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Sample records for auger fluorescence detector

  1. The Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bacher, A; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barbosa, H J M; Barenthien, N; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Bollmann, E; Bolz, H; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Bracci, F; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, D CaminL; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Castro, J; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordero, A; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J W; Cuautle, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daudo, F; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fonte, R; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Gibbs, K; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gomez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grashorn, E; Grassi, V; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Grygar, J; Guardincerri, Y; Guardone, N; Guerard, C; Guarino, F; Gumbsheimer, R; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Hartmann, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hofman, G; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovský, M; Hucker, H; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kern, H; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kopmann, A; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Malek, M; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Marchetto, F; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Martineau, O; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Mucchi, M; Müller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nerling, F; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nicotra, D; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Oßwald, B; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Pouryamout, J; Prado, L; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, G Raia J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Reis, H C; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Roberts, M D; Rodríguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; b, H Salazar; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, G Schleif A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Sequieros, G; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Smiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Trapani, P; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tuci, V; Tueros, M; Tusi, E; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vitali, G; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wild, N; Wiebusch, C; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wörner, G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; b, A Zepeda; Ziolkowski, M

    2009-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It combines a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level together with a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The fluorescence detector comprises 24 large telescopes specialized for measuring the nitrogen fluorescence caused by charged particles of cosmic ray air showers. In this paper we describe the components of the fluorescence detector including its optical system, the design of the camera, the electronics, and the systems for relative and absolute calibration. We also discuss the operation and the monitoring of the detector. Finally, we evaluate the detector performance and precision of shower reconstructions.

  2. Lateral width of shower image in the Auger fluorescence detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, H; Dobrigkeit, C; Engel, R; Gora, D; Heck, D; Homola, P; Klages, H; Medina-Tanco, G; Ortiz, J A; Pekala, J; Risse, M; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H

    2005-01-01

    The impact of the lateral distribution of light in extensive air showers on the detection and reconstruction of shower profiles is investigated for the Auger fluorescence telescopes. Based on three-dimensional simulations, the capability of the Auger telescopes to measure the lateral distribution of light is evaluated. The ability to infer the actual lateral distribution is confirmed by the comparison of detailed simulations with real data. The contribution of pixels located far from the axis of the shower image is calculated and the accepted signal is rescaled in order to reconstruct a correct shower profile. The analysis presented here shows that: (a) the Auger telescopes are able to observe the lateral distribution of showers and (b) the energy corrections to account for the signal in outlying pixels can exceed 10%, depending on shower geometry.

  3. The fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Kárová, Tatiana; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Nyklíček, M.; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 620, 2-3 (2010), s. 227-251. ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016; GA AV ČR KJB100100904; GA MŠk LC527; GA AV ČR KJB300100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : cosmic rays * fluorescence detector Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2010

  4. Calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors and the effect on measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gookin, Ben

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a high-energy cosmic ray observatory located in Malargue, Mendoza, Argentina. It is used to probe the highest energy particles in the Universe, with energies greater than 1018 eV, which strike the Earth constantly. The observatory uses two techniques to observe the air shower initiated by a cosmic ray: a surface detector composed of an array of more than 1600 water Cherenkov tanks covering 3000 km2, and 27 nitrogen fluorescence telescopes overlooking this array. The Cherenkov detectors run all the time and therefore have high statistics on the air showers. The fluorescence detectors run only on clear moonless nights, but observe the longitudinal development of the air shower and make a calorimetric measure of its energy. The energy measurement from the the fluorescence detectors is used to cross calibrate the surface detectors, and makes the measurements made by the Auger Observatory surface detector highly model-independent. The calibration of the fluorescence detectors is then of the utmost importance to the measurements of the Observatory. Described here are the methods of the absolute and multi-wavelength calibration of the fluorescence detectors, and improvements in each leading to a reduction in calibration uncertainties to 4% and 3.5%, respectively. Also presented here are the effects of introducing a new, and more detailed, multi-wavelength calibration on the fluorescence detector energy estimation and the depth of the air shower maximum measurement, leading to a change of 1+-0.03% in the absolute energy scale at 1018 eV, and a negligible change in the measurement on shower maximum.

  5. The Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahams, J.; Coppens, J.; de Jong, S. J.; Falcke, H.; Grebe, S.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A; Jiraskova, S.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Timmermans, C

    2009-01-01

    The successful installation and commissioning of the Pierre Auger Observatory would not have been possible without the strong commitment and effort from the technical and administrative staff in Malargüe. We are very grateful to the following agencies and organizations for financial support: Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Fundación Antorchas, Gobierno De La Provincia de Mendoza, Municipalidad de Malargüe, NDM Holdings and Valle Las Leñas, in gratitude for their continuing c...

  6. The aperture for UHE tau neutrinos of the Auger fluorescence detector using a Digital Elevation Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Gennaro [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Pastor, Sergio [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Ed. Institutos de Investigacion, Apdo. 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: pastor@ific.uv.es; Pisanti, Ofelia [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2006-03-09

    We perform a new study of the chances of the fluorescence detector (FD) at the Pierre Auger Observatory to detect the tau leptons produced by Earth-skimming ultra high energy {nu}{sub {tau}}'s. We present a new and more detailed evaluation of the effective aperture of the FD that considers a reliable fiducial volume for the experimental set up. In addition, we take into account the real elevation profile of the area near Auger. We find a significant increase in the number of expected events with respect to the predictions of a previous semi-analytical determination, and our results show the enhancement effect for neutrino detection from the presence of the near mountains.

  7. Performance of the Pierre Auger Fluorescence Detector and Analysis of well recontructed events

    CERN Document Server

    Argiro, S

    2003-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to elucidate the origin and nature of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays using a hybrid detection technique. A first run of data taking with a prototype version of both detectors (the so called Engineering Array) took place in 2001-2002, allowing the Collaboration to evaluate the performance of the two detector systems and to approach an analysis strategy. In this contribution, after a brief description of the system, we will report some results on the behavior of the Fluorescence Detector (FD) Prototype. Performance studies, such as measurements of noise, sensitivity and duty cycle, will be presented. We will illustrate a preliminary analysis of selected air showers. This analysis is performed using exclusively the information from the FD, and includes reconstruction of the shower geometry and of the longitudinal profile

  8. Quality studies of the data taking conditions for the Auger Fluorescence Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Caruso, R; Insolia, A; Petrera, S; Martino, J R

    2005-01-01

    As more than half of the Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Auger Observatory is completed, data taking is becoming a routine job. It is then necessary to follow strict procedures to assure the quality of the data. An overview of the data taking methods is given. The nature of the FD background signal is due to the night sky brightness (stars and planet faint light, moonlight, twilight, airglow, zodiacal and artificial light) and to the electronic background (photomultiplier and electronic noise). The analysis of the fluctuations in the FADC signal (variance analysis), directly proportional to the background mean light level, performed for each night of data taking is used to monitor the FD background signal. The data quality is analysed using different techniques, described in detail. Examples of trigger rates, number of stereo events, dead time due to moonlight, weather or hardware problems are given. The analysis comprises several months of data taking, giving an overview of the FD capabilities, performance...

  9. Study of the Fluorescence Detector Upgrade of the Auger Observatory of Cosmic Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) consists of two kinds of detectors: fluorescence detectors (FD) and surface detectors (SD). In this work we evaluate the effect, on the number and quality of the reconstructed events, of new telescopes (or 'eyes') with an enhanced field of view (FOV) up to approximately 60 degrees in elevation. By using numerical simulations, we calculated the mean total efficiency of the eye, the resolution of reconstruction of the basic parameters that characterize the primary cosmic rays (CR) and the elongation rate. To do this, we considered showers of protons and irons with energies of log(E/eV) between 17.50 and 18.25, impinging inside a circular area, placed in front of the eye at distances varying between 3.5 and 11 km. The extension of the FOV of the eye turns to be very convenient for the selected energy range, due to the fact that the atmospheric depths where the showers develop their maximum number of secondary particles (Xmax) are directly observed by the extended eye in most of the cases. Being this Xmax a parameter sensible to the chemical composition of the primary cosmic ray, its correct determination is very important in composition studies

  10. Optical layout of the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palatka, Miroslav; Schovánek, Petr; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Vlček, Martin; Řídký, Jan; Grygar, Jiří; Soukup, Ladislav; Prouza, Michael; Boháčová, Martina

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 33, 2-3 (2003), s. 445-456. ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A006; GA MŠk LA 134; GA AV ČR IAA1010928 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : fluorescence detector * optica l layout Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.221, year: 2003

  11. The optical layout of the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palatka, Miroslav; Schovánek, Petr; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Vlček, Martin; Řídký, Jan; Grygar, Jiří; Soukup, Ladislav; Prouza, Michael; Boháčová, Martina

    Washington : SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2003 - (Zajac, M.; Masajada, J.), s. 215-222 ISBN 0-8194-5146-0. ISSN 0277-786X. - (SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. 5259). [Polish-Czech-Slovak Conference on Wave and Quantum Aspects of Contemporary Optics /13./. Krzyzowa (PL), 09.09.2002-13.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : fluorescence detector * optical layout Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics

  12. The Surface Detector System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Allekotte, I; Bauleo, P; Bonifazi, C; Civit, B; Escobar, C O; García, B; Guedes, G; Berisso, M Gomez; Harton, J L; Healy, M; Kaducak, M; Mantsch, P; Mazur, P O; Newman-Holmes, C; Pepe, I; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Salazar, H; Grande, N Smetniansky-De; Warner, D

    2007-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10^{19} eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000 km^2, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  13. The surface detector system of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 1019eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000km2, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory

  14. The surface detector system of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allekotte, I. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche (U.N. Cuyo and CNEA, CONICET), 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)], E-mail: ingo@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Barbosa, A.F. [CBPF, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bauleo, P. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Bonifazi, C. [CBPF, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Civit, B. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Regional Mendoza, Mendoza (Argentina); Escobar, C.O. [Departamento de Raios Cosmicos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6165, 13084-971, Campinas SP (Brazil); Garcia, B. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Regional Mendoza, Mendoza (Argentina); Guedes, G. [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), Av. Universitaria Km 03 da BR 116, Campus Universitario, 44031-460 Feira de Santana BA (Brazil); Gomez Berisso, M. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche (U.N. Cuyo and CNEA, CONICET), 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Harton, J.L. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Healy, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kaducak, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Newman-Holmes, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Batavia, IL (United States); Pepe, I. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus de Odina, 40210-340 Salvador BA (Brazil); Rodriguez-Cabo, I. [Dpto. Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Salazar, H. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Ap. Postal J-48, 72500 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Smetniansky-De Grande, N. [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and CONICET, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Warner, D. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)

    2008-03-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19}eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  15. The Surface Detector System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allekotte, I.; Barbosa, A.F.; Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Civit, B.; Escobar, C.O.; Garcia, B.; Guedes, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Harton, J.L.; Healy, M.; /Cuyo U. /Buenos Aires, CONICET /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana /Bahia U. /BUAP, Puebla /Santiago de Compostela U. /Fermilab /UCLA /Colorado State U.

    2007-11-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19} eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000 km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  16. The Cherenkov Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger Observatory detects the atmospheric showers induced by cosmic rays of ultra-high energy (UHE). It is the first one to use the hybrid technique. A set of telescopes observes the fluorescence of the nitrogen molecules on clear moonless nights, giving access to the longitudinal profile of the shower. These telescopes surround a giant array of 1600 water Cherenkov tanks (covering more than 3000 km2), which works continuously and samples the particles reaching the ground (mainly muons, photons and electrons/positrons); the light produced within the water is recorded into FADC (Fast Analog to Digital Convertes) traces. A subsample of hybrid events provides a cross calibration of the two components. We describe the structure of the Cherenkov detectors, their sensitivity to different particles and the information they can give on the direction of origin, the energy and the nature of the primary UHE object; we discuss also their discrimination power for rare events (UHE photons or neutrinos). To cope with the variability of weather conditions and the limitations of the communication system, the procedures for trigger and real time calibration have been shared between local processors and a central acquisition system. The overall system has been working almost continuously for 10 years, while being progressively completed and increased by the creation of a dense “infill” subarray. - Highlights: • The water Cherenkov technique is used in the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. • Cross-calibrated with the Fluorescence Detector, it provides a measurement of the primary energy. • The spectrum of the UHE cosmic rays exhibits clearly an “ankle” and a cutoff. • The muon observed muon content of the atmospheric showers is larger than expected from the models. • Stringent limits on the flux of UHE neutrinos and photons are obtained

  17. The Cherenkov Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billoir, Pierre, E-mail: billoir@lpnhe.in2p3.fr [LPNHE, CNRS/IN2P3 and Univ. P. and M. Curie and Univ. D. Diderot, 4 place Jussieu 75272 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Observatorio Pierre Auger, av. San Martín Norte, 304 5613, Malargüe (Argentina)

    2014-12-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory detects the atmospheric showers induced by cosmic rays of ultra-high energy (UHE). It is the first one to use the hybrid technique. A set of telescopes observes the fluorescence of the nitrogen molecules on clear moonless nights, giving access to the longitudinal profile of the shower. These telescopes surround a giant array of 1600 water Cherenkov tanks (covering more than 3000 km{sup 2}), which works continuously and samples the particles reaching the ground (mainly muons, photons and electrons/positrons); the light produced within the water is recorded into FADC (Fast Analog to Digital Convertes) traces. A subsample of hybrid events provides a cross calibration of the two components. We describe the structure of the Cherenkov detectors, their sensitivity to different particles and the information they can give on the direction of origin, the energy and the nature of the primary UHE object; we discuss also their discrimination power for rare events (UHE photons or neutrinos). To cope with the variability of weather conditions and the limitations of the communication system, the procedures for trigger and real time calibration have been shared between local processors and a central acquisition system. The overall system has been working almost continuously for 10 years, while being progressively completed and increased by the creation of a dense “infill” subarray. - Highlights: • The water Cherenkov technique is used in the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. • Cross-calibrated with the Fluorescence Detector, it provides a measurement of the primary energy. • The spectrum of the UHE cosmic rays exhibits clearly an “ankle” and a cutoff. • The muon observed muon content of the atmospheric showers is larger than expected from the models. • Stringent limits on the flux of UHE neutrinos and photons are obtained.

  18. The exposure of the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-06-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It consists of a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level and a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The 'hybrid' detection mode combines the information from the two subsystems. We describe the determination of the hybrid exposure for events observed by the fluorescence telescopes in coincidence with at least one water-Cherenkov detector of the surface array. A detailed knowledge of the time dependence of the detection operations is crucial for an accurate evaluation of the exposure. We discuss the relevance of monitoring data collected during operations, such as the status of the fluorescence detector, background light and atmospheric conditions, that are used in both simulation and reconstruction.

  19. The Cherenkov Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billoir, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory detects the atmospheric showers induced by cosmic rays of ultra-high energy (UHE). It is the first one to use the hybrid technique. A set of telescopes observes the fluorescence of the nitrogen molecules on clear moonless nights, giving access to the longitudinal profile of the shower. These telescopes surround a giant array of 1600 water Cherenkov tanks (covering more than 3000 km2), which works continuously and samples the particles reaching the ground (mainly muons, photons and electrons/positrons); the light produced within the water is recorded into FADC (Fast Analog to Digital Convertes) traces. A subsample of hybrid events provides a cross calibration of the two components. We describe the structure of the Cherenkov detectors, their sensitivity to different particles and the information they can give on the direction of origin, the energy and the nature of the primary UHE object; we discuss also their discrimination power for rare events (UHE photons or neutrinos). To cope with the variability of weather conditions and the limitations of the communication system, the procedures for trigger and real time calibration have been shared between local processors and a central acquisition system. The overall system has been working almost continuously for 10 years, while being progressively completed and increased by the creation of a dense "infill" subarray.

  20. Aperture calculation of the Pierre Auger Observatory surface detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Armengaud, E.; Aublin, J.; Bertou, Xavier; Chou, A.; Ghia, P.L.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Hamilton, J.C.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Medina, C.; Navarra, G.; Parizot, E.; Tripathi, A.

    2005-08-01

    We determine the instantaneous aperture and integrated exposure of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory, taking into account the trigger efficiency as a function of the energy, arrival direction (with zenith angle lower than 60 degrees) and nature of the primary cosmic-ray. We make use of the so-called Lateral Trigger Probability function (or LTP) associated with an extensive air shower, which summarizes all the relevant information about the physics of the shower, the water tank Cherenkov detector, and the triggers.

  1. Rutherford backscattering and Auger spectroscopy of mercuric iodide detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felter, T.E.; Stulen, R.H. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA)); Schnepple, W.F.; Ortale, C.; Van den Berg, L. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA). Santa Barbara Operations)

    1989-11-01

    Palladium contacts on mercuric iodide have been studied using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Results on actual detector contacts show some intermixing of both mercury and iodine with the palladium. To investigate the role of processing variables as a possible cause of this effect we have fabricated model contacts at low temperatures (T {approx equal} 100 K) and analyzed in situ. The results demonstrated that significant interdiffusion occurs at temperatures as low as 225 K. We conclude that excessive heating during contact deposition could prove to be detrimental to device performance and that the use of cooled substrates during processing should be explored. (orig.).

  2. Rutherford backscattering and Auger spectroscopy of mercuric iodide detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felter, T. E.; Stulen, R. H.; Schnepple, W. F.; Ortale, C.; van den Berg, L.

    1989-11-01

    Palladium contacts on mercuric iodide have been studied using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Results on actual detector contacts show some intermixing of both mercury and iodine with the palladium. To investigate the role of processing variables as a possible cause of this effect we have fabricated model contacts at low temperatures (T ≈ 100 K) and analyzed in situ. The results demonstrated that significant interdiffusion occurs at temperatures as low as 225 K. We conclude that excessive heating during contact deposition could prove to be detrimental to device performance and that the use of cooled substrates during processing should be explored.

  3. Rutherford backscattering and Auger spectroscopy of mercuric iodide detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladium contacts on mercuric iodide have been studied using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Results on actual detector contacts show some intermixing of both mercury and iodine with the palladium. To investigate the role of processing variables as a possible cause of this effect we have fabricated model contacts at low temperatures (T ≅ 100 K) and analyzed in situ. The results demonstrated that significant interdiffusion occurs at temperatures as low as 225 K. We conclude that excessive heating during contact deposition could prove to be detrimental to device performance and that the use of cooled substrates during processing should be explored. (orig.)

  4. New electronics for the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleifges, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest installation worldwide for the investigation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Air showers are detected using a hybrid technique with 27 fluorescence telescopes and 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD) distributed over about 3000 km2. The Auger Collaboration has decided to upgrade the electronics of the WCD and complement the surface detector with scintillators (SSD). The objective is to improve the separation between the muonic and the electron/photon shower component for better mass composition determination during an extended operation period of 8-10 years. The surface detector electronics records data locally and generates time stamps based on the GPS timing. The performance of the detectors is significantly improved with a higher sampling rate, an increased dynamic range, new generation of GPS receivers, and FPGA integrated CPU power. The number of analog channels will be increased to integrate the new SSD, but the power consumption needs to stay below 10 W to be able to use the existing photovoltaic system. In this paper, the concept of the additional SSD is presented with a focus on the design and performance of the new surface detector electronics.

  5. Rutherford Backsattering and Auger spectroscopy of mercuric iodide detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical properties of metallic contacts on solid state x-ray detectors can play an important role in determining the overall response and sensitivity of these devices. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Auger electron spectroscopies have been utilized to characterize thin palladium contacts on mercuric iodide (HgI2) detectors. The RBS measurements were performed at room temperature with the metal contact preventing evaporate loss of the HgI2 and reducing contamination to the vacuum chamber. Computer simulations of the RBS results indicate that the interface region of a sample with a palladium contact had approximately the ideal stoichiometry but that the palladium film thickness (350 /angstrom/) was less than expected from the deposition conditions. Auger sputter profiling which removes the metal contact ''cap'' was performed with a rapid transfer system equipped with liquid nitrogen cooling to avoid evaporative loss of the sample and reduce vacuum system contamination. This technique indicated significant penetration of Hg and I into the Pd contact for a variety of samples. In many cases, the penetration extended all the way to the surface. For a 600 /angstrom/ contact, approximately two thirds or 400 /angstrom/ of the contact is part of a ''reaction zone'' in which there is strong intermixing of the palladium, mercury, and iodine. In one case, where copper was tried as an electrode, the ''reaction zone'' extended all the way to the surface, and the device failed as a detector. The relationship of the contact stoichiometry to the deposition process and device performance will be discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs

  6. Rutherford Backsattering and Auger spectroscopy of mercuric iodide detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felter, T. E.; Stulen, R. H.; Schnepple, W. F.; Ortale, C.; van den Berg, L.

    1987-01-01

    The electrical properties of metallic contacts on solid state x-ray detectors can play an important role in determining the overall response and sensitivity of these devices. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Auger electron spectroscopies have been utilized to characterize thin palladium contacts on mercuric iodide (HgI/sub 2/) detectors. The RBS measurements were performed at room temperature with the metal contact preventing evaporate loss of the HgI/sub 2/ and reducing contamination to the vacuum chamber. Computer simulations of the RBS results indicate that the interface region of a sample with a palladium contact had approximately the ideal stoichiometry but that the palladium film thickness (350 /angstrom/) was less than expected from the deposition conditions. Auger sputter profiling which removes the metal contact ''cap'' was performed with a rapid transfer system equipped with liquid nitrogen cooling to avoid evaporative loss of the sample and reduce vacuum system contamination. This technique indicated significant penetration of Hg and I into the Pd contact for a variety of samples. In many cases, the penetration extended all the way to the surface. For a 600 /angstrom/ contact, approximately two thirds or 400 /angstrom/ of the contact is part of a ''reaction zone'' in which there is strong intermixing of the palladium, mercury, and iodine. In one case, where copper was tried as an electrode, the ''reaction zone'' extended all the way to the surface, and the device failed as a detector. The relationship of the contact stoichiometry to the deposition process and device performance will be discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Composition-sensitive parameters measured with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Healy, M D

    2007-01-01

    A key step towards the understanding of the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays is their mass composition. Primary photons and neutrinos produce markedly different showers from nuclei, while showers of different nuclear species are not easy to distinguish. To maximise the discrimination with the Pierre Auger Observatory ideally all mass-sensitive observables should be combined, but the 10% duty cycle of the fluorescence detector limits the use of direct measurements of shower maximum at the highest energies. Therefore, we investigate mass-sensitive observables accessible with the surface detectors alone. These are the signal risetime in the Cherenkov stations, the curvature of the shower front, the muon-to-electromagnetic ratio, and the azimuthal signal asymmetry. Risetime and curvature depend mainly on the depth of the shower development in the atmosphere, and thus on primary energy and mass. The muon content of a shower depends on the primary energy and the number of nucleons, while asymmetry about the ...

  8. Operations of and Future Plans for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Performance and operation of the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory using high-elevation fluorescence telescopes (HEAT); (3) AMIGA - Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Radio detection of Cosmic Rays at the southern Auger Observatory; (5) Hardware Developments for the AMIGA enhancement at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) A simulation of the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory using GEANT 4; (7) Education and Public Outreach at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) BATATA: A device to characterize the punch-through observed in underground muon detectors and to operate as a prototype for AMIGA; and (9) Progress with the Northern Part of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  9. Chemical Effect on K Shell X-ray Fluorescence Parameters and Radiative Auger Ratios of Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Erhan; Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya; Küp Aylıkcı, Nuray; Aylıkcı, Volkan; Apaydın, Gökhan; Tıraşoğlu, Engin; Kantekin, Halit

    2010-04-01

    The production cross-sections, intensity ratios, and radiative Auger intensity ratios of Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn elements in different complexes were measured. The chemical effects on the K shell fluorescence parameters and the radiative Auger intensity ratios of these elements were investigated and the changes in these parameters were interpreted according to the charge transfer process. The samples were excited by 59.5 keV γ-rays from a 241Am annular radioactive source. K X-rays emitted by samples were counted by an Ultra-LEGe detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV.

  10. Observing muon decays in water Cherenkov detectors at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, P.; Arneodo, F.; Bertou, X.; Busca, N.G.; Ghia, P.L.; C. Medina; Navarra, G.; Nellen, L.; Ibarguen, H. Salazar; Ranchon, S.; Urban, M.; Villasenor, L.; Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger

    2005-01-01

    Muons decaying in the water volume of a Cherenkov detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory provide a useful calibration point at low energy. Using the digitized waveform continuously recorded by the electronics of each tank, we have devised a simple method to extract the charge spectrum of the Michel electrons, whose typical signal is about 1/8 of a crossing vertical muon. This procedure, moreover, allows continuous monitoring of the detector operation and of its water level. We have checked ...

  11. Prototype muon detectors for the AMIGA component of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory to extend its range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the particle showers. It consists of an infill of surface water-Cherenkov detectors accompanied by buried scintillator detectors used for muon counting. The main objectives of the AMIGA engineering array, referred to as the Unitary Cell, are to identify and resolve all engineering issues as well as to understand the muon-number counting uncertainties related to the design of the detector. The mechanical design, fabrication and deployment processes of the muon counters of the Unitary Cell are described in this document. These muon counters modules comprise sealed PVC casings containing plastic scintillation bars, wavelength-shifter optical fibers, 64 pixel photomultiplier tubes, and acquisition electronics. The modules are buried approximately 2.25 m below ground level in order to minimize contamination from electromagnetic shower particles. The...

  12. Fluorescence and Auger Decay Properties of the Core-Excited F-Like Ions from Ne to Kr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang-Li; DONG Chen-Zhong; SU Mao-Gen; KOIKE Fumihiro

    2012-01-01

    We systematically study the decay properties of the K-shell excited F-like ions with 10Auger transition rates, radiative, Auger and natural widths, as well as fluorescence and Auger yields for K-shell excited F-like ions are presented. It is shown by means of concrete figures that the decay properties change significantly with the increase of the atomic number Z; the Auger rate is overtaken at Z = 30 by the radiative decay rate. Several fitting formulae for the radiative and Auger widths and the fluorescence yields have been evaluated which is expected to be useful in plasma analysis and plasma modeling.%Ve systematically study the decay properties of the K-shell excited F-like ions with 10≤Z≤36 based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method.The Breit interaction,the QED corrections and the nuclear finite mass effects are also considered as perturbation.Auger transition rates,radiative,Auger and natural widths,as well as fluorescence and Auger yields for K-shell excited F-like ions are presented.It is shown by means of concrete figures that the decay properties change significantly with the increase of the atomic number Z;the Auger rate is overtaken at Z =30 by the radiative decay rate.Several fitting formulae for the radiative and Auger widths and the fluorescence yields have been evaluated which is expected to be useful in plasma analysis and plasma modeling.

  13. New trigger algorithm of the Auger fluorescence telescopes and validation of their single electron resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger Observatory analyses air shower events of ultra high energy cosmic rays. For the first time the two detector techniques to measure Cherenkov and fluorescence light have been combined to detect primary particle with energies >1019eV. The raw data rate, as measured by the telescope's electronics, is in the order of 9 Gigabyte per second. A multi level trigger system, which reduces the data systematically in several levels and complexities without rejecting important shower events, is necessary. The different trigger levels are realised in hardware as well as in software. A new ansatz for the first software trigger and its functionality is developed and discussed. The trigger is based on the so far not used information of the readout electronics. The resulting trigger level is more efficient and rejects sheet lightning better compared with present trigger level. Thus, the trigger rate to the next trigger level is decreased and the DAQ system is released. Different calibration methods, which are made regularly, are essential for an experiment. The results of different calibration methods have to be consistent to each other. The single electron resolution of the photomultiplier tubes play an important role in this context. The single electron resolution is a geometry and material dependent factor and up to now only known from Monte Carlo simulations. The experimental validation through direct measurement and the importance of the single electron resolution are discussed. The measurement was possible with small modifications of the configuration. The result of the single electron resolution is within its error in good agreement with the one known from Monte Carlo simulations. The low statistical error of 4% shows a low manufacturing tolerance, so that we can assume the resolution to be constant for the type of photomultiplier tubes used. (orig.)

  14. A model for the time uncertainty measurements in the Auger surface detector array

    OpenAIRE

    Bonifazi, C.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Santos, E. M.

    2007-01-01

    The precise determination of the arrival direction of cosmic rays is a fundamental prerequisite for the search for sources or the study of their anisotropies on the sky. One of the most important aspects to achieve an optimal measurement of these directions is to properly take into account the measurement uncertainties in the estimation procedure. In this article we present a model for the uncertainties associated with the time measurements in the Auger surface detector array. We show that th...

  15. Reconstruction accuracy of the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Ave, M

    2007-01-01

    The reconstruction of extensive air showers (arrival direction, core position and energy estimation) by the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is discussed together with the corresponding accuracy. We determine the angular reconstruction accuracy as a function of the station multiplicity by using two different aproaches. We discuss statistical and systematic uncertainties in the determination of the signal at 1000 m from the core, S(1000), which is used to estimate the primary energy.

  16. Study of the Pierre Auger Observatory ground detectors: tests, simulation and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is intended to the ultra high energy cosmic rays study. This study is realized through the particles showers coming from the interaction between the cosmic rays and the atmosphere. The ground detection of these showers requires a comprehensive understanding of the detectors. Several test tanks have been elaborated for this purpose, especially the Orsay one. The first chapter is dedicated to the presentation of the cosmic rays and of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The second one describes the detectors used for the Observatory surface array. The Orsay test tank is then presented and detailed. We study the results we have got with the Orsay test tank in the fourth chapter and compare these results with those of the Observatory detectors in the fifth chapter. The sixth chapter is dedicated to the validation of the results set through the simulation (GEANT4 software). Finally, the first detected particles showers are presented in the seventh chapter. The data acquisition has begun this year. The construction will be finished by end of 2005. From this moment, The Pierre Auger Observatory will allow us to contribute to solving the cosmic rays puzzle. (author)

  17. Observing muon decays in water Cherenkov detectors at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, P; Bertou, X; Busca, N G; Ghia, P L; Medina, C; Navarra, G; Nellen, L; Ibarguen, H S; Ranchon, S; Urban, M; Villaseñor, L

    2005-01-01

    Muons decaying in the water volume of a Cherenkov detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory provide a useful calibration point at low energy. Using the digitized waveform continuously recorded by the electronics of each tank, we have devised a simple method to extract the charge spectrum of the Michel electrons, whose typical signal is about 1/8 of a crossing vertical muon. This procedure, moreover, allows continuous monitoring of the detector operation and of its water level. We have checked the procedure with high statistics on a test tank at the Observatory base and applied with success on the whole array.

  18. Observation of the long term stability of water stations in the Pierre Auger surface detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allekotte, I.; Arisaka, K.; Barnhill, D.; Bertou, Xavier; Bonifazi, C.; Healy, M.D.; Lee, J.; Medina, C.; Ohnuki, T.; Tripathi, A.

    2005-07-01

    The results of a study examining the long-term behavior of Pierre Auger surface detectors is presented. The station properties, such as water quality, liner reflectivity and the water level must be continuously monitored. Such monitoring provides information on the long-term stability of the detectors, which have been designed to operate for twenty years. Using pulse height and shapes of cosmic ray muons, water quality changes are monitored and a technique developed to identify and monitor long-term trends in the array.

  19. Trigger and Aperture of the Surface Detector Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; DuVernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Mueller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2011-01-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consists of 1600 water-Cherenkov detectors, for the study of extensive air showers (EAS) generated by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. We describe the trigger hierarchy, from the identification of candidate showers at the level of a single detector, amongst a large background (mainly random single cosmic ray muons), up to the selection of real events and the rejection of random coincidences. Such trigger makes the surface detector array fully efficient for the detection of EAS with energy above $3\\times 10^{18}$ eV, for all zenith angles between 0$^\\circ$ and 60$^\\circ$, independently of the position of the impact point and of the mass of the primary particle. In these range of energies and angles, the exposure of the surface array can be determined purely on the basis of the geometrical acceptance.

  20. Atmospheric effects on extensive air showers observed with the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters, such as pressure (P), temperature (T) and density, affect the development of extensive air showers initiated by energetic cosmic rays. We have studied the impact of atmospheric variations on extensive air showers by means of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The rate of events shows a ~10% seasonal modulation and ~2% diurnal one. We find that the observed behaviour is explained by a model including the effects associated with the variations of pressure and density. The former affects the longitudinal development of air showers while the latter influences the Moliere radius and hence the lateral distribution of the shower particles. The model is validated with full simulations of extensive air showers using atmospheric profiles measured at the site of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  1. Firmware, detector performance and first data of the AMIGA muon counters for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the Pierre Auger Observatory, being the largest air shower detector setup in the world, ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are studied with full trigger efficiency above E=3 x 1018 eV. In order to achieve a more detailed understanding of cosmic ray physics at lower energies down to E∼1017 eV, e.g. the transition from galactic to extragalactic sources and a possible change in the composition of the primary cosmic rays, the observatory is currently upgraded by the AMIGA enhancement (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array). The muon counters of AMIGA, buried underground, will allow for dedicated measurements of the number of muons in air showers, thus increasing the precision in determining the type of the primary particle. Until middle of 2012, eight prototype muon counters of the AMIGA enhancement were installed at the experimental site of the Pierre Auger Observatory at Malargue, Argentina, forming one detector hexagon referred to as the pre-unitary cell (PUC). Each muon counter comprises a highly modular electronics readout system. Following the production of these systems, tests of single components as well as of the full readout electronics were carried out. In the framework of this thesis dedicated firmware, allowing for the commissioning and first data taking with the PUC, has been developed and tested. Among other features, this firmware includes a self-trigger of the muon counters as well as algorithms for the synchronization of the muon detector (MD) with the existing surface detector (SD) array. The functionality and performance of the electronics readout system with regard to this firmware has been investigated. In addition, first analyses of combined MD and SD data have been performed.

  2. Firmware, detector performance and first data of the AMIGA muon counters for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Uwe

    2013-10-30

    With the Pierre Auger Observatory, being the largest air shower detector setup in the world, ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are studied with full trigger efficiency above E=3 x 10{sup 18} eV. In order to achieve a more detailed understanding of cosmic ray physics at lower energies down to E∼10{sup 17} eV, e.g. the transition from galactic to extragalactic sources and a possible change in the composition of the primary cosmic rays, the observatory is currently upgraded by the AMIGA enhancement (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array). The muon counters of AMIGA, buried underground, will allow for dedicated measurements of the number of muons in air showers, thus increasing the precision in determining the type of the primary particle. Until middle of 2012, eight prototype muon counters of the AMIGA enhancement were installed at the experimental site of the Pierre Auger Observatory at Malargue, Argentina, forming one detector hexagon referred to as the pre-unitary cell (PUC). Each muon counter comprises a highly modular electronics readout system. Following the production of these systems, tests of single components as well as of the full readout electronics were carried out. In the framework of this thesis dedicated firmware, allowing for the commissioning and first data taking with the PUC, has been developed and tested. Among other features, this firmware includes a self-trigger of the muon counters as well as algorithms for the synchronization of the muon detector (MD) with the existing surface detector (SD) array. The functionality and performance of the electronics readout system with regard to this firmware has been investigated. In addition, first analyses of combined MD and SD data have been performed.

  3. Estimating Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Data as seen from the JEM-EUSO Fluorescence Detector for the planned space based JEM-EUSO detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Jeremy; Wiencke, Lawrence

    2014-03-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are subatomic particles with energies above 1018 eV. UHECRs are of interest because they are the highest energy particles known to exist. Their source(s), compositions, and the acceleration mechanisms to produce them with energies beyond 1020 eV remain unknown. The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Argentina, is the world's largest UHECR observatory. It is one of the few a hybrid detectors in the world that combines surface (SD) and fluorescence (FD) detectors. The hybrid detection system is advantageous as it provides a more accurate reconstruction of the incoming cosmic ray's energy and trajectory as it travels through the atmosphere. However, even with the advantage of a hybrid detector, the Pierre Auger has limitations being a ground based observatory. The next generation in UHECR detection is the planned JEM-EUSO mission. The JEM-EUSO mission will consist of a fluorescence detector telescope attached to the International Space Station (ISS). The JEM-EUSO detector is expected to receive an exposure level to UHECRs many times that of the Pierre Auger Observatory by viewing a much larger volume of the atmosphere. In this presentation, I will discuss how data from specific UHECRs collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory is analyzed and altered to estimate what their signatures would look like from space at the planned JEM-EUSO detector. Research advisor

  4. Prototype muon detectors for the AMIGA component of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pierre Augur Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory to extend its range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the particle showers. It consists of an infill of surface water-Cherenkov detectors accompanied by buried scintillator detectors used for muon counting. The main objectives of the AMIGA engineering array, referred to as the Unitary Cell, are to identify and resolve all engineering issues as well as to understand the muon-number counting uncertainties related to the design of the detector. The mechanical design, fabrication and deployment processes of the muon counters of the Unitary Cell are described in this document. These muon counters modules comprise sealed PVC casings containing plastic scintillation bars, wavelength-shifter optical fibers, 64 pixel photomultiplier tubes, and acquisition electronics. The modules are buried approximately 2.25 m below ground level in order to minimize contamination from electromagnetic shower particles. The mechanical setup, which allows access to the electronics for maintenance, is also described in addition to tests of the modules' response and integrity. The completed Unitary Cell has measured a number of air showers of which a first analysis of a sample event is included here.

  5. Study of the Pierre Auger Observatory ground detectors: tests, simulation and calibration; Etude des detecteurs de surface de l'observatoire Pierre Auger: tests, simulation et etalonnage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creusot, A

    2004-10-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is intended to the ultra high energy cosmic rays study. This study is realized through the particles showers coming from the interaction between the cosmic rays and the atmosphere. The ground detection of these showers requires a comprehensive understanding of the detectors. Several test tanks have been elaborated for this purpose, especially the Orsay one. The first chapter is dedicated to the presentation of the cosmic rays and of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The second one describes the detectors used for the Observatory surface array. The Orsay test tank is then presented and detailed. We study the results we have got with the Orsay test tank in the fourth chapter and compare these results with those of the Observatory detectors in the fifth chapter. The sixth chapter is dedicated to the validation of the results set through the simulation (GEANT4 software). Finally, the first detected particles showers are presented in the seventh chapter. The data acquisition has begun this year. The construction will be finished by end of 2005. From this moment, The Pierre Auger Observatory will allow us to contribute to solving the cosmic rays puzzle. (author)

  6. X-ray fluorescence/Auger-electron coincidence spectroscopy of vacancy cascades in atomic argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arp, U. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Electron and Optical Physics Div.; LeBrun, T.; Southworth, S.H.; Jung, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.; MacDonald, M.A. [E.P.S.R.C. Daresbury Lab., Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    Argon L{sub 2.3}-M{sub 2.3}M{sub 2.3} Auger-electron spectra were measured in coincidence with K{alpha} fluorescent x-rays in studies of Ar K-shell vacancy decays at several photon energies above the K-threshold and on the 1s-4p resonance in atomic argon. The complex spectra recorded by conventional electron spectroscopy are greatly simplified when recorded in coincidence with fluorescent x-rays, allowing a more detailed analysis of the vacancy cascade process. The resulting coincidence spectra are compared with Hartree-Fock calculations which include shake-up transitions in the resonant case. Small energy shifts of the coincidence electron spectra are attributed to post-collision interaction with 1s photoelectrons.

  7. Measurement of the Muon Atmospheric Production Depth with the Water Cherenkov Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina Bueno, Laura [Univ. of Granada (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) are particles of uncertain origin and composition, with energies above 1 EeV (1018 eV or 0.16 J). The measured flux of UHECR is a steeply decreasing function of energy. The largest and most sensitive apparatus built to date to record and study cosmic ray Extensive Air Showers (EAS) is the Pierre Auger Observatory. The Pierre Auger Observatory has produced the largest and finest amount of data ever collected for UHECR. A broad physics program is being carried out covering all relevant topics of the field. Among them, one of the most interesting is the problem related to the estimation of the mass composition of cosmic rays in this energy range. Currently the best measurements of mass are those obtained by studying the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic part of the EAS with the Fluorescence Detector. However, the collected statistics is small, specially at energies above several tens of EeV. Although less precise, the volume of data gathered with the Surface Detector is nearly a factor ten larger than the fluorescence data. So new ways to study composition with data collected at the ground are under investigation. The subject of this thesis follows one of those new lines of research. Using preferentially the time information associated with the muons that reach the ground, we try to build observables related to the composition of the primaries that initiated the EAS. A simple phenomenological model relates the arrival times with the depths in the atmosphere where muons are produced. The experimental confirmation that the distributions of muon production depths (MPD) correlate with the mass of the primary particle has opened the way to a variety of studies, of which this thesis is a continuation, with the aim of enlarging and improving its range of applicability. We revisit the phenomenological model which is at the root of the analysis and discuss a new way to improve some aspects of the model. We carry

  8. Measuring partial fluorescence yield using filtered detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, T D; Green, R J; Moewes, A; Regier, T Z

    2014-07-01

    Typically, X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements aim to probe the linear attenuation coefficient. These measurements are often carried out using partial fluorescence yield techniques that rely on detectors having photon energy discrimination improving the sensitivity and the signal-to-background ratio of the measured spectra. However, measuring the partial fluorescence yield in the soft X-ray regime with reasonable efficiency requires solid-state detectors, which have limitations due to the inherent dead-time while measuring. Alternatively, many of the available detectors that are not energy dispersive do not suffer from photon count rate limitations. A filter placed in front of one of these detectors will make the energy-dependent efficiency non-linear, thereby changing the responsivity of the detector. It is shown that using an array of filtered X-ray detectors is a viable method for measuring soft X-ray partial fluorescence yield spectra without dead-time. The feasibility of this technique is further demonstrated using α-Fe2O3 as an example and it is shown that this detector technology could vastly improve the photon collection efficiency at synchrotrons and that these detectors will allow experiments to be completed with a much lower photon flux reducing X-ray-induced damage. PMID:24971965

  9. The Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the scientific motivation, conceptual design and status of the P. Auger Observatory, a hybrid detector designed to measure both the longitudinal and the lateral profile of giant air-showers produced by cosmic-rays of energy above 1019 eV. Two ground arrays of water Cerenkov tanks overlooked by fluorescence detectors will cover an area of 3000 km2 each. They will be build in the Southern and Northern hemisphere to provide full sky coverage. The total aperture of 14000 km2sr will allow to study all observable aspects of cosmic rays from below 10 EeV up to arbitrarily high energies with an unprecedented accuracy

  10. Design of the photomultiplier bases for the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Genolini, B; Pouthas, J; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Parizot, E; Suomijärvi, T

    2001-01-01

    The design of the photomultiplier bases for the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. The bleeder is purely resistive. The base comprises two outputs: one from the anode and another one from the last dynode followed by an amplifier. The charge ratio between the anode and the amplified dynode is around 30. The design ensures a low consumption (less than 100 mu A at 2 kV), a stability of the gain and of the base line during the whole period of measurement (20 mu s per event) and for the whole dynamic range (max. 1 to 3x10^4 in amplitude). First measurement with a prototype base on the Hamamatsu R5912 photomultiplier tube are presented.

  11. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above $10^{17}$ eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water-Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km$^2$ overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. In addition, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km$^2$, 61 detector infill array. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completion in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km$^2$ sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Auger Observatory.

  12. Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahn, E J; Samarai, I Al; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anastasi, G A; Anchordoqui, L; Andrada, B; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Arsene, N; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Avila, G; Awal, N; Badescu, A M; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertaina, M E; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Biteau, J; Blaess, S G; Blanco, A; Blazek, J; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Borodai, N; Botti, A M; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Bretz, T; Bridgeman, A; Briechle, F L; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buitink, S; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Cancio, A; Canfora, F; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Colalillo, R; Coleman, A; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dallier, R; D'Amico, S; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; de Jong, S J; De Mauro, G; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Oliveira, J; de Souza, V; Debatin, J; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Di Matteo, A; Castro, M L Díaz; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, R C dos; Dova, M T; Dundovic, A; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fratu, O; Freire, M M; Fujii, T; Fuster, A; Gallo, F; García, B; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gate, F; Gemmeke, H; Gherghel-Lascu, A; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Głas, D; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Golup, G; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; González, N; Gookin, B; Gordon, J; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hampel, M R; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Hasankiadeh, Q; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hulsman, J; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Johnsen, J A; Josebachuili, M; Kääpä, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Kuempel, D; Mezek, G Kukec; Kunka, N; Awad, A Kuotb; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Lebrun, P; Legumina, R; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopes, L; López, R; Casado, A López; Lucero, A; Malacari, M; Mallamaci, M; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Mariş, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Mello, V B B; Melo, D; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Mockler, D; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, G; Muller, M A; Müller, S; Naranjo, I; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nguyen, P H; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Nožka, H; Núñez, L A; Ochilo, L; Oikonomou, F; Olinto, A; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pedreira, F; Pękala, J; Pelayo, R; Peña-Rodriguez, J; Pepe, I M; Pereira, L A S; Perrone, L; Petermann, E; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Phuntsok, J; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porowski, C; Prado, R R; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Rogozin, D; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salazar, H; Saleh, A; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Gomez, J D Sanabria; Sánchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santos, E M; Santos, E; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sarmiento-Cano, C; Sato, R; Scarso, C; Schauer, M; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, D; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Schumacher, J; Sciutto, S J; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sonntag, S; Sorokin, J; Squartini, R; Stanca, D; Stanič, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Strafella, F; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Durán, M Suarez; Sudholz, T; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Taborda, O A; Tapia, A; Tepe, A; Theodoro, V M; Timmermans, C; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Trini, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valbuena-Delgado, A; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; van Bodegom, P; Berg, A M van den; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weindl, A; Wiencke, L; Wilczyński, H; Winchen, T; Wittkowski, D; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yang, L; Yapici, T; Yelos, D; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zepeda, A; Zimmermann, B; Ziolkowski, M; Zong, Z; Zuccarello, F

    2016-01-01

    The azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of signals in Auger surface detector stations is a source of information on shower development. The azimuthal asymmetry is due to a combination of the longitudinal evolution of the shower and geometrical effects related to the angles of incidence of the particles into the detectors. The magnitude of the effect depends upon the zenith angle and state of development of the shower and thus provides a novel observable, $(\\sec \\theta)_\\mathrm{max}$, sensitive to the mass composition of cosmic rays above $3 \\times 10^{18}$ eV. By comparing measurements with predictions from shower simulations, we find for both of our adopted models of hadronic physics (QGSJETII-04 and EPOS-LHC) an indication that the mean cosmic-ray mass increases slowly with energy, as has been inferred from other studies. However, the mass estimates are dependent on the shower model and on the range of distance from the shower core selected. Thus the method has uncovered further deficiencies in our understa...

  13. Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J. C.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; D'Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gallo, F.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hasankiadeh, Q.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Naranjo, I.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, H.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pepe, I. M.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Strafella, F.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yapici, T.; Yelos, D.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of signals in Auger surface detector stations is a source of information on shower development. The azimuthal asymmetry is due to a combination of the longitudinal evolution of the shower and geometrical effects related to the angles of incidence of the particles into the detectors. The magnitude of the effect depends upon the zenith angle and state of development of the shower and thus provides a novel observable, (sec θ )max , sensitive to the mass composition of cosmic rays above 3 ×1018 eV . By comparing measurements with predictions from shower simulations, we find for both of our adopted models of hadronic physics (QGSJETII-04 and EPOS-LHC) an indication that the mean cosmic-ray mass increases slowly with energy, as has been inferred from other studies. However, the mass estimates are dependent on the shower model and on the range of distance from the shower core selected. Thus the method has uncovered further deficiencies in our understanding of shower modeling that must be resolved before the mass composition can be inferred from (sec θ )max.

  14. Weather induced effects on extensive air showers observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Bleve, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The rate of events measured with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is found to be modulated by the weather conditions. This effect is due to the increasing amount of matter traversed by the shower as the ground pressure increases and to the inverse proportionality of the Moliere radius to the air density near ground. Air-shower simulations with different realistic profiles of the atmosphere support this interpretation of the observed effects.

  15. Autocorrelation studies of the arrival directions of UHECRs measured by the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Stephan

    2011-07-11

    The history of cosmic rays started in the beginning of the 20th century. Since then one of the main questions is their origin. Due to the very low flux at the highest energies huge areas have to be instrumented to answer this question. For this purpose the distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays is studied. The largest experiment so far is the Pierre Auger Observatory, located in the Pampa in western Argentina with an area of about 3000 km{sup 2}. In recent years it provided many major contributions to the field of cosmic ray physics and its data is the basis of this work. Among other things a correlation analysis of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) was performed leading to the first evidence that UHECRs are not isotropically distributed. Here the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays at the highest energies (>50 EeV) is examined by using autocorrelation methods to check whether it is compatible with the isotropic expectation or not.This thesis is organised as follows: in the first two chapters a short introduction to the topic is given, followed by a more general discussion on cosmic rays including models of acceleration, possible sources and the propagation of UHECRs in the third chapter. The fourth chapter focuses on the detector design of the Pierre Auger Observatory and event reconstruction at highest energies. Special attention is paid to the monitoring of the High Elevation Auger Telescopes (HEAT). It is a low energy enhancement of the observatory consisting of three tiltable fluorescence telescopes. The calibration of the new sensor setups is described as well as the installation in each HEAT shelter. The next chapter starts with a detailed description of the underlying ideas and motivations of autocorrelation methods: a representation of the 2pt-Correlation Function and its extension, a Minimum Spanning Tree and a Cluster Algorithm with different weighting procedures. The principle of each

  16. Autocorrelation studies of the arrival directions of UHECRs measured by the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of cosmic rays started in the beginning of the 20th century. Since then one of the main questions is their origin. Due to the very low flux at the highest energies huge areas have to be instrumented to answer this question. For this purpose the distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays is studied. The largest experiment so far is the Pierre Auger Observatory, located in the Pampa in western Argentina with an area of about 3000 km2. In recent years it provided many major contributions to the field of cosmic ray physics and its data is the basis of this work. Among other things a correlation analysis of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) was performed leading to the first evidence that UHECRs are not isotropically distributed. Here the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays at the highest energies (>50 EeV) is examined by using autocorrelation methods to check whether it is compatible with the isotropic expectation or not.This thesis is organised as follows: in the first two chapters a short introduction to the topic is given, followed by a more general discussion on cosmic rays including models of acceleration, possible sources and the propagation of UHECRs in the third chapter. The fourth chapter focuses on the detector design of the Pierre Auger Observatory and event reconstruction at highest energies. Special attention is paid to the monitoring of the High Elevation Auger Telescopes (HEAT). It is a low energy enhancement of the observatory consisting of three tiltable fluorescence telescopes. The calibration of the new sensor setups is described as well as the installation in each HEAT shelter. The next chapter starts with a detailed description of the underlying ideas and motivations of autocorrelation methods: a representation of the 2pt-Correlation Function and its extension, a Minimum Spanning Tree and a Cluster Algorithm with different weighting procedures. The principle of each method

  17. Geometry reconstruction of fluorescence detectors revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-energy cosmic rays with energies exceeding 1017 eV are observed by measurements of the fluorescence light induced by air showers. In the fluorescence technique, the geometry of the shower is reconstructed from the correlation between arrival time and incident angle of the signals detected by the telescope. The calculation of the expected light arrival time used so far in shower reconstruction codes is based on several assumptions. Particularly, it is assumed that fluorescence photons are produced instantaneously during the passage of the shower front and that the fluorescence photons propagate on a straight line with vacuum speed of light towards the telescope.We investigate the validity of these assumptions, how to correct them, and the impact on reconstruction parameters when adopting realistic conditions. Depending on the relative orientation of the shower to the telescope, corrections can reach 100 ns in expected light arrival time, 0.1 grad in arrival direction and 5 g cm-2 in depth of shower maximum. The findings are relevant also for the case of 'hybrid' observations where the shower is registered simultaneously by fluorescence and surface detectors. (authors)

  18. Triggers for the Pierre Auger Observatory, the current status and plans for the future

    CERN Document Server

    Szadkowski, Z

    2009-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a multi-national organization for research on ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The Southern Auger Observatory (Auger-South) in the province of Mendoza, Argentina, has been completed in 2008. First results on the energy spectrum, mass composition and distribution of arrival directions on the southern sky are really impressive. The planned Northern Auger Observatory in Colorado, USA, (Auger-North) will open a new window into the universe and establish charged particle astronomy to determine the origin and nature of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. These cosmic particles carry information complementary to neutrinos and photons and to gravitational waves. They also provide an extremely energetic beam for the study of particle interactions at energies that thirty times higher than those reached in terrestrial accelerators. The Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector consisting of a Surface Detector (SD) and an atmospheric Fluorescence Detector (FD). The hybrid data set obtained when both...

  19. Features of atomic images reconstructed from photoelectron, Auger electron, and internal detector electron holography using SPEA-MEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We develop a 3D atomic image reconstruction algorithm for photoelectron, Auger electron, and internal detector holography. • We examine the shapes of the atomic images reconstructed by using a developed kernel function. • We examine refraction effect at surface, limitation effect of the hologram data, energy resolution effect, and angular resolution effect. • These discussions indicate the experimental requirements to obtain the clear 3D atomic image. - Abstract: Three-dimensional atomic images can be reconstructed from photoelectron, Auger electron, and internal detector electron holograms using a scattering pattern extraction algorithm using the maximum entropy method (SPEA-MEM) that utilizes an integral transform. An integral kernel function for the integral transform is the key to clear atomic image reconstruction. We composed the kernel function using a scattering pattern function and estimated its ability. Image distortion caused by multiple scattering was also evaluated. Four types of Auger electron wave functions were investigated, and the effect of these wave function types was estimated. In addition, we addressed refraction at the surface, the effects of data limitation, and energy and angular resolutions

  20. Features of atomic images reconstructed from photoelectron, Auger electron, and internal detector electron holography using SPEA-MEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Tomohiro, E-mail: matusita@spring8.or.jp [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Matsui, Fumihiko [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We develop a 3D atomic image reconstruction algorithm for photoelectron, Auger electron, and internal detector holography. • We examine the shapes of the atomic images reconstructed by using a developed kernel function. • We examine refraction effect at surface, limitation effect of the hologram data, energy resolution effect, and angular resolution effect. • These discussions indicate the experimental requirements to obtain the clear 3D atomic image. - Abstract: Three-dimensional atomic images can be reconstructed from photoelectron, Auger electron, and internal detector electron holograms using a scattering pattern extraction algorithm using the maximum entropy method (SPEA-MEM) that utilizes an integral transform. An integral kernel function for the integral transform is the key to clear atomic image reconstruction. We composed the kernel function using a scattering pattern function and estimated its ability. Image distortion caused by multiple scattering was also evaluated. Four types of Auger electron wave functions were investigated, and the effect of these wave function types was estimated. In addition, we addressed refraction at the surface, the effects of data limitation, and energy and angular resolutions.

  1. Silicon lithium detector for x ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Silicon Lithium detector is the system for the detection of nuclear radiation. It transforms the charge that was produced inside of Silicon material as a result of the incidence of particles and X rays, in voltage pulses at the output of the preamplifier. In this work was made the adjustment of the technological process of manufacture of the detector. Also was made the design and construction of the cryostat and preamplifier and then the validation of the system in a Cuban Dewar. The system, which was made for the first time in our country, has an energy resolution of 185 eV for the Fe-55 source (E=5.9 KeV), which has permitted its implementation in energy dispersive X ray fluorescence. (author)

  2. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Grygar, Jiří; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 798, Oct (2014), 172-213. ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * high energy cosmic rays * hybrid observatory * water Cherenkov detectors * air fluorescence detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.216, year: 2014

  3. The Pierre Auger Observatory Upgrade - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahn, E J; Samarai, I Al; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Arsene, N; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Awal, N; Badescu, A M; Barber, K B; Bäuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertaina, M E; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blaess, S G; Blanco, A; Blanco, M; Blazek, J; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Bridgeman, A; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buitink, S; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Coleman, A; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; de Jong, S J; De Mauro, G; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Oliveira, J; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Di Matteo, A; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dorofeev, A; Hasankiadeh, Q Dorosti; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fernandes, M; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fox, B D; Fratu, O; Freire, M M; Fuchs, B; Fujii, T; García, B; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gate, F; Gemmeke, H; Gherghel-Lascu, A; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Głas, D; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Golup, G; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; González, N; Gookin, B; Gordon, J; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hampel, M R; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Hartmann, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Hemery, N; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Johnsen, J A; Josebachuili, M; Kääpä, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Mezek, G Kukec; Kunka, N; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopes, L; López, R; Casado, A López; Louedec, K; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Malacari, M; Maldera, S; Mallamaci, M; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Mariş, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meissner, R; Mello, V B B; Melo, D; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Müller, S; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nguyen, P H; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Nožka, L; Ochilo, L; Oikonomou, F; Olinto, A; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petermann, E; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Petrov, Y; Phuntsok, J; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porcelli, A; Porowski, C; Prado, R R; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Purrello, V; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Reinert, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Fernandez, G Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Rogozin, D; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Saleh, A; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sato, R; Scarso, C; Schauer, M; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, D; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Schumacher, J; Sciutto, S J; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanca, D; Stanič, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Taborda, O A; Tapia, A; Tepe, A; Theodoro, V M; Timmermans, C; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Trini, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; van Bodegom, P; Berg, A M van den; van Velzen, S; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vasquez, R; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vlcek, B; Vorobiov, S; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Widom, A; Wiencke, L; Wilczyński, H; Winchen, T; Wittkowski, D; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yang, L; Yapici, T; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zepeda, A; Zhu, Y; Zimmermann, B; Ziolkowski, M; Zong, Z; Zuccarello, F

    2016-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has begun a major Upgrade of its already impressive capabilities, with an emphasis on improved mass composition determination using the surface detectors of the Observatory. Known as AugerPrime, the upgrade will include new 4 m$^2$ plastic scintillator detectors on top of all 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors, updated and more flexible surface detector electronics, a large array of buried muon detectors, and an extended duty cycle for operations of the fluorescence detectors. This Preliminary Design Report was produced by the Collaboration in April 2015 as an internal document and information for funding agencies. It outlines the scientific and technical case for AugerPrime. We now release it to the public via the arXiv server. We invite you to review the large number of fundamental results already achieved by the Observatory and our plans for the future.

  4. The Pierre Auger Observatory Upgrade - Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, Alexander [Univ. Siegen (Germany); et al.

    2016-04-12

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has begun a major Upgrade of its already impressive capabilities, with an emphasis on improved mass composition determination using the surface detectors of the Observatory. Known as AugerPrime, the upgrade will include new 4 m2 plastic scintillator detectors on top of all 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors, updated and more flexible surface detector electronics, a large array of buried muon detectors, and an extended duty cycle for operations of the fluorescence detectors. This Preliminary Design Report was produced by the Collaboration in April 2015 as an internal document and information for funding agencies. It outlines the scientific and technical case for AugerPrime. We now release it to the public via the arXiv server. We invite you to review the large number of fundamental results already achieved by the Observatory and our plans for the future.

  5. Obtaining muonic density estimates via application of matrix formalism to proposed surface detector upgrade at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Event-by-event identification of cosmic ray primary composition lends itself to enhanced event selection in the search for anisotropic arrival directions. Principally, the number of muons reaching Earth's surface in an extensive air shower is indicative of composition. The Pierre Auger Observatory seeks to capitalize on this axiom by improving reconstructed muonic density estimates via an upgrade to its surface detector array. This upgrade, consisting of placing a scintillator on top of each existing water Cherenkov detector, exploits the differing response of two detectors to muonic and electromagnetic particles. Exploitation of this difference may be expressed in a matrix formalism whose application to simulated proton and iron showers is presented here.

  6. Weather induced effects on extensive air showers observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleve, Carla

    The rate of events measured with the surface detector (SD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory is found to be modulated by the weather conditions. This effect, observed in different ranges of S(1000), the signal measured at 1000 m from the shower core, is due to the increasing amount of matter traversed by a shower as the ground pressure increases and to the inverse proportionality of the Moliere radius to the air density near ground. The latter effect results in a modulation of the lateral spread of the shower with T and P. Air- shower simulations with different realistic profiles of the atmosphere support this interpretation of the observed effects.

  7. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-10-21

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above 10{sup 17} eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km{sup 2} overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. In addition, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km{sup 2}, 61-detector infilled array with 750 m spacing. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completion in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km{sup 2} sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Observatory.

  8. Hybrid detection with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study the extensive air showers generated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It consists of 1600 water Cherenkov detectors spread over 3000 km2 viewed by 24 fluorescence telescopes. The implementation of these two complementary techniques together is known as the hybrid detection and makes Auger unique. The combination of a large ground array and fluorescence detectors allows the reconstruction of the shower axis geometry with much greater accuracy than is achieved with either detector system on its own. Simultaneous independent measurements of longitudinal and transverse shower observables give powerful cross-checks on the data analysis and better control over systematic uncertainties in the energy measurement. The Southern site of the Observatory, under construction in Argentina, has been providing data for more than 2 years. Here the hybrid reconstruction approach and its performance are described. (author)

  9. Trigger and aperture of the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Kárová, Tatiana; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Nyklíček, Michal; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 613, č. 1 (2010), s. 29-39. ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA AV ČR KJB100100904; GA AV ČR KJB300100801; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : cosmic rays * trigger * Pierre Auger Observatory Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2010

  10. Atmospheric aerosols at the Pierre Auger Observatory and environmental implications

    CERN Document Server

    Louedec, K

    2012-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory detects the highest energy cosmic rays. Calorimetric measurements of extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays are performed with a fluorescence detector. Thus, one of the main challenges is the atmospheric monitoring, especially for aerosols in suspension in the atmosphere. Several methods are described which have been developed to measure the aerosol optical depth profile and aerosol phase function, using lasers and other light sources as recorded by the fluorescence detector. The origin of atmospheric aerosols traveling through the Auger site is also presented, highlighting the effect of surrounding areas to atmospheric properties. In the aim to extend the Pierre Auger Observatory to an atmospheric research platform, a discussion about a collaborative project is presented.

  11. HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grudberg, Peter Matthew [XIA LLC

    2013-04-30

    The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with

  12. In-situ absolute calibration of electric-field amplitude measurements with the LPDA radio detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Briechle, Florian

    2016-01-01

    With the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) located at the Pierre Auger Observatory, radio emission of extensive air showers is observed. To exploit the physics potential of AERA, electric-field amplitude measurements with the radio detector stations need to be well-calibrated on an absolute level. A convenient tool for far-field calibration campaigns is a flying drone. Here we make use of an octocopter to place a calibrated source at freely chosen positions above the radio detector array. Special emphasis is put on the reconstruction of the octocopter position and its accuracy during the flights. The antenna response pattern of the radio detector stations was measured in a recent calibration campaign. Results of these measurements are presented and compared to simulations. It is found that measurements and simulations are in good agreement.

  13. Development and featuring of hemispherical photomultipliers for cosmic ray detection - calibration of surface detectors and analysis of horizontal showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large photomultipliers (PMT) are currently used in astro-particle and neutrino experiments where they have to detect low levels of light. We have studied and characterised large PMTs developed by the PHOTONIS Group Company. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to the full characterization of two types of multipliers currently used in large PMTs. Then, we present results of a new photocathode process, applied on the XPI805 (PMT used in the Pierre Auger Observatory) in order to improve the quantum efficiency. Finally, we study the PMT diameter influence on main parameters (5, 8 and 10 inches). The second part is devoted to the study of the water Cerenkov tank (WCD) response to the shower particles and the horizontal air showers analysis with the Pierre Auger Observatory. The main parameters of a WCD simulation developed in the Auger IPN group were calibrated with several measurements on vertical and inclined muons, performed on dedicated test tanks. The kind of detector used in the surface detector allows detecting very inclined events with a good sensitivity (zenith angle superior to 70 degrees). We have established specific methods to analyze these events (selection and reconstruction). These methods were applied to the Auger data in order to obtain the energy spectrum of the horizontal events. Finally, we detailed two methods to test directly the hadronic models predictions by studying the air showers muonic component. (author)

  14. A versatile detector for total fluorescence and electron yield experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of a non-coated silicon photodiode with electron repelling meshes makes a versatile detector for total fluorescence yield and electron yield techniques highly suitable for x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In particular, a copper mesh with a bias voltage allows to suppress or transmit the electron yield signal. The performance of this detection scheme has been characterized by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure studies of thermal oxidized silicon and sapphire. The results show that the new detector probes both electron yield and for a bias voltage exceeding the maximum photon energy the total fluorescence yield.

  15. Fluorescence detector for capillary separations fabricated by 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, Jan; Foret, Frantisek

    2014-12-16

    A simple inexpensive light-emitting diode (LED)-based fluorescence detector for detection in capillary separations is described. The modular design includes a separate high power LED source, detector head, designed in the epifluorescence arrangement, and capillary detection cells. The detector head and detection cells were printed using a 3D printer and assembled with commercially available optical components. Optical fibers were used for connecting the detector head to the LED excitation source and the photodetector module. Microscope objective or high numerical aperture optical fiber were used for collection of the fluorescence emission from the fused silica separation capillary. As an example, mixture of oligosaccharides labeled by 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (APTS) was separated by capillary zone electrophoresis and detected by the described detector. The performance of the detector was compared with both a semiconductor photodiode and photomultiplier as light sensing elements. The main advantages of the 3D printed parts, compared to the more expensive alternatives from the optic component suppliers, include not only cost reduction, but also easy customization of the spatial arrangement, modularity, miniaturization, and sharing of information between laboratories for easy replication or further modifications of the detector. All information and files necessary for printing the presented detector are enclosed in the Supporting Information. PMID:25427247

  16. Mass sensitive observables of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will discuss measurements of the longitudinal development of air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The longitudinal development of the electromagnetic component can be directly observed by the fluorescence telescopes of the Auger Observatory and we will present the results on the evolution of the average shower maximum and its fluctuations as a function of energy. Moreover, two observables from the surface detector, the asymmetry of the rise time of the station signals and the muon production depth, will be discussed and the measurements will be compared to predictions from air shower simulations for different primary particle types.

  17. Pierre Auger Atmosphere-Monitoring Lidar System

    CERN Document Server

    Filipcic, A; Veberic, D; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Chiosso, M; Mussa, R; Sequeiros, G; Mostafa, M A; Roberts, M D

    2003-01-01

    The fluorescence-detection techniques of cosmic-ray air-shower experiments require precise knowledge of atmospheric properties to reconstruct air-shower energies. Up to now, the atmosphere in desert-like areas was assumed to be stable enough so that occasional calibration of atmospheric attenuation would suffice to reconstruct shower profiles. However, serious difficulties have been reported in recent fluorescence-detector experiments causing systematic errors in cosmic ray spectra at extreme energies. Therefore, a scanning backscatter lidar system has been constructed for the Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargue, Argentina, where on-line atmospheric monitoring will be performed. One lidar system is already deployed at the Los Leones fluorescence detector site and the second one is currently (April 2003) under construction at the Coihueco site. Next to the established ones, a novel analysis method with assumption on horizontal invariance, using multi-angle measurements is shown to unambiguously measure optica...

  18. The Telescope Array Middle Drum fluorescence detector simulation on GPUs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been recognized and widely used as an accelerator for many scientific calculations. In general, problems amenable to parallelization are ones that benefit most from the use of GPUs. The Monte Carlo simulation of fluorescence detector response to air showers presents many opportunities for parallelization. In this paper we report on a Monte Carlo program used for the simulation of the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector located at the Middle Drum site which uses GPU acceleration. All of the physics simulation from shower development, light production and atmospheric attenuation, as well as, the realistic detector optics and electronics simulations are done on the GPU. A detailed description of the code implementation is given, and results on the accuracy and performance of the simulation are presented as well. Improvements in computational throughput in excess of 50× are reported and the accuracy of the results is on par with the CPU implementation of the simulation.

  19. Advanced functionality for radio analysis in the Offline software framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antičić, T; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Beatty, J J; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Denkiewicz, A; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gascon, A; Gemmeke, H; Gesterling, K; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hague, J D; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Mičanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura., C A; Mueller, S; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Parrisius, J; Parsons, R D; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Phan, N; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tamashiro, A; Tapia, A; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tiwari, D K; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Winders, L; Winnick, M G; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M; 10.1016/j.nima.2011.01.049

    2011-01-01

    The advent of the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) necessitates the development of a powerful framework for the analysis of radio measurements of cosmic ray air showers. As AERA performs "radio-hybrid" measurements of air shower radio emission in coincidence with the surface particle detectors and fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory, the radio analysis functionality had to be incorporated in the existing hybrid analysis solutions for fluoresence and surface detector data. This goal has been achieved in a natural way by extending the existing Auger Offline software framework with radio functionality. In this article, we lay out the design, highlights and features of the radio extension implemented in the Auger Offline framework. Its functionality has achieved a high degree of sophistication and offers advanced features such as vectorial reconstruction of the electric field, advanced signal processing algorithms, a transparent and efficient handling of FFTs, a very detailed simulation of...

  20. Analysis of the auger recombination rate in P+N-n-N-N HgCdTe detectors for HOT applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, J.; Tennant, W. E.; Bellotti, E.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.

    2016-05-01

    Infrared (IR) photon detectors must be cryogenically cooled to provide the highest possible performance, usually to temperatures at or below ~ 150K. Such low operating temperatures (Top) impose very stringent requirements on cryogenic coolers. As such, there is a constant push in the industry to engineer new detector architectures that operate at higher temperatures, so called higher operating temperature (HOT) detectors. The ultimate goal for HOT detectors is room temperature operation. While this is not currently possibly for photon detectors, significant increases in Top are nonetheless beneficial in terms of reduced size, weight, power and cost (SWAP-C). The most common HgCdTe IR detector architecture is the P+n heterostructure photodiode (where a capital letter indicates a wide band gap relative to the active layer or "AL"). A variant of this architecture, the P+N-n-N-N heterostructure photodiode, should have a near identical photo-response to the P+n heterostructure, but with significantly lower dark diffusion current. The P+N-n-N-N heterostructure utilizes a very low doped AL, surrounded on both sides by wide-gap layers. The low doping in the AL, allows the AL to be fully depleted, which drastically reduces the Auger recombination rate in that layer. Minimizing the Auger recombination rate reduces the intrinsic dark diffusion current, thereby increasing Top. Note when we use the term "recombination rate" for photodiodes, we are actually referring to the net generation and recombination of minority carriers (and corresponding dark currents) by the Auger process. For these benefits to be realized, these devices must be intrinsically limited and well passivated. The focus of this proceeding is on studying the fundamental physics of the intrinsic dark currents in ideal P+N-n-N-N heterostructures, namely Auger recombination. Due to the complexity of these devices, specifically the presence of multiple heterojunctions, numerical device modeling techniques must be

  1. Measurement of the Energy Spectrum of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays using Hybrid Data of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Schüssler, Fabian

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from simultaneous observation of fluorescence and surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Extending the nominal energy range of the Pierre Auger Observatory to lower energy, the hybrid energy spectrum above 10^{18} eV is measured. It shows a significant break of the power-law behavior at 10^{18.7} eV.

  2. Multiparametric topological analysis (MTA) for the study of the primary CR composition: Performances with Auger simulated data

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, D.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Guarino, F.; Valore, L.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2008-04-01

    We describe the application of a multiparametric analysis to estimate the UHE Cosmic Rays composition. The proposed method, MTA (Multiparametric Topological Analysis), is based on the study of the correlations among different shower observables. This technique is designed to fully exploit the complementarity of Auger fluorescence and ground array data. In the present work, we report the results of the application to Conex showers, fully simulated through the Auger detector, using only parameters describing the longitudinal development of air showers as recorded by fluorescence detector for hybrid data.

  3. Status and recent results of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobiov, S

    2006-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory aims to determine the nature and origin of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR). The Auger hybrid detector combines fluorescence observations of extended air showers, initiated in the atmosphere by these most energetic particles, with measures of the shower front at the ground level by its large array of Cherenkov water tanks. This allows to improve considerably the precision on reconstructed primary cosmic ray parameters, and to make important cross-calibrations between two techniques at these energies, unreachable with accelerator experiments. The Southern Auger site in Argentina is close to completion. The first measure of the primary cosmic rays energy spectrum, the anisotropy search results, and the limit on the photon fraction in the UHECR are discussed.

  4. A handheld laser-induced fluorescence detector for multiple applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiao-Xia; Li, Han-Yang; Fang, Pan; Pan, Jian-Zhang; Fang, Qun

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a compact handheld laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detector based on a 450nm laser diode and quasi-confocal optical configuration with a total size of 9.1×6.2×4.1cm(3). Since there are few reports on the use of 450nm laser diode in LIF detection, especially in miniaturized LIF detector, we systematically investigated various optical arrangements suitable for the requirements of 450nm laser diode and system miniaturization, including focusing lens, filter combination, and pinhole, as well as Raman effect of water at 450nm excitation wavelength. As the result, the handheld LIF detector integrates the light source (450nm laser diode), optical circuit module (including a 450nm band-pass filter, a dichroic mirror, a collimating lens, a 525nm band-pass filter, and a 1.0mm aperture), optical detector (miniaturized photomultiplier tube), as well as electronic module (including signal recording, processing and displaying units). This detector is capable of working independently with a cost of ca. $2000 for the whole instrument. The detection limit of the instrument for sodium fluorescein solution is 0.42nM (S/N=3). The broad applicability of the present system was demonstrated in capillary electrophoresis separation of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled amino acids and in flow cytometry of tumor cells as an on-line LIF detector, as well as in droplet array chip analysis as a LIF scanner. We expect such a compact LIF detector could be applied in flow analysis systems as an on-line detector, and in field analysis and biosensor analysis as a portable universal LIF detector. PMID:26838391

  5. Ion range measurements using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimpki, G.; Osinga, J.-M.; Herrmann, R.;

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) show excellent detection properties for heavy charged particles and have, therefore, been investigated in this study in terms of their potential for in-vivo range measurements. We irradiated FNTDs with protons as well as with C, Mg, S, Fe and Xe ion beams...... (3–9 MeV/u) over a broad range of fluences (4.5e5–1.0e11 cm−2) with the detectors' optical c-axis positioned perpendicular to the beam direction. All measured ion ranges (for single track as well as track bulk intensity irradiations) deviate less than 3% from tabulated SRIM data (Ziegler et al., 2009......), independent of particle type, energy, fluence and linear energy transfer. Proton irradiation of detectors placed inside a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center showed promising results for future in-vivo FNTD applications....

  6. Engineering cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lack of sensitive biocompatible particle track detectors has so far limited parallel detection of physical energy deposition and biological response. Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) based on Al2O3:C,Mg single crystals combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) provide 3D information on ion tracks with a resolution limited by light diffraction. Here we report the development of next generation cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors (Cell-Fit-HD). The biocompatibility of FNTDs was tested using six different cell lines, i.e. human non-small cell lung carcinoma (A549), glioblastoma (U87), androgen independent prostate cancer (PC3), epidermoid cancer (A431) and murine (VmDk) glioma SMA-560. To evaluate cell adherence, viability and conformal coverage of the crystals different seeding densities and alternative coating with extracellular matrix (fibronectin) was tested. Carbon irradiation was performed in Bragg peak (initial 270.55 MeV u−1). A series of cell compartment specific fluorescence stains including nuclear (HOECHST), membrane (Glut-1), cytoplasm (Calcein AM, CM-DiI) were tested on Cell-Fit-HDs and a single CLSM was employed to co-detect the physical (crystal) as well as the biological (cell layer) information. The FNTD provides a biocompatible surface. Among the cells tested, A549 cells formed the most uniform, viable, tightly packed epithelial like monolayer. The ion track information was not compromised in Cell-Fit-HD as compared to the FNTD alone. Neither cell coating and culturing, nor additional staining procedures affected the properties of the FNTD surface to detect ion tracks. Standard immunofluorescence and live staining procedures could be employed to co-register cell biology and ion track information. The Cell-Fit-Hybrid Detector system is a promising platform for a multitude of studies linking biological response to energy deposition at high level of optical microscopy resolution

  7. Limit on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy tau neutrinos with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Luna Garcia, R.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Smetniansky De Grande, N.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    Data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory are used to establish an upper limit on the diffuse flux of tau neutrinos in the cosmic radiation. Earth-skimming nu(tau) may interact in the Earth's crust and produce a tau lepton by means of charged-current interactions. The tau lepton may emerge from

  8. Cosmic ray composition studies with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncioli, Denise, E-mail: denise.boncioli@aquila.infn.it [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Observatorio Pierre Auger, Av. San Martín Norte 304, 5613 Malargüe (Argentina)

    2014-04-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina is the largest cosmic ray detector array ever built. Although the construction was completed in 2008, the Observatory has been taking data continuously since January 2004. Its main goal is to measure ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs, energy above 10{sup 18} eV) with unprecedented statistics and precision. Measurements of the energy spectrum, chemical composition (including neutrinos and photons) and arrival directions of UHECRs can provide hints for understanding their origin, propagation and interactions. The fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory measures the atmospheric depth, X{sub max}, where the longitudinal profile of a high energy air shower reaches its maximum. This is sensitive to the nuclear mass composition of the cosmic ray and to the characteristics of the hadronic interactions at very high energy. Due to its hybrid design, the Pierre Auger Observatory also provides independent experimental observables obtained from the surface detector for the study of the shower development. A selection of the Pierre Auger Observatory results on the study of the UHECRs will be presented, focusing on composition results. In particular, the measurements and the different roles of the observables with respect to mass composition will be discussed.

  9. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays with the Auger Engineering Radio Array (PISA 2015)

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Frank G

    2016-01-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is an enhancement of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. Covering about View the $17\\,$km$^2$, AERA is the world-largest antenna array for cosmic-ray observation. It consists of more than 150 antenna stations detecting the radio signal emitted by air showers, i.e., cascades of secondary particles caused by primary cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere. At the beginning, technical goals had been in focus: first of all, the successful demonstration that a large-scale antenna array consisting of autonomous stations is feasible. Moreover, techniques for calibration of the antennas and time calibration of the array have been developed, as well as special software for the data analysis. Meanwhile physics goals come into focus. At the Pierre Auger Observatory air showers are simultaneously detected by several detector systems, in particular water-Cherenkov detectors at the surface, underground muon detectors, and fluorescence telescopes, which enables cross-calibration of...

  10. Scanning fluorescence detector for high-throughput DNA genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Terry L.; Petsinger, Jeremy; Christensen, Carl; Vaske, David A.; Brumley, Robert L., Jr.; Luckey, John A.; Weber, James L.

    1996-04-01

    A new scanning fluorescence detector (SCAFUD) was developed for high-throughput genotyping of short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs). Fluorescent dyes are incorporated into relatively short DNA fragments via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and are separated by electrophoresis in short, wide polyacrylamide gels (144 lanes with well to read distances of 14 cm). Excitation light from an argon laser with primary lines at 488 and 514 nm is introduced into the gel through a fiber optic cable, dichroic mirror, and 40X microscope objective. Emitted fluorescent light is collected confocally through a second fiber. The confocal head is translated across the bottom of the gel at 0.5 Hz. The detection unit utilizes dichroic mirrors and band pass filters to direct light with 10 - 20 nm bandwidths to four photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). PMT signals are independently amplified with variable gain and then sampled at a rate of 2500 points per scan using a computer based A/D board. LabView software (National Instruments) is used for instrument operation. Currently, three fluorescent dyes (Fam, Hex and Rox) are simultaneously detected with peak detection wavelengths of 543, 567, and 613 nm, respectively. The detection limit for fluorescein-labeled primers is about 100 attomoles. Planned SCAFUD upgrades include rearrangement of laser head geometry, use of additional excitation lasers for simultaneous detection of more dyes, and the use of detector arrays instead of individual PMTs. Extensive software has been written for automatic analysis of SCAFUD images. The software enables background subtraction, band identification, multiple- dye signal resolution, lane finding, band sizing and allele calling. Whole genome screens are currently underway to search for loci influencing such complex diseases as diabetes, asthma, and hypertension. Seven production SCAFUDs are currently in operation. Genotyping output for the coming year is projected to be about one million total genotypes (DNA

  11. Search for Ultra-High Energy Photons with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Healy, M D

    2007-01-01

    Data taken at the Pierre Auger Observatory are used to search for air showers initiated by ultra-high energy (UHE) photons. Results of searches are reported from hybrid observations where events are measured with both fluorescence and array detectors. Additionally, a more stringent test of the photon fluxes predicted with energies above 10^19 eV is made using a larger data set measured using only the surface detectors of the observatory.

  12. Status of UHE CR Orbital Fluorescence Detector Tus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, P.; Garipov, G.; Khrenov, B.; Kalmykov, N.; Morozenko, V.; Panasyuk, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shirokov, A.; Yashin, I.; Biktemerova, S.; Grinyuk, A.; Naumov, D.; Tkachev, L.; Tkachenko, A.; Saprykin, O.; Park, I.; Lee, J.; Na, G.; Martinez, O.; Salazar, H.

    2011-06-01

    The pioneer space fluorescence ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHE CR) detector TUS, is preparing in SINP MSU, Russia. The main goal of this project is study of cosmic rays beyond GZK cut-off (50 EeV). It consists of segmented Fresnel-type mirror concentrator (area 1.86 m2 , focal distance 1.5 m) and photo receiver (256 pixels - PMT R1463). Total FOV of detector is 9 × 9 degrees. Developed electronics allow events measurements in various time scales, and provide PMT gain control to operate with any atmosphere UV background. Night atmosphere radiation depends mainly on moon phase and atmosphere air-glow and was studied in "Tatiana-1" and "Tatiana-2" experiments. The electronics of TUS were tested in space conditions during these experiments. Recently, detector TUS was included into "Mikhailo Lomonosov" satellite scientific payload. This satellite should be launched at the end of 2011 in honour of Russian scientist and founder of Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov. TUS will study various extreme phenomena which produce UV light in the atmosphere (UHECR, transient luminous events) and will be a "pathfinder" for further projects (JEM-EUSO, MEMS Space Telescope).

  13. The Auger Engineering Radio Array and multi-hybrid cosmic ray detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, E. M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) aims at the detection of air showers induced by high-energy cosmic rays. As an extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory, it measures complementary information to the particle detectors, fluorescence telescopes and to the muon scintillators of the Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array (AMIGA). AERA is sensitive to all fundamental parameters of an extensive air shower such as the arrival direction, energy and depth of shower maximum. Since the radio emission is induced purely by the electromagnetic component of the shower, in combination with the AMIGA muon counters, AERA is perfect for separate measurements of the electrons and muons in the shower, if combined with a muon counting detector like AMIGA. In addition to the depth of the shower maximum, the ratio of the electron and muon number serves as a measure of the primary particle mass.

  14. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 1019 eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J. C.; Aramo, C.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bacelar, J.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Barkhausen, M.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boghrat, P.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Brack, J.; Brunet, J. M.; Buchholz, P.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Capdevielle, J. N.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazón, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Claes, D.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Clay, S. B.; Connolly, B.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dang Quang, T.; Darriulat, P.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Carvalho, L. A.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, M. A. L.; de Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Ewers, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazio, D.; Fazzini, N.; Fernández, A.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fokitis, E.; Fonte, R.; Fuhrmann, D.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrard, L.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Geranios, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gobbi, F.; Gold, M. S.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Herrero, R.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gongora, J. P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A.; Grunfeld, C.; Grupen, C.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovský, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kalashev, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kolotaev, Y.; Kopmann, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuhlman, S.; Kuijpers, J.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Longo, G.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lucero, A.; Maldera, S.; Malek, M.; Maltezos, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Martello, D.; Martinez, N.; Martínez, J.; Martínez, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurin, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, G.; Medina, M. C.; Medina Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nguyen Thi, T.; Nichol, R.; Nierstenhöfer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nogima, H.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, L. F. A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pham Ngoc, D.; Pham Thi, T. N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pisanti, O.; Porter, T. A.; Pouryamout, J.; Prado, L.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Reis, H. C.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Řídký, J.; Risi, A.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robbins, S.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodríguez Frías, D.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roucelle, C.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santos, E. M.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Semikoz, D.; Sequeiros, G.; Shellard, R. C.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Skelton, P.; Slater, W.; Smetniansky de Grande, N.; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Ticona, R.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tonachini, A.; Torresi, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vo van, T.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wiebusch, C.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Xu, J.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Zha, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2007-03-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies greater than 1019 eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favored.

  15. Development and featuring of hemispherical photomultipliers for cosmic ray detection - calibration of surface detectors and analysis of horizontal showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory; Developpement et caracterisation de photomultiplicateurs hemispheriques pour les experiences d'astroparticules - etalonnage des detecteurs de surface et analyse des gerbes horizontales de l'Observatoire Pierre Auger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornic, D

    2006-09-15

    The large photomultipliers (PMT) are currently used in astro-particle and neutrino experiments where they have to detect low levels of light. We have studied and characterised large PMTs developed by the PHOTONIS Group Company. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to the full characterization of two types of multipliers currently used in large PMTs. Then, we present results of a new photocathode process, applied on the XPI805 (PMT used in the Pierre Auger Observatory) in order to improve the quantum efficiency. Finally, we study the PMT diameter influence on main parameters (5, 8 and 10 inches). The second part is devoted to the study of the water Cerenkov tank (WCD) response to the shower particles and the horizontal air showers analysis with the Pierre Auger Observatory. The main parameters of a WCD simulation developed in the Auger IPN group were calibrated with several measurements on vertical and inclined muons, performed on dedicated test tanks. The kind of detector used in the surface detector allows detecting very inclined events with a good sensitivity (zenith angle superior to 70 degrees). We have established specific methods to analyze these events (selection and reconstruction). These methods were applied to the Auger data in order to obtain the energy spectrum of the horizontal events. Finally, we detailed two methods to test directly the hadronic models predictions by studying the air showers muonic component. (author)

  16. Advanced functionality for radio analysis in the Offline software framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) necessitates the development of a powerful framework for the analysis of radio measurements of cosmic ray air showers. As AERA performs 'radio-hybrid' measurements of air shower radio emission in coincidence with the surface particle detectors and fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory, the radio analysis functionality had to be incorporated in the existing hybrid analysis solutions for fluorescence and surface detector data. This goal has been achieved in a natural way by extending the existing Auger Offline software framework with radio functionality. In this article, we lay out the design, highlights and features of the radio extension implemented in the Auger Offline framework. Its functionality has achieved a high degree of sophistication and offers advanced features such as vectorial reconstruction of the electric field, advanced signal processing algorithms, a transparent and efficient handling of FFTs, a very detailed simulation of detector effects, and the read-in of multiple data formats including data from various radio simulation codes. The source code of this radio functionality can be made available to interested parties on request.

  17. Radio detection of cosmic ray induced air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AERA - the Auger Engineering Radio Array - is currently being set up at the southern site of the Pierre Auger Observatory. AERA will explore the potential of the radio-detection technique to cosmic ray induced air showers with respect to the next generation of large-scale surface detectors. As AERA is co-located with the low-energy enhancements of the Pierre Auger Observatory, the observation of air showers in coincidence with the Auger surface and fluorescence detector will allow to study the radio emission processes in detail and to calibrate the radio signal. Finally, the combined reconstruction of shower parameters with three independent techniques promises new insights into the nature of cosmic rays in the transition region from 1017 to 1019 eV. Besides the detection of coherent radiation in the MHz frequency range, the setups AMBER - Air-shower Microwave Bremsstrahlung Experimental Radiometer - and MIDAS - MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers - prepare to check the possibility to detect air showers due the emission of molecular bremsstrahlung in the GHz range at the Auger site. This article presents the status of the radio-detection setups and discusses their physics potential as well as experimental challenges. Special focus is laid on the first stage of AERA which is the startup to the construction of a 20 km2 radio array.

  18. The Pierre Auger project: An observatory for measuring extremely high-energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the scientific motivation and conceptual design of the P. Auger Observatory. Two giant ground arrays of water Cerenkov tanks overlooked by fluorescence detectors will cover an area of 3000 km2 each. They will be build in the Southern and Northern hemisphere to provide full sky coverage. The total aperture of 14000 km2sr will allow to study all observable aspects of cosmic rays from below 10 EeV up to arbitrarily high energies with an unprecedented accuracy

  19. Techniques for measuring aerosol attenuation using the Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    PIERRE AUGER Collaboration; Abreu, P; Pastor, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargue, Argentina, is designed to study the properties of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with energies above 10(18) eV. It is a hybrid facility that employs a Fluorescence Detector to perform nearly calorimetric measurements of Extensive Air Shower energies. To obtain reliable calorimetric information from the FD, the atmospheric conditions at the observatory need to be continuously monitored during data acquisition. In particular, light attenuation due to aer...

  20. The LIDAR systems for atmospheric monitoring in Auger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A LIDAR network is being built for the measurement and online monitoring of the atmospheric optical parameters, which play a central role in the energy measurement of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. Four LIDAR systems, each one equipped by an Nd:YAG UV laser and three parabolic mirrors with PMTs for the detection of the backscatter photons, are scheduled to be installed in the proximity of the four fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory (Malarguee, Argentina). In this paper a report describing hardware components, commissioning and shooting strategies of the LIDAR systems is given

  1. Thin glass mirrors for the Pierre Auger project

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schovánek, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Vlček, Martin

    Washington : SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2003 - (Zajac, M.; Masajada, J.), s. 210-214 ISBN 0-8194-5146-0. ISSN 0277-786X. - (SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.. 5259). [Polish-Czech-Slovak Conference on Wave and Quantum Aspects of Contemporary Optics /13./. Krzyzowa (PL), 09.09.2002-13.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : Auger * fluorescence detector * mirrors * reflection Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics

  2. Large scale anisotropy studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays using data taken with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays is remarkably uniform over the complete spectrum of energies. At large angular scales only tiny deviations from isotropy have been observed and huge statistics are required to quantify the corresponding amplitudes. The measurement of cosmic rays with energies above 1015 eV is only feasible with large, earthbound observatories: The cosmic ray primary particles initiate cascades of secondary particles in the Earth's atmosphere. Every aspect of the development of these air showers down to the measurement of the resulting particles at ground level needs to be well understood and controlled in order to precisely reconstruct the properties of the primary particle. The development of air showers is subject to systematic distortions caused by the magnetic field of the Earth. Both this and other local effects are capable of inducing false anisotropy into the distribution of arrival directions. In this thesis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the energy measurement is modelled and quantified; consequently, a correction of the energy estimator is derived. Furthermore, a method is introduced to fit dipolar patterns to the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays as observed from the field of view of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. After correcting for all relevant local effects the method is applied to data and the parameters of a potentially underlying dipole are determined and evaluated. (orig.)

  3. Large scale anisotropy studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays using data taken with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigat, Marius

    2011-06-10

    The distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays is remarkably uniform over the complete spectrum of energies. At large angular scales only tiny deviations from isotropy have been observed and huge statistics are required to quantify the corresponding amplitudes. The measurement of cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 15} eV is only feasible with large, earthbound observatories: The cosmic ray primary particles initiate cascades of secondary particles in the Earth's atmosphere. Every aspect of the development of these air showers down to the measurement of the resulting particles at ground level needs to be well understood and controlled in order to precisely reconstruct the properties of the primary particle. The development of air showers is subject to systematic distortions caused by the magnetic field of the Earth. Both this and other local effects are capable of inducing false anisotropy into the distribution of arrival directions. In this thesis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the energy measurement is modelled and quantified; consequently, a correction of the energy estimator is derived. Furthermore, a method is introduced to fit dipolar patterns to the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays as observed from the field of view of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. After correcting for all relevant local effects the method is applied to data and the parameters of a potentially underlying dipole are determined and evaluated. (orig.)

  4. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 10^19 eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allison, P; Alvarez, C; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, Luis A; Anjos, J C; Aramo, C; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bacelar, J; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D O; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barbosa, H M J; Barkhausen, M; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boghrat, P; Bohacova, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brunet, J M; Buchholz, P; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Capdevielle, J N; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Claes, D; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Clay, S B; Connolly, B; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dang Quang, T; Darriulat, Pierre; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; De Almeida, R M; De Carvalho, L A; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De Mello Junior, W J M; De Mello-Neto, J R T; De Mitri, I; De Oliveira, M A L; De Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L N; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Ewers, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Fauth, A C; Fazio, D; Fazzini, N; Fernández, A; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fokitis, E; Fonte, R; Fuhrmann, D; Fulgione, W; García, B; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrard, L; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Geranios, A; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glass, H; Gobbi, F; Gold, M S; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gomez Berisso, M; Gómez-Herrero, R; Goncalvesdo Amaral, M; Gongora, J P; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Gora, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A; Grunfeld, C; Grupen, C; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutíerrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Harakeh, M N; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Hartmann, S; Harton, J L; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Homola, P; Horandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovsky, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Kaducak, M; Kalashev, O; Kampert, K H; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D H; Kolotaev, Yu; Kopmann, A; Krömer, O; Kuhlman, S; Kuijpers, J; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Longo, G; López, R; López-Aguera, A; Lucero, A; Maldera, S; Malek, M; Maltezos, S; Mancarella, G; Mancenido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Martello, D; Martínez, N; Martínez, J; Martínez, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, Giorgio; Maurin, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, G; Medina, M C; Medina Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, François; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Morris, C; Mostafa, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nguyen Thi, T; Nichol, R; Nierstenhofer, N; Nitz, D; Nogima, H; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pham Ngoc, D; Pham Thi, T N; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pisanti, O; Porter, T A; Pouryamout, J; Prado Junior, L; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Reis, H C; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rídky, J; Risi, A; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robbins, S; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Rodriguez Frias, D; Rodríguez-Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roucelle, C; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santos, E M; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovanek, P; Schussler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Semikoz, Dmitry V; Sequeiros, G; Shellard, R C; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Skelton, P; Slater, W; Smetniansky De Grande, N; Smialkowski, A; Smida, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tascau, O; Ticona, R; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tonachini, A; Torresi, D; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A

    2006-01-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies above 10^19 eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample, support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favoured.

  5. Particle physics at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebr Jan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest detector of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR in the world. These particles, presumably protons or heavier nuclei of energies up to 1020 eV, initiate extensive air showers which can be detected by sampling the particles that arrive at ground level or observing the fluorescence light generated during the passage of showers through the atmosphere – the Pierre Auger Observatory employs both these techniques. As the center-of-mass energies of the first interactions in the showers can be several orders of magnitude beyond the reach of the LHC, the UHECR provide an unique opportunity to study hadronic interactions. While the uncertainty in modeling these interactions is somewhat degenerate with the unknown composition of the primary beam, interaction models can be tested using data such as the depths of the maxima of the longitudinal development of the showers or their muon content. Particular sensitivity to interaction models is achieved when several observables are combined. Moreover, using careful data selection, proton-air cross section at the c.m.s. energy of 57 TeV per nucleon-nucleon pair can be obtained.

  6. Differential auger spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strongin, Myron; Varma, Matesh Narayan; Anne, Joshi

    1976-06-22

    Differential Auger spectroscopy method for increasing the sensitivity of micro-Auger spectroanalysis of the surfaces of dilute alloys, by alternately periodically switching an electron beam back and forth between an impurity free reference sample and a test sample containing a trace impurity. The Auger electrons from the samples produce representative Auger spectrum signals which cancel to produce an Auger test sample signal corresponding to the amount of the impurity in the test samples.

  7. Characterization of energy response for photon-counting detectors using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of characterizing a Si strip photon-counting detector using x-ray fluorescence. Methods: X-ray fluorescence was generated by using a pencil beam from a tungsten anode x-ray tube with 2 mm Al filtration. Spectra were acquired at 90° from the primary beam direction with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector based on an edge illuminated Si strip detector. The distances from the source to target and the target to detector were approximately 19 and 11 cm, respectively. Four different materials, containing silver (Ag), iodine (I), barium (Ba), and gadolinium (Gd), were placed in small plastic containers with a diameter of approximately 0.7 cm for x-ray fluorescence measurements. Linear regression analysis was performed to derive the gain and offset values for the correlation between the measured fluorescence peak center and the known fluorescence energies. The energy resolutions and charge-sharing fractions were also obtained from analytical fittings of the recorded fluorescence spectra. An analytical model, which employed four parameters that can be determined from the fluorescence calibration, was used to estimate the detector response function. Results: Strong fluorescence signals of all four target materials were recorded with the investigated geometry for the Si strip detector. The average gain and offset of all pixels for detector energy calibration were determined to be 6.95 mV/keV and −66.33 mV, respectively. The detector’s energy resolution remained at approximately 2.7 keV for low energies, and increased slightly at 45 keV. The average charge-sharing fraction was estimated to be 36% within the investigated energy range of 20–45 keV. The simulated detector output based on the proposed response function agreed well with the experimental measurement. Conclusions: The performance of a spectral imaging system using energy-resolved photon-counting detectors is very dependent on the energy calibration of the

  8. Fluorescence lifetime microscopy with a time- and space-resolved single-photon counting detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalet, X.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J. V.; Jelinsky, P.; Pinaud, F. F.; Millaud, J. E.; Weiss, S.

    2006-10-01

    We have recently developed a wide-field photon-counting detector (the H33D detector) having high-temporal and highspatial resolutions and capable of recording up to 500,000 photons per sec. Its temporal performance has been previously characterized using solutions of fluorescent materials with different lifetimes, and its spatial resolution using sub-diffraction objects (beads and quantum dots). Here we show its application to fluorescence lifetime imaging of live cells and compare its performance to a scanning confocal TCSPC approach. With the expected improvements in photocathode sensitivity and increase in detector throughput, this technology appears as a promising alternative to the current lifetime imaging solutions.

  9. Photon-counting H33D detector for biological fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalet, X.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J. V.; Jelinsky, P.; Millaud, J. E.; Weiss, S.

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a photon-counting High-temporal and High-spatial resolution, High-throughput 3-Dimensional detector (H33D) for biological imaging of fluorescent samples. The design is based on a 25 mm diameter S20 photocathode followed by a 3-microchannel plate stack, and a cross-delay line anode. We describe the bench performance of the H33D detector, as well as preliminary imaging results obtained with fluorescent beads, quantum dots and live cells and discuss applications of future generation detectors for single-molecule imaging and high-throughput study of biomolecular interactions.

  10. Radio detection of extensive air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deployed at the end of 2010 at the Pierre Auger Observatory, the first stage of the Auger Engineering Radio Array, AERA24, consists of 24 radio stations covering an area of 0.5 km2. AERA measures the radio emission from cosmic-ray induced air showers. The amplitude of this radio emission is used to constrain the characteristics of the primary particle: arrival direction, energy and nature. These studies are possible thanks to an instrumentation development allowing self-triggered and externally triggered measurements in the MHz domain and an improved understanding of radio emission processes. In May 2013, 100 new stations were installed to cover an area of ≃6 km2, for a total of 124 stations. This stage 2 will provide higher statistics and will enhance both the estimate of the nature of the primary cosmic ray and the energy resolution above 1017 eV as an addition to detectors such as the Auger fluorescence telescopes and particle detectors. We will present the main results obtained with the stage 1 of AERA and the current status of the experiment. We will end with a brief overview of the GHz-experiments installed at the Pierre Auger Observatory

  11. Towards a lateral distribution function reconstruction of radio measurements in offline with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic ray induced air showers radiate appreciable power at radio frequencies via the geosynchrotron process. The Pierre Auger Observatory is constructing radio detection technique on large scales, the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA). For this purpose the Auger software-framework called offline, is being enhanced to analyze and reconstruct radio data. Our target is to reconstruct the intensity of the measured radio emission versus the distance from the shower-axis, representing the lateral distribution, which needs to be reconstructed from the Auger-data collected at one of the test sites for radio detection, located in the western part of the observatory near the surface detector tank Olaia, where three poles forming an equilateral triangle with a baseline of 100 m constitutes our setup of dual-polarized log-periodic dipole antennas. Our analysis focuses on a comparison of different functional dependencies for the LDF, such as exponential and polynomial one. The final aim is to have an independent energy estimation, direction reconstruction and, if possible, composition of the primary particle which induced the shower, to compare and integrate with the surface and fluorescence detector reconstructions.

  12. Make caffeine visible: a fluorescent caffeine "traffic light" detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang; Kim, Tae-Hyeong; Zhai, Duanting; Er, Jun Cheng; Zhang, Liyun; Kale, Anup Atul; Agrawalla, Bikram Keshari; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung; Chang, Young-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine has attracted abundant attention due to its extensive existence in beverages and medicines. However, to detect it sensitively and conveniently remains a challenge, especially in resource-limited regions. Here we report a novel aqueous phase fluorescent caffeine sensor named Caffeine Orange which exhibits 250-fold fluorescence enhancement upon caffeine activation and high selectivity. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicate that π-stacking and hydrogen-bonding contribute to their interactions while dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy experiments demonstrate the change of Caffeine Orange ambient environment induces its fluorescence emission. To utilize this probe in real life, we developed a non-toxic caffeine detection kit and tested it for caffeine quantification in various beverages. Naked-eye sensing of various caffeine concentrations was possible based on color changes upon irradiation with a laser pointer. Lastly, we performed the whole system on a microfluidic device to make caffeine detection quick, sensitive and automated. PMID:23877095

  13. Advanced Fluorescence Protein-Based Synapse-Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hojin; Oh, Won Chan; Seong, Jihye; Kim, Jinhyun

    2016-01-01

    The complex information-processing capabilities of the central nervous system emerge from intricate patterns of synaptic input-output relationships among various neuronal circuit components. Understanding these capabilities thus requires a precise description of the individual synapses that comprise neural networks. Recent advances in fluorescent protein engineering, along with developments in light-favoring tissue clearing and optical imaging techniques, have rendered light microscopy (LM) a potent candidate for large-scale analyses of synapses, their properties, and their connectivity. Optically imaging newly engineered fluorescent proteins (FPs) tagged to synaptic proteins or microstructures enables the efficient, fine-resolution illumination of synaptic anatomy and function in large neural circuits. Here we review the latest progress in fluorescent protein-based molecular tools for imaging individual synapses and synaptic connectivity. We also identify associated technologies in gene delivery, tissue processing, and computational image analysis that will play a crucial role in bridging the gap between synapse- and system-level neuroscience. PMID:27445785

  14. Auger Physicists visit CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Visit at CERN P5 CMS in the experimental cavern Alan Watson, Auger Spokesperson Emeritus, University of Leeds; Jim Cronin, Nobel Laureate, Auger Spokesperson Emeritus, University of Chicago; Jim Virdee, CMS Former Spokesperson, Imperial College; Jim Matthews, Auger Co-Spokesperson, Louisiana State University

  15. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays with the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Frank G.

    2016-07-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is an enhancement of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. Covering about 17km2, AERA is the world-largest antenna array for cosmic-ray observation. It consists of more than 150 antenna stations detecting the radio signal emitted by air showers, i.e., cascades of secondary particles caused by primary cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere. At the beginning, technical goals had been in focus: first of all, the successful demonstration that a large-scale antenna array consisting of autonomous stations is feasible. Moreover, techniques for calibration of the antennas and time calibration of the array have been developed, as well as special software for the data analysis. Meanwhile physics goals come into focus. At the Pierre Auger Observatory air showers are simultaneously detected by several detector systems, in particular water-Cherenkov detectors at the surface, underground muon detectors, and fluorescence telescopes, which enables cross-calibration of different detection techniques. For the direction and energy of air showers, the precision achieved by AERA is already competitive; for the type of primary particle, several methods are tested and optimized. By combining AERA with the particle detectors we aim for a better understanding of cosmic rays in the energy range from approximately 0.3 to 10 EeV, i.e., significantly higher energies than preceding radio arrays.

  16. Compact low-cost detector for in vivo assessment of microphytobenthos using laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, A. B.; Vieira, S.; Marques da Silva, J.; Lavrov, A.; Leite, E.; Cartaxana, P.

    2013-03-01

    The development of a compact low-cost detector for non-destructive assessment of microphytobenthos using laser induced fluorescence was described. The detector was built from a specially modified commercial miniature fiber optic spectrometer (Ocean Optics USB4000). Its usefulness is experimentally verified by the study of diatom-dominated biofilms inhabiting the upper layers of intertidal sediments of the Tagus Estuary, Portugal. It is demonstrated that, operating with a laser emitter producing 30 mJ pulses at the wavelength of 532 nm, the detector is capable to record fluorescence signals with sufficient intensity for the quantitative biomass characterization of the motile epipelic microphytobenthic communities and to monitor their migratory activity. This paves the way for building an entire emitter-detector LIF system for microphytobenthos monitoring, which will enable microalgae communities occupying hardly accessible intertidal flats to be monitored in vivo at affordable cost.

  17. AMIGA at the Auger observatory: the telecommunications system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMIGA is an extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory that will consist of 85 detector pairs, each one composed of a surface water-Cherenkov detector and a buried muon counter. Each muon counter has an area of 30 square meters and is made of scintillator strips, with doped optical fibers glued to them, which guide the light to 64 pixel photomultiplier tubes. The detector pairs are arranged at 433 m and 750 m array spacings. In this paper we present the telecommunications system designed to connect the muon counters with the central data processing system at the observatory campus in Malarg and quot;ue. The telecommunications system consists of a point-to-multipoint radio link designed to connect the 85 muon counters or subscribers to two coordinators located at the Coihueco fluorescence detector building. The link provides TCP/IP remote access to the scintillator modules through router boards installed on each of the surface detectors of AMIGA. This setup provides a flexible LAN configuration for each muon counter connected to a WAN that links all the data generated by the muon counters and the surface detectors to the Central Data Acquisition System, or CDAS, at the observatory campus. We present the design parameters, the proposed telecommunications solution and the laboratory and field tests proposed to guarantee its functioning for the whole data traffic generated between each surface detector and muon counter in the AMIGA array and the CDAS

  18. Energy spectrum of UHECRs measured by newly constructed fluorescence detectors in Telescope Array experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujii Toshihiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Telescope Array (TA experiment is the largest hybrid detector to observe ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs in the northern hemisphere. In the TA experiment, we newly designed and constructed 24 fluorescence detectors (FDs located at two stations. We report the energy spectrum of UHECRs with energies above 1017.5 eV from analyzing data collected by the new FDs during the first 3.7 years in monocular mode.

  19. Development of real time detector for fluorescent particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevost, C.; Vendel, J. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Seigneur, A. [LETI, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    1997-08-01

    Aerosols tagged by a fluorescent dye are a worthwhile tool within the framework of ventilation and filtration studies. The detection in real time of a specific particulate tracer allows characterization of ventilation behaviour such as air change rate, the determination of a good or bad mixing zone and transfer coefficient, or the determination of the decontamination factor for High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. Generally, these tests require specific aerosols in order to get rid of the atmospheric aerosol background. Until now the principle of fluorescent aerosol concentration measuring has only allowed an integral response with a time lag by means of sampling on filters and a fluorimetric analysis after specific conditioning of these filters. 5 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Fluorescence detector for capillary separations fabricated by 3D printing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Jan; Foret, František

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 24 (2014), s. 11951-11956. ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0182 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) M200311201 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : 3D print * additive manufacturing * fluorescence * LIF * LED Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 5.636, year: 2014

  1. Results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrone Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to investigate the origin and the nature of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays using a hybrid detection technique. It islocated in the Province of Mendoza, Argentina, and consists of a surface array of about 3000 km2 overlooked by 27 air fluorescence telescopes grouped in four sites, which together provide a powerful instrument for air shower reconstruction. The combination of information from the surface array, measuring the lateral distributions of secondary particles at the ground, and the fluorescence telescopes, observing the longitudinal profile, enhances the reconstruction capability with respect to the individual detector components. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays offer also the unique chance of investigating particle interactions over an energy range well beyondthe one covered by present and future ground-based particle accelerators. A review of selected results is presented with the emphasis given to the measurement of energy spectrum, arrival directions, chemical composition and the search for photons and neutrinos as primary particles.

  2. Applications of Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detector Diodes and the Analysis of Environmental Pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It presents a review on the determination of major types of organic pollutants in environmental samples by HPLC with diode array or fluorescence molecular detectors. Main objective has been to make a compilation of the analytical potential of the technique based on literature and our laboratory studies on the main aspects of analytical methodology used in the determination of these compounds. (Author) 53 refs.

  3. High-accuracy fluence determination in ion beams using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinga, J.-M.; Akselrod, M.S.; Herrmann, Rochus;

    2013-01-01

    We present an approach to use Al2O3:C,Mg-based fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) and confocal laser scanning microscopy as a semiautomatic tool for fluence measurements in clinical ion beams. The method was found to cover a linear energy transfer (LET) range from at least L∞(Al2O3) = 0...

  4. Development of a beta induced fluorescence detector and its application to environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fluorescence detector in which beta particles from 147Pm are used as the exciting source has been developed and attached to a commercial high performance liquid chromatograph. The design and evaluation of a self-contained prototype beta-induced fluorescence (BIF) detector is described together with results obtained for normal and reversed-phase chromatography. A theoretical analysis of BIF is used to determine the factors which influence the sensitivity of the technique and equations are presented for the detector response and signal-to-noise ratios; such theoretical values are compared with experimentally determined values. The theory of BIF has been extended to include the quenching of fluorescence from excited solvent or dopant species by quenching agents. Expressions for the quenched beta-induced fluorescence (QBIF) response to efficient quenchers and the related signal-to-noise ratio are derived, and again experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions. After optimisation of the BIF detector, its application to the determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated. Full details of the development of an analytical procedure for the detection of PAHs at the ng 1-1 level in water are presented. Reversed-phase chromatographic detection is demonstrated by the application of the BIF technique to amino acid determination. (author)

  5. Optimizing detector geometry for trace element mapping by X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yue, E-mail: ysun@u.northwestern.edu [Graduate Program in Applied Physics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte, E-mail: gleber@aps.anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Jacobsen, Chris, E-mail: cjacobsen@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Kirz, Janos, E-mail: jkirz@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vogt, Stefan, E-mail: vogt@aps.anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Trace metals play critical roles in a variety of systems, ranging from cells to photovoltaics. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) microscopy using X-ray excitation provides one of the highest sensitivities available for imaging the distribution of trace metals at sub-100 nm resolution. With the growing availability and increasing performance of synchrotron light source based instruments and X-ray nanofocusing optics, and with improvements in energy-dispersive XRF detectors, what are the factors that limit trace element detectability? To address this question, we describe an analytical model for the total signal incident on XRF detectors with various geometries, including the spectral response of energy dispersive detectors. This model agrees well with experimentally recorded X-ray fluorescence spectra, and involves much shorter calculation times than with Monte Carlo simulations. With such a model, one can estimate the signal when a trace element is illuminated with an X-ray beam, and when just the surrounding non-fluorescent material is illuminated. From this signal difference, a contrast parameter can be calculated and this can in turn be used to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for detecting a certain elemental concentration. We apply this model to the detection of trace amounts of zinc in biological materials, and to the detection of small quantities of arsenic in semiconductors. We conclude that increased detector collection solid angle is (nearly) always advantageous even when considering the scattered signal. However, given the choice between a smaller detector at 90° to the beam versus a larger detector at 180° (in a backscatter-like geometry), the 90° detector is better for trace element detection in thick samples, while the larger detector in 180° geometry is better suited to trace element detection in thin samples. - Highlights: • We present a model for x-ray fluorescence detection with scanned x-ray beams. • We use it to compare detector

  6. Optimizing detector geometry for trace element mapping by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace metals play critical roles in a variety of systems, ranging from cells to photovoltaics. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) microscopy using X-ray excitation provides one of the highest sensitivities available for imaging the distribution of trace metals at sub-100 nm resolution. With the growing availability and increasing performance of synchrotron light source based instruments and X-ray nanofocusing optics, and with improvements in energy-dispersive XRF detectors, what are the factors that limit trace element detectability? To address this question, we describe an analytical model for the total signal incident on XRF detectors with various geometries, including the spectral response of energy dispersive detectors. This model agrees well with experimentally recorded X-ray fluorescence spectra, and involves much shorter calculation times than with Monte Carlo simulations. With such a model, one can estimate the signal when a trace element is illuminated with an X-ray beam, and when just the surrounding non-fluorescent material is illuminated. From this signal difference, a contrast parameter can be calculated and this can in turn be used to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for detecting a certain elemental concentration. We apply this model to the detection of trace amounts of zinc in biological materials, and to the detection of small quantities of arsenic in semiconductors. We conclude that increased detector collection solid angle is (nearly) always advantageous even when considering the scattered signal. However, given the choice between a smaller detector at 90° to the beam versus a larger detector at 180° (in a backscatter-like geometry), the 90° detector is better for trace element detection in thick samples, while the larger detector in 180° geometry is better suited to trace element detection in thin samples. - Highlights: • We present a model for x-ray fluorescence detection with scanned x-ray beams. • We use it to compare detector

  7. [Methods of detector response function establishment in X-ray fluorescence spectra analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Tuo, Xian-Guo; Yang, Jian-Bo; Liu, Ming-Zhe; Cheng, Yi; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Jian-Bin

    2012-11-01

    During the measurement and analysis process of X-ray fluorescence spectra, it is very helpful to improve the analyze speed, accuracy and automaticity of X-ray fluorescence spectra analysis by establishing detector response function(DRF), which represents the shape of full energy peak and can provide former basic data for subsequent X-ray analysis technique. For the theory and model of semiconductor DRF in X-ray energy spectrum measurements, methods of three typical detector response function model establishment, key parameters of full energy peak standard deviation and Fano factor calculation, etc. are discussed, and meanwhile, the summarization and contrast of existing studies are shown in this paper. Finally, the suggestion for modeling methods of DRF in X-ray fluorescence spectra measurements is provided. PMID:23387190

  8. Atmospheric Aerosol Attenuation Measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Valore, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides a nearly calorimetric measurement of the primary particle energy, since the fluorescence light produced is proportional to the energy dissipated by an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) in the atmosphere. The atmosphere therefore acts as a giant calorimeter, whose properties need to be well known during data taking. Aerosols play a key role in this scenario, since their effect on light transmission is highly variable even on a time scale of one hour, and the corresponding correction to EAS energy can range from a few percent to more than 40%. For this reason, hourly Vertical Aerosol Optical Depth (taer(h)) profiles are provided for each of the four FD stations. Starting from 2004, up to now 9 years of taer(h) profiles have been produced using data from the Central Laser Facility (CLF) and the eXtreme Laser Facility (XLF) of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The two laser facilities, the techniques developed to measure taer(h) profiles using laser dat...

  9. Evaluation of Flat Microchannel Plate Photomultipliers for Use in a Portable Air Fluorescence Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzvi, S.; Martin, J.

    2003-07-01

    Future applications of the air fluorescence technique will require robust, portable detectors, versatile enough to be deployed in remote areas with little infrastructure. One such experiment is the Gamma Ray and Neutron Decay Scan of the Galaxy (GRaNDScan), which proposes to survey the EeV sky by observation of γ and cosmic ray air showers in the southern hemisphere. To view a 30° field at or exceeding a resolution of 1° , GRaNDScan will employ a lensless Schmidt optical system, with the light-sensitive element in each detector consisting of a spherical surface of tiled photomultipliers. Currently, the BURLE 85001 micro channel plate photomultiplier (MCP PMT), a low profile device appropriate for tiling, is the primary candidate for these cameras. In this paper, we discuss the preliminary design of the GRaNDScan optics, the basic characteristics of the 85001 photomultiplier, and the suitability of this device for use in a portable air fluorescence detector.

  10. Drill-auger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.E.; Bratisheva, L.L.; Savich, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    The author proposes a drill-auger with a drilling platform, a sectional auger-bit with a drilling-bit crown, a rotational mechanism, and a feed mechanism with vertical chain grippers. Borehole drilling operations are made more effective by drilling from a single drill platform attitude for the entirety of the auger-bit length (which is equal to the screw length). The chain teeth protrude from the auger to a diameter equal to the height of the teeth. The rotary mechanism is platform mounted with two symmetrically deployed rollers having teeth capable of kinematically interfacing with the auger teeth. The feed mechanism consists of a hydraulic jack deployed between the vertical chain protrusion and the auxiliary grippers which are themselves attached in a hinge-like fashion to the hydraulic-jack cylinder and are capable of interfacing with sections of the auger stem.

  11. Ion track reconstruction in 3D using alumina-based fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Niklas, Martin; Akselrod, Mark S; Abollahi, Amir; Jäkel, Oliver; Greilich, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) based on Al2O3:C,Mg single crystal combined with confocal microscopy provide 3D information on ion tracks with a resolution only limited by light diffraction. FNTDs are also ideal substrates to be coated with cells to engineer cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors. This radiobiological tool enables a novel platform linking cell responses to physical dose deposition on a sub-cellular level in proton and heavy ion therapies. To achieve spatial correlation between single ion hits in the cell coating and its biological response the ion traversals have to be reconstructed in 3D using the depth information gained by the FNTD read-out. FNTDs were coated with a confluent human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell layer. Carbon ion irradiation of the hybrid detector was performed perpendicular and angular to the detector surface. In-situ imaging of the fluorescently labeled cell layer and the FNTD was performed in a sequential read-out. Making use of the trajectory info...

  12. Origin of atmospheric aerosols at the Pierre Auger Observatory using backward trajectory of air masses

    CERN Document Server

    Louedec, K

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest operating cosmic ray observatory ever built. Calorimetric measurements of extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays are performed with a fluorescence detector. Thus, one of the main challenges is the monitoring of the atmosphere, both in terms of atmospheric state variables and optical properties. To better understand the atmospheric conditions, a study of air mass trajectories above the site is presented. Such a study has been done using an air-modelling program well known in atmospheric sciences. Its validity has been checked using meteorological radiosonde soundings performed at the Pierre Auger Observatory. Finally, aerosol concentration values measured by the Central Laser Facility are compared to backward trajectories.

  13. Prospects of GPGPU in the Auger Offline Software Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Winchen, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is the currently largest experiment dedicated to unveil the nature and origin of the highest energetic cosmic rays. The software framework 'Offline' has been developed by the Pierre Auger Collaboration for joint analysis of data from different independent detector systems used in one observatory. While reconstruction modules are specific to the Pierre Auger Observatory components of the Offline framework are also used by other experiments. The software framework has recently been extended to incorporate data from the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), the radio extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The reconstruction of the data of such radio detectors requires the repeated evaluation of complex antenna gain patterns which significantly increases the required computing resources in the joint analysis. In this contribution we explore the usability of massive parallelization of parts of the Offline code on the GPU. We present the result of a systematic profiling of the joint...

  14. A study of the effect of molecular and aerosol conditions in the atmosphere on air fluorescence measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Kárová, Tatiana; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Nyklíček, Michal; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2010), s. 108-129. ISSN 0927-6505 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA AV ČR KJB100100904; GA AV ČR KJB300100801; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : athmospheric effects * cosmic rays * Pierre Auger Observatory Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.808, year: 2010

  15. A Study of the Effect of Molecular and Aerosol Conditions in the Atmosphere on Air Fluorescence Measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    PIERRE AUGER Collaboration; Pastor, Sergio; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P

    2010-01-01

    The successful installation and commissioning of the Pierre Auger Observatory would not have been possible without the strong commitment and effort from the technical and administrative staff in Malargüe. We are very grateful to the following agencies and organizations for financial support: Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Fundación Antorchas, Gobierno De La Provincia de Mendoza, Municipalidad de Malargüe, NDM Holdings and Valle Las Leñas, in gratitude for their continuing cooperatio...

  16. Systematic study of atmosphere-induced influences and uncertainties on shower reconstruction at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Prouza, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A wide range of atmospheric monitoring instruments is employed at the Pierre Auger Observatory: two laser facilities, elastic lidar stations, aerosol phase function monitors, a horizontal attenuation monitor, star monitors, weather stations, and balloon soundings. We describe the impact of analyzed atmospheric data on the accuracy of shower reconstructions, and in particular study the effect of the data on the shower energy and the depth of shower maximum (Xmax). These effects have been studied using the subset of golden hybrid events - events observed with high quality in the fluorescence and surface detector - used in the calibration of the surface detector energy spectrum.

  17. Fluorescent nuclear track detectors as a tool for ion-beam therapy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescent nuclear track detectors based on Al2O3:C,Mg with their excellent efficiency for detection of heavy charged particles and full 3D information from laser scanning microscopy allow a multitude of issues related to ion-beam cancer therapy to be tackled. A recently established read out protocol enables the utilization of a commercial microscope similar to those available in many life-science environments. This contribution illustrates the approach, its potential and limitations, as well as applications in clinical ion beams. -- Highlights: ► Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) are based on alumina. ► They represent a unique research tool for ion beam cancer therapy. ► We present a protocol for FNTD read out using a commercial laser scanning microscope

  18. Exploring the cosmic rays energy frontier with the Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The existence of cosmic rays with energies in excess of 1020 eV represents a longstanding scientific mystery. Unveileing the mechanism and source of production/acceleration of particles of such enormous energies is a challenging experimental task due to their minute flux, roughly one km2 century. The Pierre Auger Observatory, now nearing completion in Malargue, Mendoza Province, Argentina, is spread over an area of 3000 km2. Two techniques are employed to observe the cosmic ray showers: detection of the shower particles on the ground and detection of fluorescence light produced as the shower particles pass through the atmosphere. I will describe the status of the Observatory and its detectors, and early results from the data recorded while the observatory is reaching its completion.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  19. Astrophysics Motivation behind the Pierre Auger Southern Observatory Enhancements

    CERN Document Server

    Medina-Tanco, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration intends to extend the energy range of its southern observatory in Argentina for high quality data from 0.1 to 3 EeV. The extensions, described in accompanying papers, include three additional fluorescence telescopes with a more elevated field of view (HEAT) and a nested surface array with 750 and 433 m spacing respectively and additional muon detection capabilities (AMIGA). The enhancement of the detector will allow measurement of cosmic rays, using the same techniques, from below the second knee up to the highest energies observed. The evolution of the spectrum through the second knee and ankle, and corresponding predicted changes in composition, are crucial to the understanding of the end of Galactic confinement and the effects of propagation on the lower energy portion of the extragalactic flux. The latter is strongly related to the cosmological distribution of sources and to the composition of the injected spectrum. We discuss the science motivation behind these enhancements...

  20. Ion track reconstruction in 3D using alumina-based fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, M.; Bartz, J. A.; Akselrod, M. S.; Abollahi, A.; Jäkel, O.; Greilich, S.

    2013-09-01

    Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) based on Al2O3: C, Mg single crystal combined with confocal microscopy provide 3D information on ion tracks with a resolution only limited by light diffraction. FNTDs are also ideal substrates to be coated with cells to engineer cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors (Cell-Fit-HD). This radiobiological tool enables a novel platform linking cell responses to physical dose deposition on a sub-cellular level in proton and heavy ion therapies. To achieve spatial correlation between single ion hits in the cell coating and its biological response the ion traversals have to be reconstructed in 3D using the depth information gained by the FNTD read-out. FNTDs were coated with a confluent human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial (A549) cell layer. Carbon ion irradiation of the hybrid detector was performed perpendicular and angular to the detector surface. In situ imaging of the fluorescently labeled cell layer and the FNTD was performed in a sequential read-out. Making use of the trajectory information provided by the FNTD the accuracy of 3D track reconstruction of single particles traversing the hybrid detector was studied. The accuracy is strongly influenced by the irradiation angle and therefore by complexity of the FNTD signal. Perpendicular irradiation results in highest accuracy with error of smaller than 0.10°. The ability of FNTD technology to provide accurate 3D ion track reconstruction makes it a powerful tool for radiobiological investigations in clinical ion beams, either being used as a substrate to be coated with living tissue or being implanted in vivo.

  1. Limit on the diffuse flux of ultra-high energy tau neutrinos with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, J.; Pastor, Sergio; PIERRE AUGER Collaboration; Abreu, P

    2009-01-01

    The successful installation and commissioning of the Pierre Auger Observatory would not have been possible without the strong commitment and effort from the technical and administrative staff in Malarg¨ue. We are very grateful to the following agencies and organizations for financial support: Comisi´on Nacional de Energ´ıa At´omica, Fundaci´on Antorchas, Gobierno De La Provincia de Mendoza, Municipalidad de Malarg¨ue, NDM Holdings and Valle Las Le˜nas, in gratitude for their conti...

  2. Measurements of the muonic component of air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Jeff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been developed by the Pierre Auger Collaboration to estimate the muon content of air showers from ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The data of the Pierre Auger Observatory will be compared with predictions based upon EPOS 1.99 and QGSJET-II-3 hadronic interaction models. In addition to the direct measures of the muonic content, the combination of a fluorescence detector and a muon sensitive surface array allows for a direct test of air shower simulations which is sensitive to both the shower core and large distances from the core. These methods reveal a deficit of muons in air shower simulations with proton primaries and that the energy assignment basedupon simulations of the surface array signal is systematically higher than that derived from the florescence detector. Summary: I will discuss the deficit in the number of muons currently predicted by simulations when compared to the data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. I will describe the methods used to measure the muon content, including sources of systematic uncertainty, and give their current results. Finally, I will present the Collaborations current understanding of the nature of the discrepancy, which could arise from an energy scale problem, composition, or deficiencies in the hadronic interaction models. See references [1, 2].

  3. Measurement of the UHECR Energy Spectrum by the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, Thomas; Bergman, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), subatomic charged particles of extraterrestrial origin and with kinetic energies near or exceeding 10^18 eV, are very rare. The Telescope Array (TA) experiment in western Utah is the northern hemisphere's largest UHECR detector, and consists of three atmospheric fluorescence detectors (FDs) and a ground array of 507 scintillator detectors. In stand-alone ``monocular'' operation, the FDs can observe the widest range in primary UHECR energies. One FD employs refurbished hardware from the High-Resolution Fly's Eye experiment; the remaining two FDs were designed for TA and employ new hardware and analysis. We will present the UHECR energy spectrum measured by the FDs in monocular mode using data collected during the first four years of operation.

  4. A multi-channel monolithic Ge detector system for fluorescence x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction and performance of a monolithic quad-pixel Ge detector for fluorescence x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at synchrotron radiation sources are described. The detector semiconductor element has an active surface area of 4.0 cm2 which is electrically separated into four 1.0 cm2 pixels, with little interfacial dead volume. Spatial response of the array shows that cross-talk between adjacent pixels is 55Fe test source (MnKα, 5.9 keV), energy resolution of better than 200 eV is achieved with a 4 μsec peaking time. At 0.5 μsec peaking time, pulse pileup results in a 75% throughput efficiency for an incoming count rate of 100 kHz. Initial XAS fluoresncece measurements at the beamline 4 wiggler end stations at SSRL show that the detector system has several advantages over commercial x-ray spectrometers for low-concentration counting

  5. Acceptances for Space-Based and Ground-Based Fluorescence Detectors, and Inference of the Neutrino-Nucleon Cross-Section above 10^19 eV

    CERN Document Server

    Palomares-Ruiz, S; Weiler, T J; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Irimia, Andrei; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos will be useful for unraveling the dynamics of the most violent sources in the cosmos and for revealing the neutrino cross-section at extreme energy. Above ~ 10^20 eV, neutrinos may well be the only cosmic primariies. Thus, it is important to know the acceptances (event rate/flux) of proposed air-shower experiments for detecting ``horizontal'' neutrino events initiated in our atmosphere, and ``Earth-skimming'' events initiated in the Earth's surface rock or ocean. We calculate these acceptances for fluorescence detectors, both space-based as with the EUSO and OWL proposals, and ground-based, as with Auger, HiRes and Telescope Array. The neutrino cross-section sigma_nuN is not measured at energies above 5.2 x 10^13 eV. Although QCD extrapolations offer motivated guesses for sigma_nuN, new physics could intervene to provide a surprise. Therefore, we present the acceptances of horizontal (HAS) and upgoing (UAS) air showers as a function of sigma_nuN over the interesting ra...

  6. X-ray Peltier cooled detectors for X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent results on development of X-ray Si(Li), Si-planar and CdTe p-i- n detectors cooled by Peltier coolers for fabrication of laboratory and portable XRF analysers for different applications are discussed. Low detection limits of XRF analysers are provided by increasing of detectors sensitive surface; improvement of their spectrometrical characteristics; decreasing of front-end-electronics noise level; Peltier coolers and vacuum chambers cooling modes optimization. Solution of all mentioned tasks allowed to develop Peltier cooled detectors with the following performances: (1) Si(Li) detectors: S = 20 mm2, thickness = 3.5 mm, 175 eV (5.9 keV), 430 eV (59.6 keV); S = 100 mm2; thickness = 4.5 mm, 270 eV (5.9 keV), 485 eV (59,6 keV). (2) Si-planar detector: S = 10 mm2, thickness = 0.4 mm, 230 eV (5.9 keV), 460 eV (59.6 keV). (3) CdTe p-i-n detectors: S = 16 mm2, thickness 0.5 mm, 350 eV (5.9 keV), 585 eV (59.6 keV). S = 16 mm2, thickness = 1.2 mm, 310 eV (5.9 keV), 600 eV (59.6 keV). Advantages and disadvantages of all types of detectors for X-ray fluorescence analysis are compared. Spectra are presented. Application of different XRF analysers based on developed detectors in medicine, environmental science, industry, criminalistics and history of art are demonstrated. (author)

  7. Atmospheric monitoring and model applications at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keilhauer Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory detects high-energy cosmic rays with energies above ∼1017 eV. It is built as a multi-hybrid detector measuring extensive air showers with different techniques. For the reconstruction of extensive air showers, the atmospheric conditions at the site of the Observatory have to be known quite well. This is particularly true for reconstructions based on data obtained by the fluorescence technique. For these data, not only the weather conditions near ground are relevant, most important are altitude-dependent atmospheric profiles. The Pierre Auger Observatory has set up a dedicated atmospheric monitoring programme at the site in the Mendoza province, Argentina. Beyond this, exploratory studies were performed in Colorado, USA, for possible installations in the northern hemisphere. In recent years, the atmospheric monitoring programme at the Pierre Auger Observatory was supplemented by applying data from atmospheric models. Both GDAS and HYSPLIT are developments by the US weather department NOAA and the data are freely available. GDAS is a global model of the atmospheric state parameters on a 1 degree geographical grid, based on real-time measurements and numeric weather predictions, providing a full altitude-dependent data set every 3 hours. HYSPLIT is a powerful tool to track the movement of air masses at various heights, and with it the aerosols. Combining local measurements of the atmospheric state variables and aerosol scattering with the given model data, advanced studies about atmospheric conditions can be performed and high precision air shower reconstructions are achieved.

  8. Studies of Cosmic Ray Composition and Air Shower Structure with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the average depth of shower maximum and its fluctuations with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Study of the nuclear mass composition of UHECR with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Comparison of data from the Pierre Auger Observatory with predictions from air shower simulations: testing models of hadronic interactions; (4) A Monte Carlo exploration of methods to determine the UHECR composition with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) The delay of the start-time measured with the Pierre Auger Observatory for inclined showers and a comparison of its variance with models; (6) UHE neutrino signatures in the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory; and (7) The electromagnetic component of inclined air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  9. Studying the shower front curvature of extensive air showers with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shape of the shower front in extensive air showers (EAS) is related to the properties of the primary cosmic ray and to the shower development in the atmosphere. In particular the radius of curvature for ultra high energy cosmic rays (above 1018 eV) can be estimated using the large statistics of events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The Observatory, located in Malargue (Argentina), consists of a Surface Detector (SD) and a Fluorescence Detector (FD) that can be combined in a hybrid detection mode providing precise measurements of the geometry and the energy of the primary particle. The surface detectors sample the lateral distribution and the arrival time of particles at the ground. These information are used to study the curvature of the shower front and its dependence on shower parameters. Results and implications for the reconstruction are discussed.

  10. Application of a CdTe solid-state detector to polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence XAFS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CdTe solid-state detector was applied to the measurement of polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence XAFS spectra. The data revealed that the detector has good sensitivity, and this, together with its compact size, make it appropriate for in-situ measurements and removal of X-ray Bragg diffraction. The detector efficiently recorded the high-energy K-edge XAFS spectra for molybdenum oxides supported on TiO2 (110). (au) 10 refs

  11. The performance of 2D array detectors for light sheet based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand Pratap; Krieger, Jan Wolfgang; Buchholz, Jan; Charbon, Edoardo; Langowski, Jörg; Wohland, Thorsten

    2013-04-01

    Single plane illumination microscopy based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (SPIM-FCS) is a new method for imaging FCS in 3D samples, providing diffusion coefficients, transport, flow velocities and concentrations in an imaging mode. SPIM-FCS records correlation functions over a whole plane in a sample, which requires array detectors for recording the fluorescence signal. Several types of image sensors are suitable for FCS. They differ in properties such as effective area per pixel, quantum efficiency, noise level and read-out speed. Here we compare the performance of several low light array detectors based on three different technologies: (1) Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays, (2) passive-pixel electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) and (3) active-pixel scientific-grade complementary metal oxide semiconductor cameras (sCMOS). We discuss the influence of the detector characteristics on the effective FCS observation volume, and demonstrate that light sheet based SPIM-FCS provides absolute diffusion coefficients. This is verified by parallel measurements with confocal FCS, single particle tracking (SPT), and the determination of concentration gradients in space and time. While EMCCD cameras have a temporal resolution in the millisecond range, sCMOS cameras and SPAD arrays can extend the time resolution of SPIM-FCS down to 10 μs or lower. PMID:23571955

  12. El proyecto AUGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegoyen, A.

    Hace ya más de 30 años en Volcano Ranch, EE.UU., un extenso chubasco cósmico (ECC) fue detectado con energía en exceso de 1020 eV. Desde entonces, observatorios ubicados en Haverah Park del Reino Unido, Yakutsk de Rusia, AGASA de Japón y Dugway de EE.UU. también han observado ECC con energías mayores que 1020 eV. Poco se sabe de dichos rayos, y en particular cuál es la naturaleza del primario, de dónde provienen, y cómo son acelerados, pero su naturaleza ultrarelativista excluye la mayoría de las respuestas dejando sólo algunas plausibles de ser investigadas experimentalmente. Grupos de científicos de 20 países están trabajando con el fin de construir dos arreglos de detectores gigantes, uno en cada hemisferio a lo largo de 3000 km2 c/u. Dichas dimensiones son necesarias debido al flujo estimado de 1 rayo cósmico/centuria/km2/sr. La sede del Observatorio del Sur es la Argentina. El proyecto fue nombrado Pierre Auger en conmemoración del célebre físico francés que detectó por primera vez chubascos cósmicos en 1938. El proyecto focaliza su interés en rayos cósmicos con energías mayores que 1020 eV.

  13. Auger electron appearance potential spectrum of Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrons are accelerated onto a solid polycrystalline Ni surface. These primary electrons interact with the surface to produce one of two phenomena: x-ray fluorescence, or Auger electron emission. Auger Electron Appearance Potential Spectroscopy (AEAPS) is a process by which the Auger component of the secondary electron flux is analysed to extract qualitative information about the electronic structure of the empty conduction band states. In AEAPS, the threshold behavior of the Auger transitions is examined by taking the first derivative of the secondary electron current with respect to the incident electron energy using the potential modulation technique. Width of the empty band, degree of localization of the conduction band wave functions, overlapping of the 3d band with the 4s, and satellite phenomena are among the important parameters ascertainable by AEAPS. The present AEAPS measurements of L3 levels of Ni are compared with the reported data from Soft X-ray Appear nce Potential Spectroscopy (SXAPS) of Ni. SXAPS is a complimentary process of AEAPS in that it examines the secondary xray fluorescence from the surface in much the same way as AEAPS examines the total electron yield. AEAPS, used alone, or in conjunction with SXAPS, is considered to be a powerful technique for the systematic investgation of series of metals, such as the transition, or lanthanide series

  14. Investigation of a novel Al2O3. C, Mg fluorescent nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new optical, non-destructive method of detecting and imaging individual heavy charged particle tracks using Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (FNTD) is investigated as a possible spectroscopic technology for heavy charged particles of low and high linear energy transfer (LET). The technique uses new luminescent aluminum oxide single crystals having aggregate oxygen vacancy defects and doped with Mg (Al2O3: C,Mg) in combination with laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. Spectroscopic capabilities of this new method were previously demonstrated for energetic heavy ions of LET∞H2O ranging from 2.2 to 8767 keV/μm. This report shows the ability of FNTDs to detect protons with LET∞H2O as low as 0.5 keV/μm. The new technology is intended for use in neutron detection and dosimetry, proton and heavy ion radiobiology, and space radiation dosimetry as well as in nuclear and particle physics research. (author)

  15. New application of NV centers in CVD diamonds as a fluorescent nuclear track detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoda, Shinobu; Ohshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan); Haruyama, Moriyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan); Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Teraji, Tokuyuki [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Isoya, Junichi [University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kada, Wataru; Hanaizumi, Osamu [Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    NV (nitrogen vacancy) center in a diamond is utilized for FNTD (fluorescent nuclear track detector) for the first time. We performed high energy heavy ion irradiation to single crystal type-IIa diamonds with various nitrogen concentrations. After high temperature annealing, the nitrogen impurity combined with the vacancies created by a single ion strike. As a result the ion track is visualized as a train of fluorescent NV centers formed. We successfully observe the ion track in both HPHT (high pressure high temperature) and CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamonds by using the laser scanning confocal microscope. We therefore conclude that a diamond containing nitrogen impurity is able to be used for FNTD. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Multispectral/fluorescence CT using superconducting tunnel junction detector for 3-D material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) for applications to astrophysics, particle physics, material physics, etc. The spectrum capability of STJs is the wide wavelength/energy range from visible light to X-ray. STJs are applicable to photon detectors with good energy resolution and a high photon-counting rate. STJs also have good efficiency because of their high absorption efficiency below 1 keV photon energy. This is advantageous in low photon emission observation like fluorescence from objects. STJs have potentials to open new windows of the Multispectral/fluorescence computed tomography (CT) below 1 keV photon energy. As first step, we are starting STJ-CT experiments from the high-energy X-ray region (6-20 keV). We report and discuss the CT using STJs

  17. Photoelectron multipliers in photodetector of orbital fluorescence detector of extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of a photoelectron multiplier (FEM) for photoreceiver of the fluorescent detector used for observation of extensive air showers from near-Earth orbit under varying conditions of the night sky is discussed. Special attention is paid to the problem of the FEM amplification factor control. The characteristics of two photomultipliers with uviol input glass and multialkaline cathode, i.e. FEU-184UM and R1463U, are compared. It is suggested that the FEM are grouped in cluster with a common power supply and information recording system to solve the problem of power supply and FEM amplification factor control

  18. Development of a Prototype for the Fluorescence Detector Array of Single-Pixel Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, T.; Malacari, M.; Bertaina, M.; Casolino, M.; Dawson, B.; Jiang, J.; Matalon, A.; Matthews, J. N.; Motloch, P.; Privitera, P.; Takizawa, Y.; Yamazaki, K.

    We present a concept for large-area, low-cost detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with a Fluorescence detector Array of Single-pixel Telescopes (FAST), addressing the requirements for the next generation of UHECR experiments. In the FAST design, a large field of view is covered by a few pixels at the focal plane of a mirror or Fresnel lens. We report preliminary results of a FAST prototype installed at the Telescope Array site, consisting of a single 200 mm photo-multiplier tube at the focal plane of a 1 m2 Fresnel lens system taken from the prototype of the JEM-EUSO experiment.

  19. A multi-channel monolithic Ge detector system for fluorescence x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, J.J.; Allen, P.G.; Edelstein, N.M.; Shuh, D.K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.; Madden, N.W.; Cork, C.; Luke, P.; Pehl, D.; Malone, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Engineering Div.

    1995-03-01

    Construction and performance of a monolithic quad-pixel Ge detector for fluorescence x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at synchrotron radiation sources are described. The detector semiconductor element has an active surface area of 4.0 cm{sup 2} which is electrically separated into four 1.0 cm{sup 2} pixels, with little interfacial dead volume. Spatial response of the array shows that cross-talk between adjacent pixels is < 10% for 5.9 keV photons that fall within 0.5 mm of the pixel boundaries. The detector electronics system uses pre-amplifiers built at LBNL with commercial Tennelec Model TC 244 amplifiers. Using an {sup 55}Fe test source (MnK{sub {alpha}}, 5.9 keV), energy resolution of better than 200 eV is achieved with a 4 {mu}sec peaking time. At 0.5 {mu}sec peaking time, pulse pileup results in a 75% throughput efficiency for an incoming count rate of 100 kHz. Initial XAS fluoresncece measurements at the beamline 4 wiggler end stations at SSRL show that the detector system has several advantages over commercial x-ray spectrometers for low-concentration counting.

  20. Study of ultra-energetic cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory from particle detection to anisotropy measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, still under construction in Argentina, is designed to study the cosmic rays with energies above a few EeV. The experiment combines two complementary techniques: the fluorescence light detection and the sampling of the shower with an array of detectors at ground, covering a surface of 3000 square kilometers. The calculation of the acceptance of the detector, which is of utmost importance to establish the energy spectrum, has been achieved. The method of computation of the acceptance is simple and reliable. The detection efficiency depends on the nature of primary cosmic rays, allowing to study the cosmic rays composition with the surface detector. The calculation of the cosmic rays energy spectrum has been performed, using different methods to estimate the energy of the events. A cross calibration between the fluorescence and the surface detector provides an estimation of the energy almost independent of hadronic interaction models. The study of large scale anisotropies in the cosmic rays angular distribution provides useful informations about the cosmic rays sources and the conditions of propagation. A new analysis method is presented, allowing to estimate the parameters of an underlying dipolar and quadrupolar anisotropy in the data. The method is applied to a preliminary Auger data set. (author)

  1. Atmospheric aerosols at the Pierre Auger Observatory: characterization and effect on the energy estimation for ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in the Province of Mendoza in Argentina, is making good progress in understanding the nature and origin of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Using a hybrid detection technique, based on surface detectors and fluorescence telescopes, it provides large statistics, good mass and energy resolution, and solid control of systematic uncertainties. One of the main challenges for the fluorescence detection technique is the understanding of the atmosphere, used as a giant calorimeter. To minimize as much as possible the systematic uncertainties in fluorescence measurements, the Auger Collaboration has developed an extensive atmospheric monitoring program. The purpose of this work is to improve our knowledge of the atmospheric aerosols, and their effect on fluorescence light propagation. Using a modelling program computing air mass displacements, it has been shown that nights with low aerosol concentrations have air masses coming much more directly from the Pacific Ocean. For the first time, the effect of the aerosol size on the light propagation has been estimated. Indeed, according to the Ramsauer approach, large aerosols have the largest effect on the light scattering. Thus, the dependence on the aerosol size has been added to the light scattering parameterizations used by the Auger Collaboration. A systematic overestimation of the energy and of the maximum air shower development Xmax is observed. Finally, a method based on the very inclined laser shots fired by the Auger central laser has been developed to estimate the aerosol size. Large aerosol sizes ever estimated at the Pierre Auger Observatory can now be probed. First preliminary results using laser-shot data collected in the past have identified a population of large aerosols. (author)

  2. The energy spectrum of cosmic rays measured with the HEAT extension at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the calculation of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays, that is the absolute flux of cosmic rays as a function of energy, from data of air showers observed with the HEAT (High Elevation Auger Telescopes) extension and the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest observatory for the study of cosmic rays. The Pierre Auger Observatory observes air showers, that are cascades of particles that were instigated by cosmic rays hitting the Earth's atmosphere, with two different detection concepts. The surface detector samples the secondary particles of air showers that hit the ground with an array of surface detector stations, whereas the fluorescence detector measures the energy loss profile of air showers by detecting fluorescence light, produced by the air showers when they travel through the atmosphere, with optical telescopes. The properties of the cosmic rays are not directly measurable but have to be reconstructed from the observed air shower parameters. Properties of particular interest are the type of the primary cosmic ray particle, its energy and its arrival direction. HEAT is an extension to the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. It is designed to lower the energy threshold by one order of magnitude down to 1017 eV or lower. HEAT is taking data since 2010. The calculation of the absolute flux of cosmic rays needs two ingredients: the number of detected air showers as a function of shower energy and the exposure of the detector as a function of energy. The studied air shower class are hybrid events, which are events that have been detected by a fluorescence detector and at least one surface detector station. The used air showers were observed in a time period of fifteen month starting from June 2010. A first step of the analysis is the reconstruction of air showers and cosmic ray parameters from raw data. To calculate the exposure, the uptime, that is the integral

  3. Mass composition studies of Ultra High Energy cosmic rays through the measurement of the Muon Production Depths at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collica, Laura [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Paris Diderot Univ. (France)

    2014-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger) in Argentina studies Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) physics. The flux of cosmic rays at these energies (above 1018 eV) is very low (less than 100 particle/km2-year) and UHECR properties must be inferred from the measurements of the secondary particles that the cosmic ray primary produces in the atmosphere. These particles cascades are called Extensive Air Showers (EAS) and can be studied at ground by deploying detectors covering large areas. The EAS physics is complex, and the properties of secondary particles depend strongly on the first interaction, which takes place at an energy beyond the ones reached at accelerators. As a consequence, the analysis of UHECRs is subject to large uncertainties and hence many of their properties, in particular their composition, are still unclear. Two complementary techniques are used at Auger to detect EAS initiated by UHE- CRs: a 3000 km2 surface detector (SD) array of water Cherenkov tanks which samples particles at ground level and fluorescence detectors (FD) which collect the ultraviolet light emitted by the de-excitation of nitrogen nuclei in the atmosphere, and can operate only in clear, moonless nights. Auger is the largest cosmic rays detector ever built and it provides high-quality data together with unprecedented statistics. The main goal of this thesis is the measurement of UHECR mass composition using data from the SD of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Measuring the cosmic ray composition at the highest energies is of fundamental importance from the astrophysical point of view, since it could discriminate between different scenarios of origin and propagation of cosmic rays. Moreover, mass composition studies are of utmost importance for particle physics. As a matter of fact, knowing the composition helps in exploring the hadronic interactions at ultra-high energies, inaccessible to present accelerator experiments.

  4. A portable fluorescence detector for fast ultra trace detection of explosive vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yunhong; He, Gang; Wang, Qi; Fang, Yu

    2011-10-01

    This paper developed a portable detector based on a specific material-based fluorescent sensing film for an ultra trace detection of explosives, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) or its derivate 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), in ambient air or on objects tainted by explosives. The fluorescent sensing films are based on single-layer chemistry and the signal amplification effect of conjugated polymers, which exhibited higher sensitivity and shorter response time to TNT or DNT at their vapor pressures. Due to application of the light emitting diode and the solid state photomultiplier and the cross-correlation-based circuit design technology, the device has the advantages of low-power, low-cost, small size, and an improved signal to noise ratio. The results of the experiments showed that the detector can real-time detect and identify of explosive vapors at extremely low levels; it is suitable for the identification of suspect luggage, forensic analyses, or battlefields clearing. PMID:22047275

  5. Auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General features of electron excited Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) which is a nondestructive technique for the analysis of surfaces upto about 15 Adeg depth with a detection limit of about 0.1% of a monolayer. Methods of measuring the Auger electron energies and recent improvements in the instrumentation are reviewed. Typical energy resolution is found to be about 0.5% which is specially suited for the detection of light elements. It is widely used in metallurgy, surface chemistry and thin film studies. (K.B.)

  6. Deriving upper limits on cosmic ray photon flux with the hybrid data of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of UHE photons is a key issue in cosmic ray physics with large impact on astrophysics, cosmology, particle and fundamental physics. The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to study the origin and nature of the highest energy cosmic radiation. It consists of a surface array detector overlooked by air fluorescence telescopes which together provide a powerful instrument for discriminating primary particles and searching for photons. Hybrid data have been used to derive upper limits on photon fraction in the EeV range. As a complement, the upper limits on photon flux in the same energy range are here derived. A revisited analysis and preliminary results are presented.

  7. Techniques for Measuring Aerosol Attenuation using the Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Malarg\\"ue, Argentina, is designed to study the properties of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with energies above 1018 eV. It is a hybrid facility that employs a Fluorescence Detector to perform nearly calorimetric measurements of Extensive Air Shower energies. To obtain reliable calorimetric information from the FD, the atmospheric conditions at the observatory need to be continuously monitored during data acquisition. In particular, light attenuation due to aerosols is an important atmospheric correction. The aerosol concentration is highly variable, so that the aerosol attenuation needs to be evaluated hourly. We use light from the Central Laser Facility, located near the center of the observatory site, having an optical signature comparable to that of the highest energy showers detected by the FD. This paper presents two procedures developed to retrieve the aerosol attenuation of fluorescence light from CLF laser shots. Cross checks between the two methods demonstrate that re...

  8. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer using XR-100CR detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si-PIN photodiode has been being used as radiation detection probe since not long ago. But with obvious advantages as high energy resolution, needless liquid nitrogen and stable operation, this type of probe has been using more and more. The XR100-CR detector including a thermoelectricity cooled Si-PIN photodiode as an X-ray detector, a charge sensitive preamplifier and a novel -30oC temperature regulation electronic circuit is enclosed in a single miniature package. It has small enclosure size (9.5 x 4.4 x 2.9 cm), light weight (125 g), high energy resolution (the 5.9 keV peak of 55Fe is 186 eV FWHM with 20 μs shaping time) and low power consumption (< 1 Watt). With these facilities, this detector is able to use for in-site and outdoor X-ray Fluorescence analysis applications. Nowadays, compact X-ray spectrometers using XR100-CR are installed in factories produce cement, steel, paper, glass and ceramic, etc. to monitor interested chemical elements. Portable X-ray spectrometers are also promoted for outdoor non-destructive analysis of various objects, that we want to know some chemical elements in their composition, such as steel pipes, minerals, antiques and containers, etc. Moreover, electronic devices are more better and specialization with every passing day. The preeminence of XR100-CR detector and modern electronics have been bringing XRF analysis techniques to existence human activities. The portable XRF equipment described in this report is a multifunctional instrument for in-situ, non-destructive and real-time analysis of alloys, minerals, chemicals, papers, and glasses, etc. It was designed by Nuclear Electronics Department (NED) and the XRF group of Radiation Safety and Environment Department, Center for Nuclear Techniques, HCMC. (author)

  9. Cosmic rays at the highest energies — first data from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The southern Pierre Auger Observatory, presently under construction in Malargue, Argentina, is nearing completion. The instrument is designed to measure extensive air-showers with energies ranging from 1018-1020eV and beyond. It combines two complementary observation techniques; the detection of particles at ground and the coincident observation of associated fluorescence light generated in the atmosphere above the ground. This is being realized by employing an array of 1600 water Cherenkov detectors, distributed over an area of 3000 km2, and operating 24 wide-angle Schmidt telescopes, positioned at four sites at the border of the ground array. The Observatory will reach its full size only in 2007 but data are routinely recorded already and have started to provide relevant science results. This talk will focus on the detector characterizations and presents first results on the arrival direction of extremely-high energy cosmic rays, their energy spectrum, and on the upper limit of the photon fraction. (author)

  10. Auger emission from solid surfaces bombarded with ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Auger electron emission from Be, Na, Mg, Al and Si bombarded with 0,5-20 KeV noble gas ions is studied. Sharp structures of the Auger electron spectra of Na and Be were identified. A Monte Carlo program was adapted to simulate the colision cascade in the solid, inner shell excitations and Auger decays. From the comparision of experimental and simulated Auger intensities, the relative role of symmetric and asymmetric collisions in Be K- and Al L-shell excitation were evaluated. In the case of Be, the discussion of the exciting processes to higher projectile energies was extended. To this end, the simulation to early measurements of Be K X-ray yields was applied. From this analysis, information about the variations of the fluorescence yield and outer-shell occupation numbers of Be with projectile energy was obtained. The study of the shape of the sharp Auger structures and their dependence with the energy and incidence projectile angle gives information about the collisional processes, inner hole lifetimes and Auger decays. From the evaluation of the energy and angular distribution of the excited sputtered atoms and the interaction between them and the metallic-surface, the energy shift distributions in the Auger energies were obtained. From the comparison of these distributions with the experimental atomic peaks, the main causes of the broadening of these peaks were determined. (M.E.L.)

  11. Soil chip convey of lunar subsurface auger drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Deming; Tang, Dewei; Hou, Xuyan; Jiang, Shengyuan; Deng, Zongquan

    2016-05-01

    Celestial body subsurface drilling and sampling is a key aspect of near-earth exploration projects. In these sample return missions, the auger drill system is universally used due to the environment and detector load limits. The common failure that the auger faces is chip chocking, which can raise the torque and cause the drill to stick. This paper builds auger drill models describing chip flow in the auger groove to balance geometric parameters, functional capability, and reliability. The features of chip flow are summarized and verified by a series of discrete element method simulations. In contrast to previous auger design, a convey capability factor is defined to indicate the auger's chip removal capacity, and the role of pitch angle and other parameters is assessed through motion analysis of the lunar soil flow process. The theory is verified by testing the drill penetrating speed limit, which combines drill geometry and motion parameters. This work provides a new method for design and optimization of low speed auger drill systems and research on particle flow with small scale mechanical constraints.

  12. Characterisation of an epitaxial GaAs/Medipix2 detector using fluorescence photons

    CERN Document Server

    Tlustos, Lukas; Fröjdh, C; Kostamo, Pasi; Nenonen, Seppo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A high-purity GaAs sensor of 110 μm thickness has been bump bonded to a Medipix2 readout chip. The room temperature spectroscopic response of this device to fluorescence photons in the energy range from 8 to 28 keV is presented and compared to the response of a 300 μm thick Si sensor, also bonded to a Medipix2 chip. The measured photopeak responses are used to calibrate both detectors. The depth of depletion of the GaAs sensor is estimated to be 50 μm at 140 V sensor bias voltage from measurements made using the 8 keV Kα line of a Cu target X-ray tube.

  13. Absolute energy calibration of the Telescope Array fluorescence detector with an electron linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin B.K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Electron Light Source(ELS is a new light source for the absolute energy calibration of cosmic ray Fluorescence Detector(FD telescopes. The ELS is a compact electron linear accelerator with a typical output of 109 electrons per pulse at 40 MeV. We fire the electron beam vertically into the air 100 m in front of the telescope. The electron beam excites the gases of the atmosphere in the same way as the charged particles of the cosmic ray induced extensive air shower. The gases give off the same light with the same wavelength dependence. The light passes through a small amount of atmosphere and is collected by the same mirror and camera with their wavelength dependence. In this way we can use the electron beam from ELS to make an end-to-end calibration of the telescope. In September 2010, we began operation of the ELS and the FD telescopes observed the fluorescence photons from the air shower which was generated by the electron beam. In this article, we will reort the status of analysis of the absolute energy calibration with data which was taken in September 2010, and beam monitor study in November 2011.

  14. A 0.18 μm CMOS fluorescent detector system for bio-sensing application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Nan; Chen Guoping; Hong Zhiliang

    2009-01-01

    A CMOS fluorescent detector system for biological experiment is presented. This system integrates a CMOS compatible photodiode, a capacitive trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA), and a 12 bit pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and is implemented in a 0.18 μm standard CMOS process. Some special techniques, such as a "contact imaging" detecting method, pseudo-differential architecture, dummy photodiodes, and a T-type reset switch, are adopted to achieve low-level sensing application. Experiment results show that the Nwell/Psub photodi-ode with CTIA pixel achieves a sensitivity of 0.1 A/W at 515 nm and a dark current of 300 fA with 300 mV reverse biased voltage. The maximum differential and integral nonlinearity of the designed ADC are 0.8 LSB and 3 LSB, respectively. With an integrating time of 50 ms, this system is sensitive to the fluorescence emitted by the fluorescein solution with concentration as low as 20 ng/mL and can generate 7 fA photocurrent. This chip occupies 3 mm2 and consumes 37 mW.

  15. Designing and making of a tool used for measurements by X fluorescence using HgI2 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new measuring apparatus by X fluorescence based on a HgI2 detector, operating at room temperature is presented. The principal properties of HgI2 are outlined. A computer code designed for this apparatus is developed. Some experimental results are given to illustrate the performances of the device. (author). 67 refs., 117 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Digital Electronics for the Pierre Auger Observatory AMIGA Muon Counters

    OpenAIRE

    Wainberg, O.; A. Almela; Platino, M.; Sanchez, F.; Suarez, F.; Lucero, A.; Videla, M.; B. Wundheiler; Melo, D.; Hampel, M.; Etchegoyen, A.

    2013-01-01

    The "Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array" (AMIGA) project provides direct muon counting capacity to the Pierre Auger Observatory and extends its energy detection range down to 0.3 EeV. It currently consists of 61 detector pairs (a Cherenkov surface detector and a buried muon counter) distributed over a 23.5 km2 area on a 750 m triangular grid. Each counter relies on segmented scintillator modules storing a logical train of '0's and '1's on each scintillator segment at a given time slo...

  17. Vertically reciprocating auger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Mark; Morgan, Scott; Fain, Robert; Pearson, Jonathan; Weldi, Kevin; Woodrough, Stephen B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical model and test results developed for the Vertically Reciprocating Auger (VRA) are summarized. The VRA is a device capable of transporting cuttings that result from below surface drilling. It was developed chiefly for the lunar surface, where conventional fluid flushing while drilling would not be practical. The VRA uses only reciprocating motion and transports material through reflections with the surface above. Particles are reflected forward and land ahead of radially placed fences, which prevent the particles from rolling back down the auger. Three input wave forms are considered to drive the auger. A modified sawtooth wave form was chosen for testing, over a modified square wave or sine wave, due to its simplicity and effectiveness. The three-dimensional mathematical model predicted a sand throughput rate of 0.2667 pounds/stroke, while the actual test setup transported 0.075 pounds/stroke. Based on this result, a correction factor of 0.281 is suggested for a modified sawtooth input.

  18. Simulations for MARTA (Muon Auger RPC for the Tank Array)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurizio, D.; Shellard, R.C. [CBPF, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The Muon Auger RPC for the Tank Array (MARTA) detector is being studied as part of the Pierre Auger Observatory upgrade. The aim of this detector is to provide a very good capability to discriminate muons in an air shower. This property is very important for it allows Auger to investigate the changes in the hadronic interactions at high energies; to improve the energy evolution by better understanding the muon component of the showers, as well as the missing energy into neutrinos; to increase the primary photon discrimination. A simulation package was developed to integrate with the regular Auger software to describe the behaviour of the detector and allow the fine running of the parameters that define the detector. This package use Geant4 to describe the detector and the electronics response. However this package is very computer intensive so we are developing a fast version of simulation, using Python as the program language. In this paper we describe some of physics parameters results provided by the simulation. (author)

  19. X-ray fluorescence analysis in environmental radiological surveillance using HPGe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has been proven to be a valuable tool for determining trace quantities of heavy metals, such as uranium and lead, in different types of samples. The present paper demonstrates the applicability of XRF spectrometry to measure the concentrations of these heavy metals in samples from natural ore and soil. The values of uranium concentrations in rock from the Pena Blanca uranium ore, in Chihuahua, Mexico, were calculated for the purpose of precertifying the rock powders samples. The comparison with other techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and electron microscopy, was used to complete the precertification process, so that the sample powders may be used as secondary standards. The source-sample-detector geometry and the incident angle are the most important factors for obtaining low detection limits. The selected system uses a 57Co source of about 0.1 mCi to excite the K X-rays from uranium and lead. X-rays were recorded on a CANBERRA HPGe coaxial detector. The comparative results for two incident angles (90 deg and 180 deg ) performed previously by other authors show that the best geometry is the backscattering geometry. In the present paper, using EGS4 code system with Monte Carlo simulation, it was possible to determine the location and distribution of background produced by the Compton edge in the optimized geometry. This procedure allowed to find the minimum detectable concentration of uranium and lead, which was experimentally calculated using standards. The possibility of performing in vivo measurements rapidly and easily, as well as the factors affecting accuracy and the minimum detectable concentration in several samples are also discussed

  20. Using augers to extract minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.Ye.; Meznikov, V.I.; Savich, N.S.

    1981-08-25

    The purpose of the device is to increase productivity based on eliminating empty auger trips. Following drilling the length of the auger away from the (preparatory) working area, the auger section is put in place on the side opposite from the drilled part of the (preparatory) working area. Simultaneous with drilling the other shaft opposite to the preparatory working area, the spindle device for injecting the bit into the drilled out part is set in place. Through it the auger sections are extracted from both shafts (facing each other) directly by moving the spindle device from one shaft to the other.

  1. A portable and autonomous multichannel fluorescence detector for on-line and in situ explosive detection in aqueous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yunhong; Wang, Qi; Liu, Taihong; Wang, Lingling; Li, Jia; Fang, Yu

    2012-11-21

    A multichannel fluorescence detector used to detect nitroaromatic explosives in aqueous phase has been developed, which is composed of a five-channel sample-sensor unit, a measurement and control unit, a microcontroller, and a communication unit. The characteristics of the detector as developed are mainly embedded in the sensor unit, and each sensor consists of a fluorescent sensing film, a light emitting diode (LED), a multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC), and an optical module with special bandpass optical filters. Due to the high sensitivity of the sensing film, the small size and low cost of LED and MPPC, the developed detector not only has a better detecting performance and small size, but also has a very low cost - it is an alternative to the device made with an expensive high power lamp and photomultiplier tube. The wavelengths of the five sensors covered extend from the upper UV through the visible spectrum, 370-640 nm, and thereby it possesses the potential to detect a variety of explosives and other hazardous materials in aqueous phase. An additional function of the detector is its ability to function via a wireless network, by which the data recorded by the detector can be sent to the host computer, and at the same time the instructions can be sent to the detector from the host computer. By means of the powerful computing ability of the host computer, and utilizing the classical principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm, effective classification of the analytes is achieved. Furthermore, the detector has been tested and evaluated using NB, PA, TNT and DNT as the analytes, and toluene, benzene, methanol and ethanol as interferent compounds (concentration various from 10 and 60 μM). It has been shown that the detector can detect the four nitroaromatics with high sensitivity and selectivity. PMID:23007322

  2. Correlation of Particle Traversals with Clonogenic Survival Using Cell-Fluorescent Ion Track Hybrid Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eDokic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of novel approaches linking the physical characteristics of particles with biological responses are of high relevance for the field of particle therapy. In radiobiology, the clonogenic survival of cells is considered the gold standard assay for assessment of cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Towards further development of next generation biodosimeters in particle therapy, cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-FIT-HD was recently engineered by our group and successfully employed to study physical particle track information in correlation with irradiation- induced DNA damage in cell nuclei. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of Cell-FIT-HD as a tool to study the effects of clinical beams on cellular clonogenic survival. Tumor cells were grown on the FNTD as cell culture, mimicking the standard procedures for clonogenic assay. Cell-FIT-HD was used to detect the spatial distribution of particle tracks within colony-initiating cells. The physical data were associated to radiation induced foci as surrogates for DNA double strand breakages (DSB, the hallmark of radiation ‐induced cell lethality. Long‐term cell fate was monitored to determine the ability of cells to form colonies. We report the first successful detection of particle traversal within colony-initiating cells at subcellular resolution using Cell-FIT-HD.

  3. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence from useless tyres samples with a Si PIN detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of Zn from discard tyre samples is of environmental interest, since on its production are used S for the rubber vulcanization process, and Zn O as reaction catalyze. The useless tyres are been used for asphalt pave, burn in cement industry and thermoelectric power plant and in erosion control of agriculture areas. Analyses of these samples requires frequently chemical digestion that is expensive and take a long time. Trying to eliminate these limitations, the objective of this work was use Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF) with a portable system as the technique is multi elementary and needs a minimum sample preparation. Five useless tyres samples were grind in a knife mill and after this in a cryogenic mill, and analyzed in pellets form, using a X ray mini tube (Ag target, Mo lter, 25 kV/20 A) for 200 s and a Si-PIN semiconductor detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. Were obtained Zn concentrations in the range of 40.6 to 44.2 g g1, representing nearly 0.4. (author)

  4. Single Chirality (6,4) Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Fluorescence Imaging with Silicon Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaris, Alexander L; Yaghi, Omar K; Hong, Guosong; Diao, Shuo; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Jiang; Chew, Leila; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-12-16

    Postsynthetic single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) sorting methods such as density gradient ultracentrifugation, gel chromatography, and electrophoresis have all been inspired by established biochemistry separation techniques designed to separate subcellular components. Biochemistry separation techniques have been refined to the degree that parameters such as pH, salt concentration, and temperature are necessary for a successful separation, yet these conditions are only now being applied to SWCNT separation methodologies. Slight changes in pH produce radically different behaviors of SWCNTs inside a density gradient, allowing for the facile separation of ultrahigh purity (6,4) SWCNTs from as-synthesized carbon nanotubes. The (6,4) SWCNTs are novel fluorophores emitting below ≈900 nm and can be easily detected with conventional silicon-based charge-coupled device detectors without the need for specialized InGaAs cameras. The (6,4) SWCNTs are used to demonstrate their potential as a clinically relevant NIR-I fluorescence stain for the immunohistochemical staining of cells and cancer tissue sections displaying high endothelial growth factor receptor levels. PMID:26529611

  5. Distributed Computing for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudoba, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pierre Auger Observatory operates the largest system of detectors for ultra-high energy cosmic ray measurements. Comparison of theoretical models of interactions with recorded data requires thousands of computing cores for Monte Carlo simulations. Since 2007 distributed resources connected via EGI grid are successfully used. The first and the second versions of production system based on bash scripts and MySQL database were able to submit jobs to all reliable sites supporting Virtual Organization auger. For many years VO auger belongs to top ten of EGI users based on the total used computing time. Migration of the production system to DIRAC interware started in 2014. Pilot jobs improve efficiency of computing jobs and eliminate problems with small and less reliable sites used for the bulk production. The new system has also possibility to use available resources in clouds. Dirac File Catalog replaced LFC for new files, which are organized in datasets defined via metadata. CVMFS is used for software distribution since 2014. In the presentation we give a comparison of the old and the new production system and report the experience on migrating to the new system.

  6. Single track coincidence measurements of fluorescent and plastic nuclear track detectors in therapeutic carbon beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Osinga, J. M.; Ambrožová, Iva; Pachnerová Brabcová, Kateřina; Akselrod, M. S.; Jäkel, O.; Davídková, Marie; Greilich, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR (2014), P04013. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : instrumentation for heavy-ion therapy * particle tracking detectors * solid-state detectors * heavy-ion detectors * hybrid detectors Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.399, year: 2014

  7. A multielement Ge detector with complete spectrum readout for x-ray fluorescence microprobe and microspectroscopy (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Mark L.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Rarback, Harvey

    1995-02-01

    Multielement Ge and Si(Li) detectors have been used in recent years to improve the increase count rate capability and to improve the solid-angle efficiency in fluorescence x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Such systems have typically been equipped with one or more single-channel analyzers (SCAs) for each detector element. Such SCA-based electronics are sufficient when only the counts in one or two well-resolved peaks are of interest. For the fluorescence (XRF) microprobe at beamline X-26A at the NSLS, SCA-based electronics were not a satisfactory solution for two reasons: (1) for XRF experiments, the entire fluorescence spectrum is required; (2) for micro-XAS studies of trace elements in complex systems, the fluorescence peak often sits on a significant background or partially overlaps another fluorescence peak, requiring software background subtraction or peak deconvolution. An electronics system which permits collection of the entire fluorescence spectrum from each detector element has been designed. The system is made cost-effective by the use of analog multiplexors, reducing the number of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and multichannel analyzers (MCAs) required. The system was manufactured by Canberra Industries and consists of: (1) a 13 element Ge detector (11 mm diameter detector elements), (2) 13 NIM spectroscopy amplifiers with programmable gains, (3) four analog multiplexors with maximum of eight inputs each, (4) four ADCs with programmable offsets and gains and 800 ns conversion time, and (5) two MCAs with Ethernet communications ports and two ADC inputs each. The amplifiers have shaping times which are adjustable from 0.5 to 12 μs. The analog multiplexors were modified to perform pileup rejection. The analog multiplexing does not significantly reduce the count rate capability of the system, even at the shortest amplifier shaping times. The average detector resolution is 170 eV at 12 μs shaping time and 200 eV at 4 μs shaping time. The maximum

  8. Study of ultra-energetic cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory from particle detection to anisotropy measurement; Etude des rayons cosmiques ultra-energetiques avec l'Observatoire de Pierre Auger: de l'acceptance du detecteur a la nature des particules primaires et aux mesures d'anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aublin, J

    2006-09-15

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, still under construction in Argentina, is designed to study the cosmic rays with energies above a few EeV. The experiment combines two complementary techniques: the fluorescence light detection and the sampling of the shower with an array of detectors at ground, covering a surface of 3000 square kilometers. The calculation of the acceptance of the detector, which is of utmost importance to establish the energy spectrum, has been achieved. The method of computation of the acceptance is simple and reliable. The detection efficiency depends on the nature of primary cosmic rays, allowing to study the cosmic rays composition with the surface detector. The calculation of the cosmic rays energy spectrum has been performed, using different methods to estimate the energy of the events. A cross calibration between the fluorescence and the surface detector provides an estimation of the energy almost independent of hadronic interaction models. The study of large scale anisotropies in the cosmic rays angular distribution provides useful informations about the cosmic rays sources and the conditions of propagation. A new analysis method is presented, allowing to estimate the parameters of an underlying dipolar and quadrupolar anisotropy in the data. The method is applied to a preliminary Auger data set. (author)

  9. Measurement of the proton-air cross-section at sqrt(s) = 57 TeV with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ebr, Jan

    Košice: IEP SAS Košice, 2012 - (Bruncko, D.; Striženec, P.; Urbán, J.) ISBN 978-80-970779-9-0. [Physics in Collision (XXXII). Štrbské Pleso (SK), 12.09.2012-15.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * fluorescence detector * Glauber model Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particle s and High Energy Physics

  10. Anisotropy studies around the galactic centre at EeV energies with the Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allison, P; Alvarez, C; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, Luis A; Anjos, J C; Aramo, C; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bacelar, J; Backer, T; Badagnani, D O; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barbosa, H M J; Barkhausen, M; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Ben Zvi, S; Bérat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boghrat, P; Bohacova, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brunet, J M; Buchholz, P; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Capdevielle, J N; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Claes, D; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Clay, S B; Connolly, B; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dang Quang, T; Darriulat, Pierre; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; De Almeida, R M; De Carvalho, L A; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De Mello Junior, W J M; De Mello-Neto, J R T; De Mitri, I; De Oliveira, M A L; De Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L N; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Ewers, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Fauth, A C; Fazio, D; Fazzini, N; Fernández, A; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fokitis, E; Fonte, R; Fuhrmann, D; Fulgione, W; García, B; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrard, L; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Geranios, A; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glass, H; Gobbi, F; Gold, M S; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gomez Berisso, M; Gómez-Herrero, R; Goncalvesdo Amaral, M; Gongora, J P; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Gora, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A; Grunfeld, C; Grupen, C; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutíerrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Harakeh, M N; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Hartmann, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Homola, P; Horandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovsky, M; Huege, T; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Kaducak, M; Kalashev, O; Kampert, K H; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D H; Kolotaev, Yu; Kopmann, A; Krömer, O; Kuhlman, S; Kuijpers, J; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Longo, G; López, R; López-Aguera, A; Lucero, A; Maldera, S; Malek, M; Maltezos, S; Mancarella, G; Mancenido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Martello, D; Martínez, N; Martínez, J; Martínez, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, Giorgio; Maurin, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, G; Medina, M C; Medina Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, François; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Morris, C; Mostafa, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nguyen Thi, T; Nichol, R; Nierstenhofer, N; Nitz, D; Nogima, H; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Oliveira, L F A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pham Ngoc, D; Pham Thi, T N; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pisanti, O; Porter, T A; Pouryamout, J; Prado Junior, L; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Reis, H C; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rídky, J; Risi, A; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robbins, S; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Rodriguez Frias, D; Rodríguez-Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roucelle, C; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santos, E M; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovanek, P; Schussler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Semikoz, Dmitry V; Sequeiros, G; Shellard, R C; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Skelton, P; Slater, W; Smetniansky De Grande, N; Smialkowski, A; Smida, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tascau, O; Ticona, R; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Pierre Auger Observatory are analyzed to search for anisotropies near the direction of the Galactic Centre at EeV energies. The exposure of the surface array in this part of the sky is already significantly larger than that of the fore-runner experiments. Our results do not support previous findings of localized excesses in the AGASA and SUGAR data. We set an upper bound on a point-like flux of cosmic rays arriving from the Galactic Centre which excludes several scenarios predicting sources of EeV neutrons from Sagittarius $A$. Also the events detected simultaneously by the surface and fluorescence detectors (the `hybrid' data set), which have better pointing accuracy but are less numerous than those of the surface array alone, do not show any significant localized excess from this direction.

  11. Anisotropy studies around the galactic centre at EeV energies with the Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J. C.; Aramo, C.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bacelar, J.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Barkhausen, M.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boghrat, P.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Brack, J.; Brunet, J. M.; Buchholz, P.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Capdevielle, J. N.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazón, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Claes, D.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Clay, S. B.; Connolly, B.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Quang, T. Dang; Darriulat, P.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Carvalho, L. A.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, M. A. L.; de Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Ewers, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazio, D.; Fazzini, N.; Fernández, A.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fokitis, E.; Fonte, R.; Fuhrmann, D.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrard, L.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Geranios, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gobbi, F.; Gold, M. S.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Herrero, R.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gongora, J. P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A.; Grunfeld, C.; Grupen, C.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kalashev, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kolotaev, Y.; Kopmann, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuhlman, S.; Kuijpers, J.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Longo, G.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lucero, A.; Maldera, S.; Malek, M.; Maltezos, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Martello, D.; Martinez, N.; Martínez, J.; Martínez, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurin, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, G.; Medina, M. C.; Medina Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Thi, T. Nguyen; Nichol, R.; Nierstenhöfer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nogima, H.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, L. F. A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pham Ngoc, D.; Pham Thi, T. N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pisanti, O.; Porter, T. A.; Pouryamout, J.; Prado, L.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Reis, H. C.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Řídký, J.; Risi, A.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robbins, S.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodríguez Frías, D.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roucelle, C.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santos, E. M.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Semikoz, D.; Sequeiros, G.; Shellard, R. C.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Skelton, P.; Slater, W.; de Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Ticona, R.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tonachini, A.; Torresi, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vo van, T.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wiebusch, C.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Xu, J.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Zha, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2007-04-01

    Data from the Pierre Auger Observatory are analyzed to search for anisotropies near the direction of the Galactic Centre at EeV energies. The exposure of the surface array in this part of the sky is already significantly larger than that of the fore-runner experiments. Our results do not support previous findings of localized excesses in the AGASA and SUGAR data. We set an upper bound on a point-like flux of cosmic rays arriving from the Galactic Centre which excludes several scenarios predicting sources of EeV neutrons from Sagittarius A. Also the events detected simultaneously by the surface and fluorescence detectors (the ‘hybrid’ data set), which have better pointing accuracy but are less numerous than those of the surface array alone, do not show any significant localized excess from this direction.

  12. Study of scintillation, fluorescence and scattering in mineral oil for the MiniBooNE neutrino detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Bruce C.; Brice, Stephen; Hawker, Eric; Maza, Shannon; Meyer, Hans-Otto; Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Tayloe, Rex; Tanaka, Hirohisa A.; Toptygin, Dmitri; /Fermilab /Western

    2004-11-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector at Fermilab (FNAL) is filled with 250,000 gallons of pure mineral oil. The principal signal for MiniBooNE is light observed in a prompt Cherenkov cone. Scattering and fluorescence modify our detection of this light. Scintillation is also created by ionization in the oil. Studies of fluorescence of this oil have been carried out over a wide spectrum of exciting light and time resolved fluorescence with a narrower range of excitation. Polarized scattering measurements have been carried out at longer wavelengths. Time resolved and spectrally resolved scintillation has been studied with a 200 MeV Proton beam at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Results of these studies will be reported.

  13. Auger spectroscopy and surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1925 Pierre Auger reported on his observations of low energy electrons associated with core-ionised atoms in cloud chamber experiments. He was able to correctly identify the mechanism for their production, and such electrons are now known as Auger electrons. Typically Auger electrons have energies in the range 10 eV to 2 keV. The short distance that such low energy electrons travel in solids ensures that Auger electrons come from the surface layers. The data generated by the AES technique are complex. There are at least three electrons involved in the process, and there are many possible configurations for the atom. These possibilities led to spectra that are not readily interpreted in detail. Theory lags behind experiment in this area. In principle, it should be possible to find information about the chemical environment of atoms from Auger spectra. While there are clear changes in spectral lineshapes, there is no simple way to go from the spectra to an understanding of the chemical bonding of the atom. There are a number of experiments currently underway which aim to improve our understanding of the Auger process. Synchrotron experiments with tunable energy x-rays are providing new insight. Experiments that use positrons to excite Auger emission have also produced further recent understanding. Coincidence experiments between photoelectrons and Auger electrons have also made recent advances. Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy reduces the complexity of Auger spectra by only counting those electrons that occur as a consequence of selected ionizations. The effect is to reduce the complexity of the spectra, and to isolate processes that are often clouded by the simultaneous occurrence of other effects. (author)

  14. Measurement of the chemical composition of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory infers the chemical composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays through two independent detection techniques. The Fluorescence Detector (FD) measures the longitudinal profile of high energy air showers and can determine the depth of the shower maximum $X_{max}$, which is sensitive to the chemical composition of the primary cosmic rays. Additionally, measurements by the Surface Detector (SD) provide independent experimental observables based on the muonic shower component to analyze the chemical composition. We present the results for the $X_{max}$ distributions and the mass composition results measured by the FD and the SD for the energies $E \\geq 10^{18}$\\,eV. The data will be compared with the expectations for proton and iron primaries according to different hadronic interaction models.

  15. Microelectrophoresis devices with integrated fluorescence detectors and reactors for high-throughput DNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Steven A.; Ford, Sean M.; Davies, Jack; Williams, Daryl C.; Cheng, Benxu; Klopf, J. Michael; Calderon, Gina M.; Saile, Volker

    1997-05-01

    This work describes the development of micro-devices for high-throughput DNA sequencing applications. Basically, two research efforts will be discussed; (1) fabrication and characterization of micro-reactors to prepare Sanger chain terminated DNA sequencing fragments on a nanoliter scale and; (2) x-ray photolithography of PMMA substrates for the high aspect ratio preparation of electrophoresis devices. The micro-reactor consisted of a 5'-biotinylated catfish olfactory gene, which was amplified by PCR, and attached to the interior wall of an aminoalkylisilane derivatized fused- silica capillary tube via a streptavidin/biotin linkage. Coverage of the interior capillary wall with biotinylated DNA averaged 77 percent. Stability of the anchored template under pressure and electroosmotic rinsing was favorable, requiring approximately 150 h of continuous rinsing to reduce the coverage by only 50 percent. The capillary micro- reactor was placed inside an air thermocycler to control temperature during Sanger ddNTP chain extension and directly coupled to a capillary separation column filled with a LPA solution via low dead volume capillary interlocks. The complimentary DNA fragments generated in the reactor were heat denatured from the immobilized template and directly injected onto a gel-filled capillary using electropumping for size fractionation and detection using NIR-LIF analysis. The total amount of termination fragments in the 31 nL reactor volume was estimated to be 5.2 X 1013 moles and sequencing was shown to produce read lengths on the order to 400 bases. Work will also be described concerning the development of micro-electrophoresis devices in x-ray sensitive photoresists using LIGA techniques. An electrophoresis device with an integrated fluorescence detector was constructed for the high resolution separation of DNA oligonucleotides. The choice of substrate for the electrophoresis was PMMA, due to its intrinsic low electroosmotic flow. Using x-ray lithography in

  16. Particle physics @ $\\sqrt{s_{pp}}$ > 50 TeV with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Travnicek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina provides the largest data sample of the cosmic ray events with energy above 10$^{18}$ eV. These high energy events can be used to test our understanding of the hadronic interactions at energies beyond the reach of colliders and to probe the basic properties of these interactions such as the inelastic cross-section of proton-air collisions. The combination of an array of surface detectors and the fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory reduces significantly the dependency of the shower energy estimation on MC simulations. Despite that, the interpretation of mass sensitive quantities such as the shower maximum in terms of chemical composition of cosmic rays still depends on the hadronic interaction models. This contribution describes the main results of the observatory concerning the chemical composition of the cosmic rays and focuses on the problem of muon deficit in hadronic interaction models and on the estimation of proton-air cross-section from air-...

  17. Co-visualization of DNA damage and ion traversals in live mammalian cells using a fluorescent nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geometric locations of ion traversals in mammalian cells constitute important information in the study of heavy ion-induced biological effect. Single ion traversal through a cellular nucleus produces complex and massive DNA damage at a nanometer level, leading to cell inactivation, mutations and transformation. We present a novel approach that uses a fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD) for the simultaneous detection of the geometrical images of ion traversals and DNA damage in single cells using confocal microscopy. HT1080 or HT1080–53BP1-GFP cells were cultured on the surface of a FNTD and exposed to 5.1-MeV/n neon ions. The positions of the ion traversals were obtained as fluorescent images of a FNTD. Localized DNA damage in cells was identified as fluorescent spots of γ-H2AX or 53BP1-GFP. These track images and images of damaged DNA were obtained in a short time using a confocal laser scanning microscope. The geometrical distribution of DNA damage indicated by fluorescent γ-H2AX spots in fixed cells or fluorescent 53BP1-GFP spots in living cells was found to correlate well with the distribution of the ion traversals. This method will be useful for evaluating the number of ion hits on individual cells, not only for micro-beam but also for random-beam experiments. (author)

  18. Single-Laboratory Validation of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic-Diode Array Detector-Fluorescence Detector/Mass Spectrometric Method for Simultaneous Determination of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Multivitamin Dietary Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Pei; Atkinson, Renata; Wolf, Wayne R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a single-laboratory validated (SLV) method using high-performance liquid chromatography with different detectors [diode array detector (DAD); fluorescence detector (FLD); and mass spectrometry (MS)] for determination of 7 B-complex vitamins (B1-thiamin, B2-riboflavin, B3-nicotinamide, B6-pyridoxine, B9-folic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin) and vitamin C in multivitamin/multimineral dietary supplements. The method involves the use of a reversed-phas...

  19. Non-exponential Auger decay

    OpenAIRE

    Ishkhanyan, A. M.; Krainov, V. P.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of non-exponential Auger decay of atoms irradiated by X-ray photons. This effect can occur at times, which are greater than the lifetime of a system under consideration. The mechanism for non-exponential depletion of an initial quasi-stationary state is the cutting of the electron energy spectrum of final continuous states at small energies. Then the Auger decay amplitude obeys power-law dependence on long observation times.

  20. The Lateral Trigger Probability function for the ultra-high energy cosmic ray showers detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we introduce the concept of Lateral Trigger Probability (LTP) function, i.e., the probability for an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) to trigger an individual detector of a ground based array as a function of distance to the shower axis, taking into account energy, mass and direction of the primary cosmic ray. We apply this concept to the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consisting of a 1.5 km spaced grid of about 1600 water Cherenkov stations. Using Monte Carlo simulations of ultra-high energy showers the LTP functions are derived for energies in the range between 1017 and 1019 eV and zenith angles up to 65o. A parametrization combining a step function with an exponential is found to reproduce them very well in the considered range of energies and zenith angles. The LTP functions can also be obtained from data using events simultaneously observed by the fluorescence and the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory (hybrid events). We validate the Monte Carlo results showing how LTP functions from data are in good agreement with simulations.

  1. The Lateral Trigger Probability function for the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Showers detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antičić, T; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bäuml, J; Beatty, J J; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; del Peral, L; del Río, M; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Tapia, I Fajardo; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gascon, A; Gemmeke, H; Gesterling, K; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Guzman, A; Hague, J D; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jarne, C; Jiraskova, S; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, J; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Mueller, S; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; ‡, G Navarra; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nhung, P T; Niemietz, L; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Parsons, R D; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pękala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Phan, N; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; Robledo, C; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Lopez, H H Silva; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tamashiro, A; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Taşcău, O; Ruiz, C G Tavera; Tcaciuc, R; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tiwari, D K; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Winnick, M G; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of Lateral Trigger Probability (LTP) function, i.e., the probability for an extensive air shower (EAS) to trigger an individual detector of a ground based array as a function of distance to the shower axis, taking into account energy, mass and direction of the primary cosmic ray. We apply this concept to the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consisting of a 1.5 km spaced grid of about 1600 water Cherenkov stations. Using Monte Carlo simulations of ultra-high energy showers the LTP functions are derived for energies in the range between 10^{17} and 10^{19} eV and zenith angles up to 65 degs. A parametrization combining a step function with an exponential is found to reproduce them very well in the considered range of energies and zenith angles. The LTP functions can also be obtained from data using events simultaneously observed by the fluorescence and the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory (hybrid events). We validate the Monte-Carlo results sho...

  2. Verification of the performance of fluorescent nuclear track detectors with Al2O3;C,Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new optical, non-destructive method of detecting and imaging individual heavy charged particle tracks using Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (FNTD) is investigated as a possible spectroscopic technology for heavy charged particles of low and high linear energy transfer (LET). The technique uses new luminescent aluminum oxide single crystals having aggregate oxygen vacancy defects and doped with Mg (Al2O3;C,Mg) in combination with laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. Spectroscopic capabilities of this new method were demonstrated for energetic heavy ions of LET∞ H2O ranging from 1 to 730 keV/μm. Applications of this technology include neutron detection and dosimetry, radiobiology study using protons and heavy ions, microdosimetry, space radiation dosimetry, as well as nuclear and particle physics research. (author)

  3. Results and Perspectives of the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is an extension of the Pierre Auger Cosmic-Ray Observatory. It is used to detect radio emission from extensive air showers with energies beyond $10^{17}~$eV in the $30 - 80~$MHz frequency band. After three phases of deployment, AERA now consists of more than 150 autonomous radio stations with different spacings, covering an area of about $17~$km$^2$. It is located at the same site as other Auger low-energy detector extensions enabling combinations with various other measurement techniques. The radio array allows different technical schemes to be explored as well as cross-calibration of our measurements with the established baseline detectors of the Auger Observatory. We report on the most recent technological developments and give an overview of the experimental results obtained with AERA. In particular, we will present the measurement of the radiation energy, i.e., the amount of energy that is emitted by the air shower in the form of radio emission, and its dependence...

  4. Calibration of Photomultiplier Tubes for the Fluorescence Detector of Telescope Array Experiment using a Rayleigh Scattered Laser Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kawana, Shingo; Fujii, Toshihiro; Fukushima, Masaki; Inoue, Naoya; Matthews, John N; Ogio, Shoichi; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Taketa, Akimichi; Takita, Masato; Thomas, Stan B; Tokuno, Hisao; Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Udo, Shigeharu; Wiencke, Lawrence R

    2012-01-01

    We performed photometric calibration of the PhotoMultiplier Tube (PMT) and readout electronics used for the new fluorescence detectors of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment using Rayleigh scattered photons from a pulsed nitrogen laser beam. The experimental setup, measurement procedure, and results of calibration are described. The total systematic uncertainty of the calibration is estimated to be 7.5%. An additional uncertainty of 3.7% is introduced by the transport of the calibrated PMTs from the laboratory to the TA experimental site.

  5. Calibration of photomultiplier tubes for the fluorescence detector of telescope array experiment using a Rayleigh scattered laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawana, Shingo, E-mail: kawana@crsgm1.crinoue.phy.saitama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Fujii, Toshihiro [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Masaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Inoue, Naoya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Matthews, John N. [Department of Physics and High Energy Astrophysics Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Ogio, Shoichi [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Sagawa, Hiroyuki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Taketa, Akimichi [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Takita, Masato [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Thomas, Stan B. [Department of Physics and High Energy Astrophysics Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Tokuno, Hisao [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Interactive Research Center of Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Tsunesada, Yoshiki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Udo, Shigeharu [Kanagawa University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8624 (Japan); Wiencke, Lawrence R. [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2012-07-21

    We performed photometric calibration of the PhotoMultiplier Tube (PMT) and readout electronics used for the new fluorescence detectors of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment using Rayleigh scattered photons from a pulsed nitrogen laser beam. The experimental setup, measurement procedure, and results of calibration are described. The total systematic uncertainty of the calibration is estimated to be 7.2%. An additional uncertainty of 3.7% is introduced by the transport of the calibrated PMTs from the laboratory to the TA experimental site.

  6. Calibration of photomultiplier tubes for the fluorescence detector of telescope array experiment using a Rayleigh scattered laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawana, Shingo; Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Fujii, Toshihiro; Fukushima, Masaki; Inoue, Naoya; Matthews, John N.; Ogio, Shoichi; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Taketa, Akimichi; Takita, Masato; Thomas, Stan B.; Tokuno, Hisao; Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Udo, Shigeharu; Wiencke, Lawrence R.

    2012-07-01

    We performed photometric calibration of the PhotoMultiplier Tube (PMT) and readout electronics used for the new fluorescence detectors of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment using Rayleigh scattered photons from a pulsed nitrogen laser beam. The experimental setup, measurement procedure, and results of calibration are described. The total systematic uncertainty of the calibration is estimated to be 7.2%. An additional uncertainty of 3.7% is introduced by the transport of the calibrated PMTs from the laboratory to the TA experimental site.

  7. Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array: Joint Contributions to the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2013)

    CERN Document Server

    Array, The Telescope; Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Anderson, R; Azuma, R; Barcikowski, E; Belz, J W; Bergman, D R; Blake, S A; Cady, R; Chae, M J; Cheon, B G; Chiba, J; Chikawa, M; Cho, W R; Fujii, T; Fukushima, M; Goto, K; Hanlon, W; Hayashi, Y; Hayashida, N; Hibino, K; Honda, K; Ikeda, D; Inoue, N; Ishii, T; Ishimori, R; Ito, H; Ivanov, D; Jui, C C H; Kadota, K; Kakimoto, F; Kalashev, O; Kasahara, K; Kawai, H; Kawakami, S; Kawana, S; Kawata, K; Kido, E; Kim, H B; Kim, J H; Kitamura, S; Kitamura, Y; Kuzmin, V; Kwon, Y J; Lan, J; Lundquist, J P; Machida, K; Martens, K; Matsuda, T; Matsuyama, T; Matthews, J N; Minamino, M; Mukai, K; Myers, I; Nagasawa, K; Nagataki, S; Nakamura, T; Nanpei, H; Nonaka, T; Nozato, A; Ogio, S; Oh, S; Ohnishi, M; Ohoka, H; Oki, K; Okuda, T; Ono, M; Oshima, A; Ozawa, S; Park, I H; Pshirkov, M S; Rodriguez, D C; Rubtsov, G; Ryu, D; Sagawa, H; Sakurai, N; Sampson, A L; Scott, L M; Shah, P D; Shibata, F; Shibata, T; Shimodaira, H; Shin, B K; Shirahama, T; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Stratton, S R; Stroman, T A; Takamura, M; Takeda, M; Taketa, A; Takita, M; Tameda, Y; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, K; Tanaka, M; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tinyakov, P; Tkachev, I; Tokuno, H; Tomida, T; Troitsky, S; Tsunesada, Y; Tsutsumi, K; Uchihori, Y; Udo, S; Urban, F; Vasiloff, G; Wada, Y; Wong, T; Yamaoka, H; Yamazaki, K; Yang, J; Yashiro, K; Yoneda, Y; Yoshida, S; Yoshii, H; Zollinger, R; Zundel, Z; Aab, A; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muniz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antivcic, T; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Barber, K B; Bardenet, R; Baeuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Belletoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blumer, H; Bohacova, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceicao, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Diaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Foerster, N; Fox, B D; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fratu, O; Frohlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; Garcia, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garilli, G; Bravo, A Gascon; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gomez; Vitale, P F Gomez; Goncalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Homola, P; Hoerandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovsky, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kegl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Kroemer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leao, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopez, R; Aguera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Malacari, M; Maldera, S; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martinez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masias; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Meyhandan, R; Micanovic, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Mostafa, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Muller, G; Munchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nhung, P T; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novzka, L; Oehlschlager, J; Olinto, A; Oliveira, M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Pontz, M; Porcelli, A; Preda, T; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Cabo, I Rodriguez; Fernandez, G Rodriguez; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Frias, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Ruhle, C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sanchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovanek, P; Schroeder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Smialkowski, A; Smida, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Straub, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijarvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Susa, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Tacscuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tome, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Galicia, J F Valdes; Valino, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; Berg, A M van den; van Velzen, S; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cardenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vazquez, J R; Vazquez, R A; Veberic, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villasenor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhou, J; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M

    2013-01-01

    Joint contributions of the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array Collaborations to the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 2013: cross-calibration of the fluorescence telescopes, large scale anisotropies and mass composition.

  8. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultra-high energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62{\\deg} and 80{\\deg}. The measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the Surface Detector array and the Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The muon number for each shower is derived by scaling a simulated reference profile of the lateral muon density distribution at the ground until it fits the data. A $10^{19}$ eV shower with a zenith angle of 67{\\deg}, which arrives at the Surface Detector array at an altitude of 1450 m above sea level, contains on average $(2.68 \\pm 0.04 \\pm 0.48\\,(\\mathrm{sys.})) \\times 10^{7}$ muons with energies larger than 0.3 GeV. The logarithmic gain $\\text{d}\\ln{N_\\mu} / \\text{d}\\ln{E}$ of muons with increasing energy between $4 \\times 10^{18}$ eV and $5\\times 10^{19}$ eV is measured to be $(1.029\\, \\pm\\, 0.024\\, \\pm 0.030\\,(\\mathrm{sys.}))$.

  9. Make Caffeine Visible: a Fluorescent Caffeine “Traffic Light” Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Xu; Tae-Hyeong Kim; Duanting Zhai; Jun Cheng Er; Liyun Zhang; Anup Atul Kale; Bikram Keshari Agrawalla; Yoon-Kyoung Cho; Young-Tae Chang

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine has attracted abundant attention due to its extensive existence in beverages and medicines. However, to detect it sensitively and conveniently remains a challenge, especially in resource-limited regions. Here we report a novel aqueous phase fluorescent caffeine sensor named Caffeine Orange which exhibits 250-fold fluorescence enhancement upon caffeine activation and high selectivity. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicate that π-s...

  10. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, A. M. van den; Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger

    2007-01-01

    The southern Auger Observatory provides an excellent test bed to study the radio detection of extensive air showers as an alternative, cost-effective, and accurate tool for cosmic-ray physics. The data from the radio setup can be correlated with those from the well-calibrated baseline detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Furthermore, human-induced radio noise levels at the southern Auger site are relatively low. We have started an R&D program to test various radio-detection concepts. Ou...

  11. Bore-auger servo-mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.Ye.; Bolotov, N.L.; Kiselev, Ye.I.; Opal' ko, L.L.; Podubniy, V.I.; Savich, N.S.; Tverezyy, Yu.F.

    1980-06-06

    A bore-auger servo-mechanism is proposed for a drilling machine. This unit consists of a drilling bit, an auger boring section with a screw-type surface, upper and lower cutting disks, mounted onto the supports between the main auger sections, and a linear auger section with lateral ties. In order to simplify construction, the upper cutting disk is equipped with its own auger bits, both below and above the disks, thus facilitating interaction with the screw-type surface of the auger sections.

  12. Methodology toward 3D micro X-ray fluorescence imaging using an energy dispersive charge-coupled device detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrevoet, Jan; Vekemans, Bart; Tack, Pieter; De Samber, Björn; Schmitz, Sylvia; Brenker, Frank E; Falkenberg, Gerald; Vincze, Laszlo

    2014-12-01

    A new three-dimensional (3D) micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) methodology based on a novel 2D energy dispersive CCD detector has been developed and evaluated at the P06 beamline of the Petra-III storage ring (DESY) in Hamburg, Germany. This method is based on the illumination of the investigated sample cross-section by a horizontally focused beam (vertical sheet beam) while fluorescent X-rays are detected perpendicularly to the sheet beam by a 2D energy dispersive (ED) CCD detector allowing the collection of 2D cross-sectional elemental images of a certain depth within the sample, limited only by signal self-absorption effects. 3D elemental information is obtained by a linear scan of the sample in the horizontal direction across the vertically oriented sheet beam and combining the detected cross-sectional images into a 3D elemental distribution data set. Results of the 3D μXRF analysis of mineral inclusions in natural deep Earth diamonds are presented to illustrate this new methodology. PMID:25346101

  13. Search for ultra high energy primary photons at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colalillo, Roberta

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Argentina, provides an unprecedented integrated aperture in the search for primary photons with energy above 1017 eV over a large portion of the southern sky. Such photons can be detected in principle via the air showers they initiate at such energies, using the complement of Auger Observatory detectors. We discuss the results obtained in diffuse and directional searches for primary photons in the EeV energy range.

  14. Quantum-beat Auger spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Song Bin

    2015-01-01

    The concept of nonlinear quantum-beat pump-probe Auger spectroscopy is introduced by discussing a relatively simple four-level model system. We consider a coherent wave packet involving two low-lying states that was prepared by an appropriate pump pulse. This wave packet is subsequently probed by a weak, time-delayed probe pulse with nearly resonant coupling to a core-excited state of the atomic or molecular system. The resonant Auger spectra are then studied as a function of the duration of the probe pulse and the time delay. With a bandwidth of the probe pulse approaching the energy spread of the wave packet, the Auger yields and spectra show quantum beats as a function of pump-probe delay. An analytic theory for the quantum-beat Auger spectroscopy will be presented, which allows for the reconstruction of the wave packet by analyzing the delaydependent Auger spectra. The possibility of extending this method to a more complex manifold of electronic and vibrational energy levels is also discussed.

  15. Make Caffeine Visible: a Fluorescent Caffeine “Traffic Light” Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang; Kim, Tae-Hyeong; Zhai, Duanting; Er, Jun Cheng; Zhang, Liyun; Kale, Anup Atul; Agrawalla, Bikram Keshari; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung; Chang, Young-Tae

    2013-07-01

    Caffeine has attracted abundant attention due to its extensive existence in beverages and medicines. However, to detect it sensitively and conveniently remains a challenge, especially in resource-limited regions. Here we report a novel aqueous phase fluorescent caffeine sensor named Caffeine Orange which exhibits 250-fold fluorescence enhancement upon caffeine activation and high selectivity. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicate that π-stacking and hydrogen-bonding contribute to their interactions while dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy experiments demonstrate the change of Caffeine Orange ambient environment induces its fluorescence emission. To utilize this probe in real life, we developed a non-toxic caffeine detection kit and tested it for caffeine quantification in various beverages. Naked-eye sensing of various caffeine concentrations was possible based on color changes upon irradiation with a laser pointer. Lastly, we performed the whole system on a microfluidic device to make caffeine detection quick, sensitive and automated.

  16. Highlights from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muniz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antivcic, T; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Barber, K B; Bardenet, R; Baeuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Belletoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blumer, H; Bohacova, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceicao, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Diaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Foerster, N; Fox, B D; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fratu, O; Frohlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; Garcia, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garilli, G; Bravo, A Gascon; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gomez; Vitale, P F Gomez; Goncalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Homola, P; Hoerandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovsky, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kegl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; d, J Knapp; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Kroemer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leao, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopez, R; Aguera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Malacari, M; Maldera, S; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martinez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masias; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Meyhandan, R; Micanovic, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Mostafa, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Muller, G; Munchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nhung, P T; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novzka, L; Oehlschlager, J; Olinto, A; Oliveira, M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Pontz, M; Porcelli, A; Preda, T; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Cabo, I Rodriguez; Fernandez, G Rodriguez; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Frias, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Ruhle, C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sanchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovanek, P; Schroeder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Smialkowski, A; Smida, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Straub, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijarvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Susa, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Tacscuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tome, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Galicia, J F Valdes; Valino, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; Berg, A M van den; van Velzen, S; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cardenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vazquez, J R; Vazquez, R A; Veberic, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villasenor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhou, J; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. Our current exposure reaches nearly 40,000 km$^2$ str and provides us with an unprecedented quality data set. The performance and stability of the detectors and their enhancements are described. Data analyses have led to a number of major breakthroughs. Among these we discuss the energy spectrum and the searches for large-scale anisotropies. We present analyses of our X$_{max}$ data and show how it can be interpreted in terms of mass composition. We also describe some new analyses that extract mass sensitive parameters from the 100% duty cycle SD data. A coherent interpretation of all these recent results opens new directions. The consequences regarding the cosmic ray composition and the properties of UHECR sources are briefly discussed.

  17. “Orange alert”: A fluorescent detector for bisphenol A in water environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liyun [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Er, Jun Cheng [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Centre for Life Sciences, #05-01, 28 Medical Drive, 117456 Singapore (Singapore); Xu, Wang; Qin, Xian [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Samanta, Animesh; Jana, Santanu [Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 138667 Singapore (Singapore); Lee, Chi-Lik Ken [Centre for Biomedical and Life Sciences, Singapore Polytechnic, 139651 Singapore (Singapore); Chang, Young-Tae, E-mail: chmcyt@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Centre for Life Sciences, #05-01, 28 Medical Drive, 117456 Singapore (Singapore); Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 138667 Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report a BODIPY-based turn-on fluorescent bisphenol A sensor. • We tested the superior selectivity toward BPA against several bisphenol analogs and phenol. • We demonstrated the stability and robustness of this probe for analyzing BPA in real, complex water samples. - Abstract: Due to the prevalent use of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins in packaging materials and paints for ships, there has been a widespread global contamination of environmental water sources with bisphenol A (BPA). BPA, an endocrine disruptor, has been found to cause tremendous health problems. Therefore, there is an urgent need for detecting BPA in a convenient and sensitive manner to ensure water safety. Herein, we develop a fluorescent turn-on BPA probe, named Bisphenol Orange (BPO), which could conveniently detect BPA in a wide variety of real water samples including sea water, drain water and drinking water. BPO shows superior selectivity toward BPA and up to 70-fold increase in fluorescence emission at 580 nm when mixed with BPA in water. Mechanistic studies suggest a plausible water-dependent formation of hydrophobic BPA clusters which favorably trap and restrict the rotation of BPO and recover its inherent fluorescence.

  18. “Orange alert”: A fluorescent detector for bisphenol A in water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report a BODIPY-based turn-on fluorescent bisphenol A sensor. • We tested the superior selectivity toward BPA against several bisphenol analogs and phenol. • We demonstrated the stability and robustness of this probe for analyzing BPA in real, complex water samples. - Abstract: Due to the prevalent use of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins in packaging materials and paints for ships, there has been a widespread global contamination of environmental water sources with bisphenol A (BPA). BPA, an endocrine disruptor, has been found to cause tremendous health problems. Therefore, there is an urgent need for detecting BPA in a convenient and sensitive manner to ensure water safety. Herein, we develop a fluorescent turn-on BPA probe, named Bisphenol Orange (BPO), which could conveniently detect BPA in a wide variety of real water samples including sea water, drain water and drinking water. BPO shows superior selectivity toward BPA and up to 70-fold increase in fluorescence emission at 580 nm when mixed with BPA in water. Mechanistic studies suggest a plausible water-dependent formation of hydrophobic BPA clusters which favorably trap and restrict the rotation of BPO and recover its inherent fluorescence

  19. A composition study of ultra high energy cosmic rays using timing information from the 750m infill array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector for the purpose of detecting extensive air showers from ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR). It consists of an array of water cherenkov detectors, the surface detector (SD), and atmospheric fluorescence telescopes, the fluorescence detector. The determination of the mass composition of UHECR is one of its main tasks and may give important hints on their sources and accelerators. One approach to deduce it from data of the SD is to use the risetime, the time it takes for the integrated signal of a surface detector station to rise from 10% to 50% of its final value. For the 750 m infill array, that was commissioned in 2008 as a part of the AMIGA extension and makes energies below 1 EeV accessible to the SD, risetime studies have yet to be performed. To use risetime for the determination of mass composition one has to condense the information of the stations from a single event to one mass sensitive observable that can be compared with simulations. Therefore risetime has to be corrected for azimuthal asymmetry, furthermore its dependance on the distance to the shower core and zenith angle has to be taken into account. Details on the implementation and the results are shown.

  20. First results of a novel Silicon Drift Detector array designed for low energy X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachevski, Alexandre; Ahangarianabhari, Mahdi; Bellutti, Pierluigi; Bertuccio, Giuseppe; Brigo, Elena; Bufon, Jernej; Carrato, Sergio; Castoldi, Andrea; Cautero, Giuseppe; Fabiani, Sergio; Giacomini, Gabriele; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Giuressi, Dario; Guazzoni, Chiara; Kourousias, George; Liu, Chang; Menk, Ralf Hendrik; Montemurro, Giuseppe Vito; Picciotto, Antonino; Piemonte, Claudio; Rashevskaya, Irina; Shi, Yongbiao; Stolfa, Andrea; Vacchi, Andrea; Zampa, Gianluigi; Zampa, Nicola; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    We developed a trapezoidal shaped matrix with 8 cells of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) featuring a very low leakage current (below 180 pA/cm2 at 20 °C) and a shallow uniformly implanted p+ entrance window that enables sensitivity down to few hundreds of eV. The matrix consists of a completely depleted volume of silicon wafer subdivided into 4 square cells and 4 half-size triangular cells. The energy resolution of a single square cell, readout by the ultra-low noise SIRIO charge sensitive preamplifier, is 158 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV and 0 °C. The total sensitive area of the matrix is 231 mm2 and the wafer thickness is 450 μm. The detector was developed in the frame of the INFN R&D project ReDSoX in collaboration with FBK, Trento. Its trapezoidal shape was chosen in order to optimize the detection geometry for the experimental requirements of low energy X-ray fluorescence (LEXRF) spectroscopy, aiming at achieving a large detection angle. We plan to exploit the complete detector at the TwinMic spectromicroscopy beamline at the Elettra Synchrotron (Trieste, Italy). The complete system, composed of 4 matrices, increases the solid angle coverage of the isotropic photoemission hemisphere about 4 times over the present detector configuration. We report on the layout of the SDD matrix and of the experimental set-up, as well as the spectroscopic performance measured both in the laboratory and at the experimental beamline.

  1. Analysis of nuclear resonance fluorescence excitation measured with LaBr3(Ce) detectors near 2 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of LaBr3(Ce) to measure nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) excitations is discussed in terms of limits of detection and in comparison with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors near the 2 MeV region where many NRF excitation levels from special nuclear materials are located. The NRF experiment was performed at the High Intensity γ-ray Source (HIγS) facility. The incident γ-rays, of 2.12 MeV energy, hit a B4C target to excite the 11B nuclei to the first excitation level. The statistical-sensitive non-linear peak clipping (SNIP) algorithm was implemented to eliminate the background and enhance the limits of detection for the spectra measured with LaBr3(Ce). Both detection and determination limits were deduced from the experimental data

  2. Large arrays of discrete ionizing radiation detectors multiplexed using fluorescent optical converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention provides a radiation imaging system employing arrays of scintillators. An object of the invention is to produce a detector with high spatial resolution, high gamma-photon absorption efficiency, excellent source and detector scatter rejection, and utilizing low-cost solid state opto-electronic devices. In one embodiment, it provides a radiation detection and conversion apparatus having an array of optically isolated radiation sensitive elements that emit optical radiation upon absorption of ionizing radiation. An array of channels, comprising a material that absorbs and traps the radiation emitted and transports it or radiation that has been shifted to longer wavelengths, is placed near the radiation-sensitive elements. Electro-optical detectors that convert the transported radiation into electrical signals are coupled to the channels. The activation of one of the electro-optical devices by radiation from one of the channels indicates that at least one of the radiation-sensitive elements near that channel has absorbed a quantity of radiation

  3. Nanoparticle-Based Immunochromatographic Test Strip with Fluorescent Detector for Quantification of Phosphorylated Acetycholinesterase: An Exposure Biomarker of Organophosphorous Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiying; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Tang, Yong; Du, Dan; Liu, Deli; Lin, Yuehe

    2013-09-21

    A nanoparticle-based fluorescence immunochromatographic test strip (FITS) coupled with a hand-held detector for highly selective and sensitive detection of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an exposure biomarker of organophosphate (OP) pesticides and nerve agents, is reported. In this approach, OP-AChE adducts were selectively captured by quantum dot-tagged anti-AChE antibodies (Qdot-anti-AChE) and zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs). The sandwich-like immunoreactions were performed among the Qdot-anti-AChE, OP-AChE and ZrO2 NPs to form Qdot-anti-AChE/OP-AChE/ZrO2 complex, which was detected by recording the fluorescence intensity of Qdot captured on the test line. Paraoxon was used as the model OP pesticides. Under optimal conditions, this portable FITS immunosensor demonstrates a highly linear absorption response over the range of 0.01 nM to 10 nM OP-AChE, with a detection limit of 4 pM, coupled with a good reproducibility. Moreover, the FITS immunosensor has been validated with OP-AChE spiked human plasma samples. This is the first report on the development of ZrO2 NPs-based FITS for detection of OP-AChE adduct. The FITS immunosensor provides a sensitive and low-cost sensing platform for on-site screening/evaluating OP pesticides and nerve agents poisoning.

  4. Applications of Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detector Diodes and the Analysis of Environmental Pollutants; Aplicaciones de la Cromatografia Liquida con Detector de Diodos y Fluorescencia al Analisis de Contaminantes Medioambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R. M.

    2012-04-11

    It presents a review on the determination of major types of organic pollutants in environmental samples by HPLC with diode array or fluorescence molecular detectors. Main objective has been to make a compilation of the analytical potential of the technique based on literature and our laboratory studies on the main aspects of analytical methodology used in the determination of these compounds. (Author) 53 refs.

  5. The Pierre Auger observatory's project of detecting photons and neutrinos at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic radiations of ultra high energy (RCUHE, beyond 1018 eV) are difficult to study because of their low flux on the earth surface: about 1 photon per year and per km2. The observatory Pierre Auger proposes to study RCUHE by designing 2 sites of 3000 km2 (one in each hemisphere) allowing the observation of the shower initiated by cosmic radiation by using 4 fluorescence telescopes and a network of 1600 Cherenkov detectors. The identification of the primary particle is a very delicate point, the detection of neutrino or photon at these energies would bring valuable information for the understanding of potential sources of RCUHE. The first part of this work presents the project and its assets to perform its task. The second part is dedicated to the description of the Cherenkov detectors, of the trigger system, and of the centralized data acquisition system. The last part present the prototype installation that is under construction at Macargue in Argentina. (A.C.)

  6. Detection and Quantification of Heme and Chlorophyll Precursors Using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) System Equipped with Two Fluorescence Detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilný, Jan; Kopečná, Jana; Noda, J. A.; Sobotka, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2015), s. 1-5. ISSN 2331-8325 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0059; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : fluorescence detector Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  7. Development of real time detector for fluorescent particles applied to pollutant transfers characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies on aerosol transfer carried out in the field of staff protection and nuclear plants safety become more and more important. So techniques of pollutants simulation by specific tracers with the same aeraulic behaviour are an interesting tool in order to characterize their transfers. Resorting to aerosols tagged by a fluorescent dye allows to realize different studies in ventilation and filtration field. The feasibility of detection in real time for a particulate tracer is the main aim of this work. The need of such a technique is obvious because it can provide the specific aerosol behaviour. Furthermore, direct measurements in real time are required for model validation in calculation codes: they give the most realistic informations on interaction between contaminant and ventilation air flows. Up to now, the principle of fluorescent aerosol concentration measurement allows only an integral response in a delayed time, by means of sampling on filters and a fluorimetric analysis after a specific conditioning of these filters. In order to have the opportunity to detect in real time specific tracer, we have developed a new monitor able to count these particles on the following basis: fluorescent particles pass through a sampling nozzle up to a measurement chamber specially designed; sheath flow rate is defined to confine the test aerosol in the test aerosol in the sample flow rate at nozzle outlet; the interception of this stream by a highly focused laser beam allows aerosol detection and characterization particle by particle; the signature of a passing aerosol is the burst of photons that occurs when the fluoro-phore contained in the glycerol particle is excited by a light of adapted wavelength; these signals are transmitted to a photodetector by a patented optical arrangement. Then, an acquisition interfaced board connected to a computer, converts them into frequencies histograms. In the end, two kind of results could be provided simultaneously : the

  8. Characterization of X-ray polycapillary optics by LiF crystal radiation detectors through confocal fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfigli, Francesca; Hampai, Dariush; Dabagov, Sultan B.; Montereali, Rosa Maria

    2016-08-01

    Solid-state radiation imaging detectors based on photoluminescent colour centres in lithium fluoride (LiF) crystals have been successfully tested for both advanced 2D and 3D characterizations of X-ray polycapillary optics by a table-top laboratory system. Polycapillary optics can control X-ray beams propagation and allows obtaining quasi-parallel beam (half-lens) or focused beams (full-lens). The combination of a fine-focused micro X-ray tube and a polycapillary lens can provide the high intensity radiation fluxes that are necessary for high resolution X-ray imaging. In this paper we present novel results about advanced characterization of these complex optics by 2D as well as 3D confocal laser fluorescence microscopy of X-ray irradiated LiF crystal detectors. Two dimensional high spatial resolution images on a wide field of view of transmitted X-rays through a semi-lens and 3D direct inspection of the coloured volumes produced in LiF crystals by both focused and parallel X-ray beam transmitted by a full and a semi-lens, respectively, as well as their 3D reconstructions were obtained. The results show that the photoluminescent colour centres volume in LiF crystals combined with an optical sectioning reading system provide information about tomography of transmitted X-ray beams by policapillary optics in a single exposure process. For the first time, the use of LiF crystal plates as versatile radiation imaging luminescent detectors have been used to characterize the operation of polycapillary optics as X-ray lens, in focusing and parallel mode.

  9. Simulation and Characterization of Single Photon Detectors for Fluorescence Lifetime Spectroscopy and Gamma-ray Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Benetti, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray and Fluorescence Lifetime Spectroscopies are driving the development of non-imaging silicon photon sensors and, in this context, Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPM)s are leading the starring role. They are 2D array of optical diodes called Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD)s, and are normally fabricated with a dedicated silicon process. SPADs amplify the charge produced by the single absorbed photon in a way that recalls the avalanche amplification exploited in Photo-Multiplier Tube...

  10. A new post-column reactor-laser induced fluorescence detector for capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Liling

    1996-01-02

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), a powerful separation method based on the differential migration of charged species under the influence of an electric field, has been widely used for separations covering from small ions to big biomolecules. Chapter 1 describes the method, then discusses detection of the separated analytes by laser induced fluorescence and by chemical derivatization, and the use of O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) as a post-column reagent. Chapter 2 describes a post-column reactor which uses two narrow bore capillaries connected coaxially. This reactor differs from other coaxial reactors in terms of capillary dimensions, reagent flow control, ease of construction and most importantly, better limits of detection. The derivatization reagent is electroosmotically driven into the reaction capillary and the reagent flow rate is independently controlled by a high voltage power supply. Amino acids, amines and proteins, derivatized by OPA/2-mercaptoethanol using this post-column reactor coupled with LIF detection, show low attomole mass limits of detection, and for the first time, the authors demonstrate single cell capability with a post-column derivatization scheme. The single cell capability shows that this reactor could find applications in assaying non-fluorescent or electrochemically inactive components in individual biological cells in the future.

  11. Native Fluorescence Detection Methods and Detectors for Naphthalene and/or Other Volatile Organic Compound Vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Naphthalene, benzene, toluene, xylene, and other volatile organic compounds have been identified as serious health hazards. This is especially true for personnel working with JP8 jet fuel and other fuels containing naphthalene as well as other hazardous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Embodiments of the invention are directed to methods and apparatus for near-real-time in-situ detection and accumulated dose measurement of exposure to naphthalene vapor and other hazardous gaseous VOCs. The methods and apparatus employ excitation of fluorophors native or endogenous to compounds of interest using light sources emitting in the ultraviolet below 300 nm and measurement of native fluorescence emissions in distinct wavebands above the excitation wavelength. The apparatus of some embodiments are cell-phone-sized sensor/dosimeter "badges" to be worn by personnel potentially exposed to naphthalene or other hazardous VOCs. The badge sensor of some embodiments provides both real time detection and data logging of exposure to naphthalene or other VOCs of interest from which both instantaneous and accumulated dose can be determined. The badges employ a new native fluorescence based detection method to identify and differentiate VOCs. The particular focus of some embodiments are the detection and identification of naphthalene while other embodiments are directed to detection and identification of other VOCs like aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylene.

  12. Limitations on Space-based Air Fluorescence Detector Apertures obtained from IR Cloud Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Krizmanic, J F; Streitmatter, R E; Krizmanic, John; Sokolsky, Pierre; Streitmatter, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The presence of clouds between an airshower and a space-based detector can dramatically alter the measured signal characteristics due to absorption and scattering of the photonic signals. Furthermore, knowledge of the cloud cover in the observed atmosphere is needed to determine the instantaneous aperture of such a detector. Before exploring the complex nature of cloud-airshower interactions, we examine a simpler issue. We investigate the fraction of ultra-high energy cosmic ray events that may be expected to occur in volumes of the viewed atmosphere non-obscured by clouds. To this end, we use space-based IR data in concert with Monte Carlo simulated $10^{20}$ eV airshowers to determine the acceptable event fractions. Earth-observing instruments, such as MODIS, measure detailed cloud configurations via a CO$_2$-slicing technique that can be used to determine cloud-top altitudes over large areas. Thus, events can be accepted if their observed 3-dimensional endpoints occur above low clouds as well as from areas...

  13. Resistive Plate Chambers for the Pierre Auger array upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory upgrade, Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) have been proposed as a dedicated detector to better estimate the muonic component of Extensive Air Showers (EAS), further constraining the nature of the cosmic rays and hadronic interactions that take place in Extensive Air Showers development. RPCs are a very interesting option to fulfill the requirements: to cover large areas at low cost; particle counting from one to thousands of particles; few ns time resolution and outdoor standalone operation with very low maintenance. The present work refers to the latest advances and outcomes in order to ensure the capability of RPCs to fulfill the totality of the Auger upgrade requirements

  14. Warped extra dimension and inclined events at Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Kisselev, A V

    2016-01-01

    The generalized solution for the warp factor of the Randall-Sundrum metric is presented which is symmetric with respect to both branes and explicitly periodic in extra variable. Given that the curvature of the 5-dimensional space-time is small, the expected rate of neutrino-induced inclined events at the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is calculated. Both the "downward-going" (DG) and "Earth-skimming" (ES) neutrinos are considered. By comparing the expected event rate with the recent Auger data on searching for neutrino candidates, the lower bound on the fundamental gravity scale M_5 is obtained. The ratio of the number of the ES air showers to the number of the DG showers is estimated as a function of M_5.

  15. Hydrogen slush production with a large auger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daney, D. E.; Arp, V. D.; Voth, R. O.

    1990-01-01

    The design and construction of a 178-mm-diameter auger-type hydrogen slush generator are described. A supercritical helium flow loop, which simulates the performance of a helium refrigerator, cools the generator. The coolant temperature varies down to 5 K and the flow varies about the 1.4 L/s (3 cfm) design point. The computer model of the auger-type generator shows that coolant temperature and auger speed have the greatest influence on slush production rate, although coolant flow rate and auger radial clearance are also important.

  16. A measurement of the muon number in showers using inclined events detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez G.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The average muon content of measured showers with zenith angles between 62∘ and 80∘ detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory is obtained as a function of shower energy using a reconstruction method specifically designed for inclined showers and the hybrid character of the detector. The reconstruction of inclined showers relies on a comparison between the measured signals at ground and reference patterns at ground level from which an overall normalization factor is obtained. Since inclined showers are dominated by muons this factor gives the relative muon size. It can be calibrated using a subsample of showers simultaneously recorded with the fluorescence detector (FD and the surface detector (SD which provides an independent calorimetric measurement of the energy. The muon size obtained for each shower becomes a measurement of the relative number of muons with respect to the reference distributions. The precision of the measurement is assessed using simulated events which are reconstructed using exactly the same procedure. We compare the relative number of muons versus energy as obtained to simulations. Proton simulations with QGSJETII show a factor of 2.13 ± 0.04(stat ± 0.11(sys at 1019eV without significant variations in the energy range explored between 4 × 1018eV to 7 × 1019eV. We find that none of the current shower models, neither for proton nor for iron primaries, are able to predict as many muons as are observed.

  17. Fragmentation of CF3Br induced by fluroine is core excitation: Energy resolved auger electron multiple-ion coincidence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragmentation processes in CF3Br near the F K edge were investigated using synchrotron radiation and Energy Resolved Auger Electron Multiple Ion Coincidence (ERAEMICO). Time-of flight mass spectra were collected in coincidence with either selected F 1s Auger or resonant-Auger electrons which were energy analyzed with a hemispherical detector. In addition, a more inclusive mass spectrum was taken near the F 1s ionization potential in coincidence with low energy electrons. Preliminary spectra the Br2+ ion intensity is negligible and the relative CF+ abundance is higher. These differences confirm the notion that the electronic state prior to bond breakage governs the resulting fragmentation pattern

  18. Elemental analysis of aerosols collected at the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory with PIXE technique complemented with SEM/EDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to characterize surface aerosols at the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory located at Pampa Amarilla, near Malargüe city, in the Andes region of Argentina, with experimental sampling techniques used for the first time in a cosmic ray observatory, adding to information provided by the existing Auger aerosol monitors. A good knowledge of the optical attenuation due to aerosols is crucial for a good reconstruction of the signals from cosmic ray showers detected by the fluorescence detectors of the Observatory. Aerosols were collected in filters, during the Southern Hemisphere winter and spring in 2008. Concentrations in PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 filters were determined by gravimetric analysis and their elemental composition by the PIXE technique, complemented with SEM/EDX. Low aerosol concentrations were measured during the sampling period. The mean total mass PM10 (=PM2.5 + PM2.5–10 fractions) value was [mean(se)] 9.8(1.0) μg/m3 [sd = 5.9 μg/m3]. The mean PM10 value during winter was 7(1.1) μg/m3 [sd = 4.5 μg/m3], about half of the 13.1(1.5) [sd = 5.7 μg/m3] measured during springtime. The PM2.5 fraction was approximately 30% of the PM10 fraction. PIXE results gave levels of S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe in the analyzed aerosol samples, showing that these elements correspond to 25% and 13% of the PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 total mass respectively. The rest of the mass was due to the elements with low Z (below 16) which cannot be detected by our X-ray setup. Comparison with SEM/EDX analysis showed that most of them were Si and Al (aluminosilicates). Our results indicate that most of the aerosols at the Auger Observatory would most likely come from the soil of the region. Due to its vast atmospheric monitoring network, the Auger Observatory is an interesting reference site for further atmospheric studies.

  19. Elemental analysis of aerosols collected at the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory with PIXE technique complemented with SEM/EDX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheletti, M.I., E-mail: micheletti@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (IFIR) - CONICET/UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis (2000), Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, UNR, Suipacha 531 (2000), Rosario (Argentina); CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas), Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Murruni, L.G. [Servicio Geologico Minero Argentino (SEGEMAR), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Debray, M.E. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martin, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosenbusch, M. [CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas), Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Graf, M. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (IFIR) - CONICET/UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis (2000), Rosario (Argentina); and others

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize surface aerosols at the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory located at Pampa Amarilla, near Malarguee city, in the Andes region of Argentina, with experimental sampling techniques used for the first time in a cosmic ray observatory, adding to information provided by the existing Auger aerosol monitors. A good knowledge of the optical attenuation due to aerosols is crucial for a good reconstruction of the signals from cosmic ray showers detected by the fluorescence detectors of the Observatory. Aerosols were collected in filters, during the Southern Hemisphere winter and spring in 2008. Concentrations in PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 filters were determined by gravimetric analysis and their elemental composition by the PIXE technique, complemented with SEM/EDX. Low aerosol concentrations were measured during the sampling period. The mean total mass PM10 (=PM2.5 + PM2.5-10 fractions) value was [mean(se)] 9.8(1.0) {mu}g/m{sup 3} [sd = 5.9 {mu}g/m{sup 3}]. The mean PM10 value during winter was 7(1.1) {mu}g/m{sup 3} [sd = 4.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}], about half of the 13.1(1.5) [sd = 5.7 {mu}g/m{sup 3}] measured during springtime. The PM2.5 fraction was approximately 30% of the PM10 fraction. PIXE results gave levels of S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe in the analyzed aerosol samples, showing that these elements correspond to 25% and 13% of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 total mass respectively. The rest of the mass was due to the elements with low Z (below 16) which cannot be detected by our X-ray setup. Comparison with SEM/EDX analysis showed that most of them were Si and Al (aluminosilicates). Our results indicate that most of the aerosols at the Auger Observatory would most likely come from the soil of the region. Due to its vast atmospheric monitoring network, the Auger Observatory is an interesting reference site for further atmospheric studies.

  20. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence of discarded tire samples, using a Si-PIN detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of zinc concentration in samples of discarded tires is of great environmental interest because the process for manufacturing tyres uses S for rubber vulcanization, and ZnO is the reaction catalyst. Discarded tyres are being used in asphalt paving, in the burning process of thermoelectric and cement industries and also for controlling erosion in agricultural areas. Analysis of tyre samples usually requires chemical digestion which is slow and expensive. Aiming to eliminate those limitations, this work uses energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with a portable equipment, once it is a simultaneous multi-element analytical technique, requiring minimal sample preparation. Five samples of discarded tyres have been ground and analysed in the form of pastilles, using a mini X-ray tube (Ag target, MO filter, 25 kV/20 μA) for 200 s, and a Si-PIN semiconductor detector coupled to a multichannel analyser. Zinc concentrations in the range of 40.6 to 44.2 μg g-1 have been obtained, representing 0.4% of the tire composition, which is below the maximum value (2%) recommended by the European Tyre Recycling Association. Concentrations between 0.15 and 0.52 μg g-1 were obtained for Fe

  1. Measurements of the muon shower content at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushkov A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for estimating the muonic part of the signal observed in the surface Cherenkov detectors have been developed within the Pierre Auger Collaboration in the recent years. The muon shower content, derived from data with these methods, is found to be significantly larger in comparison with predictions of QGSJET II interaction model.

  2. Analysis of a photon number resolving detector based on fluorescence readout of an ion Coulomb crystal quantum memory inside an optical cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christoph; Sangouard, N.; Drewsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    larger than 93%. Moderate experimental parameters allow for repetition rates of about 3 kHz, limited by the time needed for fluorescence collection and re-cooling of the ions between trials. Our analysis may lead to the first implementation of a photon number resolving detector in atomic ensembles.......-efficiency photon counting in large ensembles of atoms. The large number of atoms can, however, pose significant problems in terms of noise stemming from imperfect initial state preparation and off-resonant fluorescence. We identify and analyse a concrete implementation of a photon number resolving detector based...... on an ion Coulomb crystal inside a moderately high-finesse optical cavity. The cavity enhancement leads to an effective optical depth of 15 for a finesse of 3000 with only about 1500 ions interacting with the light field. We show that these values allow for essentially noiseless detection with an efficiency...

  3. World's largest air shower array now on track of super-high-energy cosmic-rays Pierre Auger Observatory seeks source of highest-energy extraterrestrial particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "With the completion of its hundredth surface detector, the Pierre Auger Observatory, under construction in Argentina, this week became the largest cosmic-ray air shower array in the world. Managed by scientists at the Department of Energy's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the Pierre Auger project so far encompasses a 70-square-mile array of detectors that are tracking the most violent-and perhaps most puzzling- processes in the entire universe" (1 page).

  4. Quantitative read-out of Al2O3:C,Mg-based fluorescent nuclear track detectors using a commercial confocal microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Greilich, Steffen; Niklas, Martin; Lauer, Florian; Bestvater, Felix; Jäkel, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTD) show great potential for applications in ion-beam therapy research, such as dosimetry, advanced beam characterization, in-vivo use or as radiobiological assay. A essential feature of FNTDs is their ability to assess the energy loss of single ions yielding for example LET estimations. This article describes the basic characterisations of FNTDs and our read-out system (a Zeiss LSM710 confocal laser scanning microscope) to enable quantative measurements of energy loss.

  5. Fluorescence-suppressed time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of pharmaceuticals using complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector

    OpenAIRE

    Rojalin, Tatu; Kurki, Lauri; Laaksonen, Timo; Viitala, Tapani; Kostamovaara, Juha; Gordon, Keith C.; Galvis, Leonardo; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Strachan, Clare J.; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we utilize a short-wavelength, 532-nm picosecond pulsed laser coupled with a time-gated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector to acquire Raman spectra of several drugs of interest. With this approach, we are able to reveal previously unseen Raman features and suppress the fluorescence background of these drugs. Compared to traditional Raman setups, the present time-resolved technique has two major improvements. First, it is ...

  6. Fluorescence-suppressed time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of pharmaceuticals using complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojalin, Tatu; Kurki, Lauri; Laaksonen, Timo; Viitala, Tapani; Kostamovaara, Juha; Gordon, Keith C; Galvis, Leonardo; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Strachan, Clare J; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we utilize a short-wavelength, 532-nm picosecond pulsed laser coupled with a time-gated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector to acquire Raman spectra of several drugs of interest. With this approach, we are able to reveal previously unseen Raman features and suppress the fluorescence background of these drugs. Compared to traditional Raman setups, the present time-resolved technique has two major improvements. First, it is possible to overcome the strong fluorescence background that usually interferes with the much weaker Raman spectra. Second, using the high photon energy excitation light source, we are able to generate a stronger Raman signal compared to traditional instruments. In addition, observations in the time domain can be performed, thus enabling new capabilities in the field of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. With this system, we demonstrate for the first time the possibility of recording fluorescence-suppressed Raman spectra of solid, amorphous and crystalline, and non-photoluminescent and photoluminescent drugs such as caffeine, ranitidine hydrochloride, and indomethacin (amorphous and crystalline forms). The raw data acquired by utilizing only the picosecond pulsed laser and a CMOS SPAD detector could be used for identifying the compounds directly without any data processing. Moreover, to validate the accuracy of this time-resolved technique, we present density functional theory (DFT) calculations for a widely used gastric acid inhibitor, ranitidine hydrochloride. The obtained time-resolved Raman peaks were identified based on the calculations and existing literature. Raman spectra using non-time-resolved setups with continuous-wave 785- and 532-nm excitation lasers were used as reference data. Overall, this demonstration of time-resolved Raman and fluorescence measurements with a CMOS SPAD detector shows promise in diverse areas, including fundamental chemical research, the

  7. Composition studies of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays using Data of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Mora, Karen Salomé

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this work is the estimation of the mass composition of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays recorded by the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The time traces of the surface detector stations are explored to obtain a new observable sensitive to the mass composition. The new observable is calibrated with the most mass-sensitive observable of the Observatory, the depth of the shower maximum to obtain a new estimation. Results on mass composition, from this, are reported.

  8. Search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos in highly inclined events at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Arganda, E.; Arqueros Martínez, Fernando; Blanco Ramos, Francisco; García Pinto, Diego; Ortiz Ramis, Montserrat; Rosado Vélez, Jaime; Vázquez Peñas, José Ramón

    2011-01-01

    The Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to neutrinos of all flavors above 0.1 EeV. These interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere giving rise to extensive air showers. When interacting deeply in the atmosphere at nearly horizontal incidence, neutrinos can be distinguished from regular hadronic cosmic rays by the broad time structure of their shower signals in the water-Cherenkov detectors. In this paper we present for the first time an analysis...

  9. WE-D-BRF-01: FEATURED PRESENTATION - Investigating Particle Track Structures Using Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors and Monte Carlo Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report on the efforts funded by the AAPM seed funding grant to develop the basis for fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD) based radiobiological experiments in combination with dedicated Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) on the nanometer scale. Methods: Two confocal microscopes were utilized in this study. Two FNTD samples were used to find the optimal microscope settings, one FNTD irradiated with 11.1 MeV/u Gold ions and one irradiated with 428.77 MeV/u Carbon ions. The first sample provided a brightly luminescent central track while the latter is used to test the capabilities to observe secondary electrons. MCS were performed using TOPAS beta9 version, layered on top of Geant4.9.6p02. Two sets of simulations were performed, one with the Geant4-DNA physics list and approximating the FNTDs by water, a second set using the Penelope physics list in a water-approximated FNTD and a aluminum-oxide FNTD. Results: Within the first half of the funding period, we have successfully established readout capabilities of FNTDs at our institute. Due to technical limitations, our microscope setup is significantly different from the approach implemented at the DKFZ, Germany. However, we can clearly reconstruct Carbon tracks in 3D with electron track resolution of 200 nm. A second microscope with superior readout capabilities will be tested in the second half of the funding period, we expect an improvement in signal to background ratio with the same the resolution.We have successfully simulated tracks in FNTDs. The more accurate Geant4-DNA track simulations can be used to reconstruct the track energy from the size and brightness of the observed tracks. Conclusion: We have achieved the goals set in the seed funding proposal: the setup of FNTD readout and simulation capabilities. We will work on improving the readout resolution to validate our MCS track structures down to the nanometer scales

  10. Energy Estimation of Cosmic Rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration; Aab, Alexander; Abreu, Pedro; Aglietta, Marco; Ahn, Eun-Joo; Samarai, Imen Al; Albuquerque, Ivone; Allekotte, Ingomar; Allison, Patrick; Almela, Alejandro; Castillo, Jesus Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Batista, Rafael Alves; Ambrosio, Michelangelo; Aminaei, Amin

    2015-01-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30 to 80 MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For ...

  11. The calibration of spectrometers for Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectrometers part II - the determination of the electron spectrometer transmission function and the detector sensitivity energy dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the use of published general or theoretical sensitivity factors in quantitative AES and XPS the energy dependence of both the spectrometer transmission function and the detector sensitivity must be known. Here we develop simple procedures which allow these dependencies to be determined experimentally. Detailed measurements for a modified VG Scientific ESCALAB II, the metrology spectrometer, operated in both the constant ΔE/E and constant ΔE modes, are presented and compared with theoretical estimates. It is shown that an exceptionally detailed electron-optical calculation, involving proprietary information, would be required to match the accuracy of the experimental procedures developed. Removal of the spectrometer transmission function and the detector sensitivity terms allows the measured spectrum to be converted to the true electron emission spectrum irrespective of the mode of operation. This provides the first step to the provision of reference samples to calibrate the transmission functions and detector sensitivities of all instruments so that they, in turn, may produce true electron emission spectra. This is vital if (i) all instruments are to give consistent results, (ii) theoretical terms are to be used in quantifying either AES or XPS and (iii) reference data banks are to be established for AES or XPS

  12. The Pierre Auger observatory's project of detecting photons and neutrinos at very high energies; L'observatoire Pierre Auger vers la detection de photons et neutrinos a ultra haute energies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertou, X

    2001-11-01

    Cosmic radiations of ultra high energy (RCUHE, beyond 10{sup 18} eV) are difficult to study because of their low flux on the earth surface: about 1 photon per year and per km{sup 2}. The observatory Pierre Auger proposes to study RCUHE by designing 2 sites of 3000 km{sup 2} (one in each hemisphere) allowing the observation of the shower initiated by cosmic radiation by using 4 fluorescence telescopes and a network of 1600 Cherenkov detectors. The identification of the primary particle is a very delicate point, the detection of neutrino or photon at these energies would bring valuable information for the understanding of potential sources of RCUHE. The first part of this work presents the project and its assets to perform its task. The second part is dedicated to the description of the Cherenkov detectors, of the trigger system, and of the centralized data acquisition system. The last part present the prototype installation that is under construction at Macargue in Argentina. (A.C.)

  13. Auger electron spectroscopy of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes how the surface compositions of some alloys can be determined by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The motivation for this research and the reasons for the choice of alloy systems studied are formulated. The theoretical background of AES is briefly discussed and the apparatus used and the experimental procedures applied are described. Four alloy systems have been investigated in this thesis - Ni-Cu and Pd - Ag (consisting of a component active in most cataytic reactions - Ni and Pd; and a component which is almost inactive for a number of reactions - Cu and Ag) and Pt - Pd and Pt-Ir (consisting of two active components). Knowledge of the surface composition of the various alloy systems is shown to be essential for the interpretation of catalytic results. (Auth./C.F.)

  14. Auger Recombination in Self-Assembled Quantum Dots: Quenching and Broadening of the Charged Exciton Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzmann, Annika; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Lorke, Axel; Geller, Martin

    2016-05-11

    In quantum dots (QDs), the Auger recombination is a nonradiative process in which the electron-hole recombination energy is transferred to an additional carrier. It has been studied mostly in colloidal QDs, where the Auger recombination time is in the picosecond range and efficiently quenches the light emission. In self-assembled QDs, on the other hand, the influence of Auger recombination on the optical properties is in general neglected, assuming that it is masked by other processes such as spin and charge fluctuations. Here, we use time-resolved resonance fluorescence to analyze the Auger recombination and its influence on the optical properties of a single self-assembled QD. From excitation-power-dependent measurements, we find a long Auger recombination time of about 500 ns and a quenching of the trion transition by about 80%. Furthermore, we observe a broadening of the trion transition line width by up to a factor of 2. With a model based on rate equations, we are able to identify the interplay between tunneling and Auger rate as the underlying mechanism for the reduced intensity and the broadening of the line width. This demonstrates that self-assembled QDs can serve as an ideal model system to study how the charge recapture process, given by the band-structure surrounding the confined carriers, influences the Auger process. Our findings are not only relevant for improving the emission properties of colloidal QD-based emitters and dyes, which have recently entered the consumer market, but also of interest for more visionary applications, such as quantum information technologies, based on self-assembled quantum dots. PMID:27087053

  15. Ultrahigh Energy Neutrinos at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Abreu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The observation of ultrahigh energy neutrinos (UHEνs has become a priority in experimental astroparticle physics. UHEνs can be detected with a variety of techniques. In particular, neutrinos can interact in the atmosphere (downward-going ν or in the Earth crust (Earth-skimming ν, producing air showers that can be observed with arrays of detectors at the ground. With the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory we can detect these types of cascades. The distinguishing signature for neutrino events is the presence of very inclined showers produced close to the ground (i.e., after having traversed a large amount of atmosphere. In this work we review the procedure and criteria established to search for UHEνs in the data collected with the ground array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This includes Earth-skimming as well as downward-going neutrinos. No neutrino candidates have been found, which allows us to place competitive limits to the diffuse flux of UHEνs in the EeV range and above.

  16. Digital electronics for the Pierre Auger Observatory AMIGA muon counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, O.; Almela, A.; Platino, M.; Sanchez, F.; Suarez, F.; Lucero, A.; Videla, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Melo, D.; Hampel, M. R.; Etchegoyen, A.

    2014-04-01

    The ``Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array'' (AMIGA) project provides direct muon counting capacity to the Pierre Auger Observatory and extends its energy detection range down to 0.3 EeV. It currently consists of 61 detector pairs (a Cherenkov surface detector and a buried muon counter) distributed over a 23.5 km2 area on a 750 m triangular grid. Each counter relies on segmented scintillator modules storing a logical train of `0's and `1's on each scintillator segment at a given time slot. Muon counter data is sampled and stored at 320 MHz allowing both the detection of single photoelectrons and the implementation of an offline trigger designed to mitigate multi-pixel PMT crosstalk and dark rate undesired effects. Acquisition is carried out by the digital electronics built around a low power Cyclone III FPGA. This paper presents the digital electronics design, internal and external synchronization schemes, hardware tests, and first results from the Observatory.

  17. Digital Electronics for the Pierre Auger Observatory AMIGA Muon Counters

    CERN Document Server

    Wainberg, O; Platino, M; Sanchez, F; Suarez, F; Lucero, A; Videla, M; Wundheiler, B; Melo, D; Hampel, M; Etchegoyen, A

    2013-01-01

    The "Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array" (AMIGA) project provides direct muon counting capacity to the Pierre Auger Observatory and extends its energy detection range down to 0.3 EeV. It currently consists of 61 detector pairs (a Cherenkov surface detector and a buried muon counter) distributed over a 23.5 km2 area on a 750 m triangular grid. Each counter relies on segmented scintillator modules storing a logical train of '0's and '1's on each scintillator segment at a given time slot. Muon counter data is sampled and stored at 320 MHz allowing both the detection of single photoelectrons and the implementation of an offline trigger designed to mitigate multi-pixel PMT crosstalk and dark rate undesired effects. Acquisition is carried out by the digital electronics built around a low power Cyclone III FPGA. This paper presents the digital electronics design, internal and external synchronization schemes, hardware tests, and first results from the Observatory.

  18. Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors for non-destructive analysis of works of art by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Cesareo, R; Castellano, A

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors, such as Si-PIN, Si-drift, Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x Te and HgI sub 2 , coupled to miniaturized low-power X-ray tubes, are well suited in portable systems for energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), analysis of archaeological samples. The Si-PIN detector is characterized by a thickness of about 300 mu m, an area of about 2x3 mm sup 2 , an energy resolution of about 200-250 eV at 5.9 keV and an entrance window of 25-75 mu m. The Si-drift detector has approximately the same area and thickness, but an energy resolution of 155 eV at 5.9 keV. The efficiency of these detectors is around 100% from 4 to 10 keV, and then decreases versus energy, reaching approx 9% at 30 keV. Coupled to a miniaturized 10 kV, 0.1 mA, Ca-anode or to a miniaturized 30 kV, 0.1 mA, W-anode X-ray tubes, portable systems can be constructed, which are able to analyse K-lines of elements up to about silver, and L-lines of heavy elements. The Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x Te detector ha...

  19. Measurements and polarization analysis of radio pulses from cosmic-ray-induced air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is designed to study the radio emissions from extensive air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The array currently consists of a grid of 23 autonomous radio detector stations that measure the radio emissions from cosmic-ray-induced air showers since April 2011. The array is still under construction and is planned to be extended to 160 stations. The new detection technique provides an augmentation of the existing detectors, improves the sensitivity of the observatory and sheds new light on the shower physics. An analysis of the emission processes based on the polarization of the radio pulses is presented.

  20. MARTA - Muon Auger RPC for the Tank Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shellard, R.C.; Maurizio, D. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pimenta, M. [LIP, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The Pierre Auger Observatory was built with the goal of making a major contribution to the understanding of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR), their origin and nature. It is sensitive to energies above roughly 10{sup 18} eV and it is fully efficient above 3 X 10{sup 18} eV. It has collected data with an exposure of over 31000 km{sup 2} .sr.year, since 2008. However, it has a poor discrimination capability to separate the electromagnetic and the muonic component of an air shower. A good separation capability is an important tool to improve the identification of the primary composition of cosmic rays. MARTA is a proposed detector to address this issue. It based on a well known technology of RPC's (Resistive Plate Chambers). We will present the physics requirements of Auger, for a muon detector, that leads to a better understanding of the structure of air showers and describe how MARTA comply with them. This will allow to: Measure the energy evolution of the distribution of the number of muons in the showers; Disentangle mass composition changes from a change in hadronic interactions at high energies; Improve the energy measurement by subtracting the muon component from the tank signal; Increase the primary photon discrimination power; Improve the estimation of the missing energy in air showers. We describe the detector, its capabilities, and the prototypes with are already installed in the Observatory. We discuss the problems which may arise in running these type of detectors under the harsh conditions of the pampas and the solutions that are proposed to face them. (author)

  1. MARTA - Muon Auger RPC for the Tank Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Pierre Auger Observatory was built with the goal of making a major contribution to the understanding of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR), their origin and nature. It is sensitive to energies above roughly 1018 eV and it is fully efficient above 3 X 1018 eV. It has collected data with an exposure of over 31000 km2 .sr.year, since 2008. However, it has a poor discrimination capability to separate the electromagnetic and the muonic component of an air shower. A good separation capability is an important tool to improve the identification of the primary composition of cosmic rays. MARTA is a proposed detector to address this issue. It based on a well known technology of RPC's (Resistive Plate Chambers). We will present the physics requirements of Auger, for a muon detector, that leads to a better understanding of the structure of air showers and describe how MARTA comply with them. This will allow to: Measure the energy evolution of the distribution of the number of muons in the showers; Disentangle mass composition changes from a change in hadronic interactions at high energies; Improve the energy measurement by subtracting the muon component from the tank signal; Increase the primary photon discrimination power; Improve the estimation of the missing energy in air showers. We describe the detector, its capabilities, and the prototypes with are already installed in the Observatory. We discuss the problems which may arise in running these type of detectors under the harsh conditions of the pampas and the solutions that are proposed to face them. (author)

  2. Graphite oxide Auger-electron diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikoushkin, V.M., E-mail: V.Mikoushkin@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Institute, 194021 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kriukov, A.S.; Shnitov, V.V.; Solonitsyna, A.P.; Fedorov, V.Yu.; Dideykin, A.T.; Sakseev, D.A. [Ioffe Institute, 194021 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Vilkov, O.Yu. [St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lavchiev, V.M. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsensors, Johannes Kepler University, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Very large graphite oxide (GO) flakes (∼100 μm) were studied by AES and XPS. • Auger energies for the GO main functional groups were obtained for the first time. • AES technique for determining the GO chemical/elemental composition was developed. • The developed technique gives concentration of chemically bound hydrogen. • The developed technique provides information on the GO surface and bulk. - Abstract: Graphite oxide (GO) nanofilms on the SiO{sub 2}/Si surface have been studied by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with synchrotron radiation and by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Auger electron energies were determined for the basic functional GO groups: hydroxyl (C−OH) and epoxide (C−O−C). The data obtained enabled developing a technique for the GO chemical and elemental composition determination. The technique allows controlling the hydrogen content in GO despite the impossibility of Auger emission from hydrogen.

  3. Effective applications of auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study is to explore different aspects of the AES process and to present the new techniques which can be used effectively for analytical purposes. More emphasis is given to AES data acquisition, sensitivity factor and Auger intensity. The experimental details of a typical scanning Auger microprobe (SAM) is also presented. Applications of AES to selected systems such as microelectronic devices, superconductors, an in metallurgy are described

  4. Auger Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Nadia; Cornelissen, Bart; Vallis, Katherine A.

    Radionuclides that emit Auger electrons have been of particular interest as therapeutic agents. This is primarily due to the short range in tissue, controlled linear paths and high linear energy transfer of these particles. Taking into consideration that ionizations are clustered within several cubic nanometers around the point of decay the possibility of incorporating an Auger emitter in close proximity to the cancer cell DNA has immense therapeutic potential thus making nuclear targeted Auger-electron emitters ideal for precise targeting of cancer cells. Furthermore, many Auger-electron emitters also emit γ-radiation, this property makes Auger emitting radionuclides a very attractive option as therapeutic and diagnostic agents in the molecular imaging and management of tumors. The first requirement for the delivery of Auger emitting nuclides is the definition of suitable tumor-selective delivery vehicles to avoid normal tissue toxicity. One of the main challenges of targeted radionuclide therapy remains in matching the physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide and targeting moiety with the clinical character of the tumor. Molecules and molecular targets that have been used in the past can be classified according to the carrier molecule used to deliver the Auger-electron-emitting radionuclide. These include (1) antibodies, (2) peptides, (3) small molecules, (4) oligonucleotides and peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), (5) proteins, and (6) nanoparticles. The efficacy of targeted radionuclide therapy depends greatly on the ability to increase intranuclear incorporation of the radiopharmaceutical without compromising toxicity. Several strategies to achieve this goal have been proposed in literature. The possibility of transferring tumor therapy based on the emission of Auger electrons from experimental models to patients has vast therapeutic potential, and remains a field of intense research.

  5. Secondary Auger electrons and prostate cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Auger emitters emit electrons of relatively low energy, from ∼ 25 KeV to ∼ 500 eV, and therefore are of relatively low range. Thus, an important medical application for Auger emitters emerges as an effective means of controlling cancer due to the restrictive irradiation volume surrounding the emitter and therefore the possibility of a selective attack on cancer cells. There are two ways to perform an experiment with an Auger emitter. The first is to use a radionuclide that emits Auger electrons (Barchytherapy). The second is to stimulate a stable, potential Auger emitter inside the malignant cell using external irradiation. To achieve a therapeutic benefit, one must synthesize tumor selective chemicals. These compounds (porphyrins, phthalocaynines) should have two properties: i) Physically, it must have a metal ion with a large atomic number that will produce a large number of Auger electrons, ii) Chemically, it should be water-soluble and able to penetrate the cell membrane and attach itself to the cell target (e.g. DNA). The chemical properties sem contradictory, however, since these compounds are big molecules and have many side chains, one can build a porphyrin molecule that has on one side a hydrophilic component and on the other side a hydrophobic component. The physical and chemical aspects are discussed and some biological results will be presented

  6. Registration procedure for spatial correlation of physical energy deposition of particle irradiation and cellular response utilizing cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, M.; Zimmermann, F.; Schlegel, J.; Schwager, C.; Debus, J.; Jäkel, O.; Abdollahi, A.; Greilich, S.

    2016-09-01

    The hybrid technology cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-Fit-HD) enables the investigation of radiation-related cellular events along single ion tracks on the subcellular scale in clinical ion beams. The Cell-Fit-HD comprises a fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD, the physical compartment), a device for individual particle detection and a substrate for viable cell-coating, i.e. the biological compartment. To date both compartments have been imaged sequentially in situ by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). This is yet in conflict with a functional read-out of the Cell-Fit-HD utilizing a fast live-cell imaging of the biological compartment with low phototoxicity on greater time scales. The read-out of the biological from the physical compartment was uncoupled. A read-out procedure was developed to image the cell layer by conventional widefield microscopy whereas the FNTD was imaged by CLSM. Point mapping registration of the confocal and widefield imaging data was performed. Non-fluorescent crystal defects (spinels) visible in both read-outs were used as control point pairs. The accuracy achieved was on the sub-µm scale. The read-out procedure by widefield microscopy does not impair the unique ability of spatial correlation by the Cell-Fit-HD. The uncoupling will enlarge the application potential of the hybrid technology significantly. The registration allows for an ultimate correlation of microscopic physical beam parameters and cell kinetics on greater time scales. The method reported herein will be instrumental for the introduction of a novel generation of compact detectors facilitating biodosimetric research towards high-throughput analysis.

  7. Radio detection of extensive air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger Observatory explores the potential of radio-detection techniques to measure extensive air showers (EAS) induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. To study in detail the mechanisms responsible for radio emission in the MHz range, the Auger Engineering Radio Array has been installed at the Observatory. Presently consisting of 24 radio-detection stations, this number will grow to 150 units covering an area of almost 20 km2. Novel detection techniques based on the GHz emission from the EAS are currently being studied. AMBER (Air-shower Microwave Bremsstrahlung Experimental Radiometer) and MIDAS (Microwave Detection of Air Showers) are prototypes for a large imaging dish antenna. In EASIER (Extensive Air Shower Identification using Electron Radiometer), the microwave emission is detected by antenna horns located on each surface detector. MIDAS is a self-triggering system while AMBER and EASIER use the trigger from the Auger detectors to record the emission. The status of these radio-detection R and D efforts at the Pierre Auger Observatory will be reported

  8. 锶原子互组跃迁荧光探测系统的研制%Bias Detector Used for Fluorescence Spectrum of Strontium Intercombination Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛东亮; 王叶兵; 许朋; 常宏

    2012-01-01

    The rate of spontaneous emission of strontium intercombination transition between singlet state and triplet state (5sz )'So-(5s5p)JP, is less than the rate of electric dipole transition. Compared with the dipole transition! The fluorescent signal of intercombination transition is very weak. A bias detector is reported which is used to detect the fluorescent signal of this intercombination transition. An ultralow input bias current operational amplifier is applied in this detector to pre-amplify the weak signal, which makes the signal have high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and high gain. The detector's bias can be adjusted. Its gain is on the order of 10s V/W and — 3 dB bandwidth is about 1 MHz. According to our experiment, the weak sympathetic fluorescent signal of (5sz)'So-(5s5p)3Pi intercombination transition is detected by the detector. Consequently, we obtain the fluorescent signal with high SNR and zero bias. Also we detect the high-SNR error signal of the fluorescent signal. Besides, saturated fluorescence spectrum and its error signal are also acquired by the detector. These signals can satisfy the requirement of 689 nm laser frequency stabilization and then be used for strontium optical clock.%锶原子单态和三重态间的互组跃迁(5s2)1 S0-(5s5p)3 P1辐射率远小于一般的电偶极跃迁,共振跃迁荧光信号微弱.介绍了一种应用于探测该互组跃迁荧光谱的直流偏置探测器.该探测器选用极低输入偏置电流运算放大器作为前置放大,具有信噪比高、增益高、偏置可调等优点.此探测器探测增益为106 V/W量级,-3 dB带宽为1 MHz.实验中利用该探测器对锶原子互组跃迁(5s2)1 S0-(5s5p)3P:微弱共振荧光进行探测,获得信噪比很好的共振荧光谱,且无直流偏置,并由此获得高信噪比的鉴频曲线.应用该探测器观测到了饱和荧光谱线以及对应的鉴频曲线,可用于689 nm激光锁频,应用于锶光钟系统.

  9. The Central Raman Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    medina, C.; Mayotte, E.; Wiencke, L. R.; Rizi, V.; Grillo, A.

    2013-12-01

    We describe the newly upgraded Central Raman Laser Facility (CRLF) located close to the center of the Piere Auger observatory (PAO) in Argentina. The CRLF features a Raman Lidar receiver, a 335 nm wavelength solid state laser, a robotic beam energy calibration system, and a weather station, all powered by solar energy and operated autonomously using a single board computer. The system optics are arranged to direct the laser beam into the atmosphere in steered and vertical modes with adjustable polarization settings,and it is measured in a bi-static configuration by the 4 fluorescence stations of the Pierre Auger observatory. Additionally the system optics can be easily switched to provide a fixed vertical beam that is measured by a Raman Lidar receiver in mono-static configuration,allowing an independent measurement of the aerosol optical depth τ(z,t) and other properties of the atmosphere. A description of the CLRF's installation, hardware and software integration, initial operations and examples of data collected, will also be presented.

  10. The offline software framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argiro, S.; Barroso, S.L.C.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Gonzalez, Javier G.; Nellen, L.; Paul, T.; Porter, T.; Prado, L., Jr.; Roth, M.; Ulrich, R.; Veberic, D.

    2005-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to unveil the nature and origin of the highest energy cosmic rays through the analysis of extensive air showers. The large and geographically dispersed collaboration of physicists and the wide-ranging collection of simulation and reconstruction tasks pose some special challenges for the offline analysis software. They have designed and implemented a general purpose framework which allows Auger collaborators to contribute algorithms and configuration instructions to build up the variety of applications they require. The framework includes machinery to manage these user codes, to organize the abundance of user-contributed configuration files, to facilitate multi-format file handling, and to provide access to event and time-dependent detector information residing in many data sources. A number of utilities are also provided, including a novel geometry package allowing manipulation of abstract geometrical objects independent of coordinate system choice. The framework is implemented in C++ and takes advantage of object oriented design and common open source tools, while keeping the user-side simple enough for C++ novices to learn in a reasonable time. The distribution system incorporates unit and acceptance testing in order to support rapid development of both the core framework and the contributed user codes.

  11. Development of real time detector for fluorescent particles applied to pollutant transfers characterization; Etude d`un dispositif de comptage en continu d`un aerosol fluorescent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevost, C. [CEA Saclay, Departement de Prevention et d`Etude des Accidents, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-06-01

    The studies on aerosol transfer carried out in the field of staff protection and nuclear plants safety become more and more important. So techniques of pollutants simulation by specific tracers with the same aeraulic behaviour are an interesting tool in order to characterize their transfers. Resorting to aerosols tagged by a fluorescent dye allows to realize different studies in ventilation and filtration field. The feasibility of detection in real time for a particulate tracer is the main aim of this work. The need of such a technique is obvious because it can provide the specific aerosol behaviour. Furthermore, direct measurements in real time are required for model validation in calculation codes: they give the most realistic informations on interaction between contaminant and ventilation air flows. Up to now, the principle of fluorescent aerosol concentration measurement allows only an integral response in a delayed time, by means of sampling on filters and a fluorimetric analysis after a specific conditioning of these filters. In order to have the opportunity to detect in real time specific tracer, we have developed a new monitor able to count these particles on the following basis: fluorescent particles pass through a sampling nozzle up to a measurement chamber specially designed; sheath flow rate is defined to confine the test aerosol in the test aerosol in the sample flow rate at nozzle outlet; the interception of this stream by a highly focused laser beam allows aerosol detection and characterization particle by particle; the signature of a passing aerosol is the burst of photons that occurs when the fluoro-phore contained in the glycerol particle is excited by a light of adapted wavelength; these signals are transmitted to a photodetector by a patented optical arrangement. Then, an acquisition interfaced board connected to a computer, converts them into frequencies histograms. In the end, two kind of results could be provided simultaneously : the

  12. Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. II. Composition implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 12 (2014), "122006-1"-"122006-12". ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * air-shower * fluorescence telescopes Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  13. Measurement of the Muon Production Depths at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The muon content of extensive air showers is an observable sensitive to the primary composition and to the hadronic interaction properties. The Pierre Auger Observatory uses water-Cherenkov detectors to measure particle densities at the ground and therefore is sensitive to the muon content of air showers. We present here a method which allows us to estimate the muon production depths by exploiting the measurement of the muon arrival times at the ground recorded with the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The analysis is performed in a large range of zenith angles, thanks to the capability of estimating and subtracting the electromagnetic component, and for energies between $10^{19.2}$ and $10^{20}$ eV.

  14. Improving the Sensitivity and Functionality of Mobile Webcam-Based Fluorescence Detectors for Point-of-Care Diagnostics in Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Balsam, Joshua; Prickril, Ben; Ossandon, Miguel; Rasooly, Avraham

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor countries and regions require effective, low-cost diagnostic devices for accurate identification and diagnosis of health conditions. Optical detection technologies used for many types of biological and clinical analysis can play a significant role in addressing this need, but must be sufficiently affordable and portable for use in global health settings. Most current clinical optical imaging technologies are accurate and sensitive, but also expensive and difficult to adapt for use in these settings. These challenges can be mitigated by taking advantage of affordable consumer electronics mobile devices such as webcams, mobile phones, charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, lasers, and LEDs. Low-cost, portable multi-wavelength fluorescence plate readers have been developed for many applications including detection of microbial toxins such as C. Botulinum A neurotoxin, Shiga toxin, and S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB), and flow cytometry has been used to detect very low cell concentrations. However, the relatively low sensitivities of these devices limit their clinical utility. We have developed several approaches to improve their sensitivity presented here for webcam based fluorescence detectors, including (1) image stacking to improve signal-to-noise ratios; (2) lasers to enable fluorescence excitation for flow cytometry; and (3) streak imaging to capture the trajectory of a single cell, enabling imaging sensors with high noise levels to detect rare cell events. These approaches can also help to overcome some of the limitations of other low-cost optical detection technologies such as CCD or phone-based detectors (like high noise levels or low sensitivities), and provide for their use in low-cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings. PMID:27196933

  15. Improving the Sensitivity and Functionality of Mobile Webcam-Based Fluorescence Detectors for Point-of-Care Diagnostics in Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Rasooly

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource-poor countries and regions require effective, low-cost diagnostic devices for accurate identification and diagnosis of health conditions. Optical detection technologies used for many types of biological and clinical analysis can play a significant role in addressing this need, but must be sufficiently affordable and portable for use in global health settings. Most current clinical optical imaging technologies are accurate and sensitive, but also expensive and difficult to adapt for use in these settings. These challenges can be mitigated by taking advantage of affordable consumer electronics mobile devices such as webcams, mobile phones, charge-coupled device (CCD cameras, lasers, and LEDs. Low-cost, portable multi-wavelength fluorescence plate readers have been developed for many applications including detection of microbial toxins such as C. Botulinum A neurotoxin, Shiga toxin, and S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB, and flow cytometry has been used to detect very low cell concentrations. However, the relatively low sensitivities of these devices limit their clinical utility. We have developed several approaches to improve their sensitivity presented here for webcam based fluorescence detectors, including (1 image stacking to improve signal-to-noise ratios; (2 lasers to enable fluorescence excitation for flow cytometry; and (3 streak imaging to capture the trajectory of a single cell, enabling imaging sensors with high noise levels to detect rare cell events. These approaches can also help to overcome some of the limitations of other low-cost optical detection technologies such as CCD or phone-based detectors (like high noise levels or low sensitivities, and provide for their use in low-cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings.

  16. The Rapid Atmospheric Monitoring System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antičić, T; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bäuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buroker, L; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Diaz, J Chirinos; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; del Peral, L; del Río, M; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fratu, O; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garilli, G; Bravo, A Gascon; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Jiraskova, S; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, J; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nhung, P T; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Porcelli, A; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Cabo, I Rodriguez; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Lopez, H H Silva; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; Berg, A M van den; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Garcia, B Zamorano; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhou, J; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M

    2012-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a facility built to detect air showers produced by cosmic rays above 10^17 eV. During clear nights with a low illuminated moon fraction, the UV fluorescence light produced by air showers is recorded by optical telescopes at the Observatory. To correct the observations for variations in atmospheric conditions, atmospheric monitoring is performed at regular intervals ranging from several minutes (for cloud identification) to several hours (for aerosol conditions) to several days (for vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, and humidity). In 2009, the monitoring program was upgraded to allow for additional targeted measurements of atmospheric conditions shortly after the detection of air showers of special interest, e.g., showers produced by very high-energy cosmic rays or showers with atypical longitudinal profiles. The former events are of particular importance for the determination of the energy scale of the Observatory, and the latter are characteristic of unusual air show...

  17. Exploring cosmic rays at the highest-energy frontier with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrigkeit Carola

    2015-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory studies the most energetic cosmic rays arriving at Earth, those with energies from 1017 eV up to 1020 eV and beyond. In continuous operation since 2004, the Observatory employs two complementary detection techniques for measuring air showers induced by those extremely energetic particles. For the past few years new detectors and techniques are being added in order to augment the sensitivity of the measurements. Data accumulated in ten years have led to major advan...

  18. Improved limit to the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 9 (2015), "092008-1"-"092008-14". ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cosmic rays * Pierre Auger * ultrahigh energy * surface detector Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  19. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: mean number in highly inclined events

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2015), , "032003-1"-"032003-12". ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * air showers * ultrahigh energies * cosmic rays * detector Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  20. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: measurement of atmospheric production depth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2014), "012012-1"-"012012-15". ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * detector * cosmic rays * muon s * air showers Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  1. Performance of a gaseous detector based energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging system: Analysis of human teeth treated with dental amalgam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) imaging systems are of great interest in many applications of different areas, once they allow us to get images of the spatial elemental distribution in the samples. The detector system used in this study is based on a micro patterned gas detector, named Micro-Hole and Strip Plate. The full field of view system, with an active area of 28 × 28 mm2 presents some important features for EDXRF imaging applications, such as a position resolution below 125 μm, an intrinsic energy resolution of about 14% full width at half maximum for 5.9 keV X-rays, and a counting rate capability of 0.5 MHz. In this work, analysis of human teeth treated by dental amalgam was performed by using the EDXRF imaging system mentioned above. The goal of the analysis is to evaluate the system capabilities in the biomedical field by measuring the drift of the major constituents of a dental amalgam, Zn and Hg, throughout the tooth structures. The elemental distribution pattern of these elements obtained during the analysis suggests diffusion of these elements from the amalgam to teeth tissues. - Highlights: • Demonstration of an EDXRF imaging system based on a 2D-MHSP detector for biological analysis • Evaluation of the drift of the dental amalgam constituents, throughout the teeth • Observation of Hg diffusion, due to hydroxyapatite crystal defects that compose the teeth tissues

  2. Performance of a gaseous detector based energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging system: Analysis of human teeth treated with dental amalgam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.L.M. [I3N, Physics Dept, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Figueroa, R.; Jaramillo, A. [Physics Department, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile); Carvalho, M.L. [Atomic Physics Centre, University of Lisbon, 1649-03 Lisboa (Portugal); Veloso, J.F.C.A., E-mail: joao.veloso@ua.pt [I3N, Physics Dept, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2013-08-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) imaging systems are of great interest in many applications of different areas, once they allow us to get images of the spatial elemental distribution in the samples. The detector system used in this study is based on a micro patterned gas detector, named Micro-Hole and Strip Plate. The full field of view system, with an active area of 28 × 28 mm{sup 2} presents some important features for EDXRF imaging applications, such as a position resolution below 125 μm, an intrinsic energy resolution of about 14% full width at half maximum for 5.9 keV X-rays, and a counting rate capability of 0.5 MHz. In this work, analysis of human teeth treated by dental amalgam was performed by using the EDXRF imaging system mentioned above. The goal of the analysis is to evaluate the system capabilities in the biomedical field by measuring the drift of the major constituents of a dental amalgam, Zn and Hg, throughout the tooth structures. The elemental distribution pattern of these elements obtained during the analysis suggests diffusion of these elements from the amalgam to teeth tissues. - Highlights: • Demonstration of an EDXRF imaging system based on a 2D-MHSP detector for biological analysis • Evaluation of the drift of the dental amalgam constituents, throughout the teeth • Observation of Hg diffusion, due to hydroxyapatite crystal defects that compose the teeth tissues.

  3. Observation of the Auger resonant Raman effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monochromatized synchrotron radiation near the photoionization threshold was used to produce the [2p/sub 3/2/] vacancy state in atomic Xe. Deexcitation of the state through L3-M4M5(1G4) Auger-electron emission was measured. The 5d spectator-electron Auger satellite was observed. The satellite energy exhibits linear dispersion. The observed width of the 1G diagram line decreases by approx. 40% when the exciting photon energy reaches the vicinity of the Xe L3 binding energy. This radiationless process can thus be construed as the Auger analog of the x-ray resonant Raman effect. The 1G diagram line is shifted by -+3 eV due to post-collision interaction; this shift varies with excitation energy

  4. High-energy interactions at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) with the atoms of the atmosphere can occur at center-of-mass energies that surpass 100 TeV, while present human-made accelerators go up to 13 TeV. Therefore it provides a unique opportunity to explore hadronic interactions at the highest energies. However, the extraction of hadronic interaction properties from the Extensive Air Showers (EAS) characteristics, which are induced by the UHECR, is intrinsically related to the nature of the primary cosmic ray. As such, to break the degeneracy between hadronic interactions and primary mass composition, a consistent description of the shower observables must be achieved. Such detailed studies have been conducted in the last years at the Pierre Auger Observatory, the largest UHECRs detector in the world. It combines two complementary techniques to measure the EAS characteristics. In this talk, we will present the latest measurements on shower observables, both on the electromagnetic and muonic shower components...

  5. Auger electron transport calculations in biological matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The talk briefly discussed physical, biophysical, and biological aspects of Auger emitters. A summary of radiationless transition data available in published literature and databases were presented. Data were presented for electron capture (EC), internal conversions (IC), binding energies of some commonly used radionuclides 123I, 124I, 125I, and 158Gd. For each of these Auger emitting radionuclides some examples of Monte Carlo calculated electron spectra of individual decays were presented. Because most Auger electrons emitted in the decay of radionuclides are short range low energy electrons below 1 keV, a brief discussion was presented on most recent development of physics models for energy loss of electrons in condensed phase and compared with other models and gas phase data. Accuracy of electron spectra calculated in the decay of electron shower by Auger emitting radionuclides depends on availability of accurate physics data. Currently, there are many gaps in physics data as input data to computer codes in need of new evaluation. In addition, comparison should be made between deterministic and Monte Carlo methods to access the accuracy and sensitivity of data to methods and the chosen parameters. It has long been recognized that Auger electron show a high-LET like characteristics when radionuclide is very closely bound to DNA. As most Auger electrons are short range low energy electrons and mostly absorbed with the DNA duplex when in close vicinity to DNA duplex, we believe the physical and biological dosimetry are best achieved by using Monte Carlo track structure simulations able to simulate tracks of low energy electrons below 1keV and in particular sub 100 eV in condensed phas

  6. 30 CFR 77.1500 - Auger mining; planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining; planning. 77.1500 Section 77.1500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... § 77.1500 Auger mining; planning. Auger mining shall be planned and conducted by the operator to...

  7. A likelihood method to cross-calibrate air-shower detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Hans Peter; Kégl, Balázs; Mariş, Ioana C.; Roth, Markus; Veberič, Darko

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed statistical treatment of the energy calibration of hybrid air-shower detectors, which combine a surface detector array and a fluorescence detector, to obtain an unbiased estimate of the calibration curve. The special features of calibration data from air showers prevent unbiased results, if a standard least-squares fit is applied to the problem. We develop a general maximum-likelihood approach, based on the detailed statistical model, to solve the problem. Our approach was developed for the Pierre Auger Observatory, but the applied principles are general and can be transferred to other air-shower experiments, even to the cross-calibration of other observables. Since our general likelihood function is expensive to compute, we derive two approximations with significantly smaller computational cost. In the recent years both have been used to calibrate data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We demonstrate that these approximations introduce negligible bias when they are applied to simulated toy experiments, which mimic realistic experimental conditions.

  8. Performance of the Pierre Auger Observatory Surface Array

    CERN Document Server

    Bertou, X

    2005-01-01

    The surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is a 1600 water Cherenkov tank array on a triangular 1.5 km grid. The signals from each tank are read out using three 9'' photomultipliers and processed at a sampling frequency of 40 MHz, from which a local digital trigger efficiently selects shower candidates. GPS signals are used for time synchronization and a wireless communication system connects all tanks to the central data acquisition system. Power is provided by a stand-alone solar panel system. With large ambient temperature variations, that can reach over 20 degrees in 24 hours, high salinity, dusty air, high humidity inside the tank, and remoteness of access, the performance and reliability of the array is a challenge. Several key parameters are constantly monitored to ensure consistent operation. The Surface Array has currently over 750 detectors and has been in reliable operation since January 2004. Good uniformity in the response of different detectors and good long term stability is observed.

  9. Detection of intra-brain cytoplasmic 1 (BC1) long noncoding RNA using graphene oxide-fluorescence beacon detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mee Young; Hwang, Do Won; Li, Fangyuan; Choi, Yoori; Byun, Jung Woo; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Jee-Eun; Char, Kookheon; Lee, Dong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Detection of cellular expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) was elusive due to the ambiguity of exposure of their reactive sequences associated with their secondary/tertiary structures and dynamic binding of proteins around lncRNAs. Herein, we developed graphene-based detection techniques exploiting the quenching capability of graphene oxide (GO) flakes for fluorescent dye (FAM)-labeled single-stranded siRNAs and consequent un-quenching by their detachment from GO by matching lncRNAs. A brain cytoplasmic 1 (BC1) lncRNA expression was significantly decreased by a siRNA, siBC1-1. GO quenched the FAM-labeled siBC1-1 peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe, and this quenching was recovered by BC1. While FAM-siBC1-1-PNA-GO complex transfected spontaneously mouse or human neural stem cells, fluorescence was recovered only in mouse cells having high BC1 expression. Fluorescent dye-labeled single-stranded RNA-GO probe could detect the reactive exposed nucleic acid sequence of a cytoplasmic lncRNA expressing in the cytoplasm, which strategy can be used as a detection method of lncRNA expression. PMID:26997297

  10. HPLC法串联FLD-VWD检测器测定食品中糖精钠的方法研究%Detection of Saccharin Sodium in Foods by High-performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence and Ultraviolet Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锐萍; 李志芬; 马艳荣

    2011-01-01

    Researching the method to detect the saccharin sodium content in foods by the series connection of HPLC fluorescence and ultraviolet detector. By comparison with the common method, adding one fluorescence detector, the two detectors can authenticate each other, avoiding the false-positive qualitative or quantitative high. Experimentation manifested that the detecting limit of fluorescence detector is four times lower than ultraviolet detector. In series connection, the recovery rate of fluorescence detector is 99.71%, the recovery rate of ultraviolet detector is 99.62%.%利用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)将荧光检测器与紫外检测器串联检测食品中的糖精钠含量.该方法与常规的高效液相色谱法比较,增加了荧光检测器.两个检测器相互验证,能够避免单纯用紫外检测器由于食品中成分复杂常出现定性假阳性或定量偏高的情况.试验表明,相同条件下,荧光检测器的检出限比紫外检测器的检出限低4倍.串联后荧光检测器的回收率为99.71%,紫外检测器的回收率为99.62%.

  11. The use of laser-induced fluorescence or ultraviolet detectors for sensitive and selective analysis of tobramycin or erythropoietin in complex samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hytham M.; Ebeid, Wael B.

    2015-05-01

    Complex samples analysis is a challenge in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical analysis. In this work, tobramycin (TOB) analysis in human urine samples and recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) analysis in the presence of similar protein were selected as representative examples of such samples analysis. Assays of TOB in urine samples are difficult because of poor detectability. Therefore laser induced fluorescence detector (LIF) was combined with a separation technique, micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), to determine TOB through derivatization with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). Borate was used as background electrolyte (BGE) with negative-charged mixed micelles as additive. The method was successively applied to urine samples. The LOD and LOQ for Tobramycin in urine were 90 and 200 ng/ml respectively and recovery was >98% (n = 5). All urine samples were analyzed by direct injection without sample pre-treatment. Another use of hyphenated analytical technique, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) connected to ultraviolet (UV) detector was also used for sensitive analysis of rhEPO at low levels (2000 IU) in the presence of large amount of human serum albumin (HSA). Analysis of rhEPO was achieved by the use of the electrokinetic injection (EI) with discontinuous buffers. Phosphate buffer was used as BGE with metal ions as additive. The proposed method can be used for the estimation of large number of quality control rhEPO samples in a short period.

  12. Performance of a gaseous detector based energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging system: Analysis of human teeth treated with dental amalgam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. L. M.; Figueroa, R.; Jaramillo, A.; Carvalho, M. L.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.

    2013-08-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) imaging systems are of great interest in many applications of different areas, once they allow us to get images of the spatial elemental distribution in the samples. The detector system used in this study is based on a micro patterned gas detector, named Micro-Hole and Strip Plate. The full field of view system, with an active area of 28 × 28 mm2 presents some important features for EDXRF imaging applications, such as a position resolution below 125 μm, an intrinsic energy resolution of about 14% full width at half maximum for 5.9 keV X-rays, and a counting rate capability of 0.5 MHz. In this work, analysis of human teeth treated by dental amalgam was performed by using the EDXRF imaging system mentioned above. The goal of the analysis is to evaluate the system capabilities in the biomedical field by measuring the drift of the major constituents of a dental amalgam, Zn and Hg, throughout the tooth structures. The elemental distribution pattern of these elements obtained during the analysis suggests diffusion of these elements from the amalgam to teeth tissues.

  13. Development of a rapid and sensitive method for the determination of aluminum by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a fluorescence detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heena; Kumar, Rajesh; Rani, Susheela; Malik, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This study represents a new analytical high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector method for the determination of Al(III) as Al(III) complex with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid in a tap water sample and a coke sample. A micellar liquid chromatographic method is proposed for the determination of aluminum metal in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, a cationic surfactant (0.05 M) used for the solubilization of the aluminum complex. The influence of pH and ligand concentration on the formation of the complex was studied by adding a small amount of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide. The metal chelate was detected at λEx 410 nm and λEm 510 nm. This method eliminates the need for addition of reagent or organic modifier to the mobile phase. The complex was analyzed using an Ascentis Express C18 column and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile, methanol and water (55 : 30 : 15). Under the optimized conditions, the linear range was 1-200 µg L(-1) and the limit of detection was 0.05 µg L(-1). The method showed a good detector response over the range of interest and was successfully applied for the determination of trace Al(III) in canned coke and water samples containing excess of Mg(II), Ca(II) and other matrices. PMID:25323526

  14. Investigatoin and imaging characteristics of a CMOS sensor based digital detector coupled to a red emitting fluorescent screen

    OpenAIRE

    Σεφέρης, Ιωάννης

    2013-01-01

    The dominant powder scintillator in most medical imaging modalities for decades is Gd2O2S:Tb due to the very good intrinsic properties and overall efficiency. Except for Gd2O2S:Tb there are alternative powder phosphor scintillators like Lu2SiO5:Ce and Gd2O2S:Eu that has been suggested for use in various medical imaging modalities. Gd2O2S:Eu emits red light and can be combined mainly with digital imaging devices like CCDs and CMOS based detectors. The purposes of the present thesis, is to inve...

  15. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

  16. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, Alexander; et al.

    2014-08-08

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  17. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Samarai, I Al; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Barber, K B; Bäuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; de Jong, S J; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Oliveira, J; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Di Matteo, A; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L D\\'\\iaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Hasankiadeh, Q Dorosti; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fernandes, M; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fox, B D; Fratu, O; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Fuji, T; Gaior, R; Garc\\'\\ia, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garilli, G; Bravo, A Gascon; Gate, F; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Islo, K; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Josebachuili, M; Kääpä, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agëra, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Malacari, M; Maldera, S; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Mariş, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Mart\\'\\inez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Mas\\'\\ias; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, A J; Matthews, J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Meyhandan, R; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Newton, D; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Nožka, L; Ochilo, L; Olinto, A; Oliveira, M; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porcelli, A; Porowski, C; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Purrello, V; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Cabo, I Rodriguez; Fernandez, G Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovánek, P; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Sciutto, S J; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Sima, O; kowski, A Śmiał; Šm\\'\\ida, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanič, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Taborda, O A; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Thao, N T; Theodoro, V M; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; Berg, A M van den; van Velzen, S; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vlcek, B; Vorobiov, S; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wittkowski, D; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhou, J; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than $60^\\circ$ detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  18. The Pierre Auger Observatory Project

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the last 30 years, ground based detectors have observed just over a dozen events with energies equal to, or larger than, 100 EeV (1 EeV = $10^{18}$ eV). For brevity, we may call these ``ultra high energy cosmic rays" (UHECR). There is a common agreement that no known conventional astrophysical mechanism is able to accelerate particles to energies exceeding 100 EeV. Moreover, we know that the UHECR must come from ``nearby" sources (within 100 Mpc) as interactions with the 2.7 K microwave background radiation - the so-called GZK cutoff - limit the distance from which they can reach us. We also expect that the incident direction of the UHECR should point to within a few degrees of their sources, but no observation has been made confirming the existence of any astrophysical object fulfilling the above constraints. The only alternative ways of producing the UHECR are exciting but highly speculative theories such as that of collapsing cosmic strings or other topological defects followed by the disintegration of ...

  19. Auger electron spectroscopy applied to inner shell ionization by fast charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, inner shell ionization by charged particle impact was studied almost exclusively through the use of x-ray spectroscopy. This method is limited in accuracy, however, for ionization of inner shells where the fluorescence yield is small. For K-shell ionization of elements with atomic number less than about ten the fluorescence yield can be considered negligible and Auger electron emission cross section provide direct information regarding the ionization cross section. The ionization cross sections determined in this way are accurate to approximately 20 percent whereas x-ray measurements may be uncertain by a factor of five or more due to uncertainties in fluorescence yields. In addition to ionization cross sections, Auger emission spectra provide information regarding multiple ionization, effects of molecular binding on inner shell ionization and, when coupled with x-ray measurements, provide fluorescence yields as a function of the final state of the target atom. These points will be illustrated for ionization by fast protons along with some results for heavier incident particles

  20. Reviewing recent results from Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present some results from the last three years of operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is a short version of the review talk presented at the 18th International Symposium on Particles, Strings and Cosmology (PASCOS2012). The main topics are related to ultra-high energy cosmic rays and their interactions: energy spectrum, mass composition, neutrino spectrum and hadronic cross section at energies above 1018 eV

  1. Hadronic physics with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Cazon, L.; Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger

    2015-01-01

    Extensive air showers are the result of billions of particle reactions initiated by single cosmic rays at ultra-high energy. Their characteristics are sensitive both to the mass of the primary cosmic ray and to the fine details of hadronic interactions. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays can be used to experimentally extend our knowledge on hadronic interactions in energy and kinematic regions beyond those tested by human-made accelerators. We report on how the Pierre Auger Observatory is able to ...

  2. Fiber optic detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

  3. Reconstruction of extensive air showers using the MIDAS molecular Bremsstrahlung detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Andre Ramos de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Bonifazi, Carla; Santos, Edivaldo Moura; Soares, Elvis do Amaral; Mello Neto, Joao Ramos Torres de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Almeida, Rogerio Menezes de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial Metalurgica de Volta Redonda

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The weakly ionized plasma created in the atmosphere after the passage of an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) gives rise to the emission of continuous radiation known as Molecular Bremsstrahlung Radiation (MBR) as free electrons scatter off neutral nitrogen (and less frequently oxygen) molecules. The isotropic and unpolarized nature of MBR rises the possibility of an EAS detection similar to that using fluorescence telescopes to capture the ultraviolet light emitted by the ionized nitrogen molecules. The MBR emission, however, falls into the centimeter wavelength range, requiring the use of radio/microwave antennas instead of optical telescopes. In order to test the feasibility of the technique, the MIDAS (Microwave Detection of Air Showers) Collaboration has built a prototype detector where a parabolical reflector illuminates a multi-pixel camera of commercial TV satellite C-band (3.4-4.2 GHz) feeds. This work addresses the geometrical reconstruction of EAS induced by Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) using the MIDAS detector. The reconstruction chain is similar to that currently applied to the Auger Fluorescence detector events. We have simulated the shower MBR emission assuming two different scenarios: coherent and incoherent emission, i.e., radiation intensity scaling quadratically and linearly with the energy of the primary particle. The MIDAS prototype detector's response is then simulated. Finally, given the simulated events in real data format, we reconstruct the shower's arrival direction, including direction uncertainties and estimate the expected rate of observed events. (author)

  4. Reconstruction of extensive air showers using the MIDAS molecular Bremsstrahlung detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The weakly ionized plasma created in the atmosphere after the passage of an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) gives rise to the emission of continuous radiation known as Molecular Bremsstrahlung Radiation (MBR) as free electrons scatter off neutral nitrogen (and less frequently oxygen) molecules. The isotropic and unpolarized nature of MBR rises the possibility of an EAS detection similar to that using fluorescence telescopes to capture the ultraviolet light emitted by the ionized nitrogen molecules. The MBR emission, however, falls into the centimeter wavelength range, requiring the use of radio/microwave antennas instead of optical telescopes. In order to test the feasibility of the technique, the MIDAS (Microwave Detection of Air Showers) Collaboration has built a prototype detector where a parabolical reflector illuminates a multi-pixel camera of commercial TV satellite C-band (3.4-4.2 GHz) feeds. This work addresses the geometrical reconstruction of EAS induced by Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) using the MIDAS detector. The reconstruction chain is similar to that currently applied to the Auger Fluorescence detector events. We have simulated the shower MBR emission assuming two different scenarios: coherent and incoherent emission, i.e., radiation intensity scaling quadratically and linearly with the energy of the primary particle. The MIDAS prototype detector's response is then simulated. Finally, given the simulated events in real data format, we reconstruct the shower's arrival direction, including direction uncertainties and estimate the expected rate of observed events. (author)

  5. Education and Outreach for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Snow, Gregory R

    2007-01-01

    The scale and scope of the physics studied at the Auger Observatory offer significant opportunities for original outreach work. Education, outreach, and public relations of the Auger collaboration are coordinated in a task of its own whose goals are to encourage and support a wide range of efforts that link schools and the public with the Auger scientists and the science of cosmic rays, particle physics, and associated technologies. This report focuses on the impact of the collaboration in Mendoza Province, Argentina, as: the Auger Visitor Center in Malargue that has hosted over 29,000 visitors since 2001, the Auger Celebration and a collaboration-sponsored science fair held on the Observatory campus in November 2005, the opening of the James Cronin School in Malargue in November 2006, public lectures, school visits, and courses for science teachers. As the collaboration prepares the proposal for the northern Auger site foreseen to be in southeast Colorado, plans for a comprehensive outreach program are being...

  6. Compact solid-state CMOS single-photon detector array for in vivo NIR fluorescence lifetime oncology measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homulle, H. A. R.; Powolny, F.; Stegehuis, P. L.; Dijkstra, J.; Li, D.-U.; Homicsko, K.; Rimoldi, D.; Muehlethaler, K.; Prior, J. O.; Sinisi, R.; Dubikovskaya, E.; Charbon, E.; Bruschini, C.

    2016-01-01

    In near infrared fluorescence-guided surgical oncology, it is challenging to distinguish healthy from cancerous tissue. One promising research avenue consists in the analysis of the exogenous fluorophores’ lifetime, which are however in the (sub-)nanosecond range. We have integrated a single-photon pixel array, based on standard CMOS SPADs (single-photon avalanche diodes), in a compact, time-gated measurement system, named FluoCam. In vivo measurements were carried out with indocyanine green (ICG)-modified derivatives targeting the αvβ3 integrin, initially on a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma injected with ICG conjugated with tetrameric cyclic pentapeptide (ICG−E[c(RGD f K)4]), then on mice carrying tumour xenografts of U87-MG (a human primary glioblastoma cell line) injected with monomeric ICG−c(RGD f K). Measurements on tumor, muscle and tail locations allowed us to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo lifetime measurements with the FluoCam, to determine the characteristic lifetimes (around 500 ps) and subtle lifetime differences between bound and unbound ICG-modified fluorophores (10% level), as well as to estimate the available photon fluxes under realistic conditions. PMID:27231622

  7. Compact solid-state CMOS single-photon detector array for in vivo NIR fluorescence lifetime oncology measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homulle, H A R; Powolny, F; Stegehuis, P L; Dijkstra, J; Li, D-U; Homicsko, K; Rimoldi, D; Muehlethaler, K; Prior, J O; Sinisi, R; Dubikovskaya, E; Charbon, E; Bruschini, C

    2016-05-01

    In near infrared fluorescence-guided surgical oncology, it is challenging to distinguish healthy from cancerous tissue. One promising research avenue consists in the analysis of the exogenous fluorophores' lifetime, which are however in the (sub-)nanosecond range. We have integrated a single-photon pixel array, based on standard CMOS SPADs (single-photon avalanche diodes), in a compact, time-gated measurement system, named FluoCam. In vivo measurements were carried out with indocyanine green (ICG)-modified derivatives targeting the αvβ 3 integrin, initially on a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma injected with ICG conjugated with tetrameric cyclic pentapeptide (ICG-E[c(RGD f K)4]), then on mice carrying tumour xenografts of U87-MG (a human primary glioblastoma cell line) injected with monomeric ICG-c(RGD f K). Measurements on tumor, muscle and tail locations allowed us to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo lifetime measurements with the FluoCam, to determine the characteristic lifetimes (around 500 ps) and subtle lifetime differences between bound and unbound ICG-modified fluorophores (10% level), as well as to estimate the available photon fluxes under realistic conditions. PMID:27231622

  8. A UV fluorescence bio-detector that works ; reminiscing about the>12 km LANL bio-lidar system @ 200 ACPLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, R. R. (Robert R.), Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Sixteen years ago US army ERDEC had the Los Alamos National Laboratory build and operate a portable ultraviolet Lidar for the detection of biological simulants. We were directed to choose a laser that could excite the peak absorption for most simulants in the vicinity of 275 nm. A survey revealed that the lasers available were very complex and of low reliability with low pulse energy from inefficient multi-step conversion systems in the 260- 280 nm region. We realized that signal averaging could not overcome the small signals from low laser energies, and more alarmingly the strong ozone attenuation of the atmosphere would limit any operation to very short ranges. We chose to move to longer wavelengths away from the ozone darkening region and found the very high energy, high efficiency, and simple to operate 800 mJ 200 Hz XeCl Excimer laser. The 307 nm laser wavelength was strongly absorbed by the simulants without photo induced dissociation, and therefore gave very high fluorescent efficiencies and range capabilities over 10 km from a single shot.

  9. Simultaneous determination of imidacloprid and carbendazim in water samples by ion chromatography with fluorescence detector and post-column photochemical reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhani, Qamar; Huang, Zhongping; Zhu, Zuoyi; Zhu, Yan

    2013-11-15

    A new analytical method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of pesticides from different classes using ion chromatography-online photochemical derivatisation-fluorescence detector (IC-hv-FD). Fluorimetric detection was performed at λex/λem=332 nm/367 nm for imidacloprid and then detector was set at λex/λem=247 nm/470 nm for carbendazim. The two pesticides imidacloprid and carbendazim were successfully separated isocratically on an IonPac(®) AS11 (250 mm × 4 mm i.d; 13 µm particle size, Dionex) anion-exchange column using 40 mM KOH with 10% (v/v) acetonitrile and pumped at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3) of imidacloprid and carbendazim were 7.8 µg L(-1) and 67 µg L(-1), respectively. The experimental results showed that there was good linearity with a correlation coefficient (r)≥0.9966 over the range of 0.05-10 mg L(-1) for imidacloprid and 0.2-15 mg L(-1) for carbendazim. Good reproducibility with a relative standard deviation (RSD, n=7) less than 4.5%. Finally, the proposed method was applied with satisfactory results to the analysis of these pesticides in ground water, lake water and river water without any pre-treatment of samples. The average spiked recoveries were in the range of 90-104%. PMID:24148383

  10. FAMOUS. The fluorescence telescope prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Johannes; Bretz, Thomas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Lauscher, Markus; Middendorf, Lukas; Niggemann, Tim; Peters, Christine; Sommer, Dominik; Stephan, Maurice [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Auffenberg, Jan; Schaufel, Merlin [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    One of the most successful techniques for the detection of air showers produced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are fluorescence telescopes. The light produced by de-exciting nitrogen in the atmosphere is typically detected by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). This technique has been successfully used by the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina for many years. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) promise higher photon detection efficiencies than PMTs. This and other advantages motivate the construction of the fluorescence telescope prototype FAMOUS (First Auger Multi-pixel photon counter camera for the Observation of Ultra-high-energy air Showers) which makes use of SiPMs. In this talk we discuss the FAMOUS telescope with a new 64-pixel camera including power supply and DAQ.

  11. FAMOUS. The fluorescence telescope prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most successful techniques for the detection of air showers produced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are fluorescence telescopes. The light produced by de-exciting nitrogen in the atmosphere is typically detected by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). This technique has been successfully used by the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina for many years. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) promise higher photon detection efficiencies than PMTs. This and other advantages motivate the construction of the fluorescence telescope prototype FAMOUS (First Auger Multi-pixel photon counter camera for the Observation of Ultra-high-energy air Showers) which makes use of SiPMs. In this talk we discuss the FAMOUS telescope with a new 64-pixel camera including power supply and DAQ.

  12. Calibration and Monitoring of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; DiGiulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; GarcíaGámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kühn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; LaRosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; vandenBerg, A M; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2009-01-01

    Reports on the atmospheric monitoring, calibration, and other operating systems of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Contributions to the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, Lodz, Poland, July 2009.

  13. Antennas for the Detection of Radio Emission Pulses from Cosmic-Ray induced Air Showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antičić, T; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bäuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boh\\'{čová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buroker, L; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Diaz, J Chirinos; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; del Peral, L; del Río, M; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fratu, O; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Bravo, A Gascon; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Jiraskova, S; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, J; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nhung, P T; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Porcelli, A; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Cabo, I Rodriguez; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Lopez, H H Silva; Sima, O; Śmia\\lkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; Berg, A M van den; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Garcia, B Zamorano; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhou, J; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M; Charrier, D; Denis, L; Hilgers, G; Mohrmann, L; Philipps, B; Seeger, O

    2012-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is exploring the potential of the radio detection technique to study extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) addresses both technological and scientific aspects of the radio technique. A first phase of AERA has been operating since September 2010 with detector stations observing radio signals at frequencies between 30 and 80 MHz. In this paper we present comparative studies to identify and optimize the antenna design for the final configuration of AERA consisting of 160 individual radio detector stations. The transient nature of the air shower signal requires a detailed description of the antenna sensor. As the ultra-wideband reception of pulses is not widely discussed in antenna literature, we review the relevant antenna characteristics and enhance theoretical considerations towards the impulse response of antennas including polarization effects and multiple signal reflections. On the basis of the vector effective l...

  14. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, A M van den

    2007-01-01

    The southern Auger Observatory provides an excellent test bed to study the radio detection of extensive air showers as an alternative, cost-effective, and accurate tool for cosmic-ray physics. The data from the radio setup can be correlated with those from the well-calibrated baseline detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Furthermore, human-induced radio noise levels at the southern Auger site are relatively low. We have started an R&D program to test various radio-detection concepts. Our studies will reveal Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) caused by natural effects such as day-night variations, thunderstorms, and by human-made disturbances. These RFI studies are conducted to optimise detection parameters such as antenna design, frequency interval, antenna spacing and signal processing. The data from our initial setups, which presently consist of typically 3 - 4 antennas, will be used to characterise the shower from radio signals and to optimise the initial concepts. Furthermore, the operation of ...

  15. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 10(19) eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J. C.; Aramo, C.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bacelar, J.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Barkhausen, M.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Boghrat, P.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Brack, J.; Brunet, J. M.; Buchholz, P.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Capdevielle, J. N.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Claes, D.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Clay, S. B.; Connolly, B.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Quang, T. Dang; Darriulat, P.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Carvalho, L. A.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, M. A. L.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Ewers, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazio, D.; Fazzini, N.; Fernandez, A.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fokitis, E.; Fonte, R.; Fuhrmann, D.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrard, L.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Geranios, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gobbi, F.; Gold, M. S.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Herrero, R. Gomez; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gongora, J. P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A.; Grunfeld, C.; Grupen, C.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kalashev, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kolotaev, Y.; Kopmann, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuhlman, S.; Kuijpers, J.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; LeBrun, P.; Lee, J.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Longo, G.; Lopez, R.; Aguera, A. Lopez; Lucero, A.; Maldera, S.; Malek, M.; Maltezos, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Martello, D.; Martinez, N.; Martinez, J.; Martinez, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurin, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, G.; Medina, M. C.; Tanco, G. Medina; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Thi, T. Nguyen; Nichol, R.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nogima, H.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, L. F. A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Ngoc, D. Pham; Thi, T. N. Pham; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pisanti, O.; Porter, T. A.; Pouryamout, J.; Prado, L.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Reis, H. C.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risi, A.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robbins, S.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Frias, D. Rodriguez; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Ros, G.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roucelle, C.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santos, E. M.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Semikoz, D.; Sequeiros, G.; Shellard, R. C.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Skelton, P.; Slater, W.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Ticona, R.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tonachini, A.; Torresi, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Van, T. Vo; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wiebusch, C.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Zha, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2007-01-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies greater than 10(19) eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by obs

  16. Data Processing at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Vicha, J

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic-ray particles with ultra-high energies (above $10^{18}$ eV) are studied through the properties of extensive air showers which they initiate in the atmosphere. The Pierre Auger Observatory detects these showers with unprecedented exposure and precision and the collected data are processed via dedicated software codes. Monte Carlo simulations of extensive air showers are very computationally expensive, especially at the highest energies and calculations are performed on the GRID for this purpose. The processing of measured and simulated data is described, together with a brief list of physics results which have been achieved.

  17. Auger and SIMS spectrometry in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray microanalysis limitations led to the development of analytical techniques more sensitive to the ''surface'' layer of the samples. The need for these methods arises from the importance of such layers in determining the characteristics of semiconductor devices. Two recent methods of surface analysis are described in this paper, namely the Auger Electron Spectrometry (AES) and the Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Various AES and SIMS spectrometers are already available on the market, and are currently used in R and D or production laboratories of the electronic industries

  18. Recent Results from the Pierre Auger observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger observatory is a hybrid air shower experiment which uses multiple detection techniques to investigate the origin, spectrum, and composition of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. We present recent results on these topics and discuss their implications to the understanding the origin of the most energetic particles in nature as well as for physics beyond the Standard Model, such as violation of Lorentz invariance and 'top-down' models of cosmic ray production. Future plans, including enhancements underway at the southern site in Argentina will be presented. (author)

  19. Particle physics at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ebr, Jan

    Les Ulis: EDP Sciences, 2014 - (Magiera, A.; Stroher, H.; Wronska, A.; Guaraldo, C.), "01021-1"-"01021-6". (EPJ Web of Conferences. 81). ISSN 2100-014X. [MESON 2014 - International Workshop on Meson Production, Properties and Interaction. Kraków (PL), 29.05.2014-03.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * ultra-high energy * hadronic interactions Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics

  20. Auger spectroscopy of fracture surfaces of ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, H. L.; Harris, J. M.; Szalkowski, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    Results of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) studies of fracture surfaces in a series of ceramic materials, including Al2O3, MgO, and Si3N4, which were formed using different processing techniques. AES on the fractured surface of a lunar sample is also discussed. Scanning electron micrograph fractography is used to relate the surface chemistry to the failure mode. Combined argon ion sputtering and AES studies demonstrate the local variations in chemistry near the fracture surface. The problems associated with doing AES in insulators are also discussed, and the experimental techniques directed toward solving them are described.

  1. Search for patterns by combining cosmic-ray energy and arrival directions at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 6 (2015), s. 269. ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * detector * cosmic rays Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.084, year: 2014

  2. Education and public outreach of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B.; /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael; Snow, G.

    2005-08-01

    The Auger collaboration's broad mission in education, outreach and public relations is coordinated in a separate task. Its goals are to encourage and support a wide range of outreach efforts that link schools and the public with the Auger scientists and the science of cosmic rays, particle physics, and associated technologies. This report focuses on recent activities and future initiatives.

  3. Auger voltage imaging for junction delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for the two-dimensional characterization of dopant profiles in semiconductors, called 'Auger Voltage Contrast' (AVC), is introduced, which investigates the effect of the dopant on the electronic properties of the device, e.g. the change of the Fermi level across a semiconductor surface. This change can be detected by extracting the shift of the Si-LVV Auger peak with respect to a reference spectrum. AVC linescans across pn-junctions have been modeled using the MINIMOS-NT device simulator, finding the energy shift across a pn-junction is not directly representative for the dopant distribution itself, but that the turning point of the AVC energy shift coincides with the position of the junction, making AVC an applicable tool for junction delineation. Furthermore, contamination experiments showed that small amounts of oxide on the semiconductor surface do not influence the contrast in an AVC image. For processing such an energy shift map, a software tool has been developed, which is able to obtain a map that assigns four regions to the semiconductor: regions that are p-type, regions that are n-type, regions that cannot be assigned to either type due to contamination and regions that act as the 'error bar' between p and n. Experimental data obtained from two-dimensional test structures have been processed with this tool. The resulting images clearly show the n- and p-type regions, and the width of the region corresponding to the junction are clearly below 50 nm. (author)

  4. Development of a simulation environment for the analysis and the optimal design of fluorescence detectors based on single photon avalanche diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Repich, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence measurements enable the study of structure of molecular systems and dynamical processes inside them. This is possible because of a very high sensitivity of fluorescence lifetime to the physical and chemical properties of micro-environment in which fluorophores are situated. However, proper detection of the fluorescence lifetime is a challenging task, due to the fact that the fluorescence decay time of commonly used fluorophores lies in a nanosecond range. This p...

  5. A new total reflection X-ray fluorescence vacuum chamber with sample changer analysis using a silicon drift detector for chemical analysis*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Pepponi, G.; Zoeger, N.

    2004-08-01

    There are several TXRF spectrometers commercially available for chemical analysis as well as for wafer surface analysis, but there is up to now no spectrometer for chemical analysis available that allows to measure samples under vacuum conditions. Simply a rough vacuum of 10 -2 mbar for the sample environment reduces the background due to scattering from air, thus to improve the detection limits. The absorption of low energy fluorescence radiation from low Z elements is reduced and therefore extends the elemental range to be measured down to Na. Finally evacuation of the chamber removes the Ar K-lines from the spectrum. The new vacuum chamber for TXRF named WOBISTRAX is equipped with a 12-position sample changer, a 10-mm 2 silicon drift detector (SDD) with an 8-μm Be entrance window and electrical cooling by Peltier effect, so no LN 2 is required. The chamber was designed to be attached to a diffraction tube housing. WOBISTRAX can be operated with a 3 kW long fine focus Mo-X-ray tube and uses a Mo/Si multilayer for monochromatization. The modified software is performing the motion control between sample changer and MCA features. The performance is expressed in terms of detection limits which are 700 fg Rb for Mo Kα excitation with 50 kV, 40 mA excitation conditions, 1000 s livetime. Using a Cr-X-ray tube for excitation of Al the achieved detection limits are 52 pg. So it could be shown that with the same measuring chamber and using an SDD with 8 μm Be window and a Cr-tube for excitation, low Z elements can be also measured with good detection limits.

  6. A new total reflection X-ray fluorescence vacuum chamber with sample changer analysis using a silicon drift detector for chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several TXRF spectrometers commercially available for chemical analysis as well as for wafer surface analysis, but there is up to now no spectrometer for chemical analysis available that allows to measure samples under vacuum conditions. Simply a rough vacuum of 10-2 mbar for the sample environment reduces the background due to scattering from air, thus to improve the detection limits. The absorption of low energy fluorescence radiation from low Z elements is reduced and therefore extends the elemental range to be measured down to Na. Finally evacuation of the chamber removes the Ar K-lines from the spectrum. The new vacuum chamber for TXRF named WOBISTRAX is equipped with a 12-position sample changer, a 10-mm2 silicon drift detector (SDD) with an 8-μm Be entrance window and electrical cooling by Peltier effect, so no LN2 is required. The chamber was designed to be attached to a diffraction tube housing. WOBISTRAX can be operated with a 3 kW long fine focus Mo-X-ray tube and uses a Mo/Si multilayer for monochromatization. The modified software is performing the motion control between sample changer and MCA features. The performance is expressed in terms of detection limits which are 700 fg Rb for Mo Kα excitation with 50 kV, 40 mA excitation conditions, 1000 s livetime. Using a Cr-X-ray tube for excitation of Al the achieved detection limits are 52 pg. So it could be shown that with the same measuring chamber and using an SDD with 8 μm Be window and a Cr-tube for excitation, low Z elements can be also measured with good detection limits

  7. Determination of low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem fluorescence and diode-array detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yujuan; Wei, Jing; Song, Jing; Chen, Mengfang; Luo, Yongming

    2013-08-01

    Risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soil and source apportionment require accurate analysis of the concentration of each PAH congener in the soil. However, determination of low level PAH congeners in soil is difficult because of similarity in the chemical properties of 16 PAHs and severe matrix interferences due to complex composition of soils. It is therefore imperative to develop a sensitive and accurate method for determination of low level PAHs in soil. In this work, high performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence and diode-array detectors (HPLC-FLD-DAD) was used to determine the concentration of 16 PAHs in soil. The separation of the 16 PAHs was achieved by optimization of the mobile phase gradient elution program and FLD wavelength switching program. Qualitative analysis of the 16 PAHs was based on the retention time (RT) and each PAH specific spectrum obtained from DAD. In contrast, the quantitative analysis of individual PAH congeners was based on the peak areas at the specific wavelength with DAD and FLD. Under optimal conditions the detection limit was in the range 1.0-9.5 μg L(-1) for 16 PAHs with DAD and 0.01-0.1 μg L(-1) for 15 PAHs with FLD, and the RSD of PAHs was less than 5% with DAD and 3% with FLD. The spiked recoveries were in the range 61-96%, with the exception of NaP (<40%). The results show that HPLC-FLD-DAD can provide more accurate and reliable analysis of low level PAH congeners in soil samples. PMID:23659963

  8. Portable X-ray Fluorescence Detector for Soil Heavy Metal%便携式X射线荧光土壤重金属测定仪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘立刚

    2016-01-01

    该研究以XRF便携式X射线土壤重金属测定仪Ⅱ代机的性能提高为目标,在不大幅增加仪器成本的前提下,开展基于信息化技术的硬件集成和软件开发,开展基于信号响应强度的定量模型研究、基于土壤理化性状的定量干扰因素研究和仪器应用示范等4个方面的研发工作。在硬件结构上加入便携式微处理电脑(PDA)和全球卫星定位接收器(GPS),在X射线荧光分析仪应用软件上加入位置搜索功能,在分析结果报表中由软件自动加入测试样品所在地的精确地理位置信息。集成以上单元后,使仪器具备了测试数据与同时记录采样地点精确信息相融合的新功能。采用B/S结构,应用地理信息系统技术和网络应用程序开发技术,开发了仪器上位机管理软件《基于WebGIS的农田环境监测分析系统》,实现了对仪器采集数据进行管理和分析。软件包含数据浏览、数据管理、统计分析、插值分析、动态对比、空间决策、污染评价、标准查询和用户权限等功能。在定量与校正模型研究方面,明确了土壤种类、土壤粒径、土壤含水量等主要影响因子,建立了土壤含水量校正模型和不同土壤种类定量模型,使仪器性能得到提升。在仪器应用验证方面,主要开展了土壤样本中有机质干扰物静电吸附去除方法和仪器操作规程编制。%This study devoted on improving the performance of the Portable X-ray Fluorescence Detector for Soil Heavy Metal (XRF Detector). On the premise of not significantly increase the cost, hardware integration and software development based on the information technologies were provided, include new hardware implant, quantitative model, correction model, impact of soil physical and chemical properties, and the instrument performance in application. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) and Global Position System (GPS) were implanted

  9. Experimental KLM + KLN Auger spectrum of Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoyatov, A.Kh., E-mail: inoyatov@jinr.ru [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Institute of Applied Physics, National University, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Perevoshchikov, L.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Zhdanov, V.S. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Filosofov, D.V. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kovalík, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, Řež near Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •The KLM Auger spectrum of Cu was measured for the first time in detail. •Energies and relative intensities of nine resolved spectrum components were determined. •Semi-empirical KLM energy predictions and experiment agree mostly within 3σ with the exception of the transitions involving the M{sub 4,5} atomic subshells. •It was found that the KLM transition rates at Z = 29 should be calculated relativistically in intermediate coupling scheme. -- Abstract: The KLM + KLN Auger electron spectrum of Cu (Z = 29) emitted in the electron capture decay of radioactive {sup 65}Zn in a solid matrix was investigated for the first time using a combined electrostatic electron spectrometer adjusted to the 7 eV instrumental resolution. Energies and relative intensities of nine resolved spectrum components were determined and compared with theoretical expectations. An agreement within 3σ was found between the semi-empirical predictions for the KLM transition energies by Larkins and the experimental data with the exception of the weak (KL{sub 2}M{sub 4,5} + KL{sub 2}N{sub 1}) and (KL{sub 3}M{sub 4,5} + KL{sub 3}N{sub 1}) lines where the differences reached 5σ. From a comparison of the measured relative KLM transition intensities with available theoretical results a conclusion was derived that calculations of the KLM transition rates at Z = 29 should be based on intermediate coupling of angular momenta and take into account relativistic effects.

  10. Alloying effect on K X-ray intensity ratios, K X-ray production cross-sections and radiative Auger ratios in superalloys constitute from Al, Ni and Mo elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, alloying effect on the K X-ray intensity ratios, production cross-sections and radiative Auger ratios of Ni and Mo atoms in superalloys constitute from Al, Ni and Mo elements were investigated, respectively. - Abstract: In this study, σKα,β production cross-sections, Kβ/Kα, KLM/Kα and KMM/Kβ RAE intensity ratios of Ni and σKα,σKβ1,2 production cross-sections, Kβ1,3/Kα, Kβ2,4/Kα, Kβ2,4/Kβ1,3, KLM/Kα and KMM/Kβ RAE intensity ratios of Mo have been measured in pure metals and in superalloy specimens. The samples were excited by 59.5 keV γ-rays from a 241Am annular radioactive source. K X-rays emitted by samples were counted by an Ultra-LEGe detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. The effect of alloying on the fluorescence parameters of Ni and Mo, phase structure, and corrosion behavior were investigated. The X-ray fluorescence parameters of Ni and Mo in superalloys indicate significant differences with respect to the pure metals. These differences are attributed to the reorganization of valence shell electrons and/or charge transfer phenomena in superalloys.

  11. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  12. Auger relative sensitivivity factors for CdTe oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo-Pérez, P.; Peña, J. L.; M.H. Farías

    1999-01-01

    The Auger lineshape of Te MNN in measurements of Auger spectra of CdTe oxide films with various degrees of oxidation was analyzed. By using standards from stoichiometric compounds, Auger relative sensitivity factors (RSF´s) of Cd, Te and O for CdTe oxide thin films were obtained. The value of the RFS of oxygen is about constant, 0.27-0.28, for the standard compound, CdO, TeO2 and CdTeO3 (considering the RSF of Cd as 1). However, the obtained RSF of Te changes from 0.69 in CdTe up to 0.87 in C...

  13. Microwave-assisted ionothermal synthesis of a water-stable Eu-coordination polymer: a Ba(2+) ion detector and fluorescence thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze-Ping; Hu, Bing; Qi, Xing-Hui; Shen, Nan-Nan; Huang, Xiao-Ying

    2016-06-01

    A water-stable Eu-coordination polymer (CP), namely [HMIm]Eu(DHBDC)2 (1) (HMIm = 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium; H2DHBDC = 2,5-dihydroxytelephthalic acid), was obtained using ionothermal synthesis. 1 represents the first coordination polymer capable of qualitative and quantitative detection of Ba(2+) in aqueous solutions with a fluorescent enhancement that is visible to the human eye, which can be ascribed to the formation of fluorescent compound Ba(DHBDC) (2) during the detection process. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) makes 1 a potential material for a fluorescence thermometer. Furthermore, the detection process for Ba(2+) using 1 turns the one-PL transition fluorescence thermometer into a two-PL transition fluorescence thermometer, increasing the accuracy of the fluorescence thermometer. PMID:27110830

  14. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Measurement of atmospheric production depth

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides information about the longitudinal development of the muonic component of extensive air showers. Using the timing information from the flash analog-to-digital converter traces of surface detectors far from the shower core, it is possible to reconstruct a muon production depth distribution. We characterize the goodness of this reconstruction for zenith angles around 60 deg. and different energies of the primary particle. From these distributions we define X(mu)max as the depth along the shower axis where the production of muons reaches maximum. We explore the potentiality of X(mu)max as a useful observable to infer the mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Likewise, we assess its ability to constrain hadronic interaction models.

  15. Future use of silicon photomultipliers for the fluorescence detection of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Maurice; Hebbeker, Thomas; Lauscher, Markus; Meurer, Christine; Niggemann, Tim; Schumacher, Johannes

    2011-10-01

    A sophisticated technique to measure extensive air showers initiated by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays is by means of fluorescence telescopes. Secondary particles of the air shower excite nitrogen molecules of the atmosphere, which emit fluorescence light when they de-excite. Due to their high photon detection efficiency (PDE) silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) promise to increase the sensitivity of todays fluorescence telescopes which use photomultiplier tubes - for example the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. On the other hand drawbacks like a small sensitive area, a strong temperature dependency and a high noise rate have to be managed. We present plans for a prototype fluorescence telescope using SiPMs and a special light collecting optical system of Winston cones to increase the sensitive area. In this context we made measurements of the relative PDE of SiPMs depending on the incident angle of light. The results agree with calculations based on the Fresnel equations. Furthermore, measurements of the brightness of the night sky are presented since this photon flux is the main background to the fluorescence signals of the extensive air showers. To compensate the temperature dependency of the SiPM, frontend electronics make use of temperature sensors and microcontrollers to directly adjust the bias-voltage according to the thermal conditions. To reduce the noise rate we study the coincidence of several SiPMs signals triggered by cosmic ray events. By summing up these signals the SiPMs will constitute a single pixel of the fluorescence telescope.

  16. A combined Auger-ESCA spectrometer for materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combining a Auger spectrometer with an ESCA spectrometer offers special advantages for materials characterization. Auger spectrum allows a very high sensitivity to be obtained due to a rather strong electronic excitation that allows also the presence of small particulates of foreign substance monolayers at the surface to be displayed. So the Auger procedure is suitable for surface cleanliness verification. The photoelectron (ESCA) spectroscopy ensures a high resolution that allows precise measurements of the chemical changes and search on bands structures. Auger and ESCA measurements are directly compared. Measurements are effected on the same sample and practically at the same time without perturbing the ultra high vacuum. On the way, a direct comparison of both method sensitivity is made possible. The procedure makes also possible the surface cleaning using an ion gun incorporated inside the apparatus, by separating a thin film from the others and simultaneously analyzing the profile

  17. Auger Emitter Based Radiotherapy- A Possible New Treatment for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredericia, Pil; Groesser, Torsten; Severin, Gregory; Köster, U.; Jensen, Andreas Tue Ingemann; Jensen, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide (1). A large fraction of cancer patients undergo external radiotherapy, delivering a lethal dose of radiation to the patient’s tumour(s). The main problem with this approach is the collateral damage caused to healthy, surrounding tissue and the side...... damage produced by Low-LET radiation used in current radiotherapy (2-3) Considerable efforts have been made in the past twenty years to develop Auger emitter-based radiotherapy However, previous studies lack precise measurement of RBE, which is the fundamental factor defining the relationship between...... local radiation dose and biological damage done for the given Auger emitter, thereby brought the development to a halt. We believe we have the techniques to quantify the biological damage done for a given Auger emitter and thereby pushing the development of Auger emitterbased radiotherapy into reality...

  18. THEORETICAL BASIS OF CALCULATING BULLDOZER WITH AUGER-TYPE INTENSIFIER

    OpenAIRE

    Khmara, L.; de Krol, R. van

    2007-01-01

    New methods of calculating absolute speed of soil particle transported by auger-type intensifier, determination of cutoff frequency of the latter and methods of determining absolute speed of soil particle considering the speed of utility tractor are presented

  19. Core-valence coupling in the Ru 4p photoexcitation/Auger decay process: Auger-photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The N23VV Auger spectrum of Ru has been measured in coincidence with 4p1/2 and with 4p3/2 photoelectrons. Unlike other metals that exhibit bandlike Auger decays, we find that the two Auger spectra are not shifted by the difference in core level binding energies. A consistent description of these transitions and the core level line shape requires consideration of the relativistic multiplet splitting in the intermediate core hole state and two-valence-hole Auger final state. The results suggest that the large linewidth of the 4p levels is primarily due to multiplet splitting, and that an N2(N3N45)N45N45 super-Coster-Kronig transition is only a minor decay channel. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  20. Recent results from the Pierre Auger observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to measure cosmic rays above 1018 eV with unprecedented statistics and precision. After outlining why there is interest in such particles, recent measurements from the Observatory relating to the mass composition and energy spectrum above 1018 eV are described. From measurements of the variation of the depth of shower maximum with energy, there are indications - if models of high-energy interactions are correct - that the mass composition is not proton-dominated at the highest energies. A flattening of the slope of the energy spectrum from (-3.30 ± 0.06) to (-2.62 ± 0.02) is observed at 4.5 x 1018 eV while above 3.6 x 1019 eV the spectrum steepens to a slope of (-4.1 ± 0.4). Because of the composition result, caution needs to be exercised over interpretation of the steepening as the long-sought Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect. The importance of data from the LHC for the more accurate interpretation of air-shower measurements is emphasised

  1. Hadronic physics with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Cazon, L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive air showers are the result of billions of particle reactions initiated by single cosmic rays at ultra-high energy. Their characteristics are sensitive both to the mass of the primary cosmic ray and to the fine details of hadronic interactions. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays can be used to experimentally extend our knowledge on hadronic interactions in energy and kinematic regions beyond those tested by human-made accelerators. We report on how the Pierre Auger Observatory is able to measure the proton-air cross section for particle production at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon of 39 TeV and 56 TeV and also to constrain the new hadronic interaction models tuned after the results of the Large Hadron Collider, by measuring: the average shape of the electromagnetic longitudinal profile of air showers, the moments of the distribution of the depth at which they reach their maximum, and the content and production depth of muons in air showers with a primary center-of-mass energy per nucleon around and a...

  2. Latest results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Roulet, Esteban

    2011-01-01

    Recent results obtained with the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. These include measurements of the spectrum, anisotropies and composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The ankle of the spectrum is measured at $4\\times 10^{18}$~eV and a suppression above $3\\times 10^{19}$~eV consistent with the GZK effect is observed. At energies above $5.5\\times 10^{19}$~eV a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects is found, including an excess around the direction of Centaurus~A, the nearest radio loud active galaxy. Measurements of the depth of shower maximum and its fluctuations suggest a gradual change in the average mass of the primary cosmic rays (under standard extrapolations of hadronic interaction models), being the results consistent with a light composition consisting mostly of protons at few$\\times 10^{18}$~eV and approaching the expectations from iron nuclei at $4\\times 10^{19}$~eV. Upper bounds on the photon fraction and the neutrino fluxes are also obtained.

  3. Fluorescent fiber diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).

  4. Energy Estimation of Cosmic Rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, Alexander; Aglietta, Marco; Ahn, Eun-Joo; Samarai, Imen Al; Albuquerque, Ivone; Allekotte, Ingomar; Allison, Patrick; Almela, Alejandro; Castillo, Jesus Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Batista, Rafael Alves; Ambrosio, Michelangelo; Aminaei, Amin; Anastasi, Gioacchino Alex; Anchordoqui, Luis; Andringa, Sofia; Aramo, Carla; Arqueros, Fernando; Arsene, Nicusor; Asorey, Hernán Gonzalo; Assis, Pedro; Aublin, Julien; Avila, Gualberto; Awal, Nafiun; Badescu, Alina Mihaela; Baus, Colin; Beatty, Jim; Becker, Karl Heinz; Bellido, Jose A; Berat, Corinne; Bertaina, Mario Edoardo; Bertou, Xavier; Biermann, Peter; Billoir, Pierre; Blaess, Simon G; Blanco, Alberto; Blanco, Miguel; Blazek, Jiri; Bleve, Carla; Blümer, Hans; Boháčová, Martina; Boncioli, Denise; Bonifazi, Carla; Borodai, Nataliia; Brack, Jeffrey; Brancus, Iliana; Bretz, Thomas; Bridgeman, Ariel; Brogueira, Pedro; Buchholz, Peter; Bueno, Antonio; Buitink, Stijn; Buscemi, Mario; Caballero-Mora, Karen S; Caccianiga, Barbara; Caccianiga, Lorenzo; Candusso, Marina; Caramete, Laurentiu; Caruso, Rossella; Castellina, Antonella; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cazon, Lorenzo; Cester, Rosanna; Chavez, Alan G; Chiavassa, Andrea; Chinellato, Jose Augusto; Chudoba, Jiri; Cilmo, Marco; Clay, Roger W; Cocciolo, Giuseppe; Colalillo, Roberta; Coleman, Alan; Collica, Laura; Coluccia, Maria Rita; Conceição, Ruben; Contreras, Fernando; Cooper, Mathew J; Cordier, Alain; Coutu, Stephane; Covault, Corbin; Cronin, James; Dallier, Richard; Daniel, Bruno; Dasso, Sergio; Daumiller, Kai; Dawson, Bruce R; de Almeida, Rogerio M; de Jong, Sijbrand J; De Mauro, Giuseppe; Neto, Joao de Mello; De Mitri, Ivan; de Oliveira, Jaime; de Souza, Vitor; del Peral, Luis; Deligny, Olivier; Dhital, Niraj; Di Giulio, Claudio; Di Matteo, Armando; Diaz, Johana Chirinos; Castro, Mary Lucia Díaz; Diogo, Francisco; Dobrigkeit, Carola; Docters, Wendy; D'Olivo, Juan Carlos; Dorofeev, Alexei; Hasankiadeh, Qader Dorosti; Anjos, Rita dos; Dova, Maria Teresa; Ebr, Jan; Engel, Ralph; Erdmann, Martin; Erfani, Mona; Escobar, Carlos O; Espadanal, Joao; Etchegoyen, Alberto; Falcke, Heino; Fang, Ke; Farrar, Glennys; Fauth, Anderson; Fazzini, Norberto; Ferguson, Andrew P; Fick, Brian; Figueira, Juan Manuel; Filevich, Alberto; Filipčič, Andrej; Fratu, Octavian; Freire, Martín Miguel; Fujii, Toshihiro; García, Beatriz; Garcia-Gamez, Diego; Garcia-Pinto, Diego; Gate, Florian; Gemmeke, Hartmut; Gherghel-Lascu, Alexandru; Ghia, Piera Luisa; Giaccari, Ugo; Giammarchi, Marco; Giller, Maria; Głas, Dariusz; Glaser, Christian; Glass, Henry; Golup, Geraldina; Berisso, Mariano Gómez; Vitale, Primo F Gómez; González, Nicolás; Gookin, Ben; Gordon, Jacob; Gorgi, Alessio; Gorham, Peter; Gouffon, Philippe; Griffith, Nathan; Grillo, Aurelio; Grubb, Trent D; Guarino, Fausto; Guedes, Germano; Hampel, Matías Rolf; Hansen, Patricia; Harari, Diego; Harrison, Thomas A; Hartmann, Sebastian; Harton, John; Haungs, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heck, Dieter; Heimann, Philipp; Herve, Alexander E; Hill, Gary C; Hojvat, Carlos; Hollon, Nicholas; Holt, Ewa; Homola, Piotr; Hörandel, Jörg; Horvath, Pavel; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Huber, Daniel; Huege, Tim; Insolia, Antonio; Isar, Paula Gina; Jandt, Ingolf; Jansen, Stefan; Jarne, Cecilia; Johnsen, Jeffrey A; Josebachuili, Mariela; Kääpä, Alex; Kambeitz, Olga; Kampert, Karl Heinz; Kasper, Peter; Katkov, Igor; Keilhauer, Bianca; Kemp, Ernesto; Kieckhafer, Roger; Klages, Hans; Kleifges, Matthias; Kleinfeller, Jonny; Krause, Raphael; Krohm, Nicole; Kuempel, Daniel; Mezek, Gasper Kukec; Kunka, Norbert; Awad, Alaa Metwaly Kuotb; LaHurd, Danielle; Latronico, Luca; Lauer, Robert; Lauscher, Markus; Lautridou, Pascal; Coz, Sandra Le; Lebrun, Didier; Lebrun, Paul; de Oliveira, Marcelo Augusto Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, Antoine; Lhenry-Yvon, Isabelle; Link, Katrin; Lopes, Luis; López, Rebeca; Casado, Aida López; Louedec, Karim; Lucero, Agustin; Malacari, Max; Mallamaci, Manuela; Maller, Jennifer; Mandat, Dusan; Mantsch, Paul; Mariazzi, Analisa; Marin, Vincent; Mariş, Ioana; Marsella, Giovanni; Martello, Daniele; Martinez, Humberto; Bravo, Oscar Martínez; Martraire, Diane; Meza, Jimmy Masías; Mathes, Hermann-Josef; Mathys, Sebastian; Matthews, James; Matthews, John; Matthiae, Giorgio; Maurizio, Daniela; Mayotte, Eric; Mazur, Peter; Medina, Carlos; Medina-Tanco, Gustavo; Meissner, Rebecca; Mello, Victor; Melo, Diego; Menshikov, Alexander; Messina, Stefano; Micheletti, Maria Isabel; Middendorf, Lukas; Minaya, Ignacio A; Miramonti, Lino; Mitrica, Bogdan; Molina-Bueno, Laura; Mollerach, Silvia; Montanet, François

    2015-01-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30 to 80 MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For the latter, the energy density is determined from the radio pulses at each observer position and is interpolated using a two dimensional function that takes into account signal asymmetries due to interference between the geomagnetic and charge excess emission components. The spatial integral over the signal distribution gives a direct measurement of the energy transferred from the primary cosmic ray into radio emission in the AERA frequency range. We measure 15.8 MeV of radiation energy for a 1 EeV air shower arriving per...

  5. Methods of Detector Response Function Establishment in X-Ray Fluorescence Spectra Analysis%X荧光能谱分析中探测器响应函数建立方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲; 庹先国; 杨剑波; 刘明哲; 成毅; 王磊; 周建斌

    2012-01-01

    During the measurement and analysis process of X-ray fluorescence spectra, it is very helpful to improve the analyze speed, accuracy and automaticity of X-ray fluorescence spectra analysis by establishing detector response function(DRF), which represents the shape of full energy peak and can provide former basic data for subsequent X-ray analysis technique. For the theory and model of semiconductor DRF in X-ray energy spectrum measurements, methods of three typical detector response function model establishment, key parameters of full energy peak standard deviation and Fano factor calculation, etc. are discussed, and meanwhile, the summarization and contrast of existing studies are shown in this paper. Finally, the suggestion for modeling methods of DRF in X-ray fluorescence spectra measurements is provided.%在X荧光能谱测量及分析过程中,通过建立探测器响应函数,可以实现对X荧光能谱中的全能峰峰形描述,有助于提高X荧光能谱分析速度、准确度和自动化程度.在X荧光能谱测量中,针对半导体探测器建立响应函数模型的理论与建模技术,文中对三种典型探测器响应函数建模方法,以及全能峰标准差、法诺因子等关键参数的求取进行了论述,并对已有研究进行了总结和比较.最后,对X荧光能谱测量中探测器响应函数建模方法给出了建议.

  6. Auger radiation targeted into DNA: a therapy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger electron emitters that can be targeted into DNA of tumour cells represent an attractive systemic radiation therapy goal. In the situation of DNA-associated decay, the high linear energy transfer (LET) of Auger electrons gives a high relative biological efficacy similar to that of α particles. In contrast to α radiation, however, Auger radiation is of low toxicity when decaying outside the cell nucleus, as in cytoplasm or outside cells during blood transport. The challenge for such therapies is the requirement to target a high percentage of all cancer cells. An overview of Auger radiation therapy approaches of the past decade shows several research directions and various targeting vehicles. The latter include hormones, peptides, halogenated nucleotides, oligonucleotides and internalising antibodies. Here, we will discuss the basic principles of Auger electron therapy as compared with vector-guided α and β radiation. We also review some radioprotection issues and briefly present the main advantages and disadvantages of the different targeting modalities that are under investigation. (orig.)

  7. Measurements of the longitudinal shower development with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we explain how the Pierre Auger Observatory measures and reconstructs the longitudinal development of air showers. The measurement of the energy deposit in the atmosphere by the detection of the emitted fluorescence light is going to be briefly reviewed and the reconstruction procedure is going to be explained in detail. The two main outputs of this analysis are: a the depth at which the shower reaches its maximum (Xmax and b the shower energy. In this work we concentrate on the analysis techniques developed with the aim to evaluate the unbiased Xmax distributions. We show how using measured events it is possible to estimate the range of the true Xmax distribution. Then we select events with geometries that allow an unbiased measurement of Xmax anywhere along its estimated range. The analysis procedure explained here is a fundamental step in the measurements of cosmic ray mass composition and proton-air cross section.

  8. An on-line high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-multi-stage mass spectrometry-deoxyribonucleic acid-4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-fluorescence detector system for screening the DNA-binding active compounds in Fufang Banbianlian Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sensen; Jiang, Haixiu; Lin, Zongtao; Deng, Shanshan; Guan, Yanqing; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2015-12-11

    Fufang Banbianlian Injection (FBI), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been recently approved and extensively used as a newly anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor drug. This prescription comprises an equal ratio of three traditional Chinese herbs, Lobelia chinensis Lour, Scutellaria barbata D. Don and Hedyotis diffusa Willd. The relationships between its chemical compositions and activities have not been understood well yet. To investigate the ingredients and their DNA-binding activities in FBI, an on-line high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-multi-stage mass spectrometry-deoxyribonucleic acid-4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-fluorescence detector (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)-DNA-DAPI-FLD) system was developed using a combination of chromatographic, mass spectrometric and fluorescent detection techniques. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) specifically binds to three ATT base pairs on the DNA minor groove, and thus can be used as a fluorescent probe for screening active compounds that compete ATT sequences with DAPI. Using this system, 21 of 58 identified or tentatively characterized compounds in FBI showed DNA-binding activities, with most of the active compounds being flavone glycosides. In addition, the structure-activity relationships of these active compounds suggested that conjugated planar structures are favorable for DNA-binding activities, and adjacent hydroxyl groups in flavonoids can significantly improve their activities. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first application of DAPI as a fluorescent probe for the screening of DNA-binding active compounds in complex samples. PMID:26592560

  9. Search for First Harmonic Modulation in the Right Ascension Distribution of Cosmic Rays Detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antičić, T; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Beatty, J J; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Denkiewicz, A; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diep, P N; D'Olivo, C Dobrigkeit J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gascon, A; Gemmeke, H; Gesterling, K; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hague, J D; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura., C A; Mueller, S; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Parrisius, J; Parsons, R D; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Phan, N; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tamashiro, A; Tapia, A; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tiwari, D K; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Winders, L; Winnick, M G; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.12.007

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of searches for dipolar-type anisotropies in different energy ranges above $2.5\\times 10^{17}$ eV with the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory, reporting on both the phase and the amplitude measurements of the first harmonic modulation in the right-ascension distribution. Upper limits on the amplitudes are obtained, which provide the most stringent bounds at present, being below 2% at 99% $C.L.$ for EeV energies. We also compare our results to those of previous experiments as well as with some theoretical expectations.

  10. Auger parameter and Wagner plot studies of small copper clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Giuliano; Palma, Amedeo; Paparazzo, Ernesto; Satta, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    We discuss application of the Auger parameter and Wagner plot concepts to the study of small copper clusters deposited on various supports such as C(graphite), SiO2 and Al2O3. We demonstrate that the cluster size and the electronic properties of the support influence the shifts of both the binding energy of the Cu 2p3/2 transition and the kinetic energy of the Cu L3M45M45; 1G Auger transition. We find that the Cu L3M45M45; 1G-2p3/2 Auger parameter and Wagner plot allow one to single out and measure both initial- and final-state effects with a detail which is superior to that achieved in photoemission studies.

  11. Defect identification by compositional defect review using auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defect identification plays an enabling role in determining the source of particles that occur during semiconductor processing and are subsequently detected by defect inspection tools. Auger electron spectroscopy provides a high spatial resolution, surface sensitive analytical probe that is well matched to examining small, thin or complex defects. A focused ion beam (FIB) can be used to cross-section buried defects and structures for subsequent Auger analysis. Such measurements have been made on defects from two wafers pulled at different process steps. One wafer was analyzed after poly-Si deposition, and the other wafer was analyzed after metal 2 etch. The defects on the poly-Si wafer are Si particles. Three types of particles were found on the metal 2 wafer: C-based, stainless steel, and Si-oxide. The majority of defects on this wafer are C-based. Auger, EDS and FIB results will be compared for representative defects on these two wafers

  12. Upper Limit on the Diffuse Flux of Ultrahigh Energy Tau Neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau neutrinos that interact in Earth's crust. Tau leptons from ντ charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 are used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of ντ at EeV energies. Assuming an Eν-2 differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90% C.L. is Eν2dNντ/dEν-7 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1 in the energy range 2x1017 eVν19 eV

  13. Exploring cosmic rays at the highest-energy frontier with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrigkeit Carola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory studies the most energetic cosmic rays arriving at Earth, those with energies from 1017 eV up to 1020 eV and beyond. In continuous operation since 2004, the Observatory employs two complementary detection techniques for measuring air showers induced by those extremely energetic particles. For the past few years new detectors and techniques are being added in order to augment the sensitivity of the measurements. Data accumulated in ten years have led to major advances in our knowledge of the origin and nature of cosmic rays. We present a summary of the latest results for the spectrum of cosmic rays, their arrival directions and composition, as well as the challenges for the future operation of the Observatory.

  14. Measurement of atmospheric production depths of muons with the pierre auger observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Gámez D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The time structure of muons at ground retains valuable information about the longitudinal development of the hadronic component in extensive air showers. Using the signals collected by the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory it is possible to reconstruct the Muon Production Depth (MPD distribution. In this work we explore the main features of these reconstructions for zenith angles around 60° and different energies of the primary particle. From the MPDs we define a new observable, Xμmax as the depth, along the shower axis, where the maximum number of muons is produced. The potentiality of Xμmax to infer the mass composition of cosmic rays is studied.

  15. Searches for ultra-high energy neutrinos at the Pierre Auger observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrinos in the sub-EeV energy range and above can be detected and identified with the Surface Detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The identification can be efficiently done for neutrinos of all flavours interacting in the atmosphere, typically above 60° (downward-going), as well as for “Earth-skimming” neutrino interactions in the case of tau neutrinos (upward-going). Three sets of identification criteria were designed to search for downward-going neutrinos in the zenith angle bins 60° − 75° and 75° − 90° as well as for upward-going neutrinos. The three searches have been recently combined, providing, in the absence of candidates in data from 1 January 04 until 31 December 12, a stringent limit to the diffuse flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos

  16. Atmospheric calorimetry above 1019 ev: Shooting lasers at the Pierre Auger Cosmic-Ray Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger Cosmic-Ray Observatory uses the earth's atmosphere as a calorimeter to measure extensive air-showers created by particles of astrophysical origin. Some of these particles carry joules of energy. At these extreme energies, test beams are not available in the conventional sense. Yet understanding the energy response of the observatory is important. For example, the propagation distance of the highest energy cosmic-rays through the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) is predicted to be strong function of energy. This paper will discuss recently reported results from the observatory and the use of calibrated pulsed UV laser 'test-beams' that simulate the optical signatures of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The status of the much larger 200,000 km3 companion detector planned for the northern hemisphere will also be outlined.

  17. Contribution to the identification of primary ultra high energy cosmic rays using the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis focuses on an apparent mismatch noticed during experiments performed by the Pierre Auger Observatory on ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) and mass composition. Surface detectors are used to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by particle flurry, and record data in fast analog/digital converters in order to identify the presence of sudden jumps with that of muons. The author studied the separation between light (protons) and heavy (iron) primers which can be expected from the total jump value. An energy analysis in then applied to the study of detected flurries which confirmed the mismatch with the predictions of flurry development models. The jump method is applied to UHECRs pointing towards Cen A. The second part of the thesis reports the development of a simplified simulation code (simulation of electromagnetic and hadronic showers)

  18. On the Equivalent Dose for Auger Electron Emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Roger W.; Narra, Venkat R.; Sastry, Kandula S. R.; Rao, Dandamudi V.

    1993-01-01

    Radionuclides that emit Auger electrons are widely used in nuclear medicine (e.g., 99mTc, 123I, 201T1) and biomedical research (e.g., 51Cr, 125I), and they are present in the environment (e.g., 40K, 55Fe). Depending on the subcellular distribution of the radionuclide, the biological effects caused by tissue-incorporated Auger emitters can be as severe as those from high-LET α particles. However, the recently adopted recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (I...

  19. Analysis report for 241-BY-104 auger samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document details the analytical sample results for two auger samples of the tip 15 cm (6 in.) of tank 241-BY-104 salt cake. The thermal response of tank 241-BY-104 auger samples is generally mild. The level of cyanide and iron, and therefore of ferrocyanide is very low. Evidence of inhomogeneity is present for tank 241-By-104 salt cake. Mass and charge balances were less than ideal. The concentrations found for the major constituents, except chromium, are in line with the expectations

  20. Energy estimation of cosmic rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blanco, M.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; García, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A. W.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Louedec, K.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Müller, S.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PÈ©kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Welling, C.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yapici, T.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30-80 MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For the latter, the energy deposit per area is determined from the radio pulses at each observer position and is interpolated using a two-dimensional function that takes into account signal asymmetries due to interference between the geomagnetic and charge-excess emission components. The spatial integral over the signal distribution gives a direct measurement of the energy transferred from the primary cosmic ray into radio emission in the AERA frequency range. We measure 15.8 MeV of radiation energy for a 1 EeV air shower arriving perpendicularly to the geomagnetic field. This radiation energy—corrected for geometrical effects—is used as a cosmic-ray energy estimator. Performing an absolute energy calibration against the surface-detector information, we observe that this radio-energy estimator scales quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy as expected for coherent emission. We find an energy resolution of the radio reconstruction of 22% for the data set and 17% for a high-quality subset containing only events with at least five radio stations with signal.

  1. Energy Estimation of Cosmic Rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, Alexander [Universitat Siegen (Germany). et al.

    2015-08-19

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30 to 80MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For the latter, the energy density is determined from the radio pulses at each observer position and is interpolated using a two dimensional function that takes into account signal asymmetries due to interference between the geomagnetic and charge excess emission components. We found that the spatial integral over the signal distribution gives a direct measurement of the energy transferred from the primary cosmic ray into radio emission in the AERA frequency range. We measure 15.8MeV of radiation energy for a 1 EeV air shower arriving perpendicularly to the geomagnetic field. This radiation energy – corrected for geometrical effects – is used as a cosmic-ray energy estimator. Performing an absolute energy calibration against the surface-detector information, we observe that this radio-energy estimator scales quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy as expected for coherent emission. Finally we find an energy resolution of the radio reconstruction of 22% for the data set and 17% for a high-quality subset containing only events with at least five radio stations with signal.

  2. Double Auger Emission of fixed-in-space Carbon Monoxide following Core-Excitation and Ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double Auger decay after core-level photo excitation and after ionization through synchrotron radiation in gas phase carbon monoxide has been studied. We report the first experiment where both Auger electrons in double Auger decay have been measured in coincidence with the ionic fragments.

  3. Modular optical detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Brent A.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2006-02-14

    A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

  4. Robust and economical multi-sample, multi-wavelength UV/vis absorption and fluorescence detector for biological and chemical contamination

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Peter J; Macarthur, James B; Sims, Peter A; Ma, Hongshen; Slocum, Alexander H

    2012-01-01

    We present a portable multi-channel, multi-sample UV/vis absorption and fluorescence detection device, which has no moving parts, can operate wirelessly and on batteries, interfaces with smart mobile phones or tablets, and has the sensitivity of commercial instruments costing an order of magnitude more. We use UV absorption to measure the concentration of ethylene glycol in water solutions at all levels above those deemed unsafe by the United States Food and Drug Administration; in addition we use fluorescence to measure the concentration of d-glucose. Both wavelengths can be used concurrently to increase measurement robustness and increase detection sensitivity. Our small robust economical device can be deployed in the absence of laboratory infrastructure, and therefore may find applications immediately following natural disasters, and in more general deployment for much broader-based testing of food, agricultural and household products to prevent outbreaks of poisoning and disease.

  5. Robust and economical multi-sample, multi-wavelength UV/vis absorption and fluorescence detector for biological and chemical contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peter J.; Hoehl, Melanie M.; Macarthur, James B.; Sims, Peter A.; Ma, Hongshen; Slocum, Alexander H.

    2012-09-01

    We present a portable multi-channel, multi-sample UV/vis absorption and fluorescence detection device, which has no moving parts, can operate wirelessly and on batteries, interfaces with smart mobile phones or tablets, and has the sensitivity of commercial instruments costing an order of magnitude more. We use UV absorption to measure the concentration of ethylene glycol in water solutions at all levels above those deemed unsafe by the United States Food and Drug Administration; in addition we use fluorescence to measure the concentration of d-glucose. Both wavelengths can be used concurrently to increase measurement robustness and increase detection sensitivity. Our small robust economical device can be deployed in the absence of laboratory infrastructure, and therefore may find applications immediately following natural disasters, and in more general deployment for much broader-based testing of food, agricultural and household products to prevent outbreaks of poisoning and disease.

  6. Manipulation of resonant Auger processes with strong optical fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picón, Antonio; Buth, Christian; Doumy, Gilles; Krässig, Bertold; Young, Linda; Southworth, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    We recently reported on the optical control of core-excited states of a resonant Auger process in neon. We have focused on the resonant excitation 1 s --> 1s-1 3 p , while a strong optical field may resonantly couple two core-excited states (1s-1 3 p and 1s-1 3 s) in the Rydberg manifold as well as dressing the continuum. There is a clear signature in the Auger electron spectrum of the inner-shell dynamics induced by the strong optical field: i) the Auger electron spectrum is modified by the rapid optical-induced population transfer from the 1s-1 3 p state to the 1s-1 3 s state during their decay. ii) The angular anisotropy parameter, defining the angular distribution of the Auger electron, is manifested in the envelope of the (angle-integrated) sidebands. This work is funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  7. Suppression of auger recombination in ""giant"" core/shell nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Santamaria, Florencio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vela, Javier [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schaller, Richard D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Yongfen [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    Many potential applications of semiconductor nanocrystals are hindered by nonradiative Auger recombination wherein the electron-hole (exciton) recombination energy is transferred to a third charge carrier. This process severely limits the lifetime and bandwidth of optical gain, leads to large nonradiative losses in light emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells, and is believed to be responsible for intermittency ('blinking') of emission from single nanocrystals. The development of nanostructures in which Auger recombination is suppressed has been a longstanding goal in colloidal nanocrystal research. Here, we demonstrate that such suppression is possible using so-called 'giant' nanocrystals that consist of a small CdSe core and a thick CdS shell. These nanostructures exhibit a very long biexciton lifetime ({approx}10 ns) that is likely dominated by radiative decay instead of non-radiative Auger recombination. As a result of suppressed Auger recombination, even high-order multiexcitons exhibit high emission efficiencies, which allows us to demonstrate optical amplification with an extraordinarily large bandwidth (>500 me V) and record low excitation thresholds.

  8. Auger coefficient in GaInN-based laser structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todays GaInN-based light emitting devices such as LEDs and laser diodes show excellent properties in terms of quantum efficiency or threshold current in the violet-blue spectral region. With increasing wavelength towards the green this performance decreases strongly. In particular at longer wavelengths, the quantum efficiency decreases for higher current densities, called the efficiency droop. This phenomenon is still subject to intensive research and different mechanisms such as Auger recombination, losses due to dislocations and carrier escape have been named as possible explanations. We combine optical gain measurements using the variable stripe length technique with model calculations of the optical gain spectra to derive the carrier lifetime. From the dependence of the inverse effective lifetime on carrier density we determine the recombination coefficients for radiative, nonradiative and Auger recombination. The Auger coefficients we obtained are about 1-2 x 10-31 cm6/s for GaInN quantum wells with 2.5eVg<3.1 eV which is more than an order of magnitude lower than estimated from photoluminescence and thus too low to explain the LED droop. Nevertheless, Auger recombination seems to contribute to laser threshold.

  9. Operations of and Future Plans for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; agoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; DiGiulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; GarcíaGámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kühn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; LaRosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; VandenBerg, A M; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2009-01-01

    Technical reports on operations and features of the Pierre Auger Observatory, including ongoing and planned enhancements and the status of the future northern hemisphere portion of the Observatory. Contributions to the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, Lodz, Poland, July 2009.

  10. 30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environment. (5) Spoil placed on the outslope during previous mining operations shall not be disturbed if such... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19 Section 819.19 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. Experimental KLM plus KLN Auger spectrum of Cu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Inoyatov, A. K.; Perevoshchikov, L. L.; Zhdanov, V. S.; Filosofov, D. V.; Kovalík, Alojz

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 18, AUG (2013), s. 23-26. ISSN 0368-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP203/12/1896 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : electron spectroscopy * Auger spectra * KLM transitions * transitions energy * Cu-65 * Zn-65 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics , Colliders Impact factor: 1.552, year: 2013

  12. Field screening of a fuel farm using hand auger borings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-seven hand auger borings were drilled within and around the northern fuel farm at Naval Air Station Moffett Field, California. The placement and depth of: (1) hand auger borings, (2) deep soil borings and (3) monitoring wells were established to define the horizontal extent of field-detected contamination. Upon delineation of the hydrocarbon plume and the buried channel deposit, two A1 aquifer monitoring wells and three free product wells were installed. Each location was initialized as a sod boring employing continuous core drilling for stratigraphic information. The two monitoring wells were screened within sand units exhibiting substantial levels of contaminants detected using a photoionizer. The three free product wells were installed in keeping within the scope of the work plan which required that a free product well be installed wherever free product was observed on the ground-water in the open borehole. The three locations contained thicknesses from 1 to 3 mm of yellow oily product when measured with a clear acrylic bailer in the open 'hand auger' hole. After installation of the two monitoring wells and the additional installation of observation wells, one aquifer test was conducted to acquire hydrogeologic data for fate and transport modeling and remediation of the area. This paper will discuss a field study that used hand augers as a screening method. This method provided a cost-effective means of delineating the horizontal extent of a shallow hydrocarbon plume, defined the extent of a free product plume, defined aquifer characteristics and aided in the proper selection of well location and screen placement. The paper demonstrates how the field screening method of hand augered borings resulted in optimum monitoring well placement by discussion of groundwater analytical results from the monitoring wells, geologic data and aquifer tests from the selectively placed monitoring wells

  13. Upflow bioreactor having a septum and an auger and drive assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Carl S.; Hansen, Conly L.

    2007-11-06

    An upflow bioreactor includes a vessel having an inlet and an outlet configured for upflow operation. A septum is positioned within the vessel and defines a lower chamber and an upper chamber. The septum includes an aperture that provides fluid communication between the upper chamber and lower chamber. The bioreactor also includes an auger positioned in the aperture of the septum. The vessel includes an opening in the top for receiving the auger. The auger extends from a drive housing, which is position over the opening and provides a seal around the opening. The drive housing is adjustable relative to the vessel. The position of the auger in the aperture can be adjusted by adjusting the drive housing relative to the vessel. The auger adjustment mechanism allows the auger to be accurately positioned within the aperture. The drive housing can also include a fluid to provide an additional seal around the shaft of the auger.

  14. Search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos in highly inclined events at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to neutrinos of all flavors above 0.1 EeV. These interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere giving rise to extensive air showers. When interacting deeply in the atmosphere at nearly horizontal incidence, neutrinos can be distinguished from regular hadronic cosmic rays by the broad time structure of their shower signals in the water-Cherenkov detectors. In this paper we present for the first time an analysis based on down-going neutrinos. We describe the search procedure, the possible sources of background, the method to compute the exposure and the associated systematic uncertainties. No candidate neutrinos have been found in data collected from 1 January 2004 to 31 May 2010. Assuming an E-2 differential energy spectrum the limit on the single-flavor neutrino is E2dN/dE-7GeVcm-2s-1sr-1 at 90% C.L. in the energy range 1x1017eV20eV.

  15. Study of the performance of the photovoltaic system of the Pierre Auger Observatory and proposal for an upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Each one of the 1660 stations of the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is powered by a 100W stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system composed of a solar panel and two batteries in series on a 24 V setup. Each station continuously stores information by use of a data logger and a radio link. Data is recorded and transmitted roughly every 6 minutes to the Central Data Acquisition Building. In addition to cosmic ray related data, PV performance parameters are also monitored. As a consequence, Auger constitutes an interesting setup for PV stand-alone systems research. In this work, we present the control processes used to ensure optimal performance of the solar power system in the Auger Observatory and propose an upgrade to ensure a better system performance. Most of the work is centered on the batteries, which are the most sensitive elements of the power chain. The batteries are of the Valve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) type, manufactured by Moura-Brazil. A dedicated system has been designed and built in order to qualify the batteries before installation in the field. During regular operation, the monitoring data are exhaustively analyzed in order to detect failures. A set of analysis tools has been developed, both for anomalies detection and for lifetime predictions. From the reported analysis, it has been possible to identify some aspects of the adopted PV system that may be improved, mainly on the batteries voltage unbalance, which rises on charging two batteries in series on a 24V setup. We show that the same behavior is observed in laboratory tests. In order to reduce battery failures, we proposed and tested the detector electronics performance when working with batteries in parallel on a 12V setup. The main changes on the solar power system of the detector are the connections of the solar panel and batteries (from 24V to 12V), the replacement of the charge controller and the introduction a low power DC-DC converter. Our results show that this

  16. Results from and prospects for the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg A.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA is one of the low-energy enhancements of the Pierre Auger Observatory. AERA is based on experience obtained with the LOPES and CODALEMA experiments in Europe and aims to study in the MHz region the details of the emission mechanism of radio signals from extensive air showers. The data from AERA will be used to assess the sensitivity of MHz radiation to the mass composition of cosmic rays. Because of its energy threshold at 2 × 1017 eV the dip region in the cosmic-ray flux spectrum can be studied in detail. We present first results of AERA and of its prototypes and we provide an outlook towards the future.

  17. Nitridation of silicon /111/ - Auger and LEED results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delord, J. F.; Schrott, A. G.; Fain, S. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Clean silicon (111) (7x7) surfaces at up to 1050 C have been reacted with nitrogen ions and neutrals produced by a low energy ion gun. The LEED patterns observed are similar to those previously reported for reaction of silicon (111) (7x7) with NH3. The nitrogen KLL peak exhibits no shift or change in shape with nitride growth. At the same time the magnitude of the elemental silicon LVV peak at 92 eV decreases progressively as a new peak at 84 eV increases. The position of both peaks appears to be independent of the degree of nitridation. Since the Auger spectra are free of oxygen and other impurities, these features can be attributed only to silicon, nitrogen, and their reaction products. Characteristic features of the Auger spectra are related to LEED observations and to the growth of microcrystals of Si3N4.

  18. Muons in Air Showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, M.

    We present measurements of muons in air showers at ultra-high energies with the Pierre Auger Observatory. The number of muons at the ground in air showers detected at large zenith angles is determined as a function of energy and the results are compared to air shower simulations. Furthermore, using data collected at zenith angles smaller than 60°, rescaling factors are derived that quantify the deficit of muon production in air shower simulations.

  19. Metastable states in NO2+ probed with Auger spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Püttner, R.; Sekushin, V.; Fukuzawa, H.; Uhlíková, T.; Špirko, Vladimír; Asahina, T.; Kuze, N.; Kato, H.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.; Thomas, T. D.; Kukk, E.; Tamenori, Y.; Kaindl, G.; Ueda, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 41 (2011), s. 18436-18446. ISSN 1463-9076 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GP203/09/P306; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400400504; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06071 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : NO2 +metastable states * Auger spectroscopy * vibrational energies Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  20. Scanning Auger microscopy for high lateral and depth elemental sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, E., E-mail: eugenie.martinez@cea.fr [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Yadav, P. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bouttemy, M. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Renault, O.; Borowik, Ł.; Bertin, F. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Etcheberry, A. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Chabli, A. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •SAM performances and limitations are illustrated on real practical cases such as the analysis of nanowires and nanodots. •High spatial elemental resolution is shown with the analysis of reference semiconducting Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As/GaAs multilayers. •High in-depth elemental resolution is also illustrated. Auger depth profiling with low energy ion beams allows revealing ultra-thin layers (∼1 nm). •Analysis of cross-sectional samples is another effective approach to obtain in-depth elemental information. -- Abstract: Scanning Auger microscopy is currently gaining interest for investigating nanostructures or thin multilayers stacks developed for nanotechnologies. New generation Auger nanoprobes combine high lateral (∼10 nm), energy (0.1%) and depth (∼2 nm) resolutions thus offering the possibility to analyze the elemental composition as well as the chemical state, at the nanometre scale. We report here on the performances and limitations on practical examples from nanotechnology research. The spatial elemental sensitivity is illustrated with the analysis of Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As/GaAs heterostructures, Si nanowires and SiC nanodots. Regarding the elemental in-depth composition, two effective approaches are presented: low energy depth profiling to reveal ultra-thin layers (∼1 nm) and analysis of cross-sectional samples.

  1. Laser-excited fluorescence for measuring atmospheric pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, R. T.

    1975-01-01

    System measures amount of given pollutant at specific location. Infrared laser aimed at location has wavelength that will cause molecules of pollutant to fluoresce. Detector separates fluorescence from other radiation and measures its intensity to indicate concentration of pollutant.

  2. Rapid and sensitive determination of benzo[a]pyrene in black ginseng using fluorescence detector and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Hye-jin; Son, Byeong-cheol; Jo, Dong-keun; Cho, Byung-lim

    2013-05-01

    Black ginseng is produced by steaming a ginseng root followed by drying repeatedly 9 times during the process and it is changed to be black color, so it is known that a black ginseng has more contents of saponins than red ginseng. However a fake black ginseng which is produced to be black color at high temperature in a short period of time generate carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene(BaP) through the process. In this year, maximum residue level(MRL) for BaP was established to 2 ug/kg in black ginseng and more sensitive method was developed to quantitatively analyze the BaP by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupling with florescence detector and tandem mass spectrometry (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a Supelcosil™ LC-PAH column (3 μm, 3 mm x 50 mm). Mobile phase A was water and mobile phase B was acetonitrile. BaP was exactly separated from other 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which have been selected as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Linearity of detection was in the range of 0.2~20 μg/kg and limit of detection (LOD) for BaP was lower than 0.1 μg/kg, limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.2 μg/kg. The recovery of Bap was 92.54%+/-6.3% in black ginseng.

  3. Ramsey method for Auger-electron interference induced by an attosecond twin pulse

    OpenAIRE

    Buth, Christian; Schafer, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the archetype of an interference experiment for Auger electrons: two electron wave packets are launched by inner-shell ionizing a krypton atom using two attosecond light pulses with a variable time delay. This setting is an attosecond realization of the Ramsey method of separated oscillatory fields. Interference of the two ejected Auger-electron wave packets is predicted, indicating that the coherence between the two pulses is passed to the Auger electrons. For the detection of the...

  4. Observation of resonance recombination lines in electron excited Auger spectra of Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined measurements of electron excited Nsub(4,5) Auger spectra and photoelectron emission on clean and oxidized Gd lead to a distinction between Auger lines originating from 4d → continuum and 4d → 4f resonance excitations. Several Auger structures are identified as due to the direct recombination of 4d94f8 states with the 4f and valence electrons. The shape of the most prominent Auger line for oxidized Gd agrees perfectly with the Fano profile of the 4f photoemission intensity. (orig.)

  5. Astrophysical Sources of Cosmic Rays and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects in Pierre Auger Observatory data; (2) Discriminating potential astrophysical sources of the highest energy cosmic rays with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Intrinsic anisotropy of the UHECR from the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Ultra-high energy photon studies with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) Limits on the flux of diffuse ultra high energy neutrinos set using the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) Search for sidereal modulation of the arrival directions of events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (7) Cosmic Ray Solar Modulation Studies in the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) Investigation of the Displacement Angle of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays Caused by the Galactic Magnetic Field; (9) Search for coincidences with astrophysical transients in Pierre Auger Observatory data; and (10) An alternative method for determining the energy of hybrid events at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  6. Whole column fluorescence imaging on a microchip by using a programmed organic light emitting diode array as a spatial-scanning light source and a single photomultiplier tube as detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kangning; Liang, Qionglin; Yao, Bo; Luo, Guoan; Wang, Liduo; Gao, Yudi; Wang, Yiming; Qiu, Yong

    2007-11-01

    A novel miniaturized, integrated whole-column imaging detection (WCID) system on a microchip is presented. In this system, a program controlled organic light emitting diode (OLED) array was used as a spatial-scanning light source, to achieve imaging by the time sequence of the excited fluorescence. By this mechanism, a photomultiplier tube (PMT) instead of a charge coupled detector (CCD) can be applied to the imaging. Unlike conventional systems, no lenses, fibers or any mechanical components are required either. The novel flat light source provides uniform excitation light without size limitations and outputs a stronger power by pulse driving. The scanning mode greatly reduced the power consumption of the light source, which is valuable for a portable system. Meanwhile, this novel simplified system has a broader linear range, higher sensitivity and higher efficiency in data collection. Isoelectric focusing of R-phycoerythrin (PE) and monitoring of the overall process with WCID were performed on this system. The limit of detection (LOD) was 38 ng mL(-1) or 3.2 pg at 85 nL per column injection of PE. The system provides a technique for WCID capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) on chip and can be used for throughput analysis. PMID:17960288

  7. Components of Detector Response Function: Experiment and Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Components of the response function of an HPGe (high-purity germanium) detector due to full or partial energy deposition by gamma- and X-rays were studied. Experimental response functions for 241Am, Ba and Tb were compared with those obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations. The role of physical mechanisms for each component was investigated by considering escape/absorption of photons, photoelectrons, Auger electrons, recoil electrons and X-rays of the detector material. A detailed comparison of the experimental Compton, photoelectron, detector X-ray escape components and full-energy peaks with those obtained from Monte Carlo program are presented

  8. An improved limit to the diffuse flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, Alexander; Aglietta, Marco; Ahn, Eun-Joo; Samarai, Imen Al; Albuquerque, Ivone; Allekotte, Ingomar; Allison, Patrick; Almela, Alejandro; Castillo, Jesus Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Batista, Rafael Alves; Ambrosio, Michelangelo; Aminaei, Amin; Anchordoqui, Luis; Andringa, Sofia; Aramo, Carla; Aranda, Victor Manuel; Arqueros, Fernando; Arsene, Nicusor; Asorey, Hernán Gonzalo; Assis, Pedro; Aublin, Julien; Ave, Maximo; Avenier, Michel; Avila, Gualberto; Awal, Nafiun; Badescu, Alina Mihaela; Barber, Kerri B; Bäuml, Julia; Baus, Colin; Beatty, Jim; Becker, Karl Heinz; Bellido, Jose A; Berat, Corinne; Bertaina, Mario Edoardo; Bertou, Xavier; Biermann, Peter; Billoir, Pierre; Blaess, Simon G; Blanco, Alberto; Blanco, Miguel; Bleve, Carla; Blümer, Hans; Boháčová, Martina; Boncioli, Denise; Bonifazi, Carla; Borodai, Nataliia; Brack, Jeffrey; Brancus, Iliana; Bridgeman, Ariel; Brogueira, Pedro; Brown, William C; Buchholz, Peter; Bueno, Antonio; Buitink, Stijn; Buscemi, Mario; Caballero-Mora, Karen S; Caccianiga, Barbara; Caccianiga, Lorenzo; Candusso, Marina; Caramete, Laurentiu; Caruso, Rossella; Castellina, Antonella; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cazon, Lorenzo; Cester, Rosanna; Chavez, Alan G; Chiavassa, Andrea; Chinellato, Jose Augusto; Chudoba, Jiri; Cilmo, Marco; Clay, Roger W; Cocciolo, Giuseppe; Colalillo, Roberta; Coleman, Alan; Collica, Laura; Coluccia, Maria Rita; Conceição, Ruben; Contreras, Fernando; Cooper, Mathew J; Cordier, Alain; Coutu, Stephane; Covault, Corbin; Cronin, James; Dallier, Richard; Daniel, Bruno; Dasso, Sergio; Daumiller, Kai; Dawson, Bruce R; de Almeida, Rogerio M; de Jong, Sijbrand J; De Mauro, Giuseppe; Neto, Joao de Mello; De Mitri, Ivan; de Oliveira, Jaime; de Souza, Vitor; del Peral, Luis; Deligny, Olivier; Dembinski, Hans; Dhital, Niraj; Di Giulio, Claudio; Di Matteo, Armando; Diaz, Johana Chirinos; Castro, Mary Lucia Díaz; Diogo, Francisco; Dobrigkeit, Carola; Docters, Wendy; D'Olivo, Juan Carlos; Dorofeev, Alexei; Hasankiadeh, Qader Dorosti; Dova, Maria Teresa; Ebr, Jan; Engel, Ralph; Erdmann, Martin; Erfani, Mona; Escobar, Carlos O; Espadanal, Joao; Etchegoyen, Alberto; Falcke, Heino; Fang, Ke; Farrar, Glennys; Fauth, Anderson; Fazzini, Norberto; Ferguson, Andrew P; Fernandes, Mateus; Fick, Brian; Figueira, Juan Manuel; Filevich, Alberto; Filipčič, Andrej; Fox, Brendan; Fratu, Octavian; Freire, Martín Miguel; Fuchs, Benjamin; Fujii, Toshihiro; García, Beatriz; Garcia-Pinto, Diego; Gate, Florian; Gemmeke, Hartmut; Gherghel-Lascu, Alexandru; Ghia, Piera Luisa; Giaccari, Ugo; Giammarchi, Marco; Giller, Maria; Głas, Dariusz; Glaser, Christian; Glass, Henry; Golup, Geraldina; Berisso, Mariano Gómez; Vitale, Primo F Gómez; González, Nicolás; Gookin, Ben; Gordon, Jacob; Gorgi, Alessio; Gorham, Peter; Gouffon, Philippe; Griffith, Nathan; Grillo, Aurelio; Grubb, Trent D; Guardincerri, Yann; Guarino, Fausto; Guedes, Germano; Hampel, Matías Rolf; Hansen, Patricia; Harari, Diego; Harrison, Thomas A; Hartmann, Sebastian; Harton, John; Haungs, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heck, Dieter; Heimann, Philipp; Herve, Alexander E; Hill, Gary C; Hojvat, Carlos; Hollon, Nicholas; Holt, Ewa; Homola, Piotr; Hörandel, Jörg; Horvath, Pavel; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Huber, Daniel; Huege, Tim; Insolia, Antonio; Isar, Paula Gina; Jandt, Ingolf; Jansen, Stefan; Jarne, Cecilia; Johnsen, Jeffrey A; Josebachuili, Mariela; Kääpä, Alex; Kambeitz, Olga; Kampert, Karl Heinz; Kasper, Peter; Katkov, Igor; Kégl, Balazs; Keilhauer, Bianca; Keivani, Azadeh; Kemp, Ernesto; Kieckhafer, Roger; Klages, Hans; Kleifges, Matthias; Kleinfeller, Jonny; Krause, Raphael; Krohm, Nicole; Krömer, Oliver; Kuempel, Daniel; Kunka, Norbert; LaHurd, Danielle; Latronico, Luca; Lauer, Robert; Lauscher, Markus; Lautridou, Pascal; Coz, Sandra Le; Lebrun, Didier; Lebrun, Paul; de Oliveira, Marcelo Augusto Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, Antoine; Lhenry-Yvon, Isabelle; Link, Katrin; Lopes, Luis; López, Rebeca; Casado, Aida López; Louedec, Karim; Lu, Lu; Lucero, Agustin; Malacari, Max; Maldera, Simone; Mallamaci, Manuela; Maller, Jennifer; Mandat, Dusan; Mantsch, Paul; Mariazzi, Analisa; Marin, Vincent; Mariş, Ioana; Marsella, Giovanni; Martello, Daniele; Martin, Lilian; Martinez, Humberto; Bravo, Oscar Martínez; Martraire, Diane; Meza, Jimmy Masías; Mathes, Hermann-Josef; Mathys, Sebastian; Matthews, James; Matthews, John; Matthiae, Giorgio; Maurel, Detlef; Maurizio, Daniela; Mayotte, Eric; Mazur, Peter; Medina, Carlos; Medina-Tanco, Gustavo; Meissner, Rebecca; Mello, Victor; Melo, Diego; Menshikov, Alexander; Messina, Stefano; Meyhandan, Rishi; Micheletti, Maria Isabel; Middendorf, Lukas; Minaya, Ignacio A; Miramonti, Lino; Mitrica, Bogdan; Molina-Bueno, Laura; Mollerach, Silvia; Montanet, François; Morello, Carlo; Mostafá, Miguel; Moura, Celio A; Muller, Marcio Aparecido; Müller, Gero; Müller, Sarah; Mussa, Roberto; Navarra, Gianni; Navarro, Jose Luis; Navas, Sergio; Necesal, Petr; Nellen, Lukas; Nelles, Anna; Neuser, Jens; Nguyen, Phong H; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, Mihai; Niechciol, Marcus; Niemietz, Lukas; Niggemann, Tim; Nitz, Dave; Nosek, Dalibor; Novotny, Vladimir; Nožka, Lyberis; Ochilo, Livingstone; Oikonomou, Foteini; Olinto, Angela; Pacheco, Noelia; Selmi-Dei, Daniel Pakk; Palatka, Miroslav; Pallotta, Juan; Papenbreer, Philipp; Parente, Gonzalo; Parra, Alejandra; Paul, Thomas; Pech, Miroslav; Pękala, Jan; Pelayo, Rodrigo; Pepe, Iuri; Perrone, Lorenzo; Petermann, Emily; Peters, Christine; Petrera, Sergio; Petrov, Yevgeniy; Phuntsok, Jamyang; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pierog, Tanguy; Pieroni, Pablo; Pimenta, Mário; Pirronello, Valerio; Platino, Manuel; Plum, Matthias; Porcelli, Alessio; Porowski, Czeslaw; Prado, Raul Ribeiro; Privitera, Paolo; Prouza, Michael; Purrello, Victor; Quel, Eduardo J; Querchfeld, Sven; Quinn, Sean; Rautenberg, Julian; Ravel, Olivier; Ravignani, Diego; Revenu, Benoît; Ridky, Jan; Riggi, Simone; Risse, Markus; Ristori, Pablo; Rizi, Vincenzo; de Carvalho, Washington Rodrigues; Fernandez, Gonzalo Rodriguez; Rojo, Jorge Rubén Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, Maria Dolores; Rogozin, Dmytro; Rosado, Jaime; Roth, Markus; Roulet, Esteban; Rovero, Adrian; Saffi, Steven J; Saftoiu, Alexandra; Salamida, Francesco; Salazar, Humberto; Saleh, Ahmed; Greus, Francisco Salesa; Salina, Gaetano; Sánchez, Federico; Sanchez-Lucas, Patricia; Santos, Edivaldo Moura; Santos, Eva; Sarazin, Fred; Sarkar, Biswaijt; Sarmento, Raul; Sato, Ricardo; Scarso, Carlos; Schauer, Markus; Scherini, Viviana; Schieler, Harald; Schiffer, Peter; Schmidt, David; Scholten, Olaf; Schoorlemmer, Harm; Schovánek, Petr; Schröder, Frank G; Schulz, Alexander; Schulz, Johannes; Schumacher, Johannes; Sciutto, Sergio; Segreto, Alberto; Settimo, Mariangela; Shadkam, Amir; Shellard, Ronald C; Sidelnik, Iván; Sigl, Guenter; Sima, Octavian; Śmiałkowski, Andrzej; Šmída, Radomir; Snow, Gregory; Sommers, Paul; Sorokin, J; Squartini, Ruben; Srivastava, Yogendra N; Stanca, Denis; Stanič, Samo; Stapleton, James; Stasielak, Jaroslaw; Stephan, Maurice; Stutz, Anne; Suarez, Federico; Suomijärvi, Tiina; Supanitsky, A Daniel; Sutherland, Michael; Swain, John; Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Taborda, Oscar Alejandro; Tapia, Alex; Tepe, Andreas; Theodoro, Vanessa Menezes; Tiffenberg, Javier; Timmermans, Charles; Peixoto, Carlos J Todero; Toma, Gabriel; Tomankova, Lenka; Tomé, Bernardo; Tonachini, Aurelio; Elipe, Guillermo Torralba; Machado, Diego Torres; Travnicek, Petr; Ulrich, Ralf; Unger, Michael; Urban, Martin; Galicia, Jose F Valdés; Valiño, Ines; Valore, Laura; van Aar, Guus; van Bodegom, Patrick; Berg, Ad M van den; van Velzen, Sjoert; van Vliet, Arjen; Varela, Enrique; Cárdenas, Bernardo Vargas; Varner, Gary; Vasquez, Rafael; Vázquez, Jose R; Vázquez, Ricardo; Veberič, Darko; Verzi, Valerio; Vicha, Jakub; Videla, Mariela; Villaseñor, Luis; Vlcek, Brian; Vorobiov, Serguei; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wainberg, Oscar; Walz, David; Watson, Alan; Weber, Marc; Weidenhaupt, Klaus; Weindl, Andreas; Werner, Felix; Widom, Allan; Wiencke, Lawrence; Wilczyński, Henryk; Winchen, Tobias; Wittkowski, David; Wundheiler, Brian; Wykes, Sarka; Yang, Lili; Yapici, Tolga; Yushkov, Alexey; Zas, Enrique; Zavrtanik, Danilo; Zavrtanik, Marko; Zepeda, Arnulfo; Zhu, Yue; Zimmermann, Benedikt; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zuccarello, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinos in the cosmic ray flux with energies near 1 EeV and above are detectable with the Surface Detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We report here on searches through Auger data from 1 January 2004 until 20 June 2013. No neutrino candidates were found, yielding a limit to the diffuse flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos that challenges the Waxman-Bahcall bound predictions. Neutrino identification is attempted using the broad time-structure of the signals expected in the SD stations, and is efficiently done for neutrinos of all flavors interacting in the atmosphere at large zenith angles, as well as for "Earth-skimming" neutrino interactions in the case of tau neutrinos. In this paper the searches for downward-going neutrinos in the zenith angle bins $60^\\circ-75^\\circ$ and $75^\\circ-90^\\circ$ as well as for upward-going neutrinos, are combined to give a single limit. The $90\\%$ C.L. single-flavor limit to the diffuse flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos with an $E^{-2}$ spectrum in the energy ra...

  9. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  10. X-ray Fluorescence Sectioning

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Wenxiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an x-ray fluorescence imaging system for elemental analysis. The key idea is what we call "x-ray fluorescence sectioning". Specifically, a slit collimator in front of an x-ray tube is used to shape x-rays into a fan-beam to illuminate a planar section of an object. Then, relevant elements such as gold nanoparticles on the fan-beam plane are excited to generate x-ray fluorescence signals. One or more 2D spectral detectors are placed to face the fan-beam plane and directly measure x-ray fluorescence data. Detector elements are so collimated that each element only sees a unique area element on the fan-beam plane and records the x-ray fluorescence signal accordingly. The measured 2D x-ray fluorescence data can be refined in reference to the attenuation characteristics of the object and the divergence of the beam for accurate elemental mapping. This x-ray fluorescence sectioning system promises fast fluorescence tomographic imaging without a complex inverse procedure. The design can be ad...

  11. Detection of ultra-high-energy cosmic radiation at the Pierre Auger Observatory, theoretical study of its propagation through extragalactic space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger observatory's main aim is to observe the ultra-energetic cosmic ray spectrum with high statistics. Indeed, the spectrum around 1020 eV is so far only poorly known, due to low statistics and the expected GZK (Gneisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin) cut-off is for the time being not clearly observed. The first part will deal with propagation of charged (protons and nuclei) ultra-energetic cosmic rays in the extragalactic medium. We will investigate the influence of physical parameters, such as the composition of cosmic ray fluxes, on the highest energy spectrum shape. The influence of the turbulent extragalactic magnetic fields on the spectrum of the clusters will also be studied. We will also investigate the possibility to observe gamma ray bursts with the Pierre Auger Observatory by using the single particle technique. We will show how galactic gamma ray bursts could become a persistent and quasi-isotropic source due to the 'Compton trail' induced by Compton scattering of the primary photon beam in the interstellar medium. In the section devoted to simulations, we will develop methods to reconstruct air showers and identify primary cosmic rays. We will also study the aperture of the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger observatory. Finally, we will use the methods developed in the previous chapters to analyze the data of the year 2004 and will give preliminary results. (author)

  12. Enhanced radiative Auger emission from lithiumlike 20Ca17+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative Auger emission (RAE) from lithiumlike 20Ca17+ projectiles excited in collisions with He has been measured. The intensity of RAE photons relative to Kα X-ray emission is enhanced by a factor of 10-17 compared with theoretical calculations for ions with few electron vacancies. The enhancement of RAE for Ca17+ is consistent with the results reported previously for lithiumlike 16S13+ and 23V20+ and indicates a systematic dependence on Z. Both the enhancement and the relative RAE transition rate increase with Z. (orig.)

  13. Enhanced radiative Auger emission from lithiumlike 16S13+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiative Auger emission (RAE) from 0.94--6.25-MeV/u 16S13+ (lithiumlike) projectiles excited in collisions with He target atoms has been measured. For these highly stripped ions the intensity of RAE photons relative to Kα x-ray emission is enhanced by about a factor of five compared with theoretical calculations and an earlier experimental measurement for S ions with few electron vacancies. The enhancement of RAE for S13+ is qualitatively similar to results reported previously for lithiumlike 23V20+; however, some differences between S and V are evident

  14. Sequential double Auger decay in atoms: A quantum informatic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We theoretically show that the process of inner-shell photoionization in an atom A, followed by the spontaneous sequential emission of two Auger electrons, produces various kinds of spin-entangled states of three flying electronic qubits. All properties of these states are completely pre-determined by the total spin quantum numbers of the electronic states of four atomic species (i.e., A, A+*, A2+*, A3+) participating in this process in the Russell-Saunders coupling. These tripartite states are readily characterized experimentally by measuring only energies of the three emitted electrons, without requiring any entanglement witness or other such protocols.

  15. Sequential double Auger decay in atoms: A quantum informatic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, S.; Chandra, N.

    2009-05-01

    We theoretically show that the process of inner-shell photoionization in an atom A, followed by the spontaneous sequential emission of two Auger electrons, produces various kinds of spin-entangled states of three flying electronic qubits. All properties of these states are completely pre-determined by the total spin quantum numbers of the electronic states of four atomic species (i.e., A, A, A, A) participating in this process in the Russell-Saunders coupling. These tripartite states are readily characterized experimentally by measuring only energies of the three emitted electrons, without requiring any entanglement witness or other such protocols.

  16. Ultrahigh Energy Neutrinos at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, P; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; D. Allard; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; J. Alvarez-Muñiz; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.

    2013-01-01

    The successful installation, commissioning, and operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory would not have been possible without the strong commitment and effort fromthe technical and administrative staff in Malarg¨ue. The authors are very grateful to the following agencies and organizations for financial support: Comisi´on Nacional de Energ´ıa At´omica, Fundaci ´on Antorchas, Gobierno De La Provincia de Mendoza, Municipalidad de Malarg¨ue, NDM Holdings and Valle Las Le˜...

  17. A worm section of an auger drilling installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.E.; Kiseleve, E.I.; Krutilin, V.I.; Manzhula, I.T.; Ovsiannikov, P.A.; Savich, N.S.; Tverezyi, Iu.F.

    1981-01-01

    A worm section of an auger drilling installation, comprising columns arranged in parallel and adapters for decreasing the disturbance of the walls of the wells, is characterized in that for the purpose of decreasing the consumption of energy, the adapter for the decrease in the disturbance in the walls of the wells is made in the form of a cylindrical cover with longitudinal windows, arranged on a segment of the length of the worm, with which each cover is positioned rigidly in order to prevent it from shifting lengthwise by means of a support, reinforced on the shaft of the worm. Cylindrical covers are interconnected by a connection element.

  18. Propagation and sky distribution of ultra-high energy cosmic rays; Propagation et distribution sur le ciel des rayons cosmiques d'ultra-haute energie dans le cadre de l'Observatoire Pierre Auger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armengaud, E

    2006-05-15

    The origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays remains an enigma of modern physics, which the Pierre Auger Observatory, a detector with a hybrid detection mode and an unprecedented size, will try to solve. The direct observation of the sources of those particles, or of large-scale structures in the sky associated to the sources, is one of the main goals of the observatory. Such observations should also allow to constrain cosmic ray propagation between their sources and the Earth, which is complicated by interactions with low-energy photon backgrounds and deflections in astrophysical magnetic fields. This thesis is made of two parts, in order to observe and simulate the sources of cosmic rays within the Auger Observatory. We begin with an extensive description of the Pierre Auger Observatory, and study the acceptance of its surface detector in order to build accurate sky exposure maps, an essential tool in order to study anisotropies. Then we present methods to search for anisotropies in the sky, and analyze the first two years of Auger data. After a description of the phenomena that can influence the propagation and observation of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray sources, we present numerical simulations aiming at predicting observables such as the spectrum, anisotropies and composition measurable by Auger as a function of various astrophysical models. We show that extragalactic magnetic fields can play a crucial role in particular if cosmic rays are partly heavy nuclei. Finally, we show that the propagation of these particles from a nearby source generates secondary fluxes of gamma-rays that could be detected by TeV gamma-ray telescopes. (author)

  19. K X-ray production cross sections, Kβ/Kα ratios, and radiative Auger ratios for protons impacting low-Z elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Cockcroft-Walton accelerator was used to produce 50-300 keV protons to excite characteristic X-rays from thick targets of elements from Z=21 to 32, using an efficiency-calibrated Si(Li) detector equipped with an ultra-thin window. X-ray production cross sections were determined and compared with prevailing theories. Special attention was paid to accounting for the radiative Auger effects (RAE) in the analysis of the X-ray energy spectra. Ratios of RAE to Kα and Kβ intensities, as well as Kβ/Kα ratios, will be compared to theoretical values

  20. Measurements of the Depth of Maximum of Air-Shower Profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory and their Composition Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, V.

    We describe how the analysis of air showers detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory leads to an accurate determination of the depth of maximum (Xmax). First, the analysis of the air-shower which leads to the reconstruction of Xmax is discussed. The properties of the detector and its measurement biases are treated and carefully taken into consideration. The Xmax results are interpreted in terms of composition, where the interpretation depends mainly on the hadronic interaction models. A global fit of the Xmax distribution yields an estimate of the abundance of four primaries species. The analysis represents the most statistically significant composition information ever obtained for energies above 1017.8 eV. The scenario that emerges shows no support for a strong flux of iron nuclei and a strong energy dependence of the proton fraction.

  1. Atmospheric Calorimetry above 10$^{19}$ eV: Shooting Lasers at the Pierre Auger Cosmic-Ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Wiencke, L

    2008-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Cosmic-Ray Observatory uses the earth's atmosphere as a calorimeter to measure extensive air-showers created by particles of astrophysical origin. Some of these particles carry joules of energy. At these extreme energies, test beams are not available in the conventional sense. Yet understanding the energy response of the observatory is important. For example, the propagation distance of the highest energy cosmic-rays through the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) is predicted to be strong function of energy. This paper will discuss recently reported results from the observatory and the use of calibrated pulsed UV laser "test-beams" that simulate the optical signatures of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The status of the much larger 200,000 km$^3$ companion detector planned for the northern hemisphere will also be outlined.

  2. Interatomic Coulombic decay of NeAr dimers following Auger decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using momentum-resolved electron-ion multicoincidence, we have investigated interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD). We observed ICD processes in NeAr dimers following Ar LMM and Ne KLL Auger decay. From Auger final state of Ar2+(3s−2), we observed ICD where three electrons participate in.

  3. Drilling Power Consumption and Soil Conveying Volume Performances of Lunar Sampling Auger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Ye; TANG Dewei; DENG Zongquan; JIANG Shengyuan; QUAN Qiquan

    2015-01-01

    The sampling auger used in lunar sampling and return mission is to transmit power and convey soil, and its performance is the key factor of the whole mission. However, there is currently a lack of the optimization research on soil conveying volume and power consumption models in auger structure design. To provide the drilled object, the simulation lunar soil, whose physical and mechanical property is the same as the real soil, is made by reducing soil void ratio. The models are formulated to analyze the influence of auger structure parameters on power consumption and soil conveying volume. To obtaln the optimized structure parameters of auger, the multi-objective optimization functions of the maximum soil conveying volume and minimum power consumption are developed. To verify the correctness of the models, the performances of different augers drilling simulation soil are tested. The test results demonstrate that the power consumption of optimized auger is the lowest both in theory and test, and the experimental results of soil conveying volume are in agreement with theoretical analysis. Consequently, a new method for designing a lunar sampling auger is proposed which includes the models of soil conveying volume and transportation power consumption, the optimization of structure parameters and the comparison tests. This method provides a reference for sampling auger designing of the Chinese Lunar Sample Mission.

  4. Geometry dependence of Auger carrier capture rates into cone-shaped self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Bischoff, Svend; Uskov, A.V.; Mørk, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    We calculate carrier capture rates into cone- and truncated-cone-shaped quantum dots mediated by Auger processes. It is demonstrated that the capture rates depend strongly on both dot size and shape. The importance of phonon-mediated versus the Auger-mediated capture processes is discussed....

  5. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel ionization detector for use in X-ray tomography is described in detail. To achieve the ultimate resolution, the use of small detectors is necessary and, for ionization detectors, this implies using xenon gas at high pressure. Conventional small detectors can suffer from ''bowing'' but the present design overcomes their problems. (U.K.)

  6. Auger neutralization and ionization in grazing ion-surface interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimny, R. (Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Univ. Muenster (Germany)); Miskovic, Z.L. (Boris Kidric Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia))

    1991-06-01

    The effect of the projectile velocity parallel to the surface v{sub parallel} on Auger-type neutralization and ionization processes during grazing scattering of atomic particles from surfaces will be discussed. It is found that, contrary to the static case (v{sub parallel}=0), under grazing collision the Auger-type electron exchange between the metallic conduction band and an atomic orbital is a two-way process: atomic particles may be neutralized, as well as ionized. In particular, two types of v{sub parallel} dependence are obtained: (1) a gradual decrease of the final atomic level population with increasing v{sub parallel} in the case of atomic levels below the Fermi level E{sub F}, and (2) a peak-shaped v{sub parallel} dependence for atomic levels above E{sub F}. The leading features of these basic electron-exchange mechanisms between atoms and surfaces are illustrated for various atomic quasi-one-electron systems scattered from silver and magnesium surfaces. (orig.).

  7. Three-dimensional atomic-arrangement reconstruction from an Auger-electron hologram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current methods for reconstructing three-dimensional atomic arrangements from photoelectron holograms require data sets recorded using multiple incident photon energies. These techniques are thus difficult to apply to Auger-electron holography, since the kinetic energy of the Auger electron is element specific and independent of excitation energy. We propose a scattering pattern extraction algorithm using a maximum-entropy method for reconstructing the three-dimensional atomic arrangement from a single-energy Auger-electron hologram. The algorithm provides a clear atomic image by taking into account the scattering of the electron by nearby atoms and the non-s-wave nature of the Auger electron. We have applied the algorithm to an Auger-electron hologram of Cu(001) recorded at SPring-8's soft x-ray synchrotron radiation beamline BL25SU and succeeded in determining the positions of 102 atoms of the Cu fcc structure

  8. J Fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Resch-Genger, U.; Hoffmann, K.; Nietfeld, W; A. Engel; Neukammer, J.; Nitschke, R.; Ebert, P.; Macdonald, R

    2005-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to illustrate the need for an improved quality assurance in fluorometry. For this purpose, instrumental sources of error and their influences on the reliability and comparability of fluorescence data are highlighted for frequently used photoluminescence techniques ranging from conventional macro- and microfluorometry over fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry to microarray technology as well as in vivo fluorescence imaging. Particularly, the need for and requir...

  9. Atmospheric effects on extensive air showers observed with the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, M.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Halenka, V.; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Kárová, Tatiana; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Nyklíček, M.; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Rössler, T.; Řídký, Jan; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2009), s. 89-99. ISSN 0927-6505 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100100904; GA AV ČR KJB300100801; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : extensive air showers * UHECR * atmosphere * weather Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.136, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TJ1-4WNRK08-1&_user=625012&_coverDate=09%2F30%2F2009&_rdoc=2&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=d

  10. Fiber optic detector for immuno-testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Judy K.; Ward, Thomas E.; Grey, Alan E.

    1992-01-01

    A portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals in air or a gas by exchanging the target chemical for a fluoroescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

  11. Detection of ultra-high-energy cosmic radiation at the Pierre Auger Observatory, theoretical study of its propagation through extragalactic space; Detection des rayons cosmiques ultra-energetiques avec l'observatoire Pierre Auger et etude theorique de leur propagation dans le milieu extragalactique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, D

    2004-10-01

    The Pierre Auger observatory's main aim is to observe the ultra-energetic cosmic ray spectrum with high statistics. Indeed, the spectrum around 10{sup 20} eV is so far only poorly known, due to low statistics and the expected GZK (Gneisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin) cut-off is for the time being not clearly observed. The first part will deal with propagation of charged (protons and nuclei) ultra-energetic cosmic rays in the extragalactic medium. We will investigate the influence of physical parameters, such as the composition of cosmic ray fluxes, on the highest energy spectrum shape. The influence of the turbulent extragalactic magnetic fields on the spectrum of the clusters will also be studied. We will also investigate the possibility to observe gamma ray bursts with the Pierre Auger Observatory by using the single particle technique. We will show how galactic gamma ray bursts could become a persistent and quasi-isotropic source due to the 'Compton trail' induced by Compton scattering of the primary photon beam in the interstellar medium. In the section devoted to simulations, we will develop methods to reconstruct air showers and identify primary cosmic rays. We will also study the aperture of the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger observatory. Finally, we will use the methods developed in the previous chapters to analyze the data of the year 2004 and will give preliminary results. (author)

  12. Measurement of sub-10 fs Auger processes in monolayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanni, David; Yu, Guannan; Xing, Guichuan; Leek, Meng Lee; Sum, Tze Chien

    2015-08-10

    Despite the concerted efforts to directly probe the electron-electron (e-e) scattering mediated relaxation process in graphene using transient absorption spectroscopy, the initial sub-10 fs photoexcited carrier relaxation dynamics has remained elusive. Herein, we utilize a simple z-scan approach to elucidate this process and discern its mechanisms in CVD grown single layer graphene using femtosecond laser pulses with temporal pulse widths far longer than the relaxation time. We report the first experimental observation of e-e scattering lifetime shortening with increasing fluence, which had been theoretically predicted. Analysis from two-body Coulombic scattering suggests that Auger processes are essential relaxation channels in single layer graphene. Importantly, our straightforward approach on the graphene model system is applicable to the family of emergent layered materials. PMID:26367961

  13. A method and equipment for auger coal excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozovskii, I.I.; Levkovich, T.E.; Savich, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this invention is to provide automated coal excavation in seams containing unstable rock. This is achieved by an arrangement whereby the auger coal excavation method, which includes advancing two parallel development workings, excavating and transporting the coal, and delivering the rock and filling the worked out area with this rock, which is performed by screw conveyors which are kinematically linked to the working tools, the worked-out space is filled at the same time the coal is excavated; the coal is transported to one of the development workings by a screw conveyor, and the rock is delivered to the work-out area by a second screw conveyor connected to a second development working. One of the conveyors is shortened during the coal excavation, while the second conveyor is lengthened. This device includes a working tool, two sectional screw conveyors and a conveyor drive; the screw conveyors are located on opposite sides of the working tool.

  14. K-shell auger decay of atomic oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolte, W.C.; Lu, Y.; Samson, J.A.R. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The aim of the present research is to understand the interaction between the ejected photoelectron and Auger electron produced by the Auger decay of a 1s hole in atomic oxygen, and to understand the influence this interaction has on the shape of the ionization cross sections. To accomplish this the authors have measured the relative ion yields (ion/photon) in the vicinity of the oxygen K-shell (525 - 533 eV) for O{sup +} and O{sup 2+}. The measurements were performed at the ALS on beamline, 6.3.2. The atomic oxygen was produced by passing molecular oxygen through a microwave-driven discharge. A Rydberg analysis of the two series leading to the [1s]2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}({sup 4}P) and [1s]2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}({sup 2}P) limits were obtained. This analysis shows some differences to the recently published results by Menzel et al. The energy position of the main 1s{sup 1}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}({sup 3}P) resonance differs by approximately 1 eV from the authors value, all members of the ({sup 2}P)np series differ by 0.3 eV, but the members of the ({sup 4}P)np series agree. The molecular resonance at 530.5 eV and those between 539 eV and 543 eV, measured with the microwave discharge off show identical results in both experiments.

  15. 45-Day deliverable for Tank 241-BX-105 Auger samples, risers 2 and 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two auger samples from single-shell tank 241-BX-105 (BX-105) were extruded, broken down, and analyzed for DSC, TGA, and total alpha as prescribed. Analytical results were tracked and reported using the laboratory information management system known as LabCore. This is the final report for the fiscal year 1995 BX-105 auger sample characterization effort. Included are copies of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) scans as requested. Also included is a copy of any immediate notification documentation, chain of custody forms, the hot cell work plan, extruded segment [auger] description sheets, and total alpha data

  16. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Pedro; et al.,

    2013-12-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger Observatory. Using our new method we can now develop cloud probability maps for the 3000 km^2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory twice per hour with a spatial resolution of ~2.4 km by ~5.5 km. Our method could also be applied to monitor cloud cover for other ground-based observatories and for space-based observatories.

  17. Properties of Auger electrons following excitation of polarized atoms by polarized electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupliauskiene, A. [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy of Vilnius University, A. Gostauto 12, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)], E-mail: akupl@itpa.lt; Tutlys, V. [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy of Vilnius University, A. Gostauto 12, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2009-01-15

    In non-relativistic approximation, the most general expression for differential cross sections describing the properties of Auger-electron emission induced in the excitation of polarized atoms by polarized electrons is obtained for the first time. The ways of the application of the general expressions suitable for the specific experimental conditions are outlined by deriving the expressions for the asymmetry parameters and the magnetic dichroism of the angular distribution of the Auger electrons as well as of the angular correlations between the scattered and Auger electrons.

  18. Department of Radiation Detectors - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work carried out in 1996 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. The Departamental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors, adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments. These objectives were accomplished in 1996 by: research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. a spherical set of particle detectors silicon ball), detectors for particle identification), development of technology of high-resistivity silicon detectors HRSi (grant proposal), development of thermoelectric cooling systems (grant proposal), research on p-i-n photodiode-based personal dosimeters, study of applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. The Department conducts research on the design and technology involved in producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. Various tube models and their power supplies were developed. Some work has also been devoted to the detection and dosimetry of X-rays. X-ray tube generators are applied to non-destructive testing and are components of analytical systems such as: X-ray fluorescence chemical composition analysis, gauges of layer thickness and composition stress measurements, on-line control of processes, others where an X-ray tube may replace a radio-isotope source. In 1996, the Department: reviewed the domestic demand for X-ray generators, developed an X-ray generator for diagnosis of ostheroporosis of human limbs, prepared a grant proposal for the development of a new instrument for radiotherapy, the so-called needle-like X-ray tube. (author)

  19. Fiber optical assembly for fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, II, Robert W.; Rubenstein, Richard; Piltch, Martin; Gray, Perry

    2010-12-07

    A system for analyzing a sample for the presence of an analyte in a sample. The system includes a sample holder for containing the sample; an excitation source, such as a laser, and at least one linear array radially disposed about the sample holder. Radiation from the excitation source is directed to the sample, and the radiation induces fluorescent light in the sample. Each linear array includes a plurality of fused silica optical fibers that receive the fluorescent light and transmits a fluorescent light signal from the first end to an optical end port of the linear array. An end port assembly having a photo-detector is optically coupled to the optical end port. The photo-detector detects the fluorescent light signal and converts the fluorescent light signal into an electrical signal.

  20. Investigation of SiGe/Si heterostructures using state-of-the-art Auger Nanoprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capabilities of nano-Auger were assessed for the characterization of SiGe multilayers epitaxially grown on Si(001) wafers. Reference sample consisting in stack of (300–500)-nm thick SiGe layers with a Ge content increasing in discrete steps from 6 to 30 % (as determined by X-ray diffraction) were used to that end. Composition measurements were performed on cross-sections with localized Auger Electron Spectroscopy using point analysis. The promising results obtained should enable in the near future high performance Auger mapping of real devices. The effect of native oxide removal either by argon sputtering or by HF etching was also addressed. Complementary results were otherwise obtained with Auger depth profiling using argon sputtering with Zalar rotation.

  1. Studies of Cosmic Ray Composition and Air Shower Structure with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; DiGiulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; GarcíaGámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kühn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; LaRosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Śmia\\lkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; vandenBerg, A M; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the composition of the highest energy cosmic rays with the Pierre Auger Observatory, including examination of hadronic physics effects on the structure of extensive air showers. Submissions to the 31st ICRC, Lodz, Poland (July 2009).

  2. Ellog Auger Drilling -"3-in-one" method for hydrogeological data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kurt; Larsen, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    The Ellog auger drilling method is an integrated approach for hydrogeological data collection during auger drilling in unconsolidated sediments. The drill stem is a continuous flight, hollow-stem auger with integrated electrical and gamma logging tools. The geophysical logging is performed...... continuously while drilling. Data processing is carried out in the field, and recorded log features are displayed as drilling advances. A slotted section in the stem, above the cutting head, allows anaerobic water and soil-gas samples to be taken at depth intervals of approximately 0.2 m. The logging, water....... The Ellog auger drilling method provides detailed information on small-scale changes in lithology, sediment chemistry, and water, as well as gas compositions in aquifer systems - data essential to hydrogeological studies....

  3. Study of interfaces in the oxidised Fe/Si system: Use of the Auger parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the Auger Parameter for silicon in the interfaces exposed in oxidised Fe/Si alloys, when compared with similar measurements on standards, have provided valuable chemical information that is in agreement with theoretical predictions. (Author)

  4. Absolute auger electron spectra obtained by a novel cylindrical mirror analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel cylindrical mirror analyzer (CMA) has been developed to obtain standard spectra in Auger electron spectroscopy. We obtained Auger electron spectra of gold, nickel, and soot (carbon). For gold, the details of the spectra are shown and the possible Auger transitions are identified for the whole range of energy by subtracting a background of assumed simple polynomial function. The total range spectra of nickel and soot are reported for the primary accelerating voltages ranging 1-5000 V. In other words, the spectra of true secondary electron, Auger electron, loss electrons which excited shell electron and plasmon, and elastically backscattered primary electron are shown. It is found that the carbon (soot) as evacuated always presents clean surface without any ion sputtering treatment and the surface is quite stable. (author)

  5. AMIGA at the Pierre Auger Observatory: The interface and control electronics of the first prototype muon counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Videla, M., E-mail: mariela.videla@iteda.cnea.gov.ar [Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección de Astropartículas (CNEA, CONICET, UNSAM) Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Avda. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Platino, M., E-mail: manuel.platino@iteda.cnea.gov.ar [Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección de Astropartículas (CNEA, CONICET, UNSAM) Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Avda. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); García, B. [Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección y Astropartículas, (CNEA, CONICET, UNSAM) Regional Cuyo, Azopardo 313 (5501) Godoy Cruz, Pcia. de Mendoza (Argentina); Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, Facultad Regional Mendoza Rodriguez 273, Ciudad Mendoza, CP (M5502AJE) (Argentina); Almela, A. [Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección de Astropartículas (CNEA, CONICET, UNSAM) Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Avda. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vega, G. de la [Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección y Astropartículas, (CNEA, CONICET, UNSAM) Regional Cuyo, Azopardo 313 (5501) Godoy Cruz, Pcia. de Mendoza (Argentina); and others

    2015-08-11

    AMIGA is an enhancement of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The main goals of AMIGA are to extend the full efficiency range to lower energies of the Observatory and to measure the muon content of extensive air showers. Currently, it consists of 61 detector pairs, each one composed of a surface water-Cherenkov detector and a buried muon counter. Prototypes of the muon counter – buried at a depth of 2.25 m – were installed at each vertex of a hexagon and at its center with 750 m spacing. Each prototype has a detection area of 10 m{sup 2} segmented in 64 scintillation strips and coupled to a multi-anode PMT through optical fibers. The electronic systems of these prototypes are accessible via a service tube. An electronics interface and control board were designed to extract the data from the counter and to provide a remote control of the system. This article presents the design of the interface and control board and the results and performance during the first AMIGA acquisition period in 2012.

  6. A search for ultra-high energy neutrinos in highly inclined events at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anticic, T; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badescu, A M; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bäuml, J; Beatty, J J; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Diaz, J Chirinos; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Coluccia, M R; Concei\\ccão, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; del Peral, L; del R\\'\\io, M; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Castro, M L D\\'\\iaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Tapia, I Fajardo; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fratu, O; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gascon, A; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Guzman, A; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jarne, C; Jiraskova, S; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lauer, R; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, J; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Micanovic, S; Micheletti, M I; Miramonti, L; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Porcelli, A; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Lopez, H H Silva; Sima, O; Smialkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Tascau, O; Ruiz, C G Tavera; Tcaciuc, R; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M

    2012-01-01

    The Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to neutrinos of all flavours above 0.1 EeV. These interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere giving rise to extensive air showers. When interacting deeply in the atmosphere at nearly horizontal incidence, neutrinos can be distinguished from regular hadronic cosmic rays by the broad time structure of their shower signals in the water-Cherenkov detectors. In this paper we present for the first time an analysis based on down-going neutrinos. We describe the search procedure, the possible sources of background, the method to compute the exposure and the associated systematic uncertainties. No candidate neutrinos have been found in data collected from 1 January 2004 to 31 May 2010. Assuming an E^-2 differential energy spectrum the limit on the single flavour neutrino is (E^2 * dN/dE) < 1.74x10^-7 GeV cm^-2 s^-1 sr^-1 at 90% C.L. in the energy range 1x10^17 eV < E < 1x10^20 eV.

  7. Auger electron spectroscopy as a tool for measuring intramolecular charges of adsorbed molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkoev, T. T.

    1993-10-01

    A way for the determination of the values of intramolecular charges of adsorbed molecules of some binary dielectrics, based on Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), is proposed. These values can be obtained from the coverage dependences of the ratios of intensities of anion KL 23L 23 and KL 1L 1 Auger transitions, which are sensitive to the amount of charge at the 2p-orbitals. As an example, MgO adsorbed on Mo(110) is presented.

  8. Biophysical aspects of Auger processes: A review of the literature 1987--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop on Auger emitters held in Oxfordshire in 1987 produced papers on physical dosimetry, molecular damage, biologic effects, and therapeutic applications. These are briefly summarized. Since that time there has appeared in the literature a number of reports on Auger processes as they relate to microscopic and cellular dosimetry, DNA damage, biologic consequences, and therapeutic potential. A number of these are reviewed as background for the Second International Symposium

  9. Magnetic field influence on Auger effect on shallow donors in CdF2:Mn+ luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct observation of the suppression of the Auger effect on shallow donors by magnetic field in the luminescence of manganese ions in semiconducting CdF2:Mn crystals is presented. The magnetic field decreases the probability of the Auger effect, which is spin-dependent energy transfer from the manganese ions to the electrons occupying shallow donors. This results in the increase in the decay times of the luminescence. (author)

  10. Argon and krypton Auger spectra induced by ion bombardment of aluminium and silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements are reported of Auger (autoionization) spectra of Ar and Kr produced by bombarding Al and Si substrates with Ar+ and Kr+ ions in the 110 eV-5 keV energy range. These are shown to be consistent with the simple Doppler model suggested, for Ne and Al and Si, in a previous paper. Once corrected using the model, the observed Auger energies are shown to correspond to theoretical predictions produced using Dirac-Fock calculations. (Author)

  11. Fluorescent refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Buchwald, Melvin I.; Gosnell, Timothy R.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement.

  12. HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY DETECTORS – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Ramni

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available HPLC is the most versatile and widely used elution chromatography. The technique is used to resolve and determine species in a variety of organic, inorganic, biological, ionic and polymeric materials. Detector is the heart of an instrument and efficiency of system is dependent upon detecting techniques. Many types of HPLC detectors exist, each of which has some valuable performance feature such as refractive index detector, ultraviolet detector, fluorescent detector, electrochemical detector, electric conductivity detector, liquid light scattering detector, evaporative light scattering detector. Due to strong requirement for improvements in sensitivity, selectivity and other performance characteristics of the detector recent developments in conventional techniques and some other new technologies have been adopted such as laser light scattering detector, charged aerosol detector, nano quantity aerosol detector, chiral detector and pulsed amperometric detector. These detectors provide accurate concentration analysis, excellent sensitivity, wide dynamic range, consistent response and broad applicability of the drug components. Working of these detectors involve different principles such as optical techniques, aerosol based techniques, refractive methods, light scattering principle, amperometric and fluorescence. The present review enlightens both conventional and advanced techniques and compares their capabilities of analyzing drug components and need for new techniques for better and wide range of applicability.

  13. Ne, Ar, Fe, and Cu Auger-electron production at National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energetic K and L Auger electrons produced by focussed, filtered, broad-band synchrotron radiation have been measured at the x-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The x-ray beam was used to study inner-shell photoionization of Ne and Ar gas and Fe and Cu solid film targets. The Auger electrons were analyzed by means of a semi-hemispherical electrostatic electron spectrometer at the energy resolution of ∼ 3 %. The electrons were detected at both 90 degree and 0 degree with respect to the photon beam direction. Broad distributions of the inner-shell photoelectrons were also observed, reflecting the incoming photon flux distribution. The Fe and Cu K Auger electron spectra were found to be very similar to the Ar K Auger electron spectra. This was expected, since deep inner-shell Auger processes are not affected by the outer valence electrons. Above 3 keV in electron energy, there have been few previous Auger electron measurements. 2 figs., 13 refs

  14. Absolute linearity measurements on a PV HgCdTe detector in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharous, Evangelos

    2012-04-01

    The linearity-of-response characteristics of a photovoltaic (PV) HgCdTe detector were investigated at a number of wavelengths in the infrared, using the NPL linearity of detector response characterization facility. The measurements were performed with the test detector operating under conditions identical to those in which the detectors will be used in typical infrared radiometric applications. The deviation from linearity in the generated photocurrent was shown to be strongly dependent on the area of the detector being illuminated. Plots of the linearity factor versus generated photocurrent for different illuminated wavelengths were shown to overlap. The linearity factor was shown to be a function of the photon irradiance of the illuminating beam. This behaviour was similar to that exhibited by photoconductive (PC) HgCdTe detectors, indicating that Auger recombination was the dominant source of the deviation from linearity observed in the test detector.

  15. Investigation of copper electrodes for mercuric iodide detector applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, X.J.; Schlesinger, T.E. (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); James, R.B.; Stulen, R.H. (Advanced Materials Division, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (USA)); Ortale, C.; van den Berg, L. (EG G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA))

    1990-06-15

    Copper diffusion in mercuric iodide was studied by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. A broad radiative emission band at a wavelength of about 6720 A in the PL spectra was found to be related to Cu incorporation in the crystal. PL spectra obtained from surface doping experiments indicate that Cu is a rapid diffuser in HgI{sub 2} bulk material. Auger electron spectroscopy performed as a function of depth from the crystal surface confirms the rapid bulk diffusion process of Cu in HgI{sub 2}. Fabrication of HgI{sub 2} nuclear detectors with Cu electrodes indicates that Cu is not acceptable as an electrode material, which is consistent with the fact that it diffuses easily into the bulk crystal and introduces new radiative recombination centers.

  16. Investigation of copper electrodes for mercuric iodide detector applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X. J.; Schlesinger, T. E.; James, R. B.; Stulen, R. H.; Ortale, C.; van den Berg, L.

    1990-06-01

    Copper diffusion in mercuric iodide was studied by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. A broad radiative emission band at a wavelength of about 6720 Å in the PL spectra was found to be related to Cu incorporation in the crystal. PL spectra obtained from surface doping experiments indicate that Cu is a rapid diffuser in HgI2 bulk material. Auger electron spectroscopy performed as a function of depth from the crystal surface confirms the rapid bulk diffusion process of Cu in HgI2. Fabrication of HgI2 nuclear detectors with Cu electrodes indicates that Cu is not acceptable as an electrode material, which is consistent with the fact that it diffuses easily into the bulk crystal and introduces new radiative recombination centers.

  17. On the results of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemoine, Martin, E-mail: lemoine@iap.f [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2009-05-15

    This paper discusses the correlation recently reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) of the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays with active galactic nuclei (AGN) located within 75 Mpc. It is argued that these correlating AGN do not have the power required to be the sources of those particles. It is further argued that the current PAO data disfavors giant radio-galaxies (both Fanaroff-Riley type I and II) as sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The reported correlation with AGN should thus be understood as follows: the AGN trace the distribution of the local large scale structure, in which the actual sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays camouflage. The most promising theoretical candidates for these sources are then gamma-ray bursts and magnetars. One important consequence of the above is that one will not detect counterparts in gamma-rays, neutrinos or gravitational waves to the sources of these observed ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, since the cosmic rays are delayed by extragalactic magnetic fields on timescales approx10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} yrs much larger than the emission timescale of these sources.

  18. Photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy of solids and surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    The use of photoelectron spectroscopy, primarily x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, to obtain information on the electronic structure of a wide variety of solids (especially the bulk electronic structure of solids) is covered. Both valence band and core-level spectra, as well as a few cases of photon excited Auger electron spectroscopy, are employed in the investigations to derive information on N(E). The effect of several modulations inherent in the measured I(E)'s, such as final state band structure, cross section, and relaxation, is discussed. Examples of many-electron interactions in PES are given. Some experimental aspects of PES and AES studies are given with emphasis on sample preparation techniques. Multiple splitting of core levels is examined using the Mn levels in MnF/sub 2/ as a detailed case study. Core level splittings in transition metals, rare earth metals, transition metal halides and several alloys are also reported. The application of PES to the study of the chemical bond in some crystalline semiconductors and insulators, A/sup N/B/sup 8-N/ and A/sup N/B/sup 10-N/ compounds is treated, and a spectroscopic scale of ionicity for these compounds is developed from the measured ''s-band'' splitting in the valence band density of states. (GHT)

  19. Photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy of solids and surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of photoelectron spectroscopy, primarily x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, to obtain information on the electronic structure of a wide variety of solids (especially the bulk electronic structure of solids) is covered. Both valence band and core-level spectra, as well as a few cases of photon excited Auger electron spectroscopy, are employed in the investigations to derive information on N(E). The effect of several modulations inherent in the measured I(E)'s, such as final state band structure, cross section, and relaxation, is discussed. Examples of many-electron interactions in PES are given. Some experimental aspects of PES and AES studies are given with emphasis on sample preparation techniques. Multiple splitting of core levels is examined using the Mn levels in MnF2 as a detailed case study. Core level splittings in transition metals, rare earth metals, transition metal halides and several alloys are also reported. The application of PES to the study of the chemical bond in some crystalline semiconductors and insulators, A/sup N/B/sup 8-N/ and A/sup N/B/sup 10-N/ compounds is treated, and a spectroscopic scale of ionicity for these compounds is developed from the measured ''s-band'' splitting in the valence band density of states

  20. Radiometric calibration to consider in quantitative clinical fluorescence imaging measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litorja, M.; Urbas, A.; Zong, Y.

    2015-03-01

    The fluorescent light detected by a clinical imager is assumed to be proportional only to the amount of fluorescent substance present in the sample and the level of excitation. Unfortunately, there are many factors that can add or subtract to the light signal directly attributable to the desired fluorescence emission, especially with fluorescence from inside the body imaged remotely. The quantification of fluorescence emission is feasible by calibrating the imager using international system of units (SI)-traceable physical and material calibration artifacts such that the detector's digital numbers (DN) can be converted to radiometric units. Here we discuss three calibration methods for quantitative clinical fluorescence imaging systems.

  1. Multispectral imaging with type II superlattice detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyawansa, Gamini; Duran, Joshua M.; Grupen, Matt; Scheihing, John E.; Nelson, Thomas R.; Eismann, Michael T.

    2012-06-01

    Infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) with multispectral detector elements promise significant advantages for airborne threat warning, surveillance, and targeting applications. At present, the use of type II superlattice (T2SL) structures based on the 6.1Å-family materials (InAs, GaSb, and AlSb) has become an area of interest for developing IR detectors and their FPAs. The ability to vary the bandgap in the IR range, suppression of Auger processes, prospective reduction of Shockley-Read-Hall centers by improved material growth capabilities, and the material stability are a few reasons for the predicted dominance of the T2SL technology over presently leading HgCdTe and quantum well technologies. The focus of the work reported here is on the development of T2SL based dual-band IR detectors and their applicability for multispectral imaging. A new NpBPN detector designed for the detection of IR in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm atmospheric windows is presented; comparing its advantages over other T2SL based approaches. One of the key challenges of the T2SL dual-band detectors is the spectral crosstalk associated with the LWIR band. The properties of the state-of-the-art T2SLs (i.e., absorption coefficient, minority carrier lifetime and mobility, etc.) and the present growth limitations that impact spectral crosstalk are discussed.

  2. Transmutation detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodová, Z.; Klupák, V.; Sus, F.; Kučera, Jan; Kůs, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 632, č. 1 (2011), s. 109-111. ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Transmutation detector * Activation method * Neutron detector * Neutron fluence Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  3. Gaseous detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Hans Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    Detector physics and operational aspects of gaseous detectors will be discussed. Topics such as ionization processes, gas amplification and its limitations, pulse formation and decoupling, related electronics constraints, operational stability and ageing phenomena will be touched with the aim at some quantitative understanding.

  4. Metal Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1992-01-01

    Schools that count on metal detectors to stem the flow of weapons into the schools create a false sense of security. Recommendations include investing in personnel rather than hardware, cultivating the confidence of law-abiding students, and enforcing discipline. Metal detectors can be quite effective at afterschool events. (MLF)

  5. Fluorescent optical liquid level sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2001-01-01

    A liquid level sensor comprising a transparent waveguide containing fluorescent material that is excited by light of a first wavelength and emits at a second, longer wavelength. The upper end of the waveguide is connected to a light source at the first wavelength through a beveled portion of the waveguide such that the input light is totally internally reflected within the waveguide above an air/liquid interface in a tank but is transmitted into the liquid below this interface. Light is emitted from the fluorescent material only in those portions of the waveguide that are above the air/liquid interface, to be collected at the upper end of the waveguide by a detector that is sensitive only to the second wavelength. As the interface moves down in the tank, the signal strength from the detector will increase.

  6. Postcolumn reaction detectors for HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, R.W.; Jansen, H.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1985-12-01

    Currently, the best and most reliable HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) detectors are UV-VIS absorbance, fluorescence, and electrochemical detectors. It is attractive to try to expand their range of application by using suitable chemical derivatization techniques to convert the analytes of interest with their originally poor detection properties into compounds that can be detected with high sensitivity with these detectors. Besides an improvement of the detection properties, the chemical reaction can also enhance the selectivity of the total analytical method. The derivatization can be carried out either prior to the HPLC separation or by doing the reaction in an on-line postcolumn mode. Comparative advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches have been discussed previously. This paper will discuss on-line postcolumn derivatization. A general scheme of an HPLC system equipped with an on-line postcolumn reaction detector is given. 40 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  7. X spectrometry with pulse detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison is made of various types of pulse X-ray detectors (scintillators + photomultipliers, proportional counters, ionisation chambers, semi-conductor detectors: Si (Li) and Ge (Li) ) as well as of their associated electronic equipment, from the point of view of the resolving power, the detection efficiency and the working surface, for photons of from 100 eV to 100 KeV. Semiconductor detectors (Si (Li) up to 50 KeV, Ge (Li) from 10 KeV up to 100 KeV) should rapidly find uses in all cases where an excellent resolving power is necessary (in X-fluorescence for example), whereas proportional counters present greater advantages for applications calling for a high detection surface, and also for very soft X-rays because the window of the detector can be very thin. (author)

  8. Study of the composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory and analysis of the associated hadronic mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR), i.e. E ≥ 1 EeV, raise many questions about their origin and constitute a challenge to modern physics. These cosmic rays entering the atmosphere dissipate their huge energy by generating a shower of secondary particles whose development is significantly different depending on the nature of the primaries. The study of the composition of UHECR is therefore a major interest both in understanding the hadronic processes which govern the evolution of showers and in identifying the sources of this radiation. Given its hybrid structure and the size of its unmatched network of ground detectors, the Pierre Auger Observatory can provide clear answers to the issues raised by UHECR. In this thesis, we are particularly interested in the muon component of air showers. First, we show how the hadronic parameters define the production of muons. Then we present an original method to extract this muon component and deduce the implications on the composition of UHECR. The results of this approach suggest a transition from a heavy composition to a light one when the energy increases. Finally, we address the measurement of cosmic-air cross section and present the first results derived from the Pierre Auger Observatory data. (author)

  9. Diagnosis of Dentin Caries – Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Ts.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The technology advance in recent years determines the need of construction of modern appliances for early diagnosis of dental caries, which are categorized by great precision, non-invasiveness, easy usage and wide availability. Such non-invasive and accurate tool for diagnostics of caries is Caries Detector (LED, Bulgarian product by “Optica Laser”. The detector emits a specific wavelength of near ultraviolet light, which causes fluorescence to porphyrins - metabolic products of the life cycle of caries-inducing bacteria. The purpose of the study is piloting a new diagnostic tool for detection and monitoring of caries excavation based on fluorescence - LED UV caries detector of company “Optica laser”. Subjected to examination by caries indicator dye and UV caries detector were sixty permanent teeth with deep dentine caries. Two methods were used to assess the dentin caries - UV fluorescence detector of “Optica Laser” and staining with caries indicator - dye (Sable ™ Seek®. It was found that among all sixty teeth, the fields, closed by margins of carious process overlap. Fifty-four of tested teeth has shown bigger field of images with staining method and six - smaller in comparison to the fluorescent method. Ultraviolet fLuorescence caries detector of “Optica Laser” company is affordable and easy applicable method for controlled excavation of dentine caries. The detector can be used in daily dental practice equally with other methods. The unit has a number of advantages - non-invasiveness, lack of interaction with tooth structures, speed, reliability, efficiency, predictability and repeatability of results.

  10. 45-Day safety screening for Tank 241-B-102 auger samples, riser 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the 45-Day report for the fiscal year 1994 Tank 241-B-102 auger sampling characterization effort. Only one of the two planned auger samples was received by the 222-S Laboratory, however it was decided to begin the 45-day clock and issue a report based on receipt of the first auger sample. Included are copies of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) scans as requested. Also included is a copy of any immediate notification documentation, chain of custody forms, the hot cell work plan, extruded segment [auger] description sheets, and total alpha data. The TGA percent moisture results are below the safety criteria limit of 17% in a subsample taken approximately five minutes after extrusion and a second subsample taken from the lower half of the auger. Verbal and written notifications were made as prescribed. The DSC analysis of all subsamples indicates the presence of fraction exotherms, however the results are a factor of two or more below the notification limit of 523 Joules/gram (J/g). Total alpha results are all below the detection limit. In some cases, the tank characterization plan (TCP) accuracy and precision criteria are not met. If a re-run was not performed when a TCP quality control limit was not met, then reasons for not performing the re-run are provided

  11. Education and Public Outreach of the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Gregory

    2012-03-01

    The scale and scope of the physics studied at the Auger Observatory offer significant opportunities for original outreach work. Education, outreach and public relations of the Auger collaboration are coordinated in a separate task whose goals are to encourage and support a wide range of education and outreach efforts that link schools and the public with the Auger scientists and the science of cosmic rays, particle physics, and associated technologies. The presentation will focus on the impact of the collaboration in Mendoza Province, Argentina, as: the Auger Visitor Center in Malarg"ue that has hosted over 60,000 visitors since 2001 and a third collaboration-sponsored science fair held on the Observatory campus in November 2010. The Rural Schools Program, which is run by Observatory staff and which brings cosmic-ray science and infrastructure improvements to remote schools, will be highlighted. Numerous online resources, video documentaries, and animations of extensive air showers have been created for wide public release. Increasingly, collaborators draw on these resources to develop Auger related displays and outreach events at their institutions and in public settings to disseminate the science and successes of the Observatory worldwide.

  12. MS Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Denton, M Bonner B.; Sperline, Roger P.; Hieftje, Gary M.; Schilling, G. D.; Andrade, Francisco J.; Barnes IV., James H.

    2005-11-01

    Good eyesight is often taken for granted, a situation that everyone appreciates once vision begins to fade with age. New eyeglasses or contact lenses are traditional ways to improve vision, but recent new technology, i.e. LASIK laser eye surgery, provides a new and exciting means for marked vision restoration and improvement. In mass spectrometry, detectors are the 'eyes' of the MS instrument. These 'eyes' have also been taken for granted. New detectors and new technologies are likewise needed to correct, improve, and extend ion detection and hence, our 'chemical vision'. The purpose of this report is to review and assess current MS detector technology and to provide a glimpse towards future detector technologies. It is hoped that the report will also serve to motivate interest, prompt ideas, and inspire new visions for ion detection research.

  13. The surface detector array of the Telescope Array experiment to explore the highest energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Anderson, R; Azuma, R; Barcikowski, E; Belz, J W; Bergman, D R; Blake, S A; Cady, R; Cheon, B G; Chiba, J; Chikawa, M; Cho, E J; Cho, W R; Fujii, H; Fujii, T; Fukuda, T; Fukushima, M; Gorbunov, D; Hanlon, W; Hayashi, K; Hayashi, Y; Hayashida, N; Hibino, K; Hiyama, K; Honda, K; Iguchi, T; Ikeda, D; Ikuta, K; Inoue, N; Ishii, T; Ishimori, R; Ivanov, D; Iwamoto, S; Jui, C C H; Kadota, K; Kakimoto, F; Kalashev, O; Kanbe, T; Kasahara, K; Kawai, H; Kawakami, S; Kawana, S; Kido, E; Kim, H B; Kim, H K; Kim, J H; Kim, J H; Kitamoto, K; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, Y; Kondo, Y; Kuramoto, K; Kuzmin, V; Kwon, Y J; Lim, S I; Machida, S; Martens, K; Martineau, J; Matsuda, T; Matsuura, T; Matsuyama, T; Matthews, J N; Myers, I; Minamino, M; Miyata, K; Miyauchi, H; Murano, Y; Nakamura, T; Nam, S W; Nonaka, T; Ogio, S; Ohnishi, M; Ohoka, H; Oki, K; Oku, D; Okuda, T; Oshima, A; Ozawa, S; Park, I H; Pshirkov, M S; Rodriguez, D; Roh, S Y; Rubtsov, G; Ryu, D; Sagawa, H; Sakurai, N; Sampson, A L; Scott, L M; Shah, P D; Shibata, F; Shibata, T; Shimodaira, H; Shin, B K; Shin, J I; Shirahama, T; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Sonley, T J; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Stratton, S R; Stroman, T A; Suzuki, S; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, M; Taketa, A; Takita, M; Tameda, Y; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, K; Tanaka, M; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tinyakov, P; Tkachev, I; Tokuno, H; Tomida, T; Troitsky, S; Tsunesada, Y; Tsutsumi, K; Tsuyuguchi, Y; Uchihori, Y; Udo, S; Ukai, H; Vasiloff, G; Wada, Y; Wong, T; Wood, M; Yamakawa, Y; Yamaoka, H; Yamazaki, K; Yang, J; Yoshida, S; Yoshii, H; Zollinger, R; Zundel, Z

    2012-01-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, located in the western desert of Utah,USA, is designed for observation of extensive air showers from extremely high energy cosmic rays. The experiment has a surface detector array surrounded by three fluorescence detectors to enable simultaneous detection of shower particles at ground level and fluorescence photons along the shower track. The TA surface detectors and fluorescence detectors started full hybrid observation in March, 2008. In this article we describe the design and technical features of the TA surface detector.

  14. Attosecond imaging of XUV-induced atomic photoemission and Auger decay in strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zherebtsov, S; Wirth, A; Uphues, T; Znakovskaya, I; Herrwerth, O; Gagnon, J; Korbman, M; Yakovlev, V S; Kling, M F [Max-Planck Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Vrakking, M J J [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Drescher, M, E-mail: matthias.kling@mpq.mpg.de [Fachbereich fuer Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-05-28

    Velocity-map imaging has been employed to study the photoemission in Ne and N{sub 4,5}OO Auger decay in Xe induced by an isolated 85 eV extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse in the presence of a strong few-cycle near-infrared (NIR) laser field. Full three-dimensional momentum information about the released electrons was obtained. The NIR and XUV pulse parameters were extracted from the measured Ne streaking traces using a FROG CRAB retrieval algorithm. The attosecond measurements of the Auger decay in Xe show pronounced broadening of the Auger lines corresponding to the formation of sidebands. The temporal evolution of the sideband signals and their asymmetry along the laser polarization axis exhibit oscillations similar to those known from attosecond streaking measurements. The experimental results are in good agreement with model calculations based on an analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation within the strong field approximation.

  15. Radio detection of cosmic ray air showers by the RAuger experiment, a fully autonomous and self-triggered system installed at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAuger is a radio experiment constituting three fully autonomous and self-triggered radio stations installed at the center of the Pierre Auger Observatory's Surface Detector (SD). It aims at the radio detection of the electric field emitted by the secondary charged particles of the atmospherical shower initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Installed in November 2006, we recorded the first atmospherical showers in coincidence with the SD in July 2007. Up to now, 65 such coincidences have been obtained. The skymap in local coordinates (zenith angle, azimuth) of these events presents a strong azimuthal asymmetry in agreement with what was observed in the Northern hemisphere by the CODALEMA experiment (the asymmetry is simply switched by 180° in azimuth). We also recorded a threefold coincidence making possible a complete reconstruction: both the radio reconstructed shower axis and the shower energy are in perfect agreement with the SD estimations.

  16. High energy resolution and first time-dependent positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was the aim of this thesis to improve the existing positron annihilation induced Auger spectrometer at the highly intense positron source NEPOMUC (NEutron induced POsitron source MUniCh) in several ways: Firstly, the measurement time for a single spectrum should be reduced from typically 12 h to roughly 1 h or even less. Secondly, the energy resolution, which amounted to ΔE/E∼10%, should be increased by at least one order of magnitude in order to make high resolution positron annihilation induced Auger spectroscopy (PAES)-measurements of Auger transitions possible and thus deliver more information about the nature of the Auger process. In order to achieve these objectives, the PAES spectrometer was equipped with a new electron energy analyzer. For its ideal operation all other components of the Auger analysis chamber had to be adapted. Particularly the sample manipulation and the positron beam guidance had to be renewed. Simulations with SIMION registered ensured the optimal positron lens parameters. After the adjustment of the new analyzer and its components, first measurements illustrated the improved performance of the PAES setup: Firstly, the measurement time for short overview measurements was reduced from 3 h to 420 s. The measurement time for more detailed Auger spectra was shortened from 12 h to 80 min. Secondly, even with the reduced measurement time, the signal to noise ratio was also enhanced by one order of magnitude. Finally, the energy resolution was improved to ΔE/E 2,3VV-transition with PAES. Thus, within this thesis two objectives were achieved: Firstly, the PAES spectrometer was renewed and improved by at least one order of magnitude with respect to the signal to noise ratio, the measurement time and the energy resolution. Secondly, several measurements have been carried out, demonstrating the high performance of the spectrometer. Amongst them are first dynamic PAES measurements and a high resolution measurement of the CuM2,3VV

  17. Validation of 64Cu-ATSM damaging DNA via high-LET Auger electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive copper (II) (diacetyl-bis N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM) isotopes were originally developed for the imaging of hypoxia in tumors. Because the decay of a 64Cu atom is emitting not only positrons but also Auger electrons, this radionuclide has great potential as a theranostic agent. However, the success of 64Cu-ATSM internal radiation therapy would depend on the contribution of Auger electrons to tumor cell killing. Therefore, we designed a cell culture system to define the contributions to cell death from Auger electrons to support or refute our hypothesis that the majority of cell death from 64Cu-ATSM is a result of high-LET Auger electrons and not positrons or other low-LET radiation. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) wild type and DNA repair–deficient xrs5 cells were exposed to 64Cu-ATSM during hypoxic conditions. Surviving fractions were compared with those surviving gamma-radiation, low-LET hadron radiation, and high-LET heavy ion exposure. The ratio of the D10 values (doses required to achieve 10% cell survival) between CHO wild type and xrs5 cells suggested that 64Cu-ATSM toxicity is similar to that of high-LET Carbon ion radiation (70 keV/μm). γH2AX foci assays confirmed DNA double-strand breaks and cluster damage by high-LET Auger electrons from 64Cu decay, and complex types of chromosomal aberrations typical of high-LET radiation were observed after 64Cu-ATSM exposure. The majority of cell death was caused by high-LET radiation. This work provides strong evidence that 64Cu-ATSM damages DNA via high-LET Auger electrons, supporting further study and consideration of 64Cu-ATSM as a cancer treatment modality for hypoxic tumors. (author)

  18. Photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF2 windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission

  19. Photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va`vra, J.

    1995-10-01

    J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF{sub 2} windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission.

  20. Data Acquisition, Triggering, and Filtering at the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, J L

    2012-01-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is currently detecting cosmic rays of energies at and above 10^17 eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory, by triggering on the radio emission produced in the associated air showers. The radio-detection technique must cope with a significant background of man-made radio-frequency interference, but can provide information on shower development with a high duty cycle. We discuss our techniques to handle the challenges of self-triggered radio detection in a low-power autonomous array, including triggering and filtering algorithms, data acquisition design, and communication systems.

  1. Effects of the atomic level shift in the Auger neutralization rates of noble metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monreal, R.C., E-mail: r.c.monreal@uam.es [Departamento de Física Teórica de la Materia Condensada and Condensed Matter Physics Centre (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Goebl, D.; Primetzhofer, D.; Bauer, P. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Abteilung für Atom-und Oberflächenphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    In this work we compare characteristics of Auger neutralization of He{sup +} ions at noble metal and free-electron metal surfaces. For noble metals, we find that the position of the energy level of He with respect to the Fermi level has a non-negligible influence on the values of the calculated Auger rates through the evaluation of the surface dielectric susceptibility. We conclude that even though our calculated rates are accurate, further theoretical effort is needed to obtain realistic values of the energy level of He in front of these surfaces.

  2. Radiotoxicity induced by auger electron emitters in human osteosarcoma cell line using comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis assay) was used to evaluate the radiotoxicity of Auger electron emitters in the human osteosarcoma cell line (HOS-8603). After internal exposure to 67Ga-EDTMP, the sarcoma cell has been injured severely. The comet length was longer along with the increase of dose, the appearance of comet tail was different from that with respect to the 60Co γ-ray irradiation. DNA damage of cell was mainly due to the radiation effect of Auger electrons. The 67Ga may be a therapeutic radionuclide with good prospect for tumor treatment and palliation of bone pain induced by metastasis

  3. Photoelectron recapture and reemission process associated with double Auger decay in Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Y.; Mashiko, R.; Odagiri, T.; Adachi, J.; Tanaka, H.; Kosuge, T.; Ito, K.

    2016-06-01

    Multielectron coincidence spectroscopy has been performed for Ar at a photon energy of only 0.2 eV above the 2 p1 /2 threshold. It is revealed that a postcollision interaction induced by double Auger decay leads to photoelectron recapture, followed by reemission of the captured electron, where the recapture of the slow photoelectron forms the A r2 + Rydberg-excited states which subsequently undergo autoionization. The energy correlation of the emitted electrons discloses that both direct and cascade paths in the double Auger decay contribute to the photoelectron recapture.

  4. Prospects for discovery of physics beyond the Standard Model at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A

    2003-01-01

    I summarize the discovery potential for physics beyond the electroweak scale at the Pierre Auger Observatory. This observatory is designed to study ultra-high energy cosmic rays with unprecedented precision, with the primary goal of shedding light on their composition and origins. In addition, since the center-of-mass energies of Auger events are well beyond those reached at terrestrial colliders, they provide an opportunity to search for new physics. I discuss here some of the relevant observables and techniques which may be used to weed out theories beyond the standard model.

  5. Chirped Auger electron emission due to field-assisted post-collision interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonitz M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the Auger decay in the temporal domain by applying a terahertz streaking light field. Xenon and krypton atoms were studied by implementing the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH as well as a source of high-order harmonic radiation combined with terahertz pulses from an optical rectification source. The observed linewidth asymmetries in the streaked spectra suggest a chirped Auger electron emission which is understood in terms of field-assisted post-collision interaction. The experimentally obtained results agree well with model calculations.

  6. Communication: Formation of slow electrons in the Auger decay of core-ionized water molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Nakano, M.; Odagiri, T.; Soejima, K.; Suzuki, I. H.; Lablanquie, P.; Penent, F.; Ito, K.

    2012-11-01

    Double Auger decay of O1s-1 and its satellite states in H2O has been studied with a multi-electron coincidence method, and a process leading to autoionizing O* fragments has been revealed. The breaking of the two O-H bonds producing the autoionizing O* fragments occurs for highly excited H2O2+ populated by the initial Auger decay. The O* fragments are more favorably produced in the decay from the satellite states, resulting from the larger population of highly excited H2O2+ states inheriting the valence excitation in the initial state.

  7. Conformational and nuclear dynamics effects in molecular Auger spectra: fluorine core-hole decay in CF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a molecular Auger spectrum information on the decaying state is implicitly ensemble-averaged. For a repulsive core-ionized state, for example, contributions from all parts of its potential curve are superimposed in the Auger spectrum. Using carbon tetrafluoride (CF4, tetrafluoromethane), we demonstrate for the first time that these contributions can be disentangled by recording photoelectron–Auger electron coincidence spectra with high energy resolution. For the F K-VV spectrum of CF4, there are significant differences in the Auger decay at different intermediate state (single core hole) geometries. With the help of calculations, we show that these differences result primarily from zero-point fluctuations in the neutral molecular ground state, but are amplified by the nuclear dynamics during Auger decay. (paper)

  8. Theory and experiment on laser-enabled inner-valence Auger decay of rare-gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In rare-gas atoms, an inner-valence shell ns hole cannot be filled by Auger decay because of an energy deficiency. We show theoretically and experimentally that by adding a moderately intense infrared laser, Auger decay is possible with decay rates increasing dramatically for laser intensities ≥1013 W/cm2. For Xe atoms, the simulated laser-enabled Auger decay yields are comparable with the experimental one, while for Ar atoms, the simulated ones are much smaller. We attribute the discrepancies to screening effects of the photoelectron. Laser-enabled Auger decay is of fundamental importance for understanding attosecond science, and is also important for experimental applications in ultrafast atomic, molecular, and materials dynamics using x rays. More importantly it may provide a way to control the Auger decay time and selectively break chemical bonds of molecules using a control infrared laser field.

  9. Hadamard-transform fluorescence-lifetime imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Takahiko; Iwata, Tetsuo

    2016-04-18

    We discuss a Hadamard-transform-based fluorescence-lifetime-imaging (HT-FLI) technique for fluorescence-lifetime-imaging microscopy (FLIM). The HT-FLI uses a Fourier-transform phase-modulation fluorometer (FT-PMF) for fluorescence-lifetime measurements, where the modulation frequency of the excitation light is swept linearly in frequency from zero to a specific maximum during a fixed duration of time. Thereafter, fluorescence lifetimes are derived through Fourier transforms for the fluorescence and reference waveforms. The FT-PMF enables the analysis of multi-component samples simultaneously. HT imaging uses electronic exchange of HT illumination mask patterns, and a high-speed, high-sensitivity photomultiplier, to eliminate frame-rate issues that accompany two-dimensional image detectors. PMID:27137259

  10. Calorimeter detectors

    CERN Document Server

    de Barbaro, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Although the instantaneous and integrated luminosity in HL-LHC will be far higher than the LHC detectors were originally designed for, the Barrel calorimeters of the four experiments are expected to continue to perform well  throughout the Phase II program. The conditions for the End-Cap calorimeters are far more challenging and whilst some detectors will require relatively modest changes, others require far more substantial upgrades. We present the results of longevity and performance studies for the calorimeter systems of the four main LHC experiments and outline the upgrade options under consideration. We include a discussion of the R&D required to make the final technology choices for the upgraded detectors.

  11. Pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Passmore, M S

    2001-01-01

    positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

  12. MAMA Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Stuart

    1998-01-01

    Work carried out under this grant led to fundamental discoveries and over one hundred publications in the scientific literature. Fundamental developments in instrumentation were made including all the instrumentation on the EUVE satellite, the invention of a whole new type of grazing instrument spectrometer and the development of fundamentally new photon counting detectors including the Wedge and Strip used on EUVE and many other missions and the Time Delay detector used on OREFUS and FUSE. The Wedge and Strip and Time Delay detectors were developed under this grant for less than two million dollars and have been used in numerous missions most recently for the FUSE mission. In addition, a fundamentally new type of diffuse spectrometer has been developed under this grant which has been used in instrumentation on the MMSAT spacecraft and the Lewis spacecraft. Plans are underway to use this instrumentation on several other missions as well.

  13. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objects of the invention are, first, to provide an ionization detector having a three chamber structure characterised by a built-in feedback path that regeneratively stabilizes the operating point of the detector. Secondly, to provide a specially designed chamber construction including electrodes shaped so as to enhance the efficiency of the chamber and reduce ion recombination. The ionization chamber described has a chamber structure with a first closed chamber and a second chamber able to receive gases from outside. These two chambers have a common boundary including a common electrode. One electrode associated with the second chamber, and one within the first chamber, define a third chamber within the first chamber allowing an ionization path between. A radioactive source provides ionizing radiation for all three chambers and establishes an ionization current. There is a detector coupled to the common electrode for detecting changes in this current. (U.K.)

  14. BES detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e+e- annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency at low energies. In this paper we describe the construction and the performance of BES detector. (orig.)

  15. Fluorescent compounds for plastic scintillation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole, -benzoxazole, and -benzimidazole derivatives have been prepared. Transmittance, fluorescence, light yield, and decay time characteristics of these compounds have been studied in a polystyrene matrix and evaluated for use in plastic scintillation detectors. Radiation damage studies utilizing a 60C source have also been performed

  16. Single molecule fluorescence detection on functionalized surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The immobilization of organic molecules on surfaces is important for various applications in nanolithography and also essential in novel detectors for matter wave interferometry. We use fluorescence imaging up to the single molecule level to study the suppression of long-range surface diffusion of ZnTPP on pyridine functionalized surfaces. (author)

  17. The rapid atmospheric monitoring system of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 9 (2012), s. 1-40. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010517; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB111003; GA AV ČR KJB100100904; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics * real-time monitoring * control and monitor systems online Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011

  18. Attosecond streaking of shake-up and Auger electrons in xenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drescher M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present first results of simultaneous attosecond streaking measurements of shake-up electrons and Auger electrons emitted from xenon. We extract relative photo-emission delays for electrons emitted from the 4d, 5s and 5p subshell, as well as for the 5p−25d correlation satellite (shake-up electrons.

  19. Attosecond streaking of shake-up and Auger electrons in xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, A. J.; Mitrofanov, A.; Krikunova, M.; Kabachnik, N. M.; Drescher, M.; Baltuska, A.

    2013-03-01

    We present first results of simultaneous attosecond streaking measurements of shake-up electrons and Auger electrons emitted from xenon. We extract relative photo-emission delays for electrons emitted from the 4d, 5s and 5p subshell, as well as for the 5p-25d correlation satellite (shake-up electrons).

  20. Highlights from the Pierre Auger Obseervatory - the birth of the hybrid era

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, A A

    2008-01-01

    Highlights from the Pierre Auger Observatory are presented. In particular there is a detailed discussion of of the cosmic ray energy spectrum from 0.3 EeV to 100 EeV and of the mass composition above 1 EeV.

  1. 30 CFR 912.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 912.819 Section 912.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO §...

  2. 30 CFR 905.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 905.819 Section 905.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 910.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 910.819 Section 910.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA §...

  4. 30 CFR 937.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 937.819 Section 937.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON §...

  5. 30 CFR 942.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 942.819 Section 942.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 941.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 941.819 Section 941.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH...

  7. 30 CFR 922.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 922.819 Section 922.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 921.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 921.819 Section 921.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 903.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 903.819 Section 903.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA §...

  10. 30 CFR 939.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 939.819 Section 939.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE...

  11. 30 CFR 933.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 933.819 Section 933.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 947.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 947.819 Section 947.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. Astrophysical Sources of Cosmic Rays and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; DiGiulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; GarcíaGámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kühn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; LaRosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; vandenBerg, A M; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the correlations of ultra-high energy cosmic ray directions with extra-Galactic objects, of general anisotropy, of photons and neutrinos, and of other astrophysical effects, with the Pierre Auger Observatory. Contributions to the 31st ICRC, Lodz, Poland, July 2009.

  14. New method for atmospheric calibration at the Pierre Auger Observatory using FRAM, a robotic astronomical telescope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    BenZvi, S.; Boháčová, Martina; Connolly, B.; Grygar, Jiří; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Kárová, Tatiana; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nosek, D.; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr; Vitale, P.; Westerhoff, S.

    Mexico : Universidad National Autonóma, 2007, s. 1-4. [International Cosmic Ray Conference /30./. Merida (MX), 03.07.2007-11.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA 134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * atmospheric calibration * FRAM * telescope Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics

  15. Surface sensitivity effects with local probe scanning Auger-scanning electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Agterveld, DTL; Palasantzas, G; De Hosson, JTM; Bentley, J; Allen, C; Dahmen, U; Petrov,

    2001-01-01

    Ultra-high-vacuum segregation studies on in-situ fractured Cu-Sb alloys were performed in terms of nanometer scale scanning Auger/Electron microscopy. S contamination leads to the formation Of Cu2S precipitates which, upon removal due to fracture, expose pits with morphology that depends on the prec

  16. EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATION OF SALTSTONE MIXER AUGER/PADDLES MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION FOR IMPROVED WEAR RESISTANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Torres, R.

    2012-08-15

    Wear and corrosion testing were conducted to evaluate alternate materials of construction for the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles. These components have been degraded by wear from the slurry processed in the mixer. Material test options included PVD coatings (TiN, TiCN, and ZrN), weld overlays (Stellite 12 and Ultimet) and higher hardness steels and carbides (D2 and tungsten carbide). The corrosion testing demonstrated that the slurry is not detrimental to the current materials of construction or the new candidates. The ASTM G75 Miller wear test showed that the high hardness materials and the Stellite 12 weld overlay