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Sample records for augmented radioiodine therapy

  1. Radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine (131I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  2. Teenage hyperthyroidism and radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Objective: To assess the efficacy of radioiodine therapy in teenage patients with hyperthyroidism. Method: The medical records of 28 patients (age range 16 -18 years) were purposely selected from a pool of 3637 hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine during the period January 1982 to December 2006. Data for analysis included the age, sex, clinical symptoms, type of hyperthyroidism, antithyroid medications received, doses of radioiodine therapy given and the outcome of the therapy after one and five years. Results: The mean age of the patients treated for hyperthyroidism was 17.60 ± 0.73 years and 82 % were females. The most common type of hyperthyroidism was Graves' disease (75%). All patients were pre-treated with antithyroid drugs for variable duration periods (6 months to 2 years). The mean administered dose of radioiodine was 10.69 ± 2.77 mCi. The dose of I-131 was calculated on the basis of gland size and morphology (assessment by palpation and scintigraphy) and percentage of radioactive iodine uptake. Effective control of hyperthyroidism after radioiodine treatment occurred in 60.72% patients with a single dose, 35.71% required a second dose and 3.57% required more than two doses. Frequency of early hypothyroidism within one year was 38.09 % in Graves' disease and 33.33% in toxic multinodular goiter. Most patients (66.66%) in the toxic nodule group remained euthyroid up to one year after I-131 therapy. Overall incidence rates of hypothyroidism after 1 year and 5 years of radioiodine therapy were 32.14% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion: Hyperthyroidism in the teen group of patients was effectively controlled with radioiodine. There were no early side effects. The only long-term effect was hypothyroidism. Appearance of early/late hypothyroidism showed a direct relationship with the type of hyperthyroidism and the dose of radioiodine administered. In general, patients with Graves' disease showed a greater tendency in the evolution of early

  3. Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymph nodes and other parts of the body. Radioactive iodine therapy improves the survival rate of patients with papillary ... and benefits of RAI therapy with your doctor. Radioactive iodine therapy cannot be used to treat anaplastic (undifferentiated) and ...

  4. Endocrine ophthalmopathy and radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, F. Anders [Uppsala Univ. Hospital, Inst. of Medical Sciences (Sweden). Section of Endocrinology and Diabetes

    2006-12-15

    Endocrine ophthalmopathy is to some degree present in most patients with Graves' disease. In few cases, a severe form of the condition develops and in the majority of these cases, the course of the eye problems has been influenced by the treatment for thyrotoxicosis. In this regard, radioiodine therapy has been increasingly recognized as carrying a special risk. Here, the current understanding of endocrine ophthalmopathy and the risks associated with the development of severe eye disease are discussed. The results of a retrospective investigation of patients with severe eye disease in our hospital, and the experience with corticosteroid administration following radioiodine in order to reduce the risk of ophthalmopathy, are also presented.

  5. Radioiodine therapy in benign thyroid diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, Steen Joop; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    from (131)I therapy. The individual radiosensitivity, still poorly defined and impossible to quantify, may be a major determinant of the outcome from (131)I therapy. Above all, the impact of (131)I therapy relies on the iodine-concentrating ability of the thyroid gland. The thyroid (131)I uptake (or......Radioiodine ((131)I) therapy of benign thyroid diseases was introduced 70 yr ago, and the patients treated since then are probably numbered in the millions. Fifty to 90% of hyperthyroid patients are cured within 1 yr after (131)I therapy. With longer follow-up, permanent hypothyroidism seems...... of an exact thyroid dose is error-prone due to imprecise measurement of the (131)I biokinetics, and the importance of internal dosimetric factors, such as the thyroid follicle size, is probably underestimated. Besides these obstacles, several potential confounders interfere with the efficacy of (131)I therapy...

  6. Long-term efficacy of modified-release recombinant human TSH (MRrhTSH) augmented radioiodine (131I) therapy for benign multinodular goiter. Results from a multicenter international, randomized, placebo-controlled dose-selection study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Søren; Hegedus, Laszlo; Pacini, Furio;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Enhanced reduction of multinodular goiter (MNG) can be achieved by stimulation with recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) before radioiodine (131I) therapy. The objective was to compare the long-term efficacy and safety of two low doses of modified release rhTSH (MRrhTSH) in combinati...

  7. Thyrotoxicosis and radioiodine therapy: Does the dose matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Collier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 3 treatment options for thyrotoxicosis: Antithyroid drugs, Surgery and radioiodine. The choice of treatment varies geographically. Radioiodine therapy is preferred in the United States. The aim of radioiodine is to destroy sufficient thyroid tissue to cure the hyperthyroidism. There is a lack of consensus towards what dose of radioiodine should be used. Several methods are used to determine the dose. In our practice we administer 400 MBq to patients with Graves and in patients with large multinodular goiter, we would administer 800 MBq.

  8. Air monitoring in radioiodine therapy ward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Radioiodine therapy wards, in general the radiation exposure due to air borne activity from patients administered with 925MBq-7.4GBq (25-200mCi) of 131I has to be kept under regulatory limits. The purpose of conducting an air monitoring in our setup was to assess air borne activity levels. If the levels are high then it may lead to increased exposure to the occupational workers and patient's attendants. A total of 22.2GBq (600 mCi) 131I is administered every week to our patients in the isolation ward. After administered of 131I in the dose administration room, patients occupy their respective beds. The isolation beds are provided with attached toilet facility. Six air samples were collected from various regions (high dose room, low dose room, dose administration room, special room, corridor and entrance) in the vacuumized vials (9 ml) using 16 G needle at the breathing zone level. One control sample was also collected from the area with no possible 131I air-contamination. The vials were then counted in the pre-calibrated NaI well counter (known efficiency). The maximum air borne radioiodine concentration was found to be 1.999x10-6 ?Ci/cm3 in the high dose room (which keeps on decreasing with time, being maximum on second day and zero on third and subsequent days). We measured the thyroid counts of the staff and patient's attendants, routinely. The estimated thyroid activity never showed any significant increase in the thyroid uptake of the staff and patient's attendants. In our setup, air monitoring is strictly followed and performed periodically. We conclude that air monitoring program is only one element of the comprehensive radiation protection program and should be a made mandatory practice. (author)

  9. Recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated radioiodine therapy of nodular goiter allows major reduction of the radiation burden with retained efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Søren; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Grupe, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    Context and Objective: Stimulation with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) before radioiodine ((131)I) therapy augments goiter volume reduction (GVR). Observations indicate that rhTSH has a preconditioning effect beyond increasing thyroid (131)I uptake. We test the hypothesis that an equivalent GVR...

  10. Results of radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work is the quantification of therapy results of a radioiodine therapy with Iodine 131 on 367 patients with the following benign thyroid diseases: euthyroidal struma, hyperthyroidism, hyperthyroidal struma and autonomous adenoma. 1. Euthyroidal struma - subjective improvement and objective diminution of the struma by 63%, subjective or objective improvement by 21% of the patients. Including the probable successful therapies the success rate was all together 90.1%. 2. Hyperthyroidism - after one-time/more-time (18.6%) radioiodine therapy the success rate was 71.5/85.7% including latent (8.6/10.0%) and manifest (7.1/8.5%) hypothroidism. 3. Hyperthyroidal struma - after one-time/more-time (16.9%) radioiodine therapy the success rate was 74.7/90.1% including latent (-/5.7%) and manifest (1.4/2.8%) hypothyroidism. 4. Autonomous adenoma - after one-time/two-time (5.2%) radioiodine therapy the success rate was 80.5/84.6% including 15.5% latent hypothyroidism. The results will be discussed in comparison to published data and to operation and thyrostatic treatment. (TRV)

  11. Does radioiodine therapy have disadvantageous effects in non-iodine accumulating differentiated thyroid carcinoma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, J; Eustatia-Rutten, CFA; Stokkel, M; Links, TP; Diamant, M; Romijn, JA; Smit, JWA; van der Velde, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although radioiodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma without radioiodine accumulation has not been considered harmful, increased thyrotrophin levels during thyroxine withdrawal without the benefit of radiotoxicity as well as the selection of de-differentiated cells may have di

  12. The secondary hypothyroidism after radioiodine therapy and the replacement treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The secondary hypothyroidism is the most important intercurrent disease after radioiodine therapy. The early hypothyroidism and the late hypothyroidism are incompletely different in pathogenesis. It needs researching further. there has not yet been an affirmable answer to choose the distillates from animal hypothyroid extract or complex preparation of levo-thyroxine in replacement treatment. (authors)

  13. Dosage assessment for radioiodine therapy in benign thyroid disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isselt, J.W. van

    2001-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to investigate the value and the shortcomings of the becquerel-per-gram method for radioiodine therapy in various benign thyroid disorders. The history of this treatment form, which goes back to the late 1940s, is described in Chapter 1. Almost fifty years after th

  14. Radioiodine therapy and subsequent pregnancy; Gravidez apos radioiodoterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Carmen Dolores G.; Miranda, Angelica E.; Corres, Nilson Duarte; Sieiro Neto, Lino; Corbo, Rossana; Vaisman, Mario [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Endocrinology and Nuclear Medicine; Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); E-mail: loloi@zaz.com.br

    2007-06-15

    Objectives: To evaluate abortion and fetal congenital anomaly rates in women previously submitted to radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Study design: A case-control study of 108 pregnant women, 48 cases whose pregnancies were evaluated after they had undergone radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and the control group consisted of 60 healthy pregnant women. Results: Of a total of 66 pregnancies, 14 conceived within the first year, 51 one or more years after the last administration of {sup 131}I, the medical record of one patient was not available. The interval between the last radioiodine therapy administration and conception ranged from 1 month to 10 years. There were a total of 4 miscarriages, 2 of them for unknown reasons. There was one case of congenital anomaly and two preterms birth. Nine women presented the following pregnancy events: placental insufficiency, hypertensive crisis, placental detachment, risk of miscarriage, preterm labour and four miscarriages. No statistical difference was observed between the studied and control groups. Conclusion: Radioiodine was followed by no significant increase in untoward effects in neither the pregnancy nor the offspring. (author)

  15. Radio-iodine therapy and Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori is the most important cause of gastritis and related morbidities. Following consumption, radioactive iodine accumulates considerably in the stomach. On the basis of this observation, we decided to determine whether the high radiation induced by radio-iodine in the stomach is effective in the eradication of this infection. All consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, who were referred for radio-iodine therapy [dose 117.1±24.4 mCi (4.3±0.9 GBq), range 100-200 mCi (3.7-7.4 GBq)], were enrolled. To detect H. pylori infection, the urease breath test (UBT) was performed 1-2 h before radio-iodine consumption and the test was repeated 2 months later. Of 88 patients, 71 had pre-treatment positive UBT. Of these, 23 patients had negative post-treatment result, which means a significant reduction (26.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 16.8-35.5%) in the number of positive UBT results in our treated population (32.4% of UBT-positive cases became UBT-negative). Considering the high prevalence of reinfection in developing countries, the therapeutic benefit would have been more considerable if the second UBT had been done with a lag time of less than 2 months. Although radio-iodine therapy is not a logical method for the treatment of patients suffering from H. pylori, our finding provides indirect evidence about the radiosensitivity of bacteria, the future clinical applications of which need to be further evaluated. Also this finding can be useful for the food industry, where radiation is used widely to sterilize food. Regarding the possibility of H. pylori suppression, we recommend not using UBT for screening for the infection for at least within 2 months following radio-iodine therapy. (author)

  16. Recent advances in radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Kyun [Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    Well-differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with an increasing incidence. Most patients with well-differentiated thyroid caner have a favorable prognosis with high survival rate. While surgery and radioiodine therapy is sufficient treatment for the majority of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, a minority of these patients experiences progressive, life-threatening growth and metastatic spread of the disease. Because there is no prospective controlled study to evaluate the differences of management of thyroid cancer, it is hard to choose the best treatment option. And there are still lots of controversies about the management of this disease, such as surgical extent, proper use of radioiodine for remnant ablation and therapy, use of rhTSH instead of withdrawal of thyroid hormone, long-term follow-up strategy, thyroglobulin as a tumor marker, etc. In this review, recent data related to these conflicting issues and recent advances in diagnosis, radioiodine therapy and long-term monitoring of well-differentiated thyroid cancer are summarized.

  17. Beyond radioiodine: novel therapies in advanced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Thyroid cancer is a relatively common endocrine malignancy. Fortunately, many patients do well with standard therapy including surgery and radioiodine. A minority of patients have poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma that is unresponsive to radioiodine therapy. Redifferentiation agents that 'reprogram ' these tumors to concentrate radioiodine would be of great value in treating patients with advanced thyroid cancer. The retinoid isotretinoin is the most extensively studied of these agents. It appears that 20-40% of patients respond to isotretinoin treatment by concentration of radioiodine in metastatic tumors, but the clinical utility of this redifferentiation is still unclear. In vitro studies suggest that the retinoid receptors RARβ and RXRγ are required for this effect. Abnormal DNA methylation may be an early event in thyroid tumorigenesis and methylation of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) may play a role in loss of iodine concentration in these tumors. Inhibitors of methylation (5-azacytidine, phenylacetate and sodium butyrate) have been shown to increase NIS expression and iodine uptake in cell culture models, but published trials in humans are not yet available. Histone acetylation is required for efficient transcription of genes necessary for differentiated function. Proteins that cause histone deacetylation inhibit gene transcription and differentiated function. Inhibitors of histone deacetylation (depsipeptide, trichostatin A) have been shown to increase NIS expression and iodine uptake in poorly differentiated and undifferentiated cell lines. Finally, commonly used agents such as thiazolidine diones (diabetes) and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (hypercholesterolemia) have shown promise in preliminary in vitro studies in advanced thyroid cancer cell lines. Our own work has focused on receptor-selective retinoids and thiazolidine diones as potential therapy in patients with advanced thyroid cancer based on nuclear hormone receptor

  18. Pregnancy and high doses of radio-iodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therapy with high doses of radio-iodine means for both sexes a mutagenous risk for future pregnancies and a direct teratogeneous risk in the case of a prevalent pregnancy. The genetic risk is considered to be negligible, but high doses of radio-iodine will amost always cause radiation-induced athyreosis in the child, if given after the 12th week of gestation. Until the 10th week of gestation an abortion is only indicated when the administered activity of J-131 exceeded 4 GBq. Between the 10th and 12th week of gestation the decision depends on the amount of activity applied, later on abortion should be discussed in any case. (orig.)

  19. Influence of radioiodine therapy on urinary iodine excretion

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    Meller, B.; Lauer, I.; Baehre, M.; Richter, E. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Nuklearmedizin

    1998-05-01

    In 214 patients with benign thyroid diseases the time-course of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was investigated in order to identify changes after radioiodine therapy (RITh). Method: UIE was measured photometrically (cerium-arsenite method) and related to urinary creatinine on the first and last day of the radioiodine test and the three days, seven days, four weeks, and six months after {sup 131}I administration. Results: As compared with the level found immediately before radioiodine therapy, median UIE had almost doubled four weeks after therapy and was still significantly elevated six months after therapy. This increase correlated significantly with the target volume as measured by scintigraphy and sonography. Conclusions: The persistent elevation of UIE for months after RITh is a measure of treatment-induced damage to thyrocytes. Therefore, in view of the unfavourable kinetics of iodine that follow it, RITh should if possible be given via a single-dose regime. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei 214 Patienten mit benignen Schilddruesenerkrankungen wurde der Verlauf der Uriniodausscheidung (UIA) nach Radioiodtherapie untersucht, um posttherapeutische Aenderungen der Iodausscheidung nachzuweisen. Methode: Die UIA wurde am ersten und letzten Tag des Radioiodtestes sowie drei und sieben Tage, vier Wochen und sechs Monate nach {sup 131}I-Applikation photometrisch (Cer-Arsenit-Methode) bestimmt und auf den Kreatiningehalt bezogen. Ergebnisse: Die Uriniodausscheidung stieg nach der Radioiodtherapie signifikant an. Vier Wochen nach Therapie wurden im Median fast dopplet so hohe Werte der UIA gefunden wie unmittelbar davor. Auch sechs Monate nach Therapie war die Uriniodausscheidung noch signifikant erhoeht. Diese Zunahme war signifikant mit dem szinti- und sonographisch bestimmten Zielvolumen verknuepft. Schlussfolgerungen: die noch ueber Monate erhoehte Uriniodausscheidung nach Radioiodtherapie ist ein Mass fuer die therapiebedingte Schaedigung der Thyreozyten. Daher muessen

  20. Therapy for non-toxic multinodular goiter. Radioiodine therapy as attractive alternative to surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Dederichs, B.; Kobe, C.; Theissen, P.; Schmidt, M.; Schicha, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Univ. zu Koeln (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The need for therapy for nodular goiter results from the growth of thyroid nodules over decades and from the possibility of tracheal compression and worsening of respiratory function. Given the high prevalence of non-toxic goiter, the epidemiologically low incidence of clinically apparent thyroid cancer justifies non-surgical strategies. Randomised studies have shown that levothyroxine offers limited therapeutic effects and is inferior to radioiodine therapy regarding goiter shrinkage. When indication for a definitive therapy is given, the choice between resection and radioiodine therapy should consider volume of goiter, severity of clinical symptoms, thyroid uptake, patient's age, co-morbidity, previous resection of goiter, patient's profession and patient's wish. Even in large goiters between 100 and 300 ml radioiodine therapy showed consistent results with goiter size reduction from 35-40% one year and 40-60% two years after radioiodine therapy. Thyroid hormones to prevent recurrence of goiter are not necessary. Recurrent goiters were seldom observed after radioiodine therapy and resulted from initially very large goiters or uptake in dominante nodules or from low {sup 131}I activities. Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) offers the opportunity to enhance the effect of radioiodine therapy. Observational studies have shown that rhTSH increases low {sup 131}I uptake in case of high alimentary iodine-supply by the factor 4, causes a more homogenous {sup 131}I distribution within the goiter and improves goiter reduction. A phase I study for dose finding is running in the USA. Conclusion: radioiodine therapy for shrinkage of large non-toxic goiter should not be restricted to elderly patients, or to patients with co-morbidity or high operative risk, but is an attractive alternative to surgery in patients with special professions (singer, teacher, speaker) or with the wish for a non-invasive treatment modality. (orig.)

  1. Radioiodine therapy for pediatric patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1986 to 1998, 753 patients under the age of 16 were operated on for thyroid cancer. A metastatic disease was diagnosed in 110 (14.6%) cases. In 108 patients (14.3%), there were lung metastases, and in 2 lung and bone metastatic lesions. In 22 of 110 patients (20%), metastases were detected by routine X-ray before therapy. Two patients died without treatment and 108 were selected for radioiodine therapy. Tumor histology was as follows: papillary carcinomas - 104, follicular - 3 and medullary - 1. Sex ratio was 1.2f/1m. Most of the patients had an extended disease. Neck lymph nodes were positive in 103 (95.4%) of cases and in 76 (70.4%) neck metastases were bilateral (pN1b). In 86 patients tumour involved the thyroid capsule and surrounding extrathyroid tissues (pT4). All the patients underwent thyroidectomy with either unilateral or bilateral radical neck dissection. Diffuse lung metastases were diagnosed in 88 cases. A single dose activity of sodium-iodine-131 varied from 3 to 5 GBq. In several advanced cases, the activity of radioiodine in following courses was enhanced up to 7 GBq. The total delivered activity for patients varied from 1.25 up to 43.7 GBq. Response was noted in 107 patients. There were 79 complete responders and in 28 patients partial response was reached. Cancer progression was seen only in one patient with medullary carcinoma, after three courses of radioiodine therapy. All the patients were alive from 6 to 56 months after surgery. (author)

  2. Acute effects of radioiodine therapy on the voice and larynx of basedow-Graves patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves's disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. There are three current therapeutic options: anti-thyroid medication, surgery, and radioactive iodine (I 131). There are few data in the literature regarding the effects of radioiodine therapy on the larynx and voice. The aim of this study was: to assess the effect of radioiodine therapy on the voice of Basedow-Graves patients. Material and method: A prospective study was done. Following the diagnosis of Grave's disease, patients underwent investigation of their voice, measurement of maximum phonatory time (/a/) and the s/z ratio, fundamental frequency analysis (Praat software), laryngoscopy and (perceptive-auditory) analysis in three different conditions: pre-treatment, 4 days, and 20 days post-radioiodine therapy. Conditions are based on the inflammatory pattern of thyroid tissue (Jones et al. 1999). Results: No statistically significant differences were found in voice characteristics in these three conditions. Conclusion: Radioiodine therapy does not affect voice quality. (author)

  3. Body weight gain after radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Analysis and follow up of body weight after radioiodine therapy (RITh) of hyperthyroidism, since excessive weight gain is a common complaint among these patients. Methods: Therapy and body weight related data of 100 consecutive RITh-patients were retrospectively analysed from the time before up to three years after RITh. All patients suffered from hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease or autonomy), but were adjusted to euthyroid levels after RITh. Patients' data were compared to a control group of 48 euthyroid patients out of the same ambulance and during the same time scale. Results: All patients (RITh and controls) gained weight over the time. There was no statistically significant difference in BMI development over three years between RITh-patients and controls (5.5% resp. 4.9% increase). In the first year after RITh, weight gain of the RITh patients was higher indeed, but lower in the follow up, resulting in the same range of weight gain after three years as the controls. Besides that women showed a slightly higher increase of BMI than men, and so did younger patients compared to elder as well as patients with overweight already before RITh. Conclusions: An initially distinct increase of body weight after RITh of hyperthyroidism is mainly a compensation of pretherapeutic weight loss due to hyperthyroidism. Presupposing adequate euthyroid adjustment of thyroid metabolism after therapy, RITh is not responsible for later weight gain and adipositas. (orig.)

  4. Benign thyroid disorders, radioiodine therapy and diagnosis related groups (DRGs): aspects of cost/benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules in older patients is accompanied by an increasing frequency of treatment and cost. Cost-effectiveness is given for programs of prophylaxis (primary prevention, e.g. alimentary iodine supplementation), for programs of screening (secondary prevention. e.g. TSH-screening), and for therapeutic strategies to avoid complications of thyroid dysfunction (atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, death for cardiac reasons) and to minimize iatrogenic complications (tertiary prevention). Examples of tertiary prevention are radioiodine-therapy of Graves' disease in patients who have an increased risk of relapse after antithyroid drugs (ATD), radioiodine therapy of ouvert or subclinical hyperthyroidism, and radioiodine therapy of large goiters in older patients or in patients suffering from a relevant co-morbidity. A cost-effectiveness-analysis for different therapeutic strategies of Graves' disease has been published using a lifelong time-horizon. The ablative radioiodine dose-regime is cost-effective as a first line therapy if the risk of relapse after ATD exceeds 60%. Cost-minimization-analysis, comparing resection of goiter and radioiodine, has shown lower cost of radioiodine therapy for toxic multinodular goiter up to 100 ml and for Graves' disease up to 60 ml goiter volume. Medical aspects (volume of goiter, uptake of nodules, regressive goiter, suspicion on malignancy, patients' age, co-morbidity, patients' decision) remain decisive for the choice of treatment. (orig.)

  5. Amifostine is a potent radioprotector of salivary glands in radioiodine therapy. Structural and ultrastructural findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutta, H. [Dept. of Anatomy, Christian Albrecht Univ. of Kiel (Germany); Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Univ. Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Kampen, U. [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Christian Albrecht Univ. of Kiel (Germany); Sagowski, C. [Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Univ. Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Brenner, W. [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Christian Albrecht Univ. of Kiel (Germany); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Bohuslavizki, K.H. [Nuclear Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); Paulsen, F. [Dept. of Anatomy, Christian Albrecht Univ. of Kiel (Germany); Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin-Luther-Univ. of Halle-Wittenberg, Halle/Saale (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Background and purpose: salivary gland impairment following high-dose radioiodine treatment is well recognized. Since differentiated thyroid cancer has a good prognosis, reduction of long-term side effects is important. This study investigates the radioprotective effects of amifostine in salivary glands of rabbits receiving high-dose radioiodine therapy so as to obtain deeper insight in changes on the cellular and ultrastructural level. Material and methods: a total of 20 rabbits were investigated. High-dose radioiodine therapy applying 1 GBq {sup 131}I was performed in 16 animals. Eight of these 16 animals received 200 mg/m{sup 2} body surface amifostine prior to high-dose radioiodine therapy. Four additional rabbits served as controls, two receiving amifostine, the other two no treatment at all. Subsequently, salivary glands (submandibular and parotid glands, respectively) of all animals were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Results: parenchymal damage of both parotid and submandibular glands, specially acinar structures comprising cell organelles and nuclei, of animals pretreated with amifostine was much less pronounced than in animals without amifostine pretreatment. Conclusion: the results indicate that parenchymal damage in salivary glands induced by high-dose radioiodine therapy can significantly be reduced by amifostine. Therefore, amifostine therapy may increase quality of life in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after radioiodine treatment. (orig.)

  6. Radioiodine therapy increases the risk of cerebrovascular events in hyperthyroid and euthyroid patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jeppe Lerche; Jensen, Lars Thorbjoern; Vej-Hansen, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine have increased morbidity and mortality from cerebrovascular events. This risk has until now has been attributed to the hyperthyroidism. However, radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases exposes the carotid arteries...... with radioiodine between 1975 and 2008 were matched 1:4 on age and sex with random controls. The cohort was followed from the date of treatment until hospitalization due to cerebrovascular event, death, 20 years of follow-up or March 2013. Data were analyzed in competing risk models adjusting for age, sex...

  7. Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The effect of radioiodine in the treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre has not been adequately evaluated. The aim of the study was to see the effect of radioiodine on thyroid size and function in patients with non-toxic multinodular goitre. We prospectively studied 55 non-toxic multinodular goitre patients treated with radioiodine of which 15 were males and 40 were females with age ranged from 25 years to 60 years (mean ± SD 40.45 ± 10.70 years) for a minimum of 12 months. Patients who were selected were those with local compression symptoms or for cosmetic reasons and the treatment was chosen because of a high operative risk or refusal to be operated on. Thyroid volume and T3, T4, TSH of all patients were determined before treatment and 6 months interval after treatment. Radioiodine was given in the dose ranged from 333 MBq (9 mCi) to 555 MBq (15 mCi) (mean ± SD 11.45 ± 2.04 mCi). The mean thyroid volume was reduced from 44.75 ± 37.44 ml to 28.76 ± 27.25 ml at 12 months (p < 0.001) i.e., reduced by 35.73%. Thyroid volume reduction at 6 months was 21.07%. Hypothyroidism occurred in 9.1% of the patients at 12 months. Side effects were few. Three cases developed radiation thyroiditis and two cases developed hyperthyroidism that was managed conservatively. It has been concluded that radioiodine is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre and may be the treatment of choice in elderly patients, in patients in whom surgery is contraindicated and in patients who are unwilling to undergo surgery. (author)

  8. Exhalation of {sup 131}I after radioiodine therapy: measurements in exhaled air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaecker, Klaus; Sudbrock, Ferdinand; Fischer, Thomas; Dietlein, Markus; Kobe, Carsten; Gaidouk, Mark; Schicha, Harald [University of Cologne, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Cologne (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    A considerable amount of radioiodine is exhaled after radioiodine therapy leading to unwanted radiation exposure through inhalation. This study focused on the concentration of radioactivity exhaled and its chemical nature. Air exhaled by 47 patients receiving {sup 131}I-iodine for different thyroid diseases (toxic goitre n=26, Graves' disease n=13, thyroid cancer n=8) was investigated with a portable constant air-flow sampler. Different chemical iodine species were collected separately (organic, elemental and aerosolic) up to 26 h after administration of the radioiodine capsule. The data approximated to a monoexponential time-activity curve when integrated over 100 h. The radioactivity in the filters was measured with a well counter at defined time points after administration. The radioactivity of {sup 131}I in the exhaled air 1 h after administration ranged from 1 to 100 kBq/m{sup 3}. Two parameters (half-life of radioiodine exhalation and time-integrated activity over 100 h) were substantially higher in patients with cancer after near-total thyroidectomy (11.8 {+-} 2.1 h and 535 {+-} 140 kBq / m{sup 3}, respectively) than in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue due to toxic adenoma (7.6 {+-} 2.5 h and 115 {+-} 27 kBq/m{sup 3}, respectively) or Graves' disease (6.4 {+-} 3.6 h and 113 {+-} 38 kBq/m{sup 3}, respectively). The percentage of radioiodine in the exhaled air in relation to radioiodine administered to the patient was between 80 ppm and 150 ppm. The fraction of organically bound radioiodine (mean value) for all time points after administration was 94-99.9%. This percentage did not depend on the type of thyroid disease. The amount of exhaled radioiodine is small but by no means negligible on the first day after administration. This is the first study to provide experimental evidence on a systematic basis that radioiodine becomes exhalable in vivo, i.e. in the patient. The mechanism of organification of orally administered radioiodine

  9. What is the best pre-therapeutic dosimetry for successful radioiodine therapy of multifocal autonomy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gotthardt, M.; Rubner, C.; Bauhofer, A.; Berce, F.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Goecke, J.; Pfestroff, A.; Schlieck, A.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Behe, M.; Behr, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: Dose calculation for radioiodine therapy (RIT) of multifocal autonomies (MFA) is a problem as therapeutic outcome may be worse than in other kinds of autonomies. We compared different dosimetric concepts in our patients. PATIENTS, METHODS: Data from 187 patients who had undergone RIT for MF

  10. Unusual Fatal Effect of Radioiodine (I-131) Therapy : A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of radioiodine therapy following surgery for thyroid carcinoma is to ablate the remnant thyroid tissue in the neck by delivering a minimum dose of 300 gray to the residual thyroid tissue. Side-effects are usually minimal and transient, and use of rhTSH can reduce their incidence. In patients with functioning metastases, successive doses of radio iodine are administered until complete ablation of metastatic disease is achieved. A 54-year-old woman with diffuse pulmonary metastases from thyroid cancer died from a fatal sudden alveolar haemorrhage that occurred 3 weeks after radioiodine therapy. Post mortem biopsy of specimens taken from the sites of pulmonary metastasis revealed massive haemorrhage and apoptosis. It is known that in vitro, beta-irradiation can activate apoptosis pathways. This effect seems to depend on dose of radioiodine and time point. In humans, I-131 therapy can induce apoptosis in hyper-functioning thyroid tissue. This effect is dependent on iodine concentration which is dependent on NIS expression itself. A sudden wave of apoptosis occurring 3 weeks after radioiodine dose could be lethal. On the other hand in order to have favourable treatment response it is essential to have high I-131 uptake by pulmonary metastases. Although fatal effect of radioiodine therapy are rare, this particular case suggests that a high level of I-131 concentration in critical organs detected by post-therapy whole-body scan (WBS) should be an indication for imposing particular care in the management of such patients, and perhaps consideration for prolonged hospitalization and late discharge. (author)

  11. Radioiodine Therapy for Hyperthyroidism Changing Pattern of Management over Three Decades at INMAS

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Shankar; Prakash, R.; S. K. Sharma; C.M. Khanna

    1990-01-01

    Iodine - 131 therapy is a relatively simple, effective and economical method of treating hyperthyroidism. Even fifty years after the introduction of radioactive iodine, there is no concensus on the approach for selection of the dose for treatment of hyperthyroidism. Since the last three decades, the approach for radioiodine therapy at this Institute has been to treat with low, fractionated doses to produce partial destruction of the thyroid gland leaving the patient sufficient function...

  12. Radioiodine therapy in patients with hyperthyroid disorder: standard versus dosimetric activity application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinartz, P; Zimny, M; Schaefer, W; Mueller, B; Buell, U; Sabri, O

    2003-12-01

    Due to its high success rate and non-invasive character, an increasing demand for radioiodine therapy can be seen. This study was conducted to determine whether standardized 131I activities can be used to facilitate management of patients with hyperthyroid disorder or whether a pre-therapeutic radioiodine test is advisable to determine an adequate therapeutic activity. The therapeutic uptake of 218 patients with benign thyroid disorders were determined and compared with 24 h and 48 h test uptake measurements as well as with calculated standard uptake values. Since there is a linear relationship between iodine uptake and delivered radiation dose, the effect of the different therapeutic approaches on the latter parameter was analysed. Special care was taken to assess possible differences between the various thyroid disorders. A mean deviation between pre-therapeutic test uptake and actual therapeutic uptake of 14.7% was observed in contrast to one of 29.1% when using disease specific standard values per millilitre of thyroid tissue. Furthermore, the proportion of patients with large deviations of more than 40% increased drastically when using standard uptake values (with radioiodine test, 4.1%; with standard values, 18.8%). In conclusion, the dosimetric approach with a pre-therapeutic radioiodine test proved to be the most accurate therapeutic procedure. Both the 24 h and 48 h test uptake measurements gave analogous results and yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.91 when compared with the therapeutic uptake. While it may be tempting to use standard activities to facilitate patient management, the findings of this study confirm that, for precise therapy planning, a pre-therapeutic radioiodine test is advised. Since no significant difference could be found between the 24 h and 48 h test uptake values, an early measurement 24 h after administration of the test activity is recommended. PMID:14627852

  13. Effect of radioiodine therapy on pulmonary metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate effect of radioiodine therapy on pulmonary metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: Fifty-eight cases of pulmonary metastases were studied utilizing chest X-ray, pulmonary function test and 99Tcm-DTPA aerosol clearance examination. Results: The data of pulmonary function test were of no difference between groups of various radiation doses cumulation (P > 0.05). The differences of vital capacity (VC), fast vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were not remarkable between the two groups of male or female patients (P > 0.05), but the difference of maximal volume ventilation (MVV) was P 99Tcm-DTPA aerosol clearance rates between various groups were of no difference (P > 0.05). Only for one female, 43 years old who had received an accumulative dose of 51.8 GBq radioiodine over an 8-yr period, her pulmonary function test showed evidence of restrictive lung disease, chest X-ray showed haziness and DTPA half-time clearance was 26.4 min, which is suggestive of interstitial fibrosis. Conclusion: The cumulative dose of radioiodine and gender of the patients had not statistically significant effects on the pulmonary function. Interstitial fibrosis must be carefully watched when the cumulative radioiodine dose is over 37 GBq

  14. The Effect of High Dose Radioiodine Therapy on Formation of Radiation Retinopathy During Thyroid Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kaçar Güvel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Non-thyroidal complication of high-dose radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma might cause salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction, which may be transient or permanent in a dose-dependent manner. However, radiation retinopathy complicating 131I therapy, has not been previously well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of retinal damage among patients who had received high doses of radioiodine treatment. Methods: Forty eyes of 20 patients (3 male, 17 female who received 250-1000 mCi during 131I therapy and on ophthalmological follow up for a year after the last treatment were included in the study. Mean age of the study group was 50 years (range 25-70 years. In ophthalmologic examination, visual acuity was measured in order to determine visual loss. Intraocular pressure was measured in all the patients. Then lens examination was carried out with slit lamp biomicroscopy in order to investigate cataract or partial lens opacities. Fundus observation was carried out through the dilated pupil with slit lamp biomicroscopy using 90 D noncontact lens. Result: The best corrected visual aquity with Snellen chart was found as 1.0 in 36 eyes (90% and between 0.6 and 0.9 (10% in 4 eyes (10%. At the biomicroscopic fundus examination, retinal hemorrhage consistent with radiation retinopathy, microaneurysm, microinfarction, edema or exudation, vitreus hemorrhage, partial or total optical disc pallor indicating papillopathy in the optic disc were not observed in any of the eyes. Conclusion: This result indicates that there is not any significant correlation between repeated high-dose radioiodine therapy and radiation retinopathy in differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Even though there is not a significant restriction in use of higher doses of radioiodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma, more extensive studies are needed in order to obtain more accurate data on possible occurrence of retinopathy.

  15. Rh-TSH (Thyrogen) aided radioiodine therapy in children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -histaminic treatment. There were no signs of hyperthyrosis and in all patients fT3 was within normal range. There were no late side effects. Conclusions. rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment in children/adolescents with DTC is safe and effective treatment. It allows to avoid hypothyroidism during L-thyroxin withdrawal, without any significant side effects. The so far observed results of the therapy suggest that the treatment is effective both as an adjuvant and radical treatment but longer follow up is necessary. (authors)

  16. Frequency of glycophorin A (GPA) variant erythrocytes after therapy with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persons with the blood group MN express on the surface of the red blood cells each form of the allelic GPA protein (GPAM and GPAN). Variant cells have lost one from of the protein. The measurement of variant cells with the BR6 assay was improved by our workgroup and applied to 24 children from Belarus treated with radioiodine for thyroid cancer. Treated children showed a significant increase in variant frequency compared to a group of 9 healthy children from Belarus. The increase of variant cells in patients was significantly dependent on the radiation dose in red bone marrow. In addition the increase of the variant frequency after one radioiodine therapy was measured for 6 patients. (orig.)

  17. A mathematical model of optimized radioiodine-131 therapy of Graves' hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of radioiodine-131 (RaI) dosimetry for Graves' hyperthyroidism is not clear. Recurrent hyperthyroidism and iatrogenic hypothyroidism are two problems which interact such that trying to solve one leads to exacerbation of the other. Optimized RaI therapy has therefore begun to be defined just in terms of early hypothyroidism (ablative therapy) as physicians have given up on reducing hypothyroidism. Optimized therapy is evaluated both in terms of the greatest separation of cure rate from hypothyroidism rate (non-ablative therapy) or in terms of early hypothyroidism (ablative therapy) by mathematical modeling of outcome after radioiodine and critically discussing the three common methods of RaI dosing for Graves' disease. Cure follows a logarithmic relationship to activity administered or absorbed dose, while hypothyroidism follows a linear relationship. The effect of including or omitting factors in the calculation of the administered I–131 activity such as the measured thyroid uptake and effective half-life of RaI or giving extra compensation for gland size is discussed. Very little benefit can be gained by employing complicated methods of RaI dose selection for non-ablative therapy since the standard activity model shows the best potential for cure and prolonged euthyroidism. For ablative therapy, a standard MBq/g dosing provides the best outcome in terms of cure and early hypothyroidism

  18. Salivary function after radioiodine therapy: poor correlation between symptoms and salivary scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline eJonklaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between salivary symptoms and salivary functioning following radioiodine therapy. Fifteen patients receiving radioactive iodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer completed a questionnaire assessing their salivary and nasal symptoms and underwent salivary scanning prior to therapy and 3 and 12 months after therapy. Measures of salivary gland accumulation and secretion were correlated with scores of salivary and nasal symptomatology. The mean number of salivary, nasal, and total symptoms at 3 months increased significantly over the number of symptoms at baseline by 3.7, 2.7, and 6.3 symptoms respectively (p values 0.001, 0.0046, and <0.001. The mean right parotid gland accumulation and secretion of radioisotope declined significantly at 3 months, compared with baseline. There was no association between the increase in salivary, nasal, or total symptoms and the change in scintigraphy measures. The increases in nasal and total symptoms were significant in those with co-existent Hashimoto’s disease, compared with those without this condition (p values 0.01 and 0.04. Nasal symptoms decreased (p value 0.04 in those who used sour candies, compared with those who did not. Increasing body mass index was significantly associated with increasing nasal symptoms (p value 0.05. Greater decline in salivary parameters at 3 months compared with baseline was generally associated with heavier body weight, decreased thyroid cancer stage, absence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and pre-menopausal status. Although salivary and nasal symptoms increased and salivary scintigraphy parameters decreased after radioiodine therapy, the variables associated with symptoms and changes in salivary scan parameters differed. A better understanding of the relationship between salivary gland symptoms and functioning, and the factors affecting susceptibility to salivary and nasal damage after radioiodine

  19. Efficiency of radioiodine therapy in Graves disease and adenoma toxicum and incidence of hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the this study was to evaluate different states in hyperthyroid patients and incidence of hypothyroidism after I-131 therapy.We observed a total of 184 hyperthyroid pts, from which 108(58,7%)pts with Graves' disease,65(35,3%)pts with single toxicum nodule and 11(6%)pts with toxicum multinodular goitre,treated with radioiodine therapy during the period 1986-2001.Dose of I-131 orally administered ranged 150-1100MBq and was calculated according to the 'MBq/gram' method.The radioiodine-131 therapy was performed once in 69,5%(128/184)pts,twice in 21,2%(39/184)pts and in 9,3%(17/184)pts more than two doses. Completely cured of hyperthyroidism occurred in 61%(66/108)pts with Graves' disease,81,8%(9/11)pts with toxic multinodular goiter and 90,7%(59/65)pts with single toxic nodule. The patients in our study were evaluated 6 months to 15 years after received J-131 therapy. Incidence of early hypothyroidism within one year was 23,1%(25/108) in Graves' disease,9%(1/11) in toxic multinodular goiter and 4,6%(3/65) with single toxicum nodule.Overall incidence of hypothyroidism within one year was 17,6% and had cumulative increase of Graves' disease every following year approximately for 3%,while for adenoma toxicum there was no any significant changes. We concluded that radioiodine therapy is simple,comfortable radical method for medical treatment of hyperthyroidism and indicate higher incidence of hypothyroidism in patients treated with I-131 for Graves' disease than that of patients treated for toxicum multinodular goiters and single toxic nodule

  20. Glycididazole sodium combined with radioiodine therapy for patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qiang; Ma, Qingjie; Bai, Lin; Wang, Tongtong; Han, Yuping; Zhang, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate efficacy and side effects of glycididazole sodium (CMNa) combined with radioiodine therapy for patients with DTC cervical metastases. 53 patients of DTC cervical lymph node metastasis were randomly divided into 2 groups, where 24 cases were treated with 4.44 GBq of (131)I alone, 29 cases were treated with 800 mg/m(2) of CMNa combined with 4.44 GBq of (131)I. Peripheral blood samples were collected before and after treatment to perform measurements of routine blood test, liver function, renal function, parathyroid hormone (PTH), lymphocyte micronucleus rates and chromosome mutation. The results showed that rates of complete response (CR) in CMNa combined with radioiodine group (65.5%) were significantly higher than that in radioiodine monotherapy group (37.5%). Furthermore, CMNa combined with adioiodine treatment significantly increased the percentage of thyroglobulin (Tg) reduction at 12 weeks after treatment (P0.05). These results indicate 4.44 GBq of (131)I treatment combined with 800 mg/m(2) of CMNa could significantly improve clinical efficacy of DTC patients without increasing side effects.

  1. Influencing factors of radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jiehua; ZHANG Zikang; CHENG Muhua; WANG Ping; WU Chunxing; SHAN Hong

    2007-01-01

    The study was to evaluate factors affecting outcome of 131I therapy in hyperthyroidism for optimizing the method. Data from 213 patients who received 131I treatment from July 2003 to July 2005 in our department were retrospectively analyzed. Factors possibly contributing to the outcome of the 131I therapy were analyzed, including gender, age, history of antithyroid drug, thyroid volume, duration of disease and radioactive iodine uptake rate. Multivariate analysis was done. The rates of euthyroidism and hypothyroidism were 69% and 8.5%, respectively, after one time 131I therapy. Multivariate analysis of the patients showed no statistically significant factors affecting the outcome of 131I therapy. The study showed that 131I dose can be directly calculated, and this simplifies the dose-determined method and individualizes the therapy.

  2. A 30-year perspective on radioiodine therapy of benign nontoxic multinodular goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, Steen J; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is no consensus on the ideal treatment of patients with a benign nontoxic multinodular goiter. In some European countries, (131)I therapy has replaced surgery as the treatment of choice in these patients. Recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) is a very potent stimulator...... of the thyroid gland and this review focuses on rhTSH-stimulated (131)I therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: The concept of rhTSH-stimulated (131)I therapy has been tested in several trials during the last 8 years. With this treatment, the goiter reduction is improved by 35-55%, compared with (131)I therapy without rh...... rate of permanent hypothyroidism, whereas other side-effects are very modest when using a rhTSH dose of 0.1 mg or below. SUMMARY: RhTSH-stimulated radioiodine therapy of benign nontoxic multinodular goiter is still an off-label use but several trials have shown that this treatment is significantly more...

  3. A randomized trial evaluating a block-replacement regimen during radioiodine therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, Steen J; Grupe, Peter; Boel-Jørgensen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Eur J Clin Invest 2010 ABSTRACT: Background  Lack of consensus regarding the antithyroid drug regimen in relation to radioiodine ((131) I) therapy of hyperthyroidism prompted this randomized trial comparing two strategies. Design  Patients with Graves' disease (GD, n = 51) or toxic nodular goitre...... (TNG, n = 49) were randomized to (131) I either 8 days following discontinuation of methimazole (-BRT, n = 52, median dose: 5 mg) or while on a continuous block-replacement regimen (+BRT, n = 48, median dose 15 mg methimazole and 100 μg levothyroxine). Results  Patients in the +BRT group required more...

  4. A case report of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Cuevas, S.; Baena Ocampo, L. [Hospital de Oncologia (Mexico). Dept. of Head and Neck Surgery

    1995-12-01

    This a report on a 19-year-old female who developed a low grade T2 N0 M0 mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the right parotid gland 3 years and 5 months after the post-operative treatment of 100 mCi of radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. The parotid tumour appeared during the patient`s pregnancy. There are few reports of salivary gland cancer developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma and it is hoped that this report may stimulate others to investigate this association further in order to clarify the risk of secondary malignancies after radioiodine therapy. (author).

  5. Radioiodine I-131 For The Therapy Of Graves’ Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mumtaz, Malik; Lin, Lim Shueh; Hui, Khaw Chong; Mohd Khir, Amir Sharifuddin

    2009-01-01

    Graves’ disease is a common cause of hyperthyroidism. Treatment options for Graves’ disease include antithyroid medication, surgery or radioactive iodine (I-31) or RAI. This review will focus on the approach to RAI therapy; discussing dose selection, patient preparation, and consideration before and after administering RAI, examining aspects of pre-treatment with antithyroid medication as well as discussing possible adverse events including hypothyroidism and possible worsening of thyroid-ass...

  6. Routine sensor-augmented pump therapy in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kirsten; Scaramuzza, Andrea; Bratina, Natasa;

    2013-01-01

    Sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy can improve glycemic control, compared with multiple daily insulin injections or with insulin pump therapy alone, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia.......Sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy can improve glycemic control, compared with multiple daily insulin injections or with insulin pump therapy alone, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia....

  7. Sensor-augmented pump therapy at 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    This follow-up study investigates the metabolic and psychosocial effects of sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes 36 months after therapy start.......This follow-up study investigates the metabolic and psychosocial effects of sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes 36 months after therapy start....

  8. Influence of radioiodine therapy on the immuno phenotype of peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with thyroid cancer of different age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the results of a study of the phenotypic composition of blood lymphocytes in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer of different all age before and on day 6 after radioiodine therapy. The phenotypic profile of peripheral blood cells was determined in patients of three age groups: patients aged under 18 years (group 1), patients whose age was within the range 19 to 40 years (group 2), and patients older than 41 years (group 3). The studies have shown that in patients with thyroid cancer, abnormalities developed in the composition of peripheral blood lymphocytes, which were more pronounced in elderly patients. Under the influence of radioiodine, disturbances in the immune system of patients are aggravated. The most significant after-effects of radioiodine therapy that had been identified in patients of all age groups, were represented by a significant decrease in the number of B-lymphocytes, an increase in natural killer cells and CD95+ lymphocytes. Furthermore, it was found that radioiodine has the most significant effect on the immune system of children and adolescents. In this age group, the content of lymphocyte subpopulations is changing: CD4+, CD8+, IRI, CD19+, CD16+CD56+, CD95+ and HLA-DR, which suggests the need for further dynamic studies in this age group of patients, which is the most sensitive to radioiodine effect in order to determine the extent of immunological disorders and the terms of their recovery

  9. Gastrointestinal Side Effects of the Radioiodine Therapy for the Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Two Days after Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashnehsaz, Mehran; Takavar, Abbas; Izadyar, Sina; Zakariaee, Seyed Salman; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Paydar, Reza; Geramifar, Parham

    2016-09-01

    Iodine-131 (I-131) therapy is one of the conventional approaches in the treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The radioiodine agents also accumulate in the other organs that cause pain and damage to the patients. Radioiodine therapy is associated with various gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities. In this study, GI side effects of the radioiodine therapy were investigated. GI toxicities of the radioiodine therapy were studied in 137 patients with histologically proven DTC in Jun-Nov 2014. All the patients were treated by radioiodine agents in the research institute of Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The patients were examined 48 h after prescription (before discharge) and their GI side effects were registered. Correlation of the age, gender, administered dose, administered dose per body weight as the independent factors, and GI side effects were analyzed using the Pearson correlation test with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Regression coefficients and linearity of the variable were investigated by MATLAB software. Line fitting was performed using MATLAB curve-fitting toolbox. From the subjects, 38 patients had GI complaints (30.4%). Significant factors influencing GI side effects were dose per body weight and administered doses. There was no significant correlation between age and gender as the independent parameters and GI complaints. The most prevalent GI side effect was nausea that occurs in 26.4% of the patients. From the results, it could be concluded that the GI side effects could be prevented by administering a safe radioiodine dose value less than 5,550 MBq. PMID:27651737

  10. Gastrointestinal Side Effects of the Radioiodine Therapy for the Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Two Days after Prescription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashnehsaz, Mehran; Takavar, Abbas; Izadyar, Sina; Zakariaee, Seyed Salman; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Paydar, Reza; Geramifar, Parham

    2016-01-01

    Iodine-131 (I-131) therapy is one of the conventional approaches in the treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The radioiodine agents also accumulate in the other organs that cause pain and damage to the patients. Radioiodine therapy is associated with various gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities. In this study, GI side effects of the radioiodine therapy were investigated. GI toxicities of the radioiodine therapy were studied in 137 patients with histologically proven DTC in Jun-Nov 2014. All the patients were treated by radioiodine agents in the research institute of Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The patients were examined 48 h after prescription (before discharge) and their GI side effects were registered. Correlation of the age, gender, administered dose, administered dose per body weight as the independent factors, and GI side effects were analyzed using the Pearson correlation test with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Regression coefficients and linearity of the variable were investigated by MATLAB software. Line fitting was performed using MATLAB curve-fitting toolbox. From the subjects, 38 patients had GI complaints (30.4%). Significant factors influencing GI side effects were dose per body weight and administered doses. There was no significant correlation between age and gender as the independent parameters and GI complaints. The most prevalent GI side effect was nausea that occurs in 26.4% of the patients. From the results, it could be concluded that the GI side effects could be prevented by administering a safe radioiodine dose value less than 5,550 MBq. PMID:27651737

  11. Radiation protection measures for the reduction of incorporation for personnel during radioiodine therapy; Strahlenschutzmassnahmen zur Verringerung der Inkorporation beim Personal waehrend der Radiojodtherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Alborzi, H.; Keller, A.; Lincke, T.; Meyer, K.; Petzold, L.; Sabri, O.; Schoenmuth, T.

    2008-07-01

    As a result of extensive measurements of Radioiodine concentration in the room air and in the breathing air of the patients in a Radioiodine therapy station, simple radiation-hygenic measures are developed and described that lead to a considerable reduction of Iodine incorporation and with it of the effective dose for the nursing personnel. (orig.)

  12. Beneficial Effects of Lithium and Radioiodine Therapy in the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Barud

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous contrast media used for coronary angiography are iodine-based and could induce thyroid gland dysfunction. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman with coronary artery disease who developed hyperthyroidism after percutaneus coronary intervention. Treatment with thiamazole induced agranulocytosis, complicated with severe tonsillitis. During recurrence of hyperthyroidism, after careful assessment of available methods of treatment, she was recommended to undergo radioiodine therapy (131I. The patient received lithium carbonate as pre-treatment. After 13 days of pre-treatment, patient received the therapeutic dose of 131I. Neither thyrotoxicosis progression nor acute coronary syndrome occurred. After 3 weeks, her thyroid hormones were found to be within normal ranges. Lithium therapy could be used as an effective treatment in patients who developed serious side-effects due to previous treatment with thionamides. Turk Jem 2014; 18: 92-94

  13. Radiation protection of patients and staff during radioiodine therapy; Strahlenschutz von Patient und Personal bei der Radiojodtherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldauf, D.; Schueler, W.; Winkler, B. [STEP Sensortechnik und Elektronik Pockau GmbH, Pockau (Germany); Petzold, J.; Lincke, T.; Sabri, O.; Sattler, B.; Seese, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-07-01

    A measuring system for continuous assessment of local dose rate in the environment of radioiodine therapy patients is presented that allows statements on doses reached in the target area with high statistical reliability. Furthermore, this kind of measurement leads to a noticeable reduction of external radiation exposure for the group of medical personnel involved. (orig.)

  14. The influence of radioiodine therapy in 1470 patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of radioiodine (131I) therapy on the achievement of euthyroidism, prevention of adverse effects on the cardiovascular and prevent evolvement to overt hyperthyroidism. Material and methods: we treated 1470 patients sent to our department during the last 7 years, aged 24-76 years; 88% of them were female and 12% male; 490 patients with multi-nodular goitre (MNG), and 980 patients with autonomous nodule (ATN). Some of the patients were treated with antithyroid drugs for 1 to 3 months before 131I therapy (140 patients). Malignant changes were excluded in all nodules by fine needle aspiration biopsy. All the patients had serum TSH levels <0.1 mU/l and effective T-half was more than 3 days at the time of treatment. The activity dose was calculated by the use of Marinelli's formula and ranged between 200 and 800 MBq. The absorbed dose (Gy) ranged between 180 and 300, and was proportional to thyroid volume. Follow up control was done every 6 weeks. Results: euthyroidism achieved in 99% of patient with ATN and 94% of MNG; 1% of patients with ATN and 5% of patients with MNG develop hypothyroidism. 1% of patients with MNG were in subclinical hyperthyroidism and received second dose of radioiodine therapy. In all of the patients, the symptoms and signs of subclinical hyperthyroidism disappeared (palpitation, tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, exercise tolerance improved, the blood pressure normalised and the quality of life improved). Conclusions: our result is good and is in the range of the existing literature. The achievement of euthyroidism and the remission of the symptoms and signs of subclinical hyperthyroidism, were due to good diagnosis, well preparation of the patients; accurate measurement of administered activity, effective half-life, and well-organised follow up. We recommend early treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism, and long period of follow up visits in our department to

  15. Radioiodination and biological evaluation of Cladribine as potential agent for tumor imaging and therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayoumi, Noha Anwer; Amin, Abeer M.; El-Kolaly, Mohamed T. [Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Lab Center; Ismail, Nasser S.M.; Abouzid, Khaled A.M. [Ain-Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Pharmaceutical Chemistry Dept.

    2015-07-01

    Cladribine, a purine analogue antimetabolite, was radioiodinated with {sup 125}I via direct electrophilic substitution reaction. The maximum radiochemical yield (92.5 ± 0.8%) was obtained when the reaction was done at ambient temperature for 30 min using 100 μg of Cladribine and 10 μg N-chlorosuccinamide (NCS) in 150 μL of 0.2 M phosphate buffer, pH 7. In vitro stability studies of HPLC purified {sup 125}I-Cladribine sample dissolved in 0.5 ml of 0.2 M phosphate buffer pH 7 at ambient temperature showed that {sup 125}I-Cladribine is stable up to 12 h post labeling. Biodistribution results revealed excretion of {sup 125}I-Cladribine mainly by kidneys. The uptake of {sup 125}I-Cladribine in the induced Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma was 2.8 ± 0.4%ID/g at 1 h post injection with maximum tumor/muscle ratio of 5.5. The good uptake of {sup 125}I-Cladribine confirms the molecular docking studies results which indicate that iodinated Cladribine binds with polymerase enzyme with a good-CDOCKER energy. As a result, radioiodinated Cladribine may be used as a valuable agent for tumor diagnosis and therapy.

  16. Graves' disease radioiodine-therapy: Choosing target absorbed doses for therapy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willegaignon, J., E-mail: j.willegaignon@gmail.com; Sapienza, M. T.; Coura-Filho, G. B.; Buchpiguel, C. A. [Cancer Institute of São Paulo State (ICESP), Clinical Hospital, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Nuclear Medicine Service, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Watanabe, T. [Nuclear Medicine Service, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Traino, A. C. [Unit of Medical Physics, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Pisa 56126 (Italy)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The precise determination of organ mass (m{sub th}) and total number of disintegrations within the thyroid gland (A{sup ~}) are essential for thyroid absorbed-dose calculations for radioiodine therapy. Nevertheless, these parameters may vary according to the method employed for their estimation, thus introducing uncertainty in the estimated thyroid absorbed dose and in any dose–response relationship derived using such estimates. In consideration of these points, thyroid absorbed doses for Graves’ disease (GD) treatment planning were calculated using different approaches to estimating the m{sub th} and the A{sup ~}. Methods: Fifty patients were included in the study. Thyroid{sup 131}I uptake measurements were performed at 2, 6, 24, 48, 96, and 220 h postadministration of a tracer activity in order to estimate the effective half-time (T{sub eff}) of {sup 131}I in the thyroid; the thyroid cumulated activity was then estimated using the T{sub eff} thus determined or, alternatively, calculated by numeric integration of the measured time-activity data. Thyroid mass was estimated by ultrasonography (USG) and scintigraphy (SCTG). Absorbed doses were calculated with the OLINDA/EXM software. The relationships between thyroid absorbed dose and therapy response were evaluated at 3 months and 1 year after therapy. Results: The average ratio (±1 standard deviation) betweenm{sub th} estimated by SCTG and USG was 1.74 (±0.64) and that between A{sup ~} obtained by T{sub eff} and the integration of measured activity in the gland was 1.71 (±0.14). These differences affect the calculated absorbed dose. Overall, therapeutic success, corresponding to induction of durable hypothyroidism or euthyroidism, was achieved in 72% of all patients at 3 months and in 90% at 1 year. A therapeutic success rate of at least 95% was found in the group of patients receiving doses of 200 Gy (p = 0.0483) and 330 Gy (p = 0.0131) when m{sub th} was measured by either USG or SCTG and A

  17. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-driven expression of iodine pump genes for targeted radioiodine therapy of malignant glioma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Tan; Wei Li; Peng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Radioiodine is a routine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancers. Non-thyroid cancers can intake radioiodine after transfection of the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene. The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter, an excellent tumor-specific promoter, has potential value for targeted gene therapy of glioma. We used the hTERT promoter to drive the expression of the hNIS and human thyroid peroxidase (hTPO) gene as a primary step for testing the effects of radioiodine therapy on malignant glioma. The U87 and U251 cells were co-transfected with two adenoviral vectors, in which the hNIS gene had been coupled to the hTERT promoter and the hTPO gene had been coupled to the CMV promoter, respectively. Then, we performed Western blot, 135l intake and efflux assays, and clonogenic assay with cancer cells. We also did 99mTc tumor imaging of nude mice models. After co-transfection with Ad-hTERT-hNIS and Ad-CMV-hTPO, glioma cells showed the 125l intake almost 1.5 times higher than cells transfected with Ad-hTERT-hNIS alone. Western blots revealed bands of approximately 70 kDa and 110 kDa, consistent with the hNIS and hTPO proteins. In clonogenic assay, approximately 90% of co transfected cells were killed, compared to 50% of control cells after incubated with 37 MBq of 131I. These results demonstrated that radioiodine therapy was effective in treating malignant glioma cell lines following induction of tumor-specific iodide intake by the hTERT promoter-directed hNIS expression in vitro. Co transfected hNIS and hTPO genes can result in increased intake and longer retention of radioiodine. Nude mice harboring xenografts transfected with Ad-hTERT-NIS can take 99mTc scans.

  18. Effects of Radioiodine Therapy on the Natural History of Graves' Ophtalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dreval

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available 21 patients with Graves’ disease and Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO received radioiodine treatment (RIT. Before 131-I therapy in all patients GO were non-active and no severe. Six patients not received any treatment before RIT; four patients received orbital radiotherapy and 11 patients received intravenous glucocorticoids. Thyreotoxicosis compensation were achieved by antithyroid medication before RIT. Antithyroid medication was stopped 10 days before RIT. Worsening of GO was seen on 47.7% patients 3 months after RIT, but only 9.5% of patients needed additional treatment GO. GO exacerbation take place in 90% of hypothyroid patients and its compensation reduced the symptoms of activity of GO for 3 months. 42.8% was without any symptoms of activity of GO by 9—12 months after RIT. Treatment of GO before RIT were improved the course of GO after RIT.

  19. Intravenous alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy: systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed the benefits and harms of augmentation therapy with alpha-1 antitrypsin in patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and lung disease. We searched for randomised trials comparing augmentation therapy with placebo or no treatment in PubMed and ClinicalTrials (7 January 2010). Two...

  20. Efficiency of radioiodine therapy with a fix dose of I-131 in toxic thyroid adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to estimate the results obtained using a fix dose of I-131 in the treatment of the solitary toxic thyroid adenoma. Material and Methods: We have performed radioiodine therapy m 64 patients, 49 female (50+17 yrs) and 15 male (43+-15 yrs) with solitary toxic thyroid adenoma. 45 patients received fix dose I-131 of 850 MBq, while 19 patients were treated with calculated (MBq/gr) dose 555-1100 MBq Previously 39(64%) patients were clinically hyperthyreotic and received thyreostatic meditication which were interruptecf one week before the administration of I-131. Those patients who were euthyreotic, TSH was suppressed(<0.25 MU/m1). 61(95.3%) patients received a single dose, while 3(4, 7%) patients needed two doses. Resulting thyroid matabolism and volume of nodules were evaluated 6-48 months after treatment. Results: From 45 radioiodine treated patients with fix dose 6(9, 8%) became hypothyroidism, 36(85, 3%) euthyroidism and 3(4, 9%) recurrent hyperthyroidism, in comparison with 19 treated patients with calculated I-131 dose: 2(10, 5%) hypothyroidism, 16(84, 3%) euthyroidism and 1(5, 2%) recurrent hyperthyroidism. The size of the nodules became unpalpable m 17(26, 2%), decreased evidently in 33(52, 5%) and remained unchanged in 14(21, 3%) of the treated patients. Conclusion: A fix dose of I-131 is simple, safe and efficient in the treatment of solitary toxic thyroid adenoma. There was not significant different in incidence of late follow-up results of hypothyroidism and recurrent hyperthyroidism between fix dose and calculated MBq/gr dose. (authors)

  1. Comments on 'Radioiodine therapy: care of the helpless patient and handling of the radioactive corpse'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dear Sir, I was most interested to read the article by C D Greaves and W B Tindale in the December 2001 issue (pages 381-92) regarding 'Radioiodine therapy: care of the helpless patient and handling of the radioactive corpse'. The sections on handling and disposal of the radioactive corpse by the funeral director and mortuary were most informative; however I was left wondering what was the current position regarding the rules and protocol required for use at crematoria when dealing with such corpses. Whilst recognising that radioiodine therapy was the topic of discussion, a wider range of radioisotopes are used in various therapies and may subsequently contaminate crematoria. The article by Mary G Aerts (Cremation of corpses containing bone-seeking radionuclides following medical treatment IRPA 2000 (P-5-296)) at IRPA 10 identified that Western Australia has undertaken an assessment of the radioactive content of the ashes of several crematoria undertaking such cremations, and established that most if not all strontium-89 remains in the bone fragments after cremation. This can give rise to contaminated furnaces, tools and working areas during the processing of cremated remains, and raises the question of how to deal with processed ashes, and what explanation and special requirements may be given to the relatives of the deceased. It is therefore questioned what, if any, role the Environment Agency (EA)/Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) may play or regulate regarding emissions to the environment for cremation of corpses which had undergone various forms of radioisotope therapy prior to death, not just those of short-lived isotopes. Such a case was dealt with recently by SEPA, which recognised a need to include identification to relatives of any necessary precautions for the handling or internment or scattering of the ashes, whilst being 'content' that the cremation met conditions prescribed under Radioactive Substances Act 1993. SEPA further commented

  2. Procedure guidelines for radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer (version 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure guideline for radioiodine therapy (RIT) of differentiated thyroid cancer (version 3) is the counterpart to the procedure guideline for 131I whole-body scintigraphy (version 3) and specify the interdisciplinary guideline for thyroid cancer of the Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft concerning the nuclear medicine part. Recommendation for ablative 131I therapy is given for all differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) >1 cm. Regarding DTC ≤1 cm 131I ablation may be helpful in an individual constellation. Preparation for 131I ablation requires low iodine diet for two weeks and TSH stimulation by withdrawal of thyroid hormone medication or by use of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH). The advantages of rhTSH (no symptoms of hypothyroidism, lowerblood activity) and the advantages of endogenous TSH stimulation (necessary for 131I-therapy in patients with metastases, higher sensitivity of 131I whole-body scan) are discussed. In most centers standard activities are used for 131I ablation. If pretherapeutic dosimetry is planned, the diagnostic administration of 131I should not exceed 1-10MBq, alternative tracers are 123I or 124I. The recommendations for contraception and family planning are harmonized with the recommendation of ATA and ETA. Regarding the best possible protection of salivary glands the evidence is insufficient to recommend a specific setting. To minimize the risk of dental caries due to xerostomia patients should use preventive strategies for dental hygiene. (orig.)

  3. Benign thyroid disorders, radioiodine therapy and diagnosis related groups (DRGs): aspects of cost/benefit; Benigne Schilddruesenerkrankungen, Radioiodtherapie und Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs): Kosten-Nutzen-Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Univ. zu Koeln (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    The increasing prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules in older patients is accompanied by an increasing frequency of treatment and cost. Cost-effectiveness is given for programs of prophylaxis (primary prevention, e.g. alimentary iodine supplementation), for programs of screening (secondary prevention. e.g. TSH-screening), and for therapeutic strategies to avoid complications of thyroid dysfunction (atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, death for cardiac reasons) and to minimize iatrogenic complications (tertiary prevention). Examples of tertiary prevention are radioiodine-therapy of Graves' disease in patients who have an increased risk of relapse after antithyroid drugs (ATD), radioiodine therapy of ouvert or subclinical hyperthyroidism, and radioiodine therapy of large goiters in older patients or in patients suffering from a relevant co-morbidity. A cost-effectiveness-analysis for different therapeutic strategies of Graves' disease has been published using a lifelong time-horizon. The ablative radioiodine dose-regime is cost-effective as a first line therapy if the risk of relapse after ATD exceeds 60%. Cost-minimization-analysis, comparing resection of goiter and radioiodine, has shown lower cost of radioiodine therapy for toxic multinodular goiter up to 100 ml and for Graves' disease up to 60 ml goiter volume. Medical aspects (volume of goiter, uptake of nodules, regressive goiter, suspicion on malignancy, patients' age, co-morbidity, patients' decision) remain decisive for the choice of treatment. (orig.)

  4. Does Radioiodine Therapy in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Increase the Frequency of Another Malignant Neoplasm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Renata Midori; Marivo, Monica; Luengo, Juliana de Moura Leite; Tagliarini, Jose Vicente; Castilho, Emanuel Cellice; Marques, Mariangela de Alencar; Kiy, Yoshio; Marone, Marilia Martins Silveira; Silveira, Liciana Vaz de Arruda; Mazeto, Glaucia Maria Ferreira da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the frequency of another primary malignancy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) who received radioiodine therapy or not (131I). Material and Methods. 168 cases of DTC patients were retrospectively evaluated as to the frequency of another neoplasia by comparing patients with and without it, taking into account clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic parameters. Results. Another primary malignancy occurred in 8.9% of patients. Of these, 53.3% showed the malignancy before 131I and 46.7% after it. By comparing both groups, the age at the moment of diagnosis of another neoplasia was 46.1 ± 20.2 years for the group before 131I therapy and of 69.4 ± 11.4 years for the group after it (P = 0.02). Of the 148 patients treated with 131I, 4.7% developed another malignancy. The latter were older (61 ± 17 years) than those who did not show another cancer type (44.1 ± 14.2 years) (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The frequency of another neoplasia found after 131I was similar to that found before 131I. PMID:22084737

  5. Intravenous alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy: systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed the benefits and harms of augmentation therapy with alpha-1 antitrypsin in patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and lung disease. We searched for randomised trials comparing augmentation therapy with placebo or no treatment in PubMed and ClinicalTrials (7 January 2010). Two...... (difference 1.14 g/l; 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 2.14; p = 0.03) over the total course of the trials. Augmentation therapy with alpha-1 antitrypsin cannot be recommended in view of the lack of evidence of clinical benefit and the cost of treatment....

  6. Combined therapy with {sup 131}I and retinoic acid in Korean patients with radioiodine-refractory papillary thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, So Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Seung-hwan; Chung, June-Key [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Do Joon; Cho, Bo Youn [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyeong Cheon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University WCU Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical outcome of redifferentiation therapy using retinoic acid (RA) in combination with {sup 131}I therapy, and to identify biological parameters that predict therapeutic response in Korean patients with radioiodine-refractory papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A total of 47 patients (13 men, 34 women; age 54.2 {+-} 13.6 years) with radioiodine-refractory PTC underwent therapy consisting of consecutive treatment with {sup 131}I and RA. Each {sup 131}I/RA treatment cycle involved the administration of oral isotretinoin for 6 weeks at 1-1.5 mg/kg daily followed by a single oral dose of {sup 131}I (range 5.5-16.7 GBq). Therapeutic responses were determined using serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and the change in tumour size 6 months after completing the {sup 131}I/RA therapy. Biological parameters and pathological parameters before and after combined therapy were compared. After completing {sup 131}I/RA therapy, 1 patient showed a complete response, 9 partial response, 9 stable disease, and 28 progressive disease, representing an overall response rate of 21.3%. Univariate analysis revealed that an age of <45 years and a persistently high serum Tg level were related to a good response. No clinical response was achieved when metastases showing no iodine uptake were present. Multivariate regression analysis showed that an age of <45 years was significantly associated with a good response. Of the 24 patients with well-differentiated carcinoma, 5 (20.8%) responded to {sup 131}I/RA therapy, whereas all 6 patients with poorly differentiated carcinoma failed to respond. {sup 131}I/RA therapy was found to elicit a response rate of 21.3% among patients with radioiodine-refractory PTC, and an age of <45 years was found to be significantly associated with a good response. (orig.)

  7. 18F-FDG PET/CT changes therapy management in high-risk DTC after first radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced tumour stage and initial metastases are associated with reduced general and tumour-free survival in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Optimal initial therapy is mandatory for a positive patient outcome, but can only be performed if all non-iodine-avid tumour lesions are known before planning treatment. We analysed the benefit of 18F-FDG PET/CT at initial diagnosis in patients with high-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma and determined whether the 18F-FDG PET/CT results led to a deviation from the standard procedure, which consists of two consecutive radioiodine treatments with thyroid hormone suppression in between and no additional imaging, with individual patient management. The study group comprised 90 consecutive patients with either extensive or metastasized high-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma who received 18F-FDG PET/CT after the first radioiodine treatment approximately 4 weeks after thyroidectomy under endogenous TSH stimulation. We carried out PET/CT imaging with low-dose CT without contrast medium, which we only used for attenuation correction of PET images. 18F-FDG PET/CT was positive in 26 patients (29%) and negative in 64 patients (71%). Compared to the results of posttherapeutic 131I whole-body scintigraphy, the same lesions were PET-positive in 7 of the 26 patients, different lesions were PET-positive in 15 patients, and some PET-positive lesions were the same and some were different in 4 patients. TNM staging was changed due to the PET results in 8 patients. Management was changed in 19 of the 90 patients (21%), including all patients with only FDG-positive lesions and all patients with both FDG-positive and iodine-positive lesions. Age was not a predictive factor for the presence of FDG-positive lesions. FDG-positive and iodine-positive lesions were associated with high serum thyroglobulin. However, at low serum thyroglobulin values, tumour lesions (iodine- and/or FDG-avid) were also diagnosed. Thus, the serum

  8. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT changes therapy management in high-risk DTC after first radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra J.; Goerges, Rainer; Bockisch, Andreas; Binse, Ina [University Hospital Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Advanced tumour stage and initial metastases are associated with reduced general and tumour-free survival in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Optimal initial therapy is mandatory for a positive patient outcome, but can only be performed if all non-iodine-avid tumour lesions are known before planning treatment. We analysed the benefit of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT at initial diagnosis in patients with high-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma and determined whether the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT results led to a deviation from the standard procedure, which consists of two consecutive radioiodine treatments with thyroid hormone suppression in between and no additional imaging, with individual patient management. The study group comprised 90 consecutive patients with either extensive or metastasized high-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma who received {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT after the first radioiodine treatment approximately 4 weeks after thyroidectomy under endogenous TSH stimulation. We carried out PET/CT imaging with low-dose CT without contrast medium, which we only used for attenuation correction of PET images. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was positive in 26 patients (29%) and negative in 64 patients (71%). Compared to the results of posttherapeutic {sup 131}I whole-body scintigraphy, the same lesions were PET-positive in 7 of the 26 patients, different lesions were PET-positive in 15 patients, and some PET-positive lesions were the same and some were different in 4 patients. TNM staging was changed due to the PET results in 8 patients. Management was changed in 19 of the 90 patients (21%), including all patients with only FDG-positive lesions and all patients with both FDG-positive and iodine-positive lesions. Age was not a predictive factor for the presence of FDG-positive lesions. FDG-positive and iodine-positive lesions were associated with high serum thyroglobulin. However, at low serum thyroglobulin values, tumour lesions (iodine- and/or FDG-avid) were also

  9. Development of parotitis after radioiodine therapy in a differentiated thyroid cancer patient: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekiye Hasbek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we report a 51 years old female patient treated with radioactive iodine (RAI-131I treatment for thyroid papillary carcinoma and developing parotitis on the 24 hour following treatment. Sialoadenitis after high dose ablative therapy with 131I is a relatively common complication with a low clinical impression. Taste altera-tion or loss, and nausea and vomiting due to radiation sickness are the other most frequent side effects. Xero-stomia is an important problem increasing morbidity of the patients. For this reason, it is important to prevent xerostamia by following serum amylase levels in symptomatic patients. By taking into account that not only bacterial and viral factors but also radiation may cause sialoadenitis, one has to rule out other parotisis possibili-ties by clinical and laboratory findings before claiming that salivary gland enlargement developing after radio-iodine is a complication of radiation. Moreover, history of RAI treatment should be given importance in patients applying either to emergency services or to Ear Nose Throat and Infectious Diseases Department with dry mouth.

  10. What is the best pre-therapeutic dosimetry for successful radioiodine therapy of multifocal autonomy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotthardt, M. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Philipps Univ., Marburg (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Rubner, C. [Philipps Univ., Marburg (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Bauhofer, A. [Philipps Univ., Marburg (DE). Inst. of Theoretical Surgery] (and others)

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: Dose calculation for radioiodine therapy (RIT) of multifocal autonomies (MFA) is a problem as therapeutic outcome may be worse than in other kinds of autonomies. We compared different dosimetric concepts in our patients. Patients, methods: Data from 187 patients who had undergone RIT for MFA (Marinelli algorithm, volumetric compromise) were included in the study. For calculation, either a standard or a measured half-life had been used and the dosimetric compromise (150 Gy, total thyroid volume). Therapeutic activities were calculated by 2 alternative concepts and compared to therapeutic success achieved (concept of TcTUs-based calculation of autonomous volume with 300 Gy and TcTUs-based adaptation of target dose on total thyroid volume). Results: If a standard half-life is used, therapeutic success was achieved in 90.2% (hypothyroidism 23,1%, n=143). If a measured half-life was used the success rate was 93.1% (13,6% hypothyroidism, n=44). These differences were statistically not significant, neither for all patients together nor for subgroups eu-, hypo-, or hyperthyroid after therapy (ANOVA, all p>0.05). The alternative dosimetric concepts would have resulted either in significantly lower organ doses (TcTUs-based calculation of autonomous volume; 80.76{+-}80.6 Gy versus 125.6{+-}46.3 Gy; p<0.0001) or in systematic over-treatment with significantly higher doses (TcTUs-adapted concept; 164.2{+-}101.7 Gy versus 125.6{+-}46.3 Gy; p=0.0097). Conclusions: TcTUs-based determination of the autonomous volume should not be performed, the TcTUs-based adaptation of the target dose will only increase the rate of hypothyroidism. A standard half-life may be used in pre-therapeutic dosimetry for RIT of MFA. If so, individual therapeutic activities may be calculated based on thyroid size corrected to the 24h ITUs without using Marinelli's algorithm. (orig.)

  11. Clinical Studies of Nonpharmacological Methods to Minimize Salivary Gland Damage after Radioiodine Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Christou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To systematically review clinical studies examining the effectiveness of nonpharmacological methods to prevent/minimize salivary gland damage due to radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC. Methods. Reports on relevant trials were identified by searching the PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane, and Scopus electronic databases covering the period 01/2000–10/2015. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were prespecified. Search yielded eight studies that were reviewed by four of the present authors. Results. Nonpharmacological methods used in trials may reduce salivary gland damage induced by radioiodine. Sialogogues such as lemon candy, vitamin E, lemon juice, and lemon slice reduced such damage significantly (p<0.0001, p<0.05, p<0.10, and p<0.05, resp.. Parotid gland massage also reduced the salivary damage significantly (p<0.001. Additionally, vitamin C had some limited effect (p=0.37, whereas no effect was present in the case of chewing gum (p=0.99. Conclusion. The review showed that, among nonpharmacological interventions, sialogogues and parotid gland massage had the greatest impact on reducing salivary damage induced by radioiodine therapy of DTC. However, the studies retrieved were limited in number, sample size, strength of evidence, and generalizability. More randomized controlled trials of these methods with multicenter scope and larger sample sizes will provide more systematic and reliable results allowing more definitive conclusions.

  12. A Virtual Harp for Therapy in an Augmented Reality Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Tanasha; Smith, Shana

    2010-01-01

    The use of the virtual harp therapy system had an impact on the participants in the program, most were very excited when they first arrived. While almost all of the participants have received some form of traditional therapy training, most have never experienced virtual or augmented reality before and were therefore, able to look at the therapy training that they have seen before in a different way. Part of the problem with traditional therapy training exercises is that patients get bored or ...

  13. Prestimulation with Recombinant Human Thyrotropin (rhTSH) Improves the Long-Term Outcome of Radioiodine Therapy for Multinodular Nontoxic Goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Søren; Nielsen, Viveque Egsgaard; Grupe, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH)-augmented radioiodine ((131)I) therapy for benign multinodular nontoxic goiter. Patients and Methods: Between 2002 and 2005, 86 patients with a multinodular nontoxic goiter were treated...... scale. Results: In both groups, thyroid volume was further reduced from 1 yr to final FU (71 months). The mean goiter volume reductions obtained at 1 yr and final FU [59.2 ± 2.4% (sem) and 69.7 ± 3.1%, respectively] in the rhTSH group were significantly greater than those obtained in the (131)I......-alone group (43.2 ± 3.7 and 56.2 ± 3.6%, respectively, P = 0.001 and P = 0.006), corresponding to a gain of 24% at final FU. At last FU the mean reduction in compression visual analog scale score was significantly greater in patients receiving rhTSH (P = 0.049). Additional therapy (thyroid surgery or (131)I...

  14. Embolization in combination with radioiodine therapy for bone metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, KM; Hew, JM; Jager, PL; Vermey, A; Dullaart, RPF; Links, TP

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND The outcome for patients with bone metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma is worse compared to the overall prognosis of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of embolization with concomitant radioiodine treatment on the s

  15. Randomized prospective study comparing a single radioiodine dose and a single laser therapy session in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Bonnema, Steen Joop;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) with radioiodine in hot thyroid nodules. DESIGN: Thirty consecutive outpatients with subclinical or mild hyperthyroidism and a scintigraphically solitary hot nodule with extraglandular suppression were randomized...... effects were seen. CONCLUSIONS: This first randomized study, comparing ILP with standard therapy, demonstrates that ILP and (131)I therapy approximately halves thyroid nodule volume within 6 months; but in contrast to (131)I, extranodular thyroid volume is unaffected by ILP and no patient developed...... hypothyroidism. Using the present design, ILP seems inferior to (131)I therapy in normalization of serum TSH. The potential value of ILP as a non-surgical alternative to (131)I needs further investigation...

  16. Clinical Usefulness between High Dose Radioiodine Therapy and Helicobacter Pylori Infection after Total Thyroidectomy due to Well Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter (H) pylori infection has been considered the most important cause of gastritis, dyspepsia, and gastroduodenal ulcer. Radioiodine can be accumulated in the remaining thyroid tissue, salivary gland, and stomach. We investigated if the high radiation induced by radioiodine in the stomach after high dose radioiodine therapy (HD-RIT) is effective in the eradication of H. pylori infection. One hundred ninety nine patients (M:F=33:166, age 46.7±12.3 years) who had HD-RIT (dose 159.1±25.9 mCi, range 120-250 mCi) after thyroidectomy due to well differentiated thyroid cancer were enrolled. To detect H. pylori infection, the urea breath tests (UBT) were performed at 1 hour before HD-RIT and at 4 weeks after HD-RIT. The results of UBT were classified as positive (≥50 dpm) or negative (<50 dpm), and analyzed its values. Of 199 patients, 103 (51.8%) patients had positive UBT before HD-RIT. Of these, 80 patients had follow-up UBT after HD-RIT. Among them, 76 (95.0%) patients had persistent positive UBT and only 4 (5.0%) patients were changed negative UBT. Among 76 patients with persistent positive UBT, 26 (34.2%) patients had increased the values of follow-up UBT, 49 (64.5%) had decreased them, and 1 (1.3%) had shown the same value. The different values of UBT between before and after HD-RIT were 62±66.1 dpm in increased one of follow-up UBT, and 153.3±157.1 dpm in decreased one of follow-up UBT. We conclude that the radiation induced by HD-RIT is ineffective in the eradication of H. pylori infection. However, it could be influential the degree or distribution of H. pylori infection

  17. Clinical Usefulness between High Dose Radioiodine Therapy and Helicobacter Pylori Infection after Total Thyroidectomy due to Well Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Kuk No; Lim, Seok Tae; Moon, Eun Ha; Kim, Jin Suk; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Helicobacter (H) pylori infection has been considered the most important cause of gastritis, dyspepsia, and gastroduodenal ulcer. Radioiodine can be accumulated in the remaining thyroid tissue, salivary gland, and stomach. We investigated if the high radiation induced by radioiodine in the stomach after high dose radioiodine therapy (HD-RIT) is effective in the eradication of H. pylori infection. One hundred ninety nine patients (M:F=33:166, age 46.7{+-}12.3 years) who had HD-RIT (dose 159.1{+-}25.9 mCi, range 120-250 mCi) after thyroidectomy due to well differentiated thyroid cancer were enrolled. To detect H. pylori infection, the urea breath tests (UBT) were performed at 1 hour before HD-RIT and at 4 weeks after HD-RIT. The results of UBT were classified as positive ({>=}50 dpm) or negative (<50 dpm), and analyzed its values. Of 199 patients, 103 (51.8%) patients had positive UBT before HD-RIT. Of these, 80 patients had follow-up UBT after HD-RIT. Among them, 76 (95.0%) patients had persistent positive UBT and only 4 (5.0%) patients were changed negative UBT. Among 76 patients with persistent positive UBT, 26 (34.2%) patients had increased the values of follow-up UBT, 49 (64.5%) had decreased them, and 1 (1.3%) had shown the same value. The different values of UBT between before and after HD-RIT were 62{+-}66.1 dpm in increased one of follow-up UBT, and 153.3{+-}157.1 dpm in decreased one of follow-up UBT. We conclude that the radiation induced by HD-RIT is ineffective in the eradication of H. pylori infection. However, it could be influential the degree or distribution of H. pylori infection.

  18. Graves' disease and radioiodine therapy. Is success of ablation dependent on the achieved dose above 200 Gy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: this study was performed to determine the results of ablative radioiodine therapy (RIT) when the achieved dose in the thyroid was above 200 Gy and to characterize predictive factors for treatment outcome. Patients, methods: a total of 571 consecutive patients were observed for 12 months between July 2001 and June 2004. Inclusion criteria were a confirmed diagnosis Groves' disease, compensation of hyperthyroidism and withdrawal of antithyroid drugs two days before preliminary radioiodine-testing and RIT. The intended dose was 250 Gy and the therapeutically achieved dose was calculated from serial uptake measurements. The end-point measure was thyroid function 12 months after RIT; success was defined as elimination of hyperthyroidism. The relation between success rate and the achieved dose, thyroid volume, age and sex of patients, TSH- and TRAb-values and presence of ophthalmopathy was analysed. Results: relief from hyperthyroidism was achieved in 96% of patients who received more than 200 Gy, even for thyroid volumes >40 ml. The success of ablative RIT was not influenced by age or sex of patients, or by TSH- or TRAb values or concomitant ophthalmopathy. The mean achieved dose in the thyroid was 298 Gy with a standard deviation of 74.6 Gy. Conclusion: to achieve a dose of over 200 Gy with the above standard deviation, we recommend calculating on intended dose of 250 Gy and using a dosimetric approach with early and late uptake values in the radioiodine test, to allow early therapeutic intervention should the posttherapeutic thyroid dose fall unexpectedly below 200 Gy. (orig.)

  19. Potential of radioiodinated anticancer compounds of traditional Chinese medicine for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    23-Hydroxybetulinic acid (23-HBA) is the efficient antitumor compound extracted from the roots of a Chinese Medicinal Herb, Pulsatilla chinensis (Bge) Regel. To evaluate the effect of radioiodination on cytotoxicity, 23-HBA was radioiodinated with 125I. 125I-23-HBA could be prepared in high yields and good radiochemical purity and was characterized using reverse phase HPLC. In ICR mice bearing Liver Cancer HepA tumor, 125I-23-HBA showed a tumor uptake of 2.1% ID/g at 2 h p.i. and 0.15% ID/g at 48 h p.i on i.v. injection. When injected intratumorally, greater tumor uptake and retention was observed (20% ID/g at 2 h p.i. and 4.6% ID/g at 48 h p.i. respectively). (author)

  20. Salivary gland protection by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Klutmann, S.; Bleckmann, C.; Mester, J.; Clausen, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Brenner, W.; Lassmann, S.; Henze, E. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Clinic of Nuclear Medicine

    1999-02-01

    Quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy using 100 to 120 MBq Tc-99m-pertechnetate was performed in 17 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer prior to and 3 months after radioiodine treatment with 6 GBq I-131. Eight patients were treated with 500 mg/m{sup 2} amifostine prior to high-dose radioiodine treatment and compared retrospectively with 9 control patients. Xerostomia was graded according to WHO criteria. In 9 control patients high-dose radioiodine treatment significantly (p<0.01) reduced Tc-99m-pertechnetate uptake by 35.4{+-}22.0% and 31.7{+-}21.1% in parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Of these 9 patients, 3 exhibited xerostomia Grade I (WHO). In contrast, in 8 amifostine-treated patients, there was no significant (p=0.878) decrease in parenchymal function following high-dose radioiodine treatment, and xerostomia did not occur in any of them. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen eines Heilversuchs wurde eine limitierte Anzahl von Patienten untersucht. Vor und drei Monate nach Gabe von 6 GBq I-131 wurde eine quantitative Speicheldruesenszintigraphie mit 100 bis 120 MBq Tc-99m-Pertechnetat an 17 Patienten mit differenzierten Schilddruesenkarzinomen durchgefuehrt. Acht Patienten erhielten vor Radiojodtherapie 500 mg/m{sup 2} Amifostin und wurden mit einer historischen Kontrollgruppe aus neun Patienten verglichen. Eine Xerostomie wurde nach WHO-Kriterien beurteilt. Die Patienten der Kontrollgruppe wiesen sowohl fuer die Glandulae parotides als auch fuer die Glandulae submandibulares eine signifikante Verminderung der Tc-99m-Pertechnetat-Aufnahme um 35,4{+-}22,0% bzw. 31,7{+-}21,1% als Zeichen einer Parenchymschaedigung auf. Bei drei dieser neuen Patienten fand sich eine Xerostomie Grad I (WHO). Im Gegensatz dazu konnte bei den mit Amifostin behandelten Patienten keine signifikante Verminderung der Parechymfunktion festgestellt werden (p=0,878). Dementsprechend wies keiner dieser Patienten eine Xerostomie auf. (orig.)

  1. Radioiodine therapy effects on offspring of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma; Efeitos da radioiodoterapia nas geracoes futuras de mulheres com carcinoma diferenciado de tireoide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Carmen Dolores Goncalves [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Endocrinologia]. E-mail: loloi@zaz.com.br; Antonucci, Jane [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Medicina Nuclear; Correa, Nilson Duarte [Hospital dos Servidores do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear; Corbo, Rossana; Vaisman, Mario [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2004-02-01

    Radioiodine therapy has attained a significant role in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The literature addressing possible secondary effects of {sup 131} I is limited, although there has been increasingly interest in this field. A more comprehensive understanding of the mutagenic effects of radiation on the offspring of women exposed to {sup 131} I is mandatory in view of the possibility of occurrence of miscarriages, congenital abnormalities and malignancies in these children. In this review, we found that many reports on safety of this type of treatment in female patients in reproductive age recommend that pregnancy should be avoided for at least one year after therapeutic administration of radioiodine. (author)

  2. Interest of a multidisciplinary and two-step consultation in radioiodine therapy to improve patient's support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: the surgery of differentiated thyroid cancer may be followed by radioiodine therapy (I131). This therapy requires a 3-day hospital stay in an isolation room without family visits, but also many precautions before, during and after the hospital stay. This clinical environment can give rise to increased anxiety for a number of patients. This is why we have set up a dedicated consultation, aimed at improving preparation of the hospital stay. The aim of our work was to assess the efficiency of such consultation for patient's understanding of their disease, related apprehensions, and coordination between the nuclear medicine (NM) unit and inpatient ward. Material and methods: we followed the recommendations of the first French Cancer Plan regarding the diagnosis or treatment announcement and the project was reviewed in the frame of Professional Practices Evaluation. Consultations were carried out according to a 2-step procedure in the NM unit. First, patients were informed by the NM physician about disease and treatment. Then, a technologist evaluated social and psychological conditions, and checked proper understanding of disease and treatment. He/she paid a special attention to radiation protection measures, especially for the discharge period. Patients received a guidance manual document, and when necessary were oriented towards the supportive care staff. A dedicated computerized form was used to share patient information between the NM unit and inpatient ward. These consultations ran every day (2 per day). To evaluate procedure efficiency, patients were asked to fulfill a satisfaction questionnaire. Inpatient ward nurses were also surveyed for patient's understanding of their disease, level of anxiety, and quality of care. Results: at Montpellier Cancer Institute, a total of 30 thyroid cancer patients and 15 nurses were surveyed about their perceptions about the consultation before radioiodine therapy from April to

  3. Survival outcome of radioiodine therapy in post thyroidectomy thyroid carcinoma patients: Outcome of long term follow up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, F.; Nahar, N.; Sultana, S.; Nasreen, F.; Jabin, Z.; Alam, A. S. M. M.

    2016-03-01

    The overall prognosis of patients with thyroid carcinoma is excellent whenever managed following best practice guidelines. Objective: To calculate sex and age group affected by thyroid cancer; to compare between single or multiple dose of radio ablation needed after thyroidectomy and to determine the percentage of patients become disease free during their follow up. Methods: This was a retrospective study done in NINMAS, Bangladesh on 687 patients from 1984 to 2004. In all cases total or near total thyroidectomy was done before commencing radioiodine therapy. Patients TG level, neck ultrasonography, thyroid scan, whole body I131 scans, neck examination were done every six monthly/yearly. Results: Among 687 patients, female were more sufferers (68.1%) and female to male ratio was 2:1. Age group 19-40 years was mostly affected (57.8%). Most common type seen was papillary carcinoma (81.8%). After ablation 100 patients did not follow-up. Total 237 patients discontinued within 4 years. Remaining 450 patients undergone regular follow-up for 5 years and more, 394 were disease free (87.6%). Total recurrence of metastasis was 23 and 12 patients expired at different times. Conclusions: Long-term regular follow-up is necessary after radioiodine ablation to become free of disease.

  4. Glucocorticoid augmentation of prolonged exposure therapy: rationale and case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pratchett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Prolonged exposure (PE therapy has been found to reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; however, it is difficult for many patients to engage fully in the obligatory retelling of their traumatic experiences. This problem is compounded by the fact that habituation and cognitive restructuring – the main mechanisms through which PE is hypothesized to work – are not instantaneous processes, and often require several weeks before the distress associated with imaginal exposure abates. Case reports: Two cases are described that respectively illustrate the use of hydrocortisone and placebo, in combination with PE, for the treatment of combat-related PTSD. Based on known effects of glucocorticoids on learning and memory performance, we hypothesized that augmentation with hydrocortisone would improve the therapeutic effects of PE by hastening “new” learning and facilitating decreases in the emotional impact of fear memories during the course of treatment. The veteran receiving hydrocortisone augmentation of PE displayed an accelerated and ultimately greater decline in PTSD symptoms than the veteran receiving placebo. Conclusions: While no general conclusion can be derived from comparison of two patients, the findings are consistent with the rationale for augmentation. These case reports support the potential for an appropriately designed and powered clinical trial to examine the efficacy of glucocorticoids in augmenting the effects of psychotherapy for PTSD.

  5. Procedure guidelines for radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer (version 3); Verfahrensanweisung zur Radioiodtherapie (RIT) beim differenzierten Schilddruesenkarzinom (Version 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Dressler, J. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Nuklearmedizinsiche Klinik der Henriettenstiftung, Hannover (Germany); Eschner, W. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik (DGMP) (Germany); Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Gruenwald, F. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Lassmann, M. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik (DGMP) (Germany); Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Leisner, B. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Allgemeines Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany); Luster, M.; Reiners, C. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Moser, E. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany); Schober, O. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2007-07-01

    The procedure guideline for radioiodine therapy (RIT) of differentiated thyroid cancer (version 3) is the counterpart to the procedure guideline for {sup 131}I whole-body scintigraphy (version 3) and specify the interdisciplinary guideline for thyroid cancer of the Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft concerning the nuclear medicine part. Recommendation for ablative {sup 131}I therapy is given for all differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) >1 cm. Regarding DTC {<=}1 cm {sup 131}I ablation may be helpful in an individual constellation. Preparation for {sup 131}I ablation requires low iodine diet for two weeks and TSH stimulation by withdrawal of thyroid hormone medication or by use of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH). The advantages of rhTSH (no symptoms of hypothyroidism, lowerblood activity) and the advantages of endogenous TSH stimulation (necessary for {sup 131}I-therapy in patients with metastases, higher sensitivity of {sup 131}I whole-body scan) are discussed. In most centers standard activities are used for {sup 131}I ablation. If pretherapeutic dosimetry is planned, the diagnostic administration of {sup 131}I should not exceed 1-10MBq, alternative tracers are {sup 123}I or {sup 124}I. The recommendations for contraception and family planning are harmonized with the recommendation of ATA and ETA. Regarding the best possible protection of salivary glands the evidence is insufficient to recommend a specific setting. To minimize the risk of dental caries due to xerostomia patients should use preventive strategies for dental hygiene. (orig.)

  6. Radioiodine therapy: care of the helpless patient and handling of the radioactive corpse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurses caring for a helpless patient following a nominal 800 MBq administration of radioiodine were concerned about their radiation dose. Using published data, a nurse could receive an estimated 650 μSv per shift. A regime to restrict their dose was planned using a 500 μSv dose constraint. Thermoluminescent dosimeters indicated a maximum whole-body effective dose of 250 μSv. Three days post 131I administration the patient died (estimated activity in the body 400 MBq). A minimum delay of two weeks was advised prior to a post-mortem. Special precautions were issued to minimise contamination. Dose rates (μSv h-1), measured one day after the patient died, at the level of the thyroid, chest and bladder at 0.01 m from the corpse were 1800, 290 and 73 respectively. At 1.0 m the dose rate was 26 μSv h-1 at all levels. The pathologist was estimated to have received a maximum whole-body dose of 400 μSv during the post-mortem. Contamination measurements (Bq cm-2) made following the post-mortem were as follows: pathologist's hands 5, clothes 0, towels 1.8, saw 5, instruments 0.5, plastic sheet 0.8, scales 0.4 and floors/walls 1.1. These data indicate that with appropriate radiation protection guidelines, staff can be reassured that their doses in these circumstances are very low. (author)

  7. Radioiodine Therapy: Care of the Helpless Patient and Handling of the Radioactive Corpse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurses caring for a helpless patient following a nominal 800 MBq administration of radioiodine were concerned about their radiation dose. Using published data, a nurse could receive an estimated 650 micro Sv per shift. A regime to restrict their dose was planned using a 500 micro Sv dose constraint. Thermoluminescent dosimeters indicated a maximum whole body effective dose of 250 micro Sv. Three days post 131I administration the patient died (estimated activity in the body 400 MBq). A minimum delay of two weeks was advised prior to a post-mortem. Special precautions were issued to minimise contamination. Dose rates (micro Sv h-1), measured one day after the patient died, at the level of the thyroid, chest and bladder at 0.01 m from the corpse were 1800, 290 and 73 respectively. At 1.0 m the dose rate was 26 micro Sv h-1 at all levels. The pathologist was estimated to have received a maximum whole-body dose of 400 micro Sv during the postmortem. Contamination measurements (Bq cm-2) made following the postmortem were as follows: pathologist's hands 5, clothes 0, towels 1.8, saw 5, instruments 0.5, plastic sheet 0.8, scales 0.4 and floors/walls 1.1. These data indicate that with appropriate radiation protection guidelines, staff can be reassured that their doses in these circumstances are very low. (author)

  8. The Sonographic Features of the Thyroid Gland After Treatment with Radioiodine Therapy in Patients with Graves' Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Collette; Casey, Ruth; Bell, Marcia; Bergin, Diane; Murphy, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the typical sonographic features of the thyroid gland in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism after radioiodine therapy (RIT). Thirty patients (21 female and 9 male) with a mean age of 53 y (standard deviation [SD] ± 11.3) and with previous Graves' disease who had been successfully treated with RIT were enrolled in the study. All were hypothyroid or euthyroid after treatment. The thyroid ultrasound was carried out by a single experienced operator with an 8-MHz linear transducer. Volume, vascularity, echogenicity and echotexture of the glands were noted. The presence of nodules and lymph nodes was also documented. The mean volumes of the right lobe were 2.4 mL ± 2.9 SD (0.6-14) and the left lobe were 1.8 mL ± 1.9 SD (0.4-9.1), with a mean total volume of 4.2 mL ± 4.7 SD (1.3-19.1). Of those who had a pre-treatment ultrasound (23%), the percentage reduction in volume was 87% (p glands were hypovascular, with the remaining 7% showing normal vascularity. The glands were hyperechoic and of coarse echotexture. Overall, the sonographic features of the post-RIT gland included a significantly reduced mean total volume of 4.2 mL, hypovascularity, coarse echotexture and hyperechogenicity.

  9. Atypical antipsychotics as augmentation therapy in anorexia nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Marzola

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN is a life-threatening and difficult to treat mental illness with the highest mortality rates of any psychiatric disorder. We aimed to garner preliminary data on the real-world use of olanzapine and aripiprazole as augmentation agents of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs in adult inpatients affected by AN. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical charts of patients who were hospitalized between 2012 and 2014. Patients were evaluated upon admission and discharge. We investigated eating symptomatology, and both general and eating psychopathology using: Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorders Scale. The charts of 75 patients were included in this study. The sample resulted equally distributed among those receiving SSRIs and either aripiprazole or olanzapine in addition to SSRIs. Notwithstanding a few baseline clinical differences, upon discharge all groups were significantly improved on all measures. Interestingly, aripiprazole showed the greatest effectiveness in reducing eating-related preoccupations and rituals with a large effect size. The body of evidence on medication management in AN is in dismal condition. Augmentation therapy is a well-established approach to a variety of mental disorders and it is often used in every-day clinical practice with patients affected by AN as well. Nevertheless, to date very little data is available on this topic. Results from our sample yielded promising results on the effectiveness of aripiprazole augmentation in reducing eating-related obsessions and compulsions. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these encouraging findings.

  10. Atypical Antipsychotics as Augmentation Therapy in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, Enrica; Desedime, Nadia; Giovannone, Cristina; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a life-threatening and difficult to treat mental illness with the highest mortality rates of any psychiatric disorder. We aimed to garner preliminary data on the real-world use of olanzapine and aripiprazole as augmentation agents of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) in adult inpatients affected by AN. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical charts of patients who were hospitalized between 2012 and 2014. Patients were evaluated upon admission and discharge. We investigated eating symptomatology, and both general and eating psychopathology using: Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorders Scale. The charts of 75 patients were included in this study. The sample resulted equally distributed among those receiving SSRIs and either aripiprazole or olanzapine in addition to SSRIs. Notwithstanding a few baseline clinical differences, upon discharge all groups were significantly improved on all measures. Interestingly, aripiprazole showed the greatest effectiveness in reducing eating-related preoccupations and rituals with a large effect size. The body of evidence on medication management in AN is in dismal condition. Augmentation therapy is a well-established approach to a variety of mental disorders and it is often used in every-day clinical practice with patients affected by AN as well. Nevertheless, to date very little data is available on this topic. Results from our sample yielded promising results on the effectiveness of aripiprazole augmentation in reducing eating-related obsessions and compulsions. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these encouraging findings. PMID:25922939

  11. Radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease: case selection and restrictions recommended to patients in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartofsky, L

    1997-04-01

    Each of the three major therapies for Graves' disease has its own advantages, disadvantages, indications, and contraindications. Today, radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy is the most commonly employed means of therapy for Graves' disease in the United States, with approximately 70% of patients so treated after initial presentation and an additional fraction of arguably 10-15% treated with RAI after failure of antithyroid drugs or surgery. RAI therapy is acknowledged to have the clear-cut advantage of being safe, with low morbidity and cost. The indications for RAI therapy are clear and noncontroversial for most patients with Graves' disease. Moreover, RAI treatment is employed by some thyroidologists for subclinical thyrotoxicosis (normal T4 or T3 but immeasurable TSH), particularly in patients > age 45 due to risks of atrial fibrillation. RAI therapy is not considered indicated or is contraindicated during breast feeding and in pregnancy, subacute thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis, struma ovarii, pituitary (TSH-driven) hyperthyroidism, euthyroid, hyperthyroxinemia, and thyroid hormone resistance. Opinions vary on the use of RAI therapy in children with Graves' disease; generally, a lower age cutoff of 17 years is acceptable in most clinics. Even more controversial is whether RAI therapy in the presence of Graves' ophthalmology constitutes a risk for worsening ophthalmopathy. Resolution of this latter issue awaits more definitive studies, but RAI therapy is likely to remain the first choice for most patients with Graves' disease.

  12. Relationships between properties of {sup 131}I-therapy capsules and the radioiodine kinetics; Zusammenhaenge zwischen Eigenschaften von {sup 131}I-Therapiekapseln und der Radioiodkinetik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaecker, K. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Wellner, U. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Scheidhauer, K. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Gabruk-Szostak, B. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Fischer, T. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Steinbach, J. [Inst. fuer Bioanorganische und Radiopharmazeutische Chemie, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany); Fuechtner, F. [Inst. fuer Bioanorganische und Radiopharmazeutische Chemie, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany); Schicha, H. [Inst. fuer Bioanorganische und Radiopharmazeutische Chemie, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany)

    1996-10-01

    Aim: The reason of unreproducible data under diagnosis and therapy with radioiodine should be elucidated. Methods: The iodine content of the capsules was tested by a colorimetric method and by activation analysis. Radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC and by electrophoresis. Solubility of the capsules was investigated under different conditions. Results: The iodine content of the capsules varied between 0,8 and appr. 100 {mu}g/capsule. The radiochemical purity of the capsule iodine varied between 75% and 99.5% (main contamination: Iodate). The solubility of the capsules differed. Conclusion: Additional non-radioactive iodine in the therapy capsules could be one reason of the reduced radioiodine-uptake under therapy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Es sollte das Auftreten nichtreproduzierbarer Messwerte bei Radioiodtest und Radioiodkinetik unter {sup 131}I-Therapie geklaert werden. Methoden: Der Iodgehalt der Kapseln wurde kolorimetrisch und mit der Aktivierungsanalyse bestimmt. Die Messung der radiochemischen Reinheit erfolgte mittels HPLC und Elektrophorese. Das Loeseverhalten der Kapseln wurde unter unterschiedlichen Bedingungen ueberprueft. Ergebnisse: Der Iodgehalt der Kapseln schwankte zwischen 0,8 und ca. 100 {mu}g/Kapsel. Die radiochemische Reinheit der Kapseln differierte ebenfalls (75%-99,5%). Hauptverunreinigung war Iodat. Das Loeseverhalten war ebenfalls unterschiedlich. Schlussfolgerung: Zusaetzliches nichtradioaktives Iod in den Therapiekapseln koennte eine Ursache verminderter Radioiodaufnahme unter Therapie sein. (orig.)

  13. Combined 2-deoxy glucose and metformin improves therapeutic efficacy of sodium-iodide symporter-mediated targeted radioiodine therapy in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sushmita; Thaker, Nirmal; De, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    Radiosensitization using either metformin or 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) in various cancer cells has been reported. The present study reveals novel information on combining these drugs to enhance radiosensitization effect in breast cancer (BC) cells. Responses to low-dose Cobalt60 radiation, as well as a newly emerged radioiodine therapy target for BC, that is, sodium-iodide symporter (NIS or SLC5A5) protein, are tested. As therapeutic potential of NIS in BC is often limited due to low uptake and fast efflux rate of iodine, the scope of these two radiosensitizers to further improve NIS-mediated (131)I therapeutic efficacy is explored. Two BC cell lines, MCF-7, and MDA MB231 are tested to optimize minimal drug doses required for radiosensitization. A combination of 2 mM metformin and 20 mM 2-DG with 2 grey (Gy) Cobalt60 radiation shows significant radiosensitization effect (P=0.0002). In cells treated with the combination therapy, increased γH2A.X foci formation was noted. Further, MCF-7 BC cells overexpressing NIS (MCF-7 NIS) was established, and using the optimized drug concentrations, significant radiosensitization (P=0.0019) by 50 μ Ci (131)I usage was found to be the case as well. Apoptosis data corroborates with the result of clonogenic assay showing significant increase in apoptotic population upon dual drug-mediated radiosensitization. In case of metformin treatment, lowered adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of the cell has been observed. The encouraging radiosensitization effect observed using combined 2-DG and metformin may aid in reducing Cobalt60 radiation exposure or for targeted radioiodine therapy in BC cells with NIS expression. This study indicates high potential of this drug combination in sensitizing BC cells for NIS-mediated-targeted radioiodine therapy, which otherwise may have lacked efficacy. PMID:26355636

  14. Radioiodine therapy for treatment of benign and malignant thyroid diseases; Radiojodtherapie bei benignen und malignen Schilddruesenerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, E. [Herz-Jesu-Krankenhaus, Dernbach (Germany). Radiolog.- Nuklearmed. Abt.; Gruenwald, F. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1999-07-01

    This book closes a gap. It presents a condensed review of benefits and risks of the radioactive iodine therapy which still has to struggle with old prejudices. The long-term results demonstrate the excellent capabilities of this therapy. The book is intended to serve as a source of concise and competent information for doctors wishing to rapidly deepen their knowledge of the specific therapy and the treatment modalities in Germany. Readers will find a comprehensive list of therapy centers in Germany, so that patients may be routed to treatment centers offering capacities for treatment with least possible delay. (orig./CB) [German] Der vorliegende Band fuellt eine Luecke. Er gibt einen komprimierten Ueberblick ueber Chancen und Risiken der immer noch mit Vorurteilen belegten Therapieform. Die Langzeitergebnisse belegen die hervorragenden Moeglichkeiten der Radiojodtherapie. Das Buch enthaelt auch eine komplette Uebersicht der deutschen Therapiezentren, damit die Patienten trotz relativ knapper Kapazitaeten moeglichst rasch einer Radiojodtherapie zugefuehrt werden koennen. (orig./MG)

  15. Follow-up on thyroidal uptake after radioiodine therapy. How robust is the peri-therapeutic dosimetry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodine therapy (RIT) for benign thyroid diseases in Germany requires the patient to stay in a nuclear medicine therapy ward for at least 48 hours and the dose to the thyroid to be computed from activity measurements performed during that stay. A major part of the total dose will be delivered after the patient's discharge from the hospital and thus has to be predicted through extrapolation with the effective half-life measured peri-therapeutically. We performed repeated thyroid uptake measurements on patients up to five months post therapy to investigate post-therapeutic changes in their effective half-lives and examine the dosimetric consequences. 12 patients (4 m, 8 f; age 36 - 76 y; 4 Graves' disease, 4 toxic adenoma, 3 toxic goitre, 1 non-toxic goitre) underwent late uptake measurements (1 - 7 meas., 13 - 154 d post administration, median 54 d, performed with thyroid probe resp. whole body counter at lower activities). Doses calculated from late measurements were compared to those predicted at discharge; half-lives calculated from the late measurement closest to the median delay (54 d) were compared to those determined at time of discharge. A cross-calibration between activity calibrator, thyroid probe, and whole body counter over an activity range from 52 MBq down to 45 Bq revealed linearity to within 6%, which was considered sufficient. In 9 out of 12 patients the achieved dose was within the range predicted at discharge. Averaged deviation between achieved and predicted dose was 3.1 ± 2.2% (median 2.5%, range 0.7% - 7.2%). Averaged deviation between post- and peri-therapeutic half-lives was 5.1 ± 3.9% (median 3.5%, range 1.3% - 12.5%). For n=5 patients discharged after 3 days, averaged deviations were greater (dose 4.0%, half-life 5.6%) than for those patients (n = 7) who stayed in the hospital for a minimum of 4 days (dose 2.5%, half-life 4.8%). Excretion of iodine from the thyroid remains practically unchanged for at least two months after RIT. The

  16. Follow-up on thyroidal uptake after radioiodine therapy. How robust is the peri-therapeutic dosimetry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eschner, Wolfgang; Kobe, Carsten; Schicha, Harald [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2011-07-01

    Radioiodine therapy (RIT) for benign thyroid diseases in Germany requires the patient to stay in a nuclear medicine therapy ward for at least 48 hours and the dose to the thyroid to be computed from activity measurements performed during that stay. A major part of the total dose will be delivered after the patient's discharge from the hospital and thus has to be predicted through extrapolation with the effective half-life measured peri-therapeutically. We performed repeated thyroid uptake measurements on patients up to five months post therapy to investigate post-therapeutic changes in their effective half-lives and examine the dosimetric consequences. 12 patients (4 m, 8 f; age 36 - 76 y; 4 Graves' disease, 4 toxic adenoma, 3 toxic goitre, 1 non-toxic goitre) underwent late uptake measurements (1 - 7 meas., 13 - 154 d post administration, median 54 d, performed with thyroid probe resp. whole body counter at lower activities). Doses calculated from late measurements were compared to those predicted at discharge; half-lives calculated from the late measurement closest to the median delay (54 d) were compared to those determined at time of discharge. A cross-calibration between activity calibrator, thyroid probe, and whole body counter over an activity range from 52 MBq down to 45 Bq revealed linearity to within 6%, which was considered sufficient. In 9 out of 12 patients the achieved dose was within the range predicted at discharge. Averaged deviation between achieved and predicted dose was 3.1 {+-} 2.2% (median 2.5%, range 0.7% - 7.2%). Averaged deviation between post- and peri-therapeutic half-lives was 5.1 {+-} 3.9% (median 3.5%, range 1.3% - 12.5%). For n=5 patients discharged after 3 days, averaged deviations were greater (dose 4.0%, half-life 5.6%) than for those patients (n = 7) who stayed in the hospital for a minimum of 4 days (dose 2.5%, half-life 4.8%). Excretion of iodine from the thyroid remains practically unchanged for at least two months

  17. Radioiodine and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takavar A

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Using the method, ¹³¹I activity or any other radioisotope activity required for a certain case can be determined with a good estimate.

  18. Radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease based on tissue-absorbed dose calculations: effect of pre-treatment thyroid volume on clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Michael J.; Joe, Alexius Y.; Mallek, Dirk von; Ezziddin, Samer; Palmedo, Holger [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Brink, Ingo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Freiburg (Germany); Krause, Thomas M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Inselspital Bern (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    This study was performed with three aims. The first was to analyse the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease patients with and without goitres under conditions of mild iodine deficiency using several tissue-absorbed doses. The second aim was to detect further parameters which might be predictive for treatment outcome. Finally, we wished to determine the deviation of the therapeutically achieved dose from that intended. Activities of 185-2,220 MBq radioiodine were calculated by means of Marinelli's formula to deliver doses of 150, 200 or 300 Gy to the thyroids of 224 patients with Graves' disease and goitres up to 130 ml in volume. Control of hyperthyroidism, change in thyroid volume and thyrotropin-receptor antibodies were evaluated 15{+-}9 months after treatment for each dose. The results were further evaluated with respect to pre-treatment parameters which might be predictive for therapy outcome. Thyroidal radioiodine uptake was measured every day during therapy to determine the therapeutically achieved target dose and its coefficient of variation. There was a significant dose dependency in therapeutic outcome: frequency of hypothyroidism increased from 27.4% after 150 Gy to 67.7% after 300 Gy, while the frequency of persistent hyperthyroidism decreased from 27.4% after 150 Gy to 8.1% after 300 Gy. Patients who became hypothyroid had a maximum thyroid volume of 42 ml and received a target dose of 256{+-}80 Gy. The coefficient of variation for the achieved target dose ranged between 27.7% for 150 Gy and 17.8% for 300 Gy. When analysing further factors which might influence therapeutic outcome, only pre-treatment thyroid volume showed a significant relationship to the result of treatment. It is concluded that a target dose of 250 Gy is essential to achieve hypothyroidism within 1 year after radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease patients with goitres up to 40 ml in volume. Patients with larger goitres might need higher doses

  19. Radioiodine therapy for Plummer's disease based on the thyroid uptake of technetium-99m pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, J.; Wisheu, S.; Behe, M.; Gratz, S.; Becker, W. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Munzel, U. [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Georg August Univ., Goettingen (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was the evaluation of a TcTUs (global technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression)-based approach in 370 patients with thyroid autonomy (Plummer's disease) treated by radioiodine therapy (RIT) under standardised conditions. The analysis included 370 patients (309 females, 61 males; mean age 64{+-}11.6 years) treated for thyroid autonomy [unifocal (UFA), 36.8%; multifocal (MFA), 55.7%; disseminated (DISA), 7.6%]. During RIT all patients were under thyroid suppression (TSH<0.1 {mu}U/ml) and without thionamide treatment. Of the 370 patients, 73% (n=271) were manifestly hyperthyroid and 27% (n=99) subclinically hyperthyroid. A dosimetric study included uptake measurements 24, 48, and 96 h p.i. For dose estimation the Marinelli algorithm was used. For retrospective definition of the target volume we used the equation: autonomous volume = TcTUs x 5. The spectrum of doses given in our patients ranged from 81 to 1933 Gy. After 18 months of follow-up, RIT was successful (TSH>0.5 {mu}U/l and/or TcTUs<1.6%) in 310 patients (84%). Of these patients, 291 (94%) were euthyroid (with or without L-thyroxine) and 19 (6%) subclinically hypothyroid (TSH>4 {mu}U/ml). A dose of 350-450 Gy to the autonomous tissue resulted in a success rate of 97% in the UFA group and 81% in the MFA/DISA group. Decrease in total thyroid volume and TcTUs did not differ significantly between successfully treated patients and patients with persistent autonomy. Multivariate analysis of all 370 patients identified four independent factors that negatively influenced the therapeutic success: high pretherapeutic thyroid volume (P=0.0001; odds ratio: 1.017), high pretherapeutic TcTUs values (P=0.0001; odds ratio: 1.378), multifocal/disseminated autonomy (P=0.0056; odds ratio: 3.245) and low target dose (P=0.017; odds ratio: 0.997). It is concluded that the high success rate in the treatment of UFA indicates the concept of TcTUs-based RIT to be valid, but

  20. Noninferior response in BRAFV600E mutant nonmetastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma to radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the most frequent and specific genetic alteration in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), BRAFV600E has an intimate relationship with more invasive tumour and higher postoperative recurrence risk in PTC patients. We investigate the effect of radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy on the clinical outcome in PTC patients with the BRAFV600E mutation without distant metastases. This retrospective study included PTC 228 patients without distant metastases who underwent total or near-total thyroidectomy and RAI treatment in our hospital from January 2011 to July 2014. The BRAFV600E status of the primary lesions was determined and the patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of the mutation. Serological and imaging data were collected at a median follow-up of 2.34 years after RAI administration. Suppressed and stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg), Tg antibody, diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy, and other imaging examinations were used to assess clinical outcome, which was defined as excellent response, indeterminate response, biochemical incomplete response and structural incomplete response. The BRAFV600E mutation was observed in 153 of the 228 patients (67.1 %). The clinicopathological features did not differ between the BRAFV600E mutatation and wild-type groups except age at diagnosis (P = 0.000), tumour size (P = 0.023) and TNM stage (P = 0.003). Older age and more advanced TNM stage were prevalent in the BRAFV600E mutatation group, whereas tumours were slightly larger in the BRAFV600E wild-type group. The response to RAI therapy was evaluated in both the entire series and the patients with a high recurrence risk, and no significant difference in response was found between the BRAFV600E mutatation and the wild-type groups (P = 0.881 and P = 0.851, respectively). The clinical response to timely postsurgical RAI therapy is not inferior in BRAFV600E mutation PTC patients without distant metastases, which suggests that RAI therapy might improve the general

  1. Dose-response study on thyrotoxic patients undergoing positron emission tomography and radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flower, M.A. (Thyroid Unit, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom)); Al-Saadi, A. (Thyroid Unit, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom)); Harmer, C.L. (Thyroid Unit, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom)); McCready, V.R. (Thyroid Unit, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom)); Ott, R.J. (Thyroid Unit, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom))

    1994-06-01

    Our policy had been to give 75 MBq iodine-131 at 6-monthly intervals to patients with Graves' disease until they became euthyroid. Since PET has been available at this hospital, the radiation dose to the thyroid has been calculated with an accuracy of -20%, the thyroid mass being determined from an iodine-124 PET scan. A dose-response study has been carried out on 65 patients who have received single or cumulative radiation doses of < 80 Gy. The results show that patients who receive a low radiation dose (< 20 Gy) at their first treatment have a high probability of remaining toxic at 12 months. In contrast, patients who receive higher radiation doses (> 40 Gy) at their first treatment have a high probability of control. The probability of becoming euthyroid increases more rapidly with increasing radiation dose than the probability of becoming hypothyroid. Following this dose-response study, a new treatment protocol has been introduced. A [sup 124]I PET tracer study prior to [sup 131]I therapy will be performed to enable a prescribed thyroid dose of 50 Gy to be delivered to patients with Graves' disease. Further [sup 131]I therapy will be considered if patients are still toxic at 12 months. (orig./MG)

  2. Undetected latrogenic hypothyroidism: a late complication of radio-iodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidt, K.P.

    1975-04-09

    The thyroid status of 317 patients treated with radioactive iodine between 1951 and December 1971 was investigated. Information was obtained on 236 patients and hypothyroidism, either treated or untreated, was present in 48 percent of women and 37 percent of men at mean follow-up intervals of 5.5 and 4.4 years respectively. Ninety-four of the 241 patients still alive were assessed personally by clinical examination and serum thyroxine assay, and 10 were found to have previously undiagnosed hypothyroidism. Seven of these patients had symptoms and in five these symptoms were the cause of significant distress. The importance of undertaking a long term review program following radioactive iodine therapy is emphasized. (auth)

  3. Myopathy Associated with Acute Hypothyroidism following Radioiodine Therapy for Graves Disease in an Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivkees ScottA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe acute myopathy following I-131 treatment for hyperthyroidism due to Graves Disease (GD in an adolescent. A 15 year-old diagnosed with GD required treatment with radioactive iodine (I-131 therapy. Six weeks post I-131, he developed generalized muscle cramps. The CK was 19.800 U/L, the total thyroxine was 2.3 mcg/dL (29.6 nmol/L SI and the estimated free thyroxine (EFT was 0.5 ng/dL (6.4 pmol/L SI. The ALT was 112 U/L and AST was 364 U/L (normal

  4. Radioiodine therapy in skeletal metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer: a Johannesburg experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Sindy Perumal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim.The purpose of this study was to examine the outcome of patients with skeletal metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma and analyse the effect of variables that influence the prognosis of this disease. Method. We retrospectively reviewed 352 patients treated and followed-up at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital’s thyroid cancer clinic from 1982 - 1999. Findings. Skeletal metastases were diagnosed in 24 (6.8%, 17 at presentation to the thyroid clinic, and 7 at follow-up. Patients’ ages ranged from 30 - 77 years (mean 53.9 years and the female:male ratio was 3.8:1. Based on the original pathology reports from resected tumours, 9 were papillary and 15 were follicular cancers. Twenty-three of the 24 patients underwent thyroid surgery as the initial management – total thyroidectomy in 18, subtotal thyroidectomy in 3, and lobectomy plus neck dissection in one. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer was based on lobectomy in a single subject. Radioactive iodine (RAI was used as part of the original treatment; external radiation therapy (XRT was mainly used to alleviate severe symptoms. Twenty-one patients (87.5% were treated with RAI; 11 (45.8% received radiotherapy. Seven patients died – 4 from neurological disease directly associated with bone metastases. Of the 17 surviving patients, 2 appeared to be disease-free, 8 were asymptomatic despite overt bony disease, and 7 had persistent symptoms which much improved in 5. Bone metastases were uncommon, and follicular cancer predominated in this survey. Conclusion. RAI therapy improves quality of life in most patients. There is a place for XRT.

  5. Radioiodine therapy in elderly patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism due to non-voluminous nodular goiter and its effect on bone metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Endocrinology Service

    2013-05-01

    Objective: To evaluate {sup 131}I therapy in elderly patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH) due to nodular disease and who did not receive antithyroid drugs (ATDs), and the effect of the treatment on bone metabolism. Subjects and methods: Thirty-six patients with TSH {<=} 0.1mIU/L and non-voluminous goiter (< 60 cm{sup 3} were studied. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed in 17 women with osteopenia. Results: Mean 24-h {sup 131}I uptake was 17.5%. Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis were reported by two (5.5%) patients in the first week after therapy. One year after radioiodine treatment, SCH was resolved in 30 (83.3%) patients, and hypothyroidism was detected in one (2.7%). In the patients in whom TSH returned to normal, femoral and lumbar spine BMD increased by 1.9% and 1.6%, respectively, in average. Conclusions: In elderly patients with SCH and non-voluminous goiter, radioiodine not preceded by ATDs is a safe and effective therapeutic alternative. Resolution of SCH has beneficial effects on BMD in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. (author)

  6. Iodine kinetics and dosimetry in the salivary glands during repeated courses of radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.; Huang, R.; Kuang, A.; Zhao, Z.; Zeng, Y.; Wang, J.; Tian, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The present study was conducted to investigate salivary iodine kinetics and dosimetry during repeated courses of radioiodine ({sup 131}I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Such data could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of {sup 131}I induced salivary toxicity and help to develop appropriate methods to reduce this injury. Methods: Seventy-eight consecutive DTC patients (mean age 45 {+-} 17 years, 60%, female) undergoing {sup 131}I therapy for remnant ablation or metastatic tumors were prospectively recruited. Planar quantitative scintigraphy of head-neck images was serially acquired after administration of 2.9-7.4 GBq of {sup 131}I to assess kinetics in the salivary glands of patients. Salivary absorbed doses were calculated based on the schema of Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry. Results: The maximum uptakes in percentage of administered {sup 131}I activity per kilogram of gland tissue (%/kg) were 12.9% {+-} 6.5%/kg (range, 0.4%-37.3%/kg) and 12.3% {+-} 6.2%/kg (range, 0.4%-35.1%/kg) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Statistically significant correlations of maximum uptake versus cumulative activity (r = -0.74, P < 0.01, for the parotid glands; r = -0.71, P < 0.01, for the submandibular glands) and treatment cycle (P < 0.001, for both gland types) were found. The effective half-lives of {sup 131}I in the parotid and submandibular glands were 9.3 {+-} 3.5 h (range, 1.5-19.8 h) and 8.6 {+-} 3.2 h (range, 0.8-18.0 h), respectively. A statistically significant correlation was observed between effective half-life with cumulative activity (r = 0.37, P < 0.01) and treatment cycle (P = 0.03) only for the parotid glands. The calculated absorbed doses were 0.20 {+-} 0.10 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-0.92 mGy/MBq) and 0.25 {+-} 0.09 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-1.52 mGy/MBq) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. The photon contribution to the salivary absorbed dose was minimal in relation to the beta dose

  7. Occupational exposure of nursing staff working with radioiodine therapy during 11 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calegaro, Jose Ulisses Manzzini; Teixeira, Sandra Mara Pessano [Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Centro de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: jcalegaro@uol.com.br

    2007-07-15

    Objective: The present study was aimed at evaluating the occupational exposure of nursing staff in charge of inpatients undergoing {sup 131}I therapy during 11 years. Materials and methods: The exposure situations were classified according to a questionnaire answered by three nursing attendants, correlating the procedures with activities, distances and amount of time in the iodotherapy room. Records of received doses by two types of dosimeters were evaluated over two subsequent periods. In both periods the nursing attendants received instructions about radiological protection. Results: In usual situations, their amount of time in the iodotherapy room was in compliance with the standard time established by the service. In unusual situations, where the patient needed assistance for mobility, the exposure period was above the standard. However, this exposure occurs casually (only one or two times a year). During the period between 1993 and 1999 (dosimetric films) there were ten dose records, all of them at record level. From 2000 to 2003 (thermoluminescent dosimeters) ten dose records were also obtained, with only one of them at the investigation level. During this study period, the mean {sup 131}I activity was doubled. Conclusion: Despite the increased levels of activity there was no significant increase in dose to nursing attendants. (author)

  8. Occupational exposure of nursing staff working with radioiodine therapy during 11 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The present study was aimed at evaluating the occupational exposure of nursing staff in charge of inpatients undergoing 131I therapy during 11 years. Materials and methods: The exposure situations were classified according to a questionnaire answered by three nursing attendants, correlating the procedures with activities, distances and amount of time in the iodotherapy room. Records of received doses by two types of dosimeters were evaluated over two subsequent periods. In both periods the nursing attendants received instructions about radiological protection. Results: In usual situations, their amount of time in the iodotherapy room was in compliance with the standard time established by the service. In unusual situations, where the patient needed assistance for mobility, the exposure period was above the standard. However, this exposure occurs casually (only one or two times a year). During the period between 1993 and 1999 (dosimetric films) there were ten dose records, all of them at record level. From 2000 to 2003 (thermoluminescent dosimeters) ten dose records were also obtained, with only one of them at the investigation level. During this study period, the mean 131I activity was doubled. Conclusion: Despite the increased levels of activity there was no significant increase in dose to nursing attendants. (author)

  9. Clinical Studies of Nonpharmacological Methods to Minimize Salivary Gland Damage after Radioiodine Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastavrou, Evridiki; Frangos, Savvas; Tamana, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To systematically review clinical studies examining the effectiveness of nonpharmacological methods to prevent/minimize salivary gland damage due to radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods. Reports on relevant trials were identified by searching the PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane, and Scopus electronic databases covering the period 01/2000–10/2015. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were prespecified. Search yielded eight studies that were reviewed by four of the present authors. Results. Nonpharmacological methods used in trials may reduce salivary gland damage induced by radioiodine. Sialogogues such as lemon candy, vitamin E, lemon juice, and lemon slice reduced such damage significantly (p DTC. However, the studies retrieved were limited in number, sample size, strength of evidence, and generalizability. More randomized controlled trials of these methods with multicenter scope and larger sample sizes will provide more systematic and reliable results allowing more definitive conclusions. PMID:27446226

  10. Use of recombinant human thyrotropin (rh TSH) as a method of preparation for radioiodine therapy in thyroid disorders; Utilisation de la thyreostimuline humaine recombinante dans la preparation au traitement par iode-131 des pathologies thyroidiennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taieb, D.; Guillet, B.A.; Tessonnier, L.; Mundler, O. [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2008-02-15

    The introduction of recombinant human TSH (rh TSH) as a method of preparation for radioiodine therapy of follicular-derived thyroid tumors (benign and malignant) is a significant medical advance. Rh TSH has been approved for use in remnants ablation after total thyroidectomy for carcinoma. There are other potential uses for rh TSH that have not yet been licensed. The use of rh TSH allows to reduce administrated doses in goiters through an increase of iodine uptake and a more homogeneous distribution of radioiodine in the gland. Rh TSH also improves thyroid cancer patients quality of life by avoiding hypothyroidism. (authors)

  11. Radioiodine therapy in veterinary medicine: treatment of hyperthyroidism in a cat; Die Radioiodtherapie in der Veterinaermedizin: Behandlung der Schilddruesenueberfunktion bei einer Katze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinartz, P.; Sabri, O.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Kinzel, S.; Kuepper, W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Versuchstierkunde; Bachmann, T. [Tierarztpraxis Dr. med. vet. Thomas Bachmann, Glashhuetten (Germany)

    1999-06-01

    A nine-year-old cat with symptoms of a distinct hyperthyroidism was presented at the University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen. The clinical symptoms as well as the diagnostic procedures performed at the hospital confirmed the diagnosis. After five weeks of thyreostatic medication a regular metabolism of the thyroid gland was established, followed by a radioiodine therapy with 70.3 MBq 131-iodine. Subsequently, the cat was hospitalized for two days before it could be released in good condition. Six weeks after treatment the former drastically reduced weight of the cat recovered to near normal. Even though the chemical analysis detected a discrete hyperthyroidism, clinical symptoms were no longer prominent. Three months after treatment, the final examination showed a regular metabolism of the thyroid gland without a specific thyroidal medication. The presented case illustrates that radioiodine therapy is a safe and efficient treatment of thyroidal dysfunctions in veterinary medicine. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine neun Jahre alte, europaeische Langhaarkatze wurde mit Symptomen einer ausgepraegten Schilddruesenueberfunktion im Universitaetsklinikum der RWTH Aachen vorgestellt. Sowohl die klinische Symptomatik als auch die Labordiagnostik und die apparativ erhobenen Befunde belegten das Vorliegen einer Hyperthyreose. Im Anschluss an eine fuenfwoechige thyreostatische Therapie, mit der eine euthyreote Stoffwechsellage erreicht werden konnte, wurde eine Radioiodtherapie mit 70,3 MBq 131-Iod durchgefuehrt. Nach einer nur zweitaegigen komplikationslosen Hospitalisierung konnte die Katze in gutem Allgemeinzustand entlassen werden. Sechs Wochen nach der Therapie hatte sich das zuvor deutlich reduzierte Koerpergewicht auf nahezu normgerechte Werte erhoeht; klinische Symptome der Schilddruesenueberfunktion liessen sich trotz einer laborchemisch diagnostizierten diskreten Gesamtthyroxiderhoehung nicht mehr nachweisen. Bei einer abschliessenden Kontrolle drei Monate nach Entlassung wies

  12. Combined 2-deoxy glucose and metformin improves therapeutic efficacy of sodium-iodide symporter-mediated targeted radioiodine therapy in breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sushmita Chatterjee, Nirmal Thaker, Abhijit DeMolecular Functional Imaging Laboratory, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, IndiaAbstract: Radiosensitization using either metformin or 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG in various cancer cells has been reported. The present study reveals novel information on combining these drugs to enhance radiosensitization effect in breast cancer (BC cells. Responses to low-dose Cobalt60 radiation, as well as a newly emerged radioiodine therapy target for BC, that is, sodium-iodide symporter (NIS or SLC5A5 protein, are tested. As therapeutic potential of NIS in BC is often limited due to low uptake and fast efflux rate of iodine, the scope of these two radiosensitizers to further improve NIS-mediated 131I therapeutic efficacy is explored. Two BC cell lines, MCF-7, and MDA MB231 are tested to optimize minimal drug doses required for radiosensitization. A combination of 2 mM metformin and 20 mM 2-DG with 2 grey (Gy Cobalt60 radiation shows significant radiosensitization effect (P=0.0002. In cells treated with the combination therapy, increased γH2A.X foci formation was noted. Further, MCF-7 BC cells overexpressing NIS (MCF-7 NIS was established, and using the optimized drug concentrations, significant radiosensitization (P=0.0019 by 50 µ Ci 131I usage was found to be the case as well. Apoptosis data corroborates with the result of clonogenic assay showing significant increase in apoptotic population upon dual drug-mediated radiosensitization. In case of metformin treatment, lowered adenosine triphosphate (ATP content of the cell has been observed. The encouraging radiosensitization effect observed using combined 2-DG and metformin may aid in reducing Cobalt60 radiation exposure or for targeted radioiodine therapy in BC cells with NIS expression. This study indicates high potential of this drug combination in sensitizing BC cells for NIS

  13. GATE based Monte Carlo simulation of planar scintigraphy to estimate the nodular dose in radioiodine therapy for autonomous thyroid adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recommended target dose in radioiodine therapy of solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules is 300-400 Gy and therefore higher than in other radiotherapies. This is due to the fact that an unknown, yet significant portion of the activity is stored in extranodular areas but is neglected in the calculatory dosimetry. We investigate the feasibility of determining the ratio of nodular and extranodular activity concentrations (uptakes) from post-therapeutically acquired planar scintigrams with Monte Carlo simulations in GATE. The geometry of a gamma camera with a high energy collimator was emulated in GATE (Version 5). A geometrical thyroid-neck phantom (GP) and the ICRP reference voxel phantoms 'Adult Female' (AF, 16 ml thyroid) and 'Adult Male' (AM, 19 ml thyroid) were used as source regions. Nodules of 1 ml and 3 ml volume were placed in the phantoms. For each phantom and each nodule 200 scintigraphic acquisitions were simulated. Uptake ratios of nodule and rest of thyroid ranging from 1 to 20 could be created by summation. Quantitative image analysis was performed by investigating the number of simulated counts in regions of interest (ROIs). ROIs were created by perpendicular projection of the phantom onto the camera plane to avoid a user dependant bias. The ratio of count densities in ROIs over the nodule and over the contralateral lobe, which should be least affected by nodular activity, was taken to be the best available measure for the uptake ratios. However, the predefined uptake ratios are underestimated by these count density ratios: For an uptake ratio of 20 the count ratios range from 4.5 (AF, 1 ml nodule) to 15.3 (AM, 3 ml nodule). Furthermore, the contralateral ROI is more strongly affected by nodular activity than expected: For an uptake ratio of 20 between nodule and rest of thyroid up to 29% of total counts in the ROI over the contralateral lobe are caused by decays in the nodule (AF 3 ml). In the case of the 1 ml nodules this effect is smaller: 9

  14. GATE based Monte Carlo simulation of planar scintigraphy to estimate the nodular dose in radioiodine therapy for autonomous thyroid adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammes, Jochen; Schmidt, Matthias; Schicha, Harald; Eschner, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Pietrzyk, Uwe [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM-4); Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich C - Physik

    2011-07-01

    The recommended target dose in radioiodine therapy of solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules is 300-400 Gy and therefore higher than in other radiotherapies. This is due to the fact that an unknown, yet significant portion of the activity is stored in extranodular areas but is neglected in the calculatory dosimetry. We investigate the feasibility of determining the ratio of nodular and extranodular activity concentrations (uptakes) from post-therapeutically acquired planar scintigrams with Monte Carlo simulations in GATE. The geometry of a gamma camera with a high energy collimator was emulated in GATE (Version 5). A geometrical thyroid-neck phantom (GP) and the ICRP reference voxel phantoms 'Adult Female' (AF, 16 ml thyroid) and 'Adult Male' (AM, 19 ml thyroid) were used as source regions. Nodules of 1 ml and 3 ml volume were placed in the phantoms. For each phantom and each nodule 200 scintigraphic acquisitions were simulated. Uptake ratios of nodule and rest of thyroid ranging from 1 to 20 could be created by summation. Quantitative image analysis was performed by investigating the number of simulated counts in regions of interest (ROIs). ROIs were created by perpendicular projection of the phantom onto the camera plane to avoid a user dependant bias. The ratio of count densities in ROIs over the nodule and over the contralateral lobe, which should be least affected by nodular activity, was taken to be the best available measure for the uptake ratios. However, the predefined uptake ratios are underestimated by these count density ratios: For an uptake ratio of 20 the count ratios range from 4.5 (AF, 1 ml nodule) to 15.3 (AM, 3 ml nodule). Furthermore, the contralateral ROI is more strongly affected by nodular activity than expected: For an uptake ratio of 20 between nodule and rest of thyroid up to 29% of total counts in the ROI over the contralateral lobe are caused by decays in the nodule (AF 3 ml). In the case of the 1 ml nodules this

  15. Psychometric analysis of the Melancholia Scale in trials with non-pharmacological augmentation of patients with therapy-resistant depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lauritzen, Lise; Lunde, Marianne;

    2014-01-01

    with the following augmentations: electroconvulsive therapy, bright light therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation or pulsed electromagnetic fields, and wake therapy. The item response theory model constructed by Mokken has been used as the psychometric validation of unidimensionality. For the numerical evaluation...

  16. Clinical significance of thyroglobulin autoantibodies enhancement in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Severskaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the clinical utility of antithyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb as a tumor marker in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC after thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation. Patients and methods. From 345 consecutive DTC patients after thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation we select ed 148 patients with elevated TgAb level (with distant metastasis n = 93, without distant metastasis n = 55. Serum TgAb concentration was measured before radioiodine ablation and then every time before 131I treatment (RIT or diagnostic 131I whole body scanning (WBS. Results were compared with serum thyroglobulin (Tg concentration, neck echography, lung and bone roentgenography and 131I WBS findings. Results. TgAb level was elevated in 21% DTC patients before 131I ablation. The other 22% with initially normal TgAb displayed their rising during followup. In absence of distant metastasis TgAb declined after 1 st–2 nd cycle of RIT (an average 8.9 months after 131I ablation. Persistance or rising of TgAb in the longer term was associated with detectable thyroid remnant, residual tumor or metastatic lymph nodes. In case of negative TgAb status after sugery an increase of TgAb during first 3–6 months after ablation indicated mostly a response to the rise of Tg antigen secondary to 131I ablation. A rise TgAb in the longer term (after 3rd–5th cycles of RIT indicated to residual or recurrent disease in 86% cases. In patients with distant metastasis there were no correlation between change in TgAb concentration and clinical sta tus, including the rate of regression of metastatic disease. But in case of low or undetectable Tg and permanent high TgAb level only TgAb indicated the presence of disease. Conclusion: persistence or rising TgAb in longer term after 131I ablation can serve as surrogate tumor marker of per sistent or recurrent disease. It is critical to measure TgAb concentration, especially in patients with low or unde tectable Tg, because

  17. Radioiodine Therapy of Liver Cancer Cell Following Tissue Specific Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene Transfer and Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy with Optical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Byoung Kuk; Lee, You La; Lee, Yong Jin [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-10-15

    Cancer specific killing can be achieved by therapeutic gene activated by cancer specific promotor. Expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene causes transportation and concentration of iodide into the cell, therefore radioiodine treatment after NIS gene transfer to cancer cell could be a form of radionuclide gene therapy. luciferase (Luc) gene transfected cancer cell can be monitored by in vivo optical imaging after D-luciferin injection. Aims of the study are to make vector with both therapeutic NIS gene driven by AFP promoter and reporter Luc gene driven by CMV promoter, to perform hepatocellular carcinoma specific radiodiodine gene therapy by the vector, and assessment of the therapy effect by optical imaging using luciferase expression. A Vector with AFP promoter driven NIS gene and CMV promoter driven Luc gene (AFP-NIS-CMV-Luc) was constructed. Liver cancer cell (HepG2, Huh-7) and non liver cancer cell (HCT-15) were transfected with the vector using liposome. Expression of the NIS gene at mRNA level was elucidated by RT-PCR. Radioiodide uptake, perchlorate blockade, and washout tests were performed and bioluminescence also measured by luminometer in these cells. In vitro clonogenic assay with I-131 was performed. In vivo nuclear imaging was obtained with gamma camera after I-131 intraperitoneal injection. A Vector with AFP-NIS-CMV-Luc was constructed and successfully transfected into HepG2, Huh-7 and HCT-15 cells. HepG2 and Huh-7 cells with AFP-NIS-CMV-Luc gene showed higher iodide uptake than non transfected cells and the higher iodide uptake was totally blocked by addition of perchlorate. HCT-15 cell did not showed any change of iodide uptake by the gene transfection. Transfected cells had higher light output than control cells. In vitro clonogenic assay, transfected HepG2 and Huh-7 cells showed lower colony count than non transfected HepG2 and Huh-7 cells, but transfected HCT-15 cell did not showed any difference than non transfected HCT-15 cell

  18. Combination of ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation and radioiodine therapy in benign thyroid disease. A 3-month follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot studies of combined therapies treating benign nodular goiters reported promising results. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of combined microwave ablation (MWA) and radioiodine therapy (RIT) with a special focus on thyroid function at the 3-month follow-up. 15 patients (median age: 55 years) with a large goiter and benign thyroid nodules or Graves' disease were treated with the combined therapy. Serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobuline (Tg) and, additionally, antibody levels against thyroglobulin (TgAb), thyrotropin receptors (TRAb) and thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) were measured at enrollment, post MWA and at the 3-month follow-up (3MFU). Furthermore, the goiter volume, I-131 dose and hospitalization time were analyzed to evaluate effectiveness. MWA was operated under local anesthesia with a system working in a wavelength field of 902 to 928 MHz. TSH, T4, T3 and Tg did not change at 3MFU, except for in two patients in whom the initial TSH levels improved to normal thyroid functioning levels at follow-up. One of the patients developed a high TRAb-level that receded back into the normal range. At 3MFU, the combined therapy showed a mean thyroid volume reduction of 26.4 ml ± 7.9 ml (30.5 % ± 4.6 % (p < 0.05)). By utilizing the combined therapy, administered activity could be reduced by 26.6 % ± 4.8 % (p < 0.05) and hospitalization time by 30.9 % ± 19.9 % (p < 0.05). The data confirmed the effectiveness of the combination of MWA with RIT. The combined therapy is an innovative and conservative approach and could become a safe alternative to surgery for the treatment of very large benign nodular goiters. Due to the short follow-up and the limited number of patients, further studies will be necessary.

  19. Combination of ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation and radioiodine therapy in benign thyroid disease. A 3-month follow-up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkusuz, H.; Happel, C.; Koch, D.A.; Gruenwald, F. [Frankfurt University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2016-01-15

    Pilot studies of combined therapies treating benign nodular goiters reported promising results. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of combined microwave ablation (MWA) and radioiodine therapy (RIT) with a special focus on thyroid function at the 3-month follow-up. 15 patients (median age: 55 years) with a large goiter and benign thyroid nodules or Graves' disease were treated with the combined therapy. Serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobuline (Tg) and, additionally, antibody levels against thyroglobulin (TgAb), thyrotropin receptors (TRAb) and thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) were measured at enrollment, post MWA and at the 3-month follow-up (3MFU). Furthermore, the goiter volume, I-131 dose and hospitalization time were analyzed to evaluate effectiveness. MWA was operated under local anesthesia with a system working in a wavelength field of 902 to 928 MHz. TSH, T4, T3 and Tg did not change at 3MFU, except for in two patients in whom the initial TSH levels improved to normal thyroid functioning levels at follow-up. One of the patients developed a high TRAb-level that receded back into the normal range. At 3MFU, the combined therapy showed a mean thyroid volume reduction of 26.4 ml ± 7.9 ml (30.5 % ± 4.6 % (p < 0.05)). By utilizing the combined therapy, administered activity could be reduced by 26.6 % ± 4.8 % (p < 0.05) and hospitalization time by 30.9 % ± 19.9 % (p < 0.05). The data confirmed the effectiveness of the combination of MWA with RIT. The combined therapy is an innovative and conservative approach and could become a safe alternative to surgery for the treatment of very large benign nodular goiters. Due to the short follow-up and the limited number of patients, further studies will be necessary.

  20. Escitalopram tolerability as mono- versus augmentative therapy in patients with affective disorders: a naturalistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bernardo Dell’Osso, Chiara Arici, Cristina Dobrea, Giulia Camuri, Beatrice Benatti, A Carlo AltamuraUniversity of Milan, Department of Psychiatry, Fondazione IRCSS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, ItalyBackground: Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, widely used in the treatment of affective disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine its safety and tolerability, as mono- versus augmentative therapy, in a group of patients with affective disorders.Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 131 patients suffering from different affective disorders, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, who received escitalopram for at least 4 weeks. Data were analyzed on the basis of mono- versus augmentative therapy, as well as age, gender, mean daily dosage, and patterns of combination therapy.Results: Sixty-seven (51.1% patients were treated with monotherapy (mean dose of 11.76 mg/day and 64 (48.9% with augmentative escitalopram (mean dose of 12.81 mg/day. The mean duration of escitalopram treatment was 14 months. The most frequently combined compounds were: other antidepressants (36.5%, mood stabilizers (33.4%, and atypical antipsychotics (30.1%. Side effects were reported in 5.3% of the total sample and the most common were insomnia (2.3%, nausea (2.3%, and dizziness (0.8%. No significant difference, in terms of tolerability, in mono- versus augmentative therapy groups was found. In addition, neither age nor gender was significantly correlated with a greater presence of side effects. Finally, no significant correlation between dosage and side effects was observed.Conclusion: Over a 14-month observation period, escitalopram, either as monotherapy or an augmentative treatment, was found to be well tolerated in a large sample of patients with affective disorders, with an overall low rate of side effects.Keywords: affective disorders, escitalopram

  1. Chewing-gum stimulation did not reduce the absorbed dose to salivary glands during radioiodine treatment of thyroid cancer as inferred from pre-therapy 124I PET/CT imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jentzen, Walter; Richter, Marion; Nagarajah, James; Poeppel, Thorsten Dirk; Brandau, Wolfgang; Dawes, Colin; Bockisch, Andreas; Binse, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Background The goal of this prospective study was to estimate the absorbed (radiation) doses to salivary glands in radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer under chewing-gum stimulation using 124I positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging. Methods Duplex ultrasonography was conducted in three test persons for visual comparison of the glandular blood flow with three different stimulation types (no stimulation, chewing tasteless gum base, sucking on lemon slices). Ten pat...

  2. Effective method of measuring the radioactivity of [131I]-capsule prior to radioiodine therapy with significant reduction of the radiation exposure to the medical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützen, Ulf; Zhao, Yi; Marx, Malies; Imme, Thea; Assam, Isong; Siebert, Frank-Andre; Culman, Juaraj; Zuhayra, Maaz

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Protection in Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radio Oncology is of the utmost importance. Radioiodine therapy is a frequently used and effective method for the treatment of thyroid disease. Prior to each therapy the radioactivity of the [131I]-capsule must be determined to prevent misadministration. This leads to a significant radiation exposure to the staff. We describe an alternative method, allowing a considerable reduction of the radiation exposure. Two [131I]-capsules (A01 = 2818.5; A02 = 7355.0 MBq) were measured multiple times in their own delivery lead containers - that is to say, [131I]-capsules remain inside the containers during the measurements (shielded measurement) using a dose calibrator and a well-type and a thyroid uptake probe. The results of the shielded measurements were correlated linearly with the [131I]-capsules radioactivity to create calibration curves for the used devices. Additional radioactivity measurements of 50 [131I]-capsules of different radioactivities were done to validate the shielded measuring method. The personal skin dose rate (HP(0.07)) was determined using calibrated thermo luminescent dosimeters. The determination coefficients for the calibration curves were R2 > 0.9980 for all devices. The relative uncertainty of the shielded measurement was radioactivity.

  3. Effective method of measuring the radioactivity of [131I]-capsule prior to radioiodine therapy with significant reduction of the radiation exposure to the medical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützen, Ulf; Zhao, Yi; Marx, Malies; Imme, Thea; Assam, Isong; Siebert, Frank-Andre; Culman, Juaraj; Zuhayra, Maaz

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Protection in Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radio Oncology is of the utmost importance. Radioiodine therapy is a frequently used and effective method for the treatment of thyroid disease. Prior to each therapy the radioactivity of the [131I]-capsule must be determined to prevent misadministration. This leads to a significant radiation exposure to the staff. We describe an alternative method, allowing a considerable reduction of the radiation exposure. Two [131I]-capsules (A01 = 2818.5; A02 = 7355.0 MBq) were measured multiple times in their own delivery lead containers - that is to say, [131I]-capsules remain inside the containers during the measurements (shielded measurement) using a dose calibrator and a well-type and a thyroid uptake probe. The results of the shielded measurements were correlated linearly with the [131I]-capsules radioactivity to create calibration curves for the used devices. Additional radioactivity measurements of 50 [131I]-capsules of different radioactivities were done to validate the shielded measuring method. The personal skin dose rate (HP(0.07)) was determined using calibrated thermo luminescent dosimeters. The determination coefficients for the calibration curves were R2 > 0.9980 for all devices. The relative uncertainty of the shielded measurement was radioactivity. PMID:27455475

  4. D-cycloserine augmentation of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, S.; Otto, M.W.; Pollack, M.H.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a generally effective treatment for treating anxiety disorders, there is clearly still room for further improvements. Recent advances in neuroscience of extinction learning led to novel clinical strategies to augment exposure-based treatments with d-cyc

  5. Efficacy of alpha1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy in conditions other than pulmonary emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    de Serres Frederick; Lara Beatriz; Blanco Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Up to now alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) augmentation therapy has been approved only for commercial use in selected adults with severe AAT deficiency-related pulmonary emphysema (i.e. PI*ZZ genotypes as well as combinations of Z, rare and null alleles expressing AAT serum concentrations

  6. An Investigation of Vascular Strategies to Augment Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kaffas, Ahmed Nagy

    Radiation therapy is administered to more than 50% of patients diagnosed with cancer. Mechanisms of interaction between radiation and tumour cells are relatively well understood on a molecular level, but much remains uncertain regarding how radiation interacts with the tumour as a whole. Recent studies have suggested that tumour response to radiation may in fact be regulated by endothelial cell response, consequently stressing the role of tumour blood vessels in radiation treatment response. As a result, various treatment regimens have been proposed to strategically combine radiation with vascular targeting agents. A great deal of effort has been aimed towards developing efficient vascular targeting agents. Nonetheless, no optimal method has yet been devised to strategically deliver such agents. Recent evidence suggesting that these drugs may "normalize" tumour blood vessels and enhance radiosensitivity, is supporting experiments where anti-angiogenic drugs are combined with cytotoxic therapies such as radiotherapy. In contrast, ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles have recently been demonstrated to enhance radiation therapy by biophysically interacting with endothelial cells. When combined with single radiation doses, these microbubbles are believed to cause localized vascular destruction followed by tumour cell death. Finally, a new form of 'pro-angiogenics' has also been demonstrated to induce a therapeutic tumour response. The overall aim of this thesis is to study the role of tumour blood vessels in treatment responses to single-dose radiation therapy and to investigate radiation-based vascular targeting strategies. Using pharmacological and biophysical agents, blood vessels were altered to determine how they influence tumour cell death, clonogenicity, and tumour growth, and to study how these may be optimally combined with radiation. Three-dimensional high-frequency power Doppler ultrasound was used throughout these studies to investigate vascular response to

  7. The influence of saliva flow stimulation on the absorbed radiation dose to the salivary glands during radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer using {sup 124}I PET(/CT) imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentzen, Walter; Schmitz, Jochen; Freudenberg, Lutz; Eising, Ernst; Bockisch, Andreas; Stahl, Alexander [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Balschuweit, Dorothee; Hilbel, Thomas [Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen, Fachbereich Physikalische Technik, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    A serious side effect of high-activity radioiodine therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer is radiogenic salivary gland damage. This damage may be diminished by lemon-juice-induced saliva flow immediately after {sup 131}I administration. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chewing lemon slices on the absorbed (radiation) doses to the salivary glands. Ten patients received (pretherapy) {sup 124}I PET(/CT) dosimetry before their first radioiodine therapy. The patients underwent a series of six PET scans at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 48 and {>=}96 h and one PET/CT scan at 24 h after administration of 27 MBq {sup 124}I. Blood samples were also collected at about 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 h. Contrary to the standard radioiodine therapy protocol, the patients were not stimulated with lemon juice. Specifically, the patients chewed no lemon slices during the pretherapy procedure and neither ate food nor drank fluids until after completion of the last PET scan on the first day. Organ absorbed doses per administered {sup 131}I activity (ODpAs) as well as gland and blood uptake curves were determined and compared with published data from a control patient group, i.e. stimulated per the standard radioiodine therapy protocol. The calculations for both groups used the same methodology. A within-group comparison showed that the mean ODpA for the submandibular glands was not significantly different from that for the parotid glands. An intergroup comparison showed that the mean ODpA in the nonstimulation group averaged over both gland types was reduced by 28% compared to the mean ODpA in the stimulation group (p=0.01). Within each gland type, the mean ODpA reductions in the nonstimulation group were statistically significant for the parotid glands (p=0.03) but not for the submandibular glands (p=0.23). The observed ODpAs were higher in the stimulation group because of increased initial gland uptake rather than group differences in blood kinetics. The {sup 124}I PET

  8. D-cycloserine augmentation in behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jing Xia,1 Yanqiu Du,2 Jiyang Han,1 Guo Liu,1 Xumei Wang11Department of Psychiatry, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Heping District Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Medicine, Shenyang Ninth People’s Hospital, Tiexi District, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: To evaluate the overall effect of D-cycloserine (DCS augmentation on exposure and response prevention (ERP therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD.Methods: Clinical studies on the effect of DCS augmentation on ERP therapy for OCD compared to placebo were included for meta analysis. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS. Meta-analyses were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model using the Cochrane Review Manager (RevMan, version 5.2 to calculate the odds ratio and the mean difference, with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals.Results: A total of six studies was included in the current meta-analyses, and their data were extracted. Among them, four were for analyses of DCS and Y-BOCS at midtreatment, six for analysis at posttreatment, and four at 3-month follow-up. Besides, three of the six eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis of the DCS and Clinical Global Impression – Severity Scale at posttreatment, and three in the meta-analysis of DCS and proportions of treatment responders and of subjects attaining clinical remission status criteria at posttreatment. Our meta-analyses do not reveal a significant effect of DCS augmentation in ERP therapy for OCD patients, except when measured at midtreatment. Compared to the placebo group, DCS augmentation did show a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS; when measured at posttreatment and in the subpopulation of DCS taken before some of the ERP sessions, DCS augmentation showed a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS.Conclusion: Our result suggested that with the careful

  9. The effects of weekly augmentation therapy in patients with PiZZ α1-antitrypsin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid ST

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ST Schmid,1 J Koepke,1 M Dresel,1 A Hattesohl,1 E Frenzel,2 J Perez,3 DA Lomas,4 E Miranda,5 T Greulich,1 S Noeske,1 M Wencker,6 H Teschler,6 C Vogelmeier,1 S Janciauskiene,2,* AR Koczulla1,*1Department of Internal Medicine, Division for Pulmonary Diseases, University Hospital Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; 3Department of Cellular Biology, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain; 4Department of Medicine, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; 5Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Istituto Pasteur – Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 6Department of Pneumology, West German Lung Clinic, Essen University Hospital, Essen, Germany*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The major concept behind augmentation therapy with human α1-antitrypsin (AAT is to raise the levels of AAT in patients with protease inhibitor phenotype ZZ (Glu342Lys-inherited AAT deficiency and to protect lung tissues from proteolysis and progression of emphysema.Objective: To evaluate the short-term effects of augmentation therapy (Prolastin® on plasma levels of AAT, C-reactive protein, and chemokines/cytokines.Materials and methods: Serum and exhaled breath condensate were collected from individuals with protease inhibitor phenotype ZZ AAT deficiency-related emphysema (n = 12 on the first, third, and seventh day after the infusion of intravenous Prolastin. Concentrations of total and polymeric AAT, interleukin-8 (IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor, and C-reactive protein were determined. Blood neutrophils and primary epithelial cells were also exposed to Prolastin (1 mg/mL.Results: There were significant fluctuations in serum (but not in exhaled breath condensate levels of AAT polymers, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL

  10. Characterization of radioiodine therapy failures in Graves' disease; Charakterisierung von Therapieversagern bei der Radioiodtherapie des Morbus Basedow ohne simultane Thyreostase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, O.; Zimny, M.; Schreckenberger, M.; Reinartz, P.; Nowak, B.; Ostwald, E.; Schaefer, W.; Block, S.; Setani, K.; Buell, U. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    Aim of this study was a characterization of radioiodine therapy (RIT) failures in Graves' disease without simultaneous carbimazole. Method: 226 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Graves' disease received 686.8 {+-} 376.4 MBq of iodine-131 orally for thyroid ablation. Target dose was 250 Gy. All patients were followed up for 6 months. Therapy failures were compared with successes regarding possible influencing variables initial thyroid volume, thyroid function, immune activity (TRAb), I-131 uptake, effective half-life, absorbed energy dose, age and gender. Results: 212 of 226 patients (93.8%) were treated successfully, 14 (6.2%) showed a hyperthyroidism relapse within 6 months which required a second radioiodine therapy. A success rate of 92.5% (62/67) could also be achieved with 67 patients who were hyperthyroid at the time of RIT. Compared to the therapy successes, the 14 failures achieved significantly lower absorbed doses (223.8 {+-} 76.6 Gy vs. 285.2 {+-} 82.1 Gy, p <0.005), but with no significant differences regarding age, thyroid volume, function or TRAb (all p >0.2). Of the 14 failures, n = 8 reached an absorbed dose <200 Gy and n = 1 a dose <250 Gy, although 5 of the failures reached an absorbed dose of >250 Gy. Stepwise logistic regression revealed only absorbed energy dose as a variable significantly influencing therapy success (p <0.005), but not influence of initial thyroid volume, function, TRAb value, age (all p >0.2) or gender (p = 0.13). Two-tailed Fisher's exact test showed no significant influence of gender on success rates (failures/successes: male 1/36, female 13/176, p = 0.48). Conclusions: Except for the absorbed energy dose, no other significant variable influencing the outcome of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease without simultaneous carbimazole could be found. It should be noted, though, that 5 therapy failures (2.2%) reached an absorbed energy dose of >250 Gy. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie war eine

  11. Radioiodine ( sup 131 I) therapy of Graves' disease; Use of the new high resolutional ultrasonic scanner for the determination of the accurate weight of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, Yuji; Ashizawa, Kiyoto; Matsuo, Keiichi; Inoue, Shuji; Harakawa, Seijiro; Hirayu, Hideshi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Izumi, Motomori; Nagataki, Shigenobu (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    In this series, eighteen patients with Graves' disease were treated with 8000 rads (80 Gy) of radioiodine ({sup 131}I), using the new high resolutional ultrasonic scanner for the determination of the accurate weight of the thyroid gland. The mean dose of radioiodine administered orally was 4.6 {plus minus} 3.0 mCi (170.2 {plus minus} 110.0 MBq) and 133.7 {plus minus} 44.6 muCi/g (4.95 {plus minus} 1.65 MBq). At one year after treatment, twelve of eighteen patients (66.7%) became euthyroid, five (27.8%) remained hyperthyroid and one (5.6%) became hypothyroid. Analysis of various factors which may be related to the effect of radioiodine therapy revealed that the weight of the thyroid gland in the hyperthyroid and euthyroid groups was significantly different (61.7 {plus minus} 33.5 g vs. 25.1 {plus minus} 9.1 g, p<0.05). Furthermore, all patients with larger glands (more than sixty grams) remained hyperthyroid, while the incidence of euthyroidism was as high as 80% in patients with smaller glands (less that forty grams). Although the number of patients studied was small, these results indicate that a larger thyroid gland requires a larger radioiodine dose per gram of tissue than a smaller gland, suggesting that the therapeutic radiation dose should be graded according to the gland size even when the gland size is accurately estimated by ultrasound. Further study is required to determine the appropriate radiation dose graded according to the gland size. (author).

  12. Recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated radioiodine therapy of large nodular goiters facilitates tracheal decompression and improves inspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, Steen Joop; Nielsen, Viveque E; Boel-Jørgensen, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    to placebo (n = 15) or 0.3 mg rhTSH (n = 14) 24 h before (131)I therapy. The smallest cross-sectional area of the trachea (SCAT; assessed by magnetic resonance imaging) and the pulmonary function were determined before, 1 wk, and 12 months after therapy. RESULTS: Data on goiter reduction have been reported......INTRODUCTION: The impact on tracheal anatomy and respiratory function of recombinant human (rh)TSH-stimulated (131)I therapy in patients with goiter is not clarified. METHODS: In a double-blinded design, patients (age 37-87 yr) with a large multinodular goiter (range, 99-440 ml) were randomized...... previously. In the placebo group, no significant changes in the lung function or SCAT were found throughout the study. In the rhTSH group, a slight decrease was observed in the forced vital capacity 1 wk after therapy, whereas the mean individual change in SCAT was significantly increased by 10.5% (95...

  13. Combined use of radioiodine therapy and radiofrequency ablation in treating postsurgical thyroid remnant of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Long

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Combined use of RAI therapy and radiofrequency ablation in treating excessive postsurgical thyroid remnant of DTC can be an effective approach and avoids re-operation. Long-term efficacy monitoring would further determine its feasibility.

  14. Radioiodine therapy in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with breast uptake; hyperprolactinemia due to empty sella syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 37 year-old-female patient with papillary thyroid cancer treated by surgery who demonstrated residual thyroid and bilateral breast uptake on a diagnostic I-131 whole body scan. She had an extrathyroidal extension needing I-131 ablative therapy. Her galactorrhea was investigated and treated with low doses of bromocriptine prior to I-131 therapy. Her galactorrhea was was due to the decreased secretion of PIF induced by empty sella

  15. Radioiodine therapy in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with breast uptake; hyperprolactinemia due to empty sella syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Moon Sun; Park, Chan H.; Seo, Jung Ho [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung Rae [Yungdong Sevrance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    We report a 37 year-old-female patient with papillary thyroid cancer treated by surgery who demonstrated residual thyroid and bilateral breast uptake on a diagnostic I-131 whole body scan. She had an extrathyroidal extension needing I-131 ablative therapy. Her galactorrhea was investigated and treated with low doses of bromocriptine prior to I-131 therapy. Her galactorrhea was was due to the decreased secretion of PIF induced by empty sella.

  16. Systemic oxidative stress to nucleic acids is unaltered following radioiodine therapy of patients with benign nodular goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, Steen J; Stovgaard, Elisabeth S; Fast, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    MBq; 8-oxoGuo: p = 0.66, 8-oxodG: p = 0.71). CONCLUSION: Systemic oxidative stress, as detected by nucleic acids metabolites in the urine, is not increased after thyroid stimulation with 0.1 mg of rhTSH, or after (131)I therapy. Our method cannot quantify the oxidative stress induced locally......BACKGROUND: Little is known about the whole body oxidative stress burden following radioactive iodine ((131)I) therapy of thyroid diseases. METHODS: We studied 17 patients with benign nodular goiter treated with (131)I therapy. The targeted thyroid dose was 50 Gy in 11 patients pretreated with 0...... morning urine (normalized against the creatinine concentration) at baseline, and 7 and 21 days after rhTSH (not followed by (131)I), and 7 and 21 days after (131)I therapy, respectively. RESULTS: The baseline urinary excretions of 8-oxoGuo and 8-oxodG were 2.20 ± 0.84 and 1.63 ± 0.70 nmol/mmol creatinine...

  17. Intermediate and long-term adverse effects of radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, S C; Peeters, R P; Ronckers, C M; Links, T P; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Nieveen van Dijkum, E J M; van Rijn, R R; van der Pal, H J H; Neggers, S J; Kremer, L C M; van Eck-Smit, B L F; van Santen, H M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) often involves administration of radioactive iodine (I-131) for remnant ablation or adjuvant therapy. As DTC has favorable outcome and the incidence is increasing, concerns have been raised about the possible adverse effects of I-131 th

  18. Determination of factors influencing the outcome of radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves` disease; Bestimmung von Einflussgroessen fuer den Therapieerfolg der Radioiodtherapie bei Patienten mit Morbus Basedow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, O.; Schulz, G.; Zimny, M.; Schreckenberger, M.; Zimny, D.; Wagenknecht, G.; Kaiser, H.J.; Dohmen, B.M.; Bares, R.; Buell, U. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1998-05-01

    Aim of this study was to determine whether success of radioiodine therapy (RIT) in Graves` disease depends on thyroid volume, function, thyroideal receptor antibodies (TRAK), thyresotasis, therapeutic dosage, {sup 131}I uptake, or effective half-life. Method: 78 patients received an average of 626{+-}251 MBq of iodine-131 orally for tyroid ablation. 60 were assessed for successful therapy 3 months after RIT. Results: In patients showing hyperthyreosis or a TRAK value >11 U/l at the beginning of RIT, a significantly lower therapeutic doseage and effective iodine half-life were found than in non-hyperthyreotic patients or patients with TRAK{<=}11 U/l. Patients with a thyroid volume {<=}25 ml showed a significantly lower {sup 131}I uptake, but a significantly higher relative uptake ({sup 131}I uptake/volume) than patients with a tyroid volume >25 ml. All failures were treated thyreostatically during RIT and showed a signifiantly lower therapeutic iodine dosage and relative uptake, as well as a significantly higher thyroid volume than patients with a successful therapy. RIT caused a thyroid volume reduction of 44%, with therapy failures showing a significantly lower volume reduction. Patients who received a therapeutic doseage of {<=}250 Gy showed significantly worse results than did those who had received >250 Gy. Only one case of therapy failure received a dosage >250 Gy, while 50% of failures received dosages >200 Gy but <250 Gy. Multivariate analyses (MANOVA, factor analyses) showed thyreostasis as the decisive negative factor for a successful course of therapy. Conclusions: Since most treatment failures occurred in patients under thyreostatic medication, we recommend raising the target dosage to 250 Gy for these cases. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel der Studie war es, zu pruefen, inwieweit der Erfolg einer Radioiodtherapie (RIT) des Morbus Basedow (MB) von verschiedenen Parametern (Schilddruesenvolumen [SDVol], Funktion, TRAK, Thyreostase, Therapiedosis, {sup 131}I

  19. Sensor-augmented pump therapy lowers HbA(1c) in suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes; a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanides, J; Nørgaard, K; Bruttomesso, D;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of sensor-augmented pump therapy vs. multiple daily injection therapy in patients with suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes.......To investigate the efficacy of sensor-augmented pump therapy vs. multiple daily injection therapy in patients with suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes....

  20. Comparison of the Influence on the Liver Function Between Thyroid Hormone Withdrawal and rh-TSH Before High-Dose Radioiodine Therapy in Patients with Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yeon-Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Yun, Kuk-No; Yim, Sung Kyun; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Sohn, Myung-Hee [Chonbuk National Univ. Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    An elevated thyroid stimulating hormone level (TSH) is essential to stimulate the uptake of radioiodine into thyroid remnants and metastases and metastases of thyroid cancer when a patient under-goes high-dose radioiodine therapy. Nowadays, recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh-TSH) is increasingly used instead of the classic method of thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). However, beyond the therapeutic effects, clinical differences between the two methods have not yet been clearly demonstrated. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of the two methods, especially on liver function. We identified 143 evaluable patients who were further divided into two groups: THW and rh-TSH. We first reviewed the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, which were measured during the admission period for total thyroidectomy. We called these liver enzyme levels 'base AST' and 'base ALT.' We also assessed other chemistry profiles, including AST, ALT, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB), and triglyceride (TG), which were measured on admission day for high-dose radioiodine therapy. We called these liver enzyme levels 'follow-up AST'and 'follow-up ALT.' We compared the changes in base and follow-up liver enzyme levels and the other chemistry profiles between the two groups. The base AST and base ALT levels of the two groups were within normal range, and there was no significant difference between the two groups. In contrast to these base liver enzyme levels, follow-up AST and ALT levels than did the rh-TSH group. Patients in the THW group. Patients in the THW group also had higher levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol than did the patients in the rh-TSH group. However there were no statistically significant differences in ALP, total bilirubin, and triglyceride levels between the two groups. In this retrospective analysis of liver

  1. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  2. Noninferior response in BRAF{sup V600E} mutant nonmetastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma to radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiao; Zhao, Teng; Lin, Yansong [Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Beijing (China); Liang, Jun [Peking University International Hospital, Department of Oncology, Beijing (China)

    2016-06-15

    As the most frequent and specific genetic alteration in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), BRAF{sup V600E} has an intimate relationship with more invasive tumour and higher postoperative recurrence risk in PTC patients. We investigate the effect of radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy on the clinical outcome in PTC patients with the BRAF{sup V600E} mutation without distant metastases. This retrospective study included PTC 228 patients without distant metastases who underwent total or near-total thyroidectomy and RAI treatment in our hospital from January 2011 to July 2014. The BRAF{sup V600E} status of the primary lesions was determined and the patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of the mutation. Serological and imaging data were collected at a median follow-up of 2.34 years after RAI administration. Suppressed and stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg), Tg antibody, diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy, and other imaging examinations were used to assess clinical outcome, which was defined as excellent response, indeterminate response, biochemical incomplete response and structural incomplete response. The BRAF{sup V600E} mutation was observed in 153 of the 228 patients (67.1 %). The clinicopathological features did not differ between the BRAF{sup V600E} mutatation and wild-type groups except age at diagnosis (P = 0.000), tumour size (P = 0.023) and TNM stage (P = 0.003). Older age and more advanced TNM stage were prevalent in the BRAF{sup V600E} mutatation group, whereas tumours were slightly larger in the BRAF{sup V600E} wild-type group. The response to RAI therapy was evaluated in both the entire series and the patients with a high recurrence risk, and no significant difference in response was found between the BRAF{sup V600E} mutatation and the wild-type groups (P = 0.881 and P = 0.851, respectively). The clinical response to timely postsurgical RAI therapy is not inferior in BRAF{sup V600E} mutation PTC patients without distant metastases, which

  3. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Targeted Testing and Augmentation Therapy: A Canadian Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DD Marciniuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT functions primarily to inhibit neutrophil elastase, and deficiency predisposes individuals to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Severe A1AT deficiency occurs in one in 5000 to one in 5500 of the North American population. While the exact prevalence of A1AT deficiency in patients with diagnosed COPD is not known, results from small studies provide estimates of 1% to 5%. The present document updates a previous Canadian Thoracic Society position statement from 2001, and was initiated because of lack of consensus and understanding of appropriate patients suitable for targeted testing for A1AT deficiency, and for the use of A1AT augmentation therapy. Using revised guideline development methodology, the present clinical practice guideline document systematically reviews the published literature and provides an evidence-based update. The evidence supports the practice that targeted testing for A1AT deficiency be considered in individuals with COPD diagnosed before 65 years of age or with a smoking history of <20 pack years. The evidence also supports consideration of A1AT augmentation therapy in nonsmoking or exsmoking patients with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 25% to 80% predicted attributable to emphysema and documented A1AT deficiency (level ≤11 μmol/L who are receiving optimal pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies (including comprehensive case management and pulmonary rehabilitation because of benefits in computed tomography scan lung density and mortality.

  4. Moving from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baus, Oliver; Bouchard, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the move from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy (ARET). Unlike virtual reality (VR), which entails a complete virtual environment (VE), augmented reality (AR) limits itself to producing certain virtual elements to then merge them into the view of the physical world. Although, the general public may only have become aware of AR in the last few years, AR type applications have been around since beginning of the twentieth century. Since, then, technological developments have enabled an ever increasing level of seamless integration of virtual and physical elements into one view. Like VR, AR allows the exposure to stimuli which, due to various reasons, may not be suitable for real-life scenarios. As such, AR has proven itself to be a medium through which individuals suffering from specific phobia can be exposed "safely" to the object(s) of their fear, without the costs associated with programing complete VEs. Thus, ARET can offer an efficacious alternative to some less advantageous exposure-based therapies. Above and beyond presenting what has been accomplished in ARET, this paper covers some less well-known aspects of the history of AR, raises some ARET related issues, and proposes potential avenues to be followed. These include the type of measures to be used to qualify the user's experience in an augmented reality environment, the exclusion of certain AR-type functionalities from the definition of AR, as well as the potential use of ARET to treat non-small animal phobias, such as social phobia.

  5. Moving from Virtual Reality Exposure-Based Therapy (VRET to Augmented Reality Exposure-Based Therapy (ARET: A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eBaus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the move from virtual reality exposure-based therapy (VRET to augmented reality exposure-based therapy (ARET. Unlike virtual reality (VR, which entails a complete virtual environment (VE, augmented reality (AR limits itself to producing certain virtual elements to then merge them into the view of the physical world. Although the general public may only have become aware of AR in the last few years, AR type applications have been around since beginning of the 20th century. Since, then, technological developments have enabled an ever increasing level of seamless integration of virtual and physical elements into one view. Like VR, AR allows the exposure to stimuli which, due to various reasons, may not be suitable for real-life scenarios. As such, AR has proven itself to be a medium through which individuals suffering from specific phobia can be exposed safely to the object(s of their fear, without the costs associated with programming complete virtual environments. Thus, ARET can offer an efficacious alternative to some less advantageous exposure-based therapies. Above and beyond presenting what has been accomplished in ARET, this paper also raises some ARET related issues, and proposes potential avenues to be followed. These include the definition of an AR related term, the type of measures to be used to qualify the user’s experience in an augmented reality environment (ARE, the development of alternative geospatial referencing systems, as well as the potential use of ARET to treat social phobia. Overall, it may be said that the use of ARET, although promising, is still in its infancy but that, given a continued cooperation between clinical and technical teams, ARET has the potential of going well beyond the treatment of small animal phobia.

  6. Evaluation of radioiodine therapy with fixed doses of 10 and 15 mCi in patients with Graves disease; Avaliacao da radioiodoterapia com doses fixas de 10 e 15 mCi em pacientes com doenca de Graves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canadas, Viviane; Vilar, Lucio; Moura, Eliane; Brito, Ana; Castellar, Enio [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Endocrinologia]. E-mail: vivi2207@ig.com.br

    2007-10-15

    The treatment options for the hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease are antithyroid drugs, surgery and radioiodine, none of which is considered ideal, as they do not act directly on the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Radioiodine has been increasingly used as the treatment of choice because it is a safe and definitive therapy whose administration is very easy. Some authors prefer to administer higher doses in order to deliberately induce hypothyroidism, while others recommend lower doses that result in a lower incidence of hypothyroidism and a greater incidence of euthyroidism. There is no consensus for the optimal regimen of fixed doses to be used and this is the main focus of the present study, where doses of 10 and 15 mCi of {sup 131}I were compared. Among the 164 patients analyzed, 61 (37.2%) were submitted to 10 mCi and 103 (62.8%) to 15 mCi. In the longitudinal analysis it was observed that remission of the hyperthyroidism was statistically different in the sixth month (p < 0.001), being higher in the group that used the dose of 15 mCi, but similar in both groups at 12 and 24 months. It may be concluded that the administration of fixed doses of 10 and 15 mCi of {sup 131}I brought about a similar remission of the hyperthyroidism after 12 months of treatment. Moreover, the remission rate of the hyperthyroidism had no association with age, sex or previous therapy with antithyroid drugs. (author)

  7. D-Cycloserine Augmentation of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Directions for Pilot Research in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; McKay, Dean; Reid, Jeannette M.; Geller, Daniel A.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a recent translational success in combining behavioral psychotherapy with a novel medication, d-cycloserine (DCS), to augment cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The literature on behavioral theory of exposure-based therapies is provided, followed by a discussion of the role of DCS in enhancing extinction…

  8. Separation of autonomous function from cell density in non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism. Pt. 2. Quantified comparison before and after radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Als, C. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Inselspital, Univ. Bern (Switzerland); Roesler, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Inselspital, Univ. Bern (Switzerland); Listewnik, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Inselspital, Univ. Bern (Switzerland)

    1996-02-01

    Regional autonomous cell mass (Q: cell density ratio) and function (T: toxicity index) were compared by double isotope parametric thyroid scintigraphy (Als et al., Nucl. Med. 1995; 34) in 53 patients with non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism before and after radioiodine therapy (aRIT) and showed a break-down (medians) of Q: 4.3{yields}1.0 (toxic adenomas: TA), 2{yields}1.1 (multifocal functional autonomies: MFA) (p<0.0001) as of T: 96{yields}1.7 (TA), 15{yields}1.1 (MFA) (p<0.001). Five functional aRIT patterns resulted: euthyroidism (n=37, 70%), at half with scarred/non-scarred autonomous areas (low/higher T, respectively), primary hypothyroidism (n=4), residual hyperthyroidism (n=7), secondary hyperthyroidism (n=5). The last two groups with persistent subnormal TSH values were clearly separated by divergent T, thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels. A resulting T>1 may represent a clinically sub-critical mass of residual autonomous tissue. This new technique facilitates individual pretherapeutic evaluations and aRIT quality control. (orig.) [Deutsch] Regionale autonome Zellmasse (Q: Zelldichtequotient) und Funktion (T: Toxizitaetsindex) wurden bei 53 Patienten mit nichtimmunogener Hyperthyreose vor und nach Radiojodtherapie (nRJT) mittels einer parametrischen Doppelisotopen-Schilddruesenszintigraphie (Als et al., Nucl. Med. 1995; 34) untersucht, und ergaben einen Zusammenbruch (Medianen) von Q: 4,3{yields}1,0 (toxische Adenome: TA), 2{yields}1,1 (multifokale funktionelle Autonomien: MFA) (p<0,0001) sowie von T: 96{yields}1,7 (TA), 15{yields}1,1 (MFA) (p<0,001). Fuenf funktionelle Muster wurden nRJT unterscheidbar: Euthyreose (n=37, 70%), zur Haelfte mit vernarbten/nichtvernarbten autonomen Arealen (respektive niedrige/hoehere T); primaere Hypothyreose (n=4), Rest-Hyperthyreose (n=7), sekundaere Hyperthyreose (n=5). Die beiden letzten Gruppen mit persistierend subnormalen TSH-Werten wurden eindeutig anhand divergierender T-, Trijodthyronin- und Thyroxin

  9. Dose-remission of pulsating electromagnetic fields as augmentation in therapy-resistant depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straasø, Birgit; Lauritzen, Lise; Lunde, Marianne;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate to what extent a twice daily dose of Transcranial Pulsating ElectroMagnetic Fields (T-PEMF) was superior to once daily in patients with treatment-resistant depression as to obtaining symptom remission after 8 weeks of augmentation therapy. METHODS: A self-treatment set...... and 31 patients twice daily. After 5 weeks of therapy remission was obtained in 26.5% and 32.3% on one dose and two doses of T-PEMF, respectively. After 8 weeks the rate of remission was 73.5% and 67.7%, respectively. The side effects as measured by the Udvalget for Kliniske Undersøgelser scale showed...... a better toleration of the antidepresssive medication in both treatment groups, which was reflected by the WHO-5 well-being scale with increased scores in both groups of patients. CONCLUSION: The high remission rate obtained by the T-PEMF augmentation was not a dose effect (one versus two daily T...

  10. Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre. The possibility of effect-amplification with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Steen J.; Nielsen, Viveque E.; Hegedues, Laszlo [Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    2006-12-15

    There is no consensus regarding the optimum treatment of benign non-toxic goitre. L-thyroxine suppressive therapy is widely used, but there is poor evidence of its efficacy, and it may have serious adverse effects on health. Surgery is first choice in large goitres or if malignancy is suspected. {sup 131}I therapy results in a one-year goitre reduction of around 40% in multinodular goitres, usually with a high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement of the inspiratory capacity. The effect is attenuated with increasing goitre size. The risk of hypothyroidism is 22-58% within 5-8 years. A sufficient thyroid {sup 131}I uptake is mandatory for {sup 131}I therapy to be feasible and pre-stimulation with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) increases this considerably. This leads to an increased absorbed thyroid dose by approx.75%, mainly in those patients with the lowest thyroid {sup 131}I uptake, and a more homogeneous intrathyroidal isotope distribution. Pre-stimulation with even a small dose of rhTSH seems to allow a reduction of the {sup 131}I activity while still achieving a mean goitre reduction of approximately 40% within a year. A significantly lower extrathyroidal radiation is achieved by this approach. With an unchanged {sup 131}I activity, rhTSH pre-stimulation improves the goitre reduction by 30-50%. However, this is at the expense of a higher rate of hypothyroidism, cervical pain and transient thyrotoxicosis. Of particular concern is the observation made in healthy persons, that rhTSH results in a transient average thyroid volume increase of 35%. A similar goitre swelling may cause problems in susceptible patients during rhTSH-augmented {sup 131}I therapy. Thus, this concept still needs a closer evaluation before routine use.

  11. STAR: Speech Therapy with Augmented Reality for children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Camilla Almeida da; Fernandes, António Ramires; Grohmann, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    Graphics based systems of Augmented and Alternative Communication are widely used to promote communication in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study discusses an integration of Augmented Reality in communication interventions, by relating elements of Augmented and Alternative Communication and Applied Behaviour Analysis strategies. An architecture for an Augmented Reality based interactive system to assist interventions is proposed. STAR provides an Augmented Reality tool to assi...

  12. Augmenting Antidepressant Medication Treatment of Depressed Women with Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples: A Randomized Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Wayne H.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.; Golden, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first study to evaluate adding emotionally focused therapy for couples (EFT) to antidepressant medication in the treatment of women with major depressive disorder and comorbid relationship discord. Twenty-four women and their male partners were randomized to 6 months of medication management alone (MM) or MM augmented with EFT (MM +…

  13. Focal Bronchiectasis Causing Abnormal Pulmonary Radioiodine Uptake in a Patient with Well-Differentiated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ash Gargya; Elizabeth Chua

    2012-01-01

    Background. False-positive pulmonary radioactive iodine uptake in the followup of differentiated thyroid carcinoma has been reported in patients with certain respiratory conditions. Patient Findings. We describe a case of well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma treated by total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation therapy. Postablation radioiodine whole body scan and subsequent diagnostic radioiodine whole body scans have shown persistent uptake in the left hemithorax despite an und...

  14. APOBEC3G-Augmented Stem Cell Therapy to Modulate HIV Replication: A Computational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Hosseini

    Full Text Available The interplay between the innate immune system restriction factor APOBEC3G and the HIV protein Vif is a key host-retrovirus interaction. APOBEC3G can counteract HIV infection in at least two ways: by inducing lethal mutations on the viral cDNA; and by blocking steps in reverse transcription and viral integration into the host genome. HIV-Vif blocks these antiviral functions of APOBEC3G by impeding its encapsulation. Nonetheless, it has been shown that overexpression of APOBEC3G, or interfering with APOBEC3G-Vif binding, can efficiently block in vitro HIV replication. Some clinical studies have also suggested that high levels of APOBEC3G expression in HIV patients are correlated with increased CD4+ T cell count and low levels of viral load; however, other studies have reported contradictory results and challenged this observation. Stem cell therapy to replace a patient's immune cells with cells that are more HIV-resistant is a promising approach. Pre-implantation gene transfection of these stem cells can augment the HIV-resistance of progeny CD4+ T cells. As a protein, APOBEC3G has the advantage that it can be genetically encoded, while small molecules cannot. We have developed a mathematical model to quantitatively study the effects on in vivo HIV replication of therapeutic delivery of CD34+ stem cells transfected to overexpress APOBEC3G. Our model suggests that stem cell therapy resulting in a high fraction of APOBEC3G-overexpressing CD4+ T cells can effectively inhibit in vivo HIV replication. We extended our model to simulate the combination of APOBEC3G therapy with other biological activities, to estimate the likelihood of improved outcomes.

  15. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides Enhance the Activities of CD8+Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes Generated by Combined hMUC1 Vaccination and hNIS Radioiodine Gene Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Yong Hyun; Choi, Yun; Kim, Chul Woo; Chung, June Key [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaetae [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    The authors evaluated whether the cytotoxicity of CD8+CTLs generated by combined hMUC1 vaccination and hNIS radioiodine gene therapy was enhanced in the presence of CpG in an established tumor model. CMNF cells (CT26 cells expressing hMUC1, hNIS and Firefly luciferase) were transplanted into BALB/c mice. Four and 10 days later, tumor-bearing mice were immunized intramuscularly with pcDNA3.1 or pcDNA-hMUC1 or pcDNA-hMUC1+CpG, and subsequently administered PBS or {sup 131}I [five groups (seven mice/group): referred to as the pcDNA3.1+PBS, phMUC1+PBS, pcDNA3.1+{sup 131}I, phMUC1+{sup 131}I, and phMUC1+{sup 131}I+CpG groups]. The number of CD8+IFNr+ T cells of splenocytes as well as the number of CD8+IFNr+ T cells of splenocytes re-stimulated with CD11c+ cells was determined using FACS analysis. The activities of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) from splenocytes were investigated. Marked tumor growth inhibition was observed in the phMUC1+{sup 131}I and phMUC1+{sup 131}I+CpG groups, but not in the other three single therapy groups. Particularly the number of CD8+IFN-{gamma}+ T cells of splenocytes was more increased in the phMUC1+{sup 131}I+CpG group than in the phMUC1+{sup 131}I group. The number of CD8+IFN-{gamma}+ T cells of splenocytes stimulated with CD11c+ cells was the most enhanced in the phMUC1+{sup 131}I+CpG group among the five groups. Concurrently, the activities of hMUC1-associated CTLs obtained from splenocytes in the phMUC1+{sup 131}I+CpG group were significantly greater than in the other four groups(pcDNA+PBS, phMUC1+PBS, pcDNA+{sup 131}I, phMUC1+{sup 131}I, and phMUC1+{sup 131}I+CpG, 16{+-}2%, 20{+-}1%, 30{+-}2%, 60{+-}2%, and 87{+-}2%, respectively, P<0.01). Our data suggest that adjuvant CpG ODNs can increase the killing activities of CTLs generated by combined hMUC1 DNA vaccination and hNIS radioiodine gene therapy.

  16. A retrospective study of predictive factors for effective aripiprazole augmentation of antidepressant therapy in treatment-resistant depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara H

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hiroko Sugawara,1,2 Kaoru Sakamoto,1 Tsuyoto Harada,3 Satoru Shimizu,4 Jun Ishigooka1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, 2Support Center for Women Health Care Professionals and Researchers, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, 3Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Women’s Medical University Medical Center East, Arakawa-ku, 4Department of Research, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: Several studies have evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole for augmentation of antidepressant therapy for treatment-resistant depression (TRD. Here, we investigated the efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation for TRD including both major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder and the clinical predictors of treatment efficacy in a Japanese population.  Methods: Eighty-five depressed Japanese patients who underwent aripiprazole augmentation therapy after failing to respond satisfactorily to antidepressant monotherapy were included in the study. Treatment responses were evaluated based on Clinical Global Impression Improvement scores assessed 8 weeks after initiation of aripiprazole administration. We compared demographic and diagnostic variables, psychiatric medication variables, and clinical variables between remission and nonremission groups.  Results: The aripiprazole augmentation remission rate was 36.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that aripiprazole augmentation was significantly more effective for bipolar depression than for major depressive disorder, and both absence of comorbid anxiety disorders and current episode duration >3 months were significantly associated with the efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation.  Conclusion: Polarity of depression, comorbidity of anxiety disorders, and current episode duration may predict the efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation for TRD including both major depressive disorder and

  17. Alpha-1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy in deficient individuals enrolled in the Alpha-1 Foundation DNA and Tissue Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, Adriano

    2009-01-01

    Adriano R Tonelli1, Farshid Rouhani1, Ning Li2, Pam Schreck1, Mark L Brantly11Alpha-1 Research Program, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USAIntroduction: Intravenous augmentation therapy with purified intravenous alpha-1 antitrypsin replaces the deficient protein and is the only currently approved treatment for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AAT...

  18. Augmenting antidepressant medication treatment of depressed women with emotionally focused therapy for couples: A randomized pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Denton, Wayne H.; Wittenborn, Andrea K; Golden, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first study to evaluate adding emotionally focused therapy for couples (EFT) to antidepressant medication in the treatment of women with major depressive disorder and comorbid relationship discord. Twenty-four women and their male partners were randomized to six months of medication management alone (MM) or medication management augmented with EFT (MM+EFT). Medication management followed the Texas Medication Algorithm Project guidelines. Fifteen EFT sessions were...

  19. The combination of ANT2 shRNA and hNIS radioiodine gene therapy increases CTL cytotoxic activity through the phenotypic modulation of cancer cells: combination treatment with ANT2 shRNA and I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to simultaneously induce strong cell death and antitumor immunity in cancer patients for successful cancer treatment. Here, we investigated the cytotoxic and phenotypic modulation effects of the combination of ANT2 shRNA and human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) radioiodine gene therapy in vitro and in vivo and visualized the antitumor effects in an immunocompromised mouse colon cancer model. A mouse colon cancer cell line co-expressing hNIS and the luciferase gene (CT26/hNIS-Fluc, named CT26/NF) was established. CT26/NF cells and tumor-bearing mice were treated with HBSS, scramble, ANT2 shRNA, I-131, and ANT2 shRNA + I-131. The apoptotic rates (%) and MHC class I and Fas gene expression levels were determined in treated CT26/NF cells using flow cytometry. Concurrently, the level of caspase-3 activation was determined in treated cells in vitro. For in vivo therapy, tumor-bearing mice were treated with scramble, ANT2 shRNA, I-131, and the combination therapy, and the anti-tumor effects were monitored using bioluminescence. The killing activity of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) was measured with a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. For the in vitro experiments, the combination of ANT2 shRNA and I-131 resulted in a higher apoptotic cell death rate compared with ANT2 shRNA or I-131 alone, and the levels of MHC class I and Fas-expressing cancer cells were highest in the cells receiving combination treatment, while single treatment modestly increased the level of MHC class I and Fas gene expression. The combination of ANT2 shRNA and I-131 resulted in a higher caspase-3 activation than single treatments. Interestingly, in vivo combination treatment led to increased gene expression of MHC class I and Fas than the respective mono-therapies; furthermore, bioluminescence showed increased antitumor effects after combination treatment than monotherapies. The LDH assay revealed that the CTL killing activity against CT26/NF cells was most effective after combination

  20. Comparison of Fixed versus Calculated Activity of Radioiodine for the Treatment of Graves Disease in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Canto, Abigail U.; Dominguez, Paulette N.; Jimeno, Cecilia A.; Obaldo, Jerry M.; Ogbac, Ruben V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Radioactive iodine as a treatment modality has been shown in several studies to be a safe and effective therapy for Graves disease. However, there is still no uniformity regarding optimal dosing method. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of calculated and fixed dosing of radioiodine for the treatment of Graves disease. Methods A hundred twenty-two patients diagnosed with Graves disease were randomized to receive either fixed or calculated dose of radioiodine. Those ra...

  1. Electroporation: a novel approach to enhance the radioiodine uptake in a human thyroid cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodine has been the best choice of treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer. Loss of the ability to concentrate iodide makes thyroid cancer cells refractory to radioiodine therapy. Therefore, the methods that enhance the uptake of radioiodine may have significant therapeutic effect. Electroporation involves the application of short high-voltage electric pulses which transiently permeabilize the plasma membrane, allowing entry of the otherwise impermeable molecules. The aim of our study was to use electroporation for incorporating radioiodine into a non-iodine concentrating thyroid cell line. Cultured WRO thyroid cancer cells that do not incorporate iodine due to the lack of the specific transporter protein incorporated significant amounts of radioiodine after electroporation. The uptake of radioiodine by electroporation showed dependence on the electric field, external concentration of the iodine, time and the temperature of incubation. The incorporated radioiodine was retained over a period of 24 h. The retainability of the incorporated iodine may have a significant effect on the tumoricidal properties if validated in vivo

  2. Radioiodine removal in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical means are reviewed available for the retention of radioiodine in nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing plants, its immobilization, storage, and disposal. The removal of iodine species from gaseous effluents of nuclear power plants using impregnated activated charcoal is dealt with. Various scrubbing techniques for trapping iodine from the head-end and dissolver off-gases are discussed as well as solid adsorbents for iodine which may be used to clean up other gaseous streams. Current practices and activities for radioiodine treatment and management in Belgian, Dutch, Swedish, USSR and UK nuclear installations are presented

  3. Does an individual estimation of halflife improve the results of radioiodine therapy of Graves' disease?; Verbessert die individuelle Bestimmung der effektiven Halbwertszeit die Ergebnisse der Radioiodtherapie des Morbus Basedow?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, P.; Koerber, C.; Koerber-Hafner, N.; Haenscheid, H.; Reiners, Chr. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Aim: The impact of our dosimetry concept on radioiodine therapy success in Graves' disease (GD) was analysed. Three questions arised: Did individual estimation of pretherapeutic halflife improve therapeutic success? Did individual dosimetry result in accurate dose calculation? Did antithyroid medication have a measurable influence on therapeutic success under the prevailing conditions? Methods: 126 consecutive patients were treated with 200 Gy I-131 in our therapy ward for GD and followed-up six to nine months after therapy. Success quote was assessed using a standardized protocol and treatment was classified as successful when the patients was eu- or hypothyroid, or unsuccessful when he or she presented with a suppressed TSH-level or in hyperthyroid condition after antithyroid medication withdrawal. Antithyroid medication, activity I-131, dose, concentration of fT{sub 3} and fT{sub 4}, specific delivered dose and halflife were put into a multiple regression model to assess their influence on therapeutic success. In order to assess possible factors disturbing the therapeutic outcome, relevant parameters were analyzed using Logit transformation. Results: Out of 126 patients 84 were classified as successfully treated and 42 (33,3%) as failures. A significant influence on the outcome only was found for thyroid mass. However, therapeutic success appeared to be more distinctly determined by the specific delivered dose using an estimated halflife of 5.5 days (Odds: 10.0, p <0.001). Accurate intratherapeutic dosimetry did not play a significant role to enhance therapeutic success. Neither did antihyroid medication during radioiodine therapy exert any significant impact. Conclusions: Measurement of individual intratherapeutic halflife as opposed to an estimate using a standard halflife did not provide improved results concerning the target dose. Retrospectively, the therapeutic outcome on the basis of a measured halflife as compared to a standard halflife did not

  4. 224例分化型甲状腺癌放射性碘治疗分析%Experience of 224 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma by radioiodine therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭一玲; 陈佐伟; 张英男; 冯程; 辛镇祓

    2011-01-01

    目的:对在我科8年来治疗的分化型甲状腺癌(DTC)患者进行回顾性分析,了解DTC发病规律,并证明131碘治疗DTC的疗效.方法:2002至2010年确诊为DTC并有颈部淋巴结转移的患者,进行甲状腺近全切除,并进行颈部淋巴结清扫,术后131碘治疗.131碘治疗后,每半年随访一次.随访指标:颈部超声检查;血清TSH、FT4、FT3;血清Tg、TgAb检查;全身放射性碘扫描;胸部CT或MRI.疗效判定:当血清Tg、TgAb阴性,颈部超声未见肿大淋巴结,全身放射性碘扫描未见放射性浓聚时,为DTC治愈.当上述指标为阳性时,则进行再次131碘治疗.用SPSS软件进行统计学处理.结果:DTC患者数逐年明显增加;乳头癌与滤泡癌的比例约为12(207):1(17),女性患者远多于男性,男:女患者患病比例约为1(57):3(167);DTC在20-55岁之间为高发年龄段,峰值在25-35岁之间;131碘治疗对DTC治愈率约达90%,近10%的顽固性DTC患者多次131碘治疗效果欠佳.结论:分化型甲状腺癌患病率有明显增加趋势,25-35岁为高发年龄,女性多于男性,早期诊断及早期治疗是关键.手术切除甲状腺后进行131碘治疗对DTC治愈率达90%.近10%的患者131碘治疗效果欠佳,需寻求更好的治疗方法.%Objective: To study the incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma ( DTC ) and the outcome of 131 Iodine therapy for DTC, we summarized retrospectively data of patients with DTC who were managed by 131 Iodine therapy in our department in past 8 years. Methods :Patients with DTC and neck lymph nodes metastasis were diagnosed and near - total thyroidectomy were performed, and neck metastatic lymph nodes were excised. After operation they were treated by radioiodine. Patients were followed up once every half of year after 131 Iodine therapy . To observe the following ired: neck ultrasound test , serum TSH, FT4, FT3 test, serum Tg, TgAb test, radioiodine whole body scan,chest CT or MRI. Assessment of outcome of 131 Iodine

  5. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of treatment-refractory metastatic thyroid cancer using 90Yttrium and 177Lutetium labeled somatostatin analogs: toxicity, response and survival analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Budiawan, Hendra; Salavati, Ali; Kulkarni, Harshad R.; Baum, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The overall survival rate of non-radioiodine avid differentiated (follicular, papillary, medullary) thyroid carcinoma is significantly lower than for patients with iodine-avid lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate toxicity and efficacy (response and survival) of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in non-radioiodine-avid or radioiodine therapy refractory thyroid cancer patients. Sixteen non-radioiodine-avid and/or radioiodine therapy refractory thyroid cancer patients, i...

  6. Investigation of biokinetics of radioiodine with a population kinetics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, T; Giussani, A; Canzi, C; Gerundini, P; Oeh, U; Hoeschen, C

    2010-01-01

    The dosimetric studies required for planning individually tailored radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid pathologies may be too complex and time-demanding for many ordinary nuclear medicine departments. In this work, a preliminary population kinetics approach was applied to a model structure for iodine biokinetics in order to identify those model features that actually need to be individually investigated, in order to simplify the protocol for data collection in patients. Data from 29 patients undergoing radioiodine therapy for the treatment of the autonomous nodule syndrome were used in the analysis. The greatest inter-individual variations were observed in the parameters describing the transformation of iodide into organic iodine in the thyroid and in the kinetics of the organic form.

  7. Efficacy of 131I SPECT/CT in the initial nodal staging in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma at the first ablative radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Background: after the first radioiodine ablative dose, planar Whole-Body Scanning (WBS) offers the possibility for detecting thyroid remnant, loco-regional node involvement and distant metastases. Nevertheless, available anatomic information is scarce and the high activity of thyroid remnants can interfere with the detection of cervical lymphatic nodes. Objective: to determine the additional value of the SPECT-CT over planar WBS, performed seven days after ablative treatment with 131I, in patients who were operated on for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (DTC). Methods: from January 2009 to December 2012, 132 patients with DTC were admitted for radio-ablation with 131I after thyroidectomy. All of them underwent WBS seven days after ablation, and 91 had an additional SPECT-CT, 71 women and 20 men, with ages ranged from 15 to 89 years (mean, age 54 years). All patients had histological confirmed DTC (73 papillary, 17 follicular -2 cases with double tumour, papillary and follicular-, and 1 insular type). In addition to the thyroidectomy, lymph node dissection was performed in 54 patients (59%): 20 patients were classified as N0 and 29 as N1. The remaining 42 patients were classified as Nx. Planar and tomographic images were independently evaluated by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Results: 195 cervical focal uptake were observed in the 91 planar WBSs. No additional foci were observed in SPECT-CT. Findings: Planar WBS........... SPECT-CT........... Number of Foci Thyroid remnant...... Thyroid remnant..........51........... LNM...........0 Indeterminate.......... Thyroid remnant..........84............. LNM............5 LNM............ Thyroid remnant.........12............ Indeterminate.............0............ LNM..........43. Total Number of Foci............. 195. Compared to the nodal staging prior to ablation based on the histopathological diagnosis, we had an upstaging from N0 to N1 in 4 of 20 patients and from Nx to N

  8. Galantamine efficacy and tolerability as an augmentative therapy in autistic children: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleiha, Ali; Ghyasvand, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Farokhnia, Mehdi; Yadegari, Noorollah; Tabrizi, Mina; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Yekehtaz, Habibeh; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2014-07-01

    The role of cholinergic abnormalities in autism was recently evidenced and there is a growing interest in cholinergic modulation, emerging for targeting autistic symptoms. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and an allosteric potentiator of nicotinic receptors. This study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of galantamine as an augmentative therapy to risperidone, in autistic children. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, 40 outpatients aged 4-12 years whom had a diagnosis of autism (DSM IV-TR) and a score of 12 or higher on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) Irritability subscale were equally randomized to receive either galantamine (up to 24 mg/day) or placebo, in addition to risperidone (up to 2 mg/day), for 10 weeks. We rated participants by ABC-C and a side effects checklist, at baseline and at weeks 5 and 10. By the study endpoint, the galantamine-treated patients showed significantly greater improvement in the Irritability (P = 0.017) and Lethargy/Social Withdrawal (P = 0.005) subscales than the placebo group. The difference between the two groups in the frequency of side effects was not significant. In conclusion, galantamine augmentation was shown to be a relatively effective and safe augmentative strategy for alleviating some of the autism-related symptoms.

  9. Subjective perception of radioactivity. No change post successful treatment with radioiodine; Strahlen bleiben boese. Keine Aenderung der subjektiven Konzepte von Radioaktivitaet nach erfolgreicher Radioiodtherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, L.S.; Mueller, S.P.; Beyer, T.; Bockisch, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2009-07-01

    We assess the attitude of patients with thyroid disease towards radiation and radioactivity before and after radioiodine therapy by means of a cultural-anthropological approach. We evaluate in patient interviews how their subjective attitude towards radioactivity as an abstract term and towards radioactivity in the medical context on the basis of their personal experiences with radionuclide therapy. 29 patients with autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (17 women, 12 men, 35-79 years) were included in this study. All patients were interviewed prior to and 22-27 month post radioiodine therapy in an open dialogue with the principal investigator. Patients were asked to describe their attitude towards radioactivity in general and towards radioiodine therapy in particular. Patients were asked to use a scoring system (1: positive, 5: negative) to quantify their perception of radioactivity. The personal perception of radioactivity as an abstract term does not change significantly (p = 0.15) before and after radioiodine therapy. This perception is linked to mostly negative impressions of radiactivity. However, patients become more positive when assessing the value of radioactivity as part of their therapy regimen. Thus, we observe a significant increase in percepted value of radioactivity post radioiodine therapy (p = 0.03). Patients continue to view radioactivity as something negative despite treatment success following radioiodine therapy. Our results provide useful information for patient information by the nuclear medicine physician prior to a radioiodine therapy. (orig.)

  10. Development of Graves' ophthalmopathy and uveitis after radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease in a patient with HTLA-I associated myelopathy (HAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Yasunori; Migita, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Tomoji; Okuda, Itsuko; Takeshita, Akira; Takagi, Akio; Shishiba, Yoshimasa (Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-09-01

    HTLV-I carriers or patients with HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM) are prone to immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. We present a 44-year-old female with HAM who developed Graves' disease. She developed severe Graves' ophthalmopathy shortly after [sup 131]I therapy, concurrently with a remarkable increase in TSH-receptor antibody titer. Ophthalmopathy was aggravated in spite of prednisolone therapy and euthyroidism being maintained by thyroxine replacement. Uveitis also developed after [sup 131]I therapy and iridocyclitis finally required trabeculotomy. This case suggests that HAM patients may have a higher risk of immune-mediated Graves' ophthalmopathy after [sup 131]I therapy.(author).

  11. Thyrotropin receptor antibody activities significantly correlate with the outcome of radioiodine ( sup 131 I) therapy for hyperthyroid Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaise, Kazuro; Kaise, Nobuko; Yoshida, Katsumi; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Mori, Koki; Yamamoto, Makiko; Sakurada, Toshiro; Saito, Shintaro; Yoshinaga, Kaoru (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-08-01

    The outcome of {sup 131}I therapy for 109 patients with Graves' disease was analysed according to pretreatment laboratory data including thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) activities. Forty-five percent of patients became euthyroid, and 13% of patients became hypothyroid within one year after {sup 131}I therapy. Forty-two percent of patients remained hyperthyroid one year after {sup 131}I therapy. Pretreatment values for serum T{sub 4}, T{sub 3}, and the estimated weight of the thyroid were significantly higher in the hyperthyroid group. The mean for the TRAb index of the hyperthyroid group was significantly higher than that of the euthyroid group. Life table analysis revealed a significant effect of the TRAb index on the rate of hyperthyroidism after 3 months or later. These results appear to suggest that the TRAb index is one of the factors which influence the outcome of {sup 131}I therapy for Graves' disease. (author).

  12. Remission of classic rapid cycling bipolar disorder with levothyroxine augmentation therapy in a male patient having clinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen PH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pao-Huan Chen, Yu-Jui Huang Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: The literature suggests that patients with bipolar disorder, particularly females, have greater vulnerability to rapid cycling features. Levothyroxine therapy might be potentially useful to attenuate mood instability in this patient group. In contrast, reports on male patients remain limited and controversial. Herein, we report a 32-year-old male patient who had bipolar 1 disorder for 12 years who developed a breakthrough rapid cycling course and first-onset clinical hypothyroidism at the age of 31 years during lithium therapy. After levothyroxine augmentation therapy was introduced, the patient had remission from the rapid cycling illness course along with normalization of serum levels of free T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone in the subsequent year. This observation suggested that investigation of both levothyroxine pharmacology and thyroid pathology in male patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder might be of much value. Keywords: mood disorder, therapy, thyroid hormone

  13. Aripiprazole as augmentation therapy in bipolar patients with current minor or subsyndromal mood symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Schweitzer, Isaac; Sarris, Jerome; Tuckwell, Virginia; Maguire, Kay; Smith, Deidre; Ng, Chee

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of aripiprazole augmentation of maintenance treatment for bipolar disorder in patients with minor or subsyndromal mood episodes while on a stable dose of a mood stabiliser and/or antidepressant. Methods All subjects had a diagnosis of bipolar I or II disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th Edition, Text Revision). Open-label aripiprazole was given over 8 weeks initially. The starting dose was 5 to 15 mg/day w...

  14. Diffuse pulmonary metastases with negative 18FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography and positive post-radioiodine therapy scan of papillary thyroid cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yan-song; LIANG Zhi-yong; QIU Li-heng; CHENG Xin

    2012-01-01

    A female papillary thyroid cancer patient with diffuse micronodular pulmonary metastases was confirmed only by post radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy whole body scan (RxWBS).Her diagnostic iodine-131 whole body scan (DxWBS),chestCT and 18FDG PET/CT scan were all negative.Attention and pitfalls of this case concerning surgical and RAI dosemanagement are against current international guidelines on thyroid cancer.

  15. Abnormal radioiodine uptake on post-therapy whole body scan and sodium/iodine symporter expression in a dermoid cyst of the ovary: report of a case and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campenni, Alfredo; Baldari, Sergio, E-mail: acampenni@unime.ittalia [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e delle Immagini Morfologiche e Funzionali, Unità di Medicina Nucleare, Università degli Studi di Messina, Messina (Italy); Giovinazzo, Salvatore; Ruggeri, Rosaria M. [Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Unità di Endocrinologia, Università degli Studi di Messina (Italy); Tuccari, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Patologia Umana, Università degli Studi di Messina (Italy); Fogliani, Simone [Unità di Scienze Radiologiche, Ospedale di Milazzo, Messina (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    In patients affected by differentiated thyroid cancer, the whole-body scan (WBS) with 131-radioiodine, especially when performed after a therapeutic activity of {sup 131}I, represents a sensitive procedure for detecting thyroid remnant and/or metastatic disease. Nevertheless, a wide spectrum of potentially pitfalls has been reported. Herein we describe a 63-year-old woman affected by follicular thyroid cancer, who was accidentally found to have an abdominal mass at post-dose WBS (pWBS). pWBS showed abnormal radioiodine uptake in the upper mediastinum, consistent with lymph-node metastases, and a slight radioiodine uptake in an abdominal focal area. Computed tomography revealed an inhomogeneous mass in the pelvis, previously unrecognized. The lesion, surgically removed, was found to be a typical dermoid cyst of the ovary, without any evidence of thyroid tissue. By immunohistochemistry, a moderate expression of the sodium-iodine symporter (NIS) was demonstrated in the epithelial cells, suggesting a NIS-dependent uptake of radioiodine by the cyst. (author)

  16. Radioiodine Contamination Artifacts and Unusual Patterns of Accumulation in Whole-body I-131 Imaging: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Ozcan Kara, Pelin; Gunay, Emel Ceylan; Erdogan, Alihan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Radioactive iodine has been used for more than 50 years for the treatment of thyroid diseases. Differentiated thyroid cancers have the ability to trap iodine. Therefore, radioiodine can be used both diagnostically and therapeutically. In the follow-up of patients, it is critical to interpret radioiodine scans correctly. Case Presentation: Non-physiological Iodine-131 (I-131) extra-thyroidal uptake detected on post-therapy or diagnostic I-131 scanning are not always interpreted a...

  17. Dry Distillation of Radioiodine from TeO2 Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Koziorowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As medical cyclotrons are becoming more abundant, 123I and 124I are getting more attention as alternatives to 131I for diagnostics of thyroid disease. Both 123I and 124I provide better diagnostics, deliver less dose to patients and both reduce the risk of thyroid stunning, facilitating subsequent therapy. Dry distillation of radioiodine from tellurium dioxide targets has become the standard approach to producing these radioiodines. Setting up such a production of radioiodine is associated with a lengthy optimization of the process and for this purpose natural tellurium is often used for economical reasons. In this paper, the distillation parameters are scrutinized to ensure optimal distillation temperature, in order to minimize time spent and prevent loss of expensive target material. It is further demonstrated how the individual iodine isotopes, produced from proton bombardment of natTe, will diffuse out of the target in a time dependent ratio. We believe the effect is due to the isotopes having their maximum cross section at different energies. The individual isotopes produced will thus have their highest concentration at different depths in the target. This results in individual mean diffusion lengths and diffusion times for the different isotopes.

  18. Optimization of Inpatient Management of Radioiodine Treatment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We established a model to calculate radioactive waste from sewage disposal tank of hospitals to optimize the number of patients receiving inpatient radioiodine therapy within the safety guideline in our country. According to this model and calculation of radioactivity concentration using the number of patients per week, the treatment dose of radioiodine, the capacity and the number of sewage tanks and the daily amount of water waste per patient, estimated concentration of radioactivity in sewage waste upon disposal from disposal tanks after long term retention were within the safety guideline (30 Bq/L) in all the hospitals examined. In addition to the fact that we could increase the number of patients in two thirds of hospitals, we found that the daily amount of waste water was the most important variable to allow the increase of the number of patients within the safety margin of disposed radioactivity. We propose that saving the water amount be led to increase the number of patients and they allow two patients in an already furnished hospital inpatient room to meet the increasing need of inpatient radioiodine treatment for thyroid cancer

  19. Radioiodine thyroid ablation in graves' hyperthyroidism: merits and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwatsock, J F; Taieb, D; Tessonnier, L; Mancini, J; Dong-A-Zok, F; Mundler, O

    2012-01-01

    Ablative approaches using radioiodine are increasingly proposed for the treatment of Graves' disease (GD) but their ophthalmologic and biological autoimmune responses remain controversial and data concerning clinical and biochemical outcomes are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function, TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb) and Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) occurrence after radioiodine thyroid ablation in GD. We reviewed 162 patients treated for GD by iodine-131 ((131)I) with doses ranging from 370 to 740 MBq, adjusted to thyroid uptake and sex, over a 6-year period in a tertiary referral center. Collected data were compared for outcomes, including effectiveness of radioiodine therapy (RIT) as primary endpoint, evolution of TRAb, and occurrence of GO as secondary endpoints. The success rate was 88.3% within the first 6 months after the treatment. The RIT failure was increased in the presence of goiter (adjusted odds ratio = 4.1, 95% confidence interval 1.4-12.0, P = 0.010). The TRAb values regressed with time (r = -0.147; P = 0.042) and patients with a favorable outcome had a lower TRAb value (6.5 ± 16.4 U/L) than those with treatment failure (23.7 ± 24.2 U/L, P hyperthyroidism but developed early and prolonged period of hypothyroidism in the context of antithyroid drugs (ATD) intolerance (P = 0.003) and high TRAb level (P = 0.012). On the basis the results of this study we conclude that ablative RIT is effective in eradicating Graves' hyperthyroidism but may be accompanied by GO occurrence, particularly in patients with early hypothyroidism and high pretreatment TRAb and/or ATD intolerance. In these patients, we recommend an early introduction of LT4 to reduce the duration and the degree of the radioiodine-induced hypothyroidism. PMID:22942775

  20. An augmented cognitive behavioural therapy for treating post-stroke depression: description of a treatment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootker, J.A.; Rasquin, S.M.; Smits, P; Geurts, A.C.H.; Heugten, C.M. van; Fasotti, L.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Currently, no evidence-based treatment is available for mood problems after stroke. We present a new psychological intervention designed to reduce depressive complaints after stroke. METHOD OF PROTOCOL DEVELOPMENT: This intervention was based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles and was

  1. An augmented cognitive behavioural therapy for treating post-stroke depression: Description of a treatment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootker, J.A.; Rasquin, S.M.C.; Smits, P.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Heugten, C.M. van; Fasotti, L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Currently, no evidence-based treatment is available for mood problems after stroke. We present a new psychological intervention designed to reduce depressive complaints after stroke. Method of protocol development This intervention was based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles and was sh

  2. Social Skills Training Augments the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, James D.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Myers, Valerie H.; Dalrymple, Kristy; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) is the most widely researched intervention program for social anxiety disorder (SAD, also known as social phobia), with a number of studies demonstrating its effectiveness. Another common treatment, social skills training (SST), has also been shown to be efficacious for SAD. The present study compared the…

  3. Radioiodine uptake in inactive pulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakheet, S.M.; Powe, J.; Al Suhaibani, H. [Department of Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Hammami, M.M.; Bazarbashi, M. [Department of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1999-06-01

    Radioiodine may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection. We have seen such accumulation in six thyroid cancer patients with a history of previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis. We also review the causes of false-positive radioiodine uptake in lung infection/inflammation. Eight foci of radioiodine uptake were seen on six iodine-123 diagnostic scans. In three foci, the uptake was focal and indistinguishable from thyroid cancer pulmonary metastases from thyroid cancer. In the remaining foci, the uptake appeared nonsegmental, linear or lobar, suggesting a false-positive finding. The uptake was unchanged, variable in appearance or non-persistent on follow-up scans and less extensive than the fibrocystic changes seen on chest radiographs. In the two patients studied, thyroid hormone level did not affect the radioiodine lung uptake and there was congruent gallium-67 uptake. None of the patients had any evidence of thyroid cancer recurrence or of reactivation of tuberculosis and only two patients had chronic intermittent chest symptoms. Severe bronchiectasis, active tuberculosis, acute bronchitis, respiratory bronchiolitis, rheumatoid arthritis-associated lung disease and fungal infection such as Allescheria boydii and aspergillosis can lead to different patterns of radioiodine chest uptake mimicking pulmonary metastases. Pulmonary scarring secondary to tuberculosis may predispose to localized radioiodine accumulation even in the absence of clinically evident active infection. False-positive radioiodine uptake due to pulmonary infection/inflammation should be considered in thyroid cancer patients prior to the diagnosis of pulmonary metastases. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 9 refs.

  4. Radioiodine uptake in inactive pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodine may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection. We have seen such accumulation in six thyroid cancer patients with a history of previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis. We also review the causes of false-positive radioiodine uptake in lung infection/inflammation. Eight foci of radioiodine uptake were seen on six iodine-123 diagnostic scans. In three foci, the uptake was focal and indistinguishable from thyroid cancer pulmonary metastases from thyroid cancer. In the remaining foci, the uptake appeared nonsegmental, linear or lobar, suggesting a false-positive finding. The uptake was unchanged, variable in appearance or non-persistent on follow-up scans and less extensive than the fibrocystic changes seen on chest radiographs. In the two patients studied, thyroid hormone level did not affect the radioiodine lung uptake and there was congruent gallium-67 uptake. None of the patients had any evidence of thyroid cancer recurrence or of reactivation of tuberculosis and only two patients had chronic intermittent chest symptoms. Severe bronchiectasis, active tuberculosis, acute bronchitis, respiratory bronchiolitis, rheumatoid arthritis-associated lung disease and fungal infection such as Allescheria boydii and aspergillosis can lead to different patterns of radioiodine chest uptake mimicking pulmonary metastases. Pulmonary scarring secondary to tuberculosis may predispose to localized radioiodine accumulation even in the absence of clinically evident active infection. False-positive radioiodine uptake due to pulmonary infection/inflammation should be considered in thyroid cancer patients prior to the diagnosis of pulmonary metastases. (orig.)

  5. Substrate reduction augments the efficacy of enzyme therapy in a mouse model of Fabry disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Marshall

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is an X-linked glycosphingolipid storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the activity of the lysosomal hydrolase α-galactosidase A (α-gal. This deficiency results in accumulation of the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (GL-3 in lysosomes. Endothelial cell storage of GL-3 frequently leads to kidney dysfunction, cardiac and cerebrovascular disease. The current treatment for Fabry disease is through infusions of recombinant α-gal (enzyme-replacement therapy; ERT. Although ERT can markedly reduce the lysosomal burden of GL-3 in endothelial cells, variability is seen in the clearance from several other cell types. This suggests that alternative and adjuvant therapies may be desirable. Use of glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors to abate the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids (substrate reduction therapy, SRT has been shown to be effective at reducing substrate levels in the related glycosphingolipidosis, Gaucher disease. Here, we show that such an inhibitor (eliglustat tartrate, Genz-112638 was effective at lowering GL-3 accumulation in a mouse model of Fabry disease. Relative efficacy of SRT and ERT at reducing GL-3 levels in Fabry mouse tissues differed with SRT being more effective in the kidney, and ERT more efficacious in the heart and liver. Combination therapy with ERT and SRT provided the most complete clearance of GL-3 from all the tissues. Furthermore, treatment normalized urine volume and uromodulin levels and significantly delayed the loss of a nociceptive response. The differential efficacies of SRT and ERT in the different tissues indicate that the combination approach is both additive and complementary suggesting the possibility of an improved therapeutic paradigm in the management of Fabry disease.

  6. Radioiodine in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantelo, M.V.; Bauer, L.R.; Marter, W.L.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1993-01-15

    Radioiodine, which is the collective term for all radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, is formed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) principally as a by-product of nuclear reactor operations. Part of the radioiodine is released to the environment during reactor and reprocessing operations at the site. The purpose of this report is to provide an introduction to radioiodine production and disposition, its status in the environment, and the radiation dose and health risks as a consequence of its release to the environment around the Savannah River Plant. A rigorous dose reconstruction study is to be completed by thee Center for Disease Control during the 1990s.

  7. Focal Bronchiectasis Causing Abnormal Pulmonary Radioiodine Uptake in a Patient with Well-Differentiated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ash Gargya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. False-positive pulmonary radioactive iodine uptake in the followup of differentiated thyroid carcinoma has been reported in patients with certain respiratory conditions. Patient Findings. We describe a case of well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma treated by total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation therapy. Postablation radioiodine whole body scan and subsequent diagnostic radioiodine whole body scans have shown persistent uptake in the left hemithorax despite an undetectable stimulated serum thyroglobulin in the absence of interfering thyroglobulin antibodies. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography has confirmed that the abnormal pulmonary radioiodine uptake correlates with focal bronchiectasis. Summary. Bronchiectasis can cause abnormal chest radioactive iodine uptake in the followup of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Conclusions. Recognition of potential false-positive chest radioactive iodine uptake, simulating pulmonary metastases, is needed to avoid unnecessary exposure to further radiation from repeated therapeutic doses of radioactive iodine.

  8. Nationwide trends in surgery and radioiodine treatment for benign thyroid disease during iodization of salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerqueira, C.; Knudsen, N.; Ovesen, L.;

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Iodization of salt was introduced in Denmark in 1998 because of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency (ID). The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization rate of surgery and radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid disorders before and after the introduction of iodization, and to study...... a possible association between the changes and the raised iodine intake. Design: A nationwide register study. Methods: Information on operations and radioiodine treatments for benign thyroid disorders was extracted from nationwide registers in the years 1990 to 2007. Treatment rates are presented for surgery...

  9. Detection of radioiodine-induced cytogenetic alterations in circulating lymphocytes of thyroid patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodines are often used for experimental purposes and for diagnosis and therapy in clinical practice. Human population might also be exposed to radioiodines in nuclear accidents. The ionizing energy of radioiodine affects not only the thyroid where it concentrates but also other tissues, especially the lymphocytes during their circulation through and around the gland containing the radioisotopes. Therefore, it seemed to be of interest to carry out investigations concerning the cytogenetic alterations in blood lymphocytes of patients treated with iodine-131. The method of choice was the relatively easily performable micronucleus assay in cytokinesis-blocked cultures of human peripheral lymphocytes. The test was performed on blood samples of 30 patients before the radioisotope treatment and one, two and four days after, one as well as 6 and - in a few cases - 12 weeks later. The amounts of iodine-131 injected were dependent on the clinical practices to reach the therapeutic radiation doses for hyperthyroidism and adenomas and were in the range of 220 and 5180 MBq. it was observed that the micronucleus frequency increased in the treated hyperthyroid patients while in patients with toxic adenomas the radioiodine did not result in an increase or even as compared to the pretreatment values in a few cases decreased values were seen. The results suggest individual differences in radiosensitivity as well as that the frequency of cytogenetic alterations depend on the physiological or pathological conditions of the thyroid. The significance of this observation will be discussed for dose assessments by cytogenetic techniques due to internal radioiodine. (author)

  10. Radioiodine concentration by the thymus in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: report of five cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Maria Eduarda; Flamini, Rodrigo C.; Corbo, Rossana; Mamede, Marcelo [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear], e-mail: mamede@inca.gov.br

    2009-10-15

    The radioactive iodine has been used with great value as a diagnostic and therapeutic method in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma previously submitted to total thyroidectomy. False-positive whole-body scans may occur due to misinterpretation of the physiologic distribution of the radioisotope or lack of knowledge on the existence of other pathologies that could eventually present radioiodine uptake. Thymic uptake is an uncommon cause of false-positive whole-body scan, and the mechanism through which it occurs is not completely understood. The present paper reports five cases of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who presented a mediastinum uptake of radioiodine in a whole-body scan during follow-up. The patients had either histological or radiological confirmation of the presence of residual thymus gland. It is very important to know about the possibility of iodine uptake by the thymus in order to avoid unnecessary treatment, such as surgery or radioiodine therapy. (author)

  11. Augmented Feedback System to Support Physical Therapy of Non-specific Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbeck, Dominique; Degen, Markus; Stanimirov, Michael; Kool, Jan; Scheermesser, Mandy; Oesch, Peter; Neuhaus, Cornelia

    Low back pain is an important problem in industrialized countries. Two key factors limit the effectiveness of physiotherapy: low compliance of patients with repetitive movement exercises, and inadequate awareness of patients of their own posture. The Backtrainer system addresses these problems by real-time monitoring of the spine position, by providing a framework for most common physiotherapy exercises for the low back, and by providing feedback to patients in a motivating way. A minimal sensor configuration was identified as two inertial sensors that measure the orientation of the lower back at two points with three degrees of freedom. The software was designed as a flexible platform to experiment with different hardware, and with various feedback modalities. Basic exercises for two types of movements are provided: mobilizing and stabilizing. We developed visual feedback - abstract as well as in the form of a virtual reality game - and complemented the on-screen graphics with an ambient feedback device. The system was evaluated during five weeks in a rehabilitation clinic with 26 patients and 15 physiotherapists. Subjective satisfaction of subjects was good, and we interpret the results as encouraging indication for the adoption of such a therapy support system by both patients and therapists.

  12. Can pill placebo augment cognitive-behavior therapy for panic disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churchill Rachel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of drug and psychotherapy comparative trials, psychotherapy-placebo combination has been assumed to represent psychotherapy. Whether psychotherapy plus pill placebo is the same as psychotherapy alone is an empirical question which however has to date never been examined systematically. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs that directly compared cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT alone against CBT plus pill placebo in the treatment of panic disorder. Results Extensive literature search was able to identify three relevant RCTs. At the end of the acute phase treatment, patients who received CBT plus placebo had 26% (95%CI: 2 to 55% increased chances of responding than those who received CBT alone. At follow-up the difference was no longer statistically significant (22%, 95%CI: -10% to 64%. Conclusion The act of taking a pill placebo may enhance the placebo effect already contained in the effective psychotherapeutic intervention during the acute phase treatment. Theoretically this is an argument against the recently claimed null hypothesis of placebo effect in general and clinically it may point to some further room for enhancing the psychotherapeutic approach for panic disorder.

  13. Microsponge based drug delivery system for augmented gastroparesis therapy: Formulation development and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz Ali M. Osmani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention behind the present work was to develop a microsponge based novel dosage form for sustained delivery of domperidone. Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method was employed using Eudragit RS-100 with various drug–polymer ratios for the preparation of microsponges. For optimization purposes, several factors which affect microparticles' physical properties were investigated. Characterization techniques followed for the formed microsponges were DSC, FTIR, SEM, XRD and particle size analysis, along with morphology, drug loading and in vitro drug release. It was found that there were no chemical interactions between drugs and polymers used as per DSC and FTIR results. The drug–polymer ratio showed remarkable impact on drug content, encapsulation efficiency and particle size. SEM micrographs revealed that microsponges were spherical in shape with porous surface, and had 104 ± 0.22 µm mean particle size. The microsponges were then loaded in capsules followed by in vitro drug release study; which depicted that microsponges with drug–polymer ratio of 1:2 were more proficient to give extended drug release of 76.38% at the end of 8 h, superior in contrast to conventional marketed formulation Domstal®, which got exhausted incredibly earlier by releasing 82.57% drug at the end of ½ h only. Hence, the developed microsponge based formulation of domperidone would be an expectant, promising substitute to conventional therapy of gastroparesis, emesis and alike gastric ailments.

  14. Induction of Graves' disease in patients with non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism or nontoxic goiter after radioiodine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyrotropin receptors antibodies may occur and induce Graves' disease (GD) several months after radioiodine therapy in a small number of patients with non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism or nontoxic goiter. The prevalence of radiation-induced GD is between 0.05% and 5%. The hypothesis of this disease includes induction by autoimmune reaction and others. Detection of the thyroid autoantibodise or of 99mTc pertechnetate scan can forecast the appearance of GD. Antithyroid drugs, again radioiodine therapy and surgery are the treatments. (authors)

  15. Changing trends in the treatment of Graves' disease with radioiodine: a 12-year experience in a university hospital; Mudancas evolutivas no tratamento da doenca de Graves com iodo radioativo: 12 anos de experiencia em um hospital universitario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Marcus Vinicius Leitao de [Instituto Estadual de Diabetes e Endocrinologia (IEDE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: marcusleitao@gmail.com; Souza, Honomar Ferreira de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Endocrinologia; Buescu, Alexandru; Vaisman, Mario [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Endocrinologia

    2009-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the changes in clinical parameters and in the approach to patients submitted to radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease. Materials and methods: Dossiers of 226 patients submitted to radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease in the period between January 1990 and December 2001 were retrospectively evaluated. For the purposes of statistical analysis, the 12-year period was subdivided into three periods of 4 years, with a comparison of clinical and laboratory variables in these periods. Results: The authors have observed that the total number of patients referred for radioiodine therapy as well as the percentage of female patients presented a significant increase (from 62% to 86%; p = 0.005). The percentage of patients pretreated with methimazole before radioiodine therapy increased significantly (from 9.1% to 35.6%; p = 0.03). The mean radioiodine dose delivered has also presented a significant increase (from 7.6 mCi to 12.7 mCi; p = 0.000003) with a direct reflection on a higher percentage of patients cured one year after the radioiodine therapy (from 55.6% to 83.7%; p = 0.004). Conclusion: Radioiodine therapy has increasingly been accepted for treatment of patients with Graves' disease and the doses delivered have increased to achieve a permanent cure as well as a reduction of the chances of recurrence. (author)

  16. Radioiodinated ligands for dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dopamine receptor system is important for normal brain function; it is also the apparent action site for various neuroleptic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia and other metal disorders. In the past few years radioiodinated ligands for single photon emission tomography (SPECT) have been successfully developed and tested in humans: [123I]TISCH for D1 dopamine receptors; [123I]IBZM, epidepride, IBF and FIDA2, four iodobenzamide derivatives, for D2/D3 dopamine receptors. In addition, [123I]β-CIT (RTI-55) and IPT, cocaine derivatives, for the dopamine reuptake site are potentially useful for diagnosis of loss of dopamine neurons. The first iodinated ligand, (R)trans-7-OH-PIPAT, for D3 dopamine receptors, was synthesized and characterized with cloned cell lines (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) expressing the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors and with rat basal forebrain membrane preparations. Most of the known iodobenzamides displayed similar potency in binding to both D2 and D3 dopamine receptors expressed in the cell lines. Initial studies appear to suggest that by fine tuning the structures it may be possible to develop agents specific for D2 and D3 dopamine receptors. It is important to investigate D2/D3 selectivity for this series of potent ligands

  17. Augmented postcard

    OpenAIRE

    Bernik , Aleš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the examination of augmented reality technology, which allows us mixing real and virtual elements. Augmented reality is a relatively new technology which is becoming more widespread, thanks to a fairly reasonable price of smart phones. Here we presents the types of augmented reality, the necessary technology and their advantages and disadvantages, its current use in applications, and software for building augmented reality applications. The thesis is mainly focuse...

  18. A rare case of isolate pericardial effusion detected by SPECT/CT on a post-therapeutic radioiodine whole-body scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Teik Hin [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, National Cancer Institute, Putrajaya (Malaysia); Hassan, Siti Zarina Amir [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    We reported a rare finding of isolated pericardial uptake detected by SPECT/CT on posttherapeutic radioiodine whole body scan. This case highlights the usefulness of hybrid SPECT/CT, with subsequent correlation with biochemical results, in ruling out metastatic pericardial effusion in the postsurgical radioiodine remnant ablation setting. The effusion was resolved after reinstituted thyroid replacement therapy. Recombinant thyrotropin is recommended to avoid such rare but life-threatening complication.

  19. Procedure guideline for radioiodine test. Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The version 2 of the procedure guideline for radioiodine test is an update of the guideline published in 1999. The following statements were added or modified: The procedure guideline discusses the pros and cons of a single measurement or of repeated measurements of the iodine-131 uptake and their optimal timing. Different formulas are described when one, two or three values of the radioiodine kinetic are available. The probe with a sodium iodide crystal, alternative or additionally the gamma-camera using the ROI-technique are instrumentations for the measurement of iodine-131 uptake. A possible source of error is an inappropriate measurement (sonography) of the target volume. The patients' preparation includes the withdrawal of antithyroid drugs 2-3 days before radioiodine administration. The patient has to avoid iodine-containing medication and the possibility of additives of iodide in vitamin- or electrolyte-supplementation has to be considered. (orig.)

  20. Compartment models of radioiodine in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential equations governing the flow of iodine through a three-compartment model of iodine metabolism in man have been solved and the solutions compared to those obtained from two-compartment models. The boundary conditions used were those appropriate for a single acute exposure to radioiodine. The urinary excretion equation derived from the solutions to the three-compartment model exhibits a minimum at four days after the exposure time. This minimum can be used to calculate a maximum value for thyroid burden using a single urinary excretion rate measurement, and in conjunction with this value, an optimum urinary sampling frequency for the different radioiodines can be calculated. (author)

  1. A pilot study for augmenting atomoxetine with methylphenidate: safety of concomitant therapy in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball Susan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined augmenting atomoxetine with extended-release methylphenidate in children whose attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD previously failed to respond adequately to stimulant medication. Methods Children with ADHD and prior stimulant treatment (N = 25 received atomoxetine (1.2 mg/kg/day plus placebo. After 4 weeks, patients who were responders (n = 4 were continued on atomoxetine/placebo while remaining patients were randomly assigned to either methylphenidate (ATX/MPH (1.1 mg/kg/day or placebo augmentation (ATX/PB for another 6 weeks. Patients and sites were blind to timing of active augmentation. Safety measures included vital signs, weight, and adverse events. Efficacy was assessed by ADHD rating scales. Results Categorical increases in vital signs occurred for 5 patients (3 patients in ATX/MPH, 2 patients in ATX/PBO. Sixteen percent discontinued the study due to AE, but no difference between augmentation groups. Atomoxetine treatment was efficacious on outcome measures (P ≤ .001, but methylphenidate did not enhance response. Conclusion Methylphenidate appears to be safely combined with atomoxetine, but conclusions limited by small sample. With atomoxetine treatment, 43% of patients achieved normalization on ADHD ratings.

  2. Long-Term Cognitive and Behavioral Therapies, Combined with Augmentative Communication, Are Related to Uncinate Fasciculus Integrity in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Matteo; Elia, Maurizio; Garaci, Francesco G.; Guida, Silvia; Coniglione, Filadelfo; Krueger, Frank; Benassi, Francesca; Gialloreti, Leonardo Emberti

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence points to white-matter abnormalities as a key factor in autism physiopathology. Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging, we studied white-matter structural properties in a convenience sample of twenty-two subjects with low-functioning autism exposed to long-term augmentative and alternative communication, combined with sessions of cognitive…

  3. Radioiodine-induced kidney damage and protective effect of amifostine: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Aktoz, T; Durmus-Altun, G; Usta, U; Torun, N; Ergulen, A; Atakan, I H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ablative radioiodine-131 (131I) therapy is used in the standart treatment procedure of thyroid carcinoma and procedures using 131I represent the majority of Nuclear Medicine therapeutic procedures. The principal route of 131I excretion after the administration of 131I is the urine. Amifostine is an organic thiophosphate ester prodrug and the kidney concentrations of the active metabolite WR-1065 are about 100 times higher than tumour concentrations. To our knowledge, there is no p...

  4. Unusual uptake of radioiodine in a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst in a patient with thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Zeng, Hao; Gong, Jing; Huang, Rui

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of retroperitoneal bronchial cyst is rare and is unusual to be visualized on I scan. We report a 52-year-old man who received I therapy for papillary thyroid cancer. The postablation whole-body scan revealed increased radioiodine activity in the left abdomen. SPECT/CT localized this activity from a soft tissue mass in the retroperitoneal space. A retroperitoneal tumor was considered, and retroperitoneal laparoscopic tumor resection was performed. Pathologic examination confirmed a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst.

  5. Correlation of consecutive serum thyroglobulin levels during hormone withdrawal and failure of initial radioiodine ablation in thyroid cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyuk Jin; Kim, Sung Hoon; O, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yeong Joo; Kim, Hyoung Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ye Young [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, The Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Young [Dept. of Radiology, Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of thyroglobulin (Tg) kinetics during preparation of radioiodine ablation for prediction of initial radioiodine ablation failure in thyroid cancer patients. Thyroid cancer patients after total thyroidectomy who underwent radioiodine ablation with 3–4 weeks of hormone withdrawal between May 2011 and January 2012 were included. Consecutive serum Tg levels 5–10 days before ablation (Tg1) and on the day of ablation (Tg2) were obtained. The difference between Tg1 and Tg2 (ΔTg), daily change rate of Tg (ΔTg/day) and Tg doubling time (Tg-DT) were calculated. Success of initial ablation was determined by the results of the follow-up ultrasonography, diagnostic radioiodine scan and stimulated Tg level after 6 to 20 months. A total of 143 patients were included. Failed ablation was reported in 52 patients. Tg2 higher than 5.6 ng/ml and Tg-DT shorter than 4.2 days were significantly related to a high risk of ablation failure. ΔTg and ΔTg/day did not show significant correlation with ablation failure. Thyroglobulin kinetics on consecutive blood sampling during hormone withdrawal may be helpful in predicting patients with higher risk of treatment failure of initial radioiodine ablation therapy in thyroid cancer patients.

  6. Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Management of Patients with Radioiodine Nonresponsive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naifa Lamki Busaidy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (papillary and follicular has a favorable prognosis with an 85% 10-year survival. The patients that recur often require surgery and further radioactive iodine to render them disease-free. Five percent of thyroid cancer patients, however, will eventually succumb to their disease. Metastatic thyroid cancer is treated with radioactive iodine if the metastases are radioiodine avid. Cytotoxic chemotherapies for advanced or metastatic noniodine avid thyroid cancers show no prolonged responses and in general have fallen out of favor. Novel targeted therapies have recently been discovered that have given rise to clinical trials for thyroid cancer. Newer aberrations in molecular pathways and oncogenic mutations in thyroid cancer together with the role of angiogenesis in tumor growth have been central to these discoveries. This paper will focus on the management and treatment of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancers that do not take up radioactive iodine.

  7. Radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer: radiologic impact of out-patient treatment with 100 to 150 mCi Iodine-131 activities; Radioiodoterapia do carcinoma diferenciado da tireoide: impacto radiologico da liberacao hospitalar de pacientes com atividades entre 100 e 150 mCi de iodo-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Willegaignon, Jose; Ono, Carla Rachel; Watanabe, Tomoco; Guimaraes, Maria Ines Calil Cury; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Medicina Nuclear; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga; Marechal, Maria Helena da Hora [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate exposure and dosimetry to family members and environment due to outpatient radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Methods: Twenty patients were treated with 100-150 mCi of iodine-131 on an out-patient basis. Family members dosimetry (n = 27) and potential doses inside the house were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters. Surface contamination and radioactive wastes were also monitored. Results: Less than 1.0 mSv doses were found in 26 co-habitants and 2.8 mSv in a single case (inferior to the acceptable value of 5.0 mSv/procedure). Potential doses in the houses were inferior to 0.25 mSv, excluding the patients bedroom (mean value = 0.69 mSv). Surface contamination (mean = 4.2 Bq.cm{sup -2}) were below clearance levels. Radioactive wastes generated had a volume of 2.5 liters and a total activity estimated in 90 {mu}Ci, with a calculated exposure close to the background radiation levels. Conclusions: No radiological impact was detected after iodine therapy with 100-150 mCi on an out-patient basis followed by experienced professionals. (author)

  8. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter Bech; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of iPad-facilitated application of augmented reality in the teaching of highly complex anatomical and physiological subjects in the training of nurses at undergraduate level. The general aim of the project is to investigate the potentials of this application in terms...... of augmented reality are discussed....

  9. Dual anti-OX40/IL-2 therapy augments tumor immunotherapy via IL-2R-mediated regulation of OX40 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L Redmond

    Full Text Available The provision of T cell co-stimulation via members of the TNFR super-family, including OX40 (CD134 and 4-1BB (CD137, provides critical signals that promote T cell survival and differentiation. Recent studies have demonstrated that ligation of OX40 can augment T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity in pre-clinical models and more importantly, OX40 agonists are under clinical development for cancer immunotherapy. OX40 is of particular interest as a therapeutic target as it is not expressed on naïve T cells but rather, is transiently up-regulated following TCR stimulation. Although TCR engagement is necessary for inducing OX40 expression, the downstream signals that regulate OX40 itself remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that OX40 expression is regulated through a TCR and common gamma chain cytokine-dependent signaling cascade that requires JAK3-mediated activation of the downstream transcription factors STAT3 and STAT5. Furthermore, combined treatment with an agonist anti-OX40 mAb and IL-2 augmented tumor immunotherapy against multiple tumor types. Dual therapy was also able to restore the function of anergic tumor-reactive CD8 T cells in mice with long-term well-established (>5 wks tumors, leading to increased survival of the tumor-bearing hosts. Together, these data reveal the ability of TCR/common gamma chain cytokine signaling to regulate OX40 expression and demonstrate a novel means of augmenting cancer immunotherapy by providing dual anti-OX40/common gamma chain cytokine-directed therapy.

  10. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty--a systematic review of cement augmentation techniques for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures compared to standard medical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Yohan; Olerud, Claes

    2012-05-01

    After more than two decades the treatment effect of cement augmentation of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF) has now been questioned by two blinded randomised placebo-controlled trials. Thus many practitioners are uncertain on the recommendation for cement augmentation techniques in elderly patients with osteoporotic VCF. This systematic review analyses randomised controlled trials on vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty to provide an overview on the current evidence. From an electronic database research 8 studies could be identified meeting our inclusion criteria of osteoporotic VCF in elderly (age>60 years), treatment with vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty, controlled with placebo or standard medical therapy, quality of life, function, or pain as primary parameter, and randomisation. Only two studies were properly blinded using a sham-operation as control. The other studies were using a non-surgical treatment control group. Further possible bias may be caused by manufacturer involvement in financing of three published RCT. There is level Ib evidence that vertebroplasty is no better than placebo, which is conflicting with the available level IIb evidence that there is a positive short-term effect of cement augmentation compared to standard medical therapy with regard to QoL, function and pain. Kyphoplasty is not superior to vertebroplasty with regard to pain, but with regard to VCF reduction (evidence level IIb). Kyphoplasty is probably not cost-effective (evidence level IIb), and vertebroplasty has not more than short-term cost-effectiveness (evidence level IV). Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty cannot be recommended as standard treatment for osteoporotic VCF. Ongoing sham-controlled trials may provide further evidence in this regard.

  11. Transmission of radioiodine through sampling lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental program to measure radioiodine transmission through sampling lines is described. The transmission depends upon both deposition on and resuspension from the walls of the line. The deposition and resuspension processes are themselves controlled by the length, diameter, and material of the line and the conditions under which it is operated. The operating conditions under study are sampling flow rate, temperature and relative humidity. Measurement results have been interpreted in terms of a four-compartment model of radioiodine deposition and resuspension. The model is applied to each of twenty or more segments of the line. Experimental measurements of short-term transmission fractions and the deposition velocities derived from them are presented for six lines. Data on resuspension rates for the same lines were obtained and are also discussed

  12. Radioiodine treatment for malignant thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Gertrud [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology

    2006-12-15

    Radioiodine treatment for thyroid disease has been given for half a decade in Sweden. The most common indication for treatment is hyperthyroidism, when iodine uptake is high. The situation in which radioiodine treatment is used in thyroid cancer is less favourable and measures therefore have to be taken to optimize the treatment. Treatment should be performed early in the course of the disease to achieve the highest possible differentiation. Before treatment the iodine and goitrogen intake should be kept low. Stimulation of the thyrocytes by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) should be high. It is conventionally achieved by thyroid hormone withdrawal rendering the patient hypothyroid, or by the recently available recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) which can be recommended for ablation of the thyroid remnant after thyroidectomy and for treatment of metastases in fragile patients unable to undergo hypothyroidism. Finally, stunning - the negative effect of a prior test dose from radioactive iodine - should be avoided.

  13. Ablative radioactive iodine therapy for apparently localized thyroid carcinoma. A decision analytic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, J.B.; Kaplan, M.M.; Meyer, K.B.; Pauker, S.G. (Tufts Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Adjuvant therapy with ablative radioiodine after surgical resection of apparently localized thyroid carcinoma remains controversial because of the favorable prognosis of thyroid carcinoma and the risk of leukemia from the radioiodine. No controlled trials have been performed to examine this issue. We constructed a decision analytic model to examine whether patients with apparently localized thyroid carcinoma should receive radioiodine. Our analysis suggests that radioiodine modestly improves life expectancy by 2 to 15 months, depending on the patient's age and sex. This model predicts that the benefit of a reduction in the likelihood of recurrence outweighs the risk of leukemia from radioiodine.

  14. Radioiodine Remnant Ablation: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Chandra Sekhar; Padhy, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) is considered a safe and effective method for eliminating residual thyroid tissue, as well as microscopic disease if at all present in thyroid bed following thyroidectomy. The rationale of RRA is that in the absence of thyroid tissue, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement can be used as an excellent tumor marker. Other considerations are like the presence of significant remnant thyroid tissue makes detection and treatment of nodal or distant metastases diffic...

  15. Indirect labeling of proteins with radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de; Lavinas, Tatiana; Muramoto, Emiko; Pereira, Nilda P.S. de; Silva, Constancia P.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tavares, Leoberto C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Departamento de Tecnologia Bioquimico-Farmaceutica

    2000-07-01

    A procedure is described for the radioiodination of proteins using an iodinated derivative of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (ATE), previously described by Zalutsky. ATE was obtained in a high pure form and the iodination has been performed with 131-Iodine in 70-80% yield. Protein labeling studies performed with human IgG indicate that the ATE intermediate is an important alternative to conventional labeling methods. (author)

  16. Analysis on the childhood and adolescent differentiated thyroid cancer: clinical features and radioiodine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Children with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) frequently present with more extensive disease than adults. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical features of child-hood and adolescent DTC and evaluate the outcome and safety of radioiodine treatment. Methods: The records of 38 childhood and adolescent DTC cases, with 28 females and 10 males (mean age: 16.4 years) were reviewed. At diagnosis, all had metastatic lesions with 38 at regional lymph nodes, 15 at lung, 2 at brain and bone. Twenty-three had a total thyroidectomy, 7 had subtotal thyroidectomy, 5 had lobectomy, and 3 had other treatment. All received post-operative radioiodine therapy. All had follow-up for at least one year. Results: At the time of follow-up, all were survive (with a median follow-up of 5.13 years). Four-teen patients had no evidence of disease, 16 had partial remission, and 8 were stable disease. Conclusions: DTC of the thyroid in childhood and adolescent has high risks of residual/recurrence and metastasis. Post-thyroidectomy oral administration of radioiodine was an effective and safety adjuvant therapy for outcomes. (authors)

  17. Microbial copper reduction method to scavenge anthropogenic radioiodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yeop; Lee, Ji Young; Min, Je Ho; Kim, Seung Soo; Baik, Min Hoon; Chung, Sang Yong; Lee, Minhee; Lee, Yongjae

    2016-06-01

    Unexpected reactor accidents and radioisotope production and consumption have led to a continuous increase in the global-scale contamination of radionuclides. In particular, anthropogenic radioiodine has become critical due to its highly volatile mobilization and recycling in global environments, resulting in widespread, negative impact on nature. We report a novel biostimulant method to effectively scavenge radioiodine that exhibits remarkable selectivity for the highly difficult-to-capture radioiodine of >500-fold over other anions, even under circumneutral pH. We discovered a useful mechanism by which microbially reducible copper (i.e., Cu2+ to Cu+) acts as a strong binder for iodide-iodide anions to form a crystalline halide salt of CuI that is highly insoluble in wastewater. The biocatalytic crystallization of radioiodine is a promising way to remove radioiodine in a great capacity with robust growth momentum, further ensuring its long-term stability through nuclear I‑ fixation via microcrystal formation.

  18. Internal contamination in nurses attending patients, that received therapeutic amounts of radioiodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most frequent and often very successful used unsealed source in Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy is the radioiodine-131 for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma and hyperthyroidism. Always there is a great concern about the health physics of radioiodine and possible internal contamination involved in high level 131-I thyroid therapy cases, in particular to the thyroid as target and limiting organ. This report deals with 131-I air concentrations and internal contamination in nurses attending these patients under two different conditions. During the past three years a change took place from the old building, where we had an unventilated two-bed nursing room, to a new building were we have rooms with forced ventilation and air-conditioning (refreshment five times per hour). From both external exposure caused by radioiodine treated patients and internal contamination due to ingestion and inhalation of 131-I, we calculated the dose-equivalent to the thyroid and the effective dose-equivalent to our health care personnel

  19. Guidelines for radioiodinated MIBG scintigraphy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Pierre; Colarinha, Paula; Fettich, Jure; Fischer, Sibylle; Frökier, Jörgen; Giammarile, Francesco; Gordon, Isky; Hahn, Klaus; Kabasakal, Levent; Mann, Mike; Mitjavila, Mercedes; Piepsz, Amy; Porn, Ute; Sixt, Rune; van Velzen, Jeannette

    2003-05-01

    These guidelines on the use of radioiodinated (99m)Tc-MIBG scintigraphy in children, which summarise the views of the Paediatric Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, provide a framework which may prove helpful to nuclear medicine teams in daily practice. They have been influenced by the conclusions of the "Consensus Guidelines for MIBG Scintigraphy" (Paris, November 6, 1997) of the European Neuroblastoma Group and by those of the Oncological Committee of the French Society of Nuclear Medicine. The guidelines should be taken in the context of "good practice" and any local/national rules which apply to nuclear medicine examinations.

  20. Radio-iodine treatment of hyperthyroid cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-two elderly domestic shorthaired cats (mean age 12.9 years) were treated with radioiodine (131I). The dose of 131I administered ranged from 39 mBq to 134 mBq. Twenty-eight cats became euthyroid after treatment, one became hypothyroid and three remained hyperthyroxaemic. Two of the hyperthyroxaemic cats were successfully re-treated with 131I. Five cats died from concurrent diseases within one year of treatment. The administration of a dose of 131I selected by assessing the severity of the clinical signs, the size of the thyroid gland(s) and the serum level of thyroxine was an effective treatment for hyperthyroidism

  1. Guidelines for radioiodinated MIBG scintigraphy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Pierre; Colarinha, Paula; Fettich, Jure; Fischer, Sibylle; Frökier, Jörgen; Giammarile, Francesco; Gordon, Isky; Hahn, Klaus; Kabasakal, Levent; Mann, Mike; Mitjavila, Mercedes; Piepsz, Amy; Porn, Ute; Sixt, Rune; van Velzen, Jeannette

    2003-05-01

    These guidelines on the use of radioiodinated (99m)Tc-MIBG scintigraphy in children, which summarise the views of the Paediatric Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, provide a framework which may prove helpful to nuclear medicine teams in daily practice. They have been influenced by the conclusions of the "Consensus Guidelines for MIBG Scintigraphy" (Paris, November 6, 1997) of the European Neuroblastoma Group and by those of the Oncological Committee of the French Society of Nuclear Medicine. The guidelines should be taken in the context of "good practice" and any local/national rules which apply to nuclear medicine examinations. PMID:12658506

  2. Neurally augmented sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, S

    2007-01-01

    Neurally Augmented Sexual Function (NASF) is a technique utilizing epidural electrodes to restore and improve sexual function. Orgasmic dysfunction is common in adult women, affecting roughly one quarter of populations studied. Many male patients suffering from erectile dysfunction are not candidates for phosphdiesterase therapy due to concomitant nitrate therapy. Positioning the electrodes at roughly the level of the cauda equina allows for stimulation of somatic efferents and afferents as well as modifying sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. Our series of women treated by NASF is described. Our experience shows that the evaluation of potential candidates for both correctable causes and psychological screening are important considerations. PMID:17691397

  3. Remission of classic rapid cycling bipolar disorder with levothyroxine augmentation therapy in a male patient having clinical hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Pao-Huan

    2015-01-01

    Pao-Huan Chen, Yu-Jui Huang Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: The literature suggests that patients with bipolar disorder, particularly females, have greater vulnerability to rapid cycling features. Levothyroxine therapy might be potentially useful to attenuate mood instability in this patient group. In contrast, reports on male patients remain limited and controversial. Herein, we report a 32-year-old male patient who had bipola...

  4. Remission of classic rapid cycling bipolar disorder with levothyroxine augmentation therapy in a male patient having clinical hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Chen PH; Huang YJ

    2015-01-01

    Pao-Huan Chen, Yu-Jui Huang Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: The literature suggests that patients with bipolar disorder, particularly females, have greater vulnerability to rapid cycling features. Levothyroxine therapy might be potentially useful to attenuate mood instability in this patient group. In contrast, reports on male patients remain limited and controversial. Herein, we report a 32-year-old male patient who had bipolar 1 ...

  5. Betamethasone augments the antifungal effect of menadione--towards a novel anti-Candida albicans combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Ágnes; Emri, Tamás; Sipos, Lilla; Kiss, Ágnes; Kovács, Renátó; Dombrádi, Viktor; Kemény-Beke, Ádám; Balla, József; Majoros, László; Pócsi, István

    2015-08-01

    The fluorinated glucocorticoid betamethasone stimulated both the extracellular phospholipase production and hypha formation of the opportunistic human pathogen Candida albicans and also decreased the efficiency of the polyene antimycotics amphotericin B and nystatin against C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, betamethasone increased synergistically the anti-Candida activity of the oxidative stress generating agent menadione, which may be exploited in future combination therapies to prevent or cure C. albicans infections, in the field of dermatology.

  6. Reciprocal changes in parathyroid hormone and thyroid function after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.; Nussbaum, S.R.

    1989-06-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with negative calcium balance, normal to increased serum calcium concentrations, and decreased cortical bone mass. There is no agreement concerning serum PTH levels in such patients. In this study, we measured serum PTH concentrations using a newly developed sensitive 2-site immunoradiometric assay in 17 hyperthyroid patients before and after radioiodine therapy. The mean serum PTH and calcium concentrations were 28 +/- 15 (+/- SD) ng/L (normal range, 12-65 ng/L) and 2.4 +/- 0.5 mmol/L (normal range, 2.1-2.6 mmol/L) before therapy. After therapy serum PTH concentrations increased in 16 of the 17 patients. The increase in serum PTH was greater in the 9 patients who became hypothyroid rapidly (29 +/- 15 to 75 +/- 29 ng/L) compared with that in the 8 patients who became euthyroid gradually (26 +/- 16 to 45 +/- 24 ng/L). Serum PTH rose along with TSH as the patients became hypothyroid after radioiodine, and both serum PTH and TSH fell when L-T4 therapy was given. The reciprocal changes in serum PTH concentrations and thyroid function over time suggest a strong association of bone mineral metabolism and thyroid status.

  7. Sparse location radioactive counts/radioactive counts in thyroid area in predicting hypothyroidism after radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves disease%甲状腺显像疏/甲比预测131I治疗Graves病后甲状腺功能减退症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊红; 韦智晓; 李亚范

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the specific value of sparse location radioactive counts/radioactive counts in thyroid area (S/T) of 99mTcO4 - thyroid imaging and hypothyroidism following 131 I treatment in patients with Graves disease (GD). Methods 99mTcO4- thyroid imaging were performed for all of 172 patients with GD before radioiodine therapy, and the value of S/T of each imaging was measured. The patients were divided into recovery group, hypothyroidism group and non-recovery group according to curative effect after 1 year's following up. The diagnostic cut-off value of S/T was confirmed with ROC curve, then the relationship between S/T and hypothyroidism after treatment was assessed.Results ROC curve analysis showed the best diagnostic cut-off value of S/T was 0. 92, and the responding sensitivity and specificity was 0.86 and 0. 65, respectively. The difference of S/T was statistically significant between hypothyroidism group and recovery group, as well as between hypothyroidism group and non-recovery group (P<0. 05). S/T<0. 92 was associated with high incidence rate of hypothyroidism after radioiodine therapy. Conclusion There are some relativities between the S/T and hypothyroidism after 131I treatment in patients with GD. The incidence of hypothyroidism increases when S/T<0. 92.%目的 探讨99mTcO4-甲状腺显像中甲状腺内稀疏部位平均放射性计数与整个甲状腺内平均放射性计数的比值(疏/甲比)与Graves病(GD)131I治疗后甲状腺功能减退症(简称甲减)的关系.方法 对172例经131I治疗的GD患者于治疗前进行99mTcO4-甲状腺显像,并计算其疏/甲比.根据治疗效果将患者分为痊愈组、甲减组和未愈组.用ROC曲线确定疏/甲比的诊断阈值,分析疏/甲比与治疗后甲减的关系.结果 取疏/甲比0.92为诊断甲状腺内存在稀疏部位的临界值,其灵敏度为0.86,特异度为0.65.甲减组与痊愈组、未愈组的疏/甲比

  8. Usefulness of recombinant human TSH aided radioiodine doses administered in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The published studies confirming the safety and efficacy of rh TSH for diagnostic purposes have led to an increased interest in its use for preparation for radioiodine (RI) dose administration in patients with recurrent or persistent differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). In order to establish the efficacy of RI therapy after rh TSH, we have reviewed 39 rh TSH-aided radioiodine treatments in a series of 28 DTC patients. Patients were divided into two groups: GI (n=17), with previous thyroid bed uptake and undetectable thyroglobulin (Tg) levels under levothyroxine treatment and GII (n=11), with proven metastatic local or distant disease. Median follow-up after the first rh TSH-aided radioiodine treatment was 32 ± 13 months (range 8 to 54 months). Sixteen patients (94%) in GI were rendered disease free and one patient was shown to have persistent disease. In GII, the post therapy whole body scan showed pathological uptakes in all cases: in four patients in lungs, in four in mediastinum and in three in lateral neck. In two patients with mediastinum uptake, Tg levels were undetectable after rh TSH. In the follow-up, two patients with lateral neck uptake were rendered disease free, four patients died (three due to thyroid cancer) and five out of the remaining patients have persistent disease. In conclusion, rh TSH aided therapy was helpful to eliminate normal thyroid bed remnants in 16/17 (94%) patients (GI). rh TSH stimulated Tg was undetectable in two patients with mediastinal metastasis. We believe that rh TSH is a good alternative to levothyroxine withdrawal for the treatment of DTC with radioactive iodine, increasing the quality of life in these patients. Caution should be recommended in the follow-up of unselected DTC patients only with stimulated Tg levels. (author)

  9. Heath-related quality of life in thyroid cancer patients following radioiodine ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Jean-françois

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited information about the medium to long-term health-related quality of life (QOL in thyroid cancer patients after initial therapy and the existing studies suffer from limitations. The aim of the study was to assess the determinants of medium-term QOL after the initial therapy. Methods Following a total thyroidectomy, 88 thyroid cancer patients received either rhTSH or hypothyroid-assisted radioiodine ablation (RRA using 3.7 GBq (100 mCi of radioiodine. QOL evaluation of the patients using the validated Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness & Therapy (FACIT was performed at the time of inclusion (t0 and later at the 9-month post-RRA (t1. Results 83 patients were eligible for the final evaluation. Medium-term FACIT scores were not statistically different between t0 and t1 patients. All but one domain of the QOL score was similar between t0 and t1. Using a multivariate analysis, only age and immediate postoperative QOL scores were found to be determinants of the overall medium term 9-month QOL scores. Analysis showed that 'high QOL levels' (baseline and 9-month and 'no depression', 'low anxiety levels', were associated with ' Conclusions The use of radioiodine ablation does not seem to affect the medium term QOL scores of patients. Medium-term QOL is mainly determined by pre-ablation QOL. The assessment of baseline QOL might be interesting to evaluate in order to adapt the treatment protocols, the preventive strategies, and medical information to patients for potentially improving their outcomes.

  10. Psychotherapy Augmentation through Preconscious Priming

    OpenAIRE

    Borgeat, François; O’Connor, Kieron; Amado, Danielle; St-Pierre-Delorme, Marie-Ève

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked) priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy. Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women) completed a 36-weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioral therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming conditi...

  11. Psychotherapy augmentation through preconscious priming

    OpenAIRE

    Francois eBorgeat; Kieron eO'Connor; Danielle eAmado; Marie-Eve eSt-Pierre-Delorme

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked) priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy.Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women) completed a 36 weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioural therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming condition ...

  12. Follow-up of patients treated with retinoic acid for the control of radioiodine non-responsive advanced thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Coelho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During thyroid tumor progression, cellular de-differentiation may occur and it is commonly accompanied by metastatic spread and loss of iodine uptake. Retinoic acid (RA administration might increase iodine uptake in about 40% of patients, suggesting that RA could be a promising therapeutic option for radioiodine non-responsive thyroid carcinoma, although a prospective study with a long-term follow-up has not been reported. This was a clinical prospective study assessing the value of 13-cis-RA in patients with advanced thyroid carcinoma and its impact on major outcomes such as tumor regression and cancer-related death with a long-term follow-up of patients submitted to radioiodine (131I therapy after RA administration. Sixteen patients with inoperable disease and no significant radioiodine uptake on post-therapy scan were selected. Patients were treated orally with 13-cis-RA at a dose of 1.0 to 1.5 mg·kg-1·day-1 for 5 weeks and then submitted to radioiodine therapy (150 mCi after thyroxine withdrawal. A whole body scan was obtained 5 to 7 days after the radioactive iodine therapy. RECIST criteria were used to evaluate the response. An objective partial response rate was observed in 18.8%, a stable disease rate in 25% and a progression disease rate in 56.2%. Five patients died (62.5% in the group classified as progression of disease. Progression-free survival rate (PFS ranged from 72 to 12 months, with a median PFS of 26.5 months. RA may be an option for advanced de-differentiated thyroid cancer, due to the low rate of side effects.

  13. Exploring the role of CT densitometry: a randomised study of augmentation therapy in alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, A; Piitulainen, E; Parr, D G;

    2009-01-01

    than other measures of emphysema progression, and the changes in CT and forced expiratory volume in 1 s were correlated. All methods of densitometric analysis concordantly showed a trend suggestive of treatment benefit (p-values for Prolastin versus placebo ranged 0.049-0.084). Exacerbation frequency......Assessment of emphysema-modifying therapy is difficult, but newer outcome measures offer advantages over traditional methods. The EXAcerbations and Computed Tomography scan as Lung End-points (EXACTLE) trial explored the use of computed tomography (CT) densitometry and exacerbations for the......-point was change in CT lung density, and an exploratory approach was adopted to identify optimal methodology, including two methods of adjustment for lung volume variability and two statistical approaches. Other end-points were exacerbations, health status and physiological indices. CT was more sensitive...

  14. 18F-FDG符合线路显像对甲状腺乳头状癌颈部淋巴结转移131Ⅰ疗效的预测价值%Value of 18F-FDG dual head coincidence imaging in predicting the efficacy of radioiodine therapy for papillary thyroid carcinoma with cervical lymph node metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙云钢; 冯会娟; 刘金华; 胡瑞; 欧阳伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of 18F-FDG dual head coincidence imaging in the prediction of the efficacy of radioiodine therapy in patients with cervical lymph node (LN) metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods Thirty-six patients undergoing thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation of the residual normal thyroid tissue received "F-FDG dual head coincidence imaging and then therapeutic 131I-whole body imaging (131I-WBI) in the same week. According to those imaging results, the patients were divided into group I with positive results of both imaging examinations and group II with positive results by 131I-WBI but negative results byl8F-FDG dual head coincidence imaging. All the patients were followed up for 6 months. Results In group I (14 patients), a total of 49 lesions were diagnosed as cervical LN metastases, and the total sensitivity differed significantly between 18F-FDG dual head coincidence imaging and 131I- WBI (67.3% vs 89.8%, P=0.027). In both groups, the total sensitivity of 18F-FDG dual head coincidence imaging and mI-WBI showed a significant difference (26.0% vs 94.5%, P<0.001). The target and non-target ratio (T/NT) was identified as one of the factors affecting the radioiodine efficacy (P<0.001). In group II (22 patients), 76 lesions were diagnosed as cervical LN metastases. The effective rates of groups I and II were 35.7% and 81.8%, respectively, showing a significant difference between them (P=0.011). Conclusion 131I-WBI is more sensitive than I8F-FDG dual head coincidence imaging in detecting cervical LN metastasis in patients with PTC. Patients with cervical LN metastases who have positive results in both 131I-WBI and 18F-FDG dual head coincidence imaging tend to have a poorer response to the therapy than the patients with negative results in l8F-FDG dual head coincidence imaging. The T/NT of the cervical LN metastases in 18F-FDG dual head coincidence imaging is associated with the efficacy of radioiodine therapy.%目的 探讨18F

  15. Improvement of goiter volume reduction after 0.3 mg recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated radioiodine therapy in patients with a very large goiter: a double-blinded, randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, Steen; Nielsen, Viveque E; Boel-Jørgensen, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The effect of (131)I therapy amplification by recombinant human (rh) TSH prestimulation in very large goiters has not been evaluated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients (22 females; age range 37-87 yr) with a large multinodular goiter (median...

  16. Radioiodine treatment for complicated hyperthyroidism using a fixed dose regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Hyperthyroidism in the elderly and all those with cardiovascular and psychiatric problem has increased mortality and morbidity rate. These patients need special care to cure the disease promptly and permanently for avoidance of complications. Radioactive I-131 is one of the accepted forms of treatment for hyperthyroidism and increasingly being considered for the patients in whom rapid and permanent control of disease is desirable. To evaluate the success of I-131 to cure disease in-patients with complicated hyperthyroidism, we prospectively studied the outcome of radioiodine therapy using a fixed dose regime. Ninety-three patients with toxic diffuse goitre (65 female, 28 male) age ranging from 29-67 years (mean ? SD 41.35 ? 11.02 years) were evaluated. The subjects included 71 cases with cardiovascular problem, 13 elderly patients, 5 with poor drug compliance and 4 with associated psychiatric disease. The individual was excluded from the study who had autonomous toxic nodule. Every patient was pre-treated with antithyroid drugs for 4 weeks and the drug was discontinued for 3 days before administering I-131. No patients had post-treatment antithyroid drugs. All the patients were treated with a fixed oral dose of 15 mCi I-131 sodium iodide. Post-treatment follow-up examinations were done at 6 weeks without biochemical tests, at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 1 year and then annually with biochemical tests. Patients were classified as cured if the biochemical status was either euthyroid or hypothyroid at one year without further treatment by antithyroid drugs or radioiodine. Of the 93 cases, 82 patients became euthyroid or hypothyroid requiring no further treatment for hyperthyroidism with an overall cure of 88.17%. Hypothyroidism was developed in 49 (52.69%) patients at one year of whom 39 became hypothyroid within 6 months and another 10 patients within 1 year. 4 patients were subclinical hyperthyroid at 6 months and still hyperthyroid at 9 months. 7

  17. A Mathematical Model for Assaying Gaseous Radioiodine in Charcoal Cartridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling radioiodine in ambient air or gaseous effluent streams is accomplished by passing an air sample through a charcoal cartridge. Since gaseous radioiodine may be presented in various chemical forms including elemental and organic species, the charcoal is impregnated with 5% TEDA (TetraEthylenDiAmine) to convert organic iodide species to forms that can be collected on charcoal. Charcoal cartridges' producers test their cartridges against nonradioactive iodine at concentrations that are about 9-10 orders of magnitude higher than radioiodine concentrations that could be encountered in nuclear industry. Thus, the suitability of their reported adsorption efficiencies to the radioiodine concentration range is doubtful. The analysis of a cartridge containing radioiodine is generally performed by germanium gamma ray spectrometer. The cartridge is counted with the inlet side facing the detector and assuming most of the activity is concentrated in the front side of the cartridge. When sampling is performed for long periods (over several days), radioiodine can be found in deeper parts of the cartridge. In such cases the analysis may lead to major discrepancies between the measured value and the true value. Another problem rises in very long sampling periods (around one month) where breakthrough of the cartridge may occur. In such a case, the measured value does not account for the radioiodine that crossed the cartridge. In the present study, a numerical model was developed, to estimate the total amount of radioiodine that is adsorbed in the cartridge and the amount that breaks-through the cartridge. In order to use the model, the cartridge was divided into 14 layers and calibration was performed for the counting of each layer from the front and rear sides of the cartridge. Such a calibration has to be performed for each radionuclide and for each detector

  18. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-03-25

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.

  19. Radioiodine 131I metabolism in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic fate of orally administered 131I in human was studied. Chronological observations of whole body radioactivity distribution and thyroid 131I uptake curve revealed that 131I metabolism was greatly affected by the amount of dietary iodine intake. Under the high iodine intake exceeding 1 mg per day, uptake curve showed biphasic descending type, that is, rapid accumulation during 3 to 6 hours and rapid fall up to 48 hours and gradual decrease afterwards. While, ascending type, monophasic and maximal at 24 hours, was found universary under low iodine intake less than 500 μg per day. Thyroid function should not be affected by the amount of iodine intake, and we analysed 131I metabolism using a new four compartments which included intrathyroidal inorganic iodine pool. The results, especially hormone production rate, were found quite useful even under high iodine intake. Thyroidal organic iodine contents were calculated as approximately 2.5 mg and this value was much less than previously reported values from other countries. Administered radioiodine were mixed up with stable body iodine and reached equilibration by around 10 days. From seroimmunological, histological (microscopic and electron microscopic) studies, and irradiation studies to the cultured human thyroid cells, we concluded that this unexpected phenomenon was derived from chromosomal damage which induced gradual decrease in cell population because of inability to reproduce. Carcinogenic and genetic effects were not serious, and only three leukemic patients were reported in this country and 484 normal babies were born from 7,500 treated parents. Thus, therapeutic dose of 131I was proved rather safe, and even when exposed to radioiodine, administration of perchlorate or thiocyanate, excessive iodine and TSH seemed effective to avoid radiation injuries. (auth.)

  20. Patterns of radioiodine uptake by the lactating breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakheet, S.M. (Dept. of Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)); Hammami, M.M. (Dept. of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))

    1994-07-01

    Breast uptake of radioiodine, if not suspected, may be misinterpreted as thyroid cancer metastasis to the lung. To characterize the patterns of radioiodine breast uptake, we retrospectively studied 20 radioiodine scans that were performed within 1 week of cessation of breast feeding. Four patterns of uptake were identified: ''full'', ''focal'', ''crescent'' and ''irregular''. The uptake was asymmetric in 60% (left>right in 45%, right>left in 15%), symmetric in 25% and unilateral in 15% of cases. A characteristic full bilateral uptake was present in 40% of cases. In three cases with the irregular pattern, caused in part by external contamination with radioactive milk, the uptake closely mimicked lung metastases. Delayed images, obtained in one case, showed an apparent radioiodine shift from the breast to the thyroid, suggesting that the presence of breast uptake can modulate radioiodine uptake by thyroid tissue. In a case of unilateral breast uptake, a history of mastitis was obtained, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported. Breast uptake of radioiodine may take several scintigraphic patterns that are not always characteristic of the lactating breast and may affect the apparent extent of thyroid remnant/metastasis. (orig.)

  1. Patterns of radioiodine uptake by the lactating breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakheet, S M; Hammami, M M

    1994-07-01

    Breast uptake of radioiodine, if not suspected, may be misinterpreted as thyroid cancer metastasis to the lung. To characterize the patterns of radioiodine breast uptake, we retrospectively studied 20 radioiodine scans that were performed within 1 week of cessation of breast feeding. Four patterns of uptake were identified: "full", "focal", "crescent" and "irregular". The uptake was asymmetric in 60% (left > right in 45%, right > left in 15%), symmetric in 25% and unilateral in 15% of cases. A characteristic full bilateral uptake was present in 40% of cases. In three cases with the irregular pattern, caused in part by external contamination with radioactive milk, the uptake closely mimicked lung metastases. Delayed images, obtained in one case, showed an apparent radioiodine shift from the breast to the thyroid, suggesting that the presence of breast uptake can modulate radioiodine uptake by thyroid tissue. In a case of unilateral breast uptake, a history of mastitis was obtained, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported. Breast uptake of radioiodine may take several scintigraphic patterns that are not always characteristic of the lactating breast and may affect the apparent extent of thyroid remnant/metastasis. PMID:7957345

  2. Patterns of radioiodine uptake by the lactating breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast uptake of radioiodine, if not suspected, may be misinterpreted as thyroid cancer metastasis to the lung. To characterize the patterns of radioiodine breast uptake, we retrospectively studied 20 radioiodine scans that were performed within 1 week of cessation of breast feeding. Four patterns of uptake were identified: ''full'', ''focal'', ''crescent'' and ''irregular''. The uptake was asymmetric in 60% (left>right in 45%, right>left in 15%), symmetric in 25% and unilateral in 15% of cases. A characteristic full bilateral uptake was present in 40% of cases. In three cases with the irregular pattern, caused in part by external contamination with radioactive milk, the uptake closely mimicked lung metastases. Delayed images, obtained in one case, showed an apparent radioiodine shift from the breast to the thyroid, suggesting that the presence of breast uptake can modulate radioiodine uptake by thyroid tissue. In a case of unilateral breast uptake, a history of mastitis was obtained, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported. Breast uptake of radioiodine may take several scintigraphic patterns that are not always characteristic of the lactating breast and may affect the apparent extent of thyroid remnant/metastasis. (orig.)

  3. Potential of the drug-regulation iodide uptake in patients for prevention of radioiodine-refractory papillary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Kirillovich Fomin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of retinoic acid derivatives and lithium salts for radioiodine-refractory prevention in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer during multistage radioiodine therapy.Materials and methodsThe retrospective analysis was performed using the diagnostic and treatment results of 40 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer that underwent 131I therapy, which on the basis of posttherapy whole-body scan had direct indications for subsequent course of radioiodine therapy. The patients were divided into two groups:the control group (20 patients, which conducted a second course of radioiodine therapy on the standard template and without special training$the main group (20 patients, who were administered Sedalia (900 mg per day for 8 days, p.o. and isotretinoin (1.2 mg/kg body weight for 60 days, p.o. to prevention of the 131I resistance.To evaluate the effectiveness of a repeated course of radioiodine therapy following parameters were used: the thyroglobulin (Tg and antibodies to thyroglobulin (Tg-Ab level in the serum, the posttherapy whole body scan in combination with SPECT-CT.ResultsWe have found, that radioactive iodine treatment was effective in 75% of the main group and 90% of patients in the control group. The remission was observed in 10% and 40% in the main and control group, respectively. The partial regression was considered as Tg and TG-Ab reduction, and was observed more in the study group. The resistance to 131I therapy was found in 20% and 10% in the main and control group, respectively, which was based on the fact of permanent Tg/Tg-Ab serum level and absence of the pathological foci iodine uptake on the whole-body scans. The disease progress was found in one patient in the main group.ConclusionThe use of retinoic acid derivatives and lithium salts, in an effort to prevent the resistance to 131I-theraphy pretend to be unjustified, because it does not lead to significant

  4. Can previous thyroid scan induce cytogenetic radio adaptive response in patients treated by radioiodine for hyperthyroidism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Induction of radio adaptive responses in cells pretreated with a low dose radiation before exposure to a high dose is well documented by many in investigators. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of chromosomal aberration in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients treated by radioiodine (131 I) for hyperthyroidism, with or without previous thyroid scan with 99m Tc. Materials and methods: venous blood samples were obtained from 35 patients one month after radioiodine therapy and cytogenetic ally evaluated using analysis of metaphase in two groups. The first group (n=15, 13 females and 2 males, mean age=44.7±11.5 years and mean weight 74.4±7.9 Kg) received 5 mCi 99m Tc for thyroid scanning 38.6±19.9 days before radioiodine therapy with 10.4±3.4 mCi 131I. The second group (n=20, 14 females and 6 males, mean age=41.0±10.8 years and mean weight=68.1±9.2 Kg) didn't have history of thyroid scanning. We also studied a control group (n=29, 11 females and 8 males age=33.7±7.4 and mean weight=70.0±8.8 Kg) who didn't have any history of diagnostic or therapeutic and also occupational exposure. Results: The mean frequency of total chromosomal aberrations in the first and second groups and controls were 1.46±1.55, 1.65±1.62 and 0.93±0.92 respectively. Results also showed that the mean frequency of total chromosome aberration in two groups were higher than controls and significantly higher in patients who had not received 99m Tc compared those who had undertaken thyroid scan before radioiodine therapy (p=0.03). Conclusion: These findings may indicate the fact that the radiation dose received from 99m Tc could induce resistance to subsequent higher radiation dose of 131 I in peripheral blood lymphocytes and it might be due to cytogenetic radio adaptive response

  5. 乳腺癌组织中碘化钠同向转运蛋白的表达及其诱导与乳腺癌放射碘治疗%The sodium iodide symporter:expression and induction in breast cancer and breast cancer radioiodine ther-apy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婧(综述); 张清媛(审校)

    2015-01-01

    The sodium iodide symporter( NIS) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates active iodide uptake into thyroid follicular cells. NIS⁃mediated iodide uptake in thyroid cells is the basis for treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinomas and their me⁃tastases. Furthermore, NIS is expressed in many human breast tumors, suggesting that NIS⁃mediated radionuclide uptake may be used for the targeted therapy of breast cancer. However, functional cell surface NIS expression is often low in breast cancer, making it impor⁃tant to uncover signaling pathways that modulate NIS expression at multiple levels, from gene transcription to posttranslational process⁃ing and cell surface trafficking. In this review, we summarized the research progress of the presence, relevance and regulation of NIS in breast cancer. The clinical significance of NIS in breast cancer radioiodine therapy will also be discussed.%碘化钠同向转运蛋白( NIS)是一种调控甲状腺滤泡细胞碘吸收的跨膜糖蛋白。 NIS调控甲状腺细胞碘吸收是甲状腺及其转移癌放射碘治疗的基础。然而研究证实,NIS除表达于哺乳期乳腺细胞上外,还表达于多数乳腺癌细胞,提示放射碘治疗也可能成为乳腺癌一种可行的治疗方法,尤其是对三阴性乳腺癌及乳腺癌脑转移患者。然而,乳腺癌细胞表面NIS蛋白表达通常都较低,且只有表达于细胞表面的NIS方具备放射碘吸收能力。因此揭示不同水平上NIS表达的调控机制就显得格外重要。本文就NIS在乳腺癌中的表达及其诱导与乳腺癌放射碘治疗的研究进展作一综述。

  6. A long-term follow-up study of late-onset hypothyroidism and prognosis of hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed a follow-up study of 7,325 cases of hyperthyroidism treated with radioiodine in Japan from 1953 to 1967. Of these cases, there were 1,892 which clearly had or had not received thyroid hormone substitution therapy. Based on this, the frequency, period of onset and background of patients with hypothyroidism were investigated. There was a high incidence of cases among women in their thirties who had received large doses of radioiodine. Also, consistent with previous reports, a continuous, long-term increase in hypothyroidism was recognized. There is a need to investigate the course of the disease more throughly. The outbreak of thyroid tumors was also investigated. No clear increase in the incidence of tumors was seen in cases that had received radioiodine therapy. An evaluation of prognosis was made to establish the anticipated mortality rate using the mortality rate of the population at large as a base for comparison. In the 2,379 cases in which there was an effective response, no significant increase in either mortality or cancer mortality was recognized in the group that received radioiodine therapy. Nor was there an increase in the mortality rate among the younger patients in the treated group. Although there was a tendency for the overall mortality to increase when large quantities of radioiodine were prescribed. There is, however, some uncertainty as to whether or not there is a direct relationship to hypothyroidism. From this standpoint, rigorous observation during the course of treatment is important as well as commencement of appropriate substitution therapy. (author)

  7. A long-term follow-up study of late-onset hypothyroidism and prognosis of hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Hideki (Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-09-01

    We performed a follow-up study of 7,325 cases of hyperthyroidism treated with radioiodine in Japan from 1953 to 1967. Of these cases, there were 1,892 which clearly had or had not received thyroid hormone substitution therapy. Based on this, the frequency, period of onset and background of patients with hypothyroidism were investigated. There was a high incidence of cases among women in their thirties who had received large doses of radioiodine. Also, consistent with previous reports, a continuous, long-term increase in hypothyroidism was recognized. There is a need to investigate the course of the disease more throughly. The outbreak of thyroid tumors was also investigated. No clear increase in the incidence of tumors was seen in cases that had received radioiodine therapy. An evaluation of prognosis was made to establish the anticipated mortality rate using the mortality rate of the population at large as a base for comparison. In the 2,379 cases in which there was an effective response, no significant increase in either mortality or cancer mortality was recognized in the group that received radioiodine therapy. Nor was there an increase in the mortality rate among the younger patients in the treated group. Although there was a tendency for the overall mortality to increase when large quantities of radioiodine were prescribed. There is, however, some uncertainty as to whether or not there is a direct relationship to hypothyroidism. From this standpoint, rigorous observation during the course of treatment is important as well as commencement of appropriate substitution therapy. (author).

  8. Radioiodine Biogeochemistry and Prevalence in Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Denham, Miles E.; Zhang, Saijin; Yeager, Chris; Xu, Chen; Schwehr, Kathy; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Ho, Yi-Fang; Wellman, Dawn M.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2014-08-03

    129I is commonly either the top or among the top risk drivers, along with 99Tc, at radiological waste disposal sites and contaminated groundwater sites where nuclear material fabrication or reprocessing has occurred. The risk stems largely from 129I having a high toxicity, a high bioaccumulation factor (90% of all the body’s iodine concentrates in the thyroid), a high inventory at source terms (due to its high fission yield), an extremely long half-life (16M yr), and rapid mobility in the subsurface environment. Another important reason that 129I is a key risk driver is that there is the uncertainty regarding its biogeochemical fate and transport in the environment. We typically can define 129I mass balance and flux at sites, but cannot predict accurately its response to changes in the environment. As a consequence of some of these characteristics, 129I has a very low Drinking Water Standard, DWS, which is set at 1 pCi/L, the lowest of all radionuclides in the Federal Register. Recently, significant advancements have been made in detecting iodine species at ambient groundwater concentrations, defining the nature of the organic matter and iodine bond, and quantifying the role of naturally occurring sediment microbes to promote iodine oxidation and reduction. These recent studies have led to a more mechanistic understanding of radioiodine biogeochemistry. The objective of this review is to describe these advances and to provide a state of the science of radioiodine biogeochemistry relevant to its fate and transport in the terrestrial environment and provide information useful for making decisions regarding the stewardship and remediation of 129I contaminated sites. As part of this review, knowledge gaps were identified that would significantly advance the goals of basic and applied research programs for accelerating 129I environmental remediation and reducing uncertainty associated with disposal of 129I waste. Together the information gained from addressing these

  9. Radioiodine remnant ablation of differentiated thyroid cancer does not further increase oxidative damage to membrane lipids - early effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarewicz Jacek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Radioiodine (131I therapy is widely accepted as an essential part of therapeutic regimens in many cases of differentiated thyroid cancer. Radiation-induced oxidative damage to macromolecules is a well known phenomenon. Frequently examined process to evaluate oxidative damage to macromolecules is lipid peroxidation (LPO, resulting from oxidative damage to membrane lipids. The aim of the study was to examine serum LPO level in hypothyroid (after total thyroidectomy cancer patients subjected to ablative activities of 131I. Materials and methods The study was carried out in 21 patients (18 females and 3 males, average age 52.4 ± 16.5 years after total thyroidectomy for papillary (17 patients or follicular (4 patients thyroid carcinoma. Hypothyroidism was confirmed by increased TSH blood concentration (BRAHMS, Germany, measured before 131I therapy. Activity of 2.8 - 6.9 GBq of 131I was administered to the patients orally as sodium iodide (OBRI, Poland. Concentrations of malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA + 4-HDA, as an index of LPO (LPO-586 kit, Calbiochem, USA, were measured in blood serum just before 131I administration (day "0" and on the days 1-4 after 131I therapy. Sera from 23 euthyroid patients served as controls. Correlations between LPO and TSH or 131I activity were calculated. Results Expectedly, serum LPO level, when measured before 131I therapy, was several times higher (p 131I therapy. LPO did not correlate with TSH concentration. In turn, negative correlation was found between 131I activity and LPO level on the day "2" after radioiodine treatment. Conclusions Radioiodine remnant ablation of differentiated thyroid cancer does not further increase oxidative damage to membrane lipids, at least early, after therapy.

  10. ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland; Kalz, Marco; Van Ulzen, Patricia; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Ternier, S., Klemke, R., Kalz, M., Van Ulzen, P., & Specht, M. (2012). ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality [Special issue]. Journal of Universal Computer Science - Technology for learning across physical and virtual spaces, 18(15), 2143-2164.

  11. Radioiodination of chicken luteinizing hormone without affecting receptor binding potency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M.; Ishii, S. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    By improving the currently used lactoperoxidase method, we were able to obtain radioiodinated chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) that shows high specific binding and low nonspecific binding to a crude plasma membrane fraction of testicular cells of the domestic fowl and the Japanese quail, and to the ovarian granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. The change we made from the original method consisted of (1) using chicken LH for radioiodination that was not only highly purified but also retained a high receptor binding potency; (2) controlling the level of incorporation of radioiodine into chicken LH molecules by employing a short reaction time and low temperature; and (3) fractionating radioiodinated chicken LH further by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific radioactivity of the final {sup 125}I-labeled chicken LH preparation was 14 microCi/micrograms. When specific binding was 12-16%, nonspecific binding was as low as 2-4% in the gonadal receptors. {sup 125}I-Labeled chicken LH was displaced by chicken LH and ovine LH but not by chicken follicle-stimulating hormone. The equilibrium association constant of quail testicular receptor was 3.6 x 10(9) M-1. We concluded that chicken LH radioiodinated by the present method is useful for studies of avian LH receptors.

  12. Effect of temperature on the radioiodination of human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been undertaken to assess the effect of altering the temperature at which human growth hormone is radioiodinated on the incorporation of 125I and the immunoreactivity and stability of the labelled hormone. Employing highly purified monomeric hormone it proved possible, by the iodogen procedure, to prepare a labelled product of high specific activity irrespective of temperature. However, in radioiodinations performed at ambient temperature (20 to 25 degrees) significant amounts of the labelled hormone were in an aggregated form which was less immunoreactive than the 125I-labelled monomeric hormone. Such aggregation was largely prevented by radioiodinating at low temperature (0 to 4 degrees) and even the large monomeric peak was more immunoreactive (about 95% bound in antibody excess) than the monomeric peak from iodinations performed at room temperature

  13. Current opinions on the radioiodine treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Tae [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-01

    Radioactive iodine therapy using I-131 for hyperthyroidism has been used for more than 50 years, and generally considered safe and devoid of major side effects. Appropriate patient selection criteria and clinical judgement concerning patient preparation should be employed for its optimal use. It has not been possible to resolve the trade-off between efficient definite cure of hyperthyroidism and the high incidence of post-therapy hypothyroidism. The dose of the I-131 needed to maintain euthyroid state remains an area of uncertainty and debate. Early side effects are uncommon and readily manageable. Other than the need for long-term monitoring and, in most cases, lifelong thyroid hormone treatment for late adverse consequences of this treatment remains only conjectural. We have reviewed general principles and recent advances in radioiodine treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism, specially regarding to several controversies.

  14. Outpatient management of patients with large multinodular goitres treated with fractionated radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, D.M.; Thomas, P.A.; Allen, L.W.; Akerman, R.; Lan, L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Epstein, M.T. [Department of Endocrinology, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-01

    The efficacy of fractionated out-patient radioiodine therapy in 38 patients with compressive symptoms due to long-standing large multinodular goitres was assessed. The diagnosis was established by clinical assessment in addition to technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan or computed tomography scan of the thyroid and mediastinum. Oral iodine-131 therapy was administered as a 2.22 GBq (60 mCi) cumulative dose over 4 months (555 MBq per month). All patients were monitored with serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine ({+-} free tri-iodothyronine) assays before the treatment and after each dose fraction. Clinical and biochemical follow-up was performed on all patients and ranged from 6 to 45 months after therapy. The patients consisted of 35 female and three male patients with a median age of 59 years (range 37-87 years). Prior to treatment 20 patients were biochemically hyperthyroid and 18 were euthyroid. Overall, 71% of patients reported a subjective improvement in compressive symptoms and 29% reported no change. Clinically assessed reduction in goitre size occurred in 92% of patients while there was no change in 8%. At 3 months of follow-up, 31% of patients had become hypothyroid and at 18 months 66% were hypothyroid. Seven hyperthyroid patients (35%) became euthyroid and 13 hyperthyroid patients (65%) became hypothyroid. Three patients who became hypothyroid experienced neck soreness (transient in one patient, persistent in two patients). There were no differences in outcome between patients who were hyperthyroid and those who were euthyroid prior to treatment. Fractionated out-patient radioiodine therapy showed excellent short- and medium-term safety, was very well tolerated and offered a satisfactory alternative treatment to surgery. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 23 refs.

  15. GFAP启动子介导放射性131Ⅰ靶向性治疗胶质瘤的实验研究%Glial fibrillary acidic protein promoters directed sodium iodide symporter expression in malignant gioma radioiodine therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玮; 谭建; 王澎

    2013-01-01

    -GFAP-hNIS transfection increased 69.5 and 70.8 times; the 125I effective half-life was shortened.The cloning efficiency of U87 cells being transfected with Ad-GFAP-hNIS was (9.31±0.50)% and (9.33±1.15)%,respectively,which was significantly higher than that of U87 cells being transfected with Ad-CMV-EGFP and Ad-CMV-hNIS (P<0.05).After treatment with 131I and injection of Ad-GFAP-hNIS,the survival of U87 tumor loading nude mice were prolonged most (44.00±0.58 d).Cells in the Ad-GFAP-hNIS group could uptake the radionuclide,while those in the Ad-CMV-EGFP could not.Conclusion The gliomas after Ad-GFAP-hNIS transfection can uptake iodine and also effectively direct radioactive iodine therapy.

  16. Radioiodination of low potency human growth hormone and its characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) of human growth hormone (hGH) using 125I-labelled tracer prepared from low purity (low potency) hGH and characterisation of the tracer are described. The radioiodination of low potency hGH resulted in low yield of immunoreactive fraction of the tracer. The major quantity of non-immunoreactive fraction could be removed by purification by gel filtration. However, the quality of radioiodinated tracer of low potency hGH has been found to be as that of the tracer prepared from high potency hGH with respect to assay sensitivity and RIA standard curve parameters. (author)

  17. Synthesis, evaluation and application of radioiodine labeled compounds in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reviews synthesis, evaluation,diagnostic and therapeutic applications of iodine radiopharmaceutical especially with 13II and 123I in contemporary nuclear medicine. It is well Known that iodine is used in thyroid diagnostic and therapy with sodium iodide and played an important role in diagnostic procedures using single photon emission tomography (SPECT). The study covers the general chemistry of iodine, physical properties, biological role of iodine, general uses of iodine compounds , production and decay schemes of 131I, 125I and 123I in the first chapter. Preparation of radioiodine labeled compounds, quality control of radiopharmaceuticals and safety of radioiodination are dealt with in detail in two chapters. These were followed by chapters dealing in length with the chemistry, preparation, quality control, pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry of some iodine radiopharmaceuticals, and then current trends in diagnostic and therapeutic applications of iodine radiopharmaceuticals particularly 131/123I-MIBG and 123I-IMP. We found that the iodine radiopharmaceuticals are considered amongst principal indicators in single photon emission tomography (SPECT), and 131/123I-MIBG and 123I-IMP appear to be appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic agents for variety of diseases.(Author)

  18. Inhibition of miR-146b expression increases radioiodine-sensitivity in poorly differential thyroid carcinoma via positively regulating NIS expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with the loss of radioiodine uptake (RAIU) is often observed in clinical practice under radioiodine therapy, indicating the challenge for poor prognosis. MicroRNA (miRNA) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in many diseases; yet, the role of miRNAs in RAIU has not been generally investigated. Based on recent studies about miRNA expression in papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas, the expression profiles of several thyroid relative miRNAs were investigated in one DTC cell line, derived from normal DTC cells by radioiodine treatment. The top candidate miR-146b, with the most significant overexpression profiles in dedifferentiated cells, was picked up. Further research found that miR-146b could be negatively regulated by histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in normal cells, indicating the correlation between miR-146b and Na+/I− symporter (NIS)-mediated RAIU. Fortunately, it was confirmed that miR-146b could regulate NIS expression/activity; what is more important, miR-146b interference would contribute to the recovery of radioiodine-sensitivity in dedifferentiated cells via positively regulating NIS. In the present study, it was concluded that NIS-mediated RAIU could be modulated by miR-146b; accordingly, miR-146b might serve as one of targets to enhance efficacy of radioactive therapy against poorly differential thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). - Highlights: • Significant upregulated miR-146b was picked up from thyroid relative miRNAs in DTC. • MiR-146b was negatively regulated by HDAC3 in normal thyroid carcinoma cells. • NIS activity and expression could be regulated by miR-146b in thyroid carcinoma. • MiR-146b inhibition could recover the decreased radioiodine-sensitivity of DTC cells

  19. Labeling of the peptide DOTA-tyr3-octreotate with radioiodine and biodistribution and AR42J neuroendocrine tumor affinity study in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroendocrine tumors are rare and affect mainly the gastrointestinal tract but other systems are also affected like the skin, lungs and the nervous system. They are rich in type 2 somatostatin (SM) receptors (SSTR2) and may secrete hormones in excess. Synthetic SM derivative peptides are of great utility because presented bigger half life when compared to SM and can be used to clinical improvement of these patients due to its tumoral inhibitory action. The labeling of these peptides with radioisotopes allowed the acquisition of images with favourable cost-efficiency relationship and use in therapy. The peptide, DOTATyr3- octreotate (DOTATATE), has much more affinity for the SSTR2 receptor than the peptide commercially used nowadays, is easily radioiodinated and has a favourable biodistribution for diagnosis and treatment due to the presence of the chelator DOTA. We have studied the influence of various factors on the radiochemical purity of the labeled compound as labeling stability, absorbed dose estimation and biodistribution in normal and AR42J cell tumor-bearing Swiss and Nude mice. We observed easy and stable peptide radioiodination at peptide/radioiodine (131I) ratio of 2.73 that produced a radiochemical species with retention time of 22.7 minutes at high performance liquid chromatography and presented a favourable biodistribution and dosimetry for imaging and therapy of patients with neuroendocrine tumors, just the opposite result observed the radioiodinated compounds without a chelator as described in the literature. Other molar peptide/radioiodine ratios did not showed good results, with various radiochemical species and unfavourable biodistribution. A possible dosimetric study in patients with neuroendocrine tumors may be carried out in the near future. (author)

  20. Inhibition of miR-146b expression increases radioiodine-sensitivity in poorly differential thyroid carcinoma via positively regulating NIS expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Luchuan; Lv, Bin; Chen, Bo [Department of General Surgery, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Guan, Ming [Department of General Surgery, Qihe People' s Hospital, Qihe, Shandong 251100 (China); Sun, Yongfeng [Department of General Surgery, Licheng District People' s Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250115 (China); Li, Haipeng [Department of General Surgery, Caoxian People' s Hospital, Caoxian, Shandong 274400 (China); Zhang, Binbin; Ding, Changyuan; He, Shan [Department of General Surgery, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Zeng, Qingdong, E-mail: qingdz0201@163.com [Department of General Surgery, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China)

    2015-07-10

    Dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with the loss of radioiodine uptake (RAIU) is often observed in clinical practice under radioiodine therapy, indicating the challenge for poor prognosis. MicroRNA (miRNA) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in many diseases; yet, the role of miRNAs in RAIU has not been generally investigated. Based on recent studies about miRNA expression in papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas, the expression profiles of several thyroid relative miRNAs were investigated in one DTC cell line, derived from normal DTC cells by radioiodine treatment. The top candidate miR-146b, with the most significant overexpression profiles in dedifferentiated cells, was picked up. Further research found that miR-146b could be negatively regulated by histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in normal cells, indicating the correlation between miR-146b and Na{sup +}/I{sup −} symporter (NIS)-mediated RAIU. Fortunately, it was confirmed that miR-146b could regulate NIS expression/activity; what is more important, miR-146b interference would contribute to the recovery of radioiodine-sensitivity in dedifferentiated cells via positively regulating NIS. In the present study, it was concluded that NIS-mediated RAIU could be modulated by miR-146b; accordingly, miR-146b might serve as one of targets to enhance efficacy of radioactive therapy against poorly differential thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). - Highlights: • Significant upregulated miR-146b was picked up from thyroid relative miRNAs in DTC. • MiR-146b was negatively regulated by HDAC3 in normal thyroid carcinoma cells. • NIS activity and expression could be regulated by miR-146b in thyroid carcinoma. • MiR-146b inhibition could recover the decreased radioiodine-sensitivity of DTC cells.

  1. Augmented Reality in Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Shingles, Luke J.

    2013-01-01

    Augmented Reality consists of merging live images with virtual layers of information. The rapid growth in the popularity of smartphones and tablets over recent years has provided a large base of potential users of Augmented Reality technology, and virtual layers of information can now be attached to a wide variety of physical objects. In this article, we explore the potential of Augmented Reality for astrophysical research with two distinct experiments: (1) Augmented Posters and (2) Augmented...

  2. Low-activity radioiodine for remnant ablation after surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer - Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: residual thyroid tissue ablation with radioiodine after total thyroidectomy is one of the key elements in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) therapy. Clinicians worldwide have been trying to address what is the lowest effective radioiodine activity to successful ablation. This study intends to show our initial results using a low 131I activity -1850 MBq (50 mCi) - for that purpose in patients (pts) with low-risk DTC. Material and methods: 13 patients (12 female, 1 male; mean age 43.7 years; range 23-66 years), with histologically confirmed DTC (12 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma- 3 pT1a N0, 1 pT1a N1, 4 pT1b N0, 2 pT2 N0 and 2 pT3 N0 and 1 case of follicular thyroid carcinoma - pT3 N0), underwent total thyroidectomy followed by an ablative 131I activity of 1850 MBq. An 131I whole body scan (WBS) was performed 6 months after the ablative activity as well as thyroglobulin (Tg) level determination. Ablative therapy, WBS and Tg measurements were performed at least 4 weeks after thyroid hormone withdrawal. Six months after ablative therapy, patients with negative WBS and stimulated Tg levels < 2 ng/ml were considered to have successful ablation. Results: complete thyroid tissue ablation was obtained in 9/13 pts with a success rate of 69.2%. Of the four remaining pts: one (pT1bN0) presented positive WBS; one (pT1aN0) showed both positive WBS and elevated Tg levels and the other two (pT2N0; pT3N0) presented Tg levels above the considered limit despite negative WBS. 3 of those patients who did not achieve a successful complete ablation presented high Tg levels (> 30 ng/ml) at the time of radioiodine treatment. Conclusion: although several studies have demonstrated good rates of ablation using low 131I activities, each center must assess whether the same results are found in its particular context. Our preliminary data reveals a successful ablation rate for post-thyroidectomy remnant thyroid tissue, in patients with low

  3. A Case of Plummer Disease Treated With Radioiodine Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    池田, 新; 横川, 正樹; 川口, 篤哉; 森山, 正浩; 守田, 美和; 山内, 美香; 杉本, 利嗣; 内田, 伸恵

    2012-01-01

    A case of Plummer disease treated with radioactive iodine was described. A 74-year-old woman was examined for her thyroid mass, which had been unattended for 7 years, and was diagnosed as having Plummer disease. Laboratory tests showed high and low levels of thyroid hormones and TSH, respectively, but no clinical manifestation of hyperthyroidism was observed. Technetium 99m scintigraphy showed strong accumulation to the mass and suppressed accumulation to the normal part of the thyroid....

  4. Radioiodinated glucose analogues for use as imaging agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1988-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  5. A New Technology Developed to Remove Aqueous Radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Yeop; Baik, Min Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Radioiodine is considered as a critical radionuclide by the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP) in terms of the radiation and radiotoxicity risks to nature and human health. In addition, there were reports about great increases of thyroid cancer in children in Belarus from 1990. In natural environments, there were several reports for the unusual increase of radioactive iodine ratios in most environmental samples (i.e. soils, vegetables, and seafoods). Iodine usually exists as iodide, iodate, and organic iodine in the environment. Iodide is considered as the most difficult form among the iodine species to treat by the conventional adsorption-based technology. This is why urgent new technology is needed to suppress such a progressive accumulation of radioiodine in natural environments. The conventional methods based on the anion-exchange and adsorption techniques have been difficult to manage the growing release of radioiodine for decades. Here we suggest a new solution that uses a biostimulant way to isolate radioiodine. We discovered that natural SRB can play an important intermediary role to get anionic iodide and cationic copper combined strongly as perfect counterions by enzymatic Cu-reduction.

  6. Psychotherapy augmentation through preconscious priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois eBorgeat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy.Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women completed a 36 weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioural therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming condition involved listening twice daily with a passive attitude to a recording of individualized formulations of appropriate cognitions and attitudes masked by music. The Control condition involved listening to an indistinguishable recording where the formulations had been replaced by random numbers. Changes in social cognitions were measured by the Social Interaction Self Statements Test (SISST.Results: Patients improved following therapy. The Priming procedure was associated with increased positive cognitions and decreased negative cognitions on the SISST while the Control procedure was not. The Priming procedure induced more cognitive change when applied immediately after the group therapy. Conclusion: An effect of priming was observed on social phobia related cognitions in the expected direction. This self administered addition to a therapy could be seen as an augmentation strategy.

  7. Synthesis of N-(2-diethylamino-ethyl)-4-(4-fluoro-benzamido)-2-methoxybenzamide (desiodo-MIP-1145) by coupling technique and its radioiodination: a potential melanoma imaging agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglan, H; Kandil, S A; El-Kafrawy, A F; Seddik, U

    2016-07-01

    Radioiodinated MIP-1145, which specifically targets melanin, is an ideal candidate for targeted therapy of melanoma. An analogue of MIP-1145 lacking the iodo-substituent (desiodo-MIP-1145) was synthesized as a labeling precursor in three simple steps. The radioiodination of desiodo-MIP-1145 by iodine-125 was carried out via an electrophilic substitution reaction. An optimization study for the iodination reaction was carried out. The labeled compound was isolated and purified by means of electrophoresis and HPLC. The maximum radiochemical yield, 76%, was obtained with radiochemical purity greater than 99%. The log P value for [(125) I]MIP-1145 was measured as 4.5. PMID:27313146

  8. Decreased radioiodine uptake of FRTL-5 cells after 131I incubation in vitro: molecular biological investigations indicate a cell cycle-dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radioiodine therapy the ''stunning phenomenon'' is defined as a reduction of radioiodine uptake after diagnostic application of 131I. In the current study, we established an in vitro model based on the ''Fisher rat thyrocyte cell line no. 5'' (FRTL-5) to investigate the stunning. TSH-stimulated FRTL-5 cells were incubated with 131I. Time-dependent 131I uptake and the viability of FRTL-5 cells were evaluated at 4-144 h after radioiodine application. All data was corrected for number of viable cells, half life and 131I concentration. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and the housekeeping gene (β-actin, GAPDH) levels were quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Additionally, immunohistochemical staining (IHC) of NIS on the cell membrane was carried out. FRTL-5 monolayer cell cultures showed a specific maximum uptake of 131I 24-48 h after application. Significantly decreased 131I uptake values were observed after 72-144 h. The decrease in radioiodine uptake was correlated with decreasing mRNA levels of NIS and housekeeping genes. In parallel, unlike in controls, IHC staining of NIS on FRTL-5 cells declined significantly after 131I long-term incubation. It could be demonstrated that during 131I incubation of FRTL-5 cells, radioiodine uptake decreased significantly. Simultaneously decreasing levels of NIS mRNA and protein expression suggest a NIS-associated mechanism. Since mRNA levels of housekeeping genes decreased, too, the reduced NIS expression might be provoked by a cell cycle arrest. Our investigations recommend the FRTL-5 model as a valuable tool for further molecular biological investigations of the stunning phenomenon. (orig.)

  9. Differentiated thyroid cancer. New concept of radioiodine ablation; Differenziertes Schilddruesenkarzinom. Fortschritte bei der Radioiodablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Kobe, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany), Zentrum fuer Integrierte Onkologie Koeln-Bonn; Luster, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2010-12-15

    Ablative radioiodine therapy is the treatment of choice in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, the only exception being the unifocal, very small papillary thyroid cancer. The TSH-stimulation can be achieved by a waiting period for 2-3 weeks after thyroidectomy without medication or by the use of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH). Both options lead to high success rates. 'Single dose cure' using activities between 1.85 and 3.7 GBq {sup 131}I is standard. Since 2010 rhTSH is approved by the EMA for the indications pT1-4, N0-1, cM0. Survey studies did not find any inferiority of ablation with rhTSH or iatrogenic hypothyroidism in the high-risk patient group. Renal clearance is not reduced after rhTSH administration, thus the {sup 131}I blood dose and the whole body doses are lower in patients under rhTSH. Comparing identical {sup 131}I activities after endogeneous or exogeneous stimulation, rhTSH will minimize the acute adverse effects of {sup 131}I. A short-term withdrawal of levothyroxine some days before rhTSH-injection lowers the iodine plasma level, which may be advantageous for the ablation success if lower 131I activities are used. A rhTSH-based diagnostic {sup 131}I whole-body scintigraphy 3-6 months after ablation is standard for therapy control. At this time, the rhTSH-stimulated thyroglobulin-level is essential for a personalized risk stratification. Tg-measurements by a second generation assay should be used for follow-up care. Metaanalyses have shown that radioiodine ablation lowers the mortality rate, the risk of locoregional recurrences and the risk of late metastasizing. Therefore, ablation has shown a clear benefit. (orig.)

  10. Augmented Reality in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Frédéric P A

    2013-01-01

    Augmented Reality consists of merging live images with virtual layers of information. The rapid growth in the popularity of smartphones and tablets over recent years has provided a large base of potential users of Augmented Reality technology, and virtual layers of information can now be attached to a wide variety of physical objects. In this article, we explore the potential of Augmented Reality for astrophysical research with two distinct experiments: (1) Augmented Posters and (2) Augmented Articles. We demonstrate that the emerging technology of Augmented Reality can already be used and implemented without expert knowledge using currently available apps. Our experiments highlight the potential of Augmented Reality to improve the communication of scientific results in the field of astrophysics. We also present feedback gathered from the Australian astrophysics community that reveals evidence of some interest in this technology by astronomers who experimented with Augmented Posters. In addition, we discuss p...

  11. Radionuclide therapy for thyroid cancer with nervous system metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is 85% of all thyroid cancer, and is known to have good prognosis with proper surgery and radioiodine therapy. But 4% of papillary carcinoma and 36% of follicular carcinoma present with distant metastasis. Even if the patient had distant metastasis, total thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy show good response. Forty seven percent of bone metastases are found in the initial diagnosis, in which vertebral metastases is 29%, pelvic metastases 22%. The metastases to vertebrae often combine spinal cord compression, making it difficult to deliver enough radiation dose to the lesion with radioiodine or external beam irradiation. Brain metastases is found in less than 1% of thyroid cancer, and is also difficult to cure. In Korea Cancer Center Hospital, from 1997 to 2002, we analyzed 437 patients with thyroid cancer who were treated with radioiodine after total thyroidectomy. There were four patients with brain metastases, and 32 patients with vertebral metastases. In four patients with brain metastases, one patient, who also had bone metastases, received high dose radioiodine therapy after total thyroidectomy, and is alive for more than 15 months. Another patients received total thyroidectomy, radioiodine therapy and external irradiation therapy, and survived 22 months. Two patients refused further treatment and died in one month. I-131 uptake in the metastatic lesion in brain is reported to be 17%, and multimodality therapy with surgery, radioiodine therapy, external irradiation and chemotherapy may improve the prognosis. In 32 patients with vertebral metastases, 19 patients (59.4%) showed I-131 uptake after high dose radioiodine therapy, and 5 year survival rate was 65.8%. 13 patients without I-131 uptake after radioiodine therapy had 26.9% of 5 year survival rate. In 11 patients with spinal cord compression, 7 patients received high dose radioiodine therapy and external irradiation after total thyroidectomy and spinal surgery, and six

  12. RADIOIODINE GEOCHEMISTRY IN THE SRS SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D.; Emerson, H.; Powell, B.; Roberts, K.; Zhang, S.; Xu, C.; Schwer, K.; Li, H.; Ho, Y.; Denham, M.; Yeager, C.; Santschi, P.

    2013-05-16

    Iodine-129 is one of the key risk drivers for several Savannah River Site (SRS) performance assessments (PA), including that for the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility in E-Area. In an effort to reduce the uncertainty associated with the conceptual model and the input values used in PA, several studies have recently been conducted dealing with radioiodine geochemistry at the SRS. The objective of this report was to review these recent studies and evaluate their implications on SRS PA calculations. For the first time, these studies measured iodine speciation in SRS groundwater and provided technical justification for assuming the presence of more strongly sorbing species (iodate and organo-iodine), and measured greater iodine sediment sorption when experiments included these newly identified species; specifically they measured greater sorption coefficients (K{sub d} values: the concentration ratio of iodine on the solid phase divided by the concentration in the aqueous phase). Based on these recent studies, new best estimates were proposed for future PA calculations. The new K{sub d} values are greater than previous recommended values. These proposed K{sub d} values reflect a better understanding of iodine geochemistry in the SRS subsurface environment, which permits reducing the associated conservatism included in the original estimates to account for uncertainty. Among the key contributing discoveries supporting the contention that the K{sub d} values should be increased are that: 1) not only iodide (I{sup -}), but also the more strongly sorbing iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}) species exists in SRS groundwater (average total iodine = 15% iodide, 42% iodate, and 43% organoiodine), 2) when iodine was added as iodate, the measured K{sub d} values were 2 to 6 times greater than when the iodine was added as iodide, and perhaps most importantly, 3) higher desorption (10 to 20 mL/g) than (ad)sorption (all previous studies) K{sub d} values were measured. The implications of this

  13. Treatment of medulloblastoma using an oncolytic measles virus encoding the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter shows enhanced efficacy with radioiodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutzen Brian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Although the clinical outcome for medulloblastoma patients has improved significantly, children afflicted with the disease frequently suffer from debilitating side effects related to the aggressive nature of currently available therapy. Alternative means for treating medulloblastoma are desperately needed. We have previously shown that oncolytic measles virus (MV can selectively target and destroy medulloblastoma tumor cells in localized and disseminated models of the disease. MV-NIS, an oncolytic measles virus that encodes the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS, has the potential to deliver targeted radiotherapy to the tumor site and promote a localized bystander effect above and beyond that achieved by MV alone. Methods We evaluated the efficacy of MV-NIS against medulloblastoma cells in vitro and examined their ability to incorporate radioiodine at various timepoints, finding peak uptake at 48 hours post infection. The effects of MV-NIS were also evaluated in mouse xenograft models of localized and disseminated medulloblastoma. Athymic nude mice were injected with D283med-Luc medulloblastoma cells in the caudate putamen (localized disease or right lateral ventricle (disseminated disease and subsequently treated with MV-NIS. Subsets of these mice were given a dose of 131I at 24, 48 or 72 hours later. Results MV-NIS treatment, both by itself and in combination with 131I, elicited tumor stabilization and regression in the treated mice and significantly extended their survival times. Mice given 131I were found to concentrate radioiodine at the site of their tumor implantations. In addition, mice with localized tumors that were given 131I either 24 or 48 hours after MV-NIS treatment exhibited a significant survival advantage over mice given MV-NIS alone. Conclusions These data suggest MV-NIS plus radioiodine may be a potentially useful therapy for

  14. Radiation exposure and familial aggregation of cancers as risk factors for colorectal cancer after radioiodine treatment for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In thyroid cancer patients, radioiodine treatment has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of colon carcinoma. The aim of this study in thyroid cancer patients was to evaluate the role of familial factors in the risk of colorectal cancer and their potential interaction with radioiodine exposure. Methods and Materials: We performed a case-control study on 15 colorectal cancer patients and 76 matched control subjects, nested in a cohort of 3708 thyroid cancer patients treated between 1933 and 1998. For each patient, the radiation dose delivered to the colon by radioiodine was estimated by use of standard tables. In those who received external radiation therapy, the average radiation doses delivered to the colon and rectum were estimated by use of DOSEg software. A complete familial history was obtained by face-to-face interviews, and a familial index was defined to evaluate the degree of familial aggregation. Results: The risk of colorectal cancer increased with familial aggregation of colorectal cancer (p = 0.02). After adjustment for the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum, the risk of colorectal cancer was 2.8-fold higher (95% CI, 1.0-8.0) for patients with at least one relative affected by colorectal cancer than for patients without such a family history (p = 0.05). The radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum by 131I and external radiation therapy was associated with an increase of risk near the significance threshold (p = 0.1). No significant interaction was found between radiation dose and having an affected relative (p = 0.9). Conclusions: The role of familial background in the risk of colorectal cancer following a differentiated thyroid carcinoma appears to increase with the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum. However, the study population was small and no interaction was found between these two factors

  15. Determination of the optimal minimum radioiodine dose in patients with Graves' disease: a clinical outcome study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, D.; Tan, P.; Booker, J. [Pacific Medical Imaging, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Epstein, M. [Dept. of Endocrinology, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Lan, L. [High-Dependency Unit, St. George Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2001-10-01

    The study was performed under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Commission, Vienna, Austria, with the aim of determining the optimal minimum therapeutic dose of iodine-131 for Graves' disease. The study was designed as a single-blinded randomised prospective outcome trial. Fifty-eight patients were enrolled, consisting of 50 females and 8 males aged from 17 to 75 years. Each patient was investigated by clinical assessment, biochemical and immunological assessment, thyroid ultrasound, technetium-99m thyroid scintigraphy and 24-h thyroid {sup 131}I uptake. Patients were then randomised into two treatment groups, one receiving 60 Gy and the other receiving 90 Gy thyroid tissue absorbed dose of radioiodine. The end-point markers were clinical and biochemical response to treatment. The median follow-up period was 37.5 months (range, 24-48 months). Among the 57 patients who completed final follow-up, a euthyroid state was achieved in 26 patients (46%), 27 patients (47%) were rendered hypothyroid and four patients (7%) remained hyperthyroid. Thirty-four patients (60%) remained hyperthyroid at 6 months after the initial radioiodine dose (median dose 126 MBq), and a total of 21 patients required additional radioiodine therapy (median total dose 640 MBq; range 370-1,485 MBq). At 6-month follow-up, of the 29 patients who received a thyroid tissue dose of 90 Gy, 17 (59%) remained hyperthyroid. By comparison, of the 28 patients who received a thyroid tissue dose of 60 Gy, 17 (61%) remained hyperthyroid. No significant difference in treatment response was found (P=0.881). At 6 months, five patients in the 90-Gy group were hypothyroid, compared to two patients in the 60-Gy group (P=0.246). Overall at 6 months, non-responders to low-dose therapy had a significantly larger thyroid gland mass (respective means: 35.9 ml vs 21.9 ml) and significantly higher levels of serum thyroglobulin (respective means: 597.6 {mu}g/l vs 96.9 {mu}g/l). Where low-dose radioiodine

  16. Radioiodination of interleukin 2 to high specific activities by the vapor-phase chloramine T method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombinant human interleukin 2 (IL-2) was radioiodinated utilizing the vapor phase chloramine T method of iodination. The method is rapid, reproducible, and allows the efficient radioiodination of IL-2 to specific activities higher than those previously attained with full retention of biological activity. IL-2 radioiodinated by this method binds with high affinity to receptors present on phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes and should be useful for the study of receptor structure and function

  17. Efficacy analysis of first radioiodine ablation of residual thyroid tissue in postoperative patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the influence of age, sex, type of surgery, pathologic type of the tumor, postoperative time to the administration and the dose of radioiodine, TSH level and the existence of radioiodine uptake beyond thyroid to first radioiodine ablation of residual thyroid tissue (RTT) in well-differentiated thyroid cancer after surgery. Methods: Eighty-five well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients after surgery were ablated of RTT with radioiodine from 1975 to 1998 and were followed up for 3 - 6 months after ablation. Using the absence of visible uptake compared with background as the criterion for successful ablation. Results: Fifty-eight of 85 patients (68.2%) had successful ablation of RTT after the first administration of radioiodine. The results were statistically related to the type of surgery, the time after surgery to the ablation and the dosage of radioiodine, TSH level and the simultaneous existence of radioiodine uptake in metastatic site in the patients gained successfully ablation (P < 0.05), there were no statistically significant relation with age, sex and pathologic type of tumor. Conclusions: In well-differentiated thyroid cancer, there would be better effect of first ablation of RTT with suitable dosage of radioiodine, total thyroidectomy, above 50 mU/L TSH level,ablation conducted within 3 months after surgery and radioiodine uptake found only in RTT. The effectiveness of first ablation of RTT possesses no relationship with the age, sex and the pathologic type of the tumor

  18. Inductively Coupled Augmented Railgun

    CERN Document Server

    Bahder, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    We derive the non-linear dynamical equations for an augmented electromagnetic railgun, whose augmentation circuit is inductively coupled to the gun circuit. We solve these differential equations numerically using example parameter values. We find a complicated interaction between the augmentation circuit, gun circuit, and mechanical degrees of freedom, leading to a complicated optimization problem. For certain values of parameters, we find that an augmented electromagnetic railgun has an armature kinetic energy that is 42% larger than the same railgun with no augmentation circuit. Optimizing the parameters may lead to further increase in performance.

  19. Novel Insulin Delivery Profiles for Mixed Meals for Sensor-Augmented Pump and Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Asavari; Lee, Joon Bok; Dassau, Eyal; Doyle, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining euglycemia for people with type 1 diabetes is highly challenging, and variations in glucose absorption rates with meal composition require meal type specific insulin delivery profiles for optimal blood glucose control. Traditional basal/bolus therapy is not fully optimized for meals of varied fat contents. Thus, regimens for low- and high-fat meals were developed to improve current insulin pump therapy. Simulations of meals with varied fat content demonstrably replicated published...

  20. Introdução da comunicação suplementar e alternativa na terapia com afásicos Introduction of augmentative and alternative communication in aphasia therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ferreira Marcolino Galli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sabe-se que o tratamento fonoaudiológico de pacientes com afasia severa é limitado. A ausência de fala articulada, algumas vezes, impede o diagnóstico da afasia. O paciente "grave" pode não falar devido à inabilidade de articulação, como ocorre na disartria e/ou apraxia. Essa ausência de fala não permite afirmar se a linguagem está comprometida. O uso da comunicação suplementar e alternativa tem sido um método eficaz na reabilitação desses pacientes. Esse estudo visou descrever o uso da comunicação suplementar e alternativa associada a outras modalidades de linguagem (escrita, gestos, a partir do relato de dois casos de afasia. A análise dos dados foi composta por dois blocos: a introdução da comunicação suplementar e alternativa no diálogo; e o uso da leitura e escrita associado aos símbolos. A comunicação suplementar e alternativa foi um apoio para a oralidade, leitura e escrita dos pacientes.It is known that the speech-language treatment of patients with severe aphasia is limited. Sometimes the absence of articulated speech is an obstacle to diagnose the aphasia. The patient with severe aphasia might not speak due to articulation inability, as it occurs in dysarthria and/or apraxia, and the absence of speech makes it difficult for speech-language pathologists to determine whether language is also impaired. The use of augmentative and alternative communication techniques has been an effective method for the rehabilitation of these patients. The aim of this study was to describe the use of the augmentative and alternative communication in therapy associated with other modalities of language (written language, gestures, based on the report of two cases of aphasia. Data analysis had two parts: introduction of augmentative and alternative communication in dialogue; and use of reading and writing associated with symbols. The augmentative and alternative communication supported oral language, reading and writing of the

  1. Confronting an augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna,; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and suggest that they be used as drivers for research into effective educational applications of augmented reality. We discuss how multi-modal, sensorial...

  2. Protein radioiodination in a radioassay laboratory: evaluation of commercial Na125I reagents and related biohazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three commercial Na125I solutions (Amersham, New England Nuclear, and Union Carbide) have been examined with respect to multiple parameters affecting their use in the radioiodination of three representative peptides (insulin, growth hormone, and gastrin): % of radioiodine incorporation in protein; immunoreactivity and non-specific binding properties of the radiolabeled proteins; pH, volatility, and radionuclidic purity of radioiodine solutions; and vial construction with respect to multidose use. All three commercial Na125I produced radioiodinated proteins of good quality for use in radioligand assays. The radioiodines differed with respect to the amount of iodine released during initial vial opening as a consequence of different pH levels. Two of the three products were shipped in vials with poor construction with respect to multidose use. Selection of a radioiodine was therefore reduced to the secondary considerations of iodine volatility and vial construction. The volatilized radioiodine observed during the spill of millicuries quantities of unbuffered pH 7.5 Na125I was 14 microcuries per millicurie within the first 30 minutes. One thickness of rubber gloves reduced potential skin contamination from an accidental spill to insignificant levels: 20-30 picocuries per microcurie. Common good housekeeping procedures: i.e. rubber gloves, laboratory coat and a fume hood were found to be sufficient protection to eliminate most radioiodine volatility and contamination hazards associated with protein radiolabeling procedures

  3. Dosimetrically determined doses of radioiodine for the treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nostrand, Douglas; Atkins, Frank; Yeganeh, Fred; Acio, Elmo; Bursaw, Randy; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2002-02-01

    In the absence of definitive studies relating radioiodine dose to outcomes, selection of a dose of radioiodine to treat metastatic thyroid carcinoma is problematic, and several approaches have been used. These include empiric fixed doses and doses used on dosimetric approaches specific for each patient. This paper is a review of the rationale and technique for dosimetrically-determined doses of radioiodine for the treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma. This review (1) discusses the alternatives for selection of a dose, (2) discusses the two major approaches for determining radioiodine doses dosimetrically, (3) briefly reviews several modifications of these approaches, (4) reviews the literature regarding the results, (5) discusses the side effects of these different approaches, and (6) concludes with recommendations for patient management and future research. This review does not address use of dosimetrically-determined doses of radioiodine for the initial ablation of thyroid tissue postoperatively.

  4. Adaptive Augmented Reality: Plasticity of Augmentations

    OpenAIRE

    Ghouaiel, Nehla; Cieutat, Jean-Marc; Jessel, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    International audience An augmented reality system is used to complete the real world with virtual objects (computer generated) so they seem to coexist in the same space as the real world. The concept of plasticity [4][5] was first introduced for Human Computer Interaction (HCI). It denotes the ability of an HCI interface to fit the context of use defined by the user, the environment and the platform. We believe that plasticity is a very important notion in the domain of augmented reality....

  5. Radioiodine treatment of feline hyperthyroidism in Germany; Radioiodtherapie bei Katzen mit Hyperthyreose in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puille, M.; Bauer, R. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Justus-Liebig-Univ. Giessen (Germany); Knietsch, M.; Spillmann, T.; Gruenbaum, E.G. [Medizinische und Gerichtliche Veterinaerklinik I, Innere Krankheiten der Kleintiere der Justus-Liebig-Univ. Giessen (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Aim: Establishment of radioiodine treatment of feline hyperthyroidism in veterinary routine in accordance with German radiation protection regulations. Patients and methods: 35 cats with proven hyperthyroidism were treated with {sup 131}I in a special ward. Thyroid uptake and effective halflife were determined using gammacamera dosimetry. Patients were released when measured whole body activity was below the limit defined in the German ''Strahlenschutzverordnung''. Results: 17/20 cats treated with 150 MBq radioiodine and 15/15 cats treated with 250 MBq had normal thyroid function after therapy, normal values for FT{sub 3} and FT{sub 4} were reached after two and normal TSH levels after three weeks. In 14 cats normal thyroid function was confirmed by controls 3-6 months later. Thyroidal iodine uptake was 24 {+-} 10%, effective halflife 2.5 {+-} 0.7 days. Whole body activity <1 MBq was reached 13 {+-} 4 days after application of {sup 131}I. Radiation exposure of cat owners was estimated as 1.97 {mu}Sv/MBq for adults. Conclusion: Radioiodine therapy of feline hyperthyroidism is highly effective and safe. It can easily be performed in accordance with German radiation protection regulations, although this requires hospitalisation for approximately two weeks. Practical considerations on radiation exposure of cat owners do not justify this long interval. Regulations for the veterinary use of radioactive substances similar to existing regulations for medical use in humans are highly desirable. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Etablierung der Radioiodtherapie als veterinaermedizinische Routinetherapie der felinen Hyperthyreose in Uebereinstimmung mit der deutschen Strahlenschutzverordnung. Patienten und Methoden: 35 Katzen mit gesicherter Hyperthyreose wurden in einen Kontrollbereich stationaer mit Iod-131 behandelt. Uptake und effektive Halbwertszeit wurden mittels Kameradosimetrie ermittelt. Der Behandlungserfolg wurde labor-chemisch geprueft. Die Entlassung

  6. The false-positive radioiodine I-131 uptake in the foreign body granuloma located in gluteal adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of using a whole-body scanning after the radioactive I-131 treatment is to screen functional residual or metastatic thyroid tissues. In whole-body scanning of some patients, false positive radioiodine I-131 uptakes may be seen in physiological uptake regions or atypical localizations. A 54 year-old woman underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. A positive appearance seen in the upper postero-lateral part of the right gluteal region was determined by a post-therapy I-131 whole body scan. The colour Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging features and histopathological characteristics of the excised lesion were presented. The lesion was demonstrated to be a foreign body granuloma. Unexpected positive findings in the post-therapy I-131 whole body scan should be confirmed with other imaging modalities in order to avoid unnecessary treatments. In uncertain situations, the diagnosis should be established histopathologically

  7. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  8. Augmented Spinor Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuhong FENG; Lin ZHU; Yanlin YU

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, based on the Pauli matrices, a notion of augmented spinor space is introduced, and a uniqueness of such augmented spinor space of rank n is proved. It may be expected that this new notion of spaces can be used in mathematical physics and geometry.

  9. The deposition of radioiodine onto rice plant from atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dose estimations are usually made with the aid of assessment models in which model parameters such as the transfer factors of radionuclides from one environmental compartment to another are involved. In simple models the parameters are often described as the concentration ratio of a radionuclide between two compartments, when the system is under equilibrium condition. In this paper, the authors introduce the values of the parameters of radioiodine obtained by tracer experiments. Laboratory experiments on the transfer parameters of radionuclides from the atmosphere to rice plant were carried out in the atmosphere-to-crops system (deposition pathway). It is known that the typical chemical species of gaseous iodine in the atmosphere are elemental iodine (I2) and methyliodide (CH3I). The deposition characteristics of both chemical species of gaseous iodine to rice grains were obtained. Mass normalized deposition velocity (VD) and grain number normalized deposition velocity (VS) of gaseous elemental iodine (I2) and also methyliodide (CH3I) on unhulled rice were measured. Both VD and VS of methyliodide were about one percent of those of elemental iodine. Distribution pattern of methyliodide between unhulled rice and brown rice was significantly lower than that of elemental one. For wet deposition, we investigated the retention of radioiodines (iodide [I-] and iodate [IO3-] on rice grains and their translocation from the surface of the grains to brown rice. Though the ears were dipped into the solution containing 125I- or 125IO3- more than 15 min., both iodine species in the solutions were hardly taken up to the rice grains. The transfer rates of iodide and iodate, which are defined as 'the amount of the iodine in brown rice' divided by 'the amount of iodide in unhulled rice' were about 0.015 and 0.04, respectively. The rates were not changed with time after the radioiodine application. (author)

  10. Comparison of radioiodine biokinetics following the administration of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and after thyroid hormone withdrawal in thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luster, Markus; Lassmann, Michael; Haenscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sherman, Steven I. [Section of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Skarulis, Monica C. [Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Reynolds, James R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warren Grant Magnusen Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Iodine kinetics were studied in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer while euthyroid under exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and while hypothyroid to detect differences in radioiodine uptake, distribution and elimination. Nine patients with total or near-total thyroidectomy on thyroid hormone suppressive therapy received two or three daily doses of 0.9 mg recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) followed by administration of a diagnostic activity of 2 mCi (74 MBq) iodine-131. After the biokinetics assessments had been performed, patients stopped taking thyroid hormones to become hypothyroid. A second 2 mCi (74 MBq) diagnostic activity of {sup 131}I was administered, followed by a second set of biokinetics assessments. One week later the patients underwent remnant ablation with a therapeutic activity of {sup 131}I. A comparison of the {sup 131}I kinetics in the patients while euthyroid and while hypothyroid showed major differences in the doses to the remnant as well as in residence times and radiation exposure to the blood. In the first diagnostic assessment the remnant dose was higher in eight of the nine patients and clearance of the activity from the blood was faster in all of them. The data from this study suggest that radioiodine administration is potent and safe when administered to euthyroid patients following rhTSH administration. Enhanced residence time in the remnant and decreased radiation exposure to the blood were noted when patients were euthyroid compared to when they were rendered hypothyroid. However, all patients received diagnostic activities in the same order: first while euthyroid, followed by hypothyroidism. It is quite possible that ''stunning'' from the radioiodine administered in the initial uptake study inhibited the subsequent uptake of radioiodine by the remnant lesions in the second uptake study. (orig.)

  11. C16-Ceramide Analog Combined with Pc 4 Photodynamic Therapy Evokes Enhanced Total Ceramide Accumulation, Promotion of DEVDase Activation in the Absence of Apoptosis, and Augmented Overall Cell Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duska Separovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the failure of single modality approaches, combination therapy for cancer treatment is a promising alternative. Sphingolipid analogs, with or without anticancer drugs, can improve tumor response. C16-pyridinium ceramide analog LCL30, was used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT, an anticancer treatment modality, to test the hypothesis that the combined treatment will trigger changes in the sphingolipid profile and promote cell death. Using SCCVII mouse squamous carcinoma cells, and the silicone phthalocyanine Pc 4 for PDT, we showed that combining PDT with LCL30 (PDT/LCL30 was more effective than individual treatments in raising global ceramide levels, as well as in reducing dihydrosphingosine levels. Unlike LCL30, PDT, alone or combined, increased total dihydroceramide levels. Sphingosine levels were unaffected by LCL30, but were abolished after PDT or the combination. LCL30-triggered rise in sphingosine-1-phosphate was reversed post-PDT or the combination. DEVDase activation was evoked after PDT or LCL30, and was promoted post- PDT/LCL30. Neither mitochondrial depolarization nor apoptosis were observed after any of the treatments. Notably, treatment with the combination resulted in augmented overall cell killing. Our data demonstrate that treatment with PDT/LCL30 leads to enhanced global ceramide levels and DEVDase activation in the absence of apoptosis, and promotion of total cell killing.

  12. METASTATIC RADIOIODINE AVID STRUMA OVARII ASSOCIATED WITH PSEUDO-MEIGS' SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Saima; Bashir, Humayun; Hassan, Aamna; Syed, Aamir Ali; Hussain, Mudassar; Imtiaz, Saba

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of 21 years old lady who presented with ascites, left adnexal mass and elevated CA-125. With suspicion of ovarian malignancy, she underwent left salpingo-oophorectomy with omental biopsy. Histopathology revealed: 'follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in struma ovarii' with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in omental and peritoneal nodules. Patient underwent total thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine therapy for metastatic omental and peritoneal disease. Post-therapy whole body scan, revealed extensive I-131 avid disease metastatic disease involving the chest, abdomen, pelvis and the musculoskeletal system. Patient was treated with multiple doses of high dose radioactive iodine. She became symptom free on supra-physiologic doses of oral thyroxin however her high thyroglobulin levels and residual radioiodine avid metastatic disease required further treatment. In literature a few cases of struma ovarii have been reported with elevated CA-125 and associated pseudo-Meigs' syndrome. The treatment for this rare disease is still not standardized and poses a therapeutic challenge. Our case emphasizes the need for a multidisciplinary approach for managing struma ovarii. PMID:26721055

  13. Augmented reality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries. PMID:22559183

  14. Augmented reality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries.

  15. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-11-01

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

  16. Nonradiometric and radiometric testing of radioiodine sorbents using methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonradiometric test of adsorbents and adsorbers with normal methyl iodide (CH3127I) is desirable. Use of methyl radioiodide (CH3131I) requires special precautions and facilities and results in bed contamination. However, first it must be established to what extent the removal of CH3127I by adsorbents is indicative of the removal of CH3131I. An experimental apparatus was built and used to simultaneously measure the penetrations of CH3I molecules and the radioisotope in CH3131I through charcoal absorbent beds. Gas chromatography with electron capture detection was used to measure CH3I. Radioiodine was measured using charcoal traps within NaI scintillation well crystals. Real time (5-min interval) radioiodine measurement provided immediate penetration results directly comparable to the real time penetrations of methyl iodide. These penetrations were compared for typical charcoal adsorbents with these impregnants: (a) 5% KI3, (b) 5% KI3 + 2% TEDA, (c) 5% TEDA, and (d) metal salts (Whetlerite). Differences between CH3I and CH3131I penetrations observed for the two iodized charcoals were attributed to isotope exchange reactions. Equivalent penetrations were observed for non-iodized adsorbents and for iodized ones at initial time. First order rates were confirmed for reactions with TEDA and for isotope exchange. This was one more confirmation of the lack of a challenge concentration effect on efficiencies at low test bed loadings. In addition to other removal mechanisms, reversible physical adsorption was observed with all charcoals

  17. Testicular function in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) can affect endocrine testicular function. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) concentrations were measured in 103 patients periodically submitted for radioiodine therapy for residual or metastatic disease. Mean follow-up was 93.7±54 mo (range 10-243 mo). Mean FSH values in 131I-treated patients tested after their last treatment were 15.3±9.9 mU/ml, significantly higher than those of 19 untreated patients (6.5±3.1 mU/ml). Considering the mean +3 s.d. FSH of untreated subjects as the upper limit of normal range, 36.8% of the patients had an abnormal increase in serum FSH. Longitudinal analysis performed in 21 patients showed that the behavior of FSH in response to 131I therapy was not universal. Six patients had no change or a slight increase in serum FSH after 131I administration; eleven patients had a transient increase above normal values 6-12 mo after 131I treatment, with return to normal levels in subsequent months. The administration of a second dose was followed by a similar increase in FSH levels. Finally, four patients, followed for a long period of time and treated with several 131I doses, showed a progressive increase in serum FSH, which eventually became permanent. Semen analysis, performed in a small subgroup of patients, showed a consistent reduction in the number of normokinetic sperm. No change was found in serum T levels between treated and untreated patients. The results indicate that 131I therapy for thyroid carcinoma is associated with transient impairment of testicular germinal cell function. The damage may become permanent for high-radiation activities delivered year after year and might pose a significant risk of infertility. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Impact of long-term use of eHealth systems in adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated with sensor-augmented pump therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaffini, R; Tagliente, I; Carducci, C; Ullmann, N; Ciampalini, P; Lorubbio, A; Cappa, M

    2016-07-01

    Telemedicine in diabetes includes telemonitoring and transmission of important data (self monitoring of blood glucose data, insulin therapy, pump setting, etc.) from the patient s home to the diabetic unit, with a real-time health feedback. Moreover, an eHealth approach is thought to facilitate diabetes management and to improve compliance to CSII/SAP treatment in adolescents, but to date, limited literature related to this topic is available and long-term studies are still lacking. The main aim of this study was to compare the long-term effect on glycometabolic control of eHealth intervention and traditional care in T1DM SAP-treated adolescents. In our study we demonstrated a favorable impact of monthly teleassistance on treatment compliance. Adolescents receiving frequent feedback provided by the medicalmultidisciplinary team, due to the telemonitoring, resulted more compliant in self-management of diabetes. In particular, the medical team feedback resulted in interventions on behavioral errors and insulin therapy adjustments, leading to an improved glycometabolic control. PMID:26289613

  19. Marketing and Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Zelený, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this diploma thesis is to identify the usage of augmented reality in contemporary marketing practice and the expectations of marketers for the future use. This will be achieved by conducting a quantitative and qualitative research among existing creative and advertising companies. Secondary goal is introducing the concept of augmented reality from the theoretical point of view and also description of potential utilization based on known examples. The tools for the practical p...

  20. Interactive augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    Moret Gabarró, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Projecte final de carrera realitzat en col.laboració amb el Royal Institute of Technology Augmented reality can provide a new experience to users by adding virtual objects where they are relevant in the real world. The new generation of mobile phones offers a platform to develop augmented reality application for industry as well as for the general public. Although some applications are reaching commercial viability, the technology is still limited. The main problem designers have to face w...

  1. Confronting an augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hedberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and suggest that they be used as drivers for research into effective educational applications of augmented reality. We discuss how multi-modal, sensorial augmentation of reality links to existing theories of education and learning, focusing on ideas of cognitive dissonance and the confrontation of new realities implied by exposure to new and varied perspectives. We also discuss connections with broader debates brought on by the social and cultural changes wrought by the increased digitalisation of our lives, especially the concept of the extended mind. Rather than offer a prescription for augmentation, our intention is to throw open debate and to provoke deep thinking about what interacting with and creating an augmented reality might mean for both teacher and learner.

  2. The effect of short-chain fatty acids butyrate, propionate, and acetate on urothelial cell kinetics in vitro: potential therapy in augmentation cystoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, J P; Featherstone, J M; Solomon, L Z; Crook, T J; Cooper, A J; Malone, P S

    2005-07-01

    The intestinal element of enterocystoplasty is affected by chronic inflammatory changes, which lead to excess mucus production, urinary tract infections, and stone formation. There is also an increased risk of malignancy. These inflammatory changes may be due to diversion colitis, which affects colonic segments excluded from the faecal stream and likewise may respond to intraluminal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) therapy. The SCFAs have interesting antiproliferative, differentiating, and pro-apoptotic effects, which are protective against colorectal cancer and may influence the risk of malignancy in enterocystoplasty. Before intravesical therapy can be considered, the effect on normal urothelium must be investigated. Primary urothelial cells cultured from biopsy specimens and transformed urothelial (RT112 and MGH-U1) and intestinal cell lines (HT29 and CaCo-2) were incubated with SCFAs. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to measure the residual viable biomass to assess cell proliferation. Proliferation of primary and transformed urothelial cells in culture was inhibited by all SCFAs in a similar time- and dose-dependent manner. The concentration of SCFA required to inhibit growth of primary cells by 50% (IC50) was 20 mM of butyrate, 120 mM of propionate, and 240 mM of acetate after incubation for 1 h. After 72 h the IC50 was 2 mM of butyrate, 4 mM of propionate, and 20 mM of acetate. Transformed urothelial and colon cancer cell lines demonstrated similar growth inhibition. Butyrate was the most potent inhibitor of cell proliferation, followed by propionate and then acetate. Growth inhibition is not an immediate cytotoxic effect, and urothelial cells show a degree of adaptation to butyrate and growth recovery after incubation with butyrate. In conclusion, butyrate- and propionate-induced growth inhibition is potentially clinically significant and may have therapeutically beneficial implications in vivo. PMID:15864601

  3. An alternative and expedient synthesis of radioiodinated 4-iodophenylalanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan, E-mail: ganesan.v@duke.edu [Department of Radiology, Box 3808, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); McDougald, Darryl; Grasfeder, Linda; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Chin, Bennett [Department of Radiology, Box 3808, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Radiolabeled amino acids have been used extensively in oncology both as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In our pursuit to develop radiopharmaceuticals to target breast cancer, we were interested in determining the uptake of radioiodinated 4-iodophenylalanine, among other labeled amino acids, in breast cancer cells. In this work, we have developed an alternative method for the synthesis of this agent. The novel tin precursor, (S)-tert-butyl 2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)-3-(4-(tributylstannyl)phenyl)propanoate (3) was synthesized from the known, corresponding iodo derivative. Initially, the labeled 4-iodophenylalanine was synthesized from the above tin precursor in two steps with radiochemical yields of 91.6{+-}2.7% and 83.7{+-}1.7% (n=5), for the radioiodination (first) and deprotection (second) step, respectively. Subsequently, it was synthesized in a single step with an average radiochemical yield of 94.8{+-}3.4% (n=5). After incubation with MCF-7 breast cancer cells for 60 min, an uptake of up to 49.0{+-}0.7% of the input dose was seen; in comparison, the uptake of [{sup 14}C]phenylalanine under the same conditions was 55.9{+-}0.5%. Furthermore, the uptake of both tracers was inhibited to a similar degree in a concentration-dependent manner by both unlabeled phenylalanine and 4-iodophenylalanine. With [{sup 14}C]phenylalanine as the tracer, IC{sub 50} values of 1.45 and 2.50 mM were obtained for Phe and I-Phe, respectively, and these values for [{sup 125}I]I-Phe inhibition were 1.3 and 1.0 mM. In conclusion, an improved and convenient method for the synthesis of no-carrier-added 4-[{sup *}I]phenylalanine was developed and the radiotracer prepared by this route demonstrated an amino acid transporter-mediated uptake in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro that was comparable to that of [{sup 14}C]phenylalanine. - Highlights: > A new method to synthesize radioiodinated 4-iodophenylalanine. > Acid-labile protecting groups containing tin precursor. > Efficient removal

  4. Production and radioiodination of monoclonal antibodies and its applications in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis of the monoclonal antibody production methodology, some immunological concepts which are important for the understanding of what is a Monoclonal Antibody, its radioiodination and acceptance as receptor-specific radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine are reviewed. (author)

  5. Bilateral breast uptake of radioiodine in a male patient with gynecomastia: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 56-year-old male patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma was given radioiodine for the treatment of persistent disease. Post radioiodine whole body scan revealed uptake at the thyroidal region and bilateral uptake at the upper thoracic region. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) confirmed uptake at the left thyroid lobe, and additional symmetrical mammary gland uptake was observed at both breasts. The patient had obesity-related gynecomastia, but he did not have any history of breast cancer, mastitis, hyperprolactinemia, or galactorrhea. Although breast uptake of radioiodine is a common finding in postpartum or lactating women, it is uncommon in male patients. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a male patient with breast uptake of radioiodine documented with SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT is useful in male patients in the differentiation of benign breast uptake with lung metastases or axillary metastases of thyroid cancer

  6. Characterization and restoration of performance of {open_quotes}aged{close_quotes} radioiodine removing activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, W.P. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The degradation of radioiodine removal performance for impregnated activated carbons because of ageing is well established. However, the causes for this degradation remain unclear. One theory is that this reduction in performance from the ageing process results from an oxidation of the surface of the carbon. Radioiodine removing activated carbons that failed radioiodine removal tests showed an oxidized surface that had become hydrophilic compared with new carbons. We attempted to restore the performance of these {open_quotes}failed{close_quotes} carbons with a combination of thermal and chemical treatment. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed with the view of extending the life of radioiodine removing activated carbons. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Resonance frequency analysis of implant stability in augmented and non-augmented sinus sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Moeintaghavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim:  Although there have been substantial developments in dental implant therapies, achieving good implant stability (ISQ >60 for implants inserted in augmented sinus sites appears to be challenging in comparison with non-augmented sites due to the high prevalence of bone resorption in posterior regions of maxilla. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the time required to achieve good implant stability between implants inserted in sites that had undergone a sinus augmentation procedure with implants inserted in non-augmented similar regions of maxilla. Methods: Thirty Stroman ITI Dental Implants were inserted in 14 patients (8 females and 6 males with average age of 55 ± 10 years. Fourteen implants were inserted in sinus augmented sites (open sinus elevation and Demineralized Freezed Bone Allograft  or DFDBA 6 months after healing (test group, and 16 implants were inserted into non-augmented  posterior areas of maxilla (control group. The implant stability quotient (ISQ for each implant was measured at the time of insertion (baseline, ISQ0 and at 1, 2 and 3 months later (ISQ1, ISQ2, ISQ3. Residual and augmented bone heights were also recorded. Results: The average residual bone height was 2.92 ± 0.63mm and 10.41 ± 1.46mm for the augmented bone height. The difference between ISQ values in the test and control groups was only significant at the baseline (p=0.023. No significant correlation was found between ISQ and bone height (residual and augmented, and there was no significant correlation between ISQ values and the implant diameter and length. In the test group, the differences between ISQ0 and ISQ1, ISQ1 and ISQ3 and ISQ2 and ISQ3 were all statistically significant (p=0.006, p=0.032, p=0.046. In the control group, the difference was only significant between ISQ0 and ISQ1 (p=0.002. Conclusion:  ISQ values were not statistically significant between implants inserted in natural and augmented bone six months after sinus

  8. Tailored Nanoparticle Codelivery of antimiR-21 and antimiR-10b Augments Glioblastoma Cell Kill by Temozolomide: Toward a "Personalized" Anti-microRNA Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananta, Jeyarama S; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Massoud, Tarik F

    2016-09-01

    Glioblastoma remains an aggressive brain malignancy with poor prognosis despite advances in multimodal therapy that include standard use of Temozolomide. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) and microRNA-10b (miR-10b) are oncomiRs overexpressed in glioblastoma, promoting many aspects of cancer biology. We hypothesized that PLGA nanoparticles carrying antisense miR-21 (antimiR-21) and antisense miR-10b (antimiR-10b) might beneficially knockdown endogenous miR-21 and miR-10b function and reprogram cells prior to Temozolomide treatment. PLGA nanoparticles were effective in intracellular delivery of encapsulated oligonucleotides. Concentrations of delivered antimiR-21 and antimiR-10b were optimized and specifically tailored to copy numbers of intracellular endogenous microRNAs. Coinhibition of miR-21 and miR-10b significantly reduced the number of viable cells (by 24%; p < 0.01) and increased (2.9-fold) cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase upon Temozolomide treatment in U87 MG cells. Cell-tailored nanoparticle-assisted concurrent silencing of miR-21 and miR-10b prior to Temozolomide treatment is an effective molecular therapeutic strategy in cell culture, warranting the need for further studies prior to future in vivo "personalized" medicine applications.

  9. Evil radioactivity. Subjective perception of radioactivity in patients with thyroid disease prior to treatment with radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, L.S. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Radiologisch-Nuklearmedizinische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Grevenbroich (Germany); Beyer, T.; Mueller, S.P.; Goerges, R.; Bockisch, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Hopfenbach, A. [Radiologisch-Nuklearmedizinische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Grevenbroich (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Aim: We assess the perspective of patients with thyroid disease towards radiation and radioactivity by means of a cultural-anthropological approach based on qualitative measures and quantitative scores. From the interviews with the patients we evaluate as to how much radioactivity is accepted as an abstract term or as a benefit within the medical context. Patients, methods: 68 patients with autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (35 women, 33 men, 32-81 years) were included in this study. All patients were interviewed in an open dialogue with the principal investigator. Patients were asked to describe their attitude towards radioactivity in general and towards radioiodine therapy in particular. Patients were asked to use a scoring system (1=positive, 5=negative) to quantify their attitudes. Results: The responses of all patients towards radioactivity in general were heterogeneous with most responses reflecting a negative perception. Many patients expressed their associated fears about atomic energy, malignant diseases and radioactive contamination. The scoring system reflected a mostly negative opinion base. However, patients became more positive once they assumed an immediate benefit of radioactivity for the treatment of their own disease (p=0.01). Conclusions: Knowing about significant differences in patient's perception about radioactivity in general or in the clinical context may help to optimise and tailor the initial, pre-therapeutical interview towards the patient. (orig.)

  10. Toxoplasma gondii: demonstration of intrinsic peroxidase activity during lacto-peroxidase mediated radioiodination of tachyzoites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallois, Y.; Tricaud, A.; Foussard, F.; Hodbert, J.; Girault, A.; Mauras, G.; Dubremetz, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii have been radioiodinated under various conditions with or without lactoperoxidase, with glucose oxidase being used to generate hydrogen peroxide. Erythrocytes were iodinated simultaneously as a control. In our conditions, tachyzoites were more intensely labelled in the absence of lactoperoxidase. This result can be explained by the existence of an intrinsic peroxidase activity which interfere with the exogenously added enzyme during surface radioiodination.

  11. Augmenting computer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three methods of augmenting computer networks by adding at most one link per processor are discussed: (1) A tree of N nodes may be augmented such that the resulting graph has diameter no greater than 4log sub 2((N+2)/3)-2. Thi O(N(3)) algorithm can be applied to any spanning tree of a connected graph to reduce the diameter of that graph to O(log N); (2) Given a binary tree T and a chain C of N nodes each, C may be augmented to produce C so that T is a subgraph of C. This algorithm is O(N) and may be used to produce augmented chains or rings that have diameter no greater than 2log sub 2((N+2)/3) and are planar; (3) Any rectangular two-dimensional 4 (8) nearest neighbor array of size N = 2(k) may be augmented so that it can emulate a single step shuffle-exchange network of size N/2 in 3(t) time steps.

  12. Selective mono-radioiodination and characterization of a cell-penetrating peptide. L-Tyr-maurocalcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Mitra; Bacot, Sandrine; Perret, Pascale; Riou, Laurent; Ghezzi, Catherine [Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); INSERM U1039, Grenoble (France). Radiopharmaceutiques Biocliniques; Poillot, Cathy; Cestele, Sandrine [INSERM U836, Grenoble (France). Grenoble Inst. of Neuroscience; Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Desruet, Marie-Dominique [INSERM U1039, Grenoble (France). Radiopharmaceutiques Biocliniques; Couvet, Morgane; Bourgoin, Sandrine; Seve, Michel [CRI-INSERM U823, Grenoble (France). Inst. of Albert Bonniot; Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Waard, Michel de [INSERM U836, Grenoble (France). Grenoble Inst. of Neuroscience; Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Smartox Biotechnologies, Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-01

    Mono-and poly-iodinated peptides form frequently during radioiodination procedures. However, the formation of a single species in its mono-iodinated form is essential for quantitative studies such as determination of tissue concentration or image quantification. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to define the optimal experimental conditions in order to exclusively obtain the mono-iodinated form of L-maurocalcine (L-MCa). L-MCa is an animal venom toxin which was shown to act as a cell-penetrating peptide. In order to apply the current direct radioiodination technique using oxidative agents including chloramine T, Iodo-Gen {sup registered} or lactoperoxidase, an analogue of this peptide containing a tyrosine residue (Tyr-L-MCa) was synthesized and was shown to fold/oxidize properly. The enzymatic approach using lactoperoxidase/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was found to be the best method for radioiodination of Tyr-L-MCa. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses were then used for identification of the chromatographic eluting components of the reaction mixtures. We observed that the production of different radioiodinated species depended upon the reaction conditions. Our results successfully described the experimental conditions of peptide radioiodination allowing the exclusive production of the mono-iodinated form with high radiochemical purity and without the need for a purification step. Mono-radioiodination of L-Tyr-MCa will be crucial for future quantitative studies, investigating the mechanism of cell penetration and in vivo biodistribution.

  13. Selective mono-radioiodination and characterization of a cell-penetrating peptide. L-Tyr-maurocalcine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mono-and poly-iodinated peptides form frequently during radioiodination procedures. However, the formation of a single species in its mono-iodinated form is essential for quantitative studies such as determination of tissue concentration or image quantification. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to define the optimal experimental conditions in order to exclusively obtain the mono-iodinated form of L-maurocalcine (L-MCa). L-MCa is an animal venom toxin which was shown to act as a cell-penetrating peptide. In order to apply the current direct radioiodination technique using oxidative agents including chloramine T, Iodo-Gen registered or lactoperoxidase, an analogue of this peptide containing a tyrosine residue (Tyr-L-MCa) was synthesized and was shown to fold/oxidize properly. The enzymatic approach using lactoperoxidase/H2O2 was found to be the best method for radioiodination of Tyr-L-MCa. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses were then used for identification of the chromatographic eluting components of the reaction mixtures. We observed that the production of different radioiodinated species depended upon the reaction conditions. Our results successfully described the experimental conditions of peptide radioiodination allowing the exclusive production of the mono-iodinated form with high radiochemical purity and without the need for a purification step. Mono-radioiodination of L-Tyr-MCa will be crucial for future quantitative studies, investigating the mechanism of cell penetration and in vivo biodistribution.

  14. Everything Augmented: On the Real in Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Schraffenberger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available What is augmented in Augmented Reality (AR? In this paper, we review existing opinions and show how little consensus exists on this matter. Subsequently, we approach the question from a theoretical and technology-independent perspective. We identify spatial and content-based relationships between the virtual and the real as being decisive for AR and come to the conclusion that virtual content augments that to which it relates. Subsequently, we categorize different forms of AR based on what is augmented. We distinguish between augmented environments, augmented objects, augmented humans and augmented content and consider the possibility of augmented perception. The categories are illustrated with AR (art works and conceptual differences between them are pointed out. Moreover, we discuss what the real contributes to AR and how it can shape (future AR experiences. A summary of our findings and suggestions for future research and practice, such as research into multimodal and crossmodal AR, conclude the paper.

  15. Augmented marked graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, King Sing

    2014-01-01

    Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume

  16. Augmented reality som wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler design og implementering af Augmented Reality (AR) i form af en wearable i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning, mere specifikt undervisning i lungeanatomi og respiration, med fokus på potentialer for visuel læring. Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR-applikat......Artiklen omhandler design og implementering af Augmented Reality (AR) i form af en wearable i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning, mere specifikt undervisning i lungeanatomi og respiration, med fokus på potentialer for visuel læring. Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR...

  17. Prototyping Augmented Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Learn to create augmented reality apps using Processing open-source programming language Augmented reality (AR) is used all over, and you may not even realize it. Smartphones overlay data onto live camera views to show homes for sale, restaurants, or historical sites. American football broadcasts use AR to show the invisible first-down line on the field to TV viewers. Nike and Budweiser, among others, have used AR in ads. Now, you can learn to create AR prototypes using 3D data, Processing open-source programming language, and other languages. This unique book is an easy-to-follow guide on how

  18. Graves' ophthalmopathy and {sup 1}31{sup I} therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcocci, C.; Bartalena, L.; Tanda, M.L.; Manetti, L.; Dell' Unto, E.; Mazzi, B.; Rocchi, R.; Barbesino, G.; Pinchera, A. [Pisa Univ. of Pisa, Pisa (Italy). Dept. of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    1999-12-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune process initiated and maintained by antigen(s) shared by the thyroid and the orbit. A matter of argument concerns the choice of the method of treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism when clinically evident ophthalmopathy is present. Restoration of euthyroidism appears to be beneficial for ophthalmopathy. On the other hand the continuing disease activity associated with the recurrence of hyperthyroidism appears to adversely affect the course of ophthalmopathy. For these reasons it is our opinion that in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy the permanent control of thyroid hyper function by ablation of thyroid tissue should be obtained by radioiodine therapy or thyroidectomy. The rationale for an ablative strategy is the following: (i) permanent control of hyperthyroidism avoids exacerbations of eye disease associated with recurrence of hyperthyroidism; (ii) hypothyroidism, which follows thyroid tissue ablation, should be regarded as a therapeutic end point rather than as an undesirable result; (iii) ablation of thyroid tissue may result in the removal of both the thyroid-orbit cross-reacting antigen(s) and the major source of thyroid-auto reactive lymphocytes. The relationship between radioiodine therapy and the course of GO is a matter of controversy, and some authors have suggested that radioiodine administration ma be associated with a worsening of preexisting ophthalmopathy. This was not observed when radioiodine treatment was associated with a 3-month oral course of prednisone. The development or progression of GO after radioiodine therapy might be due to the release of thyroid antigens following radiation injury and to subsequent exacerbations of autoimmune reactions directed towards antigens shared by the thyroid and the orbit. The view that radioiodine therapy may be associated with a progression of ophthalmopathy is not shared by some authors who claim that the apparent link between

  19. Radioiodination and preliminary biological tests of aniline-mustard and its glucuronide conjugate as a potential anticancer prodrug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniline-mustard and its glucuronide conjugate were radioiodinated with 131I. The preliminary dynamic tests were carried out on rabbits. The scintigrams showed clearly that the glucuronide conjugate of aniline-mustard was very quickly cleared from the metabolism, accumulating in the bladder in about 15 minutes. The clearance time of radioiodinated aniline-mustard-glucuronide was considerably longer (about 45 min.). The results obtained from the biodistributional studies have represented interesting differences between the metabolic details of radioiodinated compounds, and indicated that the glucuronide conjugate of aniline-mustard may be a promising radioiodinated prodrug, if verification of its selective accumulation in some kinds of tumor cells can be obtained. (author)

  20. Comparison of 18F-FDG PET/CT, 99mTc-methy-isobutyl-isonitrile(MIBI) scan and radioiodine diagnostic whole body scan with I-131 post-therapeutic whole body scan in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chung Ho; Park, Young Ha; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of 18F-FDG PET/CT and 99mTc-MIBI scan in the detection of remnant thyroid tissue, recurrence or metastasis before high dose I-131 ablation therapy. Twenty-four patients (20 female, 4 male, age=52.913.2), who received 99mTc-MIBI scan, radioiodine diagnostic whole body scan (WBS) and 18F-FDG PET/CT within a week before high dose I-131 ablation therapy from May 2004 to September 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin (Tg) and anti-thyroglobulin level were checked before administering I-123 or I-131 for diagnostic WBS. TSH level were higher than 30 mIU/L in all patients. The radioiodine diagnostic WBS, 99mTc-MIBI scan and 18F-FDG PET/CT were compared with the post-therapeutic WBS obtain 7 days after administration of I-131 (=150 mCi). Post-therapeutic WBS of 4 patients showed distant metastases, commonly in lung, all 4 were positive on 18F-FDG PET/CT, 1 on 99mTc-MIBI scan, but none of them were detectable on radioiodine diagnostic WBS. 7 patients with cervical or supraclavicular lymph node metastases on post-therapeutic WBS, 5 were positive on 18F-FDG PET/CT, 4 on radioiodine diagnostic WBS, and 3 on 99mTc-MIBI scan. 9 patients with remnant thyroid tissue only in thyroid bed, 7 were positive on radioiodine diagnostic WBS, 5 on 18F-FDG PET/CT and 3 on 99mTc-MIBI scan. One case with high Tg level (>10ng/mI) was positive only on post-therapeutic WBS scan. 3 patients with high Tg level, all of diagnostic scans and post-therapeutic scan were negative. Compared to the post-therapeutic WBS with radioiodine diagnostic WBS, 99mTc-MIBI scan, 18F-FDG PET/CT, none of the studies were perfectly matched with post-therapeutic WBS, but can compensate each other. 18F-FDG PET/CT might be helpful, when lymph node or lung metastasis is suspected. Further evaluation with larger population is necessary.

  1. [Radionuclide therapy for cancer--what's new?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Mäenpää; Mikko, Tenhunen

    2012-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy is radiation therapy, the effect of which is based on radiation damage in cancer cells. The most common radionuclide therapy for cancer is radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. Two new forms of treatment have recently been initiated in Finland: 177lutetium octreotate therapy for neuroendocrine tumors, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma as well as radioembolization (selective internal radiation therapy, SIRT) with 90yttrium-coated resin beads against liver metastases. Still in experimental use, 223radium chloride is a drug prolonging survival in prostate cancer that has metastasized to bone. The treatments require special knowledge and collaboration between several units. PMID:23210283

  2. Collaborative augmented reality environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büscher, Monika; Christensen, Michael; Grønbæk, Kaj;

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes Manufaktur, a prototype of a concept and infrastructure that goes beyond the classical CVE systems toward a collaborative augmented reality environment, where users? documents and objects appear as live representations in a 3D workspace. Manufaktur supports collaborative...

  3. Augmented Reality og kulturarv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Kirkedahl Lysholm

    2013-01-01

    Museerne står overfor at skulle omfavne den digitale kultur i håndteringen af den store mængde viden, institutionerne repræsenterer. Augmented Reality-systemer forbinder ved hjælp af moderne teknologi det virtuelle med det virkelige, og kan derfor synes som en oplagt anvendelsesmulighed i...

  4. Augmented reality som wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler design og implementering af Augmented Reality (AR) i form af en wearable i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning, mere specifikt undervisning i lungeanatomi og respiration, med fokus på potentialer for visuel læring. Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR...

  5. Collaboration in Augmented Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukosch, S.; Billinghurst, M.; Alem, L.; Kiyokawa, K.

    2015-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that allows users to view and interact in real time with virtual images seamlessly superimposed over the real world. AR systems can be used to create unique collaborative experiences. For example, co-located users can see shared 3D virtual objects that they int

  6. Radioiodine scan index: A simplified, quantitative treatment response parameter for metastatic thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jong Ryool; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Tae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine and Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    We aimed to develop and validate a simplified, novel quantification method for radioiodine whole-body scans (WBSs) as a predictor for the treatment response in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients with distant metastasis. We retrospectively reviewed serial WBSs after radioiodine treatment from 2008 to 2011 in patients with metastatic DTC. For standardization of TSH simulation, only a subset of patients whose TSH level was fully enhanced (TSH > 80 mU/l) was enrolled. The radioiodine scan index (RSI) was calculated by the ratio of tumor-to-brain uptake. We compared correlations between the RSI and TSH-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (TSH{sub sT}g) level and between the RSI and Tg reduction rate of consecutive radioiodine treatments. A total of 30 rounds of radioiodine treatment for 15 patients were eligible. Tumor histology was 11 papillary and 4 follicular subtypes. The TSH{sub sT}g level was mean 980 ng/ml (range, 0.5–11,244). The Tg reduction rate after treatment was a mean of −7 % (range, −90 %–210 %). Mean RSI was 3.02 (range, 0.40–10.97). RSI was positively correlated with the TSH{sub sT}g level (R2 = 0.3084, p = 0.001) and negatively correlated with the Tg reduction rate (R2 = 0.2993, p = 0.037). The regression equation to predict treatment response was as follows: Tg reduction rate = −14.581 × RSI + 51.183. Use of the radioiodine scan index derived from conventional WBS is feasible to reflect the serum Tg level in patients with metastatic DTC, and it may be useful for predicting the biologic treatment response after radioiodine treatment.

  7. AR DOC: Augmented reality documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality Documentaries (AR DOC) er et ’lille’ Shareplay projekt (ansøgte midler augmented reality cross media løsninger, til at skabe engagerende publikumsformidling...... indenfor oplevelsesindustrien. Projektet har genereret ny viden omkring, hvordan fysisk og digital formidling kan understøttes via Augmented Reality som formidlingsformat....

  8. Augmentation therapy for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockley, Robert A; Miravitlles, Marc; Vogelmeier, Claus

    2013-01-01

    combination of age, physiological impairment, exacerbation history and rate of decline in spirometry and other measures of emphysema may be used to improve therapeutic decision making, until a reliable predictive biomarker of the evolution of lung impairment can be identified. In addition, individual...

  9. Exposure / Ritual Prevention Therapy Boosts Antidepressant Treatment of OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIMH (99 items) Exposure / Ritual Prevention Therapy Boosts Antidepressant Treatment of OCD CBT Trumps Antipsychotic for Augmentation, ... Update A form of behavioral therapy can augment antidepressant treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) better than ...

  10. Adsorption and removal of radioiodine in the water supply by coprecipitation with iron (III) hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coprecipitation of radioiodine by iron (III) hydroxide flocculation method was studied as functions of pH and the concentrations of coexisting ions of the solutions for the removal of radioiodine on the water treatment system. The pH of the radioiodine solution included chloline water as oxidizer and iron (III) nitrate was adjusted to pH 9 to 9.5 for the precipitation of iron (III), and then readjusted to pH 4 to 6. Thus the iodate ion was absorbed by the electrostatic action on iron (III) hydroxide particle surface. The adsorption property is affected by contents of coexisting anions. Sulfate ion prevented the adsorption of iodate ion on the iron (III) hydroxide. The radioiodine removal effect at pH 6 decreased by carbonate ion, since the isoelectric point of the iron (III) hydroxide located lower pH 8.5. However, by the coexisting anions, the coagulation and settling abilities of the iron (III) hydroxide in the slightly acid solutions were improved. The removal rate of radioiodine was more than 95% at pH 3 to 4 of the solution, in which the anions of the natural river water level of Japan (SO42-, CO32-<0.4, 30 mg/l) were coexisted. (author)

  11. Simple Implant Augmentation Rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh H; Bartlett, Erica L; Kania, Katarzyna; Bae, Sang Mo

    2015-11-01

    Augmentation rhinoplasty among Asian patients is often performed to improve the height of the nasal dorsum. As the use of autogenous tissues poses certain limitations, alloplastic materials are a viable alternative with a long history of use in Asia. The superiority of one implant prosthesis over another for augmentation rhinoplasty is a matter of debate, with each material representing varying strengths and weaknesses, indications for use, and precautions to consider in nasal implant placement. An implant prosthesis should be used on a case-by-case basis. Augmentation rhinoplasty requires the consideration of specific anatomical preoperative factors, including the external nose, nasal length, nasofrontal angle, humps, and facial proportions. It is equally important to consider several operative guidelines to appropriately shape implants to minimize the occurrence of adverse effects and postoperative complications. The most common postoperative complications include infection, nasal height change, movement of implant prosthesis, and silicone implant protrusion. In addition, the surgeon should consider the current standards of Asian beauty aesthetics to better understand the patient's desired outcome. PMID:26648804

  12. Upon biodistribution and biokinetics of radioiodine-labelled diethylstilbestroldiphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodine-labelled (131I, 125I, 123I) diethylstilbestroldiphosphate (DES) was investigated with respect to measuring radio-labelled hormone derivatives in animals and men. DES was injected intravenously in Wistar rats and mammatumor-bearing mice (Carcinoma solidum simplex), and activities were measured in several organs between 10 minutes and 7 days, p.inj. The liver showed strong activity concentration and long-lasting retention, smaller concentrations were found in kidneys, adrenals, blood, abdominal wall and prostate. The tumor concentration between 10 minutes and 15 hours p.inj. was below the blood concentrations and later on up to 7 days in the order of the blood concentrations, however, always significantly exceeding muscle tissue concentrations. Respective measurements were done in men using tissue cylinders from the prostate gained by puncture-biopsy or other tissue specimens gained during surgery. Activity concentration in the liver is high, therefore the scintigraphic visualization of the liver is possible immediately after injection up to 13 days later. Potentially it is a receptor-sensitive scintigraphy of the liver. (orig.)

  13. Scintigraphic study of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of scintigraphic salivary gland dysfunction in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine. Patients were divided in two groups: null or mild dysfunction (grade I-II), moderate-severe dysfunction (grade III-IV) and statistical Mann-Whitney U test was applied. The radioiodine dose ranged between 80 and 200 mCi. Nineteen patients were found to be less affected (group 1), corresponding to grades I and II, and 11 patients were more affected (group 2), with grade III involvement. The severity of involvement of the salivary glands was not related with the dose of radioiodine used in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer and the sex of the patients had no clear influence either. Other factors are possibly related to the severity of salivary gland involvement

  14. Treatment with radioiodine of Graves' disease. Calculated activity; fixed activity or ablation. Were are we going?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new tendencies of radioiodine (131I) treatment of Graves'disease are presented . One group have the objective of administrate an activity of radioiodine to bring back the patient to euthyroidism , using individual activities to each patient. Others propose a fixed dose, with high activity to cure the disease and anticipating the hypothyroidism of the patient. The third group propose directly the ablation of the thyroids with a calculated activity to deliver 300 Gy .This calculi demand the investigation of the maximum uptake of radioiodine, the biological half life, and the thyroid weight with adequate method (US, TC, MR) Finally, the dose to not thyroid tissues are discussed and the risk of these procedures are presented. (author)

  15. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis in Infants and Children: Protection from Radioiodines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Fisher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium iodide (KI is recommended as an emergency treatment for exposure to radioiodines, most commonly associated with nuclear detonation or mishaps at nuclear power plants. Protecting the thyroid gland of infants and children remains a priority because of increased incidence of thyroid cancer in the young exposed to radioiodines (such as 131I and 133I. There is a lack of clinical studies for KI and radioiodines in children or infants to draw definitive conclusions about the effectiveness and safety of KI administration in the young. In this paper, we compare functional aspects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis in the young and adults and review the limited studies of KI in children. The HPT axis in the infant and child is hyperactive and therefore will respond less effectively to KI treatment compared to adults. Research on the safety and efficacy of KI in infants and children is needed.

  16. Therapy with radionuclides. Radionuklid-Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.L. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin)

    1992-12-01

    Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases is a well-established procedure in Nuclear Medicine. However, the therapeutic use of radioisotopes in other diseases is relatively unknown among our refering physicians. The therapeutic effects of intraarticular (rheumatoid arthritis) and intracavitary (pleural and peritoneal carcinosis) applications yields good results. The radiophosphorus therapy in polycythemia vera rubra has always to be considered as an alternative to chemotherapy. The use of analgetics may be reduced by pain therapy of bone metastasis by injection of bone-seeking beta emitters like Rh-186 HEDP. Other procedures like therapeutic application of meta-iodo-benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma resulted in at least remissions of the disease. Radioimmunotherapy needs further evaluation before it can be recommended as a routine procedure. (orig.).

  17. Radioiodination of recombinant human growth hormone and its use in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) of human growth hormone (hGH) using 125I-labelled tracer prepared from DNA recombinant hGH (r-hGH) and characterization of the tracer in the assay system are described. The radioiodination of r-hGH resulted in high yield of immunoreactive tracer. The immunoreactive fraction could be purified by gel-filtration on sephadex G-75. The quality of radioiodinated tracer of r-hGH has been found to be same as that of the tracer obtained from pituitary hGH (p-hGH) with respect to immunoreactivity, assay sensitivity and RIA standard curve parameters. (author)

  18. Synthesis, radioiodination, and biodistribution of some nido- and closo-monocarbon carborane derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodination and radioiodination reactions of several anionic nido- and closo-monocarbon carboranes were conducted. Iodinations occurred more rapidly with nido-carboranes than with closo-carboranes. The most rapid iodination and radioiodination reactions occurred with unsubstituted carboranes. C-amino and C-ammonium derivatives did not iodinate under the conditions studied. Both nido- and closo-carboranes with C-NH-acetyl and C-NH-succinyl substituents iodinated, but the nido-carboranes iodinated under milder reaction conditions. Biodistributions of nido-1-succinylamido-[131I]carborane and closo-1-succinylamido-[125I]carborane were similar in mice, but blood clearance of the nido- compound was slower

  19. Augmenting Clozapine With Sertindole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Emborg, Charlotte; Gydesen, Susanne;

    2012-01-01

    randomized 1:1 to either sertindole 16 mg or placebo, and assessment was done at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks. Assessment included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression, Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser, World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief, Drug Attitude...... Inventory, fasting glucose, lipids, and electrocardiogram. Clozapine augmentation with sertindole was not superior to placebo regarding total score or subscale score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression, World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief, or Drug Attitude...

  20. Augmented exercise biking with virtual environments for elderly users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Pedersen, Kasper Søndergaard; Serafin, Stefania;

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to function well as an assistive technology to physical therapy for elderly users. Elderly users are a unique user group in this field, due to their characteristics and demands. They are also a user group that can definitely benefit from VR technology, which...... routine. The results showed that a majority of subjects reported to support the VE augmentation and preferred the VE based exercise experience to the conventional exercise. This supports VR as an assisting technology for physical therapy, and suggests the potentiality VE augmented exercises, tailored...

  1. Direct and indirect radioiodination of protein: comparative study of chemotactic peptide labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of simple methods for protein radioiodination have stimulated the use of radioiodinated peptides in vivo. There are two basic methods for labeling proteins with radioiodine: direct labeling, reaction of an electrophilic radioiodine with functional activated groups on protein, like the phenol ring in the tyrosine residue, and the conjugation of a previously radioiodinated molecule to the protein, referred as indirect method. The great problem related to the direct radioiodination of proteins is the in vivo dehalogenation. This problem can be minimized if a non-phenolic prosthetic group is used in the indirect radioiodination of the peptide. The ATE prosthetic group, N-succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate, when radioiodinated by electrophilic iododestannilation produces N-succinimidyl 3-[123l/131l] iodine benzoate (SIB) that is subsequently conjugated to the protein by the acylation of the lysine group. There are many radiopharmaceuticals employed in scintigraphic images of infection and inflammation used with some limitations. These limitations stimulated the improvement of a new class of radiopharmaceuticals, the receptor-specific related labeled peptides, as the mediators of the inflammatory response, that presents high affinity by receptors expressed in the inflammation process, and fast clearance from blood and non-target tissues. One of these molecules is the synthetic chemotactic peptide fNleLFNIeYK that presents potent chemotaxis for leukocytes, with high affinity by the receptors presented in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear phagocytes. The objective of this work included the synthesis of ATE prosthetic group and comparative radioiodination of the chemotactic peptide fNleLFNIeYK by direct and indirect methods, with radiochemical purity determination and evaluation of in vivo and in vitro stability of the compounds. This work presented an original contribution in the comparative biological distribution studies of the

  2. AUGMENTATION-RELATED BRAIN PLASTICITY

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni eDi Pino; Angelo eMaravita; Loredana eZollo; Eugenio eGuglielmelli; Vincenzo eDi Lazzaro

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyzes the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain.Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentati...

  3. Augmentation-related brain plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentat...

  4. Augmented Reality for Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Harald; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Georgsen, Marianne;

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. So far, however, most research has looked at the technology itself – and AR has been used primarily for commercial purposes. As a learning tool, AR supports an inquiry-based approach to science education with a high level of student...... involvement. The AR-sci-project (Augmented Reality for SCIence education) addresses the issue of applying augmented reality in developing innovative science education and enhancing the quality of science teaching and learning....

  5. Augmented Sustainability Measures for Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    John C. V. Pezzey; Nick Hanley; Karen Turner; Dugald Tinch

    2003-01-01

    We estimate and compare two empirical measures of the weak sustainability of an economy for the first time: the change in augmented green net national product (GNNP), and the interest on augmented genuine savings (GS). Yearly calculations are given for each measure for Scotland during 1992-99. Augmentation means including, using projections to 2020, production possibilities enabled by exogenous technical progress or changing terms of trade. In passing, we clarify the treatment of environmenta...

  6. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  7. Virtual, augmented reality and serious games for healthcare

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Anderson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    There is a tremendous interest among researchers for the development of virtual, augmented reality and games technologies due to their widespread applications in medicine and healthcare. To date the major applications of these technologies include medical simulation, telemedicine, medical and healthcare training, pain control, visualisation aid for surgery, rehabilitation in cases such as stroke, phobia, and trauma therapies. Many recent studies have identified the benefits of using Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, or serious games in a variety of medical applications.   This research volume on Virtual, Augmented Reality and Serious Games for Healthcare 1 offers an insightful introduction to the theories, development and applications of virtual, augmented reality and digital games technologies in medical and clinical settings and healthcare in general. It is divided into six sections: section one presents a selection of applications in medical education and healthcare management; Section two relates to th...

  8. In vivo image of radioiodinated IVDU and IVFRU in HSV-TK gene tranduced hepatocellular carcinoma bearing buffalo rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent of gene delivery and expression in gene therapy with suicide genes such as herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) is assessed with measurement of selective localization of radioiodinated HSV-tk substrates in HSV-tk expressing tumor. We compared n vitro uptake of 125I-IVDU, IVFRU and in vivo image of HSV-tk gene tranduced hepatocellular carcinoma model. Using H2O2(hydrogen peroxide), IVDU and IVFRU was radiolabeled as carrier free form. The uptake of 125I-IVDU IVFRU was determined with increasing incubation periods in MCA-tk and MCA cell line (1X106cell/flask). The cell harvested and counted after incubation of 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 480 minutes. For estimating accumulation of radiolabelled IVDU, IVFRU in HSV-tk expressing tumor, MCA-tk cells (1 X 106/100 μl) injected intramuscularly into right thigh of buffalo rats. To determine selective localization of radiolabelled IVDU, IVFRU in HSV-tk expressing hepatocellular carcinoma bearing buffalo rats, MCA-tk cells (1X 107 cell/100 μl) were injected subcutaneously into both shoulders of buffalo rats. Established tumor mass implanted into liver of buffalo rats using intra-hepatic tumor injection. Two weeks later, 123I labelled IVDU, IVFRU(7.4 X 107Bq/200 μl) injected intravenously into tail veins of each buffalo rats. Gamma camera used as revealing localization of 123I-IVDU, IVFRU in MCA-tk cells grafts rats and in vivo image was taken 2 hrs, 24 hrs after injection. radioiodinated IVDU, IVFRU were radiolabeled with 123I as labeling yield 70%, 125I as 84%. Two compounds showed minimal uptake in MCA cell line, but in MCA-tk cell line, increased uptake was observed. The ratio of MCA-tk to MCA was up to 116-fold in 125I-IVDU, up to 37-fold in 125I-IVFRU at 480 min. The uptake of IVDU was 4 times higher than IVFRU in MCA-tk cells. Gamma camera images of HSV-tk gene tranduced MCA tumor showed accumulation of 123I-IVDU and 123I-IVFRU to clearly defined images. In hepatocellular carcinoma bearing buffalo rats

  9. Influence of augmented feedback on learning upper extremity tasks after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Molier, B.I.

    2012-01-01

    With upcoming innovative technologies more possibilities arise in the application of augmented feedback in rehabilitation therapy of the hemiparetic arm after stroke. The effect of different aspects and types of augmented feedback on motor functions and motor activities of the hemiparetic arm after stroke are studied in a systematic literature review. Based on current literature it was not possible to determine which combinations of aspects and types of augmented feedback are most essential f...

  10. New radiopharmaceuticals for adrenal scanning: radioiodine labelled tyramine derivates of heart glycosides and the respective aglycons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to avoid certain disadvantages of the test substances for adrenal scanning currently being used, new radiopharmaceuticals - hydroxyphenylethylamine derivatives from digitalis glycosides - were synthesized, radioiodine-labelled and tested scintigraphically in animal experiments. The new compounds have been shown to be very appropriate, and it can be expected that they are well suited for clinical purposes especially when labelled by 123Iodine. (orig.)

  11. THE MANAGEMENT OF THYROID CARCINOMA--THE ROLE OF RADIO-IODINE (I-131)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Workman, James B.

    1963-06-15

    Experience from the management of 156 patients with proven thyroid cancer, followed from 1 to 11 years, is reported. Although no sweeping conclusions can be drawn, it appears that radioiodine continues to have a place in the overall management of most cases of this malignant disease. (auth)

  12. Stem Cells for Augmenting Tendon Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence V. Gulotta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon healing is fraught with complications such as reruptures and adhesion formation due to the formation of scar tissue at the injury site as opposed to the regeneration of native tissue. Stem cells are an attractive option in developing cell-based therapies to improve tendon healing. However, several questions remain to be answered before stem cells can be used clinically. Specifically, the type of stem cell, the amount of cells, and the proper combination of growth factors or mechanical stimuli to induce differentiation all remain to be seen. This paper outlines the current literature on the use of stem cells for tendon augmentation.

  13. Augmented reality system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Su, Yu-Zheng; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR)[1][2][3] is very popular in universities and research organizations. The AR technology has been widely used in Virtual Reality (VR) fields, such as sophisticated weapons, flight vehicle development, data model visualization, virtual training, entertainment and arts. AR has characteristics to enhance the display output as a real environment with specific user interactive functions or specific object recognitions. It can be use in medical treatment, anatomy training, precision instrument casting, warplane guidance, engineering and distance robot control. AR has a lot of vantages than VR. This system developed combines sensors, software and imaging algorithms to make users feel real, actual and existing. Imaging algorithms include gray level method, image binarization method, and white balance method in order to make accurate image recognition and overcome the effects of light.

  14. Augmented Virtual Reality Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully-Hanson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.

  15. NAESA Augmentation Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, John J.

    1998-01-01

    This project was one project within the Native American Earth and Space Academy (NAESA). NAESA is a national initiative comprised of several organizations that support programs which focus on 1) enhancing the technological, scientific and pedagogical skills of K-14 teachers who instruct Native Americans, 2) enhancing the understanding and applications of science, technology, and engineering of college-bound Native Americans and teaching them general college "survival skills" (e.g., test taking, time management, study habits), 3) enhancing the scientific and pedagogical skills of the faculty of tribally-controllcd colleges and community colleges with large Native American enrollments, and 4) strengthening the critical relationships between students, their parents, tribal elders, and their communities. This Augmentation Pilot Project focused on the areas of community-school alliances and intemet technology use in teaching and learning and daily living addressing five major objectives.

  16. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-09-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1.5-MWe multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MWe MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable heat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  18. Carcinogenic risk after radioiodine ablation for early papillary thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Long-term survival curves after thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation (RIA B) for the treatment of early papillary thyroid cancer (EPTC) are comparable to those for healthy population. However, potential harms of RAIB are still in question considering carcinogenesis as most significant late stochastic effect of radiation. Uncertainties exist with regard to the organ radio-sensitivity, age, sex, race, civilization differences, dose-rate, radiation quality etc. We accepted ICRP simplified pessimistic model to predict radiogenic cancer probability (RCP) after RIAB. 183 patients of cancer thyroid treated with iodine-131 to destroy remnant thyroid after nearly total thyroidectomy have been evaluated. The doses in nine organ and tissue at risk have been estimated by the dosimetric model of T. Smith and E. Edmonds for patients treated once with average activity of 3.1 GBq and twice with an average dose of 6.2 GBq. Incidence of major RCP following RIAB is 1.7-3.4 % for fatal stomach cancer, 0.5-0.9 % for fatal bladder cancer and 0.1-0.2 % for malignancies of salivary glands. RCP significantly goes down for secondary breast and ovarian cancer (0.05-0.03%). The number of predicted fatal and non-fatal cancer in the whole treated group of 183 patients is 6.6 cases with prediction of 4 gastric and 1 bladder cancer but none was observed during the follow-up period of 7 to 28 years. The overall risk for all other organs is below one case (0.8). One patient developed multiple myeloma and two salivary glands tumours observed 9-13 years after RIAB. Five synchronous and metachronous secondary breast cancer were also registered, but they could be non-radiogenic (collective RCP = 0.08 cases). Giving maximum radical treatment, we achieved 98% 20-years survival for patients of EPTC. Such a prognosis appears exaggerated, may be due to the use of very pessimistic ICRP model. We also evaluated the magnitude of the predicted lethality from radiogenic cancer and compared it with

  19. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…

  20. Radioprotective Effect of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Salivary Gland Dysfunction After Radioiodine Ablation in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Seok; An, Hye-Young; Park, In Suh; Kim, Seok-Ki; Kim, Young-Mo; Lim, Jae-Yol

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Radioiodine (RI) therapy is known to subject cellular components of salivary glands (SG) to oxidative stress leading to SG dysfunction. However, the protective effects of antioxidants on RI-induced SG damage have not been well investigated. The authors investigated the morphometric and functional effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) administered prior to RI therapy and compared this with the effects of amifostine (a well-known antioxidant) in a murine model of RI sialadenitis. Methods. Four-week-old female C57BL/6 mice (n=48) were divided into four groups; a normal control group, a RI-treated group (0.01 mCi/g mouse, orally), an EGCG and RI-treated group, and an amifostine and RI-treated group. Animals in these groups were divided into 3 subgroups and euthanized at 15, 30, and 90 days post-RI treatment. Salivary flow rates and lag times were measured, and morphologic and histologic examinations and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUDP nick end labeling) assays were performed. Changes in salivary 99mTc pertechnetate uptake and excretion were followed by single-photon emission computed tomography. Results. Salivary flow rates and lag times to salivation in the EGCG or amifostine groups were better than in the RI-treated group. Histologic examinations of SGs in the EGCG or amifostine group showed more mucin-rich parenchyma and less periductal fibrosis than in the RI-treated group. Fewer apoptotic cells were observed in acini, ducts, and among endothelial cells in the EGCG or amifostine group than in the RI group. In addition, patterns of 99mTc pertechnetate excretion were quite different in the EGCG or amifostine group than in the RI group. Conclusion. EGCG supplementation before RI therapy could protect from RI-induced SG damage in a manner comparable to amifostine, and thus, offers a possible means of preventing SG damage by RI. PMID:27136365

  1. Effects of the restriction of food and water intake on the distribution and retention of radioiodine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the restriction of food and water intakes on gastrointestinal absorption, distribution to organs and excretion of 131I were investigated in C3H/He mice. The animals were divided into four groups and administered orally 37 kBq carrier-free Na 131I in 0.25 ml normal saline. One group of animals was given food and water ad libitum throughout the experimental period. Food and water to the remaining groups were restricted before and/or after the administration of 131I. The animals in each group were sacrificed 4 h and 24 h after administration, and the activity of 131I in thyroid, blood, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, urine, feces, and carcass was measured. There was a significant increase in the retention of 131I in the thyroid and the concentration of 131I in the blood due to the restriction of food and water after the administration of 131I. In contrast, a significant decrease in the urinary excretion was observed in these animals. In those animals, which fasted before administration only, the retention of 131I in the thyroid and other organs were decreased. Therefore, for an accurate diagnosis and effective therapy with radioiodine as well as effective radiation protection, the intake of food and water should be taken into account. (author)

  2. Adapting Information Through Tangible Augmented Reality Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Patrick; Martinez, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    Tangible augmented reality interfaces offer a hands on approach for examining objects and exploring the associated information. We describe two tangible augmented reality interfaces that can expose the adaptation of information presented to users about objects in augmented reality environments.

  3. Control Augmented Structural Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Robert V.; Schmit, Lucien A.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for control augmented structural synthesis is proposed for a class of structures which can be modeled as an assemblage of frame and/or truss elements. It is assumed that both the plant (structure) and the active control system dynamics can be adequately represented with a linear model. The structural sizing variables, active control system feedback gains and nonstructural lumped masses are treated simultaneously as independent design variables. Design constraints are imposed on static and dynamic displacements, static stresses, actuator forces and natural frequencies to ensure acceptable system behavior. Multiple static and dynamic loading conditions are considered. Side constraints imposed on the design variables protect against the generation of unrealizable designs. While the proposed approach is fundamentally more general, here the methodology is developed and demonstrated for the case where: (1) the dynamic loading is harmonic and thus the steady state response is of primary interest; (2) direct output feedback is used for the control system model; and (3) the actuators and sensors are collocated.

  4. Augmented Likelihood Image Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stille, Maik; Kleine, Matthias; Hägele, Julian; Barkhausen, Jörg; Buzug, Thorsten M

    2016-01-01

    The presence of high-density objects remains an open problem in medical CT imaging. Data of projections passing through objects of high density, such as metal implants, are dominated by noise and are highly affected by beam hardening and scatter. Reconstructed images become less diagnostically conclusive because of pronounced artifacts that manifest as dark and bright streaks. A new reconstruction algorithm is proposed with the aim to reduce these artifacts by incorporating information about shape and known attenuation coefficients of a metal implant. Image reconstruction is considered as a variational optimization problem. The afore-mentioned prior knowledge is introduced in terms of equality constraints. An augmented Lagrangian approach is adapted in order to minimize the associated log-likelihood function for transmission CT. During iterations, temporally appearing artifacts are reduced with a bilateral filter and new projection values are calculated, which are used later on for the reconstruction. A detailed evaluation in cooperation with radiologists is performed on software and hardware phantoms, as well as on clinically relevant patient data of subjects with various metal implants. Results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm is able to outperform contemporary metal artifact reduction methods such as normalized metal artifact reduction.

  5. The synthesis and biodistribution of 3-(4'-[125I]-iodophenyl)-4-aminobutyric acid, a radioiodinated analogue of baclofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baclofen has been found to bind to receptors in the central nervous system that are specific for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a well known inhibitory neurotransmitter. This paper describes the synthesis of a radioiodinated analog of baclofen as part of an effort to develop receptor probes useful in single photon emission computed tomography. Preliminary biodistribution studies showed the radioiodinationed analog to be essentially stable to in vivo deiodination and have a distribution profile similar to that of baclofen. (Author)

  6. Zion Augmented Reality Application (ZARA): An Augmented Heritage Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Odland, Johannes Johannesen

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation and development of a virtual heritage application that employs augmented reality to disseminate a model of the Zion castle. The developed system is a flexible prototype that leverages several open source frameworks and applications.

  7. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as Tagwhat and Star Chart (a must for astronomy class). The yellow line marking first downs in a televised football game2 and the enhanced puck that makes televised hockey easier to follow3 both use augmented reality to do the job.

  8. Augmented Reality for Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Harald; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Georgsen, Marianne;

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. So far, however, most research has looked at the technology itself – and AR has been used primarily for commercial purposes. As a learning tool, AR supports an inquiry-based approach to science education with a high level of student i...... involvement. The AR-sci-project (Augmented Reality for SCIence education) addresses the issue of applying augmented reality in developing innovative science education and enhancing the quality of science teaching and learning....

  9. Understanding augmented reality concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Alan B

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality is not a technology. Augmented reality is a medium. Likewise, a book on augmented reality that only addresses the technology that is required to support the medium of augmented reality falls far short of providing the background that is needed to produce, or critically consume augmented reality applications. One reads a book. One watches a movie. One experiences augmented reality. Understanding Augmented Reality addresses the elements that are required to create compelling augmented reality experiences. The technology that supports

  10. The advanced containment experiments (ACE) radioiodine test facility experimental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the Advanced Containment Experiments (ACE) Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) program are reported. This study consisted of four intermediate-scale experiments that investigated the effects of radiation, pH, surfaces and initial iodine speciation on iodine behaviour. The tests revealed that, in high radiation fields, the long-term volatility of iodine is independent of the initial iodine speciation (CsI, I2, CH3I). This is presumably because radiolytic reactions inter-convert aqueous iodine species; I- was the predominant aqueous iodine species after an absorbed dose of about 30-40 kGy. Tests at pH 9 and 5.5 demonstrated that iodine volatility increased significantly with decreasing pH. In addition, this study demonstrated that containment surfaces can play an important role in determining iodine volatility, gas and aqueous phase iodine speciation, and surface adsorption. In summary: The ACE/RTF experiments have demonstrated the importance of several factors on iodine behaviour within containment under reactor accident conditions. One of the most important factors was radiation. Without radiation, the volatility of iodine was dependent on the initial speciation of iodine, presumably because inter-conversion of iodine species by non-radiolytic reactions is relatively slow. In contrast, in the presence of radiation, the long-term volatility of iodine was independent of initial speciation. This is attributed to aqueous phase radiolytic reactions that result in rapid inter-conversion of iodine species. Iodine volatility was shown to increase significantly with decreasing pH. However, changing the pH from acidic to alkaline conditions did not result in rapid decreases in iodine volatility. This may have been due to desorption of volatile iodine species from surfaces, in the case of stainless steel, and the influence of organics in the epoxy tests. Surfaces were shown to influence iodine volatility and speciation. Higher gas phase iodine concentrations were

  11. Radioiodinated PHIPA`s; metabolically trapped fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhut, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry Lab.

    1998-12-31

    Radioiodinated PHIPA 3-10 [13-(4`-iodophenyl)-3-(p-phenylene)tridecanoic acid] has been developed for nuclear-cardiological investigation of coronary artery disease or cardiomyopathies of various origin. The compound features a phenylene group located within the backbone of a long-chain fatty acid. In spite of its bulky structure [{sup 123}I]PHIPA 3-10 is extracted by the myocardium in a manner similar to that for the unmodified fatty acid analogue, [{sup 123}I]IPPA. The retention of PHIPA 3-10 in heart muscle results from the presence of the p-phenylene group which prevents more than one {beta}-oxidation cycle. Only one single, rapidly formed metabolite was found in rat-heart extracts. According to comparative HPLC with synthetic metabolites and mass spectrometric analysis this metabolite was identified as [{sup 123}I]PHIPA 1-10, a by two methylene groups shortened PHIPA derivative. Formation of this metabolite could be suppressed by Etomoxir, a carnitine palmitoyl fransferase I inhibitor, indicating {beta}-oxidation of [{sup 123}I]PHIPA 3-10 in mitochondria. Final evidence for the involvement of mitochondria in the degradation of [{sup 123}I]PHIPA 3-10 was obtained performing density-gradient centrifugation with homogenized rat heart tissue. Labeled free PHIPA 3-10 and free metabolite peaked with the fraction containing mitochondria. With respect to its biochemical characteristics, [{sup 123}I]PHIPA 3-10 may be considered as a useful tool for nuclear cardiological investigations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Radioiodierte PHIPA 3-10 [13-(4`-Iodophenyl)-3-(p-phenylene)tridecanoic acid] wurde fuer Untersuchungen von koronaren Herzerkrankungen und Kardiomyopathien unterschiedlicher Genese entwickelt. Die Verbindung enthaelt eine in der Fettsaeurekette lokalisierte Phenylengruppe. Obwohl dieses Strukturelement raumfordernd ist, wird [{sup 123}I]PHIPA 3-10 aehnlich gut vom Herzmuskel aufgenommen, wie die unmodifizierte Fettsaeure [{sup 123}I]IPPA. Die auffallende

  12. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of treatment-refractory metastatic thyroid cancer using 90Yttrium and 177Lutetium labeled somatostatin analogs: toxicity, response and survival analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiawan, Hendra; Salavati, Ali; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Baum, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    The overall survival rate of non-radioiodine avid differentiated (follicular, papillary, medullary) thyroid carcinoma is significantly lower than for patients with iodine-avid lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate toxicity and efficacy (response and survival) of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in non-radioiodine-avid or radioiodine therapy refractory thyroid cancer patients. Sixteen non-radioiodine-avid and/or radioiodine therapy refractory thyroid cancer patients, including follicular thyroid carcinoma (n = 4), medullary thyroid carcinoma (n = 8), Hürthle cell thyroid carcinoma (n = 3), and mixed carcinoma (n = 1) were treated with PRRT by using 90Yttrium and/or 177Lutetium labeled somatostatin analogs. 68Ga somatostatin receptor PET/CT was used to determine the somatostatin receptor density in the residual tumor/metastatic lesions and to assess the treatment response. Hematological profiles and renal function were periodically examined after treatment. By using fractionated regimen, only mild, reversible hematological toxicity (grade 1) or nephrotoxicity (grade 1) were seen. Response assessment (using EORTC criteria) was performed in 11 patients treated with 2 or more (maximum 5) cycles of PRRT and showed disease stabilization in 4 (36.4%) patients. Two patients (18.2%) showed partial remission, in the remaining 5 patients (45.5%) disease remained progressive. Kaplan-Meier analysis resulted in a mean survival after the first PRRT of 4.2 years (95% CI, range 2.9-5.5) and median progression free survival of 25 months (inter-quartiles: 12-43). In non-radioiodine-avid/radioiodine therapy refractory thyroid cancer patients, PRRT is a promising therapeutic option with minimal toxicity, good response rate and excellent survival benefits. PMID:24380044

  13. Augmenter of liver regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Chandrashekhar R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ‘Augmenter of liver regeneration’ (ALR (also known as hepatic stimulatory substance or hepatopoietin was originally found to promote growth of hepatocytes in the regenerating or injured liver. ALR is expressed ubiquitously in all organs, and exclusively in hepatocytes in the liver. ALR, a survival factor for hepatocytes, exhibits significant homology with ERV1 (essential for respiration and viability protein that is essential for the survival of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ALR comprises 198 to 205 amino acids (approximately 22 kDa, but is post-translationally modified to three high molecular weight species (approximately 38 to 42 kDa found in hepatocytes. ALR is present in mitochondria, cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum, and nucleus. Mitochondrial ALR may be involved in oxidative phosphorylation, but also functions as sulfhydryl oxidase and cytochrome c reductase, and causes Fe/S maturation of proteins. ALR, secreted by hepatocytes, stimulates synthesis of TNF-α, IL-6, and nitric oxide in Kupffer cells via a G-protein coupled receptor. While the 22 kDa rat recombinant ALR does not stimulate DNA synthesis in hepatocytes, the short form (15 kDa of human recombinant ALR was reported to be equipotent as or even stronger than TGF-α or HGF as a mitogen for hepatocytes. Altered serum ALR levels in certain pathological conditions suggest that it may be a diagnostic marker for liver injury/disease. Although ALR appears to have multiple functions, the knowledge of its role in various organs, including the liver, is extremely inadequate, and it is not known whether different ALR species have distinct functions. Future research should provide better understanding of the expression and functions of this enigmatic molecule.

  14. Custom Titanium Ridge Augmentation Matrix (CTRAM): A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Christopher A; Liacouras, Peter C; Grant, Gerald T

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of a custom titanium ridge augmentation matrix (CTRAM). Using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), a custom titanium space-maintaining device was developed. Alveolar ridges were virtually augmented, a matrix was virtually designed, and the CTRAM was additively manufactured with titanium (Ti6Al4V). Two cases are presented that resulted in sufficient increased horizontal bone volume with successful dental implant placement. The CTRAM design allows for preoperative planning for increasing alveolar ridge dimensions to support dental implants, reduces surgical time, and prevents the need for a second surgical site to gain sufficient alveolar ridge bone volume for dental implant therapy. PMID:27560675

  15. Mersiline mesh in premaxillary augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2005-01-01

    Premaxillary retrusion may distort the aesthetic appearance of the columella, lip, and nasal tip. This defect is characteristically seen in, but not limited to, patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. This study investigated 60 patients presenting with premaxillary deficiencies in which Mersiline mesh was used to augment the premaxilla. All the cases had surgery using the external rhinoplasty technique. Two methods of augmentation with Mersiline mesh were used: the Mersiline roll technique, for the cases with central symmetric deficiencies, and the Mersiline packing technique, for the cases with asymmetric deficiencies. Premaxillary augmentation with Mersiline mesh proved to be simple technically, easy to perform, and not associated with any complications. Periodic follow-up evaluation for a mean period of 32 months (range, 12-98 months) showed that an adequate degree of premaxillary augmentation was maintained with no clinically detectable resorption of the mesh implant. PMID:15959688

  16. Analysis of diagnosis and therapy to postoperative complications of breast augmentation with injected PAHG%聚丙烯酰胺水凝胶注射隆乳术后并发症的诊治分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀锋; 王洪燕; 郑妍丽; 姜涛

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To discuss the complication of breast augmentation with injected polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG) and to explore the methods of removing PAHG through mammary areolar. [ Methods] Clinical data of 86 patients who suffered complications from PAHG injection for augmentation mammaplasty were analyzed. They all underwent operation to remove PAHG through the mammary areolar incision. [Results] Almost all injected augmentation material was removed via this approach. The incisions in all of the patients were primary healing. All of them were free from infection and hematoma. The breasts were symmetry. The incision scars were not very obvious. The breasts of 8 patients were drooping lightly. [Conclusions] This method of removing PAHG through mammary areolar is effective and satisfactory to patients with PAHG mammoplasty, and it is the safe and reliable way to treat the complications of breast augmentation with injection.%[目的]对聚丙烯酰胺水凝胶注射隆乳术后并发症进行讨论分析,探讨聚丙烯酰胺水凝胶注射隆乳后的最佳手术取出方法.[方法]对大连医科大学附属第二医院整形外科收治的86例聚丙烯酰胺水凝胶注射隆乳并发症患者诊治资料进行分析,并全部采用经乳晕下半缘切口进行注射物取出治疗.[结果]86例受术者注射假体绝大部分被取出,切口均Ⅰ期愈合,无感染或血肿发生,双侧乳房基本对称,切口瘢痕不明显,有8例受术者术后乳房呈轻度下垂表现,建议6个月后行假体置入隆乳术.[结论]采用经乳晕下半缘切口行聚丙烯酰胺水凝胶取出手术能获得满意疗效,是目前治疗注射隆乳后并发症的有效、可行的方法.

  17. S-value of Radioiodine(131I) in Korean Reference Adult Male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to better understand the effects of absorbed radioiodine upon Korean reference adult male, a mathematical phantom representation was contrived based on composite data of the physiology of Korean reference adult male. Using this, S-values of radioiodine() per each organ were calculated. The calculated S-values were compared to the existing data described in the TM-8381 report of ORNL calculated on the basis of an ICRP-23 reference male. The results indicated that S-values were higher for the phantom based on Korean reference adult male. The results of this study illustrate that, while the bio-chemical constitution of each source and target organ of the torso are important, the relative location of the organs and characteristics of the radionuclides also exert important influences.

  18. Deposition of airborne radioiodine species on surfaces of metals and plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the deposition velocity of gaseous radioiodine species I2, HOI and CH3I on several materials, which are commonly used in nuclear industry, was experimentally evaluated. Materials were identified which cause minimal deposition loss of airborne radioiodine sample in remote sampling systems. It was found that carbon steel and stainless steel, both extensively used in the construction of sampling lines, have high affinity for elemental iodine vapour. This causes significant loss of iodine sample due to wall deposition, particularly at high humidities which prevail under emergency release conditions. Aluminum, polyethylene and teflon cause minimal loss of iodine sample in remote sampling applications under both normal and emergency release conditions in nuclear power plants

  19. Synthesis and radioiodination of analogues of substance P for the building up of a radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, M.; Schmidt, H.E.; Ehrlich, A.; Forner, K.; Klauschenz, E.; Furkert, J.; Rathsack, R.; Niedrich, H. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Inst. fuer Wirkstofforschung; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Buch. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1984-02-01

    The substance P (SP) analogs (Lys(MSOC)/sup 3/)-SP, (Tyr/sup 8/)-SP, (Tyr/sup 8/,Nle/sup 11/)-SP and (p-HPA/sup 1/)-SP have been synthesized by classical methods of peptide synthesis as well as by the liquid phase peptide synthesis (LPPS) to allow conjugation with protein in the N..cap alpha..-position and radioiodination. (Tyr/sup 8/)-SP and (p-HPA-Arg/sup 1/)-SP have been radioiodinated by the chloramine T- and the lactoperoxidase method. A complete S-oxidation of SP was observed, when the chloramine T procedure was used, but this modification does not disturb the assay. The introduction of the (/sup 125/I-pHPA-Arg/sup 1/)-SP-tracer led to considerable improvements of our SP-radioimmunoassay.

  20. Radioiodination of ibuprofen with 125I and its biological behavior in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for radioiodination of Ibuprofen with iodine-125 is carried out via an electrophilic substitution reaction. The reaction parameters were studied Ibuprofen concentration, pH of the reaction mixture, reaction time temperature, and different oxidizing agents to optimize the conditions for the labeling of Ibuprofen to abstain a high radiochemical yield of 125I-Ibuprofen (125I-Ib up). Using 3.7 MBq of of Na 125I, 100μg of ibuprofen as substrate and 100μg of iodogen as oxidizing agent in ethanol at 60 OC for 10 min, a maximum radiochemical yield of 125I-Ib up (78%) was obtained. The labeled compound was separated and purified from inactive Ibuprofen by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The biological distribution in normal and inflamed mice indicates the suitability of radioiodinated Ibuprofen for imaging of inflammation only induced with turpentine oil. (Author)

  1. Human growth hormone radioiodination using different batches of 125I of various ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reproducibility and the influence of the batch and decay level of Na125I on the radioiodination of human growth hormone (hGH) were examined by a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) technique. The between-day coefficient of variation (CV) exhibited a value of 11.9% for labelling yields and 14.3% for antibody specific binding. The within-day variation for different shipments and isotope decay-levels was similar to that for the control experiment, carried out under the same conditions, using Na125I from a single lot. The results indicate that the decay-level and batch do not significantly influence either the yields or the immunological properties of the labelled product. The suitability of this PAGE technique as a control test for radioiodinated proteins is established by comparison with gel chromatography on Sephadex G-100. (Auth.)

  2. Detection system qualification for direct measurement of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work deals with a detection system qualification for direct measurements of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine. The isotopes 131I and 125I are the most frequently used in nuclear medicine. Because of their volatility they are very dangerous for thyroid contamination by inhalation. The system has been projected to be easily and fast used and above all transportable where the control is necessary. These characteristic make it able to realise supervision programs of internal contamination by radioiodine. In fact due the very high control frequencies (each 15 days for 131I), these programs are usually very expensive and demanding when they are executed in external measurement laboratories. The following steps are described: devices presentation, calculation of energy and efficiency parameters, minimum detectable activity, time system reliability, best operative conditions in the measurements. At the end an application example of the system is reported

  3. Pure Laparoscopic Augmentation Ileocystoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael B. Rebouças

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute neuropathy that rarely compromises bladder function. Conservative management including clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy is the primary approach for hypocompliant contracted bladder. Surgical treatment may be used in refractory cases to improve bladder compliance and capacity in order to protect the upper urinary tract. We describe a case of pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty in a patient affected by Guillain-Barre syndrome. Presentation A 15-year-old female, complaining of voiding dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infection and worsening renal function for three months. A previous history of Guillain-Barre syndrome on childhood was related. A voiding cystourethrography showed a pine-cone bladder with moderate post-void residual urine. The urodynamic demonstrated a hypocompliant bladder and small bladder capacity (190mL with high detrusor pressure (54 cmH2O. Nonsurgical treatments were attempted, however unsuccessfully. The patient was placed in the exaggerated Trendelenburg position. A four-port transperitoneal technique was used. A segment of ileum approximately 15-20cm was selected and divided with its pedicle. The ileal anastomosis and creation of ileal U-shaped plate were performed laparoscopically, without staplers. Bladder mobilization and longidutinal cystotomy were performed. Enterovesical anastomosis was done with continuous running suture. A suprapubic cystostomy was placed through a 5mm trocar. Results The total operative time was 335 min. The blood loss was minimal. The patient developed ileus in the early days, diet acceptance after the fourth day and was discharged on the seventh postoperative day. The urethral catheter was removed after 2 weeks. At 6-month follow-up, a cystogram showed a significant improvement in bladder capacity. The patient adhered well to clean intermittent self-catheterization and there was no report for febrile infections

  4. Radioiodinated DPA-713 Imaging Correlates with Bactericidal Activity of Tuberculosis Treatments in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ordonez, Alvaro A.; Pokkali, Supriya; DeMarco, Vincent P.; Klunk, Mariah; Mease, Ronnie C.; Foss, Catherine A.; Pomper, Martin G.; Jain, Sanjay K.

    2014-01-01

    Current tools for monitoring response to tuberculosis treatments have several limitations. Noninvasive biomarkers could accelerate tuberculosis drug development and clinical studies, but to date little progress has been made in developing new imaging technologies for this application. In this study, we developed pulmonary single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using radioiodinated DPA-713 to serially monitor the activity of tuberculosis treatments in live mice, which develop necro...

  5. Cytogenetic in thyroid carcinoma and therapy with 131{sup I}; Citogenetica en cancer de tiroides y terapia con 131''I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, L.; Hadjidekova, V.; Christova, R.; Agova, S.; Grudeva, V.; Hadjieva, T.; Dominguez, I.

    2007-07-01

    In order to assess the genotoxic risk of the therapy with radioiodine-131(''131I), the production of micronuclei (MN) and chromosome aberrations (CA) were analyzed in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of group of 26 patients undergoing therapy with this radionuclide for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Blood samples were taken immediately before ''131 I administration and 1 month later. The patients underwent radioiodine ablation (RIA) or radioiodine therapy (RIT) after radical thyroidectomy. The amount of orally administered ''131I activity varied from 3330 to 4030 MBq according to the king of therapy (RIA or RIT). results show that after radioiodine therapy there is a significant increase in the frequency of MN and CA. The mean frequencies of MN {+-} Sd before and after the therapy were 10.72 % {+-} 5.84 % and 25.28 %{+-} 12.6% respectively. For CA, the mean frequencies obtained were 1.16% {+-} 0.36% before and 2.3% {+-} 0.87% after the therapy. These findings indicate a genotoxic activity of ''131I therapy estimated after a period of one month. (Author) 38 refs.

  6. Transfer of radioiodine from the environment to animals and plants, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical form of radioiodine and the physicochemical behavior of each individual form of radioiodine in the marine environment is still not so well known, owing partly to the lack of the appropriate analytical method. To study on these problems, the authors have first developed the radiochemical method of analysis for the individual forms of radioiodine. The method is based on the solubility of I2 and CH3I in carbon tetrachloride or toluene and on the difference of isotopic exchange behavior between I- and IO3-. By shaking the sample sea water with carbon tetrachloride, I* 2 and CH3I* can be extracted, if present. Among these, only I* 2 can be back-extracted with sodium sulfite solution. I*- and I*O3- can be determined by using the following isotopic exchange system: I*- (aq.) + I2 (org.) reversible I- (aq.) + I* 2 (org.). When the pH of the aqueous layer is adjusted to 4, only I*- exchanges with I2, while I*O3- does not. Therefore, the activity of the organic layer at the exchange equilibrium corresponds to that of I*-. At pH 1, I*O3- reacts with I- carrier to be converted to form, and the activity of the organic layer corresponds to the total activity of I*- + I*O3-. For organic solvent, the equi-volume mixture of carbon tetrachloride and toluene is found to be the most convenient among those tested. (author)

  7. Determination of very small activities of radioiodine and plutonium in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mobile high volume sampler with the following characteristics was developed: air flow rate 5000 m3.h-1, total cross section of the seven activated charcoal filter units 0.6 m2, diameter of each filter unit 33 cm, thickness of charcoal layer 4 - 7 cm. The sorbed radioiodine is eluted from the charcoal in a circulation unit by a circulating solution (sodium hydroxide/hydrazine) and is transfered into a sorbent containing silver (ion exchange resin with colloidal silver), thereby bringing about a reduction in volume by a factor of approximately 1000. The radioiodine activity is then determined by gamma spectrometric measurement of the silver containing sorbent. The overall radioiodine yield measured with 123I spike (sorption on charcoal and transfer to the silver containing sorbent) is 75 (+- 7)%. A detection limit of 0.02 mBq.m-3 is achieved for 131I. If the sampler is operated with the standard throughput of 5000 m3.h-1, this limit applies to one hour average concentration values. Results of environmental monitorings for the period 1979 - 1982 at the Research Center Seibersdorf for 131I (up to 2,6 mBq/m3) and for plutonium (up to 4 μBq/m3) are given. (Author)

  8. Reducing the transfer of radioiodine to milk in cows by adding stable iodine to the forage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication reports the activities for the study and explains the measured results achieved. The usefulness of stable iodine administration to cows for reducing radioiodine transfer to the milk is explained. It was found that enhanced stable radioiodine doses have an effect on the iodine metabolism of dairy cows that has to be taken into account. Initially, a literature study was carried out, which then served as a basis for defining subsequent study objectives and experiments. The evaluation of the results yields information about the effects of stable iodine on the radioiodine transfer, as well as the metabolic pathways of iodine in dairy cows. In order to achieve a clear transfer reducing effect (by a factor of 2), doses of 1g/d have to be fed to a cow. This dose will lead to a stable iodine concentration in the milk of about 10 mg/kg. The WHO recommends a daily maximum dose of 0.5 mg of stable iodine in order to safely prevent adverse health effects in man. Ingestion of more than 2 mg/d may induce in man thyroid disorders and other metabolic disorders. In some countries, the reference level for dairy milk accepted is 0.5 mg of iodine/kg of milk. (orig./CB)

  9. High versus low radioiodine activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer - A meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valachis, Antonis [Dept. of Oncology, Maelarsjukhuset., Eskilstuna (Sweden); Univ. of Uppsala,, (Sweden)], e-mail: Valachis@hotmail.com, Antonis.Valachis@akademiska.uu.se; Nearchou, Andreas [Dept, of Oncology, Maelarsjukhuset., Eskilstuna (Sweden); Univ. of Uppsala., Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    Background: The purpose of the meta-analysis was to estimate the effectiveness and toxicity of low activity radioiodine ablation versus high activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by including all randomized trials of low activity versus high activity radioiodine ablation after thyroidectomy. Standard meta-analytic procedures were used to analyze the study outcomes. Results: Ten trials were considered eligible and were further analyzed. The pooled risk ratio (RR) of having a successful ablation for an activity of 1100 MBq versus 3700 MBq (seven trials, 1772 patients) was 0.94 (95% CI 0.85 - 1.04, p-value 0.21). The RR for successful ablation when only thyroid hormone withdrawal was used (five trials, 1116 patients) was 0.87 (95% CI 0.72 - 1.06, p-value 0.17) and it was comparable to RR when only recombinant-human TSH (rec-hTSH) (two trials, 812 patients) was used (1.00, 95% CI 0.93 - 1.07, p-value 0.92). Salivary dysfunction, nausea, and neck pain were significantly more frequent among patients with higher dose for ablation. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis provides some evidence from randomized trials that a lower activity of radioiodine ablation is as effective as higher dose after surgery in patients with DTC with lower toxicity.

  10. High versus low radioiodine activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer - A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The purpose of the meta-analysis was to estimate the effectiveness and toxicity of low activity radioiodine ablation versus high activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by including all randomized trials of low activity versus high activity radioiodine ablation after thyroidectomy. Standard meta-analytic procedures were used to analyze the study outcomes. Results: Ten trials were considered eligible and were further analyzed. The pooled risk ratio (RR) of having a successful ablation for an activity of 1100 MBq versus 3700 MBq (seven trials, 1772 patients) was 0.94 (95% CI 0.85 - 1.04, p-value 0.21). The RR for successful ablation when only thyroid hormone withdrawal was used (five trials, 1116 patients) was 0.87 (95% CI 0.72 - 1.06, p-value 0.17) and it was comparable to RR when only recombinant-human TSH (rec-hTSH) (two trials, 812 patients) was used (1.00, 95% CI 0.93 - 1.07, p-value 0.92). Salivary dysfunction, nausea, and neck pain were significantly more frequent among patients with higher dose for ablation. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis provides some evidence from randomized trials that a lower activity of radioiodine ablation is as effective as higher dose after surgery in patients with DTC with lower toxicity

  11. Stereoselective synthesis of an iodinated resveratrol analog: Preliminary bioevaluation studies of the radioiodinated species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhyani, Manish V.; Kameswaran, Mythili; Korde, Aruna G.; Pandey, Usha [Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Chattopadhyay, Subrata [Bio-Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Banerjee, Sharmila, E-mail: sharmila@barc.gov.i [Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Stereoselective synthesis of an E-hydroxystilbene has been carried out using the McMurry reaction. Synthesis of a monoiodinated hydroxystilbene has been carried out by a McMurry cross-coupling reaction. For the purpose of biological evaluation, the facile electrophilic substitution route has been attempted to radioiodinate it with {sup 125}I. The HPLC pattern of the radioiodinated hydroxystilbene, which could be obtained in >90% radiochemical purity, was found to be identical to that of its non-radioactive analog that has been independently prepared using the McMurry cross-coupling route. In vitro cell uptake studies were carried out in breast cancer cells MCF7, overexpressing estrogen receptors. In vivo biodistribution studies in female Swiss mice show a uterine uptake of 0.85{+-}0.4% ID/g at 3 h.p.i. with a uterus to muscle ratio of 2.83. Uptake in the thyroid was insignificant indicating good in vivo stability of the radioiodinated hydroxystilbene.

  12. Investigation of public exposure resulted from the radioiodine delay tank facility of nuclear medicine department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd; Ali, Abdul Muhaimin Mat; Abdullah, Reduan; Idris, Abdullah Waidi

    2016-01-01

    The study is carried out to assess the exposure rate that could contribute to public exposure in a radioiodine ward delay tank facility of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). The exposure rate at several locations including the delay tank room, doorway and at the public walking route was measured using Victoreen 415P-RYR survey meter. The radioactive level of the 131I waste was measured using Captus 3000 well counting system. The results showed that exposure rate and total count of the delay tank sample increased when the radioiodine ward was fully occupied with patient and reduced when the ward was vacant. Occupancy of radioiodine ward for two consecutive weeks had dramatically increased the exposure rate around the delay tank and radioactive level of 131I waste. The highest exposure rate and radioactive level was recorded when the ward was occupied for two consecutive weeks with 177.00 µR/h and 58.36 kcpm respectively. The exposure rate decreased 15.76 % when the door of the delay tank room was closed. The exposure rate at public walking route decreased between 15.58 % and 36.92 % as the distance increased between 1 and 3 m.

  13. New insights into the chemical behaviour of radioiodine in aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was found that in surface fresh water and in soil water iodine is to a large extent chemically converted by processes which are instigated by microbial action. The reactions involve extracellular oxidation of iodide with subsequent incorporation of the iodine into organic compounds, probably proteins. Furthermore it was found that iodate is reduced, probably also by a biochemical reaction. This reduction is more pronounced in soil than in surface water. In surface fresh water the formed organic radioiodine compounds are mainly in solution. In soils the radioiodine becomes to a larger extent bound to insoluble organic substances by these processes. The dissolved form of organic iodine is not precipitable as silver halide. Some other chemical and physico-chemical properties are described. Details on how the iodine conversion influences its fixation processes in soil are given. Possible consequences of these reactions on the migration behaviour of radioiodine and on the performance as well as on the interpretation of experiments in this context are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Investigation of public exposure resulted from the radioiodine delay tank facility of nuclear medicine department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd, E-mail: mfahmi@usm.my; Ali, Abdul Muhaimin Mat; Abdullah, Reduan; Idris, Abdullah Waidi [School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The study is carried out to assess the exposure rate that could contribute to public exposure in a radioiodine ward delay tank facility of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). The exposure rate at several locations including the delay tank room, doorway and at the public walking route was measured using Victoreen 415P-RYR survey meter. The radioactive level of the {sup 131}I waste was measured using Captus 3000 well counting system. The results showed that exposure rate and total count of the delay tank sample increased when the radioiodine ward was fully occupied with patient and reduced when the ward was vacant. Occupancy of radioiodine ward for two consecutive weeks had dramatically increased the exposure rate around the delay tank and radioactive level of {sup 131}I waste. The highest exposure rate and radioactive level was recorded when the ward was occupied for two consecutive weeks with 177.00 µR/h and 58.36 kcpm respectively. The exposure rate decreased 15.76 % when the door of the delay tank room was closed. The exposure rate at public walking route decreased between 15.58 % and 36.92 % as the distance increased between 1 and 3 m.

  15. Anxiety and depression related to the hospitalization experience of patients receiving radioiodine ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Objective: the hospital rooms for radioiodine ablation of differentiated thyroid carcinoma are designed according to radiation safety lows where patients have to remain isolated. The aim of the present study is to investigate depression and anxiety levels of the patients associated with hospitalization experience for radioiodine ablation. Methods: 30 patients (8 M, 22 F; mean: 45±13 years old) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were included into study. After withdrawal of thyroid hormone replacement at least for 3 weeks, the patients were subject of the ablation treatment. After routine psychiatric examination Hamilton Anxiety and Depression scales were administered to the patients before and after complement of hospitalization for 1-3 days. Results: according to the statistical analysis there was not any significant difference between Hamilton depression and anxiety scores and state and trait anxiety scores of the patients before and after treatment (P>0.05). However, 18 patients had depression, with major depression of six, and 21 had high anxiety levels, according to Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales. Conclusion: Although the patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma do not experience anxiety or depression related to the hospitalization itself for radioiodine ablation they might frequently have depression or anxiety just before the treatment. (authors)

  16. Behavior and awareness of thyroid cancer patients in Korea having non-hospitalized low-dose radioiodine treatment with regard to radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seog Gyun; Paeng, Jin Chul; Eo, Jae Seon; Shim, Hye Kyung; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    With the recent increase in incidence of thyroid cancer, non-hospitalized low-dose (NH-LD) radioiodine treatment (RIT) has also increased rapidly. The radioactivity limit that is allowed to be administered without hospitalization depends on individual calculation, based partly on patients' behavior. In this study, Korean patients' behavior in relation to radiation safety in NHLD RIT was surveyed. A total of 218 patients who underwent NH-LD RIT of 1.1 GBq {sup 131}I in a single center were surveyed. The patients underwent RIT with a standard protocol and the survey was performed by interview when they visited subsequently for a whole-body scan. The survey questionnaire included three parts of questions: general information, behavior relating to isolation during RIT, and awareness of radiation safety. After administration of radioiodine, 40% of patients who returned home used mass transportation, and another 47% went home by taxi or in car driven by another person. Isolation at home was generally sufficient. However, 7% of patients did not stay in a separate room. Among the 218 patients, 34% did not go home and chose self-isolation away from home, mostly due to concerns about radiation safety of family members. However, the places were mostly public places, including hotels, resorts, and hospitals. About half of the patients replied that access to radiation safety information was not easy and their awareness of radiation safety was not satisfactory. As a result, 45% of patients wanted hospitalized RIT. In many countries, including Korea, RIT is continuously increasing. Considering the radiation safety of patients' family members or the public and the convenience of patients, the pretreatment education of patients should be enhanced. In addition, the hospitalization of patients having low-dose therapy is recommended to be seriously considered and expanded, with the expansion of dedicated treatment facilities

  17. Behavior and awareness of thyroid cancer patients in Korea having non-hospitalized low-dose radioiodine treatment with regard to radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the recent increase in incidence of thyroid cancer, non-hospitalized low-dose (NH-LD) radioiodine treatment (RIT) has also increased rapidly. The radioactivity limit that is allowed to be administered without hospitalization depends on individual calculation, based partly on patients' behavior. In this study, Korean patients' behavior in relation to radiation safety in NHLD RIT was surveyed. A total of 218 patients who underwent NH-LD RIT of 1.1 GBq 131I in a single center were surveyed. The patients underwent RIT with a standard protocol and the survey was performed by interview when they visited subsequently for a whole-body scan. The survey questionnaire included three parts of questions: general information, behavior relating to isolation during RIT, and awareness of radiation safety. After administration of radioiodine, 40% of patients who returned home used mass transportation, and another 47% went home by taxi or in car driven by another person. Isolation at home was generally sufficient. However, 7% of patients did not stay in a separate room. Among the 218 patients, 34% did not go home and chose self-isolation away from home, mostly due to concerns about radiation safety of family members. However, the places were mostly public places, including hotels, resorts, and hospitals. About half of the patients replied that access to radiation safety information was not easy and their awareness of radiation safety was not satisfactory. As a result, 45% of patients wanted hospitalized RIT. In many countries, including Korea, RIT is continuously increasing. Considering the radiation safety of patients' family members or the public and the convenience of patients, the pretreatment education of patients should be enhanced. In addition, the hospitalization of patients having low-dose therapy is recommended to be seriously considered and expanded, with the expansion of dedicated treatment facilities

  18. Radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism in patients with low thyroid iodine uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of radioactive 131I in hyperthyroid patients with confirmed lowered iodine uptake as compared to patients with an uptake of over 30%. We retrospectively analyzed 53 consecutive patients aged from 29 to 84 (mean age 60 years) suffering from hyperthyroidism caused by Graves disease or toxic nodular goitre. The patients were divided into 2 sub-groups: the 1st with a maximum iodine uptake of 18.7 ± 3.2% (range, 11 - 23%) - 24 patients; the 2nd with a maximum iodine uptake of 27.1 ± 2.1% (range, 24 - 30%) - 29 patients. The control group consisted of 50 patients treated with 131I with an iodine uptake of over 30%. Each patient was evaluated before, and 6 months after, treatment for fT3, fT4 and TSH with ECLIA; TRAb with RIA; ultrasound with a 7.5 MHz linear probe. The volume of the thyroid gland was determined using the Gutekunst method. All these factors underwent statistical analysis and were considered along with the results of clinical examinations. Clinical remission of hyperthyroidism was evident in 79.3% of both sub-groups, in total (83.3% and 75.3%, respectively). TSH was normalized in 62.3% of these patients (54.2% and 69.0%, respectively). The mean range of TSH levels increased from 0.081 mU/ml to 4.0 mU/ml after therapy; that is, from 0.087 mU/ml to 4.97 mU/ml in the 1st sub-group and from 0.076 mU/ml to 3.3 mU/ml in the 2nd sub-group. The volume of the thyroid gland was uniformly significantly lower, with a mean range of 40.5 ml before treatment and 21.7 ml afterwards.The results seen in both sub-groups were similar; only age and dose of radioiodine were slightly higher in the 1st, while mean uptake was higher in the 2nd. By comparison of these results to those of the control patients, we observed that the values of TSH, as well as thyroid volume and evidence of clinical remission, reflected those found in the control group.The mean dose of 131I was lower in the control group, that is 11.3 mCi, as

  19. Radiochemical studies on the separation of iodine-131 and radioiodination of some organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is constituted of three chapters:Chapter I: It deals with the theoretical consideration of the subject. The chapter deals with the importance of radioisotopes in medical applications, and the physical and biological properties of these isotopes. Also, this part deals with the chemical and physical properties of both tellurium and iodine and the methods of the production of radioiodine from tellurium targets especially dry distillation method and ion exchange method. It deals with general methods of labeling, chemistry of iodine especially the most frequently used in nuclear medicine, their methods of production and applications. It includes also the techniques used for the preparation of the radioiodinated compounds, especially the electrophilic technique or the oxidative radioiodination technique. In this technique, oxidizing agents are used to oxidize iodide ions to iodonium ions capable of electrophilic attack on the aryl group of the organic compound. This chapter deals also with the receptor tracers, their types and the effects that can occur due to the binding of these receptors to the cell membrane. Since these radiopharmaceuticals are used for diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of human diseases, quality control tests such as chemical purity, radionuclidic purity, radiochemical purity, sterility, apyrogenicity and biodistribution are performed to ensure the purity, the safety and efficiency of these products for the intended nuclear medicine application.Chapter II:It contains detailed information concerning the chemicals, reagents, the radionuclides, the equipment and the counting systems used in the study. It describes production technique of iodine-131 using dry distillation method. It describes also the electrophilic radioiodination for each of Y-indole and epidepride. Analysis of the labeled products was performed using two chromatographic techniques. The first technique is thin layer chromatography in which the compound was identified by

  20. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  1. Augmentation-related brain plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self

  2. AUGMENTATION-RELATED BRAIN PLASTICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eDi Pino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyzes the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain.Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools.Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e. primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the

  3. Mudanças evolutivas no tratamento da doença de Graves com iodo radioativo: 12 anos de experiência em um hospital universitário Changing trends in the treatment of Graves' disease with radioiodine: a 12-year experience in a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Leitão de Souza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a mudança no perfil e abordagem dos pacientes com doença de Graves submetidos a dose terapêutica de radioiodo. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Avaliamos, retrospectivamente, 226 pacientes portadores de doença de Graves submetidos a dose terapêutica de radioiodo entre janeiro de 1990 e dezembro de 2001. O período de 12 anos foi dividido em três períodos de 4 anos para fins de análise estatística, sendo comparadas variáveis clínicas e laboratoriais nos períodos descritos. RESULTADOS: Constatamos que o número de pacientes encaminhados para a dose terapêutica, assim como o percentual de pacientes do sexo feminino (de 62% para 86%; p = 0,005, tiveram incremento significativo. Houve aumento significativo no percentual de pacientes em uso de metimazol previamente à dose terapêutica (de 9,1% para 35,6%; p = 0,03. A dose média de iodo administrada também teve incremento significativo (de 7,6 mCi para 12,7 mCi; p = 0,000003, com reflexo direto em um maior percentual de pacientes curados (de 55,6% para 83,7%; p = 0,004 um ano pós-dose terapêutica. CONCLUSÃO: A dose terapêutica de radioiodo tem sido um método cada vez mais aceito nos pacientes com doença de Graves e a dose administrada tem sido cada vez maior, no intuito de cura permanente e diminuição das chances de recidiva.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the changes in clinical parameters and in the approach to patients submitted to radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dossiers of 226 patients submitted to radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease in the period between January 1990 and December 2001 were retrospectively evaluated. For the purposes of statistical analysis, the 12-year period was subdivided into three periods of 4 years, with a comparison of clinical and laboratory variables in these periods. RESULTS: The authors have observed that the total number of patients referred for radioiodine therapy as well as the percentage of female patients

  4. Augmented Reality in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Swensen, Hakon

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. However, most extant studies in this field have focused on the technology itself. The poster presents findings from the first stage of the AR-sci project addressing the issue of applying AR for educational purposes. Benefits and chall......Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. However, most extant studies in this field have focused on the technology itself. The poster presents findings from the first stage of the AR-sci project addressing the issue of applying AR for educational purposes. Benefits...

  5. Absorbed dose due to radioiodine therapy by organs of patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose absorbed by organs of patients with hyperthyroidism treated with 131 I was estimated by using the MIRDOSE computer program and data from ICRP-53. The calculation were performed using effective half-life and uptake average values, which were determined for 17 patients treated with 370 MBq and 555MBq of 131 I. The results shown that the dose in the thyroid, for a 370 MBq administrated activity, was of 99 Gy and 49.5 Gy for 60 g and 80 g thyroid respectively. The average dose estimated in other organs were relatively low, presenting values lower than 0.1 Gy in the kidneys, bone marrow and ovaries and 0.19 Gy in the stomach

  6. Radioiodination of 5-nitroimidazole Derivative (Ornidazole); Labeling Reaction Optimization, Reaction Kinetic Calculation and In-Vivo Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to localize the inflammatory foci caused by the fungal infections, Ornidazole (ORN) was labeled with iodine-125, the prepared tracer had radiochemical yield greater than 96%. The labeling reaction was carried out at 45 degree c for 30 minutes. The electrophilic radioiodination of ORN was done using iodogen as oxidizing agent. The activation energy Efor this electrophilic substitution reaction was calculated and equal to 4.1 k Cal / mol (17.2 KJ/ mol) at 45 degree c after 30 min reaction time, An in-vivo inflammation models and hypoxic tumor were prepared by the intramuscular injection of E. Coli, C. Albicans, sterile turpentine oil, and Erlich cell line into the thigh muscle of the mice. The biological investigation of the 125IORD tracer in the different inflammatory modalities demonstrated that this tracer is able to distinguish C. Albicans infections from bacterial, sterile, and hypoxic tumor. The difference in target/ non-target (T/NT) ratios between the fungal infected muscle and that of hypoxic tumor, bacterial infected muscle, and sterile inflammation were significant (ι = 2.9, ρ ≤ 0.025, ι= 26.6, ρ <0.005, and (ι = 74,01, ρ <0.005, respectively). The tracer is suitable in imaging of serious fungal infections and in monitoring the efficacy of antifungal therapy during an infection with C. Albicans. In addition, ornidazole can be used to concentrate the therapeutic radionuclide in the site of the hypoxic tumor (1.2 % g and T/NT = 6.3 at 24 h post injection)

  7. An adaptive brain actuated system for augmenting rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Roset, Scott A.; Gant, Katie; Prasad, Abhishek; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2014-01-01

    For people living with paralysis, restoration of hand function remains the top priority because it leads to independence and improvement in quality of life. In approaches to restore hand and arm function, a goal is to better engage voluntary control and counteract maladaptive brain reorganization that results from non-use. Standard rehabilitation augmented with developments from the study of brain-computer interfaces could provide a combined therapy approach for motor cortex rehabilitation an...

  8. Study of surface an atmospheric pollution in radioiodine from Hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In hospitals environment, the radioactive iodine surface contamination is one of the most important incident from the point of view of radiation protection. Among this kind of incidents we can consider vomit or urine spillage from ''131 I therapy or spillage of liquids contaminated with ''125 I from RIA laboratories. We have studied the dynamic of the contamination flow from the contaminated surface to the indoor air, using total activity in the spill, indoor air renewal rate, and resuspension rate as parameters. We describe a method to estimate the resuspension rate, assuming that this parameter is usually unknown, and its results for the following cases: urine or water, on paper-covered or uncovered plastic surface. By using the experimental results, we have studied the indoor air contamination evolution with time, as a function of both initial activity, and indoor air renewal rate. The maximum value of indoor air contamination is not dependent on the initial activity value. The resuspension process is slower in the case of urine spillage that in watery leakage. The use of porous paper may establish the difference between keeping and indoor air contamination below derived air concentration limit (CDAC), or clearly above DAC for may days. The indoor air contamination dependence from the air renewal rate, shows the convenience of high air renewal rate in places where contamination from ''131 I therapy were possible, and how although this factor is not so critical, it should be taken into account in RIA laboratories. (Author) 6 refs

  9. Modified-Release Recombinant Human TSH (MRrhTSH) Augments the Effect of 131I Therapy in Benign Multinodular Goiter: Results from a Multicenter International, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graf, H; Fast, S; Pacini, F;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) can be used to enhance (131)I therapy for shrinkage of multinodular goiter (MG). Objective, Design, and Setting: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of 0.01 and 0.03 mg modified-release (MR) rhTSH as an adjuvant to (131)I the...

  10. Receptor-purified, Bolton-Hunter radioiodinated, recombinant, human epidermal growth factor: An improved radioligand for receptor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an assessment of the applicability of the Bolton-Hunter method to the radioiodination of epidermal growth factor (EGF). Recombinant human EGF (hEGF) could be radioiodinated successfully by this method, whereas murine EGF could not. Bolton-Hunter 125I-labeled hEGF was compared with commercial 125I-labeled hEGF prepared by the chloramine-T radioiodination method. Neither radioligand was sufficiently pure for a detailed characterization of the purportedly heterogeneous pattern of binding of EGF to its receptors. A procedure based on receptor adsorption was thus developed for repurification of the Bolton-Hunter 125I-labeled hEGF. This provided a much purer radioligand suitable for detailed studies of receptor-binding heterogeneity

  11. Three-dimensional radiobiological dosimetry (3D-RD) with {sup 124}I PET for {sup 131}I therapy of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgouros, George; Hobbs, Robert F.; Wahl, Richard L. [Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Atkins, Francis B.; Nostrand, Douglas van [The Washington Hospital Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Washington, DC (United States); Ladenson, Paul W. [Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer was the first and remains among the most successful radiopharmaceutical (RPT) treatments of cancer although its clinical use is based on imprecise dosimetry. The positron emitting radioiodine, {sup 124}I, in combination with positron emission tomography (PET)/CT has made it possible to measure the spatial distribution of radioiodine in tumors and normal organs at high resolution and sensitivity. The CT component of PET/CT has made it simpler to match the activity distribution to the corresponding anatomy. These developments have facilitated patient-specific dosimetry (PSD), utilizing software packages such as three-dimensional radiobiological dosimetry (3D-RD), which can account for individual patient differences in pharmacokinetics and anatomy. We highlight specific examples of such calculations and discuss the potential impact of {sup 124}I PET/CT on thyroid cancer therapy. (orig.)

  12. Radioiodinated O{sup 6}-Benzylguanine derivatives containing an azido function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan, E-mail: ganesan.v@duke.edu; White, Benjamin; Affleck, Donna J.; McDougald, Darryl; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2011-01-15

    Introduction: Drug resistance to alkylator chemotherapy has been primarily attributed to the DNA repair protein alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT); thus, personalizing chemotherapy could be facilitated if tumor AGT content could be quantified prior to administering chemotherapy. We have been investigating the use of radiolabeled O{sup 6}-benzylguanine (BG) analogues to label and quantify AGT in vivo. BG derivatives containing an azido function were sought to potentially enhance the targeting of these analogues to AGT, which is primarily present in the cell nucleus, either by conjugating them to nuclear localization sequence (NLS) peptides or by pretargeting via bio-orthogonal approaches. Methods: Two O{sup 6}-(3-iodobenzyl)guanine (IBG) derivatives containing an azido moiety-O{sup 6}-(4-azidohexyloxymethyl-3-iodobenzyl)guanine (AHOMIBG) and O{sup 6}-(4-azido-3-iodobenzyl)guanine (AIBG) - and their tin precursors were synthesized in multiple steps and the tin precursors were converted to radioiodinated AHOMIBG and AIBG, respectively. Both unlabeled and radioiodinated AHOMIBG analogues were conjugated to alkyne-derivatized NLS peptide heptynoyl-PK{sub 3}RKV. The ability of these radioiodinated compounds to bind to AGT was determined by a trichloroacetic acid precipitation assay and gel electrophoresis/phosphor imaging. Labeling of an AGT-AIBG conjugate via Staudinger ligation using the {sup 131}I-labeled phosphine ligand, 2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl 4-[{sup 131}I]iodobenzoate, also was investigated. Results: [{sup 131}I]AHOMIBG was synthesized in two steps from its tin precursor in 52.2{+-}7.5% (n=5) radiochemical yield and conjugated to the NLS peptide via click reaction in 50.7{+-}4.9% (n=6) yield. The protected tin precursor of AIBG was radioiodinated in an average radiochemical yield of 69.6{+-}4.5% (n=7); deprotection of the intermediate gave [{sup 131}I]AIBG in 17.8{+-}4.2% (n=9) yield. While both [{sup 131}I]AHOMIBG and its NLS conjugate bound to AGT pure

  13. Pulmonary fibrosis in youth treated with radioiodine for juvenile thyroid cancer and lung metastases after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebestreit, Helge; Burkhardt, Antje [University Children' s Hospital, Wuerzburg (Germany); Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Drozd, Valentina [International Belarussian-German Foundation, Minsk (Belarus); Demidchik, Yuri [Thyroid Cancer Centre, Minsk (Belarus); Trusen, Andreas [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johanniter-Krankenhaus, Genthin-Stendal gGmbH, Stendal (Germany); Beer, Meinrad [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    The objective of this project was to systematically determine the prevalence and consequences of pulmonary fibrosis in youth with thyroid carcinoma and lung metastases from Belarus who were treated with radioiodine ({sup 131}I). A total of 69 patients treated for juvenile thyroid carcinoma and lung metastasis with {sup 131}I were assessed. A group of 29 patients without lung metastases and prior {sup 131}I treatment served as controls. The assessments included a CT scan of the lungs, extensive pulmonary function testing and an incremental cycle test to volitional fatigue with measurements of oxygen uptake (V. O{sub 2}), oxygen saturation and alveolar-arterial difference in oxygen partial pressure ({delta}aaO{sub 2}). Five patients with lung metastases showed advanced pulmonary fibrosis on CT scans and also had poorer lung functions compared with the 62 patients with none or minor signs of fibrosis and the 29 controls. Furthermore, these five patients showed lower peak V.O{sub 2}, lower oxygen saturation at peak exercise and higher exercise {delta}aaO{sub 2}. They were younger at the time of cancer diagnosis and had received chemotherapy more frequently than youth with pulmonary metastases who did not develop fibrosis. One of the five patients subsequently died from pulmonary fibrosis. Following the Chernobyl catastrophe, about 7% of children treated with radioiodine for thyroid carcinoma and lung metastases displayed pulmonary fibrosis which was associated with functional impairments. Based on the characteristics of affected individuals, the number of radioiodine courses may have to be limited, especially in young children, and chemotherapy should be avoided. (orig.)

  14. Specific targeting of infectious foci with radioiodinated human recombinant interleukin-1 in an experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, radioiodinated human recombinant interleukin-1 (IL-1) was investigated for its potential to image infectious foci in vivo in an animal model of infection. Twenty-four hours after induction of a Staphylococcus aureus abscess in the left calf muscle, mice were i.v. injected with both iodine-125 labelled IL-1 and iodine-131 labelled myoglobin, a size-matched control agent. The animals were killed for tissue biodistribution studies at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h p.i. Gamma camera images were obtained at 6, 24 and 48 h after injecting mice with 123I-IL-1. Radioiodinated IL-1 rapidly cleared from the body; after 12 h the abscess was the organ with the highest activity. The absolute abscess uptake of 125I-IL-1 remained high compared to 131I-myoglobin, resulting in significantly higher abscess-to-muscle ratios of 125I-IL-1 compared to 131I-myoglobin. The ratios of 125I-IL-1 reached the ultimate value of 44.4 ± 10.8 at 48 h p.i., whereas the ratios of 131I-myoglobin did not exceed 5.9 ± 0.7. Gamma camera imaging revealed clearly visible abscesses. In conclusion, our results demonstrate specific retention of radioiodinated IL-1 in the abscess, presumably by interaction of IL-1 with its receptor on the inflammatory cells. The high target-to-background ratios that were obtained over the course of time indicate that the IL-1 receptor may be a valuable target for the imaging of infectious foci. (orig.)

  15. Isolation of radio-iodinated apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, H J; Edelman, I S

    1979-04-01

    The apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium were radio-iodinated with the glucose-glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase system. The covalently bound radio iodine was used as a marker during subcellular fractionation and membrane isolation. Homogenization conditions that ensured rupture of more than 80% of the cells without substantial nuclear damage were defined by Normarski optics. The nuclei were separated by differential centrifugation and the apical and basal-lateral components were resolved by differential and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The apical components yielded two radioactive bands that were identified as glycocalyx and plasma membrane labeled with 125I. The basal-lateral components yielded a hetero-disperse pattern made up of at least 3 radioactive bands, but the bulk of the activity of ouabain-sensitive ATPase comigrated with only one of these bands. The mitochondia, identified by assays for cytochrome oxidase and NADH cytochrome c reductase activities, were separated from the radio-iodine labeled by centrifugation in sucrose density gradients under isokinetic conditions. The labeled glycocalyx and the slowly migrating components of basal-lateral labeling were separated from the radio-iodinated membranes by centrifugation at 100,000 x g x 1 hr after removal of the mitochrondria by the isokinetic method. The labeled membranes were then subjected to ultracentrifugation in sucrose density gradients under isopycnic conditions; the basal-lateral membranes containing ouabain-sensitive ATP-ase were well resolved from the apical membranes by this method. These results provide a relatively rapid method of attaining partial purification of the apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium. PMID:222911

  16. A study on recombinant human interleukin 2 radioiodinated with 125I (125I-rIL-2) for RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIL-2 was labelled with 125I by Iodogen method. The products were purified by HPLC. Analysis of each radiolabelled preparation showed that greater than 95% of the radioiodine was associated with a single protein peak. The specific activity of radioiodinated rIL-2 was approximately 2.2 x 1016-2.8 x 1016 Bq/mol. The 125I-rIL-2 was designed for quantitating human IL-2 with sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA). The bioactivity of 125I-rIL-2 is good

  17. Augmented assessment as a means to augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    Rigorous scientific assessment of educational technologies typically lags behind the availability of the technologies by years because of the lack of validated instruments and benchmarks. Even when the appropriate assessment instruments are available, they may not be applied because of time and monetary constraints. Work in augmented reality, instrumented mannequins, serious gaming, and similar promising educational technologies that haven't undergone timely, rigorous evaluation, highlights the need for assessment methodologies that address the limitations of traditional approaches. The most promising augmented assessment solutions incorporate elements of rapid prototyping used in the software industry, simulation-based assessment techniques modeled after methods used in bioinformatics, and object-oriented analysis methods borrowed from object oriented programming. PMID:16404012

  18. Augmented reality and its practical application

    OpenAIRE

    ZÍTKOVÁ, Helena

    2011-01-01

    This thesis combines topic of augmented reality with tourism. For analyzing the state of the use of augmented reality was composed case studies. It was created product, which is called Guide to mobile phone.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of radioiodinated NPC 22009, a putative CRF receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have suggested that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a role in stress-related disorders such as anxiety, depression, anorexia nervosa and stress-induced immune suppression. Hence CRF antagonists have potential therapeutic utility. Recently the authors discovered that pyrazolones such as NPC 22009 and the corresponding disulfide behave as CRF antagonists in vitro with micromolar potency. To probe the nature of this CRF antagonism they developed a convenient synthesis of radioiodinated NPC 22009. Details of the synthesis and preliminary pharmacological studies are presented

  20. Radioiodination of C60 derivative C60(OH)xOy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water-soluble fullerene derivative C60(OH)xOy was radioiodinated with the iodogen method. The labeling yield was determined by radio-TLC. The effects of pH value, reaction time, temperature and amount of the iodogen on the labeling yield were studied. The labeled product was purified by Sephadex G-25 column chromatography and then stability of 125I-C60(OH)xOy was examined. The results showed that the radiochemical purity of 125I-C60(OH)xOy solution with benzylalcohol remained 82.7% after 43 hours. (author)

  1. Radiation exposure of the families of outpatients treated with radioiodine (iodine-131) for hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrington, S.F.; O`Doherty, M.J.; Seed, P. [Guy`s, King`s and St. Thomas` Schools of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Kettle, A.G. [Kent and Canterbury NHS Trust, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Thomson, W.H.; Harding, L.K. [City Hospitals NHS Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Mountford, P.J.; Farrell, R.J. [North Staffordshire Hospital NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Burrell, D.N. [University Hospital, Birmingham NHS Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Batchelor, S. [Guy`s and St. Thomas` Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    Patients who receive radioiodine (iodine-131) treatment for hyperthyroidism (195-800 MBq) emit radiation and represent a potential hazard to other individuals. Critical groups amongst the public are fellow travellers on the patient`s journey home from hospital and members of the patient`s family, particularly young children. The dose which members of the public are allowed to receive as a result of a patient`s treatment has been reduced in Europe following recently revised recommendations from ICRP. The annual public dose limit is 1 mSv, though adult members of the patient`s family are allowed to receive higher doses, with the proviso that a limit of 5 mSv should not be exceeded over 5 years. Unless the doses received during out-patient administration of radioiodine can be demonstrated to comply with these new limits, hospitalisation of patients will be necessary. The radiation doses received by family members (35 adults and 87 children) of patients treated with radioiodine at five UK hospitals were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters mounted in wrist bands. Families were given advice (according to current practice) from their treatment centre about limiting close contact with the patient for a period of time after treatment. Doses measured over 3-6 weeks were adjusted to give an estimate of values which might have been expected if the dosimeters had been worn indefinitely. Thirty-five passengers accompanying patients home after treatment also recorded the dose received during the journey using electronic (digital) personal dosimeters. For the ``adjusted`` doses to infinity, 97% of adults complied with a 5-mSv dose limit (range:0.2-5.8 mSv) and 89% of children with a 1-mSv limit (range: 0.2-7.2 mSv). However 6 of 17 children aged 3 years or less had an adjusted dose which exceeded this 1 mSv limit. The dose received by adults during travel was small in comparison with the total dose received. The median travel dose was 0.03 mSv for 1 h travel (range: 2 {mu

  2. Augmentation of tendon-to-bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atesok, Kivanc; Fu, Freddie H; Wolf, Megan R; Ochi, Mitsuo; Jazrawi, Laith M; Doral, M Nedim; Lubowitz, James H; Rodeo, Scott A

    2014-03-19

    Tendon-to-bone healing is vital to the ultimate success of the various surgical procedures performed to repair injured tendons. Achieving tendon-to-bone healing that is functionally and biologically similar to native anatomy can be challenging because of the limited regeneration capacity of the tendon-bone interface. Orthopaedic basic-science research strategies aiming to augment tendon-to-bone healing include the use of osteoinductive growth factors, platelet-rich plasma, gene therapy, enveloping the grafts with periosteum, osteoconductive materials, cell-based therapies, biodegradable scaffolds, and biomimetic patches. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and extracorporeal shockwave treatment may affect tendon-to-bone healing by means of mechanical forces that stimulate biological cascades at the insertion site. Application of various loading methods and immobilization times influence the stress forces acting on the recently repaired tendon-to-bone attachment, which eventually may change the biological dynamics of the interface. Other approaches, such as the use of coated sutures and interference screws, aim to deliver biological factors while achieving mechanical stability by means of various fixators. Controlled Level-I human trials are required to confirm the promising results from in vitro or animal research studies elucidating the mechanisms underlying tendon-to-bone healing and to translate these results into clinical practice. PMID:24647509

  3. Augmented Reality for Multi-disciplinary Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiangyu; Rui

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for multi-disciplinary collaboration. Tangible Augmented Reality has been raised as one of suitable systems for design collaboration. Furthermore, it emphasizes the advantages of Tangible Augmented Reality to illustrate the needs for integrating the Tangible User Interfaces and Augmented Reality Systems.

  4. Nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism: Cumulative hypothyroidism incidence after radioiodine and surgical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinser, J.A.; Roesler, H.; Furrer, T.; Gruetter, D.Z.; Zimmermann, H. (Univ. of Berne (Switzerland))

    1989-12-01

    During 1977, 246 hyperthyroid patients were seen in our departments, 140 (57%) with nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism (NIH)--101 with a toxic adenoma (TA) and 39 with multifocal functional autonomy (MFA). All patients but one could be followed over 9 yr, 101 after 131I treatment (RIT), another 29 after surgery (S). Ten patients were left untreated. Thirty-four treated (24%) patients died, none as a result of thyroid or post-treatment complications. There was no hyperthyroidism later than 9 mo after therapy. Only 1% (RIT) and 24% (S) were hypothyroid 1 yr after treatment. But 19% of all treated NIH patients were hypothyroid after 9 yr or at the time of their death, 12% after RIT and 41% after S. The cumulative hypothyroidism incidences 1.4%/yr for RIT and 2.2%/yr for S, were not significantly different. Out of the five survivers without RIT or S, two TA patients were hypothyroid. The effect of RIT on goiter related loco-regional complications was not worse than after S. We conclude that RIT is the treatment for NIH, leaving surgery for exceptional cases.

  5. Nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism: Cumulative hypothyroidism incidence after radioiodine and surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1977, 246 hyperthyroid patients were seen in our departments, 140 (57%) with nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism (NIH)--101 with a toxic adenoma (TA) and 39 with multifocal functional autonomy (MFA). All patients but one could be followed over 9 yr, 101 after 131I treatment (RIT), another 29 after surgery (S). Ten patients were left untreated. Thirty-four treated (24%) patients died, none as a result of thyroid or post-treatment complications. There was no hyperthyroidism later than 9 mo after therapy. Only 1% (RIT) and 24% (S) were hypothyroid 1 yr after treatment. But 19% of all treated NIH patients were hypothyroid after 9 yr or at the time of their death, 12% after RIT and 41% after S. The cumulative hypothyroidism incidences 1.4%/yr for RIT and 2.2%/yr for S, were not significantly different. Out of the five survivers without RIT or S, two TA patients were hypothyroid. The effect of RIT on goiter related loco-regional complications was not worse than after S. We conclude that RIT is the treatment for NIH, leaving surgery for exceptional cases

  6. Effective Augmentation of Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi

    2016-05-01

    Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our “effective augmentation” algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. “Effective augmentation” is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value.

  7. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  8. Tracking for Outdoor Mobile Augmented Reality: Further development of the Zion Augmented Reality Application

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Tor Egil Riegels

    2008-01-01

    This report deals with providing tracking to an outdoor mobile augmented reality system and the Zion Augmented Reality Application. ZionARA is meant to display a virtual recreation of a 13th century castle on the site it once stood through an augmented reality Head Mounted Display. Mobile outdoor augmented/mixed reality puts special demands on what kind of equipment is practical. After briefly evaluating the different existing tracking methods, a solution based on GPS and an augmented inertia...

  9. Reversion of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation in hypothyroid state after radioiodine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty patients with thyrotoxic Basedow's disease complicated by atrial fibrillation lasting more than one month despite treatment with antithyroidal drugs were treated with radioiodine supplemented with an antithyroidal drug or inorganic iodine. We classified the 20 patients on the basis of strial fibrillation reversion into two groups, one with reversion (group I) and the other without reversion (group II). In all 12 patients in group I, T4 and T3 decreased to hypothyroid levels in 3.2±1.3 months, and one month later all patients had their sinus rhythm restored while T4 and T3 also remained below normal (2.6±1.1 μg/dl and 77.9±34.4 ng/dl, respectively). Although T4 and T3 also decreased within 3.5±1.8 months in all 8 patients in group II, one month later, atrial fibrillation persisted while T4 and T3 (10.4±5.3 μg/dl and 157.7±67.5 ng/dl, respectively) rose significantly compared to those in group I (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). For reversion of atrial fibrillation it is important that the onset of hypothyroidism is rapidly induced by radioiodine and that hypothyroidism continues for at least one month. (author)

  10. Preparation, purification and primary bioevaluation of radioiodinated ofloxacin. An imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandil, Shaban; Seddik, Usama; Hussien, Hiba; Shaltot, Mohamed [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Cyclotron Project; El-Tabl, Abdou [Monofia Univ. (Egypt). Faculty of Science

    2015-07-01

    The broad-spectrum antibiotic agents have been demonstrated as promising diagnostic tools for early detection of infectious lesions. We set out ofloxacin (Oflo), a second-generation fluoroquinolone, for the radioiodination process. In particular, this was carried out with {sup 125}I via an electrophilic substitution reaction. The radiochemical yield was influenced by different factors; drug concentration, different oxidizing agents, e.g. chloramine-T, iodogen and n-bromosuccinimide, pH of medium, reaction time, temperature and different organic media. These parameters were studied to optimize the best conditions for labeling with ofloxacin. We found that radiolabeling in ethanol medium showed a 70% radiochemical yield of {sup 125}I-ofloxacin. The radioiodination was determined by means of TLC and HPLC. The cold labeled Oflo ({sup 127}I-Oflo) was prepared and controlled by HPLC. The cold labeled Oflo was also confirmed by NMR and MS techniques. Furthermore, biodistribution studies for labeled {sup 125}I-Oflo were examined in two independent groups (3 mice in each one); control and E. Coli-injected (inflamed). The radiotracer showed a good localization in muscle of thigh for inflamed group as compared to control. In conclusion, ofloxacine might be a promising target as an anti-inflammatory imaging agent.

  11. The effect of tanespimycin (17-AAG) on radioiodine accumulation in sodium iodide symporter expressing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, tanespimycin, is an anticancer agent known to increase iodine accumulation in normal and cancerous thyroid cells. Iodine accumulation is regulated by membrane proteins such as sodium iodide sym porter (NIS) and pendrin (PDS), and thus we attempted to characterize the effects of tanespimycin on those genes. Cells were incubated with tanespimycin in order to evaluate 125I accumulation and efflux ability. Radioiodine uptake and efflux were measured by a gamma counter and normalized by protein amount. RT PCR were performed to measure the level of gene expression. After tanespimycin treatment, 125uptake was in creased by ∼2.5 fold in FRTL 5, hNIS ARO. and hNIS MDA MB 231 cells, but no changes were detected in the hNIS HeLa cells. Tanespimycin significantly reduced the radioiodine efflux rate only in the FRTL 5 cell. in the FRTL 5 and hNIS ARO cells, PDS mRNA levels were markedly reduced; the only other observed alteration in the levels of NIS mRNA after tanespimtycin treatment was an observed increase in the h hNIS ARO cells. These results indicate that cellular responses against tanespimycin treatment differed between the normal rat thyroid cells and human cancer cells, and the reduction in the 125I efflux rate by tanespimycin in the normal rat thyroid cells might be attributable to reduced PDS gene expression

  12. Reversion of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation in hypothyroid state after radioiodine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Makiko; Saito, Shintaro; Sakurada, Toshiro; Yoshida, Katsumi; Kaise, Kazuro; Kaise, Nobuko; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Yoichi; Yoshinaga, Kaoru (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    Twenty patients with thyrotoxic Basedow's disease complicated by atrial fibrillation lasting more than one month despite treatment with antithyroidal drugs were treated with radioiodine supplemented with an antithyroidal drug or inorganic iodine. We classified the 20 patients on the basis of strial fibrillation reversion into two groups, one with reversion (group I) and the other without reversion (group II). In all 12 patients in group I, T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} decreased to hypothyroid levels in 3.2{+-}1.3 months, and one month later all patients had their sinus rhythm restored while T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} also remained below normal (2.6{+-}1.1 {mu}g/dl and 77.9{+-}34.4 ng/dl, respectively). Although T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} also decreased within 3.5{+-}1.8 months in all 8 patients in group II, one month later, atrial fibrillation persisted while T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} (10.4{+-}5.3 {mu}g/dl and 157.7{+-}67.5 ng/dl, respectively) rose significantly compared to those in group I (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). For reversion of atrial fibrillation it is important that the onset of hypothyroidism is rapidly induced by radioiodine and that hypothyroidism continues for at least one month. (author).

  13. A radioiodinated intracellularly trapped ligand for determining the sites of plasma protein degradation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioiodinated, intracellularly trapped adduct of cellobiose and tyramine was used to determine the sites of plasma protein degradation in vivo. Proteins derivatized with the radioiodinated ligand were recognized as underivatized proteins both in vitro and vivo. On degradation of derivatized low-density lipoprotein, the rate of leakage from cultured fibroblasts was only 5% during 24 h. Similarly, on injection of labelled proteins into rats and rabbits, urinary excretion of the label was less than 10% of total labelled catabolic products recovered 24 h after injection. Examination of the tissue contents of label at two times after injection of labelled asialofetuin or apolipoprotein A1 in rats, and asialotransferrin in rabbits showed that the label did not detectably redistribute between tissues after initial uptake and catabolism; a significant leakage from liver was quantitatively accounted for by label appearing in gut contents and faeces. A simple double-label method was devised to provide a correction for intact protein in trapped plasma, the extravascular spaces, and within cells. By using this method it becomes unnecessary to fractionate tissue samples. (author)

  14. Detection of HCV-RNA by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Biotinylated and Radioiodinated Primers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jin Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Cheon, Jun Hong; Chung, Yoon Young; Park, Hung Dong; Chung, Young Hwa; Lee, Young Sang [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the clinical applicability of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit of HCV-RNA using biotinylated and radioiodinated primers. Study subjects were 118 patients with positive anti-HCV. HCV-RNA in patients serum was extracted by guanidium thiocyanate method. After first amplification, the product was reamplified by primers labelled with biotin and I-125. The final amplification product was detected by counting the radioactivity after incubation in avidin coated tubes. In 51 samples, the test was repeated for evaluation of reproducibility. This new method was also compared with conventional RT-PCR methods in 34 samples from patients with chronic liver disease. The results were as follows, 1) HCV-RNA was positive in 85(97%)of 88 patients with chronic liver disease, and in 23 (73%) of 30 patients with normal liver function. 2) In comparison with conventional method, HCV-RNA was detected in 32(94%) of 34 patients with new method, whereas in 27(79% ) of the same group with conventional method 3) Repeated test with new method in 52 samples demonstrated 82% of concordant result. In conclusion, new method with biotinylated and radioiodinated primers was more sensitive than conventional method. However, great care must be taken for quality control because there were considerable interassay variation and possibility of false positivity and false negativity.

  15. Monolayer freeze-fracture autoradiography: quantitative analysis of the transmembrane distribution of radioiodinated concanavalin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of monolayer freeze-fracture autoradiography (MONOFARG) has been developed and the principles, quantitation, and application of the method are described. Cell monolayers attached to polylysine-treated glass were freeze-fractured, shadowed, and coated with dry, Parlodion-supported Ilford L4 photographic emulsion at room temperature. Quantitative aspects of MONOFARG were examined using radioiodinated test systems. Background was routinely -4 grains/μm2/day, the highest overall efficiency was between 25% and 45%, and grain density and efficiency were dependent on radiation dose for iodine-125 and D-19 development. Corrected grain densities were linearly proportional to iodine-125 concentration. The method was applied to an examination of the transmembrane distribution of radioiodinated and fluoresceinated concanavalin A (125I-FITC-Con-A). Human erythrocytes were labeled, column-purified, freeze-dried or freeze-fractured, autoradiographed, and examined by electron microscopy. The number of silver grains per square micrometer of unsplit single membrane was essentially identical to that of split extracellular membrane halves. These data demonstrate that 125I-FITC-Con-A partitions exclusively with the extracellular half of the membrane upon freeze-fracturing and can be used as a quantitative marker for the fraction of extracellular split membrane halves. This method should be able to provide new information about certain transmembrane properties of biological membrane molecules and probes, as well as about the process of freeze-fracture per se

  16. Identification of frog photoreceptor plasma and disk membrane proteins by radioiodination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, P.L.; Bownds, M.D.

    1987-03-24

    Several functions have been identified for the plasma membrane of the rod outer segment, including control of light-dependent changes in sodium conductance and a sodium-calcium exchange mechanism. However, little is known about its constituent proteins. Intact rod outer segments substantially free of contaminants were prepared in the dark and purified on a density gradient of Percoll. Surface proteins were then labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination, and intact rod outer segments were reisolated. Membrane proteins were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The surface proteins labeled included rhodopsin, the major membrane protein, and 12 other proteins. To compare the protein composition of plasma membrane with that of the internal disk membrane, purified rod outer segments were lysed by hypotonic disruption or freeze-thawing, and plasma plus disk membranes were radioiodinated. In these membrane preparations, rhodopsin was the major iodinated constituent, with 12 other proteins also labeled. Autoradiographic evidence indicated some differences in protein composition between disk and plasma membranes. A quantitative comparison of the two samples showed that labeling of two proteins, 24 kilodaltons (kDa) and 13 kDa, was enriched in the plasma membrane, while labeling of a 220-kDa protein was enriched in the disk membrane. These plasma membrane proteins may be associated with important functions such as the light-sensitive conductance and the sodium-calcium exchanger.

  17. High-dose radioiodine treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma is not associated with change in female fertility or any genetic risk to the offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: We tried to evaluate the female fertility and genetic risk to the offspring from the exposure to high-dose 131I by assessing the pregnancy outcomes and health status of the children of female patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who had received therapeutic doses of 131I. Materials and Methods: From 1967 to 2002, a total of 1,282 women had been treated with 131I. Of these patients, 692 (54%) were in the reproductive age group (18-45 years). Forty women had a total of 50 pregnancies after high-dose 131I. Age at presentation ranged from 16 to 36 years (mean, 23 ± 4 years). Histopathology was papillary thyroid cancer in 32 cases and follicular thyroid cancer in 8 cases. Results: Single high-dose therapy was given in 30 cases, 2 doses were given in 7 cases, 3 doses were given in 2 cases, and four doses were given in 1 case in which lung metastases had occurred. In 37 patients (92%), disease was successfully ablated before pregnancy. Ovarian absorbed-radiation dose calculated by the MIRD method ranged from 3.5 to 60 cGy (mean, 12 ± 11 cGy). The interval between 131I therapy and pregnancy varied from 7 to 120 months (37.4 ± 28.2 months). Three spontaneous abortions occurred in 2 women. Forty-seven babies (20 females and 27 males) were born. Forty-four babies were healthy with normal birth weight and normal developmental milestones. Twenty women delivered their first baby after 131I therapy. The youngest child in our series is 11 months of age, and the oldest is 8.5 years of age. Conclusions: Female fertility is not affected by high-dose radioiodine treatment, and the therapy does not appear to be associated with any genetic risks to the offspring

  18. Assessment of exposure of workers to ionizing radiation from radioiodine and technetium in nuclear medicine departmental facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Krajewska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to its use of ionising radiation, the field of nuclear medicine is a unique and significant part of medical diagnostics and patient treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the internal exposure of nuclear medicine employees to radioiodine 131I and technetium 99mTc as well as to assess the external exposure doses. Material and Methods: The radioiodine 131I and technetium 99mTc contents in the thyroid of staff members (about 100 persons dealing with these radionuclides have been measured in four departments of nuclear medicine. The measurements were conducted with a portable detection unit for in situ measurements of radioiodine and technetium. High sensitivity environmental thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD were used to measure the external exposure dose. Results: The average values and ranges of radioiodine 131I activity measured in the thyroids of all of the medical units' employees were: 83 Bq (range: 70-250 Bq, 280 Bq (range: 70-4000 Bq, 275 Bq (range: 70-1000 Bq for technical staff, nuclear medicine staff and hospital services staff, respectively. The mean value of technetium 99mTc content in the thyroids of nuclear medicine staff was approximately 1500 Bq (range: 50- -1800 Bq. External exposure dose rates were in the range of 0.5-10 μGy/h. Conclusions: The calculated average effective dose for particular person caused by the inhalation of radioiodine 131I is below 5% of 20 mSv/year (occupational exposure limit. Med Pr 2013;64(5:625–630

  19. Biologically based strategies to augment rotator cuff tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Schaer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesions of the rotator cuff (RC are among the most frequent tendon injuries. In spite of the developments in both open and arthroscopic surgery, RC repair still very often fails. In order to reduce the failure rate after surgery, several experimental in vitro and in vivo therapy methods have been developed for biological improvement of the reinsertion. This article provides an overview of the current evidence for augmentation of RC reconstruction with growth factors. Furthermore, potential future therapeutic approaches are discussed. We performed a comprehensive search of the PubMed database using various combinations of the keywords "tendon," "rotator cuff," "augmentation," "growth factor," "platelet-rich fibrin," and "platelet-rich plasma" for publications up to 2011. Given the linguistic capabilities of the research team, we considered publications in English, German, French, and Spanish. We excluded literature reviews, case reports, and letters to the editor.

  20. Digital Illumination for Augmented Studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Zollmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtual studio technology plays an important role for modern television productions. Blue-screen matting is a common technique for integrating real actors or moderators into computer generated sceneries. Augmented reality offers the possibility to mix real and virtual in a more general context. This article proposes a new technological approach for combining real studio content with computer-generated information. Digital light projection allows a controlled spatial, temporal, chrominance and luminance modulation of illumination opening new possibilities for TV studios.

  1. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  2. Indeterminacy and labor augmenting externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile; Goenka, Aditya

    2002-01-01

    In this two-sector discrete time model of endogenous economic growth intersectoral effects are assumed to be "labor augmenting" We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for local indeterminacy and multiplicity of the balanced growth path in terms of factor intensities in both sectors....... The balanced growth path is unique if the consumption good sector is more capital intensive. However, it can be indeterminate. When the investment good sector is more capital intensive a sufficient condition for indeterminacy is that there exists at least three balanced growth paths....

  3. Myeloid Sarcoma of the Uterine Cervix as Presentation of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia after Treatment with Low-Dose Radioiodine for Thyroid Cancer: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sophie Weingertner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of acute myeloid leukaemia after low-dose radioiodine therapy and its presentation as a myeloid sarcoma of the uterine cervix are both rare events. We report a case of acute myeloid leukaemia revealed by a myeloid sarcoma of the uterine cervix in a 48-year-old woman, 17 months after receiving a total dose of 100 mCi 131I for papillary thyroid cancer. A strict hematological follow-up of patients treated with any dose of 131I is recommended to accurately detect any hematological complications which might have been underestimated. Unusual presentations, such as chloroma of the uterine cervix, may reveal myeloid malignancy and should be kept in mind.

  4. Augmented reality in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality. PMID:24464832

  5. Augmented reality in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality.

  6. Radioiodinated N-[3-(4-morpholino)propyl]-N-methyl-2-hydroxy-5-iodo-3-methylbenzylamine (ERC9): a new potential melanoma imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salopek, T.G. [Div. of Dermatology and Cutaneous Sciences, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Scott, J.R.; Joshua, A.V. [Edmonton Radiopharmaceutical Centre, AB (Canada); Smylie, M. [Department of Medicine, Cross Cancer Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Logus, J.W.; Morin, C.A.; McEwan, Alexander J.B. [Nuclear Medicine, Department of Oncologic Imaging, Cross Cancer Institute,, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2001-04-01

    The role of nuclear medicine in the management of patients with malignant melanoma has expanded in recent years with the introduction of lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel lymph node biopsy, intense interest in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) as a tracer, and encouraging reports of several new single-photon-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. While PET imaging with FDG exhibits a high sensitivity for imaging patients with melanoma, specificity may not be as high and access to the technology remains limited. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging remains standard technology for most nuclear medicine departments. We report a novel radiopharmaceutical - radioiodinated N-[3-(4-morpholino)propyl]-N-methyl-2-hydroxy-5-iodo-3-methylbenzylamine (ERC9) - which appears to show a sensitivity and specificity that are commensurate with expectations of a radiopharmaceutical for routine clinical imaging. In this phase II trial, 110 patients at risk for recurrence, with suspected recurrence or being restaged have been imaged with this novel tracer, demonstrating an overall sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 89%. The results of our study support a phase III trial to establish the clinical role of ERC9 in staging melanoma patients at presentation who are at high risk for metastasis, or restaging patients with known relapse to assess the extent of their disease, particularly if therapy or enrollment into a clinical trial is being considered. (orig.)

  7. Preprint ARPPS Augmented Reality Pipeline Prospect System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Han, Yong; Hao, DongSheng; Lv, Zhihan

    2015-01-01

    This is the preprint version of our paper on ICONIP. Outdoor augmented reality geographic information system (ARGIS) is the hot application of augmented reality over recent years. This paper concludes the key solutions of ARGIS, designs the mobile augmented reality pipeline prospect system (ARPPS), and respectively realizes the machine vision based pipeline prospect system (MVBPPS) and the sensor based pipeline prospect system (SBPPS). With the MVBPPS's realization, this paper studies the neu...

  8. Augmented Reality Using JavaScript

    OpenAIRE

    Hailemichael, Aida

    2013-01-01

    The project goal was to provide a mobile application, for a venue called Kulturhuset Karelia which is located in Tammisaari Finland. In this paper, the concept of Augmented Reality technology is briefly discussed along with the mobile application for the venue. The utilisation of JavaScript for creating Augmented reality content for mobile Augmented reality browser is also demonstrated. The application was created by using Architecht API which is Jacvascript library based on the Wikitude...

  9. InAR:Inverse Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Hao; Cui, Hainan

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality is the art to seamlessly fuse virtual objects into real ones. In this short note, we address the opposite problem, the inverse augmented reality, that is, given a perfectly augmented reality scene where human is unable to distinguish real objects from virtual ones, how the machine could help do the job. We show by structure from motion (SFM), a simple 3D reconstruction technique from images in computer vision, the real and virtual objects can be easily separated in the recon...

  10. Interactive Assembly Guide using Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin; Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard; Larsen, Christian Lindequist;

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an Augmented Reality system for aiding a pump assembling process at Grundfos, one of the leading pump producers. Stable pose estimation of the pump is required in order to augment the graphics correctly. This is achieved by matching image edges with synthesized edges from CAD...... norm. A dynamic visualization of the augmented graphics provides the user with guidance. Usability tests show that the accuracy of the system is sufficient for assembling the pump....

  11. AB027. Penile augmentation: informed text briefing

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Nam Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The men’s desire to have larger and longer penis have created endless medical demands throughout human history. Until up to date, various medical skills for penile augmentation have developed in aspect of experimental and clinical outcome. Recently with throwing away socially unacceptable ideas, the need for penile augmentation is considered as equivalent level with mammoplasty for breast augmentation in women for cosmetic and psychological reason. Concurrently advanced technologies in medica...

  12. Relations between pathological markers and radioiodine can and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT findings in papillary thyroid cancer patients with recurrent cervical nodal metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Won [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Catholic Kwandong University International St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Hye Sook [Dept. of athology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Mi [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyun Woo; Chung, June Key [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine,Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between the immunohistochemical results and radioiodine scan and {sup 18}F-FDG PET findings in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients with recurrent cervical nodal metastases. A total of 46 PTC patients who had undergone a radioiodine scan and/or {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and a subsequent operation on recurrent cervical lymph nodes were enrolled. Twenty-seven patients underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, 8 underwent radioiodine scans, and 11 underwent both scans. In all surgical specimens, the immunoexpressions of thyroglobulin (Tg), sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), glucose transporter 1 (Glut-1), and somatostatin receptor 1 and 2A (SSTR1 and SSTR2A) were assessed, and associations between these expressions and radioiodine scan and {sup 18}F-FDG PET findings were evaluated. Of the 38 patients who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, all patients with weak Tg expression had positive {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, while only 45 % of the patients with moderate or strong Tg expression showed positive uptake (p = 0.01). The proportion of patients with positive {sup 18}F-FDG uptake increased as the degree of Glut-1 expression with luminal accentuation increased. Of the 19 patients who underwent a radioiodine scan, the proportion with positive radioiodine uptake was greater among patients with strong NIS and SSTR2A expression than among patients expressing these markers at weak levels (p = 0.04 for all). All three patients with weak Tg expression were negative for radioiodine uptake. The {sup 18}F-FDG uptakes of recurrent cervical nodes are related to strong Glut-1 expression with luminal accentuation and weak Tg expression, whereas radioiodine uptake is related to the strong expressions of NIS and SSTR2A.

  13. The synthesis and biodistribution of 3-(4'-[[sup 125]I]-iodophenyl)-4-aminobutyric acid, a radioiodinated analogue of baclofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakita, Y.; Kojima, M. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Div. of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry); Schwendner, S.W.; McConnell, D.; Counsell, R.E. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Medicine)

    1990-02-01

    Baclofen has been found to bind to receptors in the central nervous system that are specific for [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a well known inhibitory neurotransmitter. This paper describes the synthesis of a radioiodinated analog of baclofen as part of an effort to develop receptor probes useful in single photon emission computed tomography. Preliminary biodistribution studies showed the radioiodinationed analog to be essentially stable to in vivo deiodination and have a distribution profile similar to that of baclofen. (Author).

  14. Augmenting Locomotion in an Anthropomorphic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Wight

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A powered orthosis has applications ranging from assisting the elderly to augmenting astronauts. An assistive control scheme is developed that uses the force from a slave actuator to augment the force of a master actuator. This can be used to augment a closed-loop control scheme applied to the master actuator. Initially, actuator augmentation is explored both theoretically and experimentally using a simple mechanical system. The control scheme is then applied to a scale model of human lower limbs on a stationary bicycle to investigate the feasibility of a powered orthosis using pneumatic muscle actuators.

  15. RFIDice - Augmenting Tabletop Dice with RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Langheinrich

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Augmented dice allow players of tabletop games to have the result of a roll be automatically recorded by a computer, e.g., for supporting strategy games. We have built a set of three augmented-dice-prototypes based on radio frequency identification (RFID technology, which allows us to build robust, cheap, and small augmented dice. Using a corresponding readout infrastructure and a sample application, we have evaluated our approach and show its advantages over other dice augmentation methods discussed in the literature.

  16. Improvement of reproducibility and quality control of human growth hormone radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling reaction of human growth hormone (hGH) with 125I and its chromatographic purification have been studied with emphasis on the reproducibility of the yields, quantitaTive recoveries and resulting activities. Through the accurate standardization of a monitoring technique, it is confirmed that there are no significant losses in radioactivity or protein during the labelling or purification process. By strict control of the reaction conditions a fairily good reproducibility is also obtained in the labelling of various hGH extracts with diferent 125I shipments used after short or long storage. Finally, the specific activity (or absolute mass) of the radioiodinated protein is determined by this Analysis of the Reaction Mixture and compared to the widely used radioimmunological assay (Self-displacement). (M.A.C.)

  17. Radioiodination of human growth hormone with characterization and minimization of the commonly defined 'damaged products'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioiodination and chromatographic purification of human growth hormone (hGH) has been studied in order to better define and control the so-called 'preparation damage', which is often a cause of interferences, loss in specific activity and sensitivity, misclassification errors in radioligand assays, and a source of misinterpretation when the tracer is used in receptors or in vivo studies. A series of labelings and false labelings, with and without protein carrier in the buffer used for Sephadex purification, indicate that the 'preparation damage' peak is made up of two components: aggregated 125I-hGH and BSA-carried radioactivity. The former can be minimized by the use of recently extracted non-lyophilized hGH, and the latter by enzymatic labeling. Both components can be better resolved, and thus eliminated, when Sephadex G-100 is employed rather than G-75. (Auth.)

  18. A study of the effect of coatings operation on radioiodine removing adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear air treatment systems are designed to remove radioactive contaminants from air. If the contaminants are gaseous in form (iodine and its compounds), activated carbon is employed to remove them from the air stream by the process of adsorption. The ability of the carbon to perform its function is checked periodically by sending representative samples to a laboratory for testing. Test methods and conditions are included in the plant technical specification along with failure criteria. When a test sample fails to perform as specified, the carbon in the air cleaning unit must be replaced with new material. Solvents from coating operations can poison carbon by blocking or reducing the surface area available for subsequent reaction of radioiodine compounds. NUCON has developed mathematical models to predict the amount of solvent in the air and residual solvents remaining in the coating at any given time during a coating operation for both normal and accident ventilation modes

  19. Development of glycoside-bound radiopharmaceuticals; Novel radioiodination method for digoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemura, Yasutaka; Dote, Nobuhito; Taniuchi, Hideyuki; Iijima, Naoko; Yokoyama, Akira (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Konishi, Junji

    1994-01-01

    We combined 2-hydroxy-3-methylbenzoylhydrazide (HMBH) with glycosides as a novel method for the radioiodination of physiologically active glycosides. This method was tested using digoxin, which is one of the cardiac glycosides. A digoxin-HMBH conjugate was synthesized by periodate cleavage of the third sugar ring, and was readily radiolabelled with Na[[sup 125]I] by the chloramine-T method. [sup 125]I labelled digoxin-HMBH conjugate retained Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase binding in vivo and in vitro, and also retained immunoreactivity to an anti-digoxin antibody. Thus, this [sup 125]I labelled digoxin-HMBH conjugate represents a potential radiopharmaceutical for Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase imaging, as well as for the radioimmunoassay of digoxin. (author).

  20. Radioiodine sorption/desorption and speciation transformation by subsurface sediments from the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Zhang, Saijin; Athon, Matthew; Ho, Yi-Fang; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Yeager, Chris; Schwehr, Kathy; Grandbois, Russell; Wellman, Dawn M.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    During the last few decades, considerable research efforts have been extended to identify more effective remediation treatment technologies to lower the 129I concentrations to below federal drinking water standards at the Hanford Site (Richland, USA). Few studies have taken iodate into consideration, though recently iodate, instead of iodide, was identified as the major species in the groundwater of 200-West Area within the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was thus to quantify and understand aqueous radioiodine species transformations and uptake by three sediments collected from the semiarid, carbonate-rich environment of the Hanford subsurface. All three sediments reduced iodate (IO-) to iodide (I-), but the loamy-sand sediment reduced more IO3- (100% reduced within 7 days) than the two sand-textured sediments (~20% reduced after 28 days). No dissolved organo-iodine species were observed in any of these studies.

  1. Is radioiodine administration in patients with papillary thyroid multifocal microcarcinoma unnecessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Krčálová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Radioiodine (RAI has played a crucial role in differentiated thyroid cancer treatment for more than 60years. However, the use of RAI administration in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (even multifocal is now being widely discussed and often not recommended. In accordance with European consensus, and contrary to the American Thyroid Association (ATA guidelines, we recently performed RAI thyroid remnant ablation in a patient with differentiated papillary multifocal microcarcinoma. The post-therapeutic whole-body scan and SPECT/CT revealed the real and unexpected extent of disease, with metastases to upper mediastinal lymph nodes. This finding led to the patient’s upstaging from stage I to stage IVa according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer criteria.

  2. A preliminary study on the uptake of radioiodine by rice plants from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an atmospheric discharge of radioiodines, direct deposition of the nuclides onto leaf surface must be the most significant pathway from the environment to man. However, 129I reaches man through several pathways because of its long half life of 1.6 x 107 years. Root uptake of 129I is one of the most important pathways of this nuclide. In Japan, rice is thought to be the most critical crop on the pathway. In this paper, uptake of radioiodine from irrigation water by rice plant was investigated. Rice plants, Oryza sativa cv. Nihonbare, were grown under flooded condition in Wagner pots containing soil collected in Tokai-mura. Iodine-131 was added as a tracer into the surface water in the pots at three different growing stages, heading, dough-ripe and yellow-ripe stages, respectively, and the plants were cultivated until the harvest time in a plant growth chamber. At the harvest time, concentration of 131I in each organ of rice plant was measured with a NaI scintillation counter. The profile of 131I in the soil was also investigated. The results obtained are as follows; (1) Activities of 131I in leaf blade and sheath of lower part were generally higher than those of upper part. Compared to the 131I activity of the flag leaf, the ratios of the activity in rachis-branch, hull and brown rice were 1.0-0.5, 0.1 and 1-5 x 10-3, respectively. These may suggest that iodine taken up by the roots scarcely re-translocated into rice. (2) Ratio of 131I in brown rice and hull was about 1 : 4. (3) Activity ratio ('concentration of 131I in brown rice'/'average concentration of that in the soil' during 6 days uptake experiment.) was 4-5 x 10-4. (author)

  3. Age- and sex-dependent model for estimating radioiodine dose to a normal thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the derivation of an age- and sex-dependent model of radioiodine dosimetry in the thyroid and the application of the model to estimating the thyroid dose for each of 4215 patients who were exposed to 131I in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In most cases, the available data consisted of the patient's age at the time of administration, the patient's sex, the quantity of activity administered, the clinically-determined uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid, and the time after administration at which the uptake was determined. The metabolic model is of the form A(t) = K[exp(-μ1t) -exp(-μ2t)] (μCi), where μ1 = λ/sub r/ - λ/sub i//sup b/ (i = 1, 2), λ/sub r/ is the radiological decay-rate coefficient, and λ/sub i//sup b/ are biological removal rate coefficients. The values of λ/sub i//sup b/ are determined by solving a nonlinear equation that depends on assumptions about the time or maximum uptake an the eventual biological loss rate (through which age dependence enters). The value of K may then be calculated from knowledge of the uptakes at a particular time. The dosimetric S-factor (rad/μCi-day) is based on specific absorbed fractions for photons of energy ranging from 0.01 to 4.0 MeV for thyroid masses from 1.29 to 19.6 g; the functional form of the S-factor also involves the thyroid mass explicitly, through which the dependence on age and sex enters. An analysis of sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the thyroid mass and the biological removal rate for several age groups is reported. 12 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  4. Dose rate estimation in work areas of PHWR from radio-iodines in reactor coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission product activity in the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) leads to external exposure apart from activation products. In pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR) 60 to 80 percent of the collective dose is due to external dose component and tritium uptake by the radiation workers contribute the remaining. In order to develop suitable method to reduce the collective dose to radiation workers it is required to identify the source term and the critical radio nuclide which contribute dose rate in the work areas. The radioactive isotopes in KGS-1 and KGS-2 RCS during operation and shut down of the reactor are quantified by HPGe based gamma spectrometer and dose rate contribution due to each isotope is evaluated. Dose rate in the area where primary coolant system equipment's are located is measured during reactor operation and shutdown. Comparison of activity in the coolant and the dose rate before and after reactor shut down indicates that dose rate in the measured area is mainly contributed by short lived isotopes of iodine, especially 134I. Concentration of radio-iodines in the RCS due to tramp uranium in the pressure tube and fuel cladding is evaluated and the results are compared with activity measured in the RCS. Large deviation of short-lived isotopes of iodine in RCS from the calculated value was studied. It is shown that primary coolant cleanup system is not much effective to remove this activity. The global Delayed Neutron Monitoring system (DNM) counts are compared with of iodine-134 activity. Measures to reduce short-lived radio-iodines in the RCS and exposure control is suggested. (author)

  5. Augmented Exercise Biking with Virtual Environments for Elderly Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Serafin, Stefania; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to function well as an assistive technology to physical therapy for elderly users. Elderly users, and more specifically retirement home residents, form a unique user group in this field, due to their characteristics and demands. In a case study, retirement home...... residents used an audio-visual virtual environment (VE) augmentation for an exercise bike. Besides a visual display, a soundscape was played to the subjects using headphones. The soundscape was not no- ticed wand the headphones were found to be obtrusive. In this paper, we consider and discuss possible...

  6. Augmented reality for improved safety

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, CERN experts have to operate in low visibility conditions or in the presence of possible hazards. Minimising the duration of the operation and reducing the risk of errors is therefore crucial to ensuring the safety of personnel. The EDUSAFE project integrates different technologies to create a wearable personnel safety system based on augmented reality.    The EDUSAFE integrated safety system uses a camera mounted on the helmet to monitor the working area.  In its everyday operation of machines and facilities, CERN adopts a whole set of measures and safety equipment to ensure the safety of its personnel, including personal wearable safety devices and access control systems. However, sometimes, scheduled and emergency maintenance work needs to be done in zones with potential cryogenic hazards, in the presence of radioactive equipment or simply in demanding conditions where visibility is low and moving around is difficult. The EDUSAFE Marie Curie Innovative&...

  7. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  8. Targeted therapy: a new hope for thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Francesco; Pezzullo, Luciano; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Lastoria, Secondo; Di Gennaro, Francesca; Scarpati, Giuseppina Della Vittoria; Caponigro, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid carcinomas are rare and heterogeneous diseases representing less than 1% of all malignancies. The majority of thyroid carcinomas are differentiated entities (papillary and folliculary carcinomas) and are characterized by good prognosis and good response to surgery and radioiodine therapy. Nevertheless, about 10% of differentiated carcinomas recur and become resistant to all therapies. Anaplastic and medullary cancers are rare subtypes of thyroid cancer not suitable for radioiodine therapy. A small percentage of differentiated and all the anaplastic and medullary thyroid carcinomas often recur after primary treatments and are no longer suitable for other therapies. In the last years, several advances have been made in the field of molecular biology and tumorigenesis mechanisms of thyroid carcinomas. Starting from these issues, the targeted therapy may be employed as a new option. The MAP-Kinase pathway has been found often dysregulated in thyroid carcinomas and several upstream signals have been recognized as responsible for this feature. RET/PTC mutations are often discovered both in papillary and in medullary carcinomas, while B-RAF mutation is typical of papillary and anaplastic histologies. Also mTOR disruptions and VEGFR pathway disruption are common features in all advanced thyroid cancers. Some angiogenesis inhibitors and a number of RET/PTC pathway blocking agents are yet present in the clinical armamentarium. Vandetanib, cabozatinib and sorafenib have reached clinical use. A number of other biological compounds have been tested in phase II and III trials. Understanding the biology of thyroid cancers may help us to design a well shaped targeted therapy.

  9. Enhancing Education through Mobile Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joan, D. R. Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author has discussed about the Mobile Augmented Reality and enhancing education through it. The aim of the present study was to give some general information about mobile augmented reality which helps to boost education. Purpose of the current study reveals the mobile networks which are used in the institution campus as well…

  10. Motor skill learning: age and augmented feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Henk

    2006-01-01

    Learning motor skills is fundamental to human life. One of the most critical variables affecting motor learning, aside from practice itself, is augmented feedback (performance-related information). Although there is abundance of research on how young adults use augmented feedback to learn motor skil

  11. From Augmentation Media to Meme Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuzuru

    Computers as meta media are now evolving from augmentation media vehicles to meme media vehicles. While an augmentation media system provides a seamlessly integrated environment of various tools and documents, meme media system provides further functions to edit and distribute tools and documents. Documents and tools on meme media can easily…

  12. Radioiodinated antibody targeting of the HER-2/neu oncoprotein: effects of labeling method on cellular processing and tissue distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalutsky, M.R. E-mail: zalut001@mc.duke.edu; Xu, F.J.; Yu, Y.; Foulon, C.F.; Zhao, X.-G.; Slade, S.K.; Affleck, D.J.; Bast, R.C

    1999-10-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) internalization can have a major effect on tumor retention of radiolabel. Two anti-HER-2/neu MAbs (TA1 and 520C9) were radioiodinated using the iodogen, N-succinimidyl 5-iodo-3-pyridinecarboxylate (SIPC), and tyramine-cellobiose (TCB) methods. Paired-label studies compared internalization and cellular processing of the labeled MAbs by SKOv3 9002-18 ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Intracellular radioiodine activity for 520C9 was up to 2.6 and 3.0 times higher for SIPC and TCB labeling, respectively, compared with iodogen. Likewise, intracellular activity for TA1 was up to 2.3 and 2.9 times higher with the SIPC and TCB methods compared with iodogen labeling. Unfortunately, similar advantages in tumor accumulation were not achieved in athymic mice bearing SKOv3 9008-18 ovarian cancer xenografts.

  13. Radioiodinated antibody targeting of the HER-2/neu oncoprotein: effects of labeling method on cellular processing and tissue distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) internalization can have a major effect on tumor retention of radiolabel. Two anti-HER-2/neu MAbs (TA1 and 520C9) were radioiodinated using the iodogen, N-succinimidyl 5-iodo-3-pyridinecarboxylate (SIPC), and tyramine-cellobiose (TCB) methods. Paired-label studies compared internalization and cellular processing of the labeled MAbs by SKOv3 9002-18 ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Intracellular radioiodine activity for 520C9 was up to 2.6 and 3.0 times higher for SIPC and TCB labeling, respectively, compared with iodogen. Likewise, intracellular activity for TA1 was up to 2.3 and 2.9 times higher with the SIPC and TCB methods compared with iodogen labeling. Unfortunately, similar advantages in tumor accumulation were not achieved in athymic mice bearing SKOv3 9008-18 ovarian cancer xenografts

  14. Augmented Reality Implementation Methods in Mainstream Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Prochazka, David

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality has became an useful tool in many areas from space exploration to military applications. Although used theoretical principles are well known for almost a decade, the augmented reality is almost exclusively used in high budget solutions with a special hardware. However, in last few years we could see rising popularity of many projects focused on deployment of the augmented reality on different mobile devices. Our article is aimed on developers who consider development of an augmented reality application for the mainstream market. Such developers will be forced to keep the application price, therefore also the development price, at reasonable level. Usage of existing image processing software library could bring a significant cut-down of the development costs. In the theoretical part of the article is presented an overview of the augmented reality application structure. Further, an approach for selection appropriate library as well as the review of the existing software libraries focused in th...

  15. Diffuser Augmented Horizontal Axis Tidal Current Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Mehmood

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The renewal energy technologies are increasingly popular to ensure future energy sustenance and address environmental issues. The tides are enormous and consistent untapped resource of renewable energy. The growing interest in exploring tidal energy has compelling reasons such as security and diversity of supply, intermittent but predictable and limited social and environmental impacts. The tidal energy industry is undergoing an increasing shift towards diffuser augmented turbines. The reason is the higher power output of diffuser augmented turbines compared to conventional open turbines. The purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive review of diffuser augmented horizontal axis tidal current turbines. The components, relative advantages, limitations and design parameters of diffuser augmented horizontal axis tidal current turbines are presented in detail. CFD simulation of NACA 0016 airfoil is carried out to explore its potential for designing a diffuser. The core issues associated with diffuser augmented horizontal axis tidal current turbines are also discussed.

  16. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Miragall, Marta; Baños Rivera, Rosa María; Cebolla i Martí, Ausiàs Josep; Botella Arbona, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, Mage = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR ther...

  17. Using non-invasive brain stimulation to augment motor training-induced plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual-Leone Alvaro; Bolognini Nadia; Fregni Felipe

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Therapies for motor recovery after stroke or traumatic brain injury are still not satisfactory. To date the best approach seems to be the intensive physical therapy. However the results are limited and functional gains are often minimal. The goal of motor training is to minimize functional disability and optimize functional motor recovery. This is thought to be achieved by modulation of plastic changes in the brain. Therefore, adjunct interventions that can augment the response of th...

  18. Instantaneous radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. [DOE patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, H. Jr.; Hupf, H.B.; Wanek, P.M.

    The disclosure relates to the radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. A purified rose bengal tablet is stirred into acidified ethanol at or near room temperature, until a suspension forms. Reductant-free /sup 125/I/sup -/ is added and the resulting mixture stands until the exchange label reaction occurs at room temperature. A solution of sterile isotonic phosphate buffer and sodium hydroxide is added and the final resulting mixture is sterilized by filtration.

  19. Synthesis and labelling of organo-metallic prosthetic groups used for indirect radioiodination of peptides and proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of an IAEA co-ordinated research programme the prosthetic compound ATE [N-succidinimil 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate] has been synthesized and it has been labelled with 131I and 125I. Its structure has been confirmed by NMR and mass spectrometry. The labelled ATE has been conjugated with human immunoglobulin G with a yield of 41%-57%. Indirect radioiodination of peptides is currently prepared. (author)

  20. The legacy of Cf-252 operations at Savannah River Technology Center: Continuous releases of radioiodine to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iodine isotopes I-132, 1-133, I-134, and I-135, which have half-lives ranging from 53 minutes to 21 hours, are measured in the atmospheric effluent from the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. SRS is operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The isotopes' release rates range from 10 to 300 microcuries per week compared to the rate. The resulting annual dose from all iodine isotopes is minor; it comprises 0.01 percent of the total offsite dose due to atmospheric releases from SRS in 1990. Circumstantial evidence indicates the radioiodine originates from traces of unencapsulated Cf-252. The determination that spontaneous fission of Cf-252 is the source of the radioiodine has several ramifications. Radioactive fission-product isotopes of the noble gas elements krypton and xenon must also be released. Noble gases are more volatile and mobile than iodine. Also, the released iodine isotopes decay to xenon isotopes. The noble gases decay to non-gaseous elements that are transported along with radioiodine to the terrestrial environment by deposition from the SRTC plume. Only Sr-89 is believed to accumulate sufficiently in the environment to approach detectable levels. Given similar conditions in earlier years, releases of short-lived radioiodine have occurred undetected in routine monitoring since the early 1970s. Release rates 20 years ago would have been 200 times greater than current release rates. This report documents preliminary experiments conducted by SRTC and Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS) scientists. The release process and the environmental impact of fission products from Cf-252 should be thoroughly researched

  1. Investigation of a Potential Scintigraphic Tracer for Imaging Apoptosis: Radioiodinated Annexin V-Kunitz Protease Inhibitor Fusion Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsiu Liao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiolabeled annexin V (ANV has been widely used for imaging cell apoptosis. Recently, a novel ANV-Kunitz-type protease inhibitor fusion protein, ANV-6L15, was found to be a promising probe for improved apoptosis detection based on its higher affinity to phosphatidylserine (PS compared to native ANV. The present paper investigates the feasibility of apoptosis detection using radioiodinated ANV-6L15. Native ANV and ANV-6L15 were labeled with iodine-123 and iodine-125 using Iodogen method. The binding between the radioiodinated proteins and erythrocyte ghosts or chemical-induced apoptotic cells was examined. ANV-6L15 can be radioiodinated with high yield (40%−60% and excellent radiochemical purity (>95%. 123I-ANV-6L15 exhibited a higher binding ratio to erythrocyte ghosts and apoptotic cells compared to 123I-ANV. The biodistribution of 123I-ANV-6L15 in mice was also characterized. 123I-ANV-6L15 was rapidly cleared from the blood. High uptake in the liver and the kidneys may limit the evaluation of apoptosis in abdominal regions. Our data suggest that radiolabled ANV-6L15 may be a better scintigraphic tracer than native ANV for apoptosis detection.

  2. Receptor scintigraphy with a radioiodinated somatostatin analogue: Radiolabeling, purification, biologic activity, and in vivo application in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodinated Tyr-3-octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, is a useful ligand for the in vitro detection of somatostatin receptors. In this study, we have investigated the possible in vivo application of this radioligand in the detection of somatostatin receptor-bearing tumors by scintigraphy. The specific somatostatin-like biologic activity of radioiodinated Tyr-3-octreotide was confirmed in vitro: (a) radioiodinated Tyr-3-octreotide competes in the nanomolar range with specific receptor binding of somatostatin to suspended human meningioma membranes and (b) the secretion of growth hormone by cultured rat pituitary cells was similarly inhibited by iodinated Tyr-3-octreotide and somatostatin. In rats, intravenously injected 123I-Tyr-3-octreotide is rapidly cleared from the circulation mainly by the liver. Although this rapid clearance limits the amount of tracer available for somatostatin receptor-bearing tumors, the advantage of this rapid clearance is that the background level is rapidly reduced in favor of scintigraphic imaging of these tumors. Pancreatic tumors in rats were localized by scintigraphy after intravenous injection of 123I-Tyr-3-octreotide

  3. The value of estimating serum apoptotic marker concentrations in the monitoring and prognosis of 131I -therapy in Graves disease. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radioiodine (131I) in Graves disease (GD) is probably due to the direct physical destruction of thyrocytes by beta radiation, and by the indirect action through stimulation of apoptosis in these cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the changes in serum concentrations of sFas and sFasL as stimulators of apoptosis, and Bcl-2 as an inhibitor of apoptosis in patients with GD following 131I administration. The study was performed on 30 patients with GD (29 female and 1 male aged 25-45). All patients were euthyroid (biochemical and clinical) prior to radioiodine therapy. The target absorbed dose ranged between 90 and 160 Gy. We assessed markers of apoptosis and hormone concentrations (fT3, fT4 and TSH) in the following manner: before 131I administration, then two weeks, one month, two, three, four, and five months after 131I administration. After four months, the concentrations of sFas and sFasL rose by 50% and decreased during the next month. Pretherapeutic concentrations of Bcl-2 were elevated, and peaked two weeks after ingestion, showing a gradual decrease with time. We found a significant increase in serum TSH, and a decrease of fT3 and fT4 concentrations by the end of the third month of radioiodine therapy. Decreases in serum levels of sFas and sFasL and increases of Bcl-2 are regarded as characteristic for GD patients before radioiodine therapy. Radioiodine therapy reverses the ratio of estimated markers after four months. The concentrations of hormones reflect actual thyroid function, whereas concentrations of markers of apoptosis may suggest morphological changes. (author)

  4. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  5. Augmented Reality for Android Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Lžičař, Radek

    2011-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem a realizací systému rozšířené reality na mobilní platformě Google Android s využitím polohových senzorů. Aplikace slouží jako navigace a zobrazuje geografické body zájmu. Práce se věnuje problematice rozšířené reality na mobilních zařízeních, návrhem vlastního frameworku a poté zmiňuje detaily implementace vybraných problémů. Nakonec je popsán způsob testování a zhodnoceny výsledky práce. This thesis describes design and implementation of augment...

  6. Augmented Reality Repair Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Bhatia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The daily life of a common man revolves around various forms of appliances/gadgets he uses throughout the day such as a mobile phone, laptop, printer, microwave oven, washing machine, etc. Although these appliances/gadgets are taken by most of the people for granted, the problem occurs when any of these things do not work as they are expected to. Getting them to the repair shops for every small glitch is expensive as well as time consuming. Although most of the companies which produce these appliances/gadgets do supply them with basic manuals, which deal with how to solve these minor issues, but reading them and at the same time repairing the corresponding appliance/gadget can be a frustrating task at times. These problems can be reduced to a large extent if some kind of live guidance is available. In this paper we propose a method to do so with the help of an augmented reality based system that will guide the user to carry out small scale repair jobs on these gadgets. All that is required is a decent webcam and a computing device, with a processor of 1 GHz or more and a display screen.

  7. Mixing Augmentation of Supersonic Streams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Hari; J. Kurian

    2001-01-01

    The use of passive mixing devices to enhance the mixing of supersonic streams is of importance in many aerospace and allied applications. A comparative experimental study of two such non-conventional axi symmetric supersonic nozzles for mixing augmentation is undertaken in the present study. The nozzles studied are conventional convergent divergent (c-d), ramp, and nozzle with secondary tabs at the Mach number of 1.7.The freejet characteristics of the jets from the nozzles and the confined mixing of the jets under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions were experimentally investigated. In addition, schlieren and laser light sheet methods are employed for flow visualization. Results of experiments on freejet showed rapid total pressure decay, higher jet width, and increased shear layer width in the case of jets from non-conventional nozzles. Also visualized were complex shock patterns in these jets. The confined mixing studies in both cold and hot flows confirm the increased mixing behavior of non-conventional nozzles within shorter mixing duct lengths. Laser sheet visualization clearly demonstrated the formation of streamwise vortices, which accounts for the enhanced mixing while employing the nozzles under study.

  8. Digital Augmented Reality Audio Headset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Rämö

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality audio (ARA combines virtual sound sources with the real sonic environment of the user. An ARA system can be realized with a headset containing binaural microphones. Ideally, the ARA headset should be acoustically transparent, that is, it should not cause audible modification to the surrounding sound. A practical implementation of an ARA mixer requires a low-latency headphone reproduction system with additional equalization to compensate for the attenuation and the modified ear canal resonances caused by the headphones. This paper proposes digital IIR filters to realize the required equalization and evaluates a real-time prototype ARA system. Measurements show that the throughput latency of the digital prototype ARA system can be less than 1.4 ms, which is sufficiently small in practice. When the direct and processed sounds are combined in the ear, a comb filtering effect is brought about and appears as notches in the frequency response. The comb filter effect in speech and music signals was studied in a listening test and it was found to be inaudible when the attenuation is 20 dB. Insert ARA headphones have a sufficient attenuation at frequencies above about 1 kHz. The proposed digital ARA system enables several immersive audio applications, such as a virtual audio tourist guide and audio teleconferencing.

  9. Augmented reality: past, present, future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzerillo, Laura

    2013-03-01

    A great opportunity has permitted to carry out a cultural, historical, architectural and social research with great impact factor on the international cultural interest. We are talking about the realization of a museum whose the main theme is the visit and the discovery of a monument of great prestige: the monumental building the "Steri" in Palermo. The museum is divided into sub themes including the one above all, that has aroused the international interest so much that it has been presented the instance to include the museum in the cultural heritage of UNESCO. It is the realization of a museum path that regards the cells of the Inquisition, which are located just inside of some buildings of the monumental building. The project, as a whole, is faced, in a total view, between the various competences implicated: historic, chemic, architectonic, topographic, drawing, representation, virtual communication, informatics. The birth of the museum will be a sum of the results of all these disciplines involved. Methodology, implementation, fruition, virtual museum, goals, 2D graphic restitution, effects on the cultural heritage and landscape environmental, augmented reality, Surveying 2D and 3D, hi-touch screen, Photogrammetric survey, Photographic survey, representation, drawing 3D and more than this has been dealt with this research.

  10. Predictive value of thyrotropin receptor antibodies using the second generation TRAb human assay after radioiodine treatment in Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoephel, K.; Wunderlich, G.; Kopprasch, C.; Franke, W.G.; Kotzerke, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus der Technischen Univ. Dresden (Germany); Koch, R. [Inst. fuer Medizinische Informatik und Biometrie, Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus der Technischen Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    The detection of TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb) in patients with Graves' disease is routinely used in nuclear medicine laboratories. This determination has been possible for approximately 3 years with a second generation human TRAb assay. Studies showed that this TRAb determination is diagnostically more sensitive compared to established, porcine TRAb assays. Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a ROC analysis, whether TRAb determination with the new, second generation assay allows a dependable statement about probability of occurence of relapse after radioiodine therapy in patient suffering from Graves' disease. Methods: 57 patients were examined with the DYNOtest {sup trademark} TRAKhuman (BRAHMS Diagnostica AG, Hennigsdorf) directly before and six months after therapy with radioiodine (dose: 150 Gy). A ROC-analysis was performed to determine positive/negative predictive values depending on different cut-off values. Results: Whereas 21/57 patients became eu- or hypothyroid after six months, 36/57 patients relapsed. Non-relapsed patients showed a significant lower median TRAb titer (4.2 IU/I vs. 19.2 IU/I; p<0.05) compared to relapsed patients. But the positive predictive value conducted 63 and 66, 62 and 66 as well as 63 and 69% (before and after therapy) linked with the cut-offs 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 IU/I. So it was in areas also achieved by the first generation porcine radioreceptorassay. Conclusion: An increased sensitivity is achieved undoubtedly with the new DYNOtest {sup trademark} TRAKhuman in the diagnostic of Graves' disease. It is not held over the established radioreceptorassay concerning the positive predictive value for relapsing patients. (orig.) [German] Die Bestimmung der TSH-Rezeptor-Antikoerper (TRAK) bei Patienten mit Morbus Basedow ist fester Bestandteil der nuklearmedizinischen In-vitro-Diagnostik. Seit ca. 3 Jahren ist diese Bestimmung mit einem humanen TRAK-Assay der zweiten Generation moeglich. Studien

  11. The Virtuality and Reality of Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Yeon Ma

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This thesis explores the creative possibilities and implications of Augmented Reality, not just as a specific technology of computer science, but as one of high technologies that influence people’s perception and even the concepts of the real and the virtual. For a broader definition of Augmented Reality which has a unique status between virtual environment and real environment, the virtuality and the reality of Augmented Reality are discussed in an interdisciplinary context such as arts, philosophy, and film and animation studies. This approach is rooted in the belief that theory of new media ought to traverse and encompass all realms of academic categories.

  12. Augmented reality-assisted skull base surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrilo, I; Sarrafzadeh, A; Bijlenga, P; Landis, B N; Schaller, K

    2014-12-01

    Neuronavigation is widely considered as a valuable tool during skull base surgery. Advances in neuronavigation technology, with the integration of augmented reality, present advantages over traditional point-based neuronavigation. However, this development has not yet made its way into routine surgical practice, possibly due to a lack of acquaintance with these systems. In this report, we illustrate the usefulness and easy application of augmented reality-based neuronavigation through a case example of a patient with a clivus chordoma. We also demonstrate how augmented reality can help throughout all phases of a skull base procedure, from the verification of neuronavigation accuracy to intraoperative image-guidance.

  13. Preclinical study of radioiodinated glucose-Tyr3-octreotate: Comparison with 111In-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Targeted radionuclide imaging and treatment are based upon the interaction of radioligands with receptors in the target tissue (namely high density receptor specific tumours). As receptors for somatostatin (mainly somatostatin receptor subtype-2 /sstr2/) are over-expressed in several human tumours of endocrine origin, a number of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs have been recently introduced as the vectors for targeted imaging and therapy; commercially available 111In-DTPA-octreotide being a gold standard in this field. Several publications demonstrate that a substitution of Tyr instead of Phe in the peptide position 3 and oxidation of carboxyl end of octreotide significantly increased the affinity of the peptide to sstr2. More recently it has been shown that NH2-terminal carbohydration leads to a further improvement of the peptide receptor affinity and its retention in the tumour. In this study we present preclinical analysis of distribution profile and elimination pathways of radioiodinated glucose-Tyr3-octreotate (125I-gluc-TOCA) in comparison with that of another promising targeted radiopharmaceutical, namely 111In-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate (111In- DOTA-TOCA). Gluc-TOCA was radioiodinated using chloramine-T method. For radiolabeling of DOTA-TOCA with radiometal, to 200 μl of 0.4 M acetate buffer with 0.24 M gentisic acid pH 5, 10μl of peptide solution in 0.1% TFA (1mg/ml) were added together with 0.5-1 mCi of 111InCl3 in 0.04 M HCl. Reaction mixture was heated 25 minutes to 90-95 deg. C. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed on male Wistar rats. Results confirmed that specific internalization of 125I-gluc-TOCA by sstr2 - expressing AR423 rat pancreatic carcinoma cells in vitro was about twice of that for 111In-DOTA-TOCA. In rats, 125I-gluc-TOCA exhibited prolonged plasma clearance in comparison with the other peptide. Slower decrease of plasma radioactivity after 125I-gluc-TOCA was due to its higher lipophilicity and thus higher plasma protein binding

  14. Detection for residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: comparison between Tc-99m pertechnetate scan and high dose I-131 therapy scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Ryung; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Fae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate diagnostic sensitivity of nuclear imaging in the detection of residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion, we have compared neck scintigrams with Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tc-99m scan) and high dose I-131 iodide (I-131 scan) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. One hundred thirty-five thyroidectomized patients for differentiated thyroid cancer were enrolled in this study. Twenty-three had a previous history of radioiodine therapy. Planar and pin-hole images of anterior neck with Tc-99m were acquired at 20 minutes after injection, followed by I-131 scan three days after high-dose radioiodine therapy with 7 days interval. Patients were asked to discontinue thyroid hormone replacement more than 4 weeks. All subjects were in hypothyroid state. Seventy out of 135 patients (51.9%) showed concordant findings between Tc-99m and I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan did not show any uptake in thyroid bed in 11 of 112 patients without previous history of radioiodine therapy, but 9 of them showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan showed no bed uptake in all of the 23 patients with previous history of radioiodine therapy, in contrast 14 of them (60.9%) showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. These results suggest that Tc-99m scan has poor detectability for residual thyroid tissue or metastatic lesion in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer patients, compared to high dose I-131 therapy scan. Tc-99m scan could not detect any remnant tissue or metastatic lesion in patients with previous history of radioiodine treatment, especially.

  15. Muzzle shunt augmentation of conventional railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.V. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Physics Div.)

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on augmentation which is a technique for reducing the armature current and hence the armature power dissipation in a plasma armature railgun. In spite of the advantages, no large augmented railguns have been built, primarily due to the mechanical and electrical complexity introduced by the extra conductors required. it is possible to achieve some of the benefits of augmentation in a conventional railgun by diverting a fraction {phi} of the input current through a shunt path at the muzzle of the railgun. In particular, the relation between force and armature current is the same as that obtained in an n-turn, series-connected augmented railgun with n = 1/(1 {minus} {phi}). The price of this simplification is a reduction in electrical efficiency and some additional complexity in the external electrical system.

  16. Resonant Behavior of an Augmented Railgun

    CERN Document Server

    Bahder, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    We consider a lumped circuit model of an augmented electromagnetic railgun that consists of a gun circuit and an augmentation circuit that is inductively coupled to the gun circuit. The gun circuit is driven by a d.c. voltage generator, and the augmentation circuit is driven by an a.c. voltage generator. Using sample parameters, we numerically solve the three non-linear dynamical equations that describe this system. We find that there is a resonant behavior in the armature kinetic energy as a function of the frequency of the voltage generator in the augmentation circuit. This resonant behavior may be exploited to increase armature kinetic energy. Alternatively, if the presence of the kinetic energy resonance is not taken into account, parameters may be chosen that result in less than optimal kinetic energy and efficiency.

  17. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of...

  18. Affordances in Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Gjøsæter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the affordances of augmented reality content in a mobile augmented reality application. A user study was conducted by performing a multi-camera video recording of seven think aloud sessions. The think aloud sessions consisted of individual users performing tasks, exploring and experiencing a mobile augmented reality (MAR application we developed for the iOS platform named ARad. We discuss the instrumental affordances we observed when users interacted with augmented reality content, as well as more complex affordances rising from conventions from media content, AR and the traditional WIMP paradigm. We find that remediation of traditional newspaper content through the MAR medium can provide engaging, pleasing and exciting user experiences. However, the some of the content still suffers from being shoveled onto the MAR platform without adapting it properly. Finally, we discuss what content was most successfully mediated to the user and how the content impacts the user experience.

  19. Augmented Reality Simulations on Handheld Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Kurt; Klopfer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Advancements in handheld computing, particularly its portability, social interactivity, context sensitivity, connectivity, and individuality, open new opportunities for immersive learning environments. This article articulates the pedagogical potential of augmented reality simulations in environmental engineering education by immersing students in…

  20. Assessments of whole body scan images (PCI) obtained in patients undergoing treatment of radioiodine (pre and post-treatment); Avaliacoes das imagens de pesquisa de corpo inteiro (PCI) obtidas em pacientes submetidos ao tratamento de radioiodoterapia (pre e pos-tratamento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Fernanda Karolina Mendonca da; Lopes Filho, Ferdinand de Jesus; Vieira, Jose Wilson; Souza, Milena Thays Barbosa de, E-mail: fernanda.radiologia8@gmail.com, E-mail: milena_thays@hotmail.com, E-mail: jose.wilson59@uol.com.br, E-mail: ferdinand.lopes@oi.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty used for diagnosis and therapy of some diseases. For the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (papillary and follicular) Radioiodine therapy is employed, in order to eliminate the rest of thyroid tissue after removal of the thyroid (thyroidectomy). In radioiodine therapy is used radioisotope iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) as Sodium Iodide (NaI). The amount of the activity (dose) of {sup 131}I administered is generally the responsibility of nuclear medicine, which is based on an image Research Length of the patient (pre-dose therapy PCI). PCI is also used after treatment (post-PCI therapeutic dose) to evaluate possible metastasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of biokinetic {sup 131}I at length and in some organs of the patient, in order to note any similarity. Exams PCI pre-dose and post-dose were analyzed, the anterior and posterior projections of ten patients. Contours in these images (ROI - Region Of Interest) were made in the whole body and in areas with high uptake of {sup 131}I. The total score was used in the calculation to obtain the percentage distribution of {sup 13I} in the organs of the patient. The results showed that there similarity on the biodistribution of {sup 131}I between pre-dose and post-dose PCI. Therefore, it was found that it is valuable images of PCI pre-dose therapy as a way to assist the nuclear medicine physician in choosing the best activity to be administered to the patient in order to minimize the dose to adjacent organs. (author)