricta fruits present the best antioxidant activities than the two forms of O. ficus indica, while the TPC was more important in O. ficus indica than in the O. stricta fruits. The peels have higher flavonoids than pulp, and the thornless variety has more flavonoid than the spiny. The RP-HPLC and ESI-MS analysis detected two classes of phenolic compounds and betalain pigments. Isorhamnetin derivatives are the dominant flavonol glycoside identified in O. ficus indica (spiny: 65.25 μg·g−1; thornless: 77.03 μg·g−1) and O. stricta peels (19.22 μg·g−1). PMID:26787622

  5. In vitro antioxidant, hypoglycemic and oral glucose tolerance test of banana peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Navghare

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Banana fruit is claimed to have antidiabetic effects despite its high calorie content, and its peels also contain vital phytoconstituents including gallocatechin. Previously banana pulp has been studied for antihyperglycemic effects, and in the present investigation antihyperglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of inner peels of Musa sapientum (EMS, Musa paradisiaca (EMP, Musa cavendish (EMC and Musa acuminata (EMA fruit was evaluated using oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic rats. In vitro antioxidant study was conducted using DPPH, H2O2 radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing power assay. Wistar rats were divided into fourteen groups and twelve groups received different doses of aforementioned extracts, while control group received gum acacia solution and remaining group received standard drug, glimepiride. All the rats received glucose load at a dose of 2 g/kg body weight. Groups treated with EMC and EMA showed significant decrease in glucose level (p < 0.01 at 150 min as compared to control group. In hypoglycemic study, only EMP 500 mg/kg, p.o. treated group revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in glucose level at 120 min, while other groups did not show any sign of hypoglycemia. In glucose tolerance test, animals treated with EMC and EMA depicted dose dependent antihyperglycemic effect at 150 min while EMS and EMP showed significant reduction in plasma glucose at higher doses. In a similar fashion, EMA i.e. M. acuminata demonstrated highest antioxidant activity followed by EMC against DPPH radical. In ferric reducing power and H2O2 scavenging assay, EMA demonstrated maximal antioxidant activity when compared with other extracts.

  6. HEMI-TEMPORAL INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING IS AS EFFECTIVE AND SAFE AS CONVENTIONAL FULL PEELING FOR MACULAR HOLE SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Akira; Kogo, Jiro; Sasaki, Hiroki; Yomoda, Ryo; Jujo, Tatsuya; Tokuda, Naoto; Kitaoka, Yasushi; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2018-05-09

    To investigate the efficacy of hemi-temporal internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for idiopathic macular hole. The medical records of patients with macular holes who had undergone vitrectomy with ILM peeling were studied. Forty-two eyes with macular hole were divided into 2 groups based on surgical procedure (hemi-temporal ILM peeling [hemi group]: 15 eyes; 360° ILM peeling [360° group]: 27 eyes). The closure rates and distances between the optic disc and the intersection of two retinal vessels most closely located nasally or temporally to the macular hole were compared. The primary closure rates were not significantly different between the two groups (hemi group: 93.3%; 360° group: 92.5%, P = 0.92). The temporal retinal vessels in the hemi group were displaced 120.5 ± 102.0 µm toward the optic disc at 1 week postoperatively, which did not differ significantly from the 360° group (136.1 ± 106.1 µm) (P = 0.107). However, the nasal retinal vessels in the hemi group were displaced by 42.4 ± 42.9 µm at 1 week postoperatively, which was significantly less than the 90.1 ± 77.3 µm displacement seen in the 360° group (P = 0.040). Hemi-temporal ILM peeling may be preferable to 360° ILM peeling because of less displacement of the retina and greater safety.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  7. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling versus vitrectomy with no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi; Scott, Neil; Burr, Jennifer; Cook, Jonathan; Boachie, Charles; Tadayoni, Ramin; la Cour, Morten; Christensen, Ulrik; Kwok, Alvin

    2013-06-05

    Several observational studies have suggested the potential benefit of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling to treat idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). However, no strong evidence is available on the potential benefit(s) of this surgical manoeuvre and uncertainty remains among vitreoretinal surgeons about the indication for peeling the ILM, whether to use it in all cases or in long-standing and/or larger holes.  To determine whether ILM peeling improves anatomical and functional outcomes of macular hole surgery compared with the no-peeling technique and to investigate the impact of different parameters such as presenting vision, stage/size of the hole and duration of symptoms in the success of the surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to February 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to February 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to February 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We searched the reference lists of included studies for any additional studies not identified by the electronic searches. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 28 February 2013.We searched reference lists of the studies included in the review for information about other studies on ILM peeling in macular hole surgery. We searched Proceedings for the following conferences up to February 2013: American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO), Annual Meeting of the American Society of Retina Specialists

  8. Peeling skin syndrome associated with novel variant in FLG2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfares, Ahmed; Al-Khenaizan, Sultan; Al Mutairi, Fuad

    2017-12-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a rare genodermatosis characterized by variably pruritic superficial generalized peeling of the skin with several genes involved until now little is known about the association between FLG2 and peeling skin syndrome. We describe multiple family members from a consanguineous Saudi family with peeling skin syndrome. Next Generation Sequencing identifies a cosegregating novel variant in FLG2 c.632C>G (p.Ser211*) as a likely etiology in this family. Here, we reported on the clinical manifestation of homozygous loss of function variant in FLG2 as a disease-causing gene for peeling skin syndrome and expand the dermatology findings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Efficacy of modified Jessner′s peel and 20% TCA versus 20% TCA peel alone for the treatment of acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of studies on the use of chemical peels for acne scars among the Asian population. A trichloroacetic acid (TCA and Jessner′s combination chemical peel, originally described by Monheit, is said to be better than a TCA peel alone. Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of 20% TCA and Jessner′s solution versus 20% TCA alone for the treatment of acne scars. Materials and Methods : The patients were divided into two groups of 25 patients each. Chemical peeling was done in both the groups. In Group I, chemical peeling with Jessner′s peel followed by 20% TCA was done and in Group II patients chemical peeling with 20% TCA peel alone was done. Results: In Group I (Jessner′s peel and 20% TCA, mild improvement of acne scars was seen in 8% cases, moderate improvement in 32% cases and marked improvement of acne scars was seen in 60% patients. In Group II (20% TCA, mild improvement of acne scars was seen in 32% cases, moderate improvement in 40% cases and marked improvement of acne scars was seen in 28% patients. But, the difference in improvement of acne scars was not statistically significant in both the groups (P value > 0.05.

  10. INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING IN MACULAR HOLE SURGERY; WHY, WHEN, AND HOW?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziralli, Irini P; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis G; Steel, David H W

    2018-05-01

    To review the current rationale for internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in macular hole (MH) surgery and to discuss the evidence base behind why, when, and how surgeons peel the ILM. Review of the current literature. Pars plana vitrectomy is an effective treatment for idiopathic MH, and peeling of the ILM has been shown to improve closure rates and to prevent postoperative reopening. However, some authors argue against ILM peeling because it results in a number of changes in retinal structure and function and may not be necessary in all cases. Furthermore, the extent of ILM peeling optimally performed and the most favorable techniques to remove the ILM are uncertain. Several technique variations including ILM flaps, ILM scraping, and foveal sparing ILM peeling have been described as alternatives to conventional peeling in specific clinical scenarios. Internal limiting membrane peeling improves MH closure rates but can have several consequences on retinal structure and function. Adjuvants to aid peeling, instrumentation, technique, and experience may all alter the outcome. Hole size and other variables are important in assessing the requirement for peeling and potentially its extent. A variety of evolving alternatives to conventional peeling may improve outcomes and need further study.

  11. Banana peel: A novel substrate for cellulase production under solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... The feasibility of using banana peel for the production of cellulase by Trichoderma viride GIM 3.0010 in solid-state fermentation was evaluated in this study. The effect of incubation time, incubation temperature, initial moisture content of the medium, inoculum size and supplementation of carbon sources ...

  12. The peeling process of infinite Boltzmann planar maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budd, Timothy George

    2016-01-01

    criterion has a very simple interpretation. The finite random planar maps under consideration were recently proved to possess a well-defined local limit known as the infinite Boltzmann planar map (IBPM). Inspired by recent work of Curien and Le Gall, we show that the peeling process on the IBPM can...

  13. Protein enrichment of cassava peel by submerged fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... enzyme and non-enzyme pre-treated cassava peel. ... T. viride in the fermentor revealed that dry biomass increased in crude protein, true protein, crude fat, ... either directly for human food or indirectly by conversion to animal ...

  14. Apple-peel atresia presenting as foetal intestinal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple-peel atresia or Type 3 jejuno-ileal atresia (JIA) is an uncommon cause of foetal intestinal obstruction. Bowel obstruction in the foetus is diagnosed on the prenatal ultrasonography only in 50% cases. We report a case in which foetal intestinal obstruction was diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography. The child showed ...

  15. Chemical Constituents from the Fruit Peel of Goniothalamus scortechinii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryanti Abdullah; Zuriati Zakaria; Fasihuddin Ahmad; Mat-Salleh, K.; Laily Din

    2009-01-01

    The phytochemicals investigation on the fruit peel of Goniothalamus scortechinii (Selayar Raja Ubat) obtained from Gunung Stong, Kelantan has resulted in the isolation of five compounds namely pinocembrine, altholactone, goniofufurone, goniotriol and goniopypyrone. Their structures were determined extensive ultra violet (UV), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GCMS) analysis. (author)

  16. Life cycle assessment of orange peel waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negro, Viviana; Ruggeri, Bernardo; Fino, Debora

    2017-01-01

    on-land digestate use. Orange peel waste use for animal feeding, while appearing interesting from an environmental perspective (for example to reduce meal imports), presents practical challenges as far as the nutritional aspects and costs are concerned, and these eventually hinder its market...

  17. Effect of supplementation of cassava peel meal based diet with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A four-week experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility and economic indices of broiler finishers fed soaked and sun-dried cassava peel meal (CPM) based diet. CPM was included in the diets replacing maize at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% ...

  18. Optimization of biogas production from banana peels: Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The matooke processing industry being set up by the Presidential Initiative on Banana Industrial Development ... a solution to that waste, but information on the pre-treatment of the matooke peel waste is inadequate. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  19. Investigation of waste banana peels and radish leaves for their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is mainly based on the production of biodiesel and bioethanol from waste banana peels and radish leaves. The oily content from both the samples were converted to biodiesel by acid catalyzed and base catalyzed transesterification using methanol and ethanol. The biodiesel so obtained was subjected to ...

  20. Hydrocarbon Degradation In Poultry Droppings And Cassava Peels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This greenhouse study was aimed at determining the potentials of poultry droppings (PD) and cassava peels (CP) for nutrient-enhanced biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (THC) in a well drained Typic Paleustults using the THC levels and degradation duration as remediation indices. The performance of the organic ...

  1. Protein enrichment of cassava peel by submerged fermentation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peel is one of the solid wastes produced as a consequence of cassava processing. It is low in protein but contains a large amount of carbohydrate, causing an environmental problem with disposal. In order to add-value to this major cassava processing waste and also reduce its resultant ...

  2. Novel TGM5 mutations in acral peeling skin syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Jaap J. A. J.; van Geel, Michel; Nellen, Ruud G. L.; Jonkman, Marcel F.; McGrath, John A.; Nanda, Arti; Sprecher, Eli; van Steensel, Maurice A. M.; McLean, W. H. Irwin; Cassidy, Andrew J.

    Acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS, MIM #609796) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by superficial exfoliation and blistering of the volar and dorsal aspects of hands and feet. The level of separation is at the junction of the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum. APSS is caused

  3. Dermal morphological changes following salicylic acid peeling and microdermabrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Motaleb, Amira A; Abu-Dief, Eman E; Hussein, Mahmoud Ra

    2017-12-01

    Microdermabrasion and chemical peeling are popular, inexpensive, and safe methods for treatment of some skin disorders and to rejuvenate skin. To study the alterations of the dermal connective tissue following salicylic acid peeling and microdermabrasion. Twenty patients were participated in our study. All participants underwent facial salicylic acid 30% peel or microdermabrasion (10 cases in each group) weekly for 6 weeks. Punch biopsies were obtained from the clinically normal skin of the right postauricular region 1 week before treatment (control group). Other punch skin biopsies were obtained 1 week after the end of the treatments from the left postauricular area. This region was treated in a similar way to the adjacent lesional skin (treated group). We used routine histological techniques (H&E stain), special stains (Masson trichrome and orcein stains), and image analyzer to study the alterations of the dermal connective tissues. Our study demonstrates variations in the morphological changes between the control and the treated groups, and between chemical peels and microdermabrasion. Both salicylic acid 30% and microdermabrasion were associated with thickened epidermal layer, shallow dermal papillae, dense collagen, and elastic fibers. There was a significant increase among those treated sites vs control regarding epidermal thickness and collagen thickness. Also, there was a highly statistically significant increase among those treated with salicylic acid vs microdermabrasion regarding the epidermal, collagen, and elastin thickness. Both methods stimulate the repair process. The mechanisms underlying these variations are open for further investigations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. (Pleurotus pulmonarius) grown on cotton waste and cassava peel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work evaluated the yield of Pleurotus pulmonarius on different mixtures of cotton waste and cassava peel. P. pulmonarius demonstrated significantly higher colonization rate on cotton waste substrate (100 g cotton waste) 3 weeks after inoculation of spawn than any other substrate mixtures. Cotton waste had the ...

  5. Effect of refrigerated storage on probiotic viability and the production and stability of antimutagenic and antioxidant peptides in yogurt supplemented with pineapple peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, B N P; Vasiljevic, T; McKechnie, S; Donkor, O N

    2015-09-01

    Fruit by-products are good resources of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals, which may function as growth nutrients for probiotic bacteria. This research aimed at evaluating effects of pineapple peel powder addition on the viability and activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC 4356), Lactobacillus casei (ATCC393), and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (ATCC BAA52) in yogurts throughout storage at 4°C for 28d. Plain and probiotic yogurts supplemented with or without pineapple peel powder or inulin were prepared. The probiotic counts in supplemented yogurts at 28d of storage ranged from 7.68 and 8.03 log cfu/g, one log cycle higher compared with nonsupplemented control yogurt. Degree of proteolysis in synbiotic yogurts was significantly higher than plain yogurts and increased substantially during storage. Crude water-soluble peptide extract of the probiotic yogurt with peel possessed stronger antimutagenic and antioxidant activities [evaluated measuring reducing power and scavenging capacity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and hydroxyl radicals] than control and maintained during storage. Pineapple peel, a by-product of juice production, could be proposed as a prebiotic ingredient in the manufacture of yogurts with enhanced nutrition, and functionality. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Polyphenolic resin synthesis: optimizing plantain peel biomass as heavy metal adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Cordero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPolyphenolic resol resins were obtained from an ethanolic extraction of green plantain peels (Musa paradisiaca grown in Colombia. A synthesis was then performed by polycondensation in an alkaline pH solution in order to perform research on phenolic resin production with high mechanical performance. The polymers were characterized by DSC and TGA analyses and the resins showed a melting point of 94 °C and the typical properties of resol resins. Moreover, the synthesis was controlled using the infrared technique (FTIR where different organic functional groups present in the polymers obtained are observed. The obtained resins were used as heavy metal adsorbents in which the content of those toxic agents is measured by Atomic Absorption Analysis (AA indicating that these resins have a high retention affinity to Pb+2, Ni+2 and Cr+3 (79.01%, 98.48%, 94.14%, respectively as determined by Freundlich isotherms.

  7. Isolation and purification of bromelain from waste peel of pineapple for therapeutic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Rocha Antunes Pereira Bresolin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to isolate and purify bromelain extracted from the pineapple peel by ammonium sulfate precipitation (40-80%, followed by desalting and freeze-drying with a 75% activity recovery and 2.2 fold increased specific activity. Ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose was able to separate the polysaccharides from the enzyme, which was recovered in the elution step, maintaining its enzymatic activity. The batch adsorption of bromelain was evaluated in terms of total protein and enzymatic activity using Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich models. Results showed that the process could be suitable for the recovery and purification of the enzyme, maintaining its specific activity.

  8. Local characterization of fiber-Bragg gratings through combined use of low-coherence interferometry and a layer-peeling algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapeleau, Xavier; Leduc, Dominique; Lupi, Cyril; Lopez-Gejo, Francisco; Douay, Marc; Le Ny, Roger; Boisrobert, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The technique presented here allows us to obtain an accurate determination of the refractive index modulation amplitude, the mean effective index, and the chirp of fiber-Bragg gratings. A layer-peeling algorithm is used to extract this information from low-coherence interferometry measurements. Finally, we present a systematic study over 10 uniform and chirped gratings to proof the reliability and accuracy of this technique

  9. Improving carotenoid extraction from tomato waste by pulsed electric fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eLuengo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the influence of the application of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF of different intensities (3-7 kV/cm and 0-300 μs on the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel and pulp in a mixture of hexane:acetone:ethanol was studied with the aim of increasing extraction yield or reducing the percentage of the less green solvents in the extraction medium. According to the cellular disintegration index, the optimum treatment time for the permeabilization of tomato peel and pulp at different electric field strengths was 90 µs. The PEF permeabilization of tomato pulp did not significantly increase the carotenoid extraction. However, a PEF-treatment at 5 kV/cm improved the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel by 39 % as compared with the control in a mixture of hexane:ethanol:acetone (50:25:25. Further increments of electric field from 5 to 7 kV/cm did not increase significantly the extraction of carotenoids. . The presence of acetone in the solvent mixture did not positively affect the carotenoid extraction when the tomato peels were PEF-treated. Response surface methodology was used to determine the potential of PEF for reducing the percentage of hexane in a hexane:ethanol mixture. The application of a PEF-treatment allowed reducing the hexane percentage from 45 to 30 % without affecting the carotenoid extraction yield. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts obtained from tomato peel was correlated with the carotenoid concentration and it was not affected by the PEF-treatment.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of internal limiting membrane peeling versus no peeling for patients with an idiopathic full-thickness macular hole: results from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternent, Laura; Vale, Luke; Boachie, Charles; Burr, Jennifer M; Lois, Noemi

    2012-03-01

    To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling is cost-effective compared with no peeling for patients with an idiopathic stage 2 or 3 full-thickness macular hole. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed alongside a randomised controlled trial. 141 participants were randomly allocated to receive macular-hole surgery, with either ILM peeling or no peeling. Health-service resource use, costs and quality of life were calculated for each participant. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained was calculated at 6 months. At 6 months, the total costs were on average higher (£424, 95% CI -182 to 1045) in the No Peel arm, primarily owing to the higher reoperation rate in the No Peel arm. The mean additional QALYs from ILM peel at 6 months were 0.002 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.013), adjusting for baseline EQ-5D and other minimisation factors. A mean incremental cost per QALY was not computed, as Peeling was on average less costly and slightly more effective. A stochastic analysis suggested that there was more than a 90% probability that Peeling would be cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000 per QALY. Although there is no evidence of a statistically significant difference in either costs or QALYs between macular hole surgery with or without ILM peeling, the balance of probabilities is that ILM Peeling is likely to be a cost-effective option for the treatment of macular holes. Further long-term follow-up data are needed to confirm these findings.

  11. Fovea sparing internal limiting membrane peeling using multiple parafoveal curvilinear peels for myopic foveoschisis: technique and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haiying; Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Peiquan

    2016-10-18

    To introduce a modified surgical technique, the "parafoveal multiple curvelinear internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling", to preserve epi-foveal ILM in myopic foveoschisis surgery. Consecutive patients with myopic foveoschisis were enrolled in the present prospective interventional case series. The surgeries were performed using transconjunctival 23-gauge system. The macular area was divided into quadrants. ILM was peeled off in a curvilinear manner centered around the site that was away from the central fovea in each quadrant. Shearing forces were used to control the direction to keep the peeling away from central fovea. ILM at central fovea of about 500 to 1000 μm was preserved by this technique. This technique was performed in 20 eyes of 20 consecutive patients. Epi-foveal ILM was successfully preserved in all cases using the technique. Patients were followed up for more than 12 months. The mean postoperative logMAR visual acuity improved from 1.67 ± 0.65 preoperatively to 1.15 ± 0.49 (P = 0.015; paired t-test). Postoperative OCT examinations showed that full-thickness macular holes (MHs) did not developed in any case. Central fovea thickness decreased from 910 ± 261 μm preoperatively to 125 ± 85 postoperatively (P = 0.001; paired t-test). Fovea sparing ILM peeling using multiple parafoveal curvilinear peels prevents the development of postoperative full-thickness MHs in eyes with myopic foveoschisis.

  12. Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachma Wikandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m3 methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel.

  13. Improvement of biogas production from orange peel waste by leaching of limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20-40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m(3) methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel.

  14. Alpha-hydroxyacid chemical peeling agents: case studies and rationale for safe and effective use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briden, M Elizabeth

    2004-02-01

    Chemical peeling is an in-office procedure that involves the application of a chemical agent to the skin to induce controlled destruction or exfoliation of old skin and stimulation of new epidermal growth with more evenly distributed melanin. When peel agents reach the dermal layer, important wound-healing activities occur that cause skin remodeling and skin smoothing, both antiaging benefits. There are a number of key factors in selecting a peeling agent and procedure, and each is discussed. Variables to consider are the peeling agent and its formulation, the concentration of the agent, the patient's skin type, the site to be peeled, the skin preparation procedure prior to and immediately preceding the application of the agent, the application method, the duration of contact, and the patient's medical history and lifestyle. Various types of peels are discussed. Of particular interest are superficial chemical peels, which offer great flexibility over a range of skin types and conditions with minimal to no "downtime." Alpha-hydroxyacid (AHA) peels are superficial and can be combined with other cosmetic procedures in the office to maximize benefits. In addition, AHA peels work well when combined with supportive homecare products including AHAs or polyhydroxy acids (PHAs), topical retinoids, and antiacne/antirosacea treatments. Case studies are presented of patients using AHA peels for the treatment of acne and hyperpigmentation in a variety of skin types, including Asian skin.

  15. Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m3 methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel. PMID:25866787

  16. Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling to Prevent Post-vitrectomy Epiretinal Membrane Development in Retinal Detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Kunihiko; Fujinami, Kaoru; Watanabe, Ken; Tsunoda, Kazushige; Noda, Toru

    2016-11-01

    To determine the efficacy of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling during vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) regarding post-vitrectomy epiretinal membrane (ERM) development and visual outcomes. Retrospective, interventional, comparative case series. Setting: Institutional. One hundred and two consecutive eyes with RRD treated with vitrectomy and followed for at least 6 months. ILM was peeled without using dye such as indocyanine green (ICG). Observational Procedures: Patients were divided into 2 groups based on postoperative ERM development: Group 1, 81 eyes without ERM formation; Group 2, 21 eyes with ERM development. Patients also were divided into 2 subgroups: those with and without ILM peeling (58 and 44 eyes, respectively). Statistical analyses were performed between the 2 groups with/without ERM formation and between the 2 subgroups with/without ILM peeling for 5 preoperative factors including foveal involvement of the RRD, 4 intraoperative factors including ILM peeling, baseline best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and final BCVA. An association of ILM peeling with ERM prevention and the influence of ILM peeling on visual outcomes. ILM peeling was significantly (P peeling. ILM peeling without ICG staining during the initial vitrectomy for RRDs may prevent postoperative ERM formation with favorable visual outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of combination of glycolic acid peeling with topical regimen in treatment of melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Savita; Dayal, Surabhi

    2013-10-01

    Various treatment modalities are available for management of melasma, ranging from topical and oral to chemical peeling, but none is promising alone. Very few studies are available regarding efficacy of combination of topical treatment with chemical peeling. Combination of chemical peeling and topical regimen can be a good treatment modality in the management of this recalcitrant disorder. To assess the efficacy of combination of topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling in the treatment of melasma in Indian patients. Forty Indian patients of moderate to severe epidermal variety melasma were divided into two groups of 20 each. One Group i.e. peel group received topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling and other group i.e. control group received topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone, 0.05% tretinoin). There was an overall decrease in MASI from baseline in 24 weeks of therapy in both the groups (P value peel with topical regimen showed early and greater improvement than the group which was receiving topical regimen only. This study concluded that combining topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling significantly enhances the therapeutic efficacy of glycolic acid peeling. The combination of glycolic acid peeling with the topical regimen is a highly effective, safe and promising therapeutic option in treatment of melasma.

  18. Decreased retinal sensitivity after internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayoni, Ramin; Svorenova, Ivana; Erginay, Ali; Gaudric, Alain; Massin, Pascale

    2012-12-01

    To compare the retinal sensitivity and frequency of microscotomas found by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) combined with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) microperimetry after idiopathic macular hole closure, in eyes that underwent internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and eyes that did not. This was a retrospective, non-randomised, comparative study. Combined SD-OCT and SLO microperimetry was performed in 16 consecutive eyes after closure of an idiopathic macular hole. A customised microperimetry pattern with 29 measurement points was used. The ILM was peeled in 8/16 eyes. The main outcome measure was mean retinal sensitivity. Mean retinal sensitivity (in dB) was lower after peeling: 9.80 ± 2.35 dB with peeling versus 13.19 ± 2.92 without (p=0.0209). Postoperative microscotomas were significantly more frequent after ILM peeling: 11.3 ± 6.6 points with retinal sensitivity below 10 dB in eyes that underwent peeling versus 2.9 ± 4.6 in those that did not (p=0.0093). These results suggest that ILM peeling may reduce retinal sensitivity, and significantly increase the incidence of microscotomas. Until a prospective trial confirming or not these results, it seems justified to avoid peeling the ILM when its potential benefit seems minor or unproved, and when peeling is carried out, to limit the surface peeled to the bare minimum.

  19. Intermittent stick-slip dynamics during the peeling of an adhesive tape from a roller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Guerra, Claudia; Cohen, Caroline; Ciccotti, Matteo; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc

    2013-02-01

    We study experimentally the fracture dynamics during the peeling at a constant velocity of a roller adhesive tape mounted on a freely rotating pulley. Thanks to a high speed camera, we measure, in an intermediate range of peeling velocities, high frequency oscillations between phases of slow and rapid propagation of the peeling fracture. This so-called stick-slip regime is well known as the consequence of a decreasing fracture energy of the adhesive in a certain range of peeling velocity coupled to the elasticity of the peeled tape. Simultaneously with stick slip, we observe low frequency oscillations of the adhesive roller angular velocity which are the consequence of a pendular instability of the roller submitted to the peeling force. The stick-slip dynamics is shown to become intermittent due to these slow pendular oscillations which produce a quasistatic oscillation of the peeling angle while keeping constant the peeling fracture velocity (averaged over each stick-slip cycle). The observed correlation between the mean peeling angle and the stick-slip amplitude questions the validity of the usually admitted independence with the peeling angle of the fracture energy of adhesives.

  20. Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method; Analise de extratos de plantas medicinais pelo metodo de ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaz, Sandra Muntz

    1996-12-31

    This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed 70 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs