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Sample records for auditory threshold

  1. Theory of Auditory Thresholds in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Michael J.

    2001-03-01

    The influence of thermal pressure fluctuations at the tympanic membrane has been previously investigated as a possible determinant of the threshold of hearing in humans (L.J. Sivian and S.D. White, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. IV, 4;288(1933).). More recent work has focussed more precisely on the relation between statistical mechanics and sensory signal processing by biological means in creatures' brains (W. Bialek, in ``Physics of Biological Systems: from molecules to species'', H. Flyvberg et al, (Eds), p. 252; Springer 1997.). Clinical data on the frequency dependence of hearing thresholds in humans and other primates (W.C. Stebbins, ``The Acoustic Sense of Animals'', Harvard 1983.) has long been available. I have derived an expression for the frequency dependence of hearing thresholds in primates, including humans, by first calculating the frequency dependence of thermal pressure fluctuations at eardrums from damped normal modes excited in model ear canals of given simple geometry. I then show that most of the features of the clinical data are directly related to the frequency dependence of the ratio of thermal noise pressure arising from without to that arising from within the masking bandwidth which signals must dominate in order to be sensed. The higher intensity of threshold signals in primates smaller than humans, which is clinically observed over much but not all of the human auditory spectrum is shown to arise from their smaller meatus dimensions. note

  2. Guidelines for Auditory Threshold Measurement for Significant Threshold Shift.

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    Campbell, Kathleen; Hammill, Tanisha; Hoffer, Michael; Kil, Jonathan; Le Prell, Colleen

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide guidelines for determining a Significant Noise-Induced Threshold Shift in clinical trials involving human populations. The article reviews recommendations for the standards to be referenced for human subjects, equipment, test environment, and personnel. Additional guidelines for military populations are provided. Guidelines for the calibration of audiometers, sound booth noise levels, and immitance equipment are provided. In addition the guidance provides specific suggestions for the subjects history before study onset, and otoscopy.Test frequencies for threshold determination and methods of threshold determination are reviewed for both air conduction and bone conduction for both baseline testing and later determination of either a temporary (TTS) or permanent threshold shift (PTS). Once a Significant Noise-Induced Threshold Shift has been determined, subjects should be retested, conductive component should be ruled out or addressed, and the subject should be counseled or referred for additional medical evaluation. Guidance for reporting procedures and the computerized study database are described. Finally, experimental designs suggested for noise-induced otoprotection clinical trials are described. PMID:27518134

  3. Modeling of Auditory Neuron Response Thresholds with Cochlear Implants

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    Frederic Venail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the prosthetic-neural interface is a critical point for cochlear implant efficiency. It depends not only on technical and anatomical factors such as electrode position into the cochlea (depth and scalar placement, electrode impedance, and distance between the electrode and the stimulated auditory neurons, but also on the number of functional auditory neurons. The efficiency of electrical stimulation can be assessed by the measurement of e-CAP in cochlear implant users. In the present study, we modeled the activation of auditory neurons in cochlear implant recipients (nucleus device. The electrical response, measured using auto-NRT (neural responses telemetry algorithm, has been analyzed using multivariate regression with cubic splines in order to take into account the variations of insertion depth of electrodes amongst subjects as well as the other technical and anatomical factors listed above. NRT thresholds depend on the electrode squared impedance (β = −0.11 ± 0.02, P<0.01, the scalar placement of the electrodes (β = −8.50 ± 1.97, P<0.01, and the depth of insertion calculated as the characteristic frequency of auditory neurons (CNF. Distribution of NRT residues according to CNF could provide a proxy of auditory neurons functioning in implanted cochleas.

  4. Pediatric central auditory processing disorder showing elevated threshold on pure tone audiogram.

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    Maeda, Yukihide; Nakagawa, Atsuko; Nagayasu, Rie; Sugaya, Akiko; Omichi, Ryotaro; Kariya, Shin; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is a condition in which dysfunction in the central auditory system causes difficulty in listening to conversations, particularly under noisy conditions, despite normal peripheral auditory function. Central auditory testing is generally performed in patients with normal hearing on the pure tone audiogram (PTA). This report shows that diagnosis of CAPD is possible even in the presence of an elevated threshold on the PTA, provided that the normal function of the peripheral auditory pathway was verified by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), auditory brainstem response (ABR), and auditory steady state response (ASSR). Three pediatric cases (9- and 10-year-old girls and an 8-year-old boy) of CAPD with elevated thresholds on PTAs are presented. The chief complaint was difficulty in listening to conversations. PTA showed elevated thresholds, but the responses and thresholds for DPOAE, ABR, and ASSR were normal, showing that peripheral auditory function was normal. Significant findings of central auditory testing such as dichotic speech tests, time compression of speech signals, and binaural interaction tests confirmed the diagnosis of CAPD. These threshold shifts in PTA may provide a new concept of a clinical symptom due to central auditory dysfunction in CAPD. PMID:26922127

  5. MLP: a MATLAB toolbox for rapid and reliable auditory threshold estimation

    OpenAIRE

    De Grassi, Massimo; Soranzo, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present MLP, a MATLAB toolbox enabling auditory thresholds estimation via the adaptive Maximum Likelihood procedure proposed by David Green (1990, 1993). This adaptive procedure is particularly appealing for those psychologists that need to estimate thresholds with a good degree of accuracy and in a short time. Together with a description of the toolbox, the current text provides an introduction to the threshold estimation theory and a theoretical explanati...

  6. Improved Electrically Evoked Auditory Steady-State Response Thresholds in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Michael; Wouters, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Electrically evoked auditory steady-state responses (EASSRs) are EEG potentials in response to periodic electrical stimuli presented through a cochlear implant. For low-rate pulse trains in the 40-Hz range, electrophysiological thresholds derived from response amplitude growth functions correlate well with behavioral T levels at these rates. The aims of this study were: (1) to improve the correlation between electrophysiological thresholds and behavioral T levels at 900 pps by using amplitude...

  7. Regulation of cricket phonotaxis through hormonal control of the threshold of an identified auditory neuron.

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    Stout, J; Atkins, G; Zacharias, D

    1991-12-01

    1. The phonotactic threshold of 3 to 5-day-old adult female Acheta domesticus and the threshold of the L1 auditory neuron drop progressively (Fig. 1). 2. Application of juvenile hormone III (JHIII) to 1-day-old females caused both the female's threshold for phonotaxis and the threshold of the L1 auditory neuron to drop 20 or more dB over the next 12 h (Figs. 3-4). 3. JHIII's effect on phonotactic threshold could be blocked by injection with a transcription (alpha-amanitin) or a translation blocker (emetine, Fig. 3). 4. Injection of emetine also prevented the JHIII induced drop in L1's threshold (Fig. 4). 5. Application of JHIII to the surface of, or microinjection of JHIII into one prothoracic hemiganglion caused the female to circle phonotactically away from the side of hormone addition at thresholds 25 to 35 dB lower than the pre-JHIII addition threshold within 2 h (Fig. 6). 6. Application of JHIII to the surface of both prothoracic hemiganglia, accompanied by microinjection of emetine into one hemiganglion resulted in the female emetine into one hemiganglion resulted in the female circling phonotactically toward the side receiving emetine injection, with a 25 to 35 dB drop in threshold (Fig. 6).

  8. Auditory excitation patterns : the significance of the pulsation threshold method for the measurement of auditory nonlinearity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Verschuure (Hans)

    1978-01-01

    textabstractThe auditory system is the toto[ of organs that translates an acoustical signal into the perception of a sound. An acoustic signal is a vibration. It is decribed by physical parameters. The perception of sound is the awareness of a signal being present and the attribution of certain qual

  9. Prediction of hearing thresholds: Comparison of cortical evoked response audiometry and auditory steady state response audiometry techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, LLN; Yeung, KNK

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated how well auditory steady state response (ASSR) and tone burst cortical evoked response audiometry (CERA) thresholds predict behavioral thresholds in the same participants. A total of 63 ears were evaluated. For ASSR testing, 100% amplitude modulated and 10% frequency modulated tone stimuli at a modulation frequency of 40Hz were used. Behavioral thresholds were closer to CERA thresholds than ASSR thresholds. ASSR and CERA thresholds were closer to behavioral thresho...

  10. High levels of sound pressure: acoustic reflex thresholds and auditory complaints of workers with noise exposure

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    Alexandre Scalli Mathias Duarte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The clinical evaluation of subjects with occupational noise exposure has been difficult due to the discrepancy between auditory complaints and auditory test results. This study aimed to evaluate the contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds of workers exposed to high levels of noise, and to compare these results to the subjects' auditory complaints.METHODS: This clinical retrospective study evaluated 364 workers between 1998 and 2005; their contralateral acoustic reflexes were compared to auditory complaints, age, and noise exposure time by chi-squared, Fisher's, and Spearman's tests.RESULTS: The workers' age ranged from 18 to 50 years (mean = 39.6, and noise exposure time from one to 38 years (mean = 17.3. We found that 15.1% (55 of the workers had bilateral hearing loss, 38.5% (140 had bilateral tinnitus, 52.8% (192 had abnormal sensitivity to loud sounds, and 47.2% (172 had speech recognition impairment. The variables hearing loss, speech recognition impairment, tinnitus, age group, and noise exposure time did not show relationship with acoustic reflex thresholds; however, all complaints demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with Metz recruitment at 3000 and 4000 Hz bilaterally.CONCLUSION: There was no significance relationship between auditory complaints and acoustic reflexes.

  11. Auditory enhancement of visual perception at threshold depends on visual abilities.

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    Caclin, Anne; Bouchet, Patrick; Djoulah, Farida; Pirat, Elodie; Pernier, Jacques; Giard, Marie-Hélène

    2011-06-17

    Whether or not multisensory interactions can improve detection thresholds, and thus widen the range of perceptible events is a long-standing debate. Here we revisit this question, by testing the influence of auditory stimuli on visual detection threshold, in subjects exhibiting a wide range of visual-only performance. Above the perceptual threshold, crossmodal interactions have indeed been reported to depend on the subject's performance when the modalities are presented in isolation. We thus tested normal-seeing subjects and short-sighted subjects wearing their usual glasses. We used a paradigm limiting potential shortcomings of previous studies: we chose a criterion-free threshold measurement procedure and precluded exogenous cueing effects by systematically presenting a visual cue whenever a visual target (a faint Gabor patch) might occur. Using this carefully controlled procedure, we found that concurrent sounds only improved visual detection thresholds in the sub-group of subjects exhibiting the poorest performance in the visual-only conditions. In these subjects, for oblique orientations of the visual stimuli (but not for vertical or horizontal targets), the auditory improvement was still present when visual detection was already helped with flanking visual stimuli generating a collinear facilitation effect. These findings highlight that crossmodal interactions are most efficient to improve perceptual performance when an isolated modality is deficient.

  12. In-air hearing of a diving duck: A comparison of psychoacoustic and auditory brainstem response thresholds.

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    Crowell, Sara E; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M; Therrien, Ronald E; Yannuzzi, Sally E; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-05-01

    Auditory sensitivity was measured in a species of diving duck that is not often kept in captivity, the lesser scaup. Behavioral (psychoacoustics) and electrophysiological [the auditory brainstem response (ABR)] methods were used to measure in-air auditory sensitivity, and the resulting audiograms were compared. Both approaches yielded audiograms with similar U-shapes and regions of greatest sensitivity (2000-3000 Hz). However, ABR thresholds were higher than psychoacoustic thresholds at all frequencies. This difference was least at the highest frequency tested using both methods (5700 Hz) and greatest at 1000 Hz, where the ABR threshold was 26.8 dB higher than the behavioral measure of threshold. This difference is commonly reported in studies involving many different species. These results highlight the usefulness of each method, depending on the testing conditions and availability of the animals. PMID:27250191

  13. Using a staircase procedure for the objective measurement of auditory stream integration and segregation thresholds

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    Mona Isabel Spielmann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Auditory scene analysis describes the ability to segregate relevant sounds out from the environment and to integrate them into a single sound stream using the characteristics of the sounds to determine whether or not they are related. This study aims to contrast task performances in objective threshold measurements of segregation and integration using identical stimuli, manipulating two variables known to influence streaming, inter-stimulus-interval (ISI and frequency difference (Δf. For each measurement, one parameter (either ISI or Δf was held constant while the other was altered in a staircase procedure. By using this paradigm, it is possible to test within-subject across multiple conditions, covering a wide Δf and ISI range in one testing session. The objective tasks were based on across-stream temporal judgments (facilitated by integration and within-stream deviance detection (facilitated by segregation. Results show the objective integration task is well suited for combination with the staircase procedure, as it yields consistent threshold measurements for separate variations of ISI and Δf, as well as being significantly related to the subjective thresholds. The objective segregation task appears less suited to the staircase procedure. With the integration-based staircase paradigm, a comprehensive assessment of streaming thresholds can be obtained in a relatively short space of time. This permits efficient threshold measurements particularly in groups for which there is little prior knowledge on the relevant parameter space for streaming perception.

  14. Imbalance of excitation and inhibition at threshold level in the auditory cortex.

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    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Zizhen; Liu, Xiuping; Xiong, Colin; Xiao, Zhongju; Yan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of cortical excitation and inhibition is a fundamental feature of cortical information processing. Excitation and inhibition in single cortical neurons are balanced in their response to optimal sensory stimulation due to thalamocortical feedforward microcircuitry. It is unclear whether the balance between cortical excitation and inhibition is maintained at the threshold stimulus level. Using in vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recording of thalamocortical recipient neurons in the primary auditory cortex of mice, we examined the tone-evoked excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents at threshold levels. Similar to previous reports, tone induced excitatory postsynaptic currents when the membrane potentials were held at 70 mV and inhibitory postsynaptic currents when the membrane potentials were held at 0 mV on single cortical neurons. This coupled excitation and inhibition is not demonstrated when threshold-level tone stimuli are presented. In most cases, tone induced only excitatory postsynaptic current. The best frequencies of excitatory and inhibitory responses were often different and thresholds of inhibitory responses were mostly higher than those of excitatory responses. Our data suggest that the excitatory and inhibitory inputs to single cortical neurons are imbalanced at the threshold level. This imbalance may result from the inherent dynamics of thalamocortical feedforward microcircuitry.

  15. Imbalance of Excitation and Inhibition at Threshold Level In the Auditory Cortex

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    Yan eZhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The interplay of cortical excitation and inhibition is a fundamental feature of cortical information processing. Excitation and inhibition in single cortical neurons are balanced in their response to optimal sensory stimulation due to thalamocortical feedforward microcircuitry. It is unclear whether the balance between cortical excitation and inhibition is maintained at the threshold stimulus level. Using in vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recording of thalamocortical recipient neurons in the primary auditory cortex of mice, we examined the tone-evoked excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents at threshold levels. Similar to previous reports, tone induced excitatory postsynaptic currents when the membrane potentials were held at – 70 mV and inhibitory postsynaptic currents when the membrane potentials were held at 0 mV on single cortical neurons. This coupled excitation and inhibition is not demonstrated when threshold-level tone stimuli are presented. In most cases, tone induced only excitatory postsynaptic potential. The best frequencies of excitatory and inhibitory responses were often different and thresholds of inhibitory responses were mostly higher than those of excitatory responses. Our data suggest that the excitatory and inhibitory inputs to single cortical neurons are imbalanced at the threshold level. This imbalance may result from the inherent dynamics of thalamocortical feedforward microcircuitry.

  16. Identifying the Threshold of Iron Deficiency in the Central Nervous System of the Rat by the Auditory Brainstem Response

    OpenAIRE

    Greminger, Allison R.; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of anemia on auditory nerve (AN) development have been well investigated; however, we have previously reported that significant functional consequences in the auditory brainstem response (ABR) can also occur as a consequence of marginal iron deficiency (ID). As the ABR has widespread clinical use, we evaluated the ability of this electrophysiological method to characterize the threshold of tissue ID in rats by examining the relationship between markers of tissue ID and...

  17. An Auditory-Masking-Threshold-Based Noise Suppression Algorithm GMMSE-AMT[ERB] for Listeners with Sensorineural Hearing Loss

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    Hansen John HL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a new noise suppression scheme for hearing aid applications based on the auditory masking threshold (AMT in conjunction with a modified generalized minimum mean square error estimator (GMMSE for individual subjects with hearing loss. The representation of cochlear frequency resolution is achieved in terms of auditory filter equivalent rectangular bandwidths (ERBs. Estimation of AMT and spreading functions for masking are implemented in two ways: with normal auditory thresholds and normal auditory filter bandwidths (GMMSE-AMT[ERB]-NH and with elevated thresholds and broader auditory filters characteristic of cochlear hearing loss (GMMSE-AMT[ERB]-HI. Evaluation is performed using speech corpora with objective quality measures (segmental SNR, Itakura-Saito, along with formal listener evaluations of speech quality rating and intelligibility. While no measurable changes in intelligibility occurred, evaluations showed quality improvement with both algorithm implementations. However, the customized formulation based on individual hearing losses was similar in performance to the formulation based on the normal auditory system.

  18. The Comparison of the Average Thresholds of Auditory Steady-State Response in Adult Subjective Idiopathic Tinnitus and Normal Subjects

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    Zahra Ghasem Ahmad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is a common symptom among lots of people but little is known about its origins. This study was aimed at comparing the Auditory Steady-State Response (ASSR thresholds in normal cases and patients with subjective idiopathic tinnitus (SIT in order to diagnose its real origins.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 19 patients with tinnitus and 24 normal cases aged 18-40 yr.The patients underwent broad medical tests to roll out any background reason for their tinnitus. ASSR thresholds were estimated in both groups at 20 and 40 amplitude modulation. The patients were selected from tinnitus patients in Research Center in Hazrat Rasoul Hospital, Tehran, Iran.Results: The mean ASSR thresholds at 40HZ modulation were worse in tinnitus patients compared to normal ones (p<0.05 but no significant statistical differences was detected at 20HZ. These results were found in both situations in which we averaged both ears thresholds and when we estimated the thresholds of the ears separately.Conclusion: It seems that the origin of the responses of the modulation of 40Hz, primary auditory cortex, midbrain regions and subcortical areas, in these patients is involved or the origin of their tinnitus is related to some kind of problems in these areas, although more investigation is needed about 20Hz.

  19. Environmental enrichment improves response strength, threshold, selectivity, and latency of auditory cortex neurons.

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    Engineer, Navzer D; Percaccio, Cherie R; Pandya, Pritesh K; Moucha, Raluca; Rathbun, Daniel L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 50 yr, environmental enrichment has been shown to generate more than a dozen changes in brain anatomy. The consequences of these physical changes on information processing have not been well studied. In this study, rats were housed in enriched or standard conditions either prior to or after reaching sexual maturity. Evoked potentials from awake rats and extracellular recordings from anesthetized rats were used to document responses of auditory cortex neurons. This report details several significant, new findings about the influence of housing conditions on the responses of rat auditory cortex neurons. First, enrichment dramatically increases the strength of auditory cortex responses. Tone-evoked potentials of enriched rats, for example, were more than twice the amplitude of rats raised in standard laboratory conditions. Second, cortical responses of both young and adult animals benefit from exposure to an enriched environment and are degraded by exposure to an impoverished environment. Third, housing condition resulted in rapid remodeling of cortical responses in <2 wk. Fourth, recordings made under anesthesia indicate that enrichment increases the number of neurons activated by any sound. This finding shows that the evoked potential plasticity documented in awake rats was not due to differences in behavioral state. Finally, enrichment made primary auditory cortex (A1) neurons more sensitive to quiet sounds, more selective for tone frequency, and altered their response latencies. These experiments provide the first evidence of physiologic changes in auditory cortex processing resulting from generalized environmental enrichment.

  20. A Comparison of Thresholds in Auditory Steady - State Response with Pure Tone Audiometry in Subjects with Normal Hearing and Those with Mild and Moderate Sensorineural Hearing los

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    Sadegh Jafarzadeh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Among all auditory assessment tools, auditory steady state response (ASSR is a modern test. Modulation frequency for this test is usually 80 Hz. The purpose of this study, was to examined adult subjects with 40 Hz and 80 Hz ASSR and compare the results.Materials and Methods: Thirty adult (60 ears were evaluated by ASSR and PTA test, Results were divided into three groups: normal hearing, mild and moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Results: In all groups, forty hertz ASSR thresholds were relatively closer to behavioral threshold than those of 80 Hz ASSR(p<0.05. Besides, the more severe hearing loss, the lower the difference between those two thresholds. Correlation coefficients were also higher in 40 Hz ASSR(p<0.05. Conclusion: Frequency modulation thresholds with 40 Hz are more likely to be closer to the behavioral thresholds. Moreover, it has better results than the thresholds with 80 Hz.

  1. Identifying the threshold of iron deficiency in the central nervous system of the rat by the auditory brainstem response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greminger, Allison R; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of anemia on auditory nerve (AN) development have been well investigated; however, we have previously reported that significant functional consequences in the auditory brainstem response (ABR) can also occur as a consequence of marginal iron deficiency (ID). As the ABR has widespread clinical use, we evaluated the ability of this electrophysiological method to characterize the threshold of tissue ID in rats by examining the relationship between markers of tissue ID and severity of ABR latency defects. To generate various levels of ID, female Long-Evans rats were exposed to diets containing sufficient, borderline, or deficient iron (Fe) concentrations throughout gestation and offspring lifetime. We measured hematological indices of whole body iron stores in dams and offspring to assess the degree of ID. Progression of AN ID in the offspring was measured as ferritin protein levels at different times during postnatal development to complement ABR functional measurements. The severity of ABR deficits correlated with the level of Fe restriction in each diet. The sufficient Fe diet did not induce AN ID and consequently did not show an impaired ABR latency response. The borderline Fe diet, which depleted AN Fe stores but did not cause systemic anemia resulted in significantly increased ABR latency isolated to Peak I.The low Fe diet, which induced anemia and growth retardation, significantly increased ABR latencies of Peaks I to IV. Our findings indicate that changes in the ABR could be related to various degrees of ID experienced throughout development. PMID:25732706

  2. Changes in size and shape of auditory hair cells in vivo during noise-induced temporary threshold shift.

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    Dew, L A; Owen, R G; Mulroy, M J

    1993-03-01

    In this study we describe changes in the size and shape of auditory hair cells of the alligator lizard in vivo during noise-induced temporary threshold shift. These changes consist of a decrease in cell volume, a decrease in cell length and an increase in cell width. We speculate that these changes are due to relaxation of cytoskeletal contractile elements and osmotic loss of intracellular water. We also describe a decrease in the surface area of the hair cell plasmalemma, and speculate that it is related to the endocytosis and intracellular accumulation of cell membrane during synaptic vesicle recycling. Finally we describe an increase in the endolymphatic surface area of the hair cell, and speculate that this could alter the micromechanics of the stereociliary tuft to attenuate the effective stimulus.

  3. Two-source interference as the major reason for auditory-threshold estimation error based on DPOAE input-output functions in normal-hearing subjects.

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    Dalhoff, Ernst; Turcanu, Diana; Vetešník, Aleš; Gummer, Anthony W

    2013-02-01

    Fine structure in the frequency response of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) can severely limit the usefulness of DPOAEs in estimating auditory thresholds. Here, fine structure is removed by extracting the primary-source DPOAE component using the onset-decomposition technique (Vetešník et al., 2009) and auditory threshold estimates are compared to those obtained from DPOAEs in response to conventional, continuous two-tone stimulation. Auditory thresholds are predicted using the estimated distortion product thresholds (EDPTs), obtained from linear regression of input-output (I/O) functions of DPOAE pressure amplitude versus second-tone stimulus level (Boege and Janssen, 2002). The accuracy of the auditory-threshold predictions is derived by comparison with measured auditory thresholds. The parameters of the two primary stimulus tones of frequency f(1) and f(2) and levels of L(1) and L(2) are chosen as: f(2)/f(1) = 1.2 with 1.5 ≤ f(2) ≤ 2.5 kHz, and L(1) = 0.4L(2) + 39 dB SPL, with 25 ≤ L(2) ≤ 65 dB SPL. Data are from 12 normal-hearing subjects with profound DPOAE fine structure. 255 DPOAE I/O functions were measured for each of the two DPOAE paradigms. An EDPT value was accepted as reliable if: 1) the squared correlation coefficient, r(2) ≥ 0.8, 2) the regression slope, s(I/O) ≥ 0.2 μPa/dB, and 3) the standard deviation of the EDPT, σ(EDPT) ≤ 10 dB. The proportion of rejected I/O functions was 8% for onset-decomposition DPOAEs, and 25% for continuous-tone DPOAEs. Removal of data points from the saturation region of the DPOAE I/O function by an automated algorithm reduced the rejection rate, to zero for onset-decomposition DPOAEs, but to only 13% for continuous-tone DPOAEs. In the absence of saturated DPOAE responses, auditory thresholds were predicted with standard deviation of only 4 dB for onset-decomposition DPOAEs, but 12 dB for continuous-tone DPOAEs. In summary, by extracting the primary

  4. Prolonged response to calling songs by the L3 auditory interneuron in female crickets (Acheta domesticus): possible roles in regulating phonotactic threshold and selectiveness for call carrier frequency.

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    Bronsert, Michael; Bingol, Hilary; Atkins, Gordon; Stout, John

    2003-03-01

    L3, an auditory interneuron in the prothoracic ganglion of female crickets (Acheta domesticus) exhibited two kinds of responses to models of the male's calling song (CS): a previously described, phasically encoded immediate response; a more tonically encoded prolonged response. The onset of the prolonged response required 3-8 sec of stimulation to reach its maximum spiking rate and 6-20 sec to decay once the calling song ceased. It did not encode the syllables of the chirp. The prolonged response was sharply selective for the 4-5 kHz carrier frequency of the male's calling songs and its threshold tuning matched the threshold tuning of phonotaxis, while the immediate response of the same neuron was broadly tuned to a wide range of carrier frequencies. The thresholds for the prolonged response covaried with the changing phonotactic thresholds of 2- and 5-day-old females. Treatment of females with juvenile hormone reduced the thresholds for both phonotaxis and the prolonged response by equivalent amounts. Of the 3 types of responses to CSs provided by the ascending L1 and L3 auditory interneurons, the threshold for L3's prolonged response, on average, best matched the same females phonotactic threshold. The prolonged response was stimulated by inputs from both ears while L3's immediate response was driven only from its axon-ipsilateral ear. The prolonged response was not selective for either the CS's syllable period or chirp rate.

  5. Auditory thresholds of Chinese sucker Myxocyprinus asiaticus%胭脂鱼听觉阈值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Auditory brainstem response (ABR) technic has been widely used to study hearing ability in fishes. In contrast to the behavior and traditional electrophysiology methods, this approach provides the following advan-tages:(1) there is no harm to the animals because it is non-invasive;(2) hearing sensitivity in untrained fish can be determined rapidly; (3) individuals are reusable. Using ABR approach, auditory evoked potentials of 10 Chinese suckers Myxocyprinus asiaticus were recorded using two subcutaneous electrodes. We found that the fish can de-tected tone bursts from 100 to 5 000 Hz. The results showed the best hearing between 100 to 2 000 Hz, and the lowest threshold was 69.8 dB at 800 Hz. There was a positive correlation between the amplitude of the ABR waveform and the stimulus intensity, while there was a negative correlation between latency and stimulus intensity. Threshold values from 10 individuals were averaged to produce audiogram. Similarly to the most audiograms, it is a U-shape with thresholds increasing at both high and low frequency limits of hearing. The results have an impor-tant significance in protecting Chinese sucker and providing supporting data for access the effect of noise on fish-es.%  利用听性脑干反应技术研究了胭脂鱼(Myxocyprinus asiaticus)的听觉阈值。通过插入皮下的电极记录了10尾胭脂鱼的短纯音听觉诱发电位。结果显示,在系统最大声强下,胭脂鱼的听频范围为100~5000 Hz,其中对100~2000 Hz的声音敏感度较高,最敏感的频率为800 Hz,听觉阈值约为69.8 dB。随着声强的减小,胭脂鱼的听性脑干反应波形最大,振幅减小,潜伏期延长。将10尾胭脂鱼的阈值平均,得到了胭脂鱼的听性脑干反应听力图。胭脂鱼的听力图呈“U”形,属于典型的动物听力曲线。研究胭脂鱼的听觉阈值对胭脂鱼物种保护具有重要意义,同时可为评估噪声对胭脂鱼的影响提供数据支持。

  6. 听神经病患者最大言语识别率与纯音听阈的相关性分析%Correlation between phonetically balanced maximum and pure tone auditory threshold among 106 auditory neuropathy patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰兰; 郭明丽; 饶绍奇; 王秋菊; 韩东一; 史伟; 韩明鲲; 刘穹; 丁海娜; 陈之慧; 王大勇; 李善红

    2008-01-01

    Objective To estimate correlation between phonetically balanced maximum(PB max)and pure tone auditory threshold in auditory neuropathy(AN)patients.nethods 0ne hundred and six ANpatients were identified using multipie criteria including PB max,a metric for speech recognition,pure tone auditory threshold.acoustic emission test.distortion products otoacoustic emission(DPOAE) and auditory brainstem response(ABR).SPSS statistical software was used to estimate the Pearson's correlation between PB max and pure tone auditory threshold and to test whether pure tone auditory threshold,or auditory configuration had a significant impact on PB max.Results Even the patients had the same or similar values for pure tone auditory threshold or auditory configuration.varied values of PB max were found in two hundreds and twelve ears for 106 patients.Analysis of the data for 106 patients revealed a negative correlation(r=-0.602,P<0.01) between PB max and pure tone auditory threshold,i.e.hearing loss at a mild relates to a lower PB max.By using analysis of variance(ANOVA)method,it Was found that both pure tone auditory threshold and auditory configuration had a significant(P<0.01)impact on the patients' PB max.Conclusions This analysis implicated the promise and potential of pure tone auditory threshold and auditory configuration for predicting PB max of the AN patients,and improving the diagnosis of AN.%目的 分析听神经病患者最大言语识别率与纯音测听之间的相关性,探讨听神经病患者与言语识别率不成比例的临床意义.方法 对106例(212耳)经纯音测听、声导抗、畸变产物耳声发射、听件脑干反应测试确诊为听神经病的患者,行最大言语识别率测试,并与不同程度损失及不同类型听力曲线进行分类、分型比较.依据损失分出轻度、中度、中重度和重度;依据听力曲线分为平坦型、低频上升Ⅰ型、低频上升Ⅱ型、山型、谷型、不典型.统计数据应用SPSS 11.0

  7. The effect of tinnitus volume on the ascending speed of auditory threshold%从耳鸣响度看听阈提高的速度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高福秀; 王斌全; 王建明

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the reaction between tinnitus volume and the ascending speed of auditory threshold in chronic nervous tinnitus patients.Methods The tinnitus volmue and auditory threshold in 50 nervous tinnitus patients (76 ears) with raising auditory threshold were detected by pure tone audiometer.Results There was a significant difference between the 24 ears with tinnitus volume ≤10 dB HL and the 52 ears with tinnitus volume >10 dB HL (P<0.01),especially in above 3 kHz frequency field.Conclusion There are relations between tinnitus volume and the ascending speed of auditory threshold,clinical doctors should slow down the ascending speed of auditory threshold by treating tinnitus.%目的了解神经性渐进性耳鸣、耳聋患者的耳鸣响度与听阈提高速度的关系。方法对50例(76耳)神经性耳鸣并伴听阈提高的患者作纯音听阈及耳鸣响度的测试,并根据病程时间计算听阈提高速度。对25耳耳鸣响度在≤10 dB听力级(HL)的患者与52耳耳鸣响度在>10 dB HL的患者之提高速度进行比较,并进行统计学分析。结果耳鸣响度≤10 dB的24耳与>10 dB的52耳听阈之提高速度在3 kHz以上高频区差异有显著性(P<0.01)。结论耳鸣响度大小与听阈提高速度有关联。听阈的提高速度随着耳鸣响度的加大而增快。

  8. Auditory evoked potential measurement methodology for odontocetes and a comparison of measured thresholds with those obtained using psychophysical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Paul E.; Yuen, Michelle; Mooney, T. Aran; Taylor, Kristen

    2005-04-01

    Most measurements of the hearing capabilities of toothed whales and dolphins have been taken using traditional psychophysical procedures in which the animals have been maintained in laboratory environments and trained to behaviorally report the sensation or difference of acoustic stimuli. Because of the advantage of rapid data collection, increased opportunities, and new methods, Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs) have become increasingly used to measure audition. The use of this new procedure calls to question the comparability of the established literature and the new results collected with AEPs. The results of behavioral and AEP methods have been directly compared with basic audiogram measurements and have been shown to produce similar (but not exactly the same) values when the envelope following response procedure has been used and the length of the stimulus is taken into account. The AEP methods allow possible audiometric opportunities beyond those available with conventional psychophysics including: (1) the measurement of stranded dolphins and whales that may never be kept in laboratories, (2) the testing of stranded animals for hearing deficits perhaps caused by overexposure to noise, and (3) passive testing of hearing mechanisms while animals actively echolocate. [Work supported by the Office of Naval Research and NOAA-NMFS.

  9. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    OpenAIRE

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds b...

  10. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    OpenAIRE

    Monica eGori; Tiziana eVercillo; Giulio eSandini; David eBurr

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial-bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds b...

  11. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...... auditory display creation; data handling for auditory display systems; applications of auditory display....

  12. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auditory Processing Disorders Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are referred to by many names: central auditory processing disorders , auditory perceptual disorders , and central auditory disorders . APDs ...

  13. Mudança significativa do limiar auditivo em trabalhadores expostos a diferentes níveis de ruído Significant auditory threshold shift among workers exposed to different noise levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Cardoso Oliva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a audição e a ocorrência de mudança significativa do limiar auditivo em trabalhadores de frigoríficos expostos a níveis de ruído abaixo das Normas e Regulamentações nacionais e internacionais e compará-los com trabalhadores expostos a níveis de ruído considerados excessivos. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se um banco de dados contendo informações longitudinais de 266 trabalhadores. Foram selecionados trabalhadores com um mínimo de três exames audiométricos e os que continham dados de exposição ao ruído. Foram mantidos 63 exames, classificados de acordo com sua exposição ao ruído em três níveis: 79 a 84,9 dB(A, 85 a 89,9 dB(A e 90 a 98,8 dB(A. Foi avaliada a ocorrência de perdas auditivas e de mudança significativa de limiar auditivo dos participantes de cada subgrupo. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se diferenças em todas as frequências nos testes de comparação entre a média dos limiares auditivos para cada frequência em função do nível de exposição ao ruído. A correlação entre a ocorrência de Perda Auditiva Induzida por Níveis de Pressão Sonora Elevados (PAINPSE e os anos de exposição ao ruído dentro da empresa atual foi significativa (R=0,373; p=0,079. Foram encontradas mudanças permanentes de limiar auditivo nos três níveis de exposição ao ruído. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados do presente estudo sugerem a existência de uma associação entre mudança significativa do limiar auditivo dos trabalhadores e os anos de exposição ao ruído considerado de baixo risco.PURPOSE: To assess the hearing status and signs of significant auditory threshold shifts in meat-processing facility workers who are exposed to noise levels below nationally and internationally recommended exposure limits, and to compare these results with data from workers exposed to excessive noise levels. METHODS: Longitudinal audiometric data from 266 workers were evaluated, and only workers with a minimum of three audiometric test results

  14. Comparison of threshold estimation in infants with hearing loss or normal hearing using auditory steady-state response evoked by narrow band CE-chirps and auditory brainstem response evoked by tone pips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Franck; Jørgensen, Kristoffer Foldager

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to compare air-conduction thresholds obtained with ASSR evoked by narrow band (NB) CE-chirps and ABR evoked by tone pips (tpABR) in infants with various degrees of hearing loss. DESIGN: Thresholds were measured at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz. Data on each...... participant were collected at the same day. STUDY SAMPLE: Sixty-seven infants aged 4 d to 22 months (median age = 96 days), resulting in 57, 52, 87 and 56 ears for 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz, respectively. RESULTS: Statistical analysis was performed for ears with hearing loss (HL) and showed a very strong.......7). Linear regression analysis indicated that the relationship was not influenced by the degree of hearing loss. CONCLUSION: We propose that dB nHL to dB eHL correction values for ASSR evoked by NB CE-chirps should be 5 dB lower than values used for tpABR....

  15. Auditory Neuropathy - A Case of Auditory Neuropathy after Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Mazaher Yazdi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory neuropathy is an hearing disorder in which peripheral hearing is normal, but the eighth nerve and brainstem are abnormal. By clinical definition, patient with this disorder have normal OAE, but exhibit an absent or severely abnormal ABR. Auditory neuropathy was first reported in the late 1970s as different methods could identify discrepancy between absent ABR and present hearing threshold. Speech understanding difficulties are worse than can be predicted from other tests of hearing function. Auditory neuropathy may also affect vestibular function. Case Report: This article presents electrophysiological and behavioral data from a case of auditory neuropathy in a child with normal hearing after bilirubinemia in a 5 years follow-up. Audiological findings demonstrate remarkable changes after multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Conclusion: auditory neuropathy may involve damage to the inner hair cells-specialized sensory cells in the inner ear that transmit information about sound through the nervous system to the brain. Other causes may include faulty connections between the inner hair cells and the nerve leading from the inner ear to the brain or damage to the nerve itself. People with auditory neuropathy have OAEs response but absent ABR and hearing loss threshold that can be permanent, get worse or get better.

  16. Auditory Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... field differ in their opinions about the potential benefits of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other technologies for people with auditory neuropathy. Some professionals report that hearing aids and personal listening devices such as frequency modulation (FM) systems are ...

  17. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback, or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject's forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially congruent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality. PMID:25368587

  18. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eGori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial-bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014. To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile-feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject’s forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal-feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no-feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially coherent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality.

  19. Early Visual Deprivation Severely Compromises the Auditory Sense of Space in Congenitally Blind Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Burr, David; Gori, Monica

    2016-01-01

    A recent study has shown that congenitally blind adults, who have never had visual experience, are impaired on an auditory spatial bisection task (Gori, Sandini, Martinoli, & Burr, 2014). In this study we investigated how thresholds for auditory spatial bisection and auditory discrimination develop with age in sighted and congenitally blind…

  20. Across frequency processes involved in auditory detection of coloration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Kerketsos, P

    2008-01-01

    When an early wall reflection is added to a direct sound, a spectral modulation is introduced to the signal's power spectrum. This spectral modulation typically produces an auditory sensation of coloration or pitch. Throughout this study, auditory spectral-integration effects involved in coloration...... detection are investigated. Coloration detection thresholds were therefore measured as a function of reflection delay and stimulus bandwidth. In order to investigate the involved auditory mechanisms, an auditory model was employed that was conceptually similar to the peripheral weighting model [Yost, JASA...... filterbank was designed to approximate auditory filter-shapes measured by Oxenham and Shera [JARO, 2003, 541-554], derived from forward masking data. The results of the present study demonstrate that a “purely” spectrum-based model approach can successfully describe auditory coloration detection even at high...

  1. Musical experience shapes top-down auditory mechanisms: evidence from masking and auditory attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Ashley, Richard

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of research suggests that cognitive functions, such as attention and memory, drive perception by tuning sensory mechanisms to relevant acoustic features. Long-term musical experience also modulates lower-level auditory function, although the mechanisms by which this occurs remain uncertain. In order to tease apart the mechanisms that drive perceptual enhancements in musicians, we posed the question: do well-developed cognitive abilities fine-tune auditory perception in a top-down fashion? We administered a standardized battery of perceptual and cognitive tests to adult musicians and non-musicians, including tasks either more or less susceptible to cognitive control (e.g., backward versus simultaneous masking) and more or less dependent on auditory or visual processing (e.g., auditory versus visual attention). Outcomes indicate lower perceptual thresholds in musicians specifically for auditory tasks that relate with cognitive abilities, such as backward masking and auditory attention. These enhancements were observed in the absence of group differences for the simultaneous masking and visual attention tasks. Our results suggest that long-term musical practice strengthens cognitive functions and that these functions benefit auditory skills. Musical training bolsters higher-level mechanisms that, when impaired, relate to language and literacy deficits. Thus, musical training may serve to lessen the impact of these deficits by strengthening the corticofugal system for hearing. PMID:20018234

  2. A Comparison of Aided Hearing Thresholds by Behavioral Audiometry and Auditory Steady-state Response in Sound Field%声场中记录的听性稳态助听反应阈与行为测试助听听阈的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建华; 蓝小兵; 林琳; 李光智

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the aided hearing thresholds by using multiple-frequency auditory steady-state response (ASSR) to Chirp stimuli in sound field, to observe its correlation with behavioral aided hearing thresholds and to explore the clinical significance of ASSR to Chirp stimuli in evaluation of hearing aid outcome. Methods Twenty-two severely hearing-impaired children (39 ears)with hearing aids received the examination with Eclipse EP25 ASSR device and GSS-61 audiometer to obtain their aided hearing thresholds. Sixteen normal-hearing children (32 ears) received the examination to obtain their behavioral thresholds and ASSR thresholds. Results For the hearing-impaired group, the coefficients of ASSR and behavioral aided hearing thresholds were 0.65,0.68,0.77 and 0.82 at 0.5,1,2 and 4 kHz, respectively(P<0.01), which indicated there were correlations between the two test results. The paired t-test showed that there were significant differences between behavioral thresholds and ASSR thresholds of normal group at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz(P<0.01). The ASSR thresholds were 20-30 dB HL higher than behavioral thresholds, Conclusion The ASSR to Chirp stimuli can be used to evaluate the hearing aid outcomes in clinical practice.%目的 应用多频听觉稳态反应(ASSR)Chirp刺激信号在声场中测试助听反应阈,观察其阈值与行为测试助听听阈的相关性,探讨多频听觉稳态反应Chirp刺激信号声场测试评估助听器补偿效果的临床意义.方法 选取22例(39耳)重度感音神经性听力损失、已配戴助听器的患儿(听障组)和16例(32耳)听力正常儿童(对照组)为研究对象.应用国际听力Eclipse EP25型多频稳态诱发电位仪及美国GSI-61型听力计,分别对听障组在声场中使用两种仪器测试助听听阈;对对照组进行裸耳行为听阈与声场中听觉稳态反应阈测试.结果 在0.5、1、2、4 kHz处,听障组ASSR助听反应阈与行为助听听阈的相关系数分别为0.65、0.68

  3. Applied research in auditory data representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frysinger, Steve P.

    1990-08-01

    A class of data displays, characterized generally as Auditory Data Representation, is described and motivated. This type of data representation takes advantage of the tremendous pattern recognition capability of the human auditory channel. Audible displays offer an alternative means of conveying quantitative data to the analyst to facilitate information extraction, and are successfully used alone and in conjunction with visual displays. The Auditory Data Representation literature is reviewed, along with elements of the allied fields of investigation, Psychoacoustics and Musical Perception. A methodology for applied research in this field, based upon the well-developed discipline of psychophysics, is elaborated using a recent experiment as a case study. This method permits objective estimation of a data representation technique by comparing it to alternative displays for the pattern recognition task at hand. The psychophysical threshold of signal to noise level, for constant pattern recognition performance, is the measure of display effectiveness.

  4. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  5. [EFFECT OF HYPOXIA ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMAN AUDITORY PERCEPTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorodnikova, E A; Stolvaroya, E I; Pak, S P; Bogomolova, G M; Korolev, Yu N; Golubev, V N; Lesova, E M

    2015-12-01

    The effect of normobaric hypoxic hypoxia (single and interval training) on the characteristics of human hearing was investigated. The hearing thresholds (tonal audiograms), reaction time of subjects in psychophysical experiments (pause detection, perception of rhythm and target words), and short-term auditory memory were measured before and after hypoxia. The obtained data revealed improvement of the auditory sensitivity and characteristics of working memory, and increasing of response speed. It was demonstrated that interval hypoxic training had positive effect on the processes of auditory perception. PMID:26987233

  6. Auditory pitch imagery and its relationship to musical synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenka, Nadine; Keller, Peter E

    2009-07-01

    Musical ensemble performance requires precise coordination of action. To play in synchrony, ensemble musicians presumably anticipate the sounds that will be produced by their co-performers. These predictions may be based on auditory images in working memory. This study examined the contribution of auditory imagery abilities to sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) in 20 musicians. The acuity of single-tone pitch images was measured by an adjustment method and by adaptive threshold estimation. Different types of finger tapping tasks were administered to assess SMS. Auditory imagery and SMS abilities were found to be positively correlated with one another and with musical experience. PMID:19673794

  7. Evaluation of peripheral compression and auditory nerve fiber intensity coding using auditory steady-state responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Encina Llamas, Gerard; M. Harte, James; Epp, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    . Evaluation of these properties provides information about the health state of the system. It has been shown that a loss of outer hair cells leads to a reduction in peripheral compression. It has also recently been shown in animal studies that noise over-exposure, producing temporary threshold shifts, can......The compressive nonlinearity of the auditory system is assumed to be an epiphenomenon of a healthy cochlea and, particularly, of outer-hair cell function. Another ability of the healthy auditory system is to enable communication in acoustical environments with high-level background noises...

  8. Auditory training during development mitigates a hearing loss-induced perceptual deficit.

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Sarro; Dan Sanes

    2014-01-01

    Sensory experience during early development can shape the central nervous system and this is thought to influence adult perceptual skills. In the auditory system, early induction of conductive hearing loss (CHL) leads to deficits in central auditory coding properties in adult animals, and this is accompanied by diminished perceptual thresholds. In contrast, a brief regimen of auditory training during development can enhance the perceptual skills of animals when tested in adulthood. Here, we a...

  9. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features. PMID:22271265

  10. Temporal auditory processing in elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzolini, Vanuza Conceição

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the trial of aging all the structures of the organism are modified, generating intercurrences in the quality of the hearing and of the comprehension. The hearing loss that occurs in consequence of this trial occasion a reduction of the communicative function, causing, also, a distance of the social relationship. Objective: Comparing the performance of the temporal auditory processing between elderly individuals with and without hearing loss. Method: The present study is characterized for to be a prospective, transversal and of diagnosis character field work. They were analyzed 21 elders (16 women and 5 men, with ages between 60 to 81 years divided in two groups, a group "without hearing loss"; (n = 13 with normal auditive thresholds or restricted hearing loss to the isolated frequencies and a group "with hearing loss" (n = 8 with neurosensory hearing loss of variable degree between light to moderately severe. Both the groups performed the tests of frequency (PPS and duration (DPS, for evaluate the ability of temporal sequencing, and the test Randon Gap Detection Test (RGDT, for evaluate the temporal resolution ability. Results: It had not difference statistically significant between the groups, evaluated by the tests DPS and RGDT. The ability of temporal sequencing was significantly major in the group without hearing loss, when evaluated by the test PPS in the condition "muttering". This result presented a growing one significant in parallel with the increase of the age group. Conclusion: It had not difference in the temporal auditory processing in the comparison between the groups.

  11. Auditory Brainstem Response Improvements in Hyperbillirubinemic Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Farzaneh Zamiri; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Lotfi, Yones

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hyperbillirubinemia in infants have been associated with neuronal damage including in the auditory system. Some researchers have suggested that the bilirubin-induced auditory neuronal damages may be temporary and reversible. This study was aimed at investigating the auditory neuropathy and reversibility of auditory abnormalities in hyperbillirubinemic infants. Subjects and Methods The study participants included 41 full term hyperbilirubinemic infants (mean age 39.24 days) with normal birth weight (3,200-3,700 grams) that admitted in hospital for hyperbillirubinemia and 39 normal infants (mean age 35.54 days) without any hyperbillirubinemia or other hearing loss risk factors for ruling out maturational changes. All infants in hyperbilirubinemic group had serum bilirubin level more than 20 milligram per deciliter and undergone one blood exchange transfusion. Hearing evaluation for each infant was conducted twice: the first one after hyperbilirubinemia treatment and before leaving hospital and the second one three months after the first hearing evaluation. Hearing evaluations included transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) screening and auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold tracing. Results The TEOAE and ABR results of control group and TEOAE results of the hyperbilirubinemic group did not change significantly from the first to the second evaluation. However, the ABR results of the hyperbilirubinemic group improved significantly from the first to the second assessment (p=0.025). Conclusions The results suggest that the bilirubin induced auditory neuronal damage can be reversible over time so we suggest that infants with hyperbilirubinemia who fail the first hearing tests should be reevaluated after 3 months of treatment. PMID:27144228

  12. Formal auditory training in adult hearing aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss are often able to regain some lost auditory function with the help of hearing aids. However, hearing aids are not able to overcome auditory distortions such as impaired frequency resolution and speech understanding in noisy environments. The coexistence of peripheral hearing loss and a central auditory deficit may contribute to patient dissatisfaction with amplification, even when audiological tests indicate nearly normal hearing thresholds. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to validate the effects of a formal auditory training program in adult hearing aid users with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: Fourteen bilateral hearing aid users were divided into two groups: seven who received auditory training and seven who did not. The training program was designed to improve auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal and nonverbal sounds and temporal processing (frequency and duration of sounds. Pre- and post-training evaluations included measuring electrophysiological and behavioral auditory processing and administration of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB self-report scale. RESULTS: The post-training evaluation of the experimental group demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in P3 latency, improved performance in some of the behavioral auditory processing tests and higher hearing aid benefit in noisy situations (p-value < 0,05. No changes were noted for the control group (p-value <0,05. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that auditory training in adult hearing aid users can lead to a reduction in P3 latency, improvements in sound localization, memory for nonverbal sounds in sequence, auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal sounds and greater benefits in reverberant and noisy environments.

  13. 压力波对豚鼠耳蜗血管纹、毛细胞心钠素免疫活性改变的研究%Change of Atrial Natriuretic Peptides Immunoreactivity in Stria Vascularis and Hair Cells of Cochlear and Correlation Study of Auditory Threshold Shift After Shock Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈合新; 邱建华; 王锦玲

    2000-01-01

    目的为探讨压力波的致聋机理,对豚鼠耳蜗血管纹(SV)、毛细胞(HC)中心钠素免疫活性(ANP-IR)的改变及与听阈阈移的相关性进行研究。方法采用免疫细胞化学(ABC法)法、图像分析听性脑干反应测听技术(ABR)对压力波暴露后不同时间分组的豚鼠耳蜗SV、HC中ANP-IR产物进行检测。结果压力波暴露后6、12、24h和48h组SV组织中ANP-IR光密度值较对照组均有明显的差异(P<0.05),其中24h组最高;冲击波暴露后6、12、24h组内毛细胞(IHC)中ANP-IR阳性产物的光密度值较对照组明显增高(P<0.05),其中以12 h组最高。二者的变化均与听阈阈移有明显的正相关性(r1=0.8175,P>0.05;r2=0.9185,P>0.05)。而外毛细胞(OHC)中ANP-IR阳性产物变化不明显。结论压力波暴露后,SV组织中ANP的增高可能是内耳的一种代偿机制;IHC和OHC中ANP-IR的变化可能是冲击波对其损伤机制的不同表现。%Objective In order to investigate the effects of shock wave on atrial natriuretic peptides immunoreactivity in the stria vascularis and hair cells of cochlear and correlation of auditory threshold shift,to study the mechanism of deafness caused by blast trauma. Methods After shock wave, different groups of guinea pigs were studied by ABC immunohistochemistry, image analysis and auditory brainstem response. Results ANP - IR optic density in experimental group was higher than that of control in the stria vascularis and inner hair cells. The change of ANP- IR optic density was directy correlated with ABR threshold shift (r2 =0.9185. P2<0.05). There was no change of ABR and ANP - IR optic density on outer hair cells. Conclusion The change of ANP in the stria vascularis may be a compensatory mechanism to heating lose caused by shock wave; ANP in inner cells may be a pathological manifestation of shock wave. The changes of ANP - IR in outer cells may be a false appearance, it was the shock wave which

  14. Auditory Responses of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Betty Springer; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Forty infants, 3- to 12-months-old, participated in a study designed to differentiate the auditory response characteristics of normally developing infants in the age ranges 3 - 5 months, 6 - 8 months, and 9 - 12 months. (Author)

  15. Representation of auditory-filter phase characteristics in the cortex of human listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rupp, A.; Sieroka, N.; Gutschalk, A.;

    2008-01-01

    Harmonic tone complexes with component phases, adjusted using a variant of a method proposed by Schroeder, can produce pure-tone masked thresholds differing by >20 dB. This phenomenon has been qualitatively explained by the phase characteristics of the auditory filters on the basilar membrane......, which differently affect the flat envelopes of the Schroeder-phase maskers. We examined the influence of auditory-filter phase characteristics on the neural representation in the auditory cortex by investigating cortical auditory evoked fields ( AEFs). We found that the P1m component exhibited larger...

  16. Plasticity of Peripheral Auditory Frequency Sensitivity in Emei Music Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dian; Cui, Jianguo; Tang, Yezhong

    2012-01-01

    In anurans reproductive behavior is strongly seasonal. During the spring, frogs emerge from hibernation and males vocalize for mating or advertising territories. Female frogs have the ability to evaluate the quality of the males' resources on the basis of these vocalizations. Although studies revealed that central single torus semicircularis neurons in frogs exhibit season plasticity, the plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity in frog is unknown. In this study the seasonally plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity was test in the Emei music frog Babina daunchina, by comparing thresholds and latencies of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) evoked by tone pips and clicks in the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The results show that both ABR thresholds and latency differ significantly between the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The thresholds of tone pip evoked ABRs in the non-reproductive season increased significantly about 10 dB than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1 KHz to 6 KHz. ABR latencies to waveform valley values for tone pips for the same frequencies using appropriate threshold stimulus levels are longer than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1.5 to 6 KHz range, although from 0.2 to 1.5 KHz range it is shorter in the non-reproductive season. These results demonstrated that peripheral auditory frequency sensitivity exhibits seasonal plasticity changes which may be adaptive to seasonal reproductive behavior in frogs. PMID:23029243

  17. [Central auditory prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarz, T; Lim, H; Joseph, G; Reuter, G; Lenarz, M

    2009-06-01

    Deaf patients with severe sensory hearing loss can benefit from a cochlear implant (CI), which stimulates the auditory nerve fibers. However, patients who do not have an intact auditory nerve cannot benefit from a CI. The majority of these patients are neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who developed neural deafness due to growth or surgical removal of a bilateral acoustic neuroma. The only current solution is the auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which stimulates the surface of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. Although the ABI provides improvement in environmental awareness and lip-reading capabilities, only a few NF2 patients have achieved some limited open set speech perception. In the search for alternative procedures our research group in collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Australia) developed a human prototype auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which is designed to electrically stimulate the inferior colliculus (IC). The IC has the potential as a new target for an auditory prosthesis as it provides access to neural projections necessary for speech perception as well as a systematic map of spectral information. In this paper the present status of research and development in the field of central auditory prostheses is presented with respect to technology, surgical technique and hearing results as well as the background concepts of ABI and AMI. PMID:19517084

  18. An Auditory Model with Hearing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Bramsløw

    An auditory model based on the psychophysics of hearing has been developed and tested. The model simulates the normal ear or an impaired ear with a given hearing loss. Based on reviews of the current literature, the frequency selectivity and loudness growth as functions of threshold and stimulus...... level have been found and implemented in the model. The auditory model was verified against selected results from the literature, and it was confirmed that the normal spread of masking and loudness growth could be simulated in the model. The effects of hearing loss on these parameters was also...... in qualitative agreement with recent findings. The temporal properties of the ear have currently not been included in the model. As an example of a real-world application of the model, loudness spectrograms for a speech utterance were presented. By introducing hearing loss, the speech sounds became less audible...

  19. Deafness in cochlear and auditory nerve disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common type of hearing impairment worldwide. It arises as a consequence of damage to the cochlea or auditory nerve, and several structures are often affected simultaneously. There are many causes, including genetic mutations affecting the structures of the inner ear, and environmental insults such as noise, ototoxic substances, and hypoxia. The prevalence increases dramatically with age. Clinical diagnosis is most commonly accomplished by measuring detection thresholds and comparing these to normative values to determine the degree of hearing loss. In addition to causing insensitivity to weak sounds, sensorineural hearing loss has a number of adverse perceptual consequences, including loudness recruitment, poor perception of pitch and auditory space, and difficulty understanding speech, particularly in the presence of background noise. The condition is usually incurable; treatment focuses on restoring the audibility of sounds made inaudible by hearing loss using either hearing aids or cochlear implants.

  20. Acoustic Noise of MRI Scans of the Internal Auditory Canal and Potential for Intracochlear Physiological Changes

    CERN Document Server

    Busada, M A; Ibrahim, G; Huckans, J H

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used medical imaging technique to assess the health of the auditory (vestibulocochlear) nerve. A well known problem with MRI machines is that the acoustic noise they generate during a scan can cause auditory temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in humans. In addition, studies have shown that excessive noise in general can cause rapid physiological changes of constituents of the auditory within the cochlea. Here, we report in-situ measurements of the acoustic noise from a 1.5 Tesla MRI machine (GE Signa) during scans specific to auditory nerve assessment. The measured average and maximum noise levels corroborate earlier investigations where TTS occurred. We briefly discuss the potential for physiological changes to the intracochlear branches of the auditory nerve as well as iatrogenic misdiagnoses of intralabyrinthine and intracochlear schwannomas due to hypertrophe of the auditory nerve within the cochlea during MRI assessment.

  1. Musical experience, auditory perception and reading-related skills in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Banai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationships between auditory processing and reading-related skills remain poorly understood despite intensive research. Here we focus on the potential role of musical experience as a confounding factor. Specifically we ask whether the pattern of correlations between auditory and reading related skills differ between children with different amounts of musical experience. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Third grade children with various degrees of musical experience were tested on a battery of auditory processing and reading related tasks. Very poor auditory thresholds and poor memory skills were abundant only among children with no musical education. In this population, indices of auditory processing (frequency and interval discrimination thresholds were significantly correlated with and accounted for up to 13% of the variance in reading related skills. Among children with more than one year of musical training, auditory processing indices were better, yet reading related skills were not correlated with them. A potential interpretation for the reduction in the correlations might be that auditory and reading-related skills improve at different rates as a function of musical training. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Participants' previous musical training, which is typically ignored in studies assessing the relations between auditory and reading related skills, should be considered. Very poor auditory and memory skills are rare among children with even a short period of musical training, suggesting musical training could have an impact on both. The lack of correlation in the musically trained population suggests that a short period of musical training does not enhance reading related skills of individuals with within-normal auditory processing skills. Further studies are required to determine whether the associations between musical training, auditory processing and memory are indeed causal or whether children with poor auditory and

  2. Spatial auditory processing in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Marla M.

    Given the biological importance of sound for a variety of activities, pinnipeds must be able to obtain spatial information about their surroundings thorough acoustic input in the absence of other sensory cues. The three chapters of this dissertation address spatial auditory processing capabilities of pinnipeds in air given that these amphibious animals use acoustic signals for reproduction and survival on land. Two chapters are comparative lab-based studies that utilized psychophysical approaches conducted in an acoustic chamber. Chapter 1 addressed the frequency-dependent sound localization abilities at azimuth of three pinniped species (the harbor seal, Phoca vitulina, the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus, and the northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris). While performances of the sea lion and harbor seal were consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization, the elephant seal, a low-frequency hearing specialist, showed a decreased ability to localize the highest frequencies tested. In Chapter 2 spatial release from masking (SRM), which occurs when a signal and masker are spatially separated resulting in improvement in signal detectability relative to conditions in which they are co-located, was determined in a harbor seal and sea lion. Absolute and masked thresholds were measured at three frequencies and azimuths to determine the detection advantages afforded by this type of spatial auditory processing. Results showed that hearing sensitivity was enhanced by up to 19 and 12 dB in the harbor seal and sea lion, respectively, when the signal and masker were spatially separated. Chapter 3 was a field-based study that quantified both sender and receiver variables of the directional properties of male northern elephant seal calls produce within communication system that serves to delineate dominance status. This included measuring call directivity patterns, observing male-male vocally-mediated interactions, and an acoustic playback study

  3. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  4. Auditory Effects of Multiple Impulses from a Seismic Air Gun on Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlundt, Carolyn E; Finneran, James J; Branstetter, Brian K; Trickey, Jennifer S; Bowman, Victoria; Jenkins, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Auditory thresholds were measured in three bottlenose dolphins before and after exposure to ten impulses from a seismic air gun. Thresholds were measured using behavioral and electrophysiological methods to determine the amount of temporary threshold shift induced. The results suggest that the potential for seismic surveys using air guns to cause auditory effects on dolphins may be lower than previously predicted; however, two of the three dolphins exhibited "anticipatory" behavioral changes at the highest exposure condition that suggested they were attempting to mitigate the effects of the exposures.

  5. Increased intensity discrimination thresholds in tinnitus subjects with a normal audiogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Hots, J.; Verhey, J. L.;

    2012-01-01

    Recent auditory brain stem response measurements in tinnitus subjects with normal audiograms indicate the presence of hidden hearing loss that manifests as reduced neural output from the cochlea at high sound intensities, and results from mice suggest a link to deafferentation of auditory nerve...... fibers. As deafferentation would lead to deficits in hearing performance, the present study investigates whether tinnitus patients with normal hearing thresholds show impairment in intensity discrimination compared to an audiometrically matched control group. Intensity discrimination thresholds were...... significantly increased in the tinnitus frequency range, consistent with the hypothesis that auditory nerve fiber deafferentation is associated with tinnitus....

  6. Auditory Neuropathy: Findings of Behavioral, Physiological and Neurophysiological Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Farhadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory neuropathy (AN can be diagnosed by abnormal auditory brainstem response (ABR, in the presence of normal cochlear microphonic (CM and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs.The aim of this study was to investigate the ABR and other electrodiagnostic test results of 6 patients suspicious to AN with problems in speech recognition. Materials and Methods: this cross sectional study was conducted on 6 AN patients with different ages evaluated by pure tone audiometry, speech discrimination score (SDS , immittance audiometry. ElectroCochleoGraphy , ABR, middle latency response (MLR, Late latency response (LLR, and OAEs. Results: Behavioral pure tone audiometric tests showed moderate to profound hearing loss. SDS was so poor which is not in accordance with pure tone thresholds. All patients had normal tympanogram but absent acoustic reflexes. CMs and OAEs were within normal limits. There was no contra lateral suppression of OAEs. None of cases had normal ABR or MLR although LLR was recorded in 4. Conclusion: All patients in this study are typical cases of auditory neuropathy. Despite having abnormal input, LLR remains normal that indicates differences in auditory evoked potentials related to required neural synchrony. These findings show that auditory cortex may play a role in regulating presentation of deficient signals along auditory pathways in primary steps.

  7. Training in rapid auditory processing ameliorates auditory comprehension in aphasic patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelag, Elzbieta; Lewandowska, Monika; Wolak, Tomasz; Seniow, Joanna; Poniatowska, Renata; Pöppel, Ernst; Szymaszek, Aneta

    2014-03-15

    Experimental studies have often reported close associations between rapid auditory processing and language competency. The present study was aimed at improving auditory comprehension in aphasic patients following specific training in the perception of temporal order (TO) of events. We tested 18 aphasic patients showing both comprehension and TO perception deficits. Auditory comprehension was assessed by the Token Test, phonemic awareness and Voice-Onset-Time Test. The TO perception was assessed using auditory Temporal-Order-Threshold, defined as the shortest interval between two consecutive stimuli, necessary to report correctly their before-after relation. Aphasic patients participated in eight 45-minute sessions of either specific temporal training (TT, n=11) aimed to improve sequencing abilities, or control non-temporal training (NT, n=7) focussed on volume discrimination. The TT yielded improved TO perception; moreover, a transfer of improvement was observed from the time domain to the language domain, which was untrained during the training. The NT did not improve either the TO perception or comprehension in any language test. These results are in agreement with previous literature studies which proved ameliorated language competency following the TT in language-learning-impaired or dyslexic children. Our results indicated for the first time such benefits also in aphasic patients. PMID:24388435

  8. Using Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials as a predictor of speech perception ability in Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder and conditions with ANSD-like clinical presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Stirling, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) is diagnosed by the presence of outer hair cell function, and absence or severe abnormality of the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Within the spectrum of ANSD, level of severity varies greatly in two domains: hearing thresholds can range from normal levels to a profound hearing loss, and degree of speech perception impairment also varies. The latter gives a meaningful indication of severity in ANSD. As the ABR does not relate to functional perfo...

  9. Effects of aging on peripheral and central auditory processing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Margarida; Lepore, Franco; Prévost, François; Guillemot, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    Hearing loss is a hallmark sign in the elderly population. Decline in auditory perception provokes deficits in the ability to localize sound sources and reduces speech perception, particularly in noise. In addition to a loss of peripheral hearing sensitivity, changes in more complex central structures have also been demonstrated. Related to these, this study examines the auditory directional maps in the deep layers of the superior colliculus of the rat. Hence, anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats underwent distortion product of otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to assess cochlear function. Then, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were assessed, followed by extracellular single-unit recordings to determine age-related effects on central auditory functions. DPOAE amplitude levels were decreased in aged rats although they were still present between 3.0 and 24.0 kHz. ABR level thresholds in aged rats were significantly elevated at an early (cochlear nucleus - wave II) stage in the auditory brainstem. In the superior colliculus, thresholds were increased and the tuning widths of the directional receptive fields were significantly wider. Moreover, no systematic directional spatial arrangement was present among the neurons of the aged rats, implying that the topographical organization of the auditory directional map was abolished. These results suggest that the deterioration of the auditory directional spatial map can, to some extent, be attributable to age-related dysfunction at more central, perceptual stages of auditory processing.

  10. The neglected neglect: auditory neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Sankalp; Lahoti, Sourabh; Caplan, Louis R

    2013-08-01

    Whereas visual and somatosensory forms of neglect are commonly recognized by clinicians, auditory neglect is often not assessed and therefore neglected. The auditory cortical processing system can be functionally classified into 2 distinct pathways. These 2 distinct functional pathways deal with recognition of sound ("what" pathway) and the directional attributes of the sound ("where" pathway). Lesions of higher auditory pathways produce distinct clinical features. Clinical bedside evaluation of auditory neglect is often difficult because of coexisting neurological deficits and the binaural nature of auditory inputs. In addition, auditory neglect and auditory extinction may show varying degrees of overlap, which makes the assessment even harder. Shielding one ear from the other as well as separating the ear from space is therefore critical for accurate assessment of auditory neglect. This can be achieved by use of specialized auditory tests (dichotic tasks and sound localization tests) for accurate interpretation of deficits. Herein, we have reviewed auditory neglect with an emphasis on the functional anatomy, clinical evaluation, and basic principles of specialized auditory tests.

  11. Auditory training during development mitigates a hearing loss-induced perceptual deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ramanjot; Sarro, Emma C; Sanes, Dan H

    2014-01-01

    Sensory experience during early development can shape the central nervous system and this is thought to influence adult perceptual skills. In the auditory system, early induction of conductive hearing loss (CHL) leads to deficits in central auditory coding properties in adult animals, and this is accompanied by diminished perceptual thresholds. In contrast, a brief regimen of auditory training during development can enhance the perceptual skills of animals when tested in adulthood. Here, we asked whether a brief period of training during development could compensate for the perceptual deficits displayed by adult animals reared with CHL. Juvenile gerbils with CHL, and age-matched controls, were trained on a frequency modulation (FM) detection task for 4 or 10 days. The performance of each group was subsequently assessed in adulthood, and compared to adults with normal hearing (NH) or adults raised with CHL that did not receive juvenile training. We show that as juveniles, both CHL and NH animals display similar FM detection thresholds that are not immediately impacted by the perceptual training. However, as adults, detection thresholds and psychometric function slopes of these animals were significantly improved. Importantly, CHL adults with juvenile training displayed thresholds that approached NH adults. Additionally, we found that hearing impaired animals trained for 10 days displayed adult thresholds closer to untrained adults than those trained for 4 days. Thus, a relatively brief period of auditory training may compensate for the deleterious impact of hearing deprivation on auditory perception on the trained task.

  12. Early visual deprivation severely compromises the auditory sense of space in congenitally blind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Burr, David; Gori, Monica

    2016-06-01

    A recent study has shown that congenitally blind adults, who have never had visual experience, are impaired on an auditory spatial bisection task (Gori, Sandini, Martinoli, & Burr, 2014). In this study we investigated how thresholds for auditory spatial bisection and auditory discrimination develop with age in sighted and congenitally blind children (9 to 14 years old). Children performed 2 spatial tasks (minimum audible angle and space bisection) and 1 temporal task (temporal bisection). There was no impairment in the temporal task for blind children but, like adults, they showed severely compromised thresholds for spatial bisection. Interestingly, the blind children also showed lower precision in judging minimum audible angle. These results confirm the adult study and go on to suggest that even simpler auditory spatial tasks are compromised in children, and that this capacity recovers over time. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27228448

  13. Early visual deprivation severely compromises the auditory sense of space in congenitally blind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Burr, David; Gori, Monica

    2016-06-01

    A recent study has shown that congenitally blind adults, who have never had visual experience, are impaired on an auditory spatial bisection task (Gori, Sandini, Martinoli, & Burr, 2014). In this study we investigated how thresholds for auditory spatial bisection and auditory discrimination develop with age in sighted and congenitally blind children (9 to 14 years old). Children performed 2 spatial tasks (minimum audible angle and space bisection) and 1 temporal task (temporal bisection). There was no impairment in the temporal task for blind children but, like adults, they showed severely compromised thresholds for spatial bisection. Interestingly, the blind children also showed lower precision in judging minimum audible angle. These results confirm the adult study and go on to suggest that even simpler auditory spatial tasks are compromised in children, and that this capacity recovers over time. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  15. CARA Risk Assessment Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Warning remediation threshold (Red threshold): Pc level at which warnings are issued, and active remediation considered and usually executed. Analysis threshold (Green to Yellow threshold): Pc level at which analysis of event is indicated, including seeking additional information if warranted. Post-remediation threshold: Pc level to which remediation maneuvers are sized in order to achieve event remediation and obviate any need for immediate follow-up maneuvers. Maneuver screening threshold: Pc compliance level for routine maneuver screenings (more demanding than regular Red threshold due to additional maneuver uncertainty).

  16. Visual–auditory spatial processing in auditory cortical neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Bizley, Jennifer K.; King, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Neurons responsive to visual stimulation have now been described in the auditory cortex of various species, but their functions are largely unknown. Here we investigate the auditory and visual spatial sensitivity of neurons recorded in 5 different primary and non-primary auditory cortical areas of the ferret. We quantified the spatial tuning of neurons by measuring the responses to stimuli presented across a range of azimuthal positions and calculating the mutual information (MI) between the ...

  17. Resizing Auditory Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Heard through the ears of the Canadian composer and music teacher R. Murray Schafer the ideal auditory community had the shape of a village. Schafer’s work with the World Soundscape Project in the 70s represent an attempt to interpret contemporary environments through musical and auditory...... of sound as an active component in shaping urban environments. As urban conditions spreads globally, new scales, shapes and forms of communities appear and call for new distinctions and models in the study and representation of sonic environments. Particularly so, since urban environments are increasingly...... presents some terminologies for mapping urban environments through its sonic configuration. Such probing into the practices of acoustic territorialisation may direct attention to some of the conflicting and disharmonious interests defining public inclusive domains. The paper investigates the concept...

  18. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in children with lead exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia de Freitas Alvarenga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Earlier studies have demonstrated an auditory effect of lead exposure in children, but information on the effects of low chronic exposures needs to be further elucidated. Objective: To investigate the effect of low chronic exposures of the auditory system in children with a history of low blood lead levels, using an auditory electrophysiological test. Methods: Contemporary cross-sectional cohort. Study participants underwent tympanometry, pure tone and speech audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with blood lead monitoring over a period of 35.5 months. The study included 130 children, with ages ranging from 18 months to 14 years, 5 months (mean age 6 years, 8 months ± 3 years, 2 months. Results: The mean time-integrated cumulative blood lead index was 12 µg/dL (SD ± 5.7, range:2.433. All participants had hearing thresholds equal to or below 20 dBHL and normal amplitudes of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. No association was found between the absolute latencies of waves I, III, and V, the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, and I-V, and the cumulative lead values. Conclusion: No evidence of toxic effects from chronic low lead exposures was observed on the auditory function of children living in a lead contaminated area.

  19. The role of auditory abilities in basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo eGrassi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess age-related differences between young and older adults in auditory abilities and to investigate the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults. Although there is a certain consensus that the participant’s sensitivity to the absolute intensity of sounds (such as that measured via pure tone audiometry explains his/her cognitive performance, there is not yet much evidence that the participant’s auditory ability (i.e., the whole supra-threshold processing of sounds explains his/her cognitive performance. Twenty-eight young adults (age < 35, 26 young-old adults (65 ≤ age ≤75 and 28 old-old adults (age > 75 were presented with a set of tasks estimating several auditory abilities (i.e., frequency discrimination, intensity discrimination, duration discrimination, timbre discrimination, gap detection, amplitude modulation detection, and the absolute threshold for a 1 kHz pure tone and the participant’s working memory, cognitive inhibition, and processing speed. Results showed an age-related decline in both auditory and cognitive performance. Moreover, regression analyses showed that a subset of the auditory abilities (i.e., the ability to discriminate frequency, duration, timbre, and the ability to detect amplitude modulation explained a significant part of the variance observed in processing speed in older adults. Overall, the present results highlight the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition.

  20. Auditory Evoked Potential Response and Hearing Loss: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Paulraj, M. P; Subramaniam, Kamalraj; Yaccob, Sazali Bin; Adom, Abdul H. Bin; Hema, C.R.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoacusis is the most prevalent sensory disability in the world and consequently, it can lead to impede speech in human beings. One best approach to tackle this issue is to conduct early and effective hearing screening test using Electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG based hearing threshold level determination is most suitable for persons who lack verbal communication and behavioral response to sound stimulation. Auditory evoked potential (AEP) is a type of EEG signal emanated from the brain scalp...

  1. PSYCHOACOUSTICS: a comprehensive MATLAB toolbox for auditory testing

    OpenAIRE

    Soranzo, Alessandro; Grassi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    PSYCHOACOUSTICS is a new MATLAB toolbox which implements three classic adaptive procedures for auditory threshold estimation. The first includes those of the Staircase family (method of limits, simple up-down and transformed up-down); the second is the Parameter Estimation by Sequential Testing (PEST); and the third is the Maximum Likelihood Procedure (MLP). The toolbox comes with more than twenty built-in experiments each provided with the recommended (default) parameters. However, if des...

  2. PSYCHOACOUSTICS: a comprehensive MATLAB toolbox for auditory testing

    OpenAIRE

    Soranzo, Alessandro; Grassi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    PSYCHOACOUSTICS is a new MATLAB toolbox which implements three classic adaptive procedures for auditory threshold estimation. The first includes those of the Staircase family (method of limits, simple up-down and transformed up-down); the second is the Parameter Estimation by Sequential Testing (PEST); and the third is the Maximum Likelihood Procedure (MLP). The toolbox comes with more than twenty built-in experiments each provided with the recommended (default) parameters. However, if desire...

  3. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basner, M.; Babisch, W.; Davis, A.; Brink, M.; Clark, C.; Janssen, S.A.; Stansfeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health eff ects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mec

  4. Accuracy of Cortical Evoked Response Audiometry in estimating normal hearing thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdavi M E; Peyvandi A A

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cortical Evoked Response Audiometry (CERA) refers to prediction of behavioral pure-tone thresholds (500-4000 Hz) obtained by recording the N1-P2 complex of auditory long latency responses. CERA is the preferred method for frequency–specific estimation of audiogram in conscious adults and older children. CERA has an increased accuracy of determination of the hearing thresholds of alert patients with elevated hearing thresholds with sensory hearing loss; however few publications rep...

  5. Auditory evoked potential measurements in elasmobranchs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Brandon; Mann, David

    2005-04-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) were first used to examine hearing in elasmobranchs by Corwin and Bullock in the late 1970s and early 1980s, marking the first time AEPs had been measured in fishes. Results of these experiments identified the regions of the ear and brain in which sound is processed, though no actual hearing thresholds were measured. Those initial experiments provided the ground work for future AEP experiments to measure fish hearing abilities in a manner that is much faster and more convenient than classical conditioning. Data will be presented on recent experiments in which AEPs were used to measure the hearing thresholds of two species of elasmobranchs: the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, and the yellow stingray, Urobatis jamaicencis. Audiograms were analyzed and compared to previously published audiograms obtained using classical conditioning with results indicating that hearing thresholds were similar for the two methods. These data suggest that AEP testing is a viable option when measuring hearing in elasmobranchs and can increase the speed in which future hearing measurements can be obtained.

  6. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  7. Polarity-specific transcranial direct current stimulation disrupts auditory pitch learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Reiko; Andoh, Jamila; Zatorre, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is attracting increasing interest because of its potential for therapeutic use. While its effects have been investigated mainly with motor and visual tasks, less is known in the auditory domain. Past tDCS studies with auditory tasks demonstrated various behavioral outcomes, possibly due to differences in stimulation parameters, task-induced brain activity, or task measurements used in each study. Further research, using well-validated tasks is therefore required for clarification of behavioral effects of tDCS on the auditory system. Here, we took advantage of findings from a prior functional magnetic resonance imaging study, which demonstrated that the right auditory cortex is modulated during fine-grained pitch learning of microtonal melodic patterns. Targeting the right auditory cortex with tDCS using this same task thus allowed us to test the hypothesis that this region is causally involved in pitch learning. Participants in the current study were trained for 3 days while we measured pitch discrimination thresholds using microtonal melodies on each day using a psychophysical staircase procedure. We administered anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS to three groups of participants over the right auditory cortex on the second day of training during performance of the task. Both the sham and the cathodal groups showed the expected significant learning effect (decreased pitch threshold) over the 3 days of training; in contrast we observed a blocking effect of anodal tDCS on auditory pitch learning, such that this group showed no significant change in thresholds over the 3 days. The results support a causal role for the right auditory cortex in pitch discrimination learning. PMID:26041982

  8. Polarity-Specific Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Disrupts Auditory Pitch Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko eMatsushita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is attracting increasing interest because of its potential for therapeutic use. While its effects have been investigated mainly with motor and visual tasks, less is known in the auditory domain. Past tDCS studies with auditory tasks demonstrated various behavioural outcomes, possibly due to differences in stimulation parameters or task measurements used in each study. Further research using well-validated tasks are therefore required for clarification of behavioural effects of tDCS on the auditory system. Here, we took advantage of findings from a prior functional magnetic resonance imaging study, which demonstrated that the right auditory cortex is modulated during fine-grained pitch learning of microtonal melodic patterns. Targeting the right auditory cortex with tDCS using this same task thus allowed us to test the hypothesis that this region is causally involved in pitch learning. Participants in the current study were trained for three days while we measured pitch discrimination thresholds using microtonal melodies on each day using a psychophysical staircase procedure. We administered anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS to three groups of participants over the right auditory cortex on the second day of training during performance of the task. Both the sham and the cathodal groups showed the expected significant learning effect (decreased pitch threshold over the three days of training; in contrast we observed a blocking effect of anodal tDCS on auditory pitch learning, such that this group showed no significant change in thresholds over the three days. The results support a causal role for the right auditory cortex in pitch discrimination learning.

  9. Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

  10. The Perception of Auditory Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon; Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  11. Music perception and cognition following bilateral lesions of auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramo, M J; Bharucha, J J; Musiek, F E

    1990-01-01

    We present experimental and anatomical data from a case study of impaired auditory perception following bilateral hemispheric strokes. To consider the cortical representation of sensory, perceptual, and cognitive functions mediating tonal information processing in music, pure tone sensation thresholds, spectral intonation judgments, and the associative priming of spectral intonation judgments by harmonic context were examined, and lesion localization was analyzed quantitatively using straight-line two-dimensional maps of the cortical surface reconstructed from magnetic resonance images. Despite normal pure tone sensation thresholds at 250-8000 Hz, the perception of tonal spectra was severely impaired, such that harmonic structures (major triads) were almost uniformly judged to sound dissonant; yet, the associative priming of spectral intonation judgments by harmonic context was preserved, indicating that cognitive representations of tonal hierarchies in music remained intact and accessible. Brainprints demonstrated complete bilateral lesions of the transverse gyri of Heschl and partial lesions of the right and left superior temporal gyri involving 98 and 20% of their surface areas, respectively. In the right hemisphere, there was partial sparing of the planum temporale, temporoparietal junction, and inferior parietal cortex. In the left hemisphere, all of the superior temporal region anterior to the transverse gyrus and parts of the planum temporale, temporoparietal junction, inferior parietal cortex, and insula were spared. These observations suggest that (1) sensory, perceptual, and cognitive functions mediating tonal information processing in music are neurologically dissociable; (2) complete bilateral lesions of primary auditory cortex combined with partial bilateral lesions of auditory association cortex chronically impair tonal consonance perception; (3) cognitive functions that hierarchically structure pitch information and generate harmonic expectancies

  12. Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J; Hubbard, A; Neely, S; Tubis, A

    1986-01-01

    How weIl can we model experimental observations of the peripheral auditory system'? What theoretical predictions can we make that might be tested'? It was with these questions in mind that we organized the 1985 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, to bring together auditory researchers to compare models with experimental observations. Tbe workshop forum was inspired by the very successful 1983 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Delft [1]. Boston University was chosen as the site of our meeting because of the Boston area's role as a center for hearing research in this country. We made a special effort at this meeting to attract students from around the world, because without students this field will not progress. Financial support for the workshop was provided in part by grant BNS- 8412878 from the National Science Foundation. Modeling is a traditional strategy in science and plays an important role in the scientific method. Models are the bridge between theory and experiment. Tbey test the assumptions made in experim...

  13. Selective attention in an insect auditory neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, G S

    1988-07-01

    Previous work (Pollack, 1986) showed that an identified auditory neuron of crickets, the omega neuron, selectively encodes the temporal structure of an ipsilateral sound stimulus when a contralateral stimulus is presented simultaneously, even though the contralateral stimulus is clearly encoded when it is presented alone. The present paper investigates the physiological basis for this selective response. The selectivity for the ipsilateral stimulus is a result of the apparent intensity difference of ipsi- and contralateral stimuli, which is imposed by auditory directionality; when simultaneous presentation of stimuli from the 2 sides is mimicked by presenting low- and high-intensity stimuli simultaneously from the ipsilateral side, the neuron responds selectively to the high-intensity stimulus, even though the low-intensity stimulus is effective when it is presented alone. The selective encoding of the more intense (= ipsilateral) stimulus is due to intensity-dependent inhibition, which is superimposed on the cell's excitatory response to sound. Because of the inhibition, the stimulus with lower intensity (i.e., the contralateral stimulus) is rendered subthreshold, while the stimulus with higher intensity (the ipsilateral stimulus) remains above threshold. Consequently, the temporal structure of the low-intensity stimulus is filtered out of the neuron's spike train. The source of the inhibition is not known. It is not a consequence of activation of the omega neuron. Its characteristics are not consistent with those of known inhibitory inputs to the omega neuron.

  14. Exact Threshold Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    We initiate a systematic study of constant depth Boolean circuits built using exact threshold gates. We consider both unweighted and weighted exact threshold gates and introduce corresponding circuit classes. We next show that this gives a hierarchy of classes that seamlessly interleave with the ......We initiate a systematic study of constant depth Boolean circuits built using exact threshold gates. We consider both unweighted and weighted exact threshold gates and introduce corresponding circuit classes. We next show that this gives a hierarchy of classes that seamlessly interleave...... with the well-studied corresponding hierarchies defined using ordinary threshold gates. A major open problem in Boolean circuit complexity is to provide an explicit super-polynomial lower bound for depth two threshold circuits. We identify the class of depth two exact threshold circuits as a natural subclass...

  15. Age-related dissociation of sensory and decision-based auditory motion processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Annemarie Ludwig

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the maturation of auditory motion processing in children have yielded inconsistent reports. The present study combines subjective and objective measurements to investigate how the auditory perceptual abilities of children change during development and whether these changes are paralleled by changes in the event-related brain potential (ERP.We employed the mismatch negativity (MMN to determine maturational changes in the discrimination of interaural time differences (ITD that generate lateralized moving auditory percepts. MMNs were elicited in children, teenagers, and adults, using a small and a large ITD at stimulus offset with respect to each subject’s discrimination threshold. In adults and teenagers large deviants elicited prominent MMNs, whereas small deviants at the behavioral threshold elicited only a marginal or no MMN. In contrast, pronounced MMNs for both deviant sizes were found in children. Behaviourally, however, most of the children showed higher discrimination thresholds than teens and adults.Although automatic ITD detection is functional, active discrimination is still limited in children. The lack of MMN deviance dependency in children suggests that unlike in teenagers and adults, neural signatures of automatic auditory motion processing do not mirror discrimination abilities.The study critically accounts for advanced understanding of children’s central auditory development.

  16. Polynomial threshold functions and Boolean threshold circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    We study the complexity of computing Boolean functions on general Boolean domains by polynomial threshold functions (PTFs). A typical example of a general Boolean domain is 12n . We are mainly interested in the length (the number of monomials) of PTFs, with their degree and weight being...... of secondary interest. We show that PTFs on general Boolean domains are tightly connected to depth two threshold circuits. Our main results in regard to this connection are: PTFs of polynomial length and polynomial degree compute exactly the functions computed by THRMAJ circuits. An exponential length lower...

  17. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  18. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  19. Background sounds contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Pandya, Pritesh K; Engineer, Navzer D; Rathbun, Daniel L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2005-05-01

    The mammalian auditory system evolved to extract meaningful information from complex acoustic environments. Spectrotemporal selectivity of auditory neurons provides a potential mechanism to represent natural sounds. Experience-dependent plasticity mechanisms can remodel the spectrotemporal selectivity of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1). Electrical stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis (NB) enables plasticity in A1 that parallels natural learning and is specific to acoustic features associated with NB activity. In this study, we used NB stimulation to explore how cortical networks reorganize after experience with frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps, and how background stimuli contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in rat auditory cortex. Pairing an 8-4 kHz FM sweep with NB stimulation 300 times per day for 20 days decreased tone thresholds, frequency selectivity, and response latency of A1 neurons in the region of the tonotopic map activated by the sound. In an attempt to modify neuronal response properties across all of A1 the same NB activation was paired in a second group of rats with five downward FM sweeps, each spanning a different octave. No changes in FM selectivity or receptive field (RF) structure were observed when the neural activation was distributed across the cortical surface. However, the addition of unpaired background sweeps of different rates or direction was sufficient to alter RF characteristics across the tonotopic map in a third group of rats. These results extend earlier observations that cortical neurons can develop stimulus specific plasticity and indicate that background conditions can strongly influence cortical plasticity.

  20. The perils of thresholding

    CERN Document Server

    Font-Clos, Francesc; Deluca, Anna; Moloney, Nicholas R

    2014-01-01

    The thresholding of time series of activity or intensity is frequently used to define and differentiate events. This is either implicit, for example due to resolution limits, or explicit, in order to filter certain small scale physics from the supposed true asymptotic events. Thresholding the birth-death process, however, introduces a scaling region into the event size distribution, which is characterised by an exponent that is unrelated to the actual asymptote and is rather an artefact of thresholding. As a result, numerical fits of simulation data produce a range of exponents, with the true asymptote visible only in the tail of the distribution. This tail is increasingly difficult to sample as the threshold is increased. In the present case, the exponents and the spurious nature of the scaling region can be determined analytically, thus demonstrating the way in which thresholding conceals the true asymptote. The analysis also suggests a procedure for detecting the influence of the threshold by means of a da...

  1. Experience-dependent learning of auditory temporal resolution: evidence from Carnatic-trained musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manasa R

    2014-01-22

    Musical training and experience greatly enhance the cortical and subcortical processing of sounds, which may translate to superior auditory perceptual acuity. Auditory temporal resolution is a fundamental perceptual aspect that is critical for speech understanding in noise in listeners with normal hearing, auditory disorders, cochlear implants, and language disorders, yet very few studies have focused on music-induced learning of temporal resolution. This report demonstrates that Carnatic musical training and experience have a significant impact on temporal resolution assayed by gap detection thresholds. This experience-dependent learning in Carnatic-trained musicians exhibits the universal aspects of human perception and plasticity. The present work adds the perceptual component to a growing body of neurophysiological and imaging studies that suggest plasticity of the peripheral auditory system at the level of the brainstem. The present work may be intriguing to researchers and clinicians alike interested in devising cross-cultural training regimens to alleviate listening-in-noise difficulties. PMID:24264076

  2. From Perception to Metacognition: Auditory and Olfactory Functions in Early Blind, Late Blind, and Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina; Arshamian, Artin; Nilsson, Mats E.; Larsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15), late blind (n = 15), and sighted (n = 30) participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity. PMID:27729884

  3. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free publications Find organizations Related Topics Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick ... NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC ...

  4. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and school. A positive, realistic attitude and healthy self-esteem in a child with APD can work wonders. And kids with APD can go on to ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Auditory Processing Disorder Special ...

  5. Deficit of auditory temporal processing in children with dyslexia-dysgraphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Tajik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory temporal processing reveals an important aspect of auditory performance, in which a deficit can prevent the child from speaking, language learning and reading. Temporal resolution, which is a subgroup of temporal processing, can be evaluated by gap-in-noise detection test. Regarding the relation of auditory temporal processing deficits and phonologic disorder of children with dyslexia-dysgraphia, the aim of this study was to evaluate these children with the gap-in-noise (GIN test.Methods: The gap-in-noise test was performed on 28 normal and 24 dyslexic-dysgraphic children, at the age of 11-12 years old. Mean approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers were compared between the groups.Results: The mean approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers of the right and left ear had no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. The mean approximate threshold of children with dyslexia-dysgraphia (6.97 ms, SD=1.09 was significantly (p<0.001 more than that of the normal group (5.05 ms, SD=0.92. The mean related frequency of corrected answers (58.05, SD=4.98% was less than normal group (69.97, SD=7.16% (p<0.001.Conclusion: Abnormal temporal resolution was found in children with dyslexia-dysgraphia based on gap-in-noise test. While the brainstem and auditory cortex are responsible for auditory temporal processing, probably the structural and functional differences of these areas in normal and dyslexic-dysgraphic children lead to abnormal coding of auditory temporal information. As a result, auditory temporal processing is inevitable.

  6. Studying Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Hearing and Auditory Scene Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riecke, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that perceptual detection of near-threshold auditory events may depend on the relative timing of the event and ongoing brain oscillations. Furthermore, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), a non-invasive and silent brain stimulation technique, can entrain co

  7. Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill B Firszt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Monaural hearing induces auditory system reorganization. Imbalanced input also degrades time-intensity cues for sound localization and signal segregation for listening in noise. While there have been studies of bilateral auditory deprivation and later hearing restoration (e.g. cochlear implants, less is known about unilateral auditory deprivation and subsequent hearing improvement. We investigated effects of long-term congenital unilateral hearing loss on localization, speech understanding, and cortical organization following hearing recovery. Hearing in the congenitally affected ear of a 41 year old female improved significantly after stapedotomy and reconstruction. Pre-operative hearing threshold levels showed unilateral, mixed, moderately-severe to profound hearing loss. The contralateral ear had hearing threshold levels within normal limits. Testing was completed prior to, and three and nine months after surgery. Measurements were of sound localization with intensity-roved stimuli and speech recognition in various noise conditions. We also evoked magnetic resonance signals with monaural stimulation to the unaffected ear. Activation magnitudes were determined in core, belt, and parabelt auditory cortex regions via an interrupted single event design. Hearing improvement following 40 years of congenital unilateral hearing loss resulted in substantially improved sound localization and speech recognition in noise. Auditory cortex also reorganized. Contralateral auditory cortex responses were increased after hearing recovery and the extent of activated cortex was bilateral, including a greater portion of the posterior superior temporal plane. Thus, prolonged predominant monaural stimulation did not prevent auditory system changes consequent to restored binaural hearing. Results support future research of unilateral auditory deprivation effects and plasticity, with consideration for length of deprivation, age at hearing correction, degree and type

  8. Threshold Concepts in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine threshold concepts in the context of teaching and learning first-year university economics. It outlines some of the arguments for using threshold concepts and provides examples using opportunity cost as an exemplar in economics. Design/ Methodology/Approach: The paper provides an overview of the…

  9. Psychology of auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Andrew; Holt, Lori

    2011-09-01

    Audition is often treated as a 'secondary' sensory system behind vision in the study of cognitive science. In this review, we focus on three seemingly simple perceptual tasks to demonstrate the complexity of perceptual-cognitive processing involved in everyday audition. After providing a short overview of the characteristics of sound and their neural encoding, we present a description of the perceptual task of segregating multiple sound events that are mixed together in the signal reaching the ears. Then, we discuss the ability to localize the sound source in the environment. Finally, we provide some data and theory on how listeners categorize complex sounds, such as speech. In particular, we present research on how listeners weigh multiple acoustic cues in making a categorization decision. One conclusion of this review is that it is time for auditory cognitive science to be developed to match what has been done in vision in order for us to better understand how humans communicate with speech and music. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 479-489 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.123 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26302301

  10. Non-Monotonic Relation between Noise Exposure Severity and Neuronal Hyperactivity in the Auditory Midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Lara Li; Bakay, Warren; Ong, Hui-Ching; Anderson, Lucy; Ashmore, Jonathan; McAlpine, David; Linden, Jennifer; Schaette, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of tinnitus can be linked to hearing loss in the majority of cases, but there is nevertheless a large degree of unexplained heterogeneity in the relation between hearing loss and tinnitus. Part of the problem might be that hearing loss is usually quantified in terms of increased hearing thresholds, which only provides limited information about the underlying cochlear damage. Moreover, noise exposure that does not cause hearing threshold loss can still lead to "hidden hearing loss" (HHL), i.e., functional deafferentation of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) through loss of synaptic ribbons in inner hair cells. While it is known that increased hearing thresholds can trigger increases in spontaneous neural activity in the central auditory system, i.e., a putative neural correlate of tinnitus, the central effects of HHL have not yet been investigated. Here, we exposed mice to octave-band noise at 100 and 105 dB SPL to generate HHL and permanent increases of hearing thresholds, respectively. Deafferentation of ANFs was confirmed through measurement of auditory brainstem responses and cochlear immunohistochemistry. Acute extracellular recordings from the auditory midbrain (inferior colliculus) demonstrated increases in spontaneous neuronal activity (a putative neural correlate of tinnitus) in both groups. Surprisingly, the increase in spontaneous activity was most pronounced in the mice with HHL, suggesting that the relation between hearing loss and neuronal hyperactivity might be more complex than currently understood. Our computational model indicated that these differences in neuronal hyperactivity could arise from different degrees of deafferentation of low-threshold ANFs in the two exposure groups. Our results demonstrate that HHL is sufficient to induce changes in central auditory processing, and they also indicate a non-monotonic relationship between cochlear damage and neuronal hyperactivity, suggesting an explanation for why tinnitus might occur

  11. Multi-sensory integration in brainstem and auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Koehler, Seth D; Shore, Susan E

    2012-11-16

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of a physical sound stimulus. It is thought to arise from aberrant neural activity within central auditory pathways that may be influenced by multiple brain centers, including the somatosensory system. Auditory-somatosensory (bimodal) integration occurs in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), where electrical activation of somatosensory regions alters pyramidal cell spike timing and rates of sound stimuli. Moreover, in conditions of tinnitus, bimodal integration in DCN is enhanced, producing greater spontaneous and sound-driven neural activity, which are neural correlates of tinnitus. In primary auditory cortex (A1), a similar auditory-somatosensory integration has been described in the normal system (Lakatos et al., 2007), where sub-threshold multisensory modulation may be a direct reflection of subcortical multisensory responses (Tyll et al., 2011). The present work utilized simultaneous recordings from both DCN and A1 to directly compare bimodal integration across these separate brain stations of the intact auditory pathway. Four-shank, 32-channel electrodes were placed in DCN and A1 to simultaneously record tone-evoked unit activity in the presence and absence of spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5) electrical activation. Bimodal stimulation led to long-lasting facilitation or suppression of single and multi-unit responses to subsequent sound in both DCN and A1. Immediate (bimodal response) and long-lasting (bimodal plasticity) effects of Sp5-tone stimulation were facilitation or suppression of tone-evoked firing rates in DCN and A1 at all Sp5-tone pairing intervals (10, 20, and 40 ms), and greater suppression at 20 ms pairing-intervals for single unit responses. Understanding the complex relationships between DCN and A1 bimodal processing in the normal animal provides the basis for studying its disruption in hearing loss and tinnitus models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tinnitus Neuroscience

  12. Top Threshold Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Andre H.

    2006-01-01

    Running a future Linear Collider at the top pair threshold allows for precise measurements of the mass, the widths and the couplings of the top quark. I give a nontechnical review on recent theoretical developments and the theory status in top threshold physics concerning QCD corrections and top quark finite lifetime and electroweak effects. I also discuss threshold physics in the context of measurements of the top Yukawa coupling from $e^+e^-\\to t\\bar t H$ and of squark pair production.

  13. Neural Correlates of an Auditory Afterimage in Primary Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Noreña, A. J.; Eggermont, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Zwicker tone (ZT) is defined as an auditory negative afterimage, perceived after the presentation of an appropriate inducer. Typically, a notched noise (NN) with a notch width of 1/2 octave induces a ZT with a pitch falling in the frequency range of the notch. The aim of the present study was to find potential neural correlates of the ZT in the primary auditory cortex of ketamine-anesthetized cats. Responses of multiunits were recorded simultaneously with two 8-electrode arrays during 1 s...

  14. Hearing Mechanisms and Noise Metrics Related to Auditory Masking in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branstetter, Brian K; Bakhtiari, Kimberly L; Trickey, Jennifer S; Finneran, James J

    2016-01-01

    Odontocete cetaceans are acoustic specialists that depend on sound to hunt, forage, navigate, detect predators, and communicate. Auditory masking from natural and anthropogenic sound sources may adversely affect these fitness-related capabilities. The ability to detect a tone in a broad range of natural, anthropogenic, and synthesized noise was tested with bottlenose dolphins using a psychophysical, band-widening procedure. Diverging masking patterns were found for noise bandwidths greater than the width of an auditory filter. Despite different noise types having equal-pressure spectral-density levels (95 dB re 1 μPa(2)/Hz), masked detection threshold differences were as large as 22 dB. Consecutive experiments indicated that noise types with increased levels of amplitude modulation resulted in comodulation masking release due to within-channel and across-channel auditory mechanisms. The degree to which noise types were comodulated (comodulation index) was assessed by calculating the magnitude-squared coherence between the temporal envelope from an auditory filter centered on the signal and temporal envelopes from flanking filters. Statistical models indicate that masked thresholds in a variety of noise types, at a variety of levels, can be explained with metrics related to the comodulation index in addition to the pressure spectral-density level of noise. This study suggests that predicting auditory masking from ocean noise sources depends on both spectral and temporal properties of the noise. PMID:26610950

  15. Quantum threshold group signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In most situations, the signer is generally a single person. However, when the message is written on behalf of an organization, a valid message may require the approval or consent of several persons. Threshold signature is a solution to this problem. Generally speaking, as an authority which can be trusted by all members does not exist, a threshold signature scheme without a trusted party appears more attractive. Following some ideas of the classical Shamir’s threshold signature scheme, a quantum threshold group signature one is proposed. In the proposed scheme, only t or more of n persons in the group can generate the group signature and any t-1 or fewer ones cannot do that. In the verification phase, any t or more of n signature receivers can verify the message and any t-1 or fewer receivers cannot verify the validity of the signature.

  16. Auditory Hallucinations in Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Lampl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucinations are uncommon phenomena which can be directly caused by acute stroke, mostly described after lesions of the brain stem, very rarely reported after cortical strokes. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of this phenomenon. In a cross sectional study, 641 stroke patients were followed in the period between 1996–2000. Each patient underwent comprehensive investigation and follow-up. Four patients were found to have post cortical stroke auditory hallucinations. All of them occurred after an ischemic lesion of the right temporal lobe. After no more than four months, all patients were symptom-free and without therapy. The fact the auditory hallucinations may be of cortical origin must be taken into consideration in the treatment of stroke patients. The phenomenon may be completely reversible after a couple of months.

  17. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    David ePérez-González; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the s...

  18. Hearing and the round goby: Understanding the auditory system of the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Andrea J.; Higgs, Dennis M.

    2005-04-01

    The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), is an invasive species in the Great Lakes watershed. Adult round gobies show behavioral responses to conspecific vocalizations but physiological investigations have not yet been conducted to quantify their hearing abilities. We have been examining the physiological and morphological development of the auditory system in the round goby. Various frequencies (100 Hz to 800 Hz and conspecific sounds), at various intensities (120 dB to 170 dB re 1 Pa) were presented to juveniles and adults and their auditory brain-stem responses (ABR) were recorded. Round gobies only respond physiologically to tones from 100-600 Hz, with threshold varying between 145 to 155 dB re 1 Pa. The response threshold to conspecific sounds was 140 dB re 1 Pa. There was no significant difference in auditory threshold between sizes of fish for either tones or conspecific sounds. Saccular epithelia were stained using phalloidin and there was a trend towards an increase in both hair cell number and density with an increase in fish size. These results represent a first attempt to quantify auditory abilities in this invasive species. This is an important step in understanding their reproductive physiology, which could potentially aid in their population control. [Funded by NSERC.

  19. Temporary threshold shifts from exposures to equal equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    According to existing methods for the assessment of hearing damage, signals with the same A-weighted equivalent level should pose the same hazard to the auditory system. As a measure of hazard, it is assumed that Temporary Thresholds Shifts (TTS) reflect the onset of alterations to the hearing sy...

  20. Hydrodynamics of sediment threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish

    2016-07-01

    A novel hydrodynamic model for the threshold of cohesionless sediment particle motion under a steady unidirectional streamflow is presented. The hydrodynamic forces (drag and lift) acting on a solitary sediment particle resting over a closely packed bed formed by the identical sediment particles are the primary motivating forces. The drag force comprises of the form drag and form induced drag. The lift force includes the Saffman lift, Magnus lift, centrifugal lift, and turbulent lift. The points of action of the force system are appropriately obtained, for the first time, from the basics of micro-mechanics. The sediment threshold is envisioned as the rolling mode, which is the plausible mode to initiate a particle motion on the bed. The moment balance of the force system on the solitary particle about the pivoting point of rolling yields the governing equation. The conditions of sediment threshold under the hydraulically smooth, transitional, and rough flow regimes are examined. The effects of velocity fluctuations are addressed by applying the statistical theory of turbulence. This study shows that for a hindrance coefficient of 0.3, the threshold curve (threshold Shields parameter versus shear Reynolds number) has an excellent agreement with the experimental data of uniform sediments. However, most of the experimental data are bounded by the upper and lower limiting threshold curves, corresponding to the hindrance coefficients of 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. The threshold curve of this study is compared with those of previous researchers. The present model also agrees satisfactorily with the experimental data of nonuniform sediments.

  1. Polynomial threshold functions and Boolean threshold circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    secondary interest. We show that PTFs on general Boolean domains are tightly connected to depth two threshold circuits. Our main results in regard to this connection are: PTFs of polynomial length and polynomial degree compute exactly the functions computed by THRMAJ circuits. An exponential length lower...... bound for PTFs that holds regardless of degree, thereby extending known lower bounds for THRMAJ circuits. We generalize two-party unbounded error communication complexity to the multi-party number-on-the-forehead setting, and show that communication lower bounds for 3-player protocols would yield size...... lower bounds for THRTHR circuits. We obtain several other results about PTFs. These include relationships between weight and degree of PTFs, and a degree lower bound for PTFs of constant length. We also consider a variant of PTFs over the max-plus algebra. We show that they are connected to PTFs over...

  2. Amelioration of Auditory Response by DA9801 in Diabetic Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Ro Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease that involves disorders such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, and diabetic hearing loss. Recently, neurotrophin has become a treatment target that has shown to be an attractive alternative in recovering auditory function altered by DM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DA9801, a mixture of Dioscorea nipponica and Dioscorea japonica extracts, in the auditory function damage produced in a STZ-induced diabetic model and to provide evidence of the mechanisms involved in enhancing these protective effects. We found a potential application of DA9801 on hearing impairment in the STZ-induced diabetic model, demonstrated by reducing the deterioration produced by DM in ABR threshold in response to clicks and normalizing wave I–IV latencies and Pa latencies in AMLR. We also show evidence that these effects might be elicited by inducing NGF related through Nr3c1 and Akt. Therefore, this result suggests that the neuroprotective effects of DA9801 on the auditory damage produced by DM may be affected by NGF increase resulting from Nr3c1 via Akt transformation.

  3. Task engagement selectively modulates neural correlations in primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Joshua D; Niwa, Mamiko; Sutter, Mitchell L

    2015-05-13

    Noise correlations (r(noise)) between neurons can affect a neural population's discrimination capacity, even without changes in mean firing rates of neurons. r(noise), the degree to which the response variability of a pair of neurons is correlated, has been shown to change with attention with most reports showing a reduction in r(noise). However, the effect of reducing r(noise) on sensory discrimination depends on many factors, including the tuning similarity, or tuning correlation (r(tuning)), between the pair. Theoretically, reducing r(noise) should enhance sensory discrimination when the pair exhibits similar tuning, but should impair discrimination when tuning is dissimilar. We recorded from pairs of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) under two conditions: while rhesus macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) actively performed a threshold amplitude modulation (AM) detection task and while they sat passively awake. We report that, for pairs with similar AM tuning, average r(noise) in A1 decreases when the animal performs the AM detection task compared with when sitting passively. For pairs with dissimilar tuning, the average r(noise) did not significantly change between conditions. This suggests that attention-related modulation can target selective subcircuits to decorrelate noise. These results demonstrate that engagement in an auditory task enhances population coding in primary auditory cortex by selectively reducing deleterious r(noise) and leaving beneficial r(noise) intact.

  4. Pion photoproduction near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the high accuracy π+ threshold photoproduction cross-section determinations on deuterium and helium-3 is presented. These must be considered on the same footing as the data on electromagnetic observables, with reference to the important question of the description of the non nucleonic degrees of freedom in the nucleus. The π0 threshold photoproduction on very light nuclei which conveys information on the elementary nucleonic amplitudes in an energy region where one is sensitive to the break down of isospin symmetry as revealed by the π+-, π0 and the n, p mass splittings is discussed

  5. New perspectives on the auditory cortex: learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Norman M

    2015-01-01

    Primary ("early") sensory cortices have been viewed as stimulus analyzers devoid of function in learning, memory, and cognition. However, studies combining sensory neurophysiology and learning protocols have revealed that associative learning systematically modifies the encoding of stimulus dimensions in the primary auditory cortex (A1) to accentuate behaviorally important sounds. This "representational plasticity" (RP) is manifest at different levels. The sensitivity and selectivity of signal tones increase near threshold, tuning above threshold shifts toward the frequency of acoustic signals, and their area of representation can increase within the tonotopic map of A1. The magnitude of area gain encodes the level of behavioral stimulus importance and serves as a substrate of memory strength. RP has the same characteristics as behavioral memory: it is associative, specific, develops rapidly, consolidates, and can last indefinitely. Pairing tone with stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis induces RP and implants specific behavioral memory, while directly increasing the representational area of a tone in A1 produces matching behavioral memory. Thus, RP satisfies key criteria for serving as a substrate of auditory memory. The findings suggest a basis for posttraumatic stress disorder in abnormally augmented cortical representations and emphasize the need for a new model of the cerebral cortex.

  6. Auditory evoked potential measurements with cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, David; Cook, Mandy; Bauer, Gordon; Fellner, Wendi; Wells, Randy

    2005-04-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) allow researchers to measure the hearing abilities of animals that would be difficult or impossible to train for behavioral measurements of hearing. The hearing abilities of live-stranded cetaceans and wild dolphins can only be made with AEP techniques. In these situations, time with the animal is often restricted to an hour or less, and there is often little control over the acoustic environment in which the tests are performed. AEP measurements may be made while the animals are in air or in shallow pools. For cetaceans in air, sounds are typically presented with a suction cup jawphone. For cetaceans in water, sounds may be presented in a direct field (with the transducer located at some distance from the test subject) or with a jawphone. In each of these situations it is important to understand how thresholds derived from AEP measurements compare with behavioral hearing measurements. Examples of AEP measurements from wild and live-stranded cetaceans are presented to illustrate their usefulness and the constraints under which these measurements must be made. AEP measurements from bottlenose dolphins in air and in water are also compared with their behavioral audiograms.

  7. Auditory Neuropathy in Two Patients with Generalized Neuropathic Disorder: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ahmadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although it is not a new disorder, in recent times we have attained a greater understanding of auditory neuropathy (AN. In this type of hearing impairment, cochlear hair cells function but AN victims suffer from disordered neural transmission in the auditory pathway. The auditory neuropathy result profile often occurs as a part of that of the generalized neuropathic disorders, indicated in approximately 30-40% of all reported auditory neuropathy/auditory dyssynchrony (AN/AD cases, with approximately 80% of patients reporting symptom onset over the age of 15 years. In the present report, the results of audiologic tests (behavioral, physiologic and evoked potentials on two young patients with generalized neuropathy are discussed.Case report: Two brothers, 26 and 17 years old, presented with speech perception weakness and movement difficulties that started at 12 years of age and progressed as time passed. In their last examination, there was a moderate to severe flat audiogram in the older patient and mild low tone loss in the younger one. The major difficulty of the patients was severe speech perception impairment that was not compatible with their hearing thresholds. Paresthesia, sural muscle contraction and pain, and balance disorder were the first symptoms of the older brother. Now he can only move with crutches and his finger muscle tonicity has decreased remarkably, with marked fatigue after a short period of walking. Increasing movement difficulties were noted in his last visit. Visual neuropathy had been reported in repeated visual system examinations for the older brother, with similar, albeit less severe, symptoms in the younger brother.In the present study of these patients, behavioral investigations included pure-tone audiometry and speech discrimination scoring. Physiologic studies consisted Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission (TEOAE and acoustic reflexes. Electrophysiologic auditory tests were also performed to determine

  8. Conceptual priming for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Aline; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Besson, Mireille

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted using both behavioral and Event-Related brain Potentials methods to examine conceptual priming effects for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words. Prime and target sounds were presented in four stimulus combinations: Sound-Sound, Word-Sound, Sound-Word and Word-Word. Within each combination, targets were conceptually related to the prime, unrelated or ambiguous. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the primes and targets fit together (explicit task) and in Experiment 2 they had to decide whether the target was typical or ambiguous (implicit task). In both experiments and in the four stimulus combinations, reaction times and/or error rates were longer/higher and the N400 component was larger to ambiguous targets than to conceptually related targets, thereby pointing to a common conceptual system for processing auditory scenes and linguistic stimuli in both explicit and implicit tasks. However, fine-grained analyses also revealed some differences between experiments and conditions in scalp topography and duration of the priming effects possibly reflecting differences in the integration of perceptual and cognitive attributes of linguistic and nonlinguistic sounds. These results have clear implications for the building-up of virtual environments that need to convey meaning without words. PMID:24378910

  9. A simulation framework for auditory discrimination experiments: Revealing the importance of across-frequency processing in speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Marc René; Warzybok, Anna; Ewert, Stephan D; Kollmeier, Birger

    2016-05-01

    A framework for simulating auditory discrimination experiments, based on an approach from Schädler, Warzybok, Hochmuth, and Kollmeier [(2015). Int. J. Audiol. 54, 100-107] which was originally designed to predict speech recognition thresholds, is extended to also predict psychoacoustic thresholds. The proposed framework is used to assess the suitability of different auditory-inspired feature sets for a range of auditory discrimination experiments that included psychoacoustic as well as speech recognition experiments in noise. The considered experiments were 2 kHz tone-in-broadband-noise simultaneous masking depending on the tone length, spectral masking with simultaneously presented tone signals and narrow-band noise maskers, and German Matrix sentence test reception threshold in stationary and modulated noise. The employed feature sets included spectro-temporal Gabor filter bank features, Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, logarithmically scaled Mel-spectrograms, and the internal representation of the Perception Model from Dau, Kollmeier, and Kohlrausch [(1997). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102(5), 2892-2905]. The proposed framework was successfully employed to simulate all experiments with a common parameter set and obtain objective thresholds with less assumptions compared to traditional modeling approaches. Depending on the feature set, the simulated reference-free thresholds were found to agree with-and hence to predict-empirical data from the literature. Across-frequency processing was found to be crucial to accurately model the lower speech reception threshold in modulated noise conditions than in stationary noise conditions. PMID:27250164

  10. The auditory nerve overlapped waveform (ANOW): A new objective measure of low-frequency hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenhan, Jeffery T.; Salt, Alec N.; Guinan, John J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most pressing problems today in the mechanics of hearing is to understand the mechanical motions in the apical half of the cochlea. Almost all available measurements from the cochlear apex of basilar membrane or other organ-of-Corti transverse motion have been made from ears where the health, or sensitivity, in the apical half of the cochlea was not known. A key step in understanding the mechanics of the cochlear base was to trust mechanical measurements only when objective measures from auditory-nerve compound action potentials (CAPs) showed good preparation sensitivity. However, such traditional objective measures are not adequate monitors of cochlear health in the very low-frequency regions of the apex that are accessible for mechanical measurements. To address this problem, we developed the Auditory Nerve Overlapped Waveform (ANOW) that originates from auditory nerve output in the apex. When responses from the round window to alternating low-frequency tones are averaged, the cochlear microphonic is canceled and phase-locked neural firing interleaves in time (i.e., overlaps). The result is a waveform that oscillates at twice the probe frequency. We have demonstrated that this Auditory Nerve Overlapped Waveform - called ANOW - originates from auditory nerve fibers in the cochlear apex [8], relates well to single-auditory-nerve-fiber thresholds, and can provide an objective estimate of low-frequency sensitivity [7]. Our new experiments demonstrate that ANOW is a highly sensitive indicator of apical cochlear function. During four different manipulations to the scala media along the cochlear spiral, ANOW amplitude changed when either no, or only small, changes occurred in CAP thresholds. Overall, our results demonstrate that ANOW can be used to monitor cochlear sensitivity of low-frequency regions during experiments that make apical basilar membrane motion measurements.

  11. Spike-threshold adaptation predicted by membrane potential dynamics in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Fontaine

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurons encode information in sequences of spikes, which are triggered when their membrane potential crosses a threshold. In vivo, the spiking threshold displays large variability suggesting that threshold dynamics have a profound influence on how the combined input of a neuron is encoded in the spiking. Threshold variability could be explained by adaptation to the membrane potential. However, it could also be the case that most threshold variability reflects noise and processes other than threshold adaptation. Here, we investigated threshold variation in auditory neurons responses recorded in vivo in barn owls. We found that spike threshold is quantitatively predicted by a model in which the threshold adapts, tracking the membrane potential at a short timescale. As a result, in these neurons, slow voltage fluctuations do not contribute to spiking because they are filtered by threshold adaptation. More importantly, these neurons can only respond to input spikes arriving together on a millisecond timescale. These results demonstrate that fast adaptation to the membrane potential captures spike threshold variability in vivo.

  12. Psychophysiological responses to auditory change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Lorraine; Sears, David; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive characterization of autonomic and somatic responding within the auditory domain is currently lacking. We studied whether simple types of auditory change that occur frequently during music listening could elicit measurable changes in heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, and facial motor activity. Participants heard a rhythmically isochronous sequence consisting of a repeated standard tone, followed by a repeated target tone that changed in pitch, timbre, duration, intensity, or tempo, or that deviated momentarily from rhythmic isochrony. Changes in all parameters produced increases in heart rate. Skin conductance response magnitude was affected by changes in timbre, intensity, and tempo. Respiratory rate was sensitive to deviations from isochrony. Our findings suggest that music researchers interpreting physiological responses as emotional indices should consider acoustic factors that may influence physiology in the absence of induced emotions. PMID:26927928

  13. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Holi, Matti; Therman, Sebastian; Lehtonen, Johannes; Hari, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation strength of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), including the Broca's language region. Furthermore, how real the hallucination that subjects experienced was depended on the hallucination-related coupling between the IFG, the ventral striatum, the auditory cortex, the right posterior temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest that the subjective reality of AVH is related to motor mechanisms of speech comprehension, with contributions from sensory and salience-detection-related brain regions as well as circuitries related to self-monitoring and the experience of agency. PMID:19620178

  14. Auditory distraction and serial memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D M; Hughes, Rob; Macken, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    One mental activity that is very vulnerable to auditory distraction is serial recall. This review of the contemporary findings relating to serial recall charts the key determinants of distraction. It is evident that there is one form of distraction that is a joint product of the cognitive characteristics of the task and of the obligatory cognitive processing of the sound. For sequences of sound, distraction appears to be an ineluctable product of similarity-of-process, specifically, the seria...

  15. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    OpenAIRE

    Raij TT; Valkonen-Korhonen M; Holi M; Therman S; Lehtonen J; Hari R

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation st...

  16. Elaborating on threshold concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-09-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account for both the important and the problematic characteristics of TCs in terms of the Knowledge/Strategies/Mental Models Framework defined in previous work.

  17. Grossman's Missing Health Threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Titus J. Galama; Arie Kapteyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a generalized solution to Grossman's model of health capital (1972), relaxing the widely used assumption that individuals can adjust their health stock instantaneously to an "optimal" level without adjustment costs. The Grossman model then predicts the existence of a health threshold above which individuals do not demand medical care. Their generalized solution addresses a significant criticism: the model's prediction that health and medical care are positively related is ...

  18. Representation of particle motion in the auditory midbrain of a developing anuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrea Megela

    2015-07-01

    In bullfrog tadpoles, a "deaf period" of lessened responsiveness to the pressure component of sounds, evident during the end of the late larval period, has been identified in the auditory midbrain. But coding of underwater particle motion in the vestibular medulla remains stable over all of larval development, with no evidence of a "deaf period." Neural coding of particle motion in the auditory midbrain was assessed to determine if a "deaf period" for this mode of stimulation exists in this brain area in spite of its absence from the vestibular medulla. Recording sites throughout the developing laminar and medial principal nuclei show relatively stable thresholds to z-axis particle motion, up until the "deaf period." Thresholds then begin to increase from this point up through the rest of metamorphic climax, and significantly fewer responsive sites can be located. The representation of particle motion in the auditory midbrain is less robust during later compared to earlier larval stages, overlapping with but also extending beyond the restricted "deaf period" for pressure stimulation. The decreased functional representation of particle motion in the auditory midbrain throughout metamorphic climax may reflect ongoing neural reorganization required to mediate the transition from underwater to amphibious life.

  19. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-11-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

  20. Noise-induced cell death in the mouse medial geniculate body and primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Dietmar; Tzschentke, Barbara; Ernst, Arne

    Noise-induced effects within the inner ear have been well investigated for several years. However, this peripheral damage cannot fully explain the audiological symptoms in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), e.g. tinnitus, recruitment, reduced speech intelligibility, hyperacusis. There are few reports on central noise effects. Noise can induce an apoptosis of neuronal tissue within the lower auditory pathway. Higher auditory structures (e.g. medial geniculate body, auditory cortex) are characterized by metabolic changes after noise exposure. However, little is known about the microstructural changes of the higher auditory pathway after noise exposure. The present paper was therefore aimed at investigating the cell density in the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the primary auditory cortex (AI) after noise exposure. Normal hearing mice were exposed to noise (10 kHz center frequency at 115 dB SPL for 3 h) at the age of 21 days under anesthesia (Ketamin/Rompun, 10:1). After 1 week, auditory brainstem response recordings (ABR) were performed in noise exposed and normal hearing animals. After fixation, the brain was microdissected and stained (Kluever-Barrera). The cell density in the MGB subdivisions and the AI were determined by counting the cells within a grid. Noise-exposed animals showed a significant ABR threshold shift over the whole frequency range. Cell density was significantly reduced in all subdivisions of the MGB and in layers IV-VI of AI. The present findings demonstrate a significant noise-induced change of the neuronal cytoarchitecture in central key areas of auditory processing. These changes could contribute to the complex psychoacoustic symptoms after NIHL.

  1. Morphological and physiological regeneration in the auditory system of adult Mecopoda elongata (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Silke; Butler, Casey S; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2011-02-01

    Orthopterans are suitable model organisms for investigations of regeneration mechanisms in the auditory system. Regeneration has been described in the auditory systems of locusts (Caelifera) and of crickets (Ensifera). In this study, we comparatively investigate the neural regeneration in the auditory system in the bush cricket Mecopoda elongata. A crushing of the tympanal nerve in the foreleg of M. elongata results in a loss of auditory information transfer. Physiological recordings of the tympanal nerve suggest outgrowing fibers 5 days after crushing. An anatomical regeneration of the fibers within the central nervous system starts 10 days after crushing. The neuronal projection reaches the target area at day 20. Threshold values to low frequency airborne sound remain high after crushing, indicating a lower regeneration capability of this group of fibers. However, within the central target area the low frequency areas are also innervated. Recordings of auditory interneurons show that the regenerating fibers form new functional connections starting at day 20 after crushing.

  2. Speech distortion measure based on auditory properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo; HU Xiulin; ZHANG Yunyu; ZHU Yaoting

    2000-01-01

    The Perceptual Spectrum Distortion (PSD), based on auditory properties of human being, is presented to measure speech distortion. The PSD measure calculates the speech distortion distance by simulating the auditory properties of human being and converting short-time speech power spectrum to auditory perceptual spectrum. Preliminary simulative experiments in comparison with the Itakura measure have been done. The results show that the PSD measure is a perferable speech distortion measure and more consistent with subjective assessment of speech quality.

  3. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor E Valenti; Guida, Heraldo L.; Frizzo, Ana C F; Cardoso, Ana C. V.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Luiz Carlos de Abreu

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation bet...

  4. Mechanisms of Auditory Verbal Hallucination in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond eCho; Wayne eWu

    2013-01-01

    Recent work on the mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) has been heavily informed by self-monitoring accounts that postulate defects in an internal monitoring mechanism as the basis of AVH. A more neglected alternative is an account focusing on defects in auditory processing, namely a spontaneous activation account of auditory activity underlying AVH. Science is often aided by putting theories in competition. Accordingly, a discussion that systematically contrasts the two...

  5. Auditory Training and Its Effects upon the Auditory Discrimination and Reading Readiness of Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Minga Mustard

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of a systematic auditory training program on the auditory discrimination ability and reading readiness of 55 white, middle/upper middle class kindergarten students. Following pretesting with the "Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test,""The Clymer-Barrett Prereading Battery," and the…

  6. Effects of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) on Auditory Performance in Children with Attention and Auditory Processing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Kim L.; Katz, Jack; Keller, Warren D.

    2000-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on auditory processing in 32 children with both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and central auditory processing (CAP) disorder. Analyses revealed that Ritalin did not have a significant effect on any of the central auditory processing measures, although…

  7. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Mossbridge

    Full Text Available Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements, it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment.

  8. Central auditory function of deafness genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaredt, Marc A; Ebbers, Lena; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2014-06-01

    The highly variable benefit of hearing devices is a serious challenge in auditory rehabilitation. Various factors contribute to this phenomenon such as the diversity in ear defects, the different extent of auditory nerve hypoplasia, the age of intervention, and cognitive abilities. Recent analyses indicate that, in addition, central auditory functions of deafness genes have to be considered in this context. Since reduced neuronal activity acts as the common denominator in deafness, it is widely assumed that peripheral deafness influences development and function of the central auditory system in a stereotypical manner. However, functional characterization of transgenic mice with mutated deafness genes demonstrated gene-specific abnormalities in the central auditory system as well. A frequent function of deafness genes in the central auditory system is supported by a genome-wide expression study that revealed significant enrichment of these genes in the transcriptome of the auditory brainstem compared to the entire brain. Here, we will summarize current knowledge of the diverse central auditory functions of deafness genes. We furthermore propose the intimately interwoven gene regulatory networks governing development of the otic placode and the hindbrain as a mechanistic explanation for the widespread expression of these genes beyond the cochlea. We conclude that better knowledge of central auditory dysfunction caused by genetic alterations in deafness genes is required. In combination with improved genetic diagnostics becoming currently available through novel sequencing technologies, this information will likely contribute to better outcome prediction of hearing devices.

  9. Auditory detection of non-speech and speech stimuli in noise: Native speech advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shuting; Tao, Sha; Wang, Wenjing; Li, Mingshuang; Dong, Qi; Liu, Chang

    2016-05-01

    Detection thresholds of Chinese vowels, Korean vowels, and a complex tone, with harmonic and noise carriers were measured in noise for Mandarin Chinese-native listeners. The harmonic index was calculated as the difference between detection thresholds of the stimuli with harmonic carriers and those with noise carriers. The harmonic index for Chinese vowels was significantly greater than that for Korean vowels and the complex tone. Moreover, native speech sounds were rated significantly more native-like than non-native speech and non-speech sounds. The results indicate that native speech has an advantage over other sounds in simple auditory tasks like sound detection. PMID:27250202

  10. Hadron production near threshold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Jain; N G Kelkar; K P Khmemchandani

    2006-04-01

    Final state interaction effects in → + and → 3He reactions are explored near threshold to study the sensitivity of the cross-sections to the potential and the scattering matrix. The final state scattering wave functions between and and and 3He are described rigorously. The production is described by the exchange of one pion and a -meson between two protons in the incident channel. The production is described by a two-step model, where in the first step a pion is produced. This pion then produces an by interacting with another nucleon.

  11. Unstable Particles near Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Chway, Dongjin; Kim, Hyung Do

    2015-01-01

    We explore physics of unstable particles when mother particle mass is around the sum of its daughter particle masses. In this case, the conventional wave function renormalization factor is ill-defined. We propose a simple resolution of the threshold singularity problem which still allows the use of narrow width approximation by defining branching ratio in terms of spectral density. The resonance peak and shape is different for different decay channels and no single decay width can be assigned to the unstable particles. Non-exponential decay happens in all time scales.

  12. Auditory hallucinations suppressed by etizolam in a patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, F; Mazzoli, M; Rossi, E

    1993-10-01

    A patient presented with a 15 year history of schizophrenia with auditory hallucinations. Though unresponsive to prolonged trials of neuroleptics, the auditory hallucinations disappeared with etizolam. PMID:7902201

  13. Auditory Association Cortex Lesions Impair Auditory Short-Term Memory in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michael; D'Amato, Michael R.; Rodman, Hillary R.; Gross, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Monkeys that were trained to perform auditory and visual short-term memory tasks (delayed matching-to-sample) received lesions of the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal gyrus. Although visual memory was completely unaffected by the lesions, auditory memory was severely impaired. Despite this impairment, all monkeys could discriminate sounds closer in frequency than those used in the auditory memory task. This result suggests that the superior temporal cortex plays a role in auditory processing and retention similar to the role the inferior temporal cortex plays in visual processing and retention.

  14. Detection Rates of Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials at Different Sensation Levels in Infants with Sensory/Neural Hearing Loss and Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Berry, Kirsty; Chang, Hsiuwen; Ching, Teresa Y C; Hou, Sanna

    2016-02-01

    With the introduction of newborn hearing screening, infants are being diagnosed with hearing loss during the first few months of life. For infants with a sensory/neural hearing loss (SNHL), the audiogram can be estimated objectively using auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing and hearing aids prescribed accordingly. However, for infants with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) due to the abnormal/absent ABR waveforms, alternative measures of auditory function are needed to assess the need for amplification and evaluate whether aided benefit has been achieved. Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) are used to assess aided benefit in infants with hearing loss; however, there is insufficient information regarding the relationship between stimulus audibility and CAEP detection rates. It is also not clear whether CAEP detection rates differ between infants with SNHL and infants with ANSD. This study involved retrospective collection of CAEP, hearing threshold, and hearing aid gain data to investigate the relationship between stimulus audibility and CAEP detection rates. The results demonstrate that increases in stimulus audibility result in an increase in detection rate. For the same range of sensation levels, there was no difference in the detection rates between infants with SNHL and ANSD. PMID:27587922

  15. Follow-up of hearing thresholds among forge hammering workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, A.A.; Mikael, R.A.; Faris, R. (Ain Shams Univ., Abbasia, Cairo (Egypt))

    1989-01-01

    Hearing threshold was reexamined in a group of forge hammering workers investigated 8 years ago with consideration of the age effect and of auditory symptoms. Workers were exposed to impact noise that ranged from 112 to 139 dB(A)--at an irregular rate of 20 to 50 drop/minute--and a continuous background noise that ranged from 90 to 94 dB(A). Similar to what was observed 8 years ago, the present permanent threshold shift (PTS) showed a maximum notch at the frequency of 6 kHz and considerable elevations at the frequencies of 0.25-1 kHz. The age-corrected PTS and the postexposure hearing threshold were significantly higher than the corresponding previous values at the frequencies 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 8 kHz only. The rise was more evident at the low than at the high frequencies. Temporary threshold shift (TTS) values were significantly less than those 8 years ago. Contrary to the previous TTS, the present TTS were higher at low than at high frequencies. Although progression of PTS at the frequencies 0.25 and 0.5 kHz was continuous throughout the observed durations of exposure, progression at higher frequencies occurred essentially in the first 10 to 15 years of exposure. Thereafter, it followed a much slower rate. Tinnitus was significantly associated with difficulty in hearing the human voice and with elevation of PTS at all the tested frequencies, while acoustic after-image was significantly associated with increment of PTS at the frequencies 0.25-2 kHz. No relation between PTS and smoking was found. PTS at low frequencies may provide an indication of progression of hearing damage when the sensitivity at 6 and 4 kHz diminishes after prolonged years of exposure. Tinnitus and acoustic after-image are related to the auditory effect of forge hammering noise.

  16. Loss of auditory sensitivity from inner hair cell synaptopathy can be centrally compensated in the young but not old brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhrle, Dorit; Ni, Kun; Varakina, Ksenya; Bing, Dan; Lee, Sze Chim; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Knipper, Marlies; Rüttiger, Lukas

    2016-08-01

    A dramatic shift in societal demographics will lead to rapid growth in the number of older people with hearing deficits. Poorer performance in suprathreshold speech understanding and temporal processing with age has been previously linked with progressing inner hair cell (IHC) synaptopathy that precedes age-dependent elevation of auditory thresholds. We compared central sound responsiveness after acoustic trauma in young, middle-aged, and older rats. We demonstrate that IHC synaptopathy progresses from middle age onward and hearing threshold becomes elevated from old age onward. Interestingly, middle-aged animals could centrally compensate for the loss of auditory fiber activity through an increase in late auditory brainstem responses (late auditory brainstem response wave) linked to shortening of central response latencies. In contrast, old animals failed to restore central responsiveness, which correlated with reduced temporal resolution in responding to amplitude changes. These findings may suggest that cochlear IHC synaptopathy with age does not necessarily induce temporal auditory coding deficits, as long as the capacity to generate neuronal gain maintains normal sound-induced central amplitudes. PMID:27318145

  17. Threshold Generation of Signcryption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGFutai; JIDongyao; WANGYumin

    2003-01-01

    Signcryption is a new cryptographic primitive wiich simultaneously fulfills both the functions of digital signature and public key encryption in a logically singlestep,and with a cost significantly lower than that required by "signature followed by encryption".It has many applications in such areas as electronic cash payment systems,secure and authenticated key establishment,secure multicasting over the Internet,authenticated key recovery,etc..In secure and authenticated group communication there is a need for threshold generation of signcryption.In this paper,we propose a protocol for threshold generation of signcryption using the techniques of verifiable secret sharing(VSS)and secure multi-party computation (MPC).In the protocol,any t or more honest members can efficiently generate valid signcryption text of a given message,while the adversary whole corrupts up to t-1 group members cannot forge any valid signcryption text.The protocol of computing reciprocals of secrets presented by R.Gennaro,S.Jarecki,H.Krawczyk,and T.Rabin is also modified so that the efficiency is improved.

  18. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  19. Asymmetric transfer of auditory perceptual learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sygal eAmitay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual skills can improve dramatically even with minimal practice. A major and practical benefit of learning, however, is in transferring the improvement on the trained task to untrained tasks or stimuli, yet the mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. Reduction of internal noise has been proposed as a mechanism of perceptual learning, and while we have evidence that frequency discrimination (FD learning is due to a reduction of internal noise, the source of that noise was not determined. In this study, we examined whether reducing the noise associated with neural phase locking to tones can explain the observed improvement in behavioural thresholds. We compared FD training between two tone durations (15 and 100 ms that straddled the temporal integration window of auditory nerve fibers upon which computational modeling of phase locking noise was based. Training on short tones resulted in improved FD on probe tests of both the long and short tones. Training on long tones resulted in improvement only on the long tones. Simulations of FD learning, based on the computational model and on signal detection theory, were compared with the behavioral FD data. We found that improved fidelity of phase locking accurately predicted transfer of learning from short to long tones, but also predicted transfer from long to short tones. The observed lack of transfer from long to short tones suggests the involvement of a second mechanism. Training may have increased the temporal integration window which could not transfer because integration time for the short tone is limited by its duration. Current learning models assume complex relationships between neural populations that represent the trained stimuli. In contrast, we propose that training-induced enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio offers a parsimonious explanation of learning and transfer that easily accounts for asymmetric transfer of learning.

  20. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  1. Auditory hallucinations in nonverbal quadriplegics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J

    1985-11-01

    When a system for communicating with nonverbal, quadriplegic, institutionalized residents was developed, it was discovered that many were experiencing auditory hallucinations. Nine cases are presented in this study. The "voices" described have many similar characteristics, the primary one being that they give authoritarian commands that tell the residents how to behave and to which the residents feel compelled to respond. Both the relationship of this phenomenon to the theoretical work of Julian Jaynes and its effect on the lives of the residents are discussed.

  2. Autosomal recessive hereditary auditory neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋菊; 顾瑞; 曹菊阳

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Auditory neuropathy (AN) is a sensorineural hearing disorder characterized by absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and normal cochlear outer hair cell function as measured by otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Many risk factors are thought to be involved in its etiology and pathophysiology. Three Chinese pedigrees with familial AN are presented herein to demonstrate involvement of genetic factors in AN etiology. Methods: Probands of the above - mentioned pedigrees, who had been diagnosed with AN, were evaluated and followed up in the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, China PLA General Hospital. Their family members were studied and the pedigree diagrams were established. History of illness, physical examination,pure tone audiometry, acoustic reflex, ABRs and transient evoked and distortion- product otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs and DPOAEs) were obtained from members of these families. DPOAE changes under the influence of contralateral sound stimuli were observed by presenting a set of continuous white noise to the non - recording ear to exam the function of auditory efferent system. Some subjects received vestibular caloric test, computed tomography (CT)scan of the temporal bone and electrocardiography (ECG) to exclude other possible neuropathy disorders. Results: In most affected subjects, hearing loss of various degrees and speech discrimination difficulties started at 10 to16 years of age. Their audiological evaluation showed absence of acoustic reflex and ABRs. As expected in AN, these subjects exhibited near normal cochlear outer hair cell function as shown in TEOAE & DPOAE recordings. Pure- tone audiometry revealed hearing loss ranging from mild to severe in these patients. Autosomal recessive inheritance patterns were observed in the three families. In Pedigree Ⅰ and Ⅱ, two affected brothers were found respectively, while in pedigree Ⅲ, 2 sisters were affected. All the patients were otherwise normal without

  3. Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

  4. Mapping tonotopy in human auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Pim; Langers, Dave R M; Moore, BCJ; Patterson, RD; Winter, IM; Carlyon, RP; Gockel, HE

    2013-01-01

    Tonotopy is arguably the most prominent organizational principle in the auditory pathway. Nevertheless, the layout of tonotopic maps in humans is still debated. We present neuroimaging data that robustly identify multiple tonotopic maps in the bilateral auditory cortex. In contrast with some earlier

  5. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  6. Speech perception as complex auditory categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Lori L.

    2002-05-01

    Despite a long and rich history of categorization research in cognitive psychology, very little work has addressed the issue of complex auditory category formation. This is especially unfortunate because the general underlying cognitive and perceptual mechanisms that guide auditory category formation are of great importance to understanding speech perception. I will discuss a new methodological approach to examining complex auditory category formation that specifically addresses issues relevant to speech perception. This approach utilizes novel nonspeech sound stimuli to gain full experimental control over listeners' history of experience. As such, the course of learning is readily measurable. Results from this methodology indicate that the structure and formation of auditory categories are a function of the statistical input distributions of sound that listeners hear, aspects of the operating characteristics of the auditory system, and characteristics of the perceptual categorization system. These results have important implications for phonetic acquisition and speech perception.

  7. THE EFFECTS OF SALICYLATE ON AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIAL AMPLITWDE FROM THE AUDITORY CORTEX AND AUDITORY BRAINSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Sawka; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus has often been studied using salicylate in animal models as they are capable of inducing tempo-rary hearing loss and tinnitus. Studies have recently observed enhancement of auditory evoked responses of the auditory cortex (AC) post salicylate treatment which is also shown to be related to tinnitus like behavior in rats. The aim of this study was to observe if enhancements of the AC post salicylate treatment are also present at structures in the brainstem. Four male Sprague Dawley rats with AC implanted electrodes were tested for both AC and auditory brainstem response (ABR) recordings pre and post 250 mg/kg intraperitone-al injections of salicylate. The responses were recorded as the peak to trough amplitudes of P1-N1 (AC), ABR wave V, and ABR waveⅡ. AC responses resulted in statistically significant enhancement of ampli-tude at 2 hours post salicylate with 90 dB stimuli tone bursts of 4, 8, 12, and 20 kHz. Wave V of ABR re-sponses at 90 dB resulted in a statistically significant reduction of amplitude 2 hours post salicylate and a mean decrease of amplitude of 31%for 16 kHz. WaveⅡamplitudes at 2 hours post treatment were signifi-cantly reduced for 4, 12, and 20 kHz stimuli at 90 dB SPL. Our results suggest that the enhancement chang-es of the AC related to salicylate induced tinnitus are generated superior to the level of the inferior colliculus and may originate in the AC.

  8. Effect of Hearing Aids on Auditory Function in Infants with Perinatal Brain Injury and Severe Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Aguirre, Alma Janeth; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Harmony, Thalía; Fernández-Bouzas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Background Approximately 2–4% of newborns with perinatal risk factors present with hearing loss. Our aim was to analyze the effect of hearing aid use on auditory function evaluated based on otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), auditory brain responses (ABRs) and auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) in infants with perinatal brain injury and profound hearing loss. Methodology/Principal Findings A prospective, longitudinal study of auditory function in infants with profound hearing loss. Right side hearing before and after hearing aid use was compared with left side hearing (not stimulated and used as control). All infants were subjected to OAE, ABR and ASSR evaluations before and after hearing aid use. The average ABR threshold decreased from 90.0 to 80.0 dB (p = 0.003) after six months of hearing aid use. In the left ear, which was used as a control, the ABR threshold decreased from 94.6 to 87.6 dB, which was not significant (p>0.05). In addition, the ASSR threshold in the 4000-Hz frequency decreased from 89 dB to 72 dB (p = 0.013) after six months of right ear hearing aid use; the other frequencies in the right ear and all frequencies in the left ear did not show significant differences in any of the measured parameters (p>0.05). OAEs were absent in the baseline test and showed no changes after hearing aid use in the right ear (p>0.05). Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence that early hearing aid use decreases the hearing threshold in ABR and ASSR assessments with no functional modifications in the auditory receptor, as evaluated by OAEs. PMID:22808289

  9. Monolayer dispersion thresholds and threshold effect displayed by supported catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cun DENG

    2008-01-01

    The principle of spontaneous monolayer dis-persion holds that active components of many supported catalysts will disperse spontaneously onto the surface of the carrier. The monolayer dispersion threshold of the active component on the surface of the carrier can be measured by X-ray diffraction phase-quantitative extra-polation method, etc. By measuring the monolayer disper-sion threshold, beneficial information on the surface structure and dispersion of supported catalysts can be obtained, and the optimal preparative processing condi-tions of the catalysts can be chosen. The proportion of the active component of many supported catalysts can be optimized while its monolayer dispersion threshold is observed. Mutation values of many physicochemical properties of supported catalysts are related to monolayer dispersion thresholds; the threshold effect on catalysts is apparent, and the proposal regarding the threshold effect provides instruction for the research on catalysts.

  10. Expression and function of scleraxis in the developing auditory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe F Mann

    Full Text Available A study of genes expressed in the developing inner ear identified the bHLH transcription factor Scleraxis (Scx in the developing cochlea. Previous work has demonstrated an essential role for Scx in the differentiation and development of tendons, ligaments and cells of chondrogenic lineage. Expression in the cochlea has been shown previously, however the functional role for Scx in the cochlea is unknown. Using a Scx-GFP reporter mouse line we examined the spatial and temporal patterns of Scx expression in the developing cochlea between embryonic day 13.5 and postnatal day 25. Embryonically, Scx is expressed broadly throughout the cochlear duct and surrounding mesenchyme and at postnatal ages becomes restricted to the inner hair cells and the interdental cells of the spiral limbus. Deletion of Scx results in hearing impairment indicated by elevated auditory brainstem response (ABR thresholds and diminished distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE amplitudes, across a range of frequencies. No changes in either gross cochlear morphology or expression of the Scx target genes Col2A, Bmp4 or Sox9 were observed in Scx(-/- mutants, suggesting that the auditory defects observed in these animals may be a result of unidentified Scx-dependent processes within the cochlea.

  11. A test battery measuring auditory capabilities of listening panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghani, Jody; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Karin

    2005-01-01

    battery of tests covering a larger range of auditory capabilities in order to assess individual listeners. The format of all tests is kept as 'objective' as possible by using a three-alternative forced-choice paradigm in which the subject must choose which of the sound samples is different, thus keeping...... the instruction to the subjects simple and common for all tests. Both basic (e.g. frequency discrimination) and complex (e.g. profile analysis) psychoacoustic tests are covered in the battery and a threshold of discrimination or detection is obtained for each test. Data were collected on 24 listeners...... who had been recruited for participation in an expert listening panel for evaluating the sound quality of hi-fi audio systems. The test battery data were related to the actual performance of the listeners when judging the degradation in quality produced by audio codecs....

  12. PSYCHOACOUSTICS: a comprehensive MATLAB toolbox for auditory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranzo, Alessandro; Grassi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    PSYCHOACOUSTICS is a new MATLAB toolbox which implements three classic adaptive procedures for auditory threshold estimation. The first includes those of the Staircase family (method of limits, simple up-down and transformed up-down); the second is the Parameter Estimation by Sequential Testing (PEST); and the third is the Maximum Likelihood Procedure (MLP). The toolbox comes with more than twenty built-in experiments each provided with the recommended (default) parameters. However, if desired, these parameters can be modified through an intuitive and user friendly graphical interface and stored for future use (no programming skills are required). Finally, PSYCHOACOUSTICS is very flexible as it comes with several signal generators and can be easily extended for any experiment.

  13. Carrier-dependent temporal processing in an auditory interneuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Patrick; Gottlieb, Heather; Pollack, Gerald S

    2008-05-01

    Signal processing in the auditory interneuron Omega Neuron 1 (ON1) of the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus was compared at high- and low-carrier frequencies in three different experimental paradigms. First, integration time, which corresponds to the time it takes for a neuron to reach threshold when stimulated at the minimum effective intensity, was found to be significantly shorter at high-carrier frequency than at low-carrier frequency. Second, phase locking to sinusoidally amplitude modulated signals was more efficient at high frequency, especially at high modulation rates and low modulation depths. Finally, we examined the efficiency with which ON1 detects gaps in a constant tone. As reflected by the decrease in firing rate in the vicinity of the gap, ON1 is better at detecting gaps at low-carrier frequency. Following a gap, firing rate increases beyond the pre-gap level. This "rebound" phenomenon is similar for low- and high-carrier frequencies.

  14. Echo thresholds for reflections from acoustically diffusive architectural surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip W; Walther, Andreas; Faller, Christof; Braasch, Jonas

    2013-10-01

    When sound reflects from an irregular architectural surface, it spreads spatially and temporally. Extensive research has been devoted to prediction and measurement of diffusion, but less has focused on its perceptual effects. This paper examines the effect of temporal diffusion on echo threshold. There are several notable differences between the waveform of a reflection identical to the direct sound and one from an architectural surface. The onset and offset are damped and the energy is spread in time; hence, the reflection response has a lower peak amplitude, and is decorrelated from the direct sound. The perceptual consequences of these differences are previously undocumented. Echo threshold tests are conducted with speech and music signals, using direct sound and a simulated reflection that is either identical to the direct sound or has various degrees of diffusion. Results indicate that for a speech signal, diffuse reflections are less easily detectable as a separate auditory event than specular reflections of the same total energy. For a music signal, no differences are observed between the echo thresholds for reflections with and without temporal diffusion. Additionally, echo thresholds are found to be shorter for speech than for music, and shorter for spatialized than for diotic presentation of signals. PMID:24116414

  15. Relationship between Sympathetic Skin Responses and Auditory Hypersensitivity to Different Auditory Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Fumi; Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Chono, Mami; Fujihara, Saori; Tokunaga, Akiko; Murata, Jun; Tanaka, Koji; Nakane, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Goro

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] Auditory hypersensitivity has been widely reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders. However, the neurological background of auditory hypersensitivity is currently not clear. The present study examined the relationship between sympathetic nervous system responses and auditory hypersensitivity induced by different types of auditory stimuli. [Methods] We exposed 20 healthy young adults to six different types of auditory stimuli. The amounts of palmar sweating resulting from the auditory stimuli were compared between groups with (hypersensitive) and without (non-hypersensitive) auditory hypersensitivity. [Results] Although no group × type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was observed for the extent of reaction, significant type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was noted for the extent of reaction. For an 80 dB-6,000 Hz stimulus, the trends for palmar sweating differed between the groups. For the first stimulus, the variance became larger in the hypersensitive group than in the non-hypersensitive group. [Conclusion] Subjects who regularly felt excessive reactions to auditory stimuli tended to have excessive sympathetic responses to repeated loud noises compared with subjects who did not feel excessive reactions. People with auditory hypersensitivity may be classified into several subtypes depending on their reaction patterns to auditory stimuli.

  16. Auditory risk assessment of college music students in jazz band-based instructional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Kamakshi V; Chesky, Kris; Beschoner, Elizabeth A; Nelson, Paul D; Stewart, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that musicians are at risk for music-induced hearing loss, however, systematic evaluation of music exposure and its effects on the auditory system are still difficult to assess. The purpose of the study was to determine if college students in jazz band-based instructional activity are exposed to loud classroom noise and consequently exhibit acute but significant changes in basic auditory measures compared to non-music students in regular classroom sessions. For this we (1) measured and compared personal exposure levels of college students (n = 14) participating in a routine 50 min jazz ensemble-based instructional activity (experimental) to personal exposure levels of non-music students (n = 11) participating in a 50-min regular classroom activity (control), and (2) measured and compared pre- to post-auditory changes associated with these two types of classroom exposures. Results showed that the L eq (equivalent continuous noise level) generated during the 50 min jazz ensemble-based instructional activity ranged from 95 dBA to 105.8 dBA with a mean of 99.5 ± 2.5 dBA. In the regular classroom, the L eq ranged from 46.4 dBA to 67.4 dBA with a mean of 49.9 ± 10.6 dBA. Additionally, significant differences were observed in pre to post-auditory measures between the two groups. The experimental group showed a significant temporary threshold shift bilaterally at 4000 Hz (P jazz ensemble-based instructional activity. No significant changes were found in the control group between pre- and post-exposure measures. This study quantified the noise exposure in jazz band-based practice sessions and its effects on basic auditory measures. Temporary, yet significant, auditory changes seen in music students place them at risk for hearing loss compared to their non-music cohorts.

  17. Personal Computer Based Clinical Programming Software for Auditory Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rajakumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory Prostheses (AP are widely used electronic devices for patients suffering with severe to profound senosorineural deafness by electrically stimulating the auditory nerve using an electrode array surgically placed in the inner ear. AP mainly contains external Body Worn Speech Processor (BWSP and internal Implantable Receiver Stimulator (IRS. BWSP receives an external sound or speech and generates encoded speech data bits for transmission to IRS via radio frequency transcutaneous link for excitation of electrode array. After surgical placement electrode array in the inner ear, BWSP should be fine tuned to achieve the 80-100% speech reception abilities of patient by an audiologist. Problem statement: Basic objective of this research was to develop a simple personal computer based user friendly hardware and software interface to fine tune the BWSP to achieve the best possible speech reception abilities of each individual patient. Approach: Tuning process involved several tasks such as identifying the active electrode contacts, determination of detection and pain thresholds of each active electrode and loads these values into BWSP by reprogramming the BWSP. This study contracted with development of easy and simple user friendly hardware and software interface for audiologist to perform post operation tuning procedures. A microcontroller based impedance telemetry with bidirectional RF transceiver was developed as a hardware interface between PC and IRS. The clinical programming software was developed using VB.NET 2008 to perform the post-operative tuning procedures such as (i impedance measurement, (ii fitting to determine the threshold and comfort levels for each active electrodes and (iii reprogramming the speech processor. Results: Simple hardware and software interfaces for audiologist were constructed and tested with laboratory model BWSP and IRS using simulated resistance electrode array. All the functional aspects were tested and results

  18. Electrophysiological assessment of auditory processing disorder in children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Bradley; Ma, Lian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cleft lip and/or palate is a common congenital craniofacial malformation found worldwide. A frequently associated disorder is conductive hearing loss, and this disorder has been thoroughly investigated in children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P). However, analysis of auditory processing function is rarely reported for this population, although this issue should not be ignored since abnormal auditory cortical structures have been found in populations with cleft disorders. The present study utilized electrophysiological tests to assess the auditory status of a large group of children with NSCL/P, and investigated whether this group had less robust central auditory processing abilities compared to craniofacially normal children. Methods 146 children with NSCL/P who had normal peripheral hearing thresholds, and 60 craniofacially normal children aged from 6 to 15 years, were recruited. Electrophysiological tests, including auditory brainstem response (ABR), P1-N1-P2 complex, and P300 component recording, were conducted. Results ABR and N1 wave latencies were significantly prolonged in children with NSCL/P. An atypical developmental trend was found for long latency potentials in children with cleft compared to control group children. Children with unilateral cleft lip and palate showed a greater level of abnormal results compared with other cleft subgroups, whereas the cleft lip subgroup had the most robust responses for all tests. Conclusion Children with NSCL/P may have slower than normal neural transmission times between the peripheral auditory nerve and brainstem. Possible delayed development of myelination and synaptogenesis may also influence auditory processing function in this population. Present research outcomes were consistent with previous, smaller sample size, electrophysiological studies on infants and children with cleft lip/palate disorders. In view of the these findings, and reports of educational disadvantage associated

  19. An Auditory Model of Improved Adaptive ZCPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An improved ZCAP auditory model with adaptability is proposed in this paper, and the  adaptive method designed for ZCPA model is suitable for other auditory model with inner-hair-cell sub-model. The first step in the implement process of the proposed ZCPA model is to carry out the calculation of inner product between signal and complex Gammatone filters to obtain important frequency components  of signal. And then, according to  the result of the first step, the parameters of the basilar membrane sub-model and frequency box are automatically adjusted, such as the number of the basilar membrane filters, center frequency and bandwith of each basilar membrane filter, position of each frequency box, and so on. Lastly  an auditory model is built, and the final output is auditory spectrum.The results of numerical simulation and experiments have showed that the proposed model could realize accurate frequency selection, and the auditory spectrum is more distinctly than that of conventional ZCPA model. Moreover, the proposed model can completely avoided the influence of the number of filter on the shape of auditory spectrum existing in conventional ZCPA model so that the shape of auditory spectrum is steady, and the data quantity is small.

  20. Auditory Efferent System Modulates Mosquito Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Marta; Seifert, Marvin; Spalthoff, Christian; Warren, Ben; Weiss, Lukas; Giraldo, Diego; Winkler, Margret; Pauls, Stephanie; Göpfert, Martin C

    2016-08-01

    The performance of vertebrate ears is controlled by auditory efferents that originate in the brain and innervate the ear, synapsing onto hair cell somata and auditory afferent fibers [1-3]. Efferent activity can provide protection from noise and facilitate the detection and discrimination of sound by modulating mechanical amplification by hair cells and transmitter release as well as auditory afferent action potential firing [1-3]. Insect auditory organs are thought to lack efferent control [4-7], but when we inspected mosquito ears, we obtained evidence for its existence. Antibodies against synaptic proteins recognized rows of bouton-like puncta running along the dendrites and axons of mosquito auditory sensory neurons. Electron microscopy identified synaptic and non-synaptic sites of vesicle release, and some of the innervating fibers co-labeled with somata in the CNS. Octopamine, GABA, and serotonin were identified as efferent neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that affect auditory frequency tuning, mechanical amplification, and sound-evoked potentials. Mosquito brains thus modulate mosquito ears, extending the use of auditory efferent systems from vertebrates to invertebrates and adding new levels of complexity to mosquito sound detection and communication. PMID:27476597

  1. MD 751: Train Instability Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Carver, Lee Robert; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; Levens, Tom; Nisbet, David; Zobov, M; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this MD is to measure the octupole current thresholds for stability for a single bunch, and then make an immediate comparison (with the same operational settings) for a train of 72 bunches separated by 25ns. From theory, the expected thresholds should be similar. Any discrepancy between the two cases will be of great interest as it could indicate the presence of additional mechanisms that contribute to the instability threshold, for example electron cloud.

  2. Lower Hearing Threshold by Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙长才; 邵峰; 张燕萍; 秦佑国

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate that noise can be a benefit factor that enables us to hear weaker signals. We measured the hearing thresholds of subjects for pure tone in different noise levels. The results show that pure tone thresholds with noise of some levels are lower than that without noise. The largest down-shift of the threshold by noise among the examined subjects is 5. 7dB, and the smallest is 1.7dB.

  3. Albania - Thresholds I and II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — From 2006 to 2011, the government of Albania (GOA) received two Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Programs totaling $29.6 million. Albania received...

  4. Accuracy of Cortical Evoked Response Audiometry in estimating normal hearing thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdavi M E

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cortical Evoked Response Audiometry (CERA refers to prediction of behavioral pure-tone thresholds (500-4000 Hz obtained by recording the N1-P2 complex of auditory long latency responses. CERA is the preferred method for frequency–specific estimation of audiogram in conscious adults and older children. CERA has an increased accuracy of determination of the hearing thresholds of alert patients with elevated hearing thresholds with sensory hearing loss; however few publications report studies regarding the use of CERA for estimating normal hearing thresholds. The purpose of this research was to further study the accuracy of CERA in predicting hearing thresholds when there is no hearing loss. Methods: Behavioral hearing thresholds of 40 alert normal hearing young adult male (40 ears screened at 20 dB HL in 500-8000Hz, predicted by recording N1-P2 complex of auditory evoked long latency responses to 10-30-10 ms tone bursts. After CERA, pure tone audiometry performed by other audiologist. All judgments about presence of responses performed visually. Stimulus rate variation and temporary interruption of stimulus presentation was used for preventing amplitude reduction of the responses. 200-250 responses were averaged near threshold. Results: In 95% of the hearing threshold predictions, N1-P2 thresholds were within 0-15 dB SL of true hearing thresholds. In the other 5%, the difference between the CERA threshold and true hearing threshold was 20-25 dB. The mean threshold obtained for tone bursts of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz were 12.6 ± 4.5, 10.9 ± 5.8, 10.8 ± 6.5 and 11.2 ± 4.1 dB, respectively, above the mean behavioral hearing thresholds for air-conducted pure tone stimuli. Conclusion: On average, CERA has a relatively high accuracy for the prediction of normal hearing sensitivity, comparable to that of previous studies performed on CERA in hearing-impaired populations.

  5. Functional Neurochemistry of the Auditory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourollah Agha Ebrahimi

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional Neurochemistry is one of the fields of studies in the auditory system which has had an outstanding development in the recent years. Many of the findings in the mentioned field had led not only the basic auditory researches but also the clinicians to new points of view in audiology.Here, we are aimed at discussing the latest investigations in the Functional Neurochemistry of the auditory system and have focused this review mainly on the researches which will arise flashes of hope for future clinical studies

  6. Auditory Neuropathy/Dyssynchrony in Biotinidase Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghini, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a disorder inherited autosomal recessively showing evidence of hearing loss and optic atrophy in addition to seizures, hypotonia, and ataxia. In the present study, a 2-year-old boy with Biotinidase deficiency is presented in which clinical symptoms have been reported with auditory neuropathy/auditory dyssynchrony (AN/AD). In this case, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions showed bilaterally normal responses representing normal function of outer hair cells. In contrast, acoustic reflex test showed absent reflexes bilaterally, and visual reinforcement audiometry and auditory brainstem responses indicated severe to profound hearing loss in both ears. These results suggest AN/AD in patients with Biotinidase deficiency. PMID:27144235

  7. Functional Neurochemistry of the Auditory System

    OpenAIRE

    Nourollah Agha Ebrahimi

    1993-01-01

    Functional Neurochemistry is one of the fields of studies in the auditory system which has had an outstanding development in the recent years. Many of the findings in the mentioned field had led not only the basic auditory researches but also the clinicians to new points of view in audiology.Here, we are aimed at discussing the latest investigations in the Functional Neurochemistry of the auditory system and have focused this review mainly on the researches which will arise flashes of hope f...

  8. Auditory filters at low-frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Prediction and assessment of low-frequency noise problems requires information about the auditory filter characteristics at low-frequencies. Unfortunately, data at low-frequencies is scarce and practically no results have been published for frequencies below 100 Hz. Extrapolation of ERB results......-ear transfer function), the asymmetry of the auditory filter changed from steeper high-frequency slopes at 1000 Hz to steeper low-frequency slopes below 100 Hz. Increasing steepness at low-frequencies of the middle-ear high-pass filter is thought to cause this effect. The dynamic range of the auditory filter...

  9. Assessing the aging effect on auditory-verbal memory by Persian version of dichotic auditory verbal memory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahidipour

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, significant reduction in auditory memory was seen in aged group and the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test, like many other auditory verbal memory tests, showed the aging effects on auditory verbal memory performance.

  10. AUDITORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY: DOES IT PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR COGNITIVE PROCESSING IN THE AUDITORY CORTEX?

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, Dexter R. F.

    2007-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen substantial changes in our view of the nature of the processing carried out in auditory cortex. Some processing of a cognitive nature, previously attributed to higher order “association” areas, is now considered to take place in auditory cortex itself. One argument adduced in support of this view is the evidence indicating a remarkable degree of plasticity in the auditory cortex of adult animals. Such plasticity has been demonstrated in a wide range of paradigms, i...

  11. Restoration of auditory evoked responses by human ES-cell-derived otic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Jongkamonwiwat, Nopporn; Abbas, Leila; Eshtan, Sarah Jacob; Johnson, Stuart L; Kuhn, Stephanie; Milo, Marta; Thurlow, Johanna K; Andrews, Peter W; Marcotti, Walter; Moore, Harry D; Rivolta, Marcelo N

    2012-10-11

    Deafness is a condition with a high prevalence worldwide, produced primarily by the loss of the sensory hair cells and their associated spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Of all the forms of deafness, auditory neuropathy is of particular concern. This condition, defined primarily by damage to the SGNs with relative preservation of the hair cells, is responsible for a substantial proportion of patients with hearing impairment. Although the loss of hair cells can be circumvented partially by a cochlear implant, no routine treatment is available for sensory neuron loss, as poor innervation limits the prospective performance of an implant. Using stem cells to recover the damaged sensory circuitry is a potential therapeutic strategy. Here we present a protocol to induce differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) using signals involved in the initial specification of the otic placode. We obtained two types of otic progenitors able to differentiate in vitro into hair-cell-like cells and auditory neurons that display expected electrophysiological properties. Moreover, when transplanted into an auditory neuropathy model, otic neuroprogenitors engraft, differentiate and significantly improve auditory-evoked response thresholds. These results should stimulate further research into the development of a cell-based therapy for deafness. PMID:22972191

  12. Auditory degeneration after exposure to toluene in two genotypes of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hasheng (Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Physiology 2); Johnson, A.C.; Hoeglund, G. (Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Physiology 2 National Inst. of Occupational Health, Solna (Sweden). Dept. of Neuromedicine); Borg, E. (Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Physiology Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Audiology Oerebro Medical Center Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Audiology)

    1992-07-01

    Two inbred strains of mice, CBA/Ca (with a moderate hearing loss starting late in life) and C57BL/6J (with an early onset of spontaneous auditory degeneration), were exposed to toluene by inhalation (1000 ppm, 12 h/day, 7 days) at either 1 or 6 months of age. Thresholds of auditory brainstem response (ABR) were measured 3-5 days after exposure and assessed repeatedly up to the age of 16 months (C57) or 23 months (CBA). Both strains of mice exposed to toluene at 1 month of age showed a mild loss of sensitivity at a high frequency (31.5 kHz) shortly after exposure. With increasing age, toluene exposure had little effect on the aging process of the auditory system in CBA mice but accelerated age-related hearing loss in C57 mice. The results indicate that toluene exposure can aggravate auditory deterioration only in mice with a strong genetic predisposition to spontaneously precocious age-related hearing loss. (orig.).

  13. Peripheral auditory processing changes seasonally in Gambel's white-crowned sparrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caras, Melissa L; Brenowitz, Eliot; Rubel, Edwin W

    2010-08-01

    Song in oscine birds is a learned behavior that plays important roles in breeding. Pronounced seasonal differences in song behavior and in the morphology and physiology of the neural circuit underlying song production are well documented in many songbird species. Androgenic and estrogenic hormones largely mediate these seasonal changes. Although much work has focused on the hormonal mechanisms underlying seasonal plasticity in songbird vocal production, relatively less work has investigated seasonal and hormonal effects on songbird auditory processing, particularly at a peripheral level. We addressed this issue in Gambel's white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii), a highly seasonal breeder. Photoperiod and hormone levels were manipulated in the laboratory to simulate natural breeding and non-breeding conditions. Peripheral auditory function was assessed by measuring the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) of males and females in both conditions. Birds exposed to breeding-like conditions demonstrated elevated thresholds and prolonged peak latencies when compared with birds housed under non-breeding-like conditions. There were no changes in DPOAEs, however, which indicates that the seasonal differences in ABRs do not arise from changes in hair cell function. These results suggest that seasons and hormones impact auditory processing as well as vocal production in wild songbirds.

  14. Psychophysical Estimates of Frequency Discrimination: More than Just Limitations of Auditory Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Sabisch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficient auditory processing is hypothesized to support language and literacy development. However, behavioral tasks used to assess this hypothesis need to be robust to non-auditory specific individual differences. This study compared frequency discrimination abilities in a heterogeneous sample of adults using two different psychoacoustic task designs, referred to here as: 2I_6A_X and 3I_2AFC designs. The role of individual differences in nonverbal IQ (NVIQ, socioeconomic status (SES and musical experience in predicting frequency discrimination thresholds on each task were assessed using multiple regression analyses. The 2I_6A_X task was more cognitively demanding and hence more susceptible to differences specifically in SES and musical training. Performance on this task did not, however, relate to nonword repetition ability (a measure of language learning capacity. The 3I_2AFC task, by contrast, was only susceptible to musical training. Moreover, thresholds measured using it predicted some variance in nonword repetition performance. This design thus seems suitable for use in studies addressing questions regarding the role of auditory processing in supporting language and literacy development.

  15. Stress and Auditory Responses of the Otophysan Fish, Cyprinella venusta, to Road Traffic Noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna A Crovo

    Full Text Available Noise pollution from anthropogenic sources is an increasingly problematic challenge faced by many taxa, including fishes. Recent studies demonstrate that road traffic noise propagates effectively from bridge crossings into surrounding freshwater ecosystems; yet, its effect on the stress response and auditory function of freshwater stream fishes is unexamined. The blacktail shiner (Cyprinella venusta was used as a model to investigate the degree to which traffic noise impacts stress and hearing in exposed fishes. Fish were exposed to an underwater recording of traffic noise played at approximately 140 dB re 1 μPa. Waterborne cortisol samples were collected and quantified using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Auditory thresholds were assessed in control and traffic exposed groups by measuring auditory evoked potentials (AEPs. After acute exposure to traffic noise, fish exhibited a significant elevation in cortisol levels. Individuals exposed to 2 hours of traffic noise playback had elevated hearing thresholds at 300 and 400 Hz, corresponding to the most sensitive bandwidth for this species.

  16. Frequency band-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ken W.

    2005-04-01

    In many everyday listening environments, speech communication involves the integration of both acoustic and visual speech cues. This is especially true in noisy and reverberant environments where the speech signal is highly degraded, or when the listener has a hearing impairment. Understanding the mechanisms involved in auditory-visual integration is a primary interest of this work. Of particular interest is whether listeners are able to allocate their attention to various frequency regions of the speech signal differently under auditory-visual conditions and auditory-alone conditions. For auditory speech recognition, the most important frequency regions tend to be around 1500-3000 Hz, corresponding roughly to important acoustic cues for place of articulation. The purpose of this study is to determine the most important frequency region under auditory-visual speech conditions. Frequency band-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual conditions were obtained by having subjects identify speech tokens under conditions where the speech-to-noise ratio of different parts of the speech spectrum is independently and randomly varied on every trial. Point biserial correlations were computed for each separate spectral region and the normalized correlations are interpreted as weights indicating the importance of each region. Relations among frequency-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual conditions will be discussed.

  17. Life below the threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, C

    1991-01-01

    This article explains that malnutrition, poor health, and limited educational opportunities plague Philippine children -- especially female children -- from families living below the poverty threshold. Nearly 70% of households in the Philippines do not meet the required daily level of nutritional intake. Because it is often -- and incorrectly -- assumed that women's nutritional requirements are lower than men's, women suffer higher rates of malnutrition and poor health. A 1987 study revealed that 11.7% of all elementary students were underweight and 13.9% had stunted growths. Among elementary-school girls, 17% were malnourished and 40% suffered from anemia (among lactating mothers, more than 1/2 are anemic). A 1988 Program for Decentralized Educational Development study showed that grade VI students learn only about 1/2 of what they are supposed to learn. 30% of the children enrolled in grade school drop out before they reach their senior year. The Department of Education, Culture and Sports estimates that some 2.56 million students dropped out of school in l989. That same year, some 3.7 million children were counted as part of the labor force. In Manila alone, some 60,000 children work the streets, whether doing odd jobs or begging, or turning to crime or prostitution. the article tells the story of a 12 year-old girl named Ging, a 4th grader at a public school and the oldest child in a poor family of 6 children. The undernourished Ging dreams of a good future for her family and sees education as a way out of poverty; unfortunately, her time after school is spend working in the streets or looking after her family. She considers herself luckier than many of the other children working in the streets, since she at least has a family.

  18. Life below the threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, C

    1991-01-01

    This article explains that malnutrition, poor health, and limited educational opportunities plague Philippine children -- especially female children -- from families living below the poverty threshold. Nearly 70% of households in the Philippines do not meet the required daily level of nutritional intake. Because it is often -- and incorrectly -- assumed that women's nutritional requirements are lower than men's, women suffer higher rates of malnutrition and poor health. A 1987 study revealed that 11.7% of all elementary students were underweight and 13.9% had stunted growths. Among elementary-school girls, 17% were malnourished and 40% suffered from anemia (among lactating mothers, more than 1/2 are anemic). A 1988 Program for Decentralized Educational Development study showed that grade VI students learn only about 1/2 of what they are supposed to learn. 30% of the children enrolled in grade school drop out before they reach their senior year. The Department of Education, Culture and Sports estimates that some 2.56 million students dropped out of school in l989. That same year, some 3.7 million children were counted as part of the labor force. In Manila alone, some 60,000 children work the streets, whether doing odd jobs or begging, or turning to crime or prostitution. the article tells the story of a 12 year-old girl named Ging, a 4th grader at a public school and the oldest child in a poor family of 6 children. The undernourished Ging dreams of a good future for her family and sees education as a way out of poverty; unfortunately, her time after school is spend working in the streets or looking after her family. She considers herself luckier than many of the other children working in the streets, since she at least has a family. PMID:12285009

  19. Auditory efferent activation in CBA mice exceeds that of C57s for varying levels of noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Robert D; Newman, S R; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2007-01-01

    The medial olivocochlear efferent (MOC) system enhances signals in noise and helps mediate auditory attention. Contralateral suppression (CS) of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) has revealed age-related MOC declines. Here, differences in CS as a function of contralateral noise intensity (43-67 dB sound pressure level) were measured; 2f1-f2 DPOAE grams were recorded for young adult CBA and C57 mice. In CBAs, CS was a monotonic function of contralateral noise level. The C57s showed normal hearing, measured with DPOAE amplitudes and auditory brainstem response thresholds, but showed little CS, suggesting a loss of efferent dynamics preceding any deficiencies of the afferent auditory system.

  20. Threshold Concepts and Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lori; Brunetti, Korey; Hofer, Amy R.

    2011-01-01

    What do we teach when we teach information literacy in higher education? This paper describes a pedagogical approach to information literacy that helps instructors focus content around transformative learning thresholds. The threshold concept framework holds promise for librarians because it grounds the instructor in the big ideas and underlying…

  1. Second threshold in weak interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.

    1977-01-01

    The point of view that weak interactions must have a second threshold below 300 – 600 GeV is developed. Above this threshold new physics must come in. This new physics may be the Higgs system, or some other nonperturbative system possibly having some similarities to the Higgs system. The limit of la

  2. In search of an auditory engram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jonathan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    Monkeys trained preoperatively on a task designed to assess auditory recognition memory were impaired after removal of either the rostral superior temporal gyrus or the medial temporal lobe but were unaffected by lesions of the rhinal cortex. Behavioral analysis indicated that this result occurred because the monkeys did not or could not use long-term auditory recognition, and so depended instead on short-term working memory, which is unaffected by rhinal lesions. The findings suggest that monkeys may be unable to place representations of auditory stimuli into a long-term store and thus question whether the monkey's cerebral memory mechanisms in audition are intrinsically different from those in other sensory modalities. Furthermore, it raises the possibility that language is unique to humans not only because it depends on speech but also because it requires long-term auditory memory. PMID:15967995

  3. Effect of omega-3 on auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Omega-3 fatty acid have structural and biological roles in the body 's various systems . Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory system is affected a s well. The aim of this article was to review the researches about the effect of omega-3 on auditory system.Methods: We searched Medline , Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library and SID search engines with the "auditory" and "omega-3" keywords and read textbooks about this subject between 19 70 and 20 13.Conclusion: Both excess and deficient amounts of dietary omega-3 fatty acid can cause harmful effects on fetal and infant growth and development of brain and central nervous system esspesially auditory system. It is important to determine the adequate dosage of omega-3.

  4. Auditory perception modulated by word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liyu; Klepp, Anne; Schnitzler, Alfons; Gross, Joachim; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2016-10-01

    Theories of embodied cognition positing that sensorimotor areas are indispensable during language comprehension are supported by neuroimaging and behavioural studies. Among others, the auditory system has been suggested to be important for understanding sound-related words (visually presented) and the motor system for action-related words. In this behavioural study, using a sound detection task embedded in a lexical decision task, we show that in participants with high lexical decision performance sound verbs improve auditory perception. The amount of modulation was correlated with lexical decision performance. Our study provides convergent behavioural evidence of auditory cortex involvement in word processing, supporting the view of embodied language comprehension concerning the auditory domain. PMID:27324193

  5. [Approaches to therapy of auditory agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechtelpeter, A; Göddenhenrich, S; Huber, W; Springer, L

    1990-01-01

    In a 41-year-old stroke patient with bitemporal brain damage, we found severe signs of auditory agnosia 6 months after onset. Recognition of environmental sounds was extremely impaired when tested in a multiple choice sound-picture matching task, whereas auditory discrimination between sounds and picture identifications by written names was almost undisturbed. In a therapy experiment, we tried to enhance sound recognition via semantic categorization and association, imitation of sound and analysis of auditory features, respectively. The stimulation of conscious auditory analysis proved to be increasingly effective over a 4-week period of therapy. We were able to show that the patient's improvement was not only a simple effect of practicing, but it was stable and carried over to nontrained items.

  6. Auditory-visual spatial interaction and modularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeau, M

    1994-02-01

    The results of dealing with the conditions for pairing visual and auditory data coming from spatially separate locations argue for cognitive impenetrability and computational autonomy, the pairing rules being the Gestalt principles of common fate and proximity. Other data provide evidence for pairing with several properties of modular functioning. Arguments for domain specificity are inferred from comparison with audio-visual speech. Suggestion of innate specification can be found in developmental data indicating that the grouping of visual and auditory signals is supported very early in life by the same principles that operate in adults. Support for a specific neural architecture comes from neurophysiological studies of the bimodal (auditory-visual) neurons of the cat superior colliculus. Auditory-visual pairing thus seems to present the four main properties of the Fodorian module.

  7. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation between noise intensity and vagal-sympathetic balance. Additionally, it was reported that music therapy improved heart rate variability in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that dopamine release in the striatal system induced by pleasurable songs is involved in cardiac autonomic regulation. Musical auditory stimulation influences heart rate variability through a neural mechanism that is not well understood. Further studies are necessary to develop new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders.

  8. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  9. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill

    OpenAIRE

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E.; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between ...

  10. Auditory memory function in expert chess players

    OpenAIRE

    Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert...

  11. Auditory brain-stem responses in syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenhall, U; Roupe, G

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of auditory brain-stem electrical responses (BSER) provides an effective means of detecting lesions in the auditory pathways. In the present study the wave patterns were analysed in 11 patients with secondary or latent syphilis with no clinical symptoms referrable to the central nervous system and in two patients with congenital syphilis and general paralysis. Decreased amplitudes and prolonged latencies occurred frequently in patients with secondary and with advanced syphilis. This ...

  12. Suprathreshold auditory processing deficits in noise: Effects of hearing loss and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortlang, Steffen; Mauermann, Manfred; Ewert, Stephan D

    2016-01-01

    People with sensorineural hearing loss generally suffer from a reduced ability to understand speech in complex acoustic listening situations, particularly when background noise is present. In addition to the loss of audibility, a mixture of suprathreshold processing deficits is possibly involved, like altered basilar membrane compression and related changes, as well as a reduced ability of temporal coding. A series of 6 monaural psychoacoustic experiments at 0.5, 2, and 6 kHz was conducted with 18 subjects, divided equally into groups of young normal-hearing, older normal-hearing and older hearing-impaired listeners, aiming at disentangling the effects of age and hearing loss on psychoacoustic performance in noise. Random frequency modulation detection thresholds (RFMDTs) with a low-rate modulator in wide-band noise, and discrimination of a phase-jittered Schroeder-phase from a random-phase harmonic tone complex are suggested to characterize the individual ability of temporal processing. The outcome was compared to thresholds of pure tones and narrow-band noise, loudness growth functions, auditory filter bandwidths, and tone-in-noise detection thresholds. At 500 Hz, results suggest a contribution of temporal fine structure (TFS) to pure-tone detection thresholds. Significant correlation with auditory thresholds and filter bandwidths indicated an impact of frequency selectivity on TFS usability in wide-band noise. When controlling for the effect of threshold sensitivity, the listener's age significantly correlated with tone-in-noise detection and RFMDTs in noise at 500 Hz, showing that older listeners were particularly affected by background noise at low carrier frequencies.

  13. Electric auditory brainstem response (E-ABR in cochlear implant children: Effect of age at implantation and duration of implant use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithreen Mohammed Said Abdelsalam

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: A well-established EABR was obtained in cochlear implant children with proper parameters. The characterizations of the EABR waves including wave latencies and threshold were extracted at different electrodes. The EABR test proves to be an effective method to evaluate the functions of the auditory pathway in children after cochlear implantation.

  14. Auditory model inversion and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Heming; WANG Yongqi; CHEN Xueqin

    2005-01-01

    Auditory model has been applied to several aspects of speech signal processing field, and appears to be effective in performance. This paper presents the inverse transform of each stage of one widely used auditory model. First of all it is necessary to invert correlogram and reconstruct phase information by repetitious iterations in order to get auditory-nerve firing rate. The next step is to obtain the negative parts of the signal via the reverse process of the HWR (Half Wave Rectification). Finally the functions of inner hair cell/synapse model and Gammatone filters have to be inverted. Thus the whole auditory model inversion has been achieved. An application of noisy speech enhancement based on auditory model inversion algorithm is proposed. Many experiments show that this method is effective in reducing noise.Especially when SNR of noisy speech is low it is more effective than other methods. Thus this auditory model inversion method given in this paper is applicable to speech enhancement field.

  15. Processamento auditivo e potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco cerebral (BERA Auditory precessing and auditory brainstem response (ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pfeiffer

    2009-01-01

    all of them should have normal hearing thresholds, type A tympanograms and presence of acoustic reflexes. Behavioral auditory processing evaluation consisted of: sound localization, memory for verbal and non verbal sounds in sequence, speech in noise test, SSW test and nonverbal dichotic test. After the behavioral testing children were divided into two groups, G1 ( without auditory processing disorders and G2 (with auditory processing disorders of any degree and categorization and have undergone the register of auditory brainstem response (ABR. The groups were compared using absolute latencies of Waves I, III, V and interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, I-V and interaural difference of Wave V latency. RESULTS: our results indicated statistical significant differences considering interpeak latency in the left ear (p=0.009, in right and left ears considering interpeak latencies for G2 (p=0.02 and in interpeak latencies of waves I and V considering right and left ears between the groups G1 and G2 (p=0.025. CONCLUSION: significant differences were observed comparing behavioral evaluation and ABR considering interpeak latency of waves I and V in the left ear and interaural difference I-V in the left ear.

  16. Assessing auditory evoked potentials of wild harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruser, Andreas; Dähne, Michael; van Neer, Abbo; Lucke, Klaus; Sundermeyer, Janne; Siebert, Ursula; Houser, Dorian S; Finneran, James J; Everaarts, Eligius; Meerbeek, Jolanda; Dietz, Rune; Sveegaard, Signe; Teilmann, Jonas

    2016-07-01

    Testing the hearing abilities of marine mammals under water is a challenging task. Sample sizes are usually low, thus limiting the ability to generalize findings of susceptibility towards noise influences. A method to measure harbor porpoise hearing thresholds in situ in outdoor conditions using auditory steady state responses of the brainstem was developed and tested. The method was used on 15 live-stranded animals from the North Sea during rehabilitation, shortly before release into the wild, and on 12 wild animals incidentally caught in pound nets in Denmark (inner Danish waters). Results indicated that although the variability between individuals is wide, the shape of the hearing curve is generally similar to previously published results from behavioral trials. Using 10-kHz frequency intervals between 10 and 160 kHz, best hearing was found between 120 and 130 kHz. Additional testing using one-third octave frequency intervals (from 16 to 160 kHz) allowed for a much faster hearing assessment, but eliminated the fine scale threshold characteristics. For further investigations, the method will be used to better understand the factors influencing sensitivity differences across individuals and to establish population-level parameters describing hearing abilities of harbor porpoises.

  17. Frequency Selectivity Behaviour in the Auditory Midbrain: Implications of Model Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Shen-Bing; WANG Jia-Fu; ZENG Ting

    2006-01-01

    By numerical simulations on frequency dependence of the spiking threshold, i.e. on the critical amplitude of periodic stimulus, for a neuron to fire, we find that bushy cells in the cochlear nuclear exhibit frequency selectivity behaviour. However, the selective frequency band of a bushy cell is far away from that of the preferred spectral range in human and mammal auditory perception. The mechanism underlying this neural activity is also discussed. Further studies show that the ion channel densities have little impact on the selective frequency band of bushy cells. These findings suggest that the neuronal behaviour of frequency selectivity in bushy cells at both the single cell and population levels may be not functionally relevant to frequency discrimination. Our results may reveal a neural hint to the reconsideration on the bushy cell functional role in auditory information processing of sound frequency.

  18. Frequency Selectivity Behaviour in the Auditory Midbrain: Implications of Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shen-Bing; Wang, Jia-Fu; Zeng, Ting

    2006-12-01

    By numerical simulations on frequency dependence of the spiking threshold, i.e. on the critical amplitude of periodic stimulus, for a neuron to fire, we find that bushy cells in the cochlear nuclear exhibit frequency selectivity behaviour. However, the selective frequency band of a bushy cell is far away from that of the preferred spectral range in human and mammal auditory perception. The mechanism underlying this neural activity is also discussed. Further studies show that the ion channel densities have little impact on the selective frequency band of bushy cells. These findings suggest that the neuronal behaviour of frequency selectivity in bushy cells at both the single cell and population levels may be not functionally relevant to frequency discrimination. Our results may reveal a neural hint to the reconsideration on the bushy cell functional role in auditory information processing of sound frequency.

  19. Reference-Free Assessment of Speech Intelligibility Using Bispectrum of an Auditory Neurogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad E; Jassim, Wissam A; Zilany, Muhammad S A

    2016-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss occurs due to damage to the inner and outer hair cells of the peripheral auditory system. Hearing loss can cause decreases in audibility, dynamic range, frequency and temporal resolution of the auditory system, and all of these effects are known to affect speech intelligibility. In this study, a new reference-free speech intelligibility metric is proposed using 2-D neurograms constructed from the output of a computational model of the auditory periphery. The responses of the auditory-nerve fibers with a wide range of characteristic frequencies were simulated to construct neurograms. The features of the neurograms were extracted using third-order statistics referred to as bispectrum. The phase coupling of neurogram bispectrum provides a unique insight for the presence (or deficit) of supra-threshold nonlinearities beyond audibility for listeners with normal hearing (or hearing loss). The speech intelligibility scores predicted by the proposed method were compared to the behavioral scores for listeners with normal hearing and hearing loss both in quiet and under noisy background conditions. The results were also compared to the performance of some existing methods. The predicted results showed a good fit with a small error suggesting that the subjective scores can be estimated reliably using the proposed neural-response-based metric. The proposed metric also had a wide dynamic range, and the predicted scores were well-separated as a function of hearing loss. The proposed metric successfully captures the effects of hearing loss and supra-threshold nonlinearities on speech intelligibility. This metric could be applied to evaluate the performance of various speech-processing algorithms designed for hearing aids and cochlear implants. PMID:26967160

  20. Threshold enhancement of diphoton resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Aoife; Djouadi, Abdelhak; Goudelis, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    We revisit a mechanism to enhance the decay width of (pseudo-)scalar resonances to photon pairs when the process is mediated by loops of charged fermions produced near threshold. Motivated by the recent LHC data, indicating the presence of an excess in the diphoton spectrum at approximately 750 GeV, we illustrate this threshold enhancement mechanism in the case of a 750 GeV pseudoscalar boson A with a two-photon decay mediated by a charged and uncolored fermion having a mass at the 1/2MA threshold and a small decay width, dark matter are discussed.

  1. Music effect on pain threshold evaluated with current perception threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Music relieves anxiety and psychotic tension. This effect of music is applied to surgical operation in the hospital and dental office. It is still unclear whether this music effect is only limited to the psychological aspect but not to the physical aspect or whether its music effect is influenced by the mood or emotion of audience. To elucidate these issues, we evaluated the music effect on pain threshold by current perception threshold (CPT) and profile of mood states (POMC) test. METHODS: Healthy 30 subjects (12 men, 18 women, 25-49 years old, mean age 34.9) were tested. (1)After POMC test, all subjects were evaluated pain threshold with CPT by Neurometer (Radionics, USA) under 6 conditions, silence, listening to the slow tempo classic music, nursery music, hard rock music, classic paino music and relaxation music with 30 seconds interval. (2)After Stroop color word test as the stresser, pain threshold was evaluated with CPT under 2 conditions, silence and listening to the slow tempo classic music. RESULTS: Under litening to the music, CPT sores increased, especially 2 000 Hz level related with compression, warm and pain sensation. Type of music, preference of music and stress also affected CPT score. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the concentration on the music raise the pain threshold and that stress and mood influence the music effect on pain threshold.

  2. Auditory sustained field responses to periodic noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keceli Sumru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Auditory sustained responses have been recently suggested to reflect neural processing of speech sounds in the auditory cortex. As periodic fluctuations below the pitch range are important for speech perception, it is necessary to investigate how low frequency periodic sounds are processed in the human auditory cortex. Auditory sustained responses have been shown to be sensitive to temporal regularity but the relationship between the amplitudes of auditory evoked sustained responses and the repetitive rates of auditory inputs remains elusive. As the temporal and spectral features of sounds enhance different components of sustained responses, previous studies with click trains and vowel stimuli presented diverging results. In order to investigate the effect of repetition rate on cortical responses, we analyzed the auditory sustained fields evoked by periodic and aperiodic noises using magnetoencephalography. Results Sustained fields were elicited by white noise and repeating frozen noise stimuli with repetition rates of 5-, 10-, 50-, 200- and 500 Hz. The sustained field amplitudes were significantly larger for all the periodic stimuli than for white noise. Although the sustained field amplitudes showed a rising and falling pattern within the repetition rate range, the response amplitudes to 5 Hz repetition rate were significantly larger than to 500 Hz. Conclusions The enhanced sustained field responses to periodic noises show that cortical sensitivity to periodic sounds is maintained for a wide range of repetition rates. Persistence of periodicity sensitivity below the pitch range suggests that in addition to processing the fundamental frequency of voice, sustained field generators can also resolve low frequency temporal modulations in speech envelope.

  3. Age-Related Declines in Early Sensory Memory: Identification of Rapid Auditory and Visual Stimulus Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogerty, Daniel; Humes, Larry E.; Busey, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related temporal-processing declines of rapidly presented sequences may involve contributions of sensory memory. This study investigated recall for rapidly presented auditory (vowel) and visual (letter) sequences presented at six different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) that spanned threshold SOAs for sequence identification. Younger, middle-aged, and older adults participated in all tasks. Results were investigated at both equivalent performance levels (i.e., SOA threshold) and at identical physical stimulus values (i.e., SOAs). For four-item sequences, results demonstrated best performance for the first and last items in the auditory sequences, but only the first item for visual sequences. For two-item sequences, adults identified the second vowel or letter significantly better than the first. Overall, when temporal-order performance was equated for each individual by testing at SOA thresholds, recall accuracy for each position across the age groups was highly similar. These results suggest that modality-specific processing declines of older adults primarily determine temporal-order performance for rapid sequences. However, there is some evidence for a second amodal processing decline in older adults related to early sensory memory for final items in a sequence. This selective deficit was observed particularly for longer sequence lengths and was not accounted for by temporal masking. PMID:27199737

  4. Age-Related Declines in Early Sensory Memory: Identification of Rapid Auditory and Visual Stimulus Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogerty, Daniel; Humes, Larry E; Busey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Age-related temporal-processing declines of rapidly presented sequences may involve contributions of sensory memory. This study investigated recall for rapidly presented auditory (vowel) and visual (letter) sequences presented at six different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) that spanned threshold SOAs for sequence identification. Younger, middle-aged, and older adults participated in all tasks. Results were investigated at both equivalent performance levels (i.e., SOA threshold) and at identical physical stimulus values (i.e., SOAs). For four-item sequences, results demonstrated best performance for the first and last items in the auditory sequences, but only the first item for visual sequences. For two-item sequences, adults identified the second vowel or letter significantly better than the first. Overall, when temporal-order performance was equated for each individual by testing at SOA thresholds, recall accuracy for each position across the age groups was highly similar. These results suggest that modality-specific processing declines of older adults primarily determine temporal-order performance for rapid sequences. However, there is some evidence for a second amodal processing decline in older adults related to early sensory memory for final items in a sequence. This selective deficit was observed particularly for longer sequence lengths and was not accounted for by temporal masking. PMID:27199737

  5. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches.

  6. Auditory steady-state evoked response in diagnosing and evaluating hearing in infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Mai; Xiaozhuang Zhang; Qunxin Lai; Yanfei Wu; Nanping Liao; Yi Ye; Zhenghui Zhong

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Auditory steady-state evoked response (ASSR) is one of the new objective electrophysiological methods to test hearing in infants. It can provide a reliable and complete audiogram with specific frequency to help the hearing diagnosis and rehabilitation of hearing and languaging following auditory screening.OBJECTIVE: To compare the response threshold of ASSR with auditory threshold of visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) in infants failed in the hearing screening for investigating their hearing loss.DESIGN: A comparative observation.SETTINGS: Maternal and child health care hospitals of Guangdong province, Shunde city, Nanhai city and Huadu district.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 321 infants of 0-3 years undergoing ASSR test were selected from the Hearing Center of Guangdong Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital from January 2002 to December 2004.Informed consents were obtained from their guardians. There were 193 cases (60.2%) of 0-6 months, 31 cases (9.7%) of 7-12 months, 17 cases (5.3%) of 13-18 months, 14 cases (4.4%) of 19-24 months, 33 cases of 25-30 months, and 33 cases (10.2%) of 31-36 months.METHODS: ① The 321 infants failed in the hearing screening were tested under sleeping status, the ranges of response threshold distribution in ASSR of different frequencies were analyzed in each age group. ② The infants above 2 years old were also tested with VRA, and their response thresholds were compared between VRA and ASSR. ③ Evaluative standards: The response threshold was < 30 dB for normal hearing, 31-50 dB for mild hearing loss, 51-70 dB for moderate hearing loss, 71-90 dB for severe hearing loss, and > 91 dB for extremely severe hearing loss.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① ASSR results of the infants failed in the screening; ② Proportion of cases of each response threshold in each age group; ③ Comparison of ASSR response thresholds and VRA auditory thresholds in the infants of 2-3 years old.RESULTS: ①The response threshold was < 30 dB in 47

  7. Parton distributions with threshold resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvini, Marco; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca; Ubiali, Maria; Ball, Richard D; Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Hartland, Nathan P

    2015-01-01

    We construct a set of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in which fixed-order NLO and NNLO calculations are supplemented with soft-gluon (threshold) resummation up to NLL and NNLL accuracy respectively, suitable for use in conjunction with any QCD calculation in which threshold resummation is included at the level of partonic cross sections. These resummed PDF sets, based on the NNPDF3.0 analysis, are extracted from deep-inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan, and top quark pair production data, for which resummed calculations can be consistently used. We find that, close to threshold, the inclusion of resummed PDFs can partially compensate the enhancement in resummed matrix elements, leading to resummed hadronic cross-sections closer to the fixed-order calculation. On the other hand, far from threshold, resummed PDFs reduce to their fixed-order counterparts. Our results demonstrate the need for a consistent use of resummed PDFs in resummed calculations.

  8. Threshold models in radiation carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoel, D.G.; Li, P. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States). Dept. of Biometry and Epidemiology

    1998-09-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality data from the atomic bomb survivors cohort has been analyzed to allow for the possibility of a threshold dose response. The same dose-response models as used in the original papers were fit to the data. The estimated cancer incidence from the fitted models over-predicted the observed cancer incidence in the lowest exposure group. This is consistent with a threshold or nonlinear dose-response at low-doses. Thresholds were added to the dose-response models and the range of possible thresholds is shown for both solid tumor cancers as well as the different leukemia types. This analysis suggests that the A-bomb cancer incidence data agree more with a threshold or nonlinear dose-response model than a purely linear model although the linear model is statistically equivalent. This observation is not found with the mortality data. For both the incidence data and the mortality data the addition of a threshold term significantly improves the fit to the linear or linear-quadratic dose response for both total leukemias and also for the leukemia subtypes of ALL, AML, and CML.

  9. Estudo de caso: neuropatia auditiva Auditory neuropathy: a study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane M. Parra

    2003-03-01

    patient with auditory neuropathy attended at "Centro de Docência e Pesquisa em Fonoaudiologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo", correlating the study data with literature. The patient described is a 24 year-old person, with auditory neuropathy diagnosis, evaluated in our center in 2001. Interview, tonal audiometry thresholds, speech recognition, timpanometry, otoacustic emissions (OAEs and auditory brainstem responses (ABR were applied. In this case we observed incompatible results in the tonal audiometric threshold and speech recognition tests, with objectives tests like OAEs and ABR, in which we found a hearing loss with important changes in the speech recognition test, of OAEs present and abnormal ABR. These data suggest a normal cochlear function and abnormal neural synchrony.

  10. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  11. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  12. Effects of Caffeine on Auditory Brainstem Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleheh Soleimanian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Blocking of the adenosine receptor in central nervous system by caffeine can lead to increasing the level of neurotransmitters like glutamate. As the adenosine receptors are present in almost all brain areas like central auditory pathway, it seems caffeine can change conduction in this way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on latency and amplitude of auditory brainstem response(ABR.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 43 normal 18-25 years old male students were participated. The subjects consumed 0, 2 and 3 mg/kg BW caffeine in three different sessions. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded before and 30 minute after caffeine consumption. The results were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxone test to assess the effects of caffeine on auditory brainstem response.Results: Compared to control group the latencies of waves III,V and I-V interpeak interval of the cases decreased significantly after 2 and 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption. Wave I latency significantly decreased after 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption(p<0.01. Conclusion: Increasing of the glutamate level resulted from the adenosine receptor blocking brings about changes in conduction in the central auditory pathway.

  13. The harmonic organization of auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental structure of sounds encountered in the natural environment is the harmonicity. Harmonicity is an essential component of music found in all cultures. It is also a unique feature of vocal communication sounds such as human speech and animal vocalizations. Harmonics in sounds are produced by a variety of acoustic generators and reflectors in the natural environment, including vocal apparatuses of humans and animal species as well as music instruments of many types. We live in an acoustic world full of harmonicity. Given the widespread existence of the harmonicity in many aspects of the hearing environment, it is natural to expect that it be reflected in the evolution and development of the auditory systems of both humans and animals, in particular the auditory cortex. Recent neuroimaging and neurophysiology experiments have identified regions of non-primary auditory cortex in humans and non-human primates that have selective responses to harmonic pitches. Accumulating evidence has also shown that neurons in many regions of the auditory cortex exhibit characteristic responses to harmonically related frequencies beyond the range of pitch. Together, these findings suggest that a fundamental organizational principle of auditory cortex is based on the harmonicity. Such an organization likely plays an important role in music processing by the brain. It may also form the basis of the preference for particular classes of music and voice sounds. PMID:24381544

  14. Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates ouabaininduced auditory neuropathy in gerbils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan QU; Yun-na GAN; Ke-liang XIE; Wen-bo LIU; Ya-fei WANG; Ren-yi HEI; Wen-juan MI; Jian-hua QIU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:Auditory neuropathy (AN)is a hearing disorder characterized by abnormal auditory nerve function with preservation of normal cochlear hair cells.This study was designed to investigate whether treatment with molecular hydrogen (H2),which can remedy damage in various organs via reducing oxidative stress,inflammation and apoptosis,is beneficial to ouabain-induced AN in gerbils.Methods:AN model was made by local application of ouabain (1 mmoVL,20 mL)to the round window membrane in male Mongolian gerbils.H2 treatment was given twice by exposing the animals to H2 (1%,2%,and 4%)for 60 min at 1 h and 6 h after ouabain application.Before and 7 d after ouabain application,the hearing status of the animals was evaluated using the auditory brainstem response (ABR)approach,the hear cell function was evaluated with distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE).Seven days after ouabain application,the changes in the cochleae,especially the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs),were morphologically studied.TUNEL staining and immunofluorescent staining for activated caspase-3 were used to assess the apoptosis of SGNs.Results:Treatment with H2 (2% and 4%)markedly attenuated the click and tone burst-evoked ABR threshold shift at 4,8,and 16 kHz in ouabain-exposed animals.Neither local ouabain application,nor H2 treatment changed the amplitude of DPOAE at 4,8,and 16 kHz.Morphological study showed that treatment with H2 (2%)significantly alleviated SGN damage and attenuated the loss of SGN density for each turn of cochlea in ouabain-exposed animals.Furthermore,ouabain caused significantly higher numbers of apoptotic SGNs in the cochlea,which was significantly attenuated by the H2 treatment.However,ouabain did not change the morphology of cochlear hair cells.Conclusion:The results demonstrate that H2 treatment is beneficial to ouabain-induced AN via reducing apoptosis.Thus,H2 might be a potential agent for treating hearing impairment in AN patients.

  15. Evaluation of New Methods for Artifacts Rejection in Evoked Auditory Steady-State Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyndi González Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two alternative methods to the traditional method of artifact rejectionequipment currently used in evoked potential recording steady state (ASSR in order to improveefficiency based on the use of a larger number of individual records. The first method proposedis to replace the traditional use of rejection threshold amplitude, while the second version is afaster implementation of the weighted averaging used today, which is applicable also in thetransient Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR. These changes have been made in order toimplement these methods in a real time microprocessor.

  16. The effect of background music in auditory health persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah; Dijkstra, Arie

    2013-01-01

    In auditory health persuasion, threatening information regarding health is communicated by voice only. One relevant context of auditory persuasion is the addition of background music. There are different mechanisms through which background music might influence persuasion, for example through mood (

  17. Auditory Discrimination Development through Vestibulo-Cochlear Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Lyelle L.

    1980-01-01

    Three types of vestibular activities (active, adaptive, and passively imposed) to improve auditory discrimination development are described and results of a study using the vestibular stimulation techniques with 20 Ss (average age 9) having abnormal auditory discrimination. (PHR)

  18. Cooperative dynamics in auditory brain response

    CERN Document Server

    Kwapien, J; Liu, L C; Ioannides, A A

    1998-01-01

    Simultaneous estimates of the activity in the left and right auditory cortex of five normal human subjects were extracted from Multichannel Magnetoencephalography recordings. Left, right and binaural stimulation were used, in separate runs, for each subject. The resulting time-series of left and right auditory cortex activity were analysed using the concept of mutual information. The analysis constitutes an objective method to address the nature of inter-hemispheric correlations in response to auditory stimulations. The results provide a clear evidence for the occurrence of such correlations mediated by a direct information transport, with clear laterality effects: as a rule, the contralateral hemisphere leads by 10-20ms, as can be seen in the average signal. The strength of the inter-hemispheric coupling, which cannot be extracted from the average data, is found to be highly variable from subject to subject, but remarkably stable for each subject.

  19. Are auditory percepts determined by experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B; Han, Shui'Er; Purves, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Audition--what listeners hear--is generally studied in terms of the physical properties of sound stimuli and physiological properties of the auditory system. Based on recent work in vision, we here consider an alternative perspective that sensory percepts are based on past experience. In this framework, basic auditory qualities (e.g., loudness and pitch) are based on the frequency of occurrence of stimulus patterns in natural acoustic stimuli. To explore this concept of audition, we examined five well-documented psychophysical functions. The frequency of occurrence of acoustic patterns in a database of natural sound stimuli (speech) predicts some qualitative aspects of these functions, but with substantial quantitative discrepancies. This approach may offer a rationale for auditory phenomena that are difficult to explain in terms of the physical attributes of the stimuli as such.

  20. Are auditory percepts determined by experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B Monson

    Full Text Available Audition--what listeners hear--is generally studied in terms of the physical properties of sound stimuli and physiological properties of the auditory system. Based on recent work in vision, we here consider an alternative perspective that sensory percepts are based on past experience. In this framework, basic auditory qualities (e.g., loudness and pitch are based on the frequency of occurrence of stimulus patterns in natural acoustic stimuli. To explore this concept of audition, we examined five well-documented psychophysical functions. The frequency of occurrence of acoustic patterns in a database of natural sound stimuli (speech predicts some qualitative aspects of these functions, but with substantial quantitative discrepancies. This approach may offer a rationale for auditory phenomena that are difficult to explain in terms of the physical attributes of the stimuli as such.

  1. Phonetic categorization in auditory word perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1980-02-01

    To investigate the interaction in speech perception of auditory information and lexical knowledge (in particular, knowledge of which phonetic sequences are words), acoustic continua varying in voice onset time were constructed so that for each acoustic continuum, one of the two possible phonetic categorizations made a word and the other did not. For example, one continuum ranged between the word dash and the nonword tash; another used the nonword dask and the word task. In two experiments, subjects showed a significant lexical effect--that is, a tendency to make phonetic categorizations that make words. This lexical effect was greater at the phoneme boundary (where auditory information is ambiguous) than at the ends of the condinua. Hence the lexical effect must arise at a stage of processing sensitive to both lexical knowledge and auditory information.

  2. Auditory temporal processes in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ben-Artzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported age-related decline in auditory temporal resolution and in working memory. However, earlier studies did not provide evidence as to whether these declines reflect overall changes in the same mechanisms, or reflect age-related changes in two independent mechanisms. In the current study we examined whether the age-related decline in auditory temporal resolution and in working memory would remain significant even after controlling for their shared variance. Eighty-two participants, aged 21-82 performed the dichotic temporal order judgment task and the backward digit span task. The findings indicate that age-related decline in auditory temporal resolution and in working memory are two independent processes.

  3. What determines auditory distraction? On the roles of local auditory changes and expectation violations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P Röer

    Full Text Available Both the acoustic variability of a distractor sequence and the degree to which it violates expectations are important determinants of auditory distraction. In four experiments we examined the relative contribution of local auditory changes on the one hand and expectation violations on the other hand in the disruption of serial recall by irrelevant sound. We present evidence for a greater disruption by auditory sequences ending in unexpected steady state distractor repetitions compared to auditory sequences with expected changing state endings even though the former contained fewer local changes. This effect was demonstrated with piano melodies (Experiment 1 and speech distractors (Experiment 2. Furthermore, it was replicated when the expectation violation occurred after the encoding of the target items (Experiment 3, indicating that the items' maintenance in short-term memory was disrupted by attentional capture and not their encoding. This seems to be primarily due to the violation of a model of the specific auditory distractor sequences because the effect vanishes and even reverses when the experiment provides no opportunity to build up a specific neural model about the distractor sequence (Experiment 4. Nevertheless, the violation of abstract long-term knowledge about auditory regularities seems to cause a small and transient capture effect: Disruption decreased markedly over the course of the experiments indicating that participants habituated to the unexpected distractor repetitions across trials. The overall pattern of results adds to the growing literature that the degree to which auditory distractors violate situation-specific expectations is a more important determinant of auditory distraction than the degree to which a distractor sequence contains local auditory changes.

  4. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder Masquerading as Social Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Behere, Rishikesh V.; Rao, Mukund G.; Mishra, Shree; Varambally, Shivarama; Nagarajarao, Shivashankar; Bangalore N Gangadhar

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 47-year-old man who presented with treatment-resistant anxiety disorder. Behavioral observation raised clinical suspicion of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The presence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder was confirmed on audiological investigations. The patient was experiencing extreme symptoms of anxiety, which initially masked the underlying diagnosis of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. Challenges in diagnosis and treatment of auditory neur...

  5. ABR and auditory P300 findings inchildren with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Schochat Eliane; Scheuer Claudia Ines; Andrade Ênio Roberto de

    2002-01-01

    Auditory processing disorders (APD), also referred as central auditory processing disorders (CAPD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) have become popular diagnostic entities for school age children. It has been demonstrated a high incidence of comorbid ADHD with communication disorders and auditory processing disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate ABR and P300 auditory evoked potentials in children with ADHD, in a double-blind study. Twenty-one children, ages bet...

  6. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Hannah L.; Jennifer L. Agustus; Johanna C. Goll; Downey, Laura E; Mummery, Catherine J.; Jonathan M Schott; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Jason D Warren

    2015-01-01

    Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known ‘cocktail party effect’ as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name) are used to segregate auditory ‘foreground’ and ‘back...

  7. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians’ encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies, and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies. Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning or performing without sound (motor learning; following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall. During either Learning (Experiment 1 or Recall (Experiment 2, pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists’ pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2. Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1: Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2: Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the

  8. A virtual auditory environment for investigating the auditory signal processing of realistic sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    A loudspeaker-based virtual auditory environment (VAE) has been developed to provide a realistic versatile research environment for investigating the auditory signal processing in real environments, i.e., considering multiple sound sources and room reverberation. The VAE allows a full control of...... the acoustic scenario in order to systematically study the auditory processing of reverberant sounds. It is based on the ODEON software, which is state-of-the-art software for room acoustic simulations developed at Acoustic Technology, DTU. First, a MATLAB interface to the ODEON software has been...

  9. Transient auditory hallucinations in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokauskas, Norbert; Pillay, Devina; Moran, Tom; Kahn, David A

    2010-05-01

    In adolescents, hallucinations can be a transient illness or can be associated with non-psychotic psychopathology, psychosocial adversity, or a physical illness. We present the case of a 15-year-old secondary-school student who presented with a 1-month history of first onset auditory hallucinations, which had been increasing in frequency and severity, and mild paranoid ideation. Over a 10-week period, there was a gradual diminution, followed by a complete resolution, of symptoms. We discuss issues regarding the diagnosis and prognosis of auditory hallucinations in adolescents.

  10. Do dyslexics have auditory input processing difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether...... a group of dyslexics had word level receptive difficulties using an auditory lexical decision task with long words and nonsense words. The dyslexics were slower and less accurate than chronological age controls in an auditory lexical decision task, with disproportionate low performance on nonsense words...

  11. Subsymmetries predict auditory and visual pattern complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Godfried T; Beltran, Juan F

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical measure of pattern complexity based on subsymmetries possessed by the pattern, previously shown to correlate highly with empirically derived measures of cognitive complexity in the visual domain, is found to also correlate significantly with empirically derived complexity measures of perception and production of auditory temporal and musical rhythmic patterns. Not only does the subsymmetry measure correlate highly with the difficulty of reproducing the rhythms by tapping after listening to them, but also the empirical measures exhibit similar behavior, for both the visual and auditory patterns, as a function of the relative number of subsymmetries present in the patterns. PMID:24494441

  12. AN EVALUATION OF AUDITORY LEARNING IN FILIAL IMPRINTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOLHUIS, JJ; VANKAMPEN, HS

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of auditory learning in filial imprinting in precocial birds are reviewed. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the addition of an auditory stimulus improves following of a visual stimulus. This paper evaluates whether there is genuine auditory imprinting, i.e. the formation o

  13. Monkey׳s short-term auditory memory nearly abolished by combined removal of the rostral superior temporal gyrus and rhinal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jonathan B; Malloy, Megan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C

    2016-06-01

    While monkeys easily acquire the rules for performing visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample, a method for testing recognition memory, they have extraordinary difficulty acquiring a similar rule in audition. Another striking difference between the modalities is that whereas bilateral ablation of the rhinal cortex (RhC) leads to profound impairment in visual and tactile recognition, the same lesion has no detectable effect on auditory recognition memory (Fritz et al., 2005). In our previous study, a mild impairment in auditory memory was obtained following bilateral ablation of the entire medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the RhC, and an equally mild effect was observed after bilateral ablation of the auditory cortical areas in the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG). In order to test the hypothesis that each of these mild impairments was due to partial disconnection of acoustic input to a common target (e.g., the ventromedial prefrontal cortex), in the current study we examined the effects of a more complete auditory disconnection of this common target by combining the removals of both the rSTG and the MTL. We found that the combined lesion led to forgetting thresholds (performance at 75% accuracy) that fell precipitously from the normal retention duration of ~30 to 40s to a duration of ~1 to 2s, thus nearly abolishing auditory recognition memory, and leaving behind only a residual echoic memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26707975

  14. Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise A; Johansen, Jeanne D; Voelund, Aage;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer (grade 5 of 5 in the guinea-pig maximization test) that is used in various industrial and consumer applications. To prevent sensitization to cobalt and elicitation of allergic cobalt dermatitis, information about the elicitation threshold level of co...... individuals, and thereby the basis for future prevention of cobalt allergy.......BACKGROUND: Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer (grade 5 of 5 in the guinea-pig maximization test) that is used in various industrial and consumer applications. To prevent sensitization to cobalt and elicitation of allergic cobalt dermatitis, information about the elicitation threshold level...... of cobalt is important. OBJECTIVE: To identify the dermatitis elicitation threshold levels in cobalt-allergic individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Published patch test dose-response studies were reviewed to determine the elicitation dose (ED) levels in dermatitis patients with a previous positive patch test...

  15. Inclusive distributions near kinematic thresholds

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, E

    2006-01-01

    The main challenge in computing inclusive cross sections and decay spectra in QCD is posed by kinematic thresholds. The threshold region is characterized by stringent phase-space constraints that are reflected in large perturbative corrections due to soft and collinear radiation as well as large non-perturbative effects. Major progress in addressing this problem was made in recent years by Dressed Gluon Exponentiation (DGE), a formalism that combines Sudakov and renormalon resummation in moment space. DGE has proven effective in extending the range of applicability of perturbation theory well into the threshold region and in identifying the relevant non-perturbative corrections. Here we review the method from a general perspective using examples from deep inelastic structure functions, event-shape distributions, heavy-quark fragmentation and inclusive decay spectra. A special discussion is devoted to the applications of DGE to radiative and semileptonic B decays that have proven valuable for the interpretatio...

  16. Predicting percolation thresholds in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We consider different methods, that do not rely on numerical simulations of the percolation process, to approximate percolation thresholds in networks. We perform a systematic analysis on synthetic graphs and a collection of 109 real networks to quantify their effectiveness and reliability as prediction tools. Our study reveals that the inverse of the largest eigenvalue of the non-backtracking matrix of the graph often provides a tight lower bound for true percolation threshold. However, in more than 40% of the cases, this indicator is less predictive than the naive expectation value based solely on the moments of the degree distribution. We find that the performance of all indicators becomes worse as the value of the true percolation threshold grows. Thus, none of them represents a good proxy for robustness of extremely fragile networks.

  17. Baryon Form Factors at Threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Rome (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Pacetti, Simone [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    An extensive study of the e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}pp{sup Macron }BABAR cross section data is presented. Two unexpected outcomes have been found: the modulus of the proton form factor is normalized to one at threshold, i.e.: |G{sup p}(4M{sub p}{sup 2})|=1, as a pointlike fermion, and the resummation factor in the Sommerfeld formula is not needed. Other e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} baryon-antibaryon cross sections show a similar behavior near threshold.

  18. On computational Gestalt detection thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grompone von Gioi, Rafael; Jakubowicz, Jérémie

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show some recent developments of computational Gestalt theory, as pioneered by Desolneux, Moisan and Morel. The new results allow to predict much more accurately the detection thresholds. This step is unavoidable if one wants to analyze visual detection thresholds in the light of computational Gestalt theory. The paper first recalls the main elements of computational Gestalt theory. It points out a precision issue in this theory, essentially due to the use of discrete probability distributions. It then proposes to overcome this issue by using continuous probability distributions and illustrates it on the meaningful alignment detector of Desolneux et al.

  19. The Effect of Adaptation on the Tuning Curves of Rat Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parto Dezfouli, Mohsen; Daliri, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Repeated stimulus causes a specific suppression of neuronal responses, which is so-called as Stimulus-Specific Adaptation (SSA). This effect can be recovered when the stimulus changes. In the auditory system SSA is a well-known phenomenon that appears at different levels of the mammalian auditory pathway. In this study, we explored the effects of adaptation to a particular stimulus on the auditory tuning curves of anesthetized rats. We used two sequences and compared the responses of each tone combination in these two conditions. First sequence consists of different pure tone combinations that were presented randomly. In the second one, the same stimuli of the first sequence were presented in the context of an adapted stimulus (adapter) that occupied 80% of sequence probability. The population results demonstrated that the adaptation factor decreased the frequency response area and made a change in the tuning curve to shift it unevenly toward the higher thresholds of tones. The local field potentials and multi-unit activity responses have indicated that the neural activities strength of the adapted frequency has been suppressed as well as with lower suppression in neighboring frequencies. This aforementioned reduction changed the characteristic frequency of the tuning curve. PMID:25719404

  20. Large cross-sectional study of presbycusis reveals rapid progressive decline in auditory temporal acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmeral, Erol J; Eddins, Ann C; Frisina, D Robert; Eddins, David A

    2016-07-01

    The auditory system relies on extraordinarily precise timing cues for the accurate perception of speech, music, and object identification. Epidemiological research has documented the age-related progressive decline in hearing sensitivity that is known to be a major health concern for the elderly. Although smaller investigations indicate that auditory temporal processing also declines with age, such measures have not been included in larger studies. Temporal gap detection thresholds (TGDTs; an index of auditory temporal resolution) measured in 1071 listeners (aged 18-98 years) were shown to decline at a minimum rate of 1.05 ms (15%) per decade. Age was a significant predictor of TGDT when controlling for audibility (partial correlation) and when restricting analyses to persons with normal-hearing sensitivity (n = 434). The TGDTs were significantly better for males (3.5 ms; 51%) than females when averaged across the life span. These results highlight the need for indices of temporal processing in diagnostics, as treatment targets, and as factors in models of aging. PMID:27255816

  1. Sounds, behaviour, and auditory receptors of the armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kerstin; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The auditory sensory system of the taxon Hetrodinae has not been studied previously. Males of the African armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Hetrodinae) produce a calling song that lasts for minutes and consists of verses with two pulses. About three impulses are in the first pulse and about five impulses are in the second pulse. In contrast, the disturbance stridulation consists of verses with about 14 impulses that are not separated in pulses. Furthermore, the inter-impulse intervals of both types of sounds are different, whereas verses have similar durations. This indicates that the neuronal networks for sound generation are not identical. The frequency spectrum peaks at about 15 kHz in both types of sounds, whereas the hearing threshold has the greatest sensitivity between 4 and 10 kHz. The auditory afferents project into the prothoracic ganglion. The foreleg contains about 27 sensory neurons in the crista acustica; the midleg has 18 sensory neurons, and the hindleg has 14. The auditory system is similar to those of other Tettigoniidae. PMID:20569136

  2. Large cross-sectional study of presbycusis reveals rapid progressive decline in auditory temporal acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmeral, Erol J; Eddins, Ann C; Frisina, D Robert; Eddins, David A

    2016-07-01

    The auditory system relies on extraordinarily precise timing cues for the accurate perception of speech, music, and object identification. Epidemiological research has documented the age-related progressive decline in hearing sensitivity that is known to be a major health concern for the elderly. Although smaller investigations indicate that auditory temporal processing also declines with age, such measures have not been included in larger studies. Temporal gap detection thresholds (TGDTs; an index of auditory temporal resolution) measured in 1071 listeners (aged 18-98 years) were shown to decline at a minimum rate of 1.05 ms (15%) per decade. Age was a significant predictor of TGDT when controlling for audibility (partial correlation) and when restricting analyses to persons with normal-hearing sensitivity (n = 434). The TGDTs were significantly better for males (3.5 ms; 51%) than females when averaged across the life span. These results highlight the need for indices of temporal processing in diagnostics, as treatment targets, and as factors in models of aging.

  3. Sounds, behaviour, and auditory receptors of the armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kerstin; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The auditory sensory system of the taxon Hetrodinae has not been studied previously. Males of the African armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Hetrodinae) produce a calling song that lasts for minutes and consists of verses with two pulses. About three impulses are in the first pulse and about five impulses are in the second pulse. In contrast, the disturbance stridulation consists of verses with about 14 impulses that are not separated in pulses. Furthermore, the inter-impulse intervals of both types of sounds are different, whereas verses have similar durations. This indicates that the neuronal networks for sound generation are not identical. The frequency spectrum peaks at about 15 kHz in both types of sounds, whereas the hearing threshold has the greatest sensitivity between 4 and 10 kHz. The auditory afferents project into the prothoracic ganglion. The foreleg contains about 27 sensory neurons in the crista acustica; the midleg has 18 sensory neurons, and the hindleg has 14. The auditory system is similar to those of other Tettigoniidae.

  4. Correlation between Hearing Threshold Tinnitus Pitch and Loundness with Quality Of Life of Tinnitus Patients in Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    Savitri, Eka

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tinnitus is an unwanted auditory perception, with many causes, subjectively and affects the quality of life. It is important to evaluating the quality of life of tinnitus patients and related factors in treatment of tinnitus. The measurements of tinnitus psychoacoustic include pitch, loudness, minimum masking levels and residual inhibition. Aim: To analyze the correlation between hearing threshold, tinnitus pitch and loudness with quality of life of tinnitus patients in Makassar...

  5. The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant…

  6. Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Murray

    1971-01-01

    A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…

  7. Development of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raja Kumar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Auditory Prosthesis (AP is an electronic device that can provide hearing sensations to people who are profoundly deaf by stimulating the auditory nerve via an array of electrodes with an electric current allowing them to understand the speech. The AP system consists of two hardware functional units such as Body Worn Speech Processor (BWSP and Receiver Stimulator. The prototype model of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis (RSAP consists of Speech Data Decoder, DAC, ADC, constant current generator, electrode selection logic, switch matrix and simulated electrode resistance array. The laboratory model of speech processor is designed to implement the Continuous Interleaved Sampling (CIS speech processing algorithm which generates the information required for electrode stimulation based on the speech / audio data. Speech Data Decoder receives the encoded speech data via an inductive RF transcutaneous link from speech processor. Twelve channels of auditory Prosthesis with selectable eight electrodes for stimulation of simulated electrode resistance array are used for testing. The RSAP is validated by using the test data generated by the laboratory prototype of speech processor. The experimental results are obtained from specific speech/sound tests using a high-speed data acquisition system and found satisfactory.

  8. Auditory Training with Frequent Communication Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent; Sommers, Mitchell; Barcroft, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with hearing loss engage in auditory training to improve their speech recognition. They typically practice listening to utterances spoken by unfamiliar talkers but never to utterances spoken by their most frequent communication partner (FCP)--speech they most likely desire to recognize--under the assumption that familiarity…

  9. Auditory Perception of Statistically Blurred Sound Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    Sound textures have been identified as a category of sounds which are processed by the peripheral auditory system and captured with running timeaveraged statistics. Although sound textures are temporally homogeneous, they offer a listener with enough information to identify and differentiate sour...

  10. Auditory confrontation naming in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jason; Bakker, Arnold; Maroof, David Aaron

    2010-11-01

    Naming is a fundamental aspect of language and is virtually always assessed with visual confrontation tests. Tests of the ability to name objects by their characteristic sounds would be particularly useful in the assessment of visually impaired patients, and may be particularly sensitive in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We developed an auditory naming task, requiring the identification of the source of environmental sounds (i.e., animal calls, musical instruments, vehicles) and multiple-choice recognition of those not identified. In two separate studies mild-to-moderate AD patients performed more poorly than cognitively normal elderly on the auditory naming task. This task was also more difficult than two versions of a comparable visual naming task, and correlated more highly with Mini-Mental State Exam score. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable, although ROC analysis revealed auditory naming to be slightly less successful than visual confrontation naming in discriminating AD patients from normal participants. Nonetheless, our auditory naming task may prove useful in research and clinical practice, especially with visually impaired patients. PMID:20981630

  11. Lateralization of auditory-cortex functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    In the present review, we summarize the most recent findings and current views about the structural and functional basis of human brain lateralization in the auditory modality. Main emphasis is given to hemodynamic and electromagnetic data of healthy adult participants with regard to music- vs. speech-sound encoding. Moreover, a selective set of behavioral dichotic-listening (DL) results and clinical findings (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia) are included. It is shown that human brain has a strong predisposition to process speech sounds in the left and music sounds in the right auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. Up to great extent, an auditory area located at the posterior end of the temporal lobe (called planum temporale [PT]) underlies this functional asymmetry. However, the predisposition is not bound to informational sound content but to rapid temporal information more common in speech than in music sounds. Finally, we obtain evidence for the vulnerability of the functional specialization of sound processing. These altered forms of lateralization may be caused by top-down and bottom-up effects inter- and intraindividually In other words, relatively small changes in acoustic sound features or in their familiarity may modify the degree in which the left vs. right auditory areas contribute to sound encoding. PMID:14629926

  12. Self-affirmation in auditory persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah; Dijkstra, Arie

    2011-01-01

    Persuasive health information can be presented through an auditory channel. Curiously enough, the effect of voice cues in health persuasion has hardly been studied. Research concerning visual persuasive messages showed that self-affirmation results in a more open-minded reaction to threatening infor

  13. Affective priming with auditory speech stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Degner

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In

  14. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse S.

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..

  15. Auditory risk estimates for youth target shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Deanna K.; Murphy, William J.; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Stewart, Michael; Soendergaard, Jacob; Jerome, Trevor W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for youth recreational firearm users engaged in outdoor target shooting events. The youth shooting positions are typically standing or sitting at a table, which places the firearm closer to the ground or reflective surface when compared to adult shooters. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 26 firearm/ammunition configurations representing rifles, shotguns, and pistols used by youth. Measurements were obtained relative to a youth shooter’s left ear. Results All firearms generated peak levels that exceeded the 120 dB peak limit suggested by the WHO for children. In general, shooting from the seated position over a tabletop increases the peak levels, LAeq8 and reduces the unprotected maximum permissible exposures (MPEs) for both rifles and pistols. Pistols pose the greatest auditory risk when fired over a tabletop. Conclusion Youth should utilize smaller caliber weapons, preferably from the standing position, and always wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities to reduce the risk for auditory damage. PMID:24564688

  16. Interhemispheric Auditory Connectivity: Structure and Function Related to Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia eSteinmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH are one of the most common and most distressing symptoms of schizophrenia. Despite fundamental research, the underlying neurocognitive and neurobiological mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Previous studies suggested that hearing voices is associated with a number of factors including local deficits in the left auditory cortex and a disturbed connectivity of frontal and temporoparietal language-related areas. In addition, it is hypothesized that the interhemispheric pathways connecting right and left auditory cortices might be involved in the pathogenesis of AVH. Findings based on Diffusion-Tensor-Imaging (DTI measurements revealed a remarkable interindividual variability in size and shape of the interhemispheric auditory pathways. Interestingly, schizophrenia patients suffering from AVH exhibited increased fractional anisotropy (FA in the interhemispheric fibers than non-hallucinating patients. Thus, higher FA-values indicate an increased severity of AVH. Moreover, a dichotic listening (DL task showed that the interindividual variability in the interhemispheric auditory pathways was reflected in the behavioral outcome: Stronger pathways supported a better information transfer and consequently improved speech perception. This detection indicates a specific structure-function relationship, which seems to be interindividually variable. This review focuses on recent findings concerning the structure-function relationship of the interhemispheric pathways in controls, hallucinating and non-hallucinating schizophrenia patients and concludes that changes in the structural and functional connectivity of auditory areas are involved in the pathophysiology of AVH.

  17. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Experience-dependent characteristics of auditory function, especially with regard to speech-evoked auditory neurophysiology, have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This interest stems from both pragmatic and theoretical concerns as it bears implications for the prevention and remediation of language-based learning impairment in addition to providing insight into mechanisms engendering experience-dependent changes in human sensory function. Musicians provide an attractive model for studying the experience-dependency of auditory processing in humans due to their distinctive neural enhancements compared to nonmusicians. We have only recently begun to address whether these enhancements are observable early in life, during the initial years of music training when the auditory system is under rapid development, as well as later in life, after the onset of the aging process. Here we review neural enhancements in musically trained individuals across the life span in the context of cellular mechanisms that underlie learning, identified in animal models. Musicians' subcortical physiologic enhancements are interpreted according to a cognitive framework for auditory learning, providing a model in which to study mechanisms of experience-dependent changes in human auditory function. PMID:23988583

  18. 40 Hz auditory steady state response to linguistic features of stimuli during auditory hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jun; Yan, Zheng; Gao, Xiao-rong

    2013-10-01

    The auditory steady state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain, depending on the modulation frequency used. In general, responses induced by low rates (≤40 Hz) emanate mostly from central structures of the brain, and responses from high rates (≥80 Hz) emanate mostly from the peripheral auditory nerve or brainstem structures. Besides, it was reported that the gamma band ASSR (30-90 Hz) played an important role in working memory, speech understanding and recognition. This paper investigated the 40 Hz ASSR evoked by modulated speech and reversed speech. The speech was Chinese phrase voice, and the noise-like reversed speech was obtained by temporally reversing the speech. Both auditory stimuli were modulated with a frequency of 40 Hz. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with hallucination symptom participated in the experiment. Results showed reduction in left auditory cortex response when healthy subjects listened to the reversed speech compared with the speech. In contrast, when the patients who experienced auditory hallucinations listened to the reversed speech, the auditory cortex of left hemispheric responded more actively. The ASSR results were consistent with the behavior results of patients. Therefore, the gamma band ASSR is expected to be helpful for rapid and objective diagnosis of hallucination in clinic. PMID:24142731

  19. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Experience-dependent characteristics of auditory function, especially with regard to speech-evoked auditory neurophysiology, have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This interest stems from both pragmatic and theoretical concerns as it bears implications for the prevention and remediation of language-based learning impairment in addition to providing insight into mechanisms engendering experience-dependent changes in human sensory function. Musicians provide an attractive model for studying the experience-dependency of auditory processing in humans due to their distinctive neural enhancements compared to nonmusicians. We have only recently begun to address whether these enhancements are observable early in life, during the initial years of music training when the auditory system is under rapid development, as well as later in life, after the onset of the aging process. Here we review neural enhancements in musically trained individuals across the life span in the context of cellular mechanisms that underlie learning, identified in animal models. Musicians' subcortical physiologic enhancements are interpreted according to a cognitive framework for auditory learning, providing a model in which to study mechanisms of experience-dependent changes in human auditory function.

  20. Quark States Near a Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Bashinsky, S V

    1996-01-01

    We reduce the problem of many-channel hadron scattering at nonrelativistic energies to calculations on the scale of a few fermis. Having thus disentangled kinematics from interior quark dynamics, we study their interplay when a quark state occurs near a hadronic threshold. Characteristic parameters, such as the observed peak width, the decay width, and the shape of a cross-section itself are highly affected by the threshold. A general pole-form expression for the S-matrix in an arbitrary background is given, and the pole structure of S is examined. We show that at a hadronic threshold two poles in S are generally important. We also classify the S-matrix pole structure considering an example where nonsingular coupled channels are closed at the threshold. The framework of our paper is the P-matrix formalism, which is reviewed and extended for use together with conventional methods of computing quark-gluon dynamics. Results and applications are illustrated for the doubly strange two-baryon system, the detailed a...

  1. Associated strangeness production at threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Kowina, P; Adam, H H; Budzanowski, A; Czyzykiewicz, R; Grzonka, D; Janusz, M; Jarczyk, L; Kamys, B; Khoukaz, A; Kilian, K; Lister, T A; Moskal, P; Oelert, Walter; Rozek, T; Santo, R; Schepers, G; Sefzick, T; Siemaszko, M; Smyrski, J; Steltenkamp, S; Strzalkowski, A; Winter, P; Wüstner, P; Zipper, W

    2003-01-01

    The associated strangeness dissociation at threshold has been studied at the COSY-11 facility measuring the hyperon - and the K+K- meson pair production. Measurements of the near threshold Lambda and Sigma0 production via the pp -> pK+ Lambda / Sigma0 reaction at COSY-11 have shown that the Lambda / Sigma0 cross section ratio exceeds the value at high excess energies (Q >= 300 MeV) by an order of magnitude. For a better understanding additional data have been taken between 13 MeV and 60 MeV excess energy. The near threshold production of the charged kaon-antikaon pair is related to the discussion about the nature of the scalar states in the 1 GeV/c^2 mass range, i.e. the f0(980) and a0(980). The interpretation as a K anti-K molecule is strongly dependent on the K anti-K interaction which can be studied via the production channel. A first total cross section value on the reaction pp -> ppK+K- at an excess energy of 17 MeV i.e. below the phi production threshold was measured.

  2. Threshold Concepts and Pedagogic Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jan H. F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a brief exposure to the development of the threshold concepts framework (TCF), the intention being to illuminate for interested readers a broader landscape of research activity than that perhaps conveyed by the individual contributions to this special edition. Design/Methodology/Approach: There is…

  3. The Nature of Psychological Thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Following G. T. Fechner (1966), thresholds have been conceptualized as the amount of intensity needed to transition between mental states, such as between a states of unconsciousness and consciousness. With the advent of the theory of signal detection, however, discrete-state theory and the correspo

  4. A Secure Threshold Group Signature Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaoming; Fu Fangwei

    2003-01-01

    The threshold group signature is an important kind of signature. So far, many threshold group signature schemes have been proposed, but most of them suffer from conspiracy attack and are insecure. In this paper, a secure threshold group signature scheme is proposed. It can not only satisfy the properties of the threshold group signature, but also withstand the conspiracy attack

  5. McGurk illusion recalibrates subsequent auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttke, Claudia S; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A J; de Lange, Floris P

    2016-01-01

    Visual information can alter auditory perception. This is clearly illustrated by the well-known McGurk illusion, where an auditory/aba/ and a visual /aga/ are merged to the percept of 'ada'. It is less clear however whether such a change in perception may recalibrate subsequent perception. Here we asked whether the altered auditory perception due to the McGurk illusion affects subsequent auditory perception, i.e. whether this process of fusion may cause a recalibration of the auditory boundaries between phonemes. Participants categorized auditory and audiovisual speech stimuli as /aba/, /ada/ or /aga/ while activity patterns in their auditory cortices were recorded using fMRI. Interestingly, following a McGurk illusion, an auditory /aba/ was more often misperceived as 'ada'. Furthermore, we observed a neural counterpart of this recalibration in the early auditory cortex. When the auditory input /aba/ was perceived as 'ada', activity patterns bore stronger resemblance to activity patterns elicited by /ada/ sounds than when they were correctly perceived as /aba/. Our results suggest that upon experiencing the McGurk illusion, the brain shifts the neural representation of an /aba/ sound towards /ada/, culminating in a recalibration in perception of subsequent auditory input. PMID:27611960

  6. McGurk illusion recalibrates subsequent auditory perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttke, Claudia S.; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A. J.; de Lange, Floris P.

    2016-01-01

    Visual information can alter auditory perception. This is clearly illustrated by the well-known McGurk illusion, where an auditory/aba/ and a visual /aga/ are merged to the percept of ‘ada’. It is less clear however whether such a change in perception may recalibrate subsequent perception. Here we asked whether the altered auditory perception due to the McGurk illusion affects subsequent auditory perception, i.e. whether this process of fusion may cause a recalibration of the auditory boundaries between phonemes. Participants categorized auditory and audiovisual speech stimuli as /aba/, /ada/ or /aga/ while activity patterns in their auditory cortices were recorded using fMRI. Interestingly, following a McGurk illusion, an auditory /aba/ was more often misperceived as ‘ada’. Furthermore, we observed a neural counterpart of this recalibration in the early auditory cortex. When the auditory input /aba/ was perceived as ‘ada’, activity patterns bore stronger resemblance to activity patterns elicited by /ada/ sounds than when they were correctly perceived as /aba/. Our results suggest that upon experiencing the McGurk illusion, the brain shifts the neural representation of an /aba/ sound towards /ada/, culminating in a recalibration in perception of subsequent auditory input. PMID:27611960

  7. Representation of Reward Feedback in Primate Auditory Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eBrosch

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that auditory cortex is plastic on different time scales and that this plasticity is driven by the reinforcement that is used to motivate subjects to learn or to perform an auditory task. Motivated by these findings, we study in detail properties of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that is related to reward feedback. We recorded from the auditory cortex of two monkeys while they were performing an auditory categorization task. Monkeys listened to a sequence of tones and had to signal when the frequency of adjacent tones stepped in downward direction, irrespective of the tone frequency and step size. Correct identifications were rewarded with either a large or a small amount of water. The size of reward depended on the monkeys' performance in the previous trial: it was large after a correct trial and small after an incorrect trial. The rewards served to maintain task performance. During task performance we found three successive periods of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that reflected (1 the reward expectancy for each trial, (2 the reward size received and (3 the mismatch between the expected and delivered reward. These results, together with control experiments suggest that auditory cortex receives reward feedback that could be used to adapt auditory cortex to task requirements. Additionally, the results presented here extend previous observations of non-auditory roles of auditory cortex and shows that auditory cortex is even more cognitively influenced than lately recognized.

  8. Representation of reward feedback in primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Scheich, Henning

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that auditory cortex is plastic on different time scales and that this plasticity is driven by the reinforcement that is used to motivate subjects to learn or to perform an auditory task. Motivated by these findings, we study in detail properties of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that is related to reward feedback. We recorded from the auditory cortex of two monkeys while they were performing an auditory categorization task. Monkeys listened to a sequence of tones and had to signal when the frequency of adjacent tones stepped in downward direction, irrespective of the tone frequency and step size. Correct identifications were rewarded with either a large or a small amount of water. The size of reward depended on the monkeys' performance in the previous trial: it was large after a correct trial and small after an incorrect trial. The rewards served to maintain task performance. During task performance we found three successive periods of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that reflected (1) the reward expectancy for each trial, (2) the reward-size received, and (3) the mismatch between the expected and delivered reward. These results, together with control experiments suggest that auditory cortex receives reward feedback that could be used to adapt auditory cortex to task requirements. Additionally, the results presented here extend previous observations of non-auditory roles of auditory cortex and shows that auditory cortex is even more cognitively influenced than lately recognized.

  9. Characterization of auditory synaptic inputs to gerbil perirhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhakar C Kotak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The representation of acoustic cues involves regions downstream from the auditory cortex (ACx. One such area, the perirhinal cortex (PRh, processes sensory signals containing mnemonic information. Therefore, our goal was to assess whether PRh receives auditory inputs from the auditory thalamus (MG and ACx in an auditory thalamocortical brain slice preparation and characterize these afferent-driven synaptic properties. When the MG or ACx was electrically stimulated, synaptic responses were recorded from the PRh neurons. Blockade of GABA-A receptors dramatically increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory potentials. Stimulation of the MG or ACx also evoked calcium transients in most PRh neurons. Separately, when fluoro ruby was injected in ACx in vivo, anterogradely labeled axons and terminals were observed in the PRh. Collectively, these data show that the PRh integrates auditory information from the MG and ACx and that auditory driven inhibition dominates the postsynaptic responses in a non-sensory cortical region downstream from the auditory cortex.

  10. Prolonged maturation of auditory perception and learning in gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarro, Emma C; Sanes, Dan H

    2010-08-01

    In humans, auditory perception reaches maturity over a broad age range, extending through adolescence. Despite this slow maturation, children are considered to be outstanding learners, suggesting that immature perceptual skills might actually be advantageous to improvement on an acoustic task as a result of training (perceptual learning). Previous non-human studies have not employed an identical task when comparing perceptual performance of young and mature subjects, making it difficult to assess learning. Here, we used an identical procedure on juvenile and adult gerbils to examine the perception of amplitude modulation (AM), a stimulus feature that is an important component of most natural sounds. On average, Adult animals could detect smaller fluctuations in amplitude (i.e., smaller modulation depths) than Juveniles, indicating immature perceptual skills in Juveniles. However, the population variance was much greater for Juveniles, a few animals displaying adult-like AM detection. To determine whether immature perceptual skills facilitated learning, we compared naïve performance on the AM detection task with the amount of improvement following additional training. The amount of improvement in Adults correlated with naïve performance: those with the poorest naïve performance improved the most. In contrast, the naïve performance of Juveniles did not predict the amount of learning. Those Juveniles with immature AM detection thresholds did not display greater learning than Adults. Furthermore, for several of the Juveniles with adult-like thresholds, AM detection deteriorated with repeated testing. Thus, immature perceptual skills in young animals were not associated with greater learning. PMID:20506133

  11. Measuring Auditory Selective Attention using Frequency Tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari M Bharadwaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Frequency tagging of sensory inputs (presenting stimuli that fluctuate periodically at rates to which the cortex can phase lock has been used to study attentional modulation of neural responses to inputs in different sensory modalities. For visual inputs, the visual steady-state response (VSSR at the frequency modulating an attended object is enhanced, while the VSSR to a distracting object is suppressed. In contrast, the effect of attention on the auditory steady-state response (ASSR is inconsistent across studies. However, most auditory studies analyzed results at the sensor level or used only a small number of equivalent current dipoles to fit cortical responses. In addition, most studies of auditory spatial attention used dichotic stimuli (independent signals at the ears rather than more natural, binaural stimuli. Here, we asked whether these methodological choices help explain discrepant results. Listeners attended to one of two competing speech streams, one simulated from the left and one from the right, that were modulated at different frequencies. Using distributed source modeling of magnetoencephalography results, we estimate how spatially directed attention modulates the ASSR in neural regions across the whole brain. Attention enhances the ASSR power at the frequency of the attended stream in the contralateral auditory cortex. The attended-stream modulation frequency also drives phase-locked responses in the left (but not right precentral sulcus (lPCS, a region implicated in control of eye gaze and visual spatial attention. Importantly, this region shows no phase locking to the distracting stream suggesting that the lPCS in engaged in an attention-specific manner. Modeling results that take account of the geometry and phases of the cortical sources phase locked to the two streams (including hemispheric asymmetry of lPCS activity help partly explain why past ASSR studies of auditory spatial attention yield seemingly contradictory

  12. Auditory risk assessment of college music students in jazz band-based instructional activity

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    Kamakshi V Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that musicians are at risk for music-induced hearing loss, however, systematic evaluation of music exposure and its effects on the auditory system are still difficult to assess. The purpose of the study was to determine if college students in jazz band-based instructional activity are exposed to loud classroom noise and consequently exhibit acute but significant changes in basic auditory measures compared to non-music students in regular classroom sessions. For this we (1 measured and compared personal exposure levels of college students (n = 14 participating in a routine 50 min jazz ensemble-based instructional activity (experimental to personal exposure levels of non-music students (n = 11 participating in a 50-min regular classroom activity (control, and (2 measured and compared pre- to post-auditory changes associated with these two types of classroom exposures. Results showed that the L eq (equivalent continuous noise level generated during the 50 min jazz ensemble-based instructional activity ranged from 95 dBA to 105.8 dBA with a mean of 99.5 ± 2.5 dBA. In the regular classroom, the L eq ranged from 46.4 dBA to 67.4 dBA with a mean of 49.9 ± 10.6 dBA. Additionally, significant differences were observed in pre to post-auditory measures between the two groups. The experimental group showed a significant temporary threshold shift bilaterally at 4000 Hz (P < 0.05, and a significant decrease in the amplitude of transient-evoked otoacoustic emission response in both ears (P < 0.05 after exposure to the jazz ensemble-based instructional activity. No significant changes were found in the control group between pre- and post-exposure measures. This study quantified the noise exposure in jazz band-based practice sessions and its effects on basic auditory measures. Temporary, yet significant, auditory changes seen in music students place them at risk for hearing loss compared to their non-music cohorts.

  13. Auditory Effects of Exposure to Noise and Solvents: A Comparative Study

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    Lobato, Diolen Conceição Barros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Industry workers are exposed to different environmental risk agents that, when combined, may potentiate risks to hearing. Objective To evaluate the effects of the combined exposure to noise and solvents on hearing in workers. Methods A transversal retrospective cohort study was performed through documentary analysis of an industry. The sample (n = 198 was divided into four groups: the noise group (NG, exposed only to noise; the noise and solvents group (NSG, exposed to noise and solvents; the noise control group and noise and solvents control group (CNS, no exposure. Results The NG showed 16.66% of cases suggestive of bilateral noise-induced hearing loss and NSG showed 5.26%. The NG and NSG had worse thresholds than their respective control groups. Females were less susceptible to noise than males; however, when simultaneously exposed to solvents, hearing was affected in a similar way, resulting in significant differences (p < 0.05. The 40- to 49-year-old age group was significantly worse (p < 0.05 in the auditory thresholds in the NSG compared with the CNS. Conclusion The results observed in this study indicate that simultaneous exposure to noise and solvents can damage the peripheral auditory system.

  14. Effects of Electrode Position on Spatiotemporal Auditory Nerve Fiber Responses: A 3D Computational Model Study

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    Soojin Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cochlear implant (CI is an auditory prosthesis that enables hearing by providing electrical stimuli through an electrode array. It has been previously established that the electrode position can influence CI performance. Thus, electrode position should be considered in order to achieve better CI results. This paper describes how the electrode position influences the auditory nerve fiber (ANF response to either a single pulse or low- (250 pulses/s and high-rate (5,000 pulses/s pulse-trains using a computational model. The field potential in the cochlea was calculated using a three-dimensional finite-element model, and the ANF response was simulated using a biophysical ANF model. The effects were evaluated in terms of the dynamic range, stochasticity, and spike excitation pattern. The relative spread, threshold, jitter, and initiated node were analyzed for single-pulse response; and the dynamic range, threshold, initiated node, and interspike interval were analyzed for pulse-train stimuli responses. Electrode position was found to significantly affect the spatiotemporal pattern of the ANF response, and this effect was significantly dependent on the stimulus rate. We believe that these modeling results can provide guidance regarding perimodiolar and lateral insertion of CIs in clinical settings and help understand CI performance.

  15. Auditory steady state response in hearing assessment in infants with cytomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Polo C. Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report an infant with congenital cytomegalovirus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss, who was assessed by three methods of hearing evaluation. CASE DESCRIPTION: In the first audiometry, at four months of age, the infant showed abnormal response in Otoacoustic Emissions and normal Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR, with electrophysiological threshold in 30dBnHL, in both ears. With six months of age, he showed bilateral absence of the ABR at 100dBnHL. The behavioral observational audiometry was impaired due to the delay in neuropsychomotor development. At eight months of age, he was submitted to Auditory Steady State Response (ASSR and the thresholds were 50, 70, absent in 110 and in 100dB, respectively for 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000Hz in the right ear, and 70, 90, 90 and absent in 100dB, respectively for 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000Hz in the left ear. COMMENTS: In the first evaluation, the infant had abnormal Otoacoustic Emission and normal ABR, which became altered at six months of age. The hearing loss severity could be identified only by the ASSR, which allowed the best procedure for hearing aids adaptation. The case description highlights the importance of the hearing status follow-up for children with congenital cytomegalovirus.

  16. Processing of sounds by population spikes in a model of primary auditory cortex

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    Alex Loebel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a model of the primary auditory cortex (A1, in which each iso-frequency column is represented by a recurrent neural network with short-term synaptic depression. Such networks can emit Population Spikes, in which most of the neurons fire synchronously for a short time period. Different columns are interconnected in a way that reflects the tonotopic map in A1, and population spikes can propagate along the map from one column to the next, in a temporally precise manner that depends on the specific input presented to the network. The network, therefore, processes incoming sounds by precise sequences of population spikes that are embedded in a continuous asynchronous activity, with both of these response components carrying information about the inputs and interacting with each other. With these basic characteristics, the model can account for a wide range of experimental findings. We reproduce neuronal frequency tuning curves, whose width depends on the strength of the intracortical inhibitory and excitatory connections. Non-simultaneous two-tone stimuli show forward masking depending on their temporal separation, as well as on the duration of the first stimulus. The model also exhibits non-linear suppressive interactions between sub-threshold tones and broad-band noise inputs, similar to the hypersensitive locking suppression recently demonstrated in auditory cortex.We derive several predictions from the model. In particular, we predict that spontaneous activity in primary auditory cortex gates the temporally locked responses of A1 neurons to auditory stimuli. Spontaneous activity could, therefore, be a mechanism for rapid and reversible modulation of cortical processing.

  17. Bilateral Collicular Interaction: Modulation of Auditory Signal Processing in Amplitude Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zi-Ying; Wang, Xin; Jen, Philip H.-S.; Chen, Qi-Cai

    2012-01-01

    In the ascending auditory pathway, the inferior colliculus (IC) receives and integrates excitatory and inhibitory inputs from many lower auditory nuclei, intrinsic projections within the IC, contralateral IC through the commissure of the IC and from the auditory cortex. All these connections make the IC a major center for subcortical temporal and spectral integration of auditory information. In this study, we examine bilateral collicular interaction in modulating amplitude-domain signal processing using electrophysiological recording, acoustic and focal electrical stimulation. Focal electrical stimulation of one (ipsilateral) IC produces widespread inhibition (61.6%) and focused facilitation (9.1%) of responses of neurons in the other (contralateral) IC, while 29.3% of the neurons were not affected. Bilateral collicular interaction produces a decrease in the response magnitude and an increase in the response latency of inhibited IC neurons but produces opposite effects on the response of facilitated IC neurons. These two groups of neurons are not separately located and are tonotopically organized within the IC. The modulation effect is most effective at low sound level and is dependent upon the interval between the acoustic and electric stimuli. The focal electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral IC compresses or expands the rate-level functions of contralateral IC neurons. The focal electrical stimulation also produces a shift in the minimum threshold and dynamic range of contralateral IC neurons for as long as 150 minutes. The degree of bilateral collicular interaction is dependent upon the difference in the best frequency between the electrically stimulated IC neurons and modulated IC neurons. These data suggest that bilateral collicular interaction mainly changes the ratio between excitation and inhibition during signal processing so as to sharpen the amplitude sensitivity of IC neurons. Bilateral interaction may be also involved in acoustic

  18. Ubiquitous crossmodal Stochastic Resonance in humans: auditory noise facilitates tactile, visual and proprioceptive sensations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lugo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stochastic resonance is a nonlinear phenomenon whereby the addition of noise can improve the detection of weak stimuli. An optimal amount of added noise results in the maximum enhancement, whereas further increases in noise intensity only degrade detection or information content. The phenomenon does not occur in linear systems, where the addition of noise to either the system or the stimulus only degrades the signal quality. Stochastic Resonance (SR has been extensively studied in different physical systems. It has been extended to human sensory systems where it can be classified as unimodal, central, behavioral and recently crossmodal. However what has not been explored is the extension of this crossmodal SR in humans. For instance, if under the same auditory noise conditions the crossmodal SR persists among different sensory systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using physiological and psychophysical techniques we demonstrate that the same auditory noise can enhance the sensitivity of tactile, visual and propioceptive system responses to weak signals. Specifically, we show that the effective auditory noise significantly increased tactile sensations of the finger, decreased luminance and contrast visual thresholds and significantly changed EMG recordings of the leg muscles during posture maintenance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that crossmodal SR is a ubiquitous phenomenon in humans that can be interpreted within an energy and frequency model of multisensory neurons spontaneous activity. Initially the energy and frequency content of the multisensory neurons' activity (supplied by the weak signals is not enough to be detected but when the auditory noise enters the brain, it generates a general activation among multisensory neurons of different regions, modifying their original activity. The result is an integrated activation that promotes sensitivity transitions and the signals are then perceived. A physiologically

  19. Fast negative feedback enables mammalian auditory nerve fibers to encode a wide dynamic range of sound intensities.

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    Mark Ospeck

    Full Text Available Mammalian auditory nerve fibers (ANF are remarkable for being able to encode a 40 dB, or hundred fold, range of sound pressure levels into their firing rate. Most of the fibers are very sensitive and raise their quiescent spike rate by a small amount for a faint sound at auditory threshold. Then as the sound intensity is increased, they slowly increase their spike rate, with some fibers going up as high as ∼300 Hz. In this way mammals are able to combine sensitivity and wide dynamic range. They are also able to discern sounds embedded within background noise. ANF receive efferent feedback, which suggests that the fibers are readjusted according to the background noise in order to maximize the information content of their auditory spike trains. Inner hair cells activate currents in the unmyelinated distal dendrites of ANF where sound intensity is rate-coded into action potentials. We model this spike generator compartment as an attenuator that employs fast negative feedback. Input current induces rapid and proportional leak currents. This way ANF are able to have a linear frequency to input current (f-I curve that has a wide dynamic range. The ANF spike generator remains very sensitive to threshold currents, but efferent feedback is able to lower its gain in response to noise.

  20. Comparative observation of protective effects of earplug and barrel on auditory organs of guinea pigs exposed to experimental blast underpressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao-jun; ZHU Pei-fang; LIU Zhao-hua; WANG Zheng-guo; YANG Cheng; CHEN Hai-bin; NING Xin; ZHOU Ji-hong; Chen Jian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the protective effects of earplug and barrel on auditory organs of guinea pigs exposed to experimental blast underpressure (BUP).Methods: The hearing thresholds of the guinea pigs were assessed with auditory brainstem responses (ABR).The traumatic levels of tympanic membrane and ossicular chain were observed under stereo-microscope. The rate of outer hair cells (OHCs) loss was analyzed using a light microscope. The changes of guinea pigs protected with barrel and earplug were compared with those of the control group without any protection.Results: An important ABR threshold shift of the guinea pigs without any protection was detected from 8h to 14d after being exposed to BUP with a peak ranging from -64.5kPa to -69.3kPa (P<0.01). The rate of perforation of tympanic membrane reached 87.5 % and that of total OHCs loss was 19.46% + 5.38% at 14d after exposure. The guinea pigs protected with barrel and earplug had lower ABR threshold and total OHCs loss rate compared with the animals without any protection (P < 0.01 ). All of the tympanic membrane and ossicular chain of the protected animals maintained their integrities.Meanwhile, the guinea pigs protected with the barrel had lower ABR threshold and total OHCs loss rate than those with earplug (P<0.01).Conclusions: The earplug and barrel have protective effects against BUP-induced trauma on auditory organs of the guinea pigs and the protective effects of barrel are better than those of earplug.

  1. Attention Modulates the Auditory Cortical Processing of Spatial and Category Cues in Naturalistic Auditory Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renvall, Hanna; Staeren, Noël; Barz, Claudia S.; Ley, Anke; Formisano, Elia

    2016-01-01

    This combined fMRI and MEG study investigated brain activations during listening and attending to natural auditory scenes. We first recorded, using in-ear microphones, vocal non-speech sounds, and environmental sounds that were mixed to construct auditory scenes containing two concurrent sound streams. During the brain measurements, subjects attended to one of the streams while spatial acoustic information of the scene was either preserved (stereophonic sounds) or removed (monophonic sounds). Compared to monophonic sounds, stereophonic sounds evoked larger blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI responses in the bilateral posterior superior temporal areas, independent of which stimulus attribute the subject was attending to. This finding is consistent with the functional role of these regions in the (automatic) processing of auditory spatial cues. Additionally, significant differences in the cortical activation patterns depending on the target of attention were observed. Bilateral planum temporale and inferior frontal gyrus were preferentially activated when attending to stereophonic environmental sounds, whereas when subjects attended to stereophonic voice sounds, the BOLD responses were larger at the bilateral middle superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, previously reported to show voice sensitivity. In contrast, the time-resolved MEG responses were stronger for mono- than stereophonic sounds in the bilateral auditory cortices at ~360 ms after the stimulus onset when attending to the voice excerpts within the combined sounds. The observed effects suggest that during the segregation of auditory objects from the auditory background, spatial sound cues together with other relevant temporal and spectral cues are processed in an attention-dependent manner at the cortical locations generally involved in sound recognition. More synchronous neuronal activation during monophonic than stereophonic sound processing, as well as (local) neuronal inhibitory mechanisms in

  2. A study of the high-frequency hearing thresholds of dentistry professionals

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    Lopes, Andréa Cintra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the dentistry practice, dentists are exposed to harmful effects caused by several factors, such as the noise produced by their work instruments. In 1959, the American Dental Association recommended periodical hearing assessments and the use of ear protectors. Aquiring more information regarding dentists', dental nurses', and prosthodontists' hearing abilities is necessary to propose prevention measures and early treatment strategies. Objective: To investigate the auditory thresholds of dentists, dental nurses, and prosthodontists. Method: In this clinical and experimental study, 44 dentists (Group I; GI, 36 dental nurses (Group II; GII, and 28 prosthodontists (Group III; GIII were included, , with a total of 108 professionals. The procedures that were performed included a specific interview, ear canal inspection, conventional and high-frequency threshold audiometry, a speech reception threshold test, and an acoustic impedance test. Results: In the 3 groups that were tested, the comparison between the mean hearing thresholds provided evidence of worsened hearing ability relative to the increase in frequency. For the tritonal mean at 500 to 2,000 Hz and 3,000 to 6,000 Hz, GIII presented the worst thresholds. For the mean of the high frequencies (9,000 and 16,000 Hz, GII presented the worst thresholds. Conclusion: The conventional hearing threshold evaluation did not demonstrate alterations in the 3 groups that were tested; however, the complementary tests such as high-frequency audiometry provided greater efficacy in the early detection of hearing problems, since this population's hearing loss impaired hearing ability at frequencies that are not tested by the conventional tests. Therefore, we emphasize the need of utilizing high-frequency threshold audiometry in the hearing assessment routine in combination with other audiological tests.

  3. Shaping the aging brain: Role of auditory input patterns in the emergence of auditory cortical impairments

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    Brishna Soraya Kamal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Age-related impairments in the primary auditory cortex (A1 include poor tuning selectivity, neural desynchronization and degraded responses to low-probability sounds. These changes have been largely attributed to reduced inhibition in the aged brain, and are thought to contribute to substantial hearing impairment in both humans and animals. Since many of these changes can be partially reversed with auditory training, it has been speculated that they might not be purely degenerative, but might rather represent negative plastic adjustments to noisy or distorted auditory signals reaching the brain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the impact of exposing young adult rats to 8 weeks of low-grade broadband noise on several aspects of A1 function and structure. We then characterized the same A1 elements in aging rats for comparison. We found that the impact of noise exposure on A1 tuning selectivity, temporal processing of auditory signal and responses to oddball tones was almost indistinguishable from the effect of natural aging. Moreover, noise exposure resulted in a reduction in the population of parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons and cortical myelin as previously documented in the aged group. Most of these changes reversed after returning the rats to a quiet environment. These results support the hypothesis that age-related changes in A1 have a strong activity-dependent component and indicate that the presence or absence of clear auditory input patterns might be a key factor in sustaining adult A1 function.

  4. Selective memory retrieval of auditory what and auditory where involves the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Penelope; Petrides, Michael

    2016-02-16

    There is evidence from the visual, verbal, and tactile memory domains that the midventrolateral prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in the top-down modulation of activity within posterior cortical areas for the selective retrieval of specific aspects of a memorized experience, a functional process often referred to as active controlled retrieval. In the present functional neuroimaging study, we explore the neural bases of active retrieval for auditory nonverbal information, about which almost nothing is known. Human participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a task in which they were presented with short melodies from different locations in a simulated virtual acoustic environment within the scanner and were then instructed to retrieve selectively either the particular melody presented or its location. There were significant activity increases specifically within the midventrolateral prefrontal region during the selective retrieval of nonverbal auditory information. During the selective retrieval of information from auditory memory, the right midventrolateral prefrontal region increased its interaction with the auditory temporal region and the inferior parietal lobule in the right hemisphere. These findings provide evidence that the midventrolateral prefrontal cortical region interacts with specific posterior cortical areas in the human cerebral cortex for the selective retrieval of object and location features of an auditory memory experience.

  5. Central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Andrei S; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2016-02-01

    High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes. PMID:26787894

  6. Anatomy and Physiology of the Auditory Tracts

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    Mohammad hosein Hekmat Ara

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing is one of the excel sense of human being. Sound waves travel through the medium of air and enter the ear canal and then hit the tympanic membrane. Middle ear transfer almost 60-80% of this mechanical energy to the inner ear by means of “impedance matching”. Then, the sound energy changes to traveling wave and is transferred based on its specific frequency and stimulates organ of corti. Receptors in this organ and their synapses transform mechanical waves to the neural waves and transfer them to the brain. The central nervous system tract of conducting the auditory signals in the auditory cortex will be explained here briefly.

  7. Delayed auditory feedback in polyglot simultaneous interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, F; Darò, V

    1995-03-01

    Twelve polyglot students of simultaneous interpretation and 12 controls (students of the faculty of Medicine) were submitted to a task of verbal fluency under amplified normal auditory feedback (NAF) and under three delayed auditory feedback (DAF) conditions with three different delay intervals (150, 200, and 250 msec). The control group showed a significant reduction in verbal fluency and a significant increase in the number of mistakes in all three DAF conditions. The interpreters' group, however, did not show any significant speech disruption neither in the subjects' mother tongue (L1) nor in their second language (L2) across all DAF conditions. Interpreters' general high verbal fluency along with their ability to pay less attention to their own verbal output make them more resistant to the interfering effects of DAF on speech. PMID:7757448

  8. Response recovery in the locust auditory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtssohn, Sarah; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Temporal resolution and the time courses of recovery from acute adaptation of neurons in the auditory pathway of the grasshopper Locusta migratoria were investigated with a response recovery paradigm. We stimulated with a series of single click and click pair stimuli while performing intracellular recordings from neurons at three processing stages: receptors and first and second order interneurons. The response to the second click was expressed relative to the single click response. This allowed the uncovering of the basic temporal resolution in these neurons. The effect of adaptation increased with processing layer. While neurons in the auditory periphery displayed a steady response recovery after a short initial adaptation, many interneurons showed nonlinear effects: most prominent a long-lasting suppression of the response to the second click in a pair, as well as a gain in response if a click was preceded by a click a few milliseconds before. Our results reveal a distributed temporal filtering of input at an early auditory processing stage. This set of specified filters is very likely homologous across grasshopper species and thus forms the neurophysiological basis for extracting relevant information from a variety of different temporal signals. Interestingly, in terms of spike timing precision neurons at all three processing layers recovered very fast, within 20 ms. Spike waveform analysis of several neuron types did not sufficiently explain the response recovery profiles implemented in these neurons, indicating that temporal resolution in neurons located at several processing layers of the auditory pathway is not necessarily limited by the spike duration and refractory period.

  9. Neural correlates of auditory scale illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, Shinya; Numao, Ryousuke; Nemoto, Iku

    2016-09-01

    The auditory illusory perception "scale illusion" occurs when ascending and descending musical scale tones are delivered in a dichotic manner, such that the higher or lower tone at each instant is presented alternately to the right and left ears. Resulting tone sequences have a zigzag pitch in one ear and the reversed (zagzig) pitch in the other ear. Most listeners hear illusory smooth pitch sequences of up-down and down-up streams in the two ears separated in higher and lower halves of the scale. Although many behavioral studies have been conducted, how and where in the brain the illusory percept is formed have not been elucidated. In this study, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging using sequential tones that induced scale illusion (ILL) and those that mimicked the percept of scale illusion (PCP), and we compared the activation responses evoked by those stimuli by region-of-interest analysis. We examined the effects of adaptation, i.e., the attenuation of response that occurs when close-frequency sounds are repeated, which might interfere with the changes in activation by the illusion process. Results of the activation difference of the two stimuli, measured at varied tempi of tone presentation, in the superior temporal auditory cortex were not explained by adaptation. Instead, excess activation of the ILL stimulus from the PCP stimulus at moderate tempi (83 and 126 bpm) was significant in the posterior auditory cortex with rightward superiority, while significant prefrontal activation was dominant at the highest tempo (245 bpm). We suggest that the area of the planum temporale posterior to the primary auditory cortex is mainly involved in the illusion formation, and that the illusion-related process is strongly dependent on the rate of tone presentation. PMID:27292114

  10. Inhibition in the Human Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Inui; Kei Nakagawa; Makoto Nishihara; Eishi Motomura; Ryusuke Kakigi

    2016-01-01

    Despite their indispensable roles in sensory processing, little is known about inhibitory interneurons in humans. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials cannot be recorded non-invasively, at least in a pure form, in humans. We herein sought to clarify whether prepulse inhibition (PPI) in the auditory cortex reflected inhibition via interneurons using magnetoencephalography. An abrupt increase in sound pressure by 10 dB in a continuous sound was used to evoke the test response, and PPI was observe...

  11. Lesions in the external auditory canal

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    Priyank S Chatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC.

  12. Midbrain auditory selectivity to natural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Moss, Cynthia F

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated auditory stimulus selectivity in the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) of the echolocating bat, an animal that relies on hearing to guide its orienting behaviors. Multichannel, single-unit recordings were taken across laminae of the midbrain SC of the awake, passively listening big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Species-specific frequency-modulated (FM) echolocation sound sequences with dynamic spectrotemporal features served as acoustic stimuli along with artificial sound sequences matched in bandwidth, amplitude, and duration but differing in spectrotemporal structure. Neurons in dorsal sensory regions of the bat SC responded selectively to elements within the FM sound sequences, whereas neurons in ventral sensorimotor regions showed broad response profiles to natural and artificial stimuli. Moreover, a generalized linear model (GLM) constructed on responses in the dorsal SC to artificial linear FM stimuli failed to predict responses to natural sounds and vice versa, but the GLM produced accurate response predictions in ventral SC neurons. This result suggests that auditory selectivity in the dorsal extent of the bat SC arises through nonlinear mechanisms, which extract species-specific sensory information. Importantly, auditory selectivity appeared only in responses to stimuli containing the natural statistics of acoustic signals used by the bat for spatial orientation-sonar vocalizations-offering support for the hypothesis that sensory selectivity enables rapid species-specific orienting behaviors. The results of this study are the first, to our knowledge, to show auditory spectrotemporal selectivity to natural stimuli in SC neurons and serve to inform a more general understanding of mechanisms guiding sensory selectivity for natural, goal-directed orienting behaviors.

  13. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Chr.Hansen; MarcusT.Pearce

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty - a property of listeners’ prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic e...

  14. Sonic morphology: Aesthetic dimensional auditory spatial awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Martha M.

    The sound and ceramic sculpture installation, " Skirting the Edge: Experiences in Sound & Form," is an integration of art and science demonstrating the concept of sonic morphology. "Sonic morphology" is herein defined as aesthetic three-dimensional auditory spatial awareness. The exhibition explicates my empirical phenomenal observations that sound has a three-dimensional form. Composed of ceramic sculptures that allude to different social and physical situations, coupled with sound compositions that enhance and create a three-dimensional auditory and visual aesthetic experience (see accompanying DVD), the exhibition supports the research question, "What is the relationship between sound and form?" Precisely how people aurally experience three-dimensional space involves an integration of spatial properties, auditory perception, individual history, and cultural mores. People also utilize environmental sound events as a guide in social situations and in remembering their personal history, as well as a guide in moving through space. Aesthetically, sound affects the fascination, meaning, and attention one has within a particular space. Sonic morphology brings art forms such as a movie, video, sound composition, and musical performance into the cognitive scope by generating meaning from the link between the visual and auditory senses. This research examined sonic morphology as an extension of musique concrete, sound as object, originating in Pierre Schaeffer's work in the 1940s. Pointing, as John Cage did, to the corporeal three-dimensional experience of "all sound," I composed works that took their total form only through the perceiver-participant's participation in the exhibition. While contemporary artist Alvin Lucier creates artworks that draw attention to making sound visible, "Skirting the Edge" engages the perceiver-participant visually and aurally, leading to recognition of sonic morphology.

  15. Noise-Induced “Toughening” Effect in Wistar Rats: Enhanced Auditory Brainstem Responses Are Related to Calretinin and Nitric Oxide Synthase Upregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Juan C.; Fuentes-Santamaría, Verónica; Gabaldón-Ull, María C.; Jareño-Flores, Tania; Miller, Josef M.; Juiz, José M.

    2016-01-01

    An appropriate conditioning noise exposure may reduce a subsequent noise-induced threshold shift. Although this “toughening” effect helps to protect the auditory system from a subsequent traumatic noise exposure, the mechanisms that regulate this protective process are not fully understood yet. Accordingly, the goal of the present study was to characterize physiological processes associated with “toughening” and to determine their relationship to metabolic changes in the cochlea and cochlear nucleus (CN). Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were evaluated in Wistar rats before and after exposures to a sound conditioning protocol consisting of a broad-band white noise of 118 dB SPL for 1 h every 72 h, four times. After the last ABR evaluation, animals were perfused and their cochleae and brains removed and processed for the activity markers calretinin (CR) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Toughening was demonstrated by a progressively faster recovery of the threshold shift, as well as wave amplitudes and latencies over time. Immunostaining revealed an increase in CR and nNOS levels in the spiral ganglion, spiral ligament, and CN in noise-conditioned rats. Overall, these results suggest that the protective mechanisms of the auditory toughening effect initiate in the cochlea and extend to the central auditory system. Such phenomenon might be in part related to an interplay between CR and nitric oxide signaling pathways, and involve an increased cytosolic calcium buffering capacity induced by the noise conditioning protocol. PMID:27065815

  16. NOISE-INDUCED TOUGHENING EFFECT IN WISTAR RATS: ENHANCED AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSES ARE RELATED TO CALRETININ AND NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE UPREGULATION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos eAlvarado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An appropriate conditioning noise exposure may reduce a subsequent noise-induced threshold shift. Although this toughening effect helps to protect the auditory system from a subsequent traumatic noise exposure, the mechanisms that regulate this protective process are not fully understood yet. Accordingly, the goal of the present study was to characterize physiological processes associated with ‘toughening’ and to determine their relationship to metabolic changes in the cochlea and cochlear nucleus (CN. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR were evaluated in Wistar rats before and after exposures to a sound conditioning protocol consisting of a broad-band white noise of 118 dB SPL for 1h every 72h, 4 times. After the last ABR evaluation, animals were perfused and their cochleae and brains removed and processed for the activity markers calretinin (CR and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. Toughening was demonstrated by a progressively faster recovery of the threshold shift, as well as wave amplitudes and latencies over time. Immunostaining revealed an increase in CR and nNOS levels in the spiral ganglion, spiral ligament and CN in noise-conditioned rats. Overall, these results suggest that the protective mechanisms of the auditory toughening effect initiate in the cochlea and extend to the central auditory system. Such phenomenon might be in part related to an interplay between CR and nitric oxide signalling pathways, and involve an increased cytosolic calcium buffering capacity induced by the noise conditioning protocol.

  17. Stroke caused auditory attention deficits in children

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    Karla Maria Ibraim da Freiria Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the auditory selective attention in children with stroke. METHODS: Dichotic tests of binaural separation (non-verbal and consonant-vowel and binaural integration - digits and Staggered Spondaic Words Test (SSW - were applied in 13 children (7 boys, from 7 to 16 years, with unilateral stroke confirmed by neurological examination and neuroimaging. RESULTS: The attention performance showed significant differences in comparison to the control group in both kinds of tests. In the non-verbal test, identifications the ear opposite the lesion in the free recall stage was diminished and, in the following stages, a difficulty in directing attention was detected. In the consonant- vowel test, a modification in perceptual asymmetry and difficulty in focusing in the attended stages was found. In the digits and SSW tests, ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral deficits were detected, depending on the characteristics of the lesions and demand of the task. CONCLUSION: Stroke caused auditory attention deficits when dealing with simultaneous sources of auditory information.

  18. Hierarchical processing of auditory objects in humans.

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    Sukhbinder Kumar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the computational architecture used by the brain during the analysis of the spectral envelope of sounds, an important acoustic feature for defining auditory objects. Dynamic causal modelling and Bayesian model selection were used to evaluate a family of 16 network models explaining functional magnetic resonance imaging responses in the right temporal lobe during spectral envelope analysis. The models encode different hypotheses about the effective connectivity between Heschl's Gyrus (HG, containing the primary auditory cortex, planum temporale (PT, and superior temporal sulcus (STS, and the modulation of that coupling during spectral envelope analysis. In particular, we aimed to determine whether information processing during spectral envelope analysis takes place in a serial or parallel fashion. The analysis provides strong support for a serial architecture with connections from HG to PT and from PT to STS and an increase of the HG to PT connection during spectral envelope analysis. The work supports a computational model of auditory object processing, based on the abstraction of spectro-temporal "templates" in the PT before further analysis of the abstracted form in anterior temporal lobe areas.

  19. Concentric scheme of monkey auditory cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Hiroko; Saunders, Richard C.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2003-04-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the rhesus monkey's auditory cortex was examined using immunocytochemical staining with parvalbumin, calbindin-D28K, and SMI32, as well as staining for cytochrome oxidase (CO). The results suggest that Kaas and Hackett's scheme of the auditory cortices can be extended to include five concentric rings surrounding an inner core. The inner core, containing areas A1 and R, is the most densely stained with parvalbumin and CO and can be separated on the basis of laminar patterns of SMI32 staining into lateral and medial subdivisions. From the inner core to the fifth (outermost) ring, parvalbumin staining gradually decreases and calbindin staining gradually increases. The first ring corresponds to Kaas and Hackett's auditory belt, and the second, to their parabelt. SMI32 staining revealed a clear border between these two. Rings 2 through 5 extend laterally into the dorsal bank of the superior temporal sulcus. The results also suggest that the rostral tip of the outermost ring adjoins the rostroventral part of the insula (area Pro) and the temporal pole, while the caudal tip adjoins the ventral part of area 7a.

  20. Auditory perception of a human walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, David; Campbell, Megan E J

    2014-01-01

    When one hears footsteps in the hall, one is able to instantly recognise it as a person: this is an everyday example of auditory biological motion perception. Despite the familiarity of this experience, research into this phenomenon is in its infancy compared with visual biological motion perception. Here, two experiments explored sensitivity to, and recognition of, auditory stimuli of biological and nonbiological origin. We hypothesised that the cadence of a walker gives rise to a temporal pattern of impact sounds that facilitates the recognition of human motion from auditory stimuli alone. First a series of detection tasks compared sensitivity with three carefully matched impact sounds: footsteps, a ball bouncing, and drumbeats. Unexpectedly, participants were no more sensitive to footsteps than to impact sounds of nonbiological origin. In the second experiment participants made discriminations between pairs of the same stimuli, in a series of recognition tasks in which the temporal pattern of impact sounds was manipulated to be either that of a walker or the pattern more typical of the source event (a ball bouncing or a drumbeat). Under these conditions, there was evidence that both temporal and nontemporal cues were important in recognising theses stimuli. It is proposed that the interval between footsteps, which reflects a walker's cadence, is a cue for the recognition of the sounds of a human walking.

  1. Mechanisms of auditory verbal hallucination in schizophrenia

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    Raymond eCho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent work on the mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucination (AVH has been heavily informed by self-monitoring accounts that postulate defects in an internal monitoring mechanism as the basis of AVH. A more neglected alternative is an account focusing on defects in auditory processing, namely a spontaneous activation account of auditory activity underlying AVH. Science is often aided by putting theories in competition. Accordingly, a discussion that systematically contrasts the two models of AVH can generate sharper questions that will lead to new avenues of investigation. In this paper, we provide such a theoretical discussion of the two models, drawing strong contrasts between them. We identify a set of challenges for the self-monitoring account and argue that the spontaneous activation account has much in favor of it and should be the default account. Our theoretical overview leads to new questions and issues regarding the explanation of AVH as a subjective phenomenon and its neural basis. Accordingly, we suggest a set of experimental strategies to dissect the underlying mechanisms of AVH in light of the two competing models.

  2. Mechanisms of auditory verbal hallucination in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Raymond; Wu, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Recent work on the mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) has been heavily informed by self-monitoring accounts that postulate defects in an internal monitoring mechanism as the basis of AVH. A more neglected alternative is an account focusing on defects in auditory processing, namely a spontaneous activation account of auditory activity underlying AVH. Science is often aided by putting theories in competition. Accordingly, a discussion that systematically contrasts the two models of AVH can generate sharper questions that will lead to new avenues of investigation. In this paper, we provide such a theoretical discussion of the two models, drawing strong contrasts between them. We identify a set of challenges for the self-monitoring account and argue that the spontaneous activation account has much in favor of it and should be the default account. Our theoretical overview leads to new questions and issues regarding the explanation of AVH as a subjective phenomenon and its neural basis. Accordingly, we suggest a set of experimental strategies to dissect the underlying mechanisms of AVH in light of the two competing models. PMID:24348430

  3. Central auditory masking by an illusory tone.

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    Christopher J Plack

    Full Text Available Many natural sounds fluctuate over time. The detectability of sounds in a sequence can be reduced by prior stimulation in a process known as forward masking. Forward masking is thought to reflect neural adaptation or neural persistence in the auditory nervous system, but it has been unclear where in the auditory pathway this processing occurs. To address this issue, the present study used a "Huggins pitch" stimulus, the perceptual effects of which depend on central auditory processing. Huggins pitch is an illusory tonal sensation produced when the same noise is presented to the two ears except for a narrow frequency band that is different (decorrelated between the ears. The pitch sensation depends on the combination of the inputs to the two ears, a process that first occurs at the level of the superior olivary complex in the brainstem. Here it is shown that a Huggins pitch stimulus produces more forward masking in the frequency region of the decorrelation than a noise stimulus identical to the Huggins-pitch stimulus except with perfect correlation between the ears. This stimulus has a peripheral neural representation that is identical to that of the Huggins-pitch stimulus. The results show that processing in, or central to, the superior olivary complex can contribute to forward masking in human listeners.

  4. Variable Threshold MOSFET Approach (Through Dynamic Threshold MOSFET) For Universal Logic Gates

    OpenAIRE

    Ragini, K.; DR.M. SATYAM; Dr. B.C. Jinaga

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we proposed a Variable threshold MOSFET(VTMOS)approach which is realized from Dynamic Threshold MOSFET(DTMOS), suitable for sub-threshold digital circuit operation. Basically the principle of sub- threshold logics is operating MOSFET in sub-threshold region and using the leakage current in that region for switching action, there by drastically decreasing power. To reduce the power consumption of sub-threshold circuits further, a novel body biasing technique termed VTMOS is in...

  5. The Effect of Short-Term Auditory Training on Speech in Noise Perception and Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Adults with Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Nathan; Purdy, Suzanne C; Sharma, Mridula; Giles, Ellen; Narne, Vijay

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated whether a short intensive psychophysical auditory training program is associated with speech perception benefits and changes in cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) in adult cochlear implant (CI) users. Ten adult implant recipients trained approximately 7 hours on psychophysical tasks (Gap-in-Noise Detection, Frequency Discrimination, Spectral Rippled Noise [SRN], Iterated Rippled Noise, Temporal Modulation). Speech performance was assessed before and after training using Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT) words in quiet and in eight-speaker babble. CAEPs evoked by a natural speech stimulus /baba/ with varying syllable stress were assessed pre- and post-training, in quiet and in noise. SRN psychophysical thresholds showed a significant improvement (78% on average) over the training period, but performance on other psychophysical tasks did not change. LNT scores in noise improved significantly post-training by 11% on average compared with three pretraining baseline measures. N1P2 amplitude changed post-training for /baba/ in quiet (p = 0.005, visit 3 pretraining versus visit 4 post-training). CAEP changes did not correlate with behavioral measures. CI recipients' clinical records indicated a plateau in speech perception performance prior to participation in the study. A short period of intensive psychophysical training produced small but significant gains in speech perception in noise and spectral discrimination ability. There remain questions about the most appropriate type of training and the duration or dosage of training that provides the most robust outcomes for adults with CIs. PMID:27587925

  6. Auditory temporal processing skills in musicians with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Liebler, Paula; Welch, Graham; Huss, Martina; Thomson, Jennifer M; Goswami, Usha

    2014-08-01

    The core cognitive difficulty in developmental dyslexia involves phonological processing, but adults and children with dyslexia also have sensory impairments. Impairments in basic auditory processing show particular links with phonological impairments, and recent studies with dyslexic children across languages reveal a relationship between auditory temporal processing and sensitivity to rhythmic timing and speech rhythm. As rhythm is explicit in music, musical training might have a beneficial effect on the auditory perception of acoustic cues to rhythm in dyslexia. Here we took advantage of the presence of musicians with and without dyslexia in musical conservatoires, comparing their auditory temporal processing abilities with those of dyslexic non-musicians matched for cognitive ability. Musicians with dyslexia showed equivalent auditory sensitivity to musicians without dyslexia and also showed equivalent rhythm perception. The data support the view that extensive rhythmic experience initiated during childhood (here in the form of music training) can affect basic auditory processing skills which are found to be deficient in individuals with dyslexia.

  7. The role of temporal coherence in auditory stream segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Simon Krogholt

    The ability to perceptually segregate concurrent sound sources and focus one’s attention on a single source at a time is essential for the ability to use acoustic information. While perceptual experiments have determined a range of acoustic cues that help facilitate auditory stream segregation...... of auditory processing, the role of auditory preprocessing and temporal coherence in auditory stream formation was evaluated. The computational model presented in this study assumes that auditory stream segregation occurs when sounds stimulate non-overlapping neural populations in a temporally incoherent...... on the stream segregation process was analysed. The model analysis showed that auditory frequency selectivity and physiological forward masking play a significant role in stream segregation based on frequency separation and tone rate. Secondly, the model analysis suggested that neural adaptation...

  8. 40 CFR 98.361 - Reporting threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.361 Reporting threshold. Livestock facilities must report GHG emissions under this subpart if the facility meets the reporting threshold as defined in...

  9. Auditory Brainstem Gap Responses Start to Decline in Middle Age Mice: A Novel Physiological Biomarker for Age-Related Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tanika T.; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.; Frisina, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The CBA/CaJ mouse strain's auditory function is normal during the early phases of life and gradually declines over its lifespan, much like human age-related hearing loss (ARHL), but on a mouse life cycle “time frame”. This pattern of ARHL is relatively similar to that of most humans: difficult to clinically diagnose at its onset, and currently not treatable medically. To address the challenge of early diagnosis, CBA mice were used for the present study to analyze the beginning stages and functional onset biomarkers of ARHL. The results from Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) audiogram and Gap-in-noise (GIN) ABR tests were compared for two groups of mice of different ages, young adult and middle age. ABR peak components from the middle age group displayed minor changes in audibility, but had a significantly higher prolonged peak latency and decreased peak amplitude in response to temporal gaps in comparison to the young adult group. The results for the younger subjects revealed gap thresholds and recovery rates that were comparable to previous studies of auditory neural gap coding. Our findings suggest that age-linked degeneration of the peripheral and brainstem auditory system is already beginning in middle age, allowing for the possibility of preventative biomedical or hearing protection measures to be implemented as a possibility for attenuating further damage to the auditory system due to ARHL. PMID:25307161

  10. Auditory brainstem gap responses start to decline in mice in middle age: a novel physiological biomarker for age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tanika T; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P; Frisina, Robert D

    2015-07-01

    The auditory function of the CBA/CaJ mouse strain is normal during the early phases of life and gradually declines over its lifespan, much like human age-related hearing loss (ARHL) but within the "time frame" of a mouse life cycle. This pattern of ARHL is similar to that of most humans: difficult to diagnose clinically at its onset and currently not treatable medically. To address the challenge of early diagnosis, we use CBA mice to analyze the initial stages and functional onset biomarkers of ARHL. The results from Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) audiogram and Gap-in-noise (GIN) ABR tests were compared for two groups of mice of different ages, namely young adult and middle age. ABR peak components from the middle age group displayed minor changes in audibility but had a significantly higher prolonged peak latency and decreased peak amplitude in response to temporal gaps in comparison with the young adult group. The results for the younger subjects revealed gap thresholds and recovery rates that were comparable with previous studies of auditory neural gap coding. Our findings suggest that age-linked degeneration of the peripheral and brainstem auditory system begins in middle age, allowing for the possibility of preventative biomedical or hearing protection measures to be implemented in order to attenuate further damage to the auditory system attributable to ARHL.

  11. Tinnitus and other auditory problems - occupational noise exposure below risk limits may cause inner ear dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Ann-Cathrine; Rosenhall, Ulf; Olofsson, Åke; Hagerman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal = 193. The following hearing tests were used: - pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, - transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; - psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, - forward masking, - speech recognition in noise, - tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group exposed to noise

  12. Tinnitus and other auditory problems - occupational noise exposure below risk limits may cause inner ear dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Cathrine Lindblad

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal = 193. The following hearing tests were used: - pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, - transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; - psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, - forward masking, - speech recognition in noise, - tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group

  13. Perspectives on the design of musical auditory interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Leplatre, G.; Brewster, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of music as a communication medium in auditory human-computer interfaces. So far, psychoacoustics has had a great influence on the development of auditory interfaces, directly and through music cognition. We suggest that a better understanding of the processes involved in the perception of actual musical excerpts should allow musical auditory interface designers to exploit the communicative potential of music. In this respect, we argue that the real advantage of...

  14. [Auditory guidance systems for the visually impaired people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Nie, Min; Luo, Lan; Tong, Shanbao; Niu, Jinhai; Zhu, Yisheng

    2010-04-01

    Visually impaired people face many inconveniences because of the loss of vision. Therefore, scientists are trying to design various guidance systems for improving the lives of the blind. Based on sensory substitution, auditory guidance has become an interesting topic in the field of biomedical engineering. In this paper, we made a state-of-technique review of the auditory guidance system. Although there have been many technical challenges, the auditory guidance system would be a useful alternative for the visually impaired people.

  15. Time course of dynamic range adaptation in the auditory nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Bo; Wang, Grace I.; Dean, Isabel; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Auditory adaptation to sound-level statistics occurs as early as in the auditory nerve (AN), the first stage of neural auditory processing. In addition to firing rate adaptation characterized by a rate decrement dependent on previous spike activity, AN fibers show dynamic range adaptation, which is characterized by a shift of the rate-level function or dynamic range toward the most frequently occurring levels in a dynamic stimulus, thereby improving the precision of coding of the most common ...

  16. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations

    OpenAIRE

    Crosier, Benjamin Sage; Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Background Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. Objective The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging...

  17. Speech Perception Within an Auditory Cognitive Science Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Lori L.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of the acoustic speech signal pose many significant challenges for listeners. Although perceiving speech begins with auditory processing, investigation of speech perception has progressed mostly independently of study of the auditory system. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that cross-fertilization between the two areas of research can be productive. We briefly describe research bridging the study of general auditory processing and speech perception, show...

  18. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central) auditory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochat, E; Musiek, F E; Alonso, R; Ogata, J

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR) characteristics (latency and amplitude) in children with (central) auditory processing disorder [(C)APD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (C)APD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (C)APD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (C)APD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 microV (mean), 0.39 (SD--standard deviation) for the (C)APD group and 1.18 microV (mean), 0.65 (SD) for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 microV (mean), 0.31 (SD) for the (C)APD group and 1.00 microV (mean), 0.46 (SD) for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 microV (mean), 0.82 (SD)] and C3-A2 [1.24 microV (mean), 0.73 (SD)] wave amplitudes of the (C)APD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (C)APD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (C)APD.

  19. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central auditory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Schochat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR characteristics (latency and amplitude in children with (central auditory processing disorder [(CAPD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (CAPD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (CAPD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (CAPD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 µV (mean, 0.39 (SD - standard deviation for the (CAPD group and 1.18 µV (mean, 0.65 (SD for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 µV (mean, 0.31 (SD for the (CAPD group and 1.00 µV (mean, 0.46 (SD for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 µV (mean, 0.82 (SD] and C3-A2 [1.24 µV (mean, 0.73 (SD] wave amplitudes of the (CAPD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (CAPD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (CAPD.

  20. PMI Thresholds for GDP Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kilinc, Zubeyir; Yucel, Eray

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we try to uncover the information capacity of the Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) as a leading indicator of GDP growth of euro area. Our results show that PMI carries a significant amount of information that can be used to forecast the growth rate in the current as well as subsequent quarters. In particular, having verified that a PMI level around 50 works as the threshold distinguishing between positive and negative rates of GDP growth, we establish a sequence of other PMI thr...

  1. Oscillation threshold of woodwind instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Grand, Noël; Gilbert, Joël; Laloë, Franck

    1997-01-01

    this version has figures at the end, which was not the case of version 1 We give a theoretical study of the nature of the bifurcations occurring at the oscillation threshold of woodwind instruments, or of physical systems obeying similar non-linear equations of motion. We start from the simplest description of the acoustical behavior these instruments, a mathematical model containing two equations only, one of which is linear but includes delays, while the other is non-linear but has no de...

  2. Ultra-low threshold polariton condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Steger, Mark; Alberi, Kirstin; Mascarenhas, Angelo; Snoke, David W; Pfeiffer, Loren N; West, Ken

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate condensation of microcavity polaritons with a very sharp threshold occuring at two orders of magnitude lower pump intensity than previous demonstrations of condensation. The long cavity-lifetime and trapping and pumping geometries are crucial to the realization of this low threshold. Polariton condensation, or "polariton lasing" has long been proposed as a promising source of coherent light at lower threshold than traditional lasing, and these results suggest methods to bring this threshold even lower.

  3. Randomized, Prospective, Three-Arm Study to Confirm the Auditory Safety and Efficacy of Artemether-Lumefantrine in Colombian Patients with Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Barón, Clemencia; Monsell, Edwin M; Cousin, Marc; Walter, Verena; Lefèvre, Gilbert; Sander, Oliver; Fisher, Laurel M.

    2012-01-01

    The safety of artemether-lumefantrine in patients with acute, uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria was investigated prospectively using the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and pure-tone thresholds. Secondary outcomes included polymerase chain reaction-corrected cure rates. Patients were randomly assigned in a 3:1:1 ratio to either artemether-lumefantrine (N = 159), atovaquone-proguanil (N = 53), or artesunate-mefloquine (N = 53). The null hypothesis (primary outcome), claiming that t...

  4. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  5. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  6. Extrinsic sound stimulations and development of periphery auditory synapses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Hou; Shiming Yang; Ke Liu

    2015-01-01

    The development of auditory synapses is a key process for the maturation of hearing function. However, it is still on debate regarding whether the development of auditory synapses is dominated by acquired sound stimulations. In this review, we summarize relevant publications in recent decades to address this issue. Most reported data suggest that extrinsic sound stimulations do affect, but not govern the development of periphery auditory synapses. Overall, periphery auditory synapses develop and mature according to its intrinsic mechanism to build up the synaptic connections between sensory neurons and/or interneurons.

  7. Effects of cochlear-implant pulse rate and inter-channel timing on channel interactions and thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, John C.

    2004-07-01

    Interactions among the multiple channels of a cochlear prosthesis limit the number of channels of information that can be transmitted to the brain. This study explored the influence on channel interactions of electrical pulse rates and temporal offsets between channels. Anesthetized guinea pigs were implanted with 2-channel scala-tympani electrode arrays, and spike activity was recorded from the auditory cortex. Channel interactions were quantified as the reduction of the threshold for pulse-train stimulation of the apical channel by sub-threshold stimulation of the basal channel. Pulse rates were 254 or 4069 pulses per second (pps) per channel. Maximum threshold reductions averaged 9.6 dB when channels were stimulated simultaneously. Among nonsimultaneous conditions, threshold reductions at the 254-pps rate were entirely eliminated by a 1966-μs inter-channel offset. When offsets were only 41 to 123 μs, however, maximum threshold shifts averaged 3.1 dB, which was comparable to the dynamic ranges of cortical neurons in this experimental preparation. Threshold reductions at 4069 pps averaged up to 1.3 dB greater than at 254 pps, which raises some concern in regard to high-pulse-rate speech processors. Thresholds for various paired-pulse stimuli, pulse rates, and pulse-train durations were measured to test possible mechanisms of temporal integration.

  8. Low and high frequency tonal threshold audiometry: comparing hearing thresholds between smokers and non-smokers Da audiometria tonal limiar em baixa e alta frequência: comparação dos limiares auditivos entre tabagistas e não-tabagistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cecílio Capra Marques de Oliveira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking can cause many potentially fatal diseases and worsen others. Numerous studies have shown the relationship between smoking and hearing loss. However, the increase in auditory threshold in high frequency arising from smoking has been very little described. AIM: to compare low and high frequency auditory thresholds among a group of smoking and non-smoking male individuals between 18 and 40 years. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MATERIALS AND METHODS: by means of low and high frequency tonal threshold audiometry we studied 30 male individuals between 18 and 40 years and 30 non-smokers of matching age and gender. RESULTS: auditory thresholds were different between smokers and non-smokers, being worse in the former. Although within normal ranges, auditory thresholds in low frequencies were higher among smokers. In high frequencies we noticed a marked increase in auditory thresholds among smokers. CONCLUSION: we found statistically significant difference in auditory thresholds in low and high frequencies, among young male individuals, smokers and non-smokers, being worse in the former.O uso do cigarro pode levar a diversas doenças potencialmente fatais e contribuir para o agravo de outras condições patológicas. Inúmeros estudos mostram a relação entre tabagismo e perda auditiva, entretanto, o aumento dos limiares auditivos em alta frequência decorrente do tabagismo é pouco descrito. OBJETIVO: Comparar os limiares auditivos em baixas e altas frequências, entre um grupo de indivíduos não-tabagistas e tabagistas, do sexo masculino com idades entre 18 e 40 anos. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Tipo transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados, através de audiometria tonal limiar em baixas e altas frequências, 30 indivíduos tabagistas do sexo masculino com idades entre 18 e 40 anos e 30 indivíduos não-tabagistas do mesmo sexo e da mesma faixa etária. RESULTADOS: Os limiares auditivos foram diferentes entre os indivíduos do grupo n

  9. Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Farooqi, Rahmatullah [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of); Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States), Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-24

    Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates "good" glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from "bad" glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region.

  10. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Kyng, Tim; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.

    2015-01-01

    Finance threshold concepts are the essential conceptual knowledge that underpin well-developed financial capabilities and are central to the mastery of finance. In this paper we investigate threshold concepts in finance from the point of view of students, by establishing the extent to which students are aware of threshold concepts identified by…

  11. Threshold enhancement of diphoton resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Bharucha, Aoife; Goudelis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The data collected by the LHC collaborations at an energy of 13 TeV indicates the presence of an excess in the diphoton spectrum that would correspond to a resonance of a 750 GeV mass. The apparently large production cross section is nevertheless very difficult to explain in minimal models. We consider the possibility that the resonance is a pseudoscalar boson $A$ with a two--photon decay mediated by a charged and uncolored fermion having a mass at the $\\frac12 M_A$ threshold and a very small decay width, $\\ll 1$ MeV; one can then generate a large enhancement of the $A\\gamma\\gamma$ amplitude which explains the excess without invoking a large multiplicity of particles propagating in the loop, large electric charges and/or very strong Yukawa couplings. The implications of such a threshold enhancement are discussed in two explicit scenarios: i) the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in which the $A$ state is produced via the top quark mediated gluon fusion process and decays into photons predominantly through...

  12. The Role of Auditory and Kinaesthetic Feedback Mechanisms on Phonatory Stability in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Rathna Kumar, S. B.; Azeem, Suhail; Choudhary, Abhishek Kumar; Prakash, S. G. R.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in phonatory control. When auditory feedback is disrupted, various changes are observed in vocal motor control. Vocal intensity and fundamental frequency (F0) levels tend to increase in response to auditory masking. Because of the close reflexive links between the auditory and phonatory systems, it is likely that phonatory stability may be disrupted when auditory feedback is disrupted or altered. However, studies on phonatory stability under auditory ...

  13. Orientability thresholds for random hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Pu

    2010-01-01

    Let $h>w>0$ be two fixed integers. Let $\\orH$ be a random hypergraph whose hyperedges are all of cardinality $h$. To {\\em $w$-orient} a hyperedge, we assign exactly $w$ of its vertices positive signs with respect to the hyperedge, and the rest negative. A $(w,k)$-orientation of $\\orH$ consists of a $w$-orientation of all hyperedges of $\\orH$, such that each vertex receives at most $k$ positive signs from its incident hyperedges. When $k$ is large enough, we determine the threshold of the existence of a $(w,k)$-orientation of a random hypergraph. The $(w,k)$-orientation of hypergraphs is strongly related to a general version of the off-line load balancing problem. The graph case, when $h=2$ and $w=1$, was solved recently by Cain, Sanders and Wormald and independently by Fernholz and Ramachandran, which settled a conjecture of Karp and Saks.

  14. Weights of Exact Threshold Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babai, László; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.;

    2010-01-01

    We consider Boolean exact threshold functions defined by linear equations, and in general degree d polynomials. We give upper and lower bounds on the maximum magnitude (absolute value) of the coefficients required to represent such functions. These bounds are very close and in the linear case...... in particular they are almost matching. The quantity is the same as the maximum magnitude of integer coefficients of linear equations required to express every possible intersection of a hyperplane in R n and the Boolean cube {0,1} n , or in the general case intersections of hypersurfaces of degree d in R n...... and the Boolean cube {0,1} n . In the process we construct new families of ill-conditioned matrices. We further stratify the problem (in the linear case) in terms of the dimension k of the affine subspace spanned by the solutions, and give upper and lower bounds in this case as well. Our bounds here in terms of k...

  15. Instability Threshold “Hysteresis”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Muszynska

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient process which starts at the instability threshold of a rotor rotating in a fluid environment, and ends up in the limit cycle of self-excited vibrations known as fluid whirl or fluid whip, is discussed in this paper. A one-lateral-mode, isotropic, nonlinear model of the rotor with fluid interaction allows for exact particular solutions and an estimation of the transient process. The fluid interacting with the rotor is contained in a small radial clearance area, such as in bearings, seals, or rotor-to-stator clearances, and its effects are represented by fluid film radial stiffness, damping, and fluid inertia rotating at a different angular velocities.

  16. Astronomy below the Survey Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Zwart, Jonathan T L; Karim, Alexander; Jackson, Carole; Norris, Ray; Condon, Jim; Afonso, Jose; Heywood, Ian; Jarvis, Matt; Navarrete, Felipe; Prandoni, Isabella; Rigby, Emma; Rottgering, Huub; Santos, Mario; Sargent, Mark; Seymour, Nick; Taylor, Russ; Vernstrom, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    Astronomy at or below the 'survey threshold' has expanded significantly since the publication of the original 'Science with the Square Kilometer Array' in 1999 and its update in 2004. The techniques in this regime may be broadly (but far from exclusively) defined as 'confusion' or 'P(D)' analyses (analyses of one-point statistics), and 'stacking', accounting for the flux-density distribution of noise-limited images co-added at the positions of objects detected/isolated in a different waveband. Here we discuss the relevant issues, present some examples of recent analyses, and consider some of the consequences for the design and use of surveys with the SKA and its pathfinders.

  17. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberalesso Paulo Breno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP. Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse information. In the present study, thirty healthy adult volunteers (17 females and 13 males, aged 30.75 ± 7.14 years were subjected to a pure tone audiometry test, a speech recognition threshold test, a speech recognition task, the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSWT, and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT. Baseline (BSL performance was compared to performance after 24 hours of being sleep deprived (24hSD using the Student’s t test. Results Mean RGDT score was elevated in the 24hSD condition (8.0 ± 2.9 ms relative to the BSL condition for the whole cohort (6.4 ± 2.8 ms; p = 0.0005, for males (p = 0.0066, and for females (p = 0.0208. Sleep deprivation reduced SSWT scores for the whole cohort in both ears [(right: BSL, 98.4 % ± 1.8 % vs. SD, 94.2 % ± 6.3 %. p = 0.0005(left: BSL, 96.7 % ± 3.1 % vs. SD, 92.1 % ± 6.1 %, p  Conclusion Sleep deprivation impairs RGDT and SSWT performance. These findings confirm that sleep deprivation has central effects that may impair performance in other areas of life.

  18. A critical period for auditory thalamocortical connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi Barkat, Tania; Polley, Daniel B; Hensch, Takao K

    2011-01-01

    connectivity by in vivo recordings and day-by-day voltage-sensitive dye imaging in an acute brain slice preparation. Passive tone-rearing modified response strength and topography in mouse primary auditory cortex (A1) during a brief, 3-d window, but did not alter tonotopic maps in the thalamus. Gene......-targeted deletion of a forebrain-specific cell-adhesion molecule (Icam5) accelerated plasticity in this critical period. Consistent with its normal role of slowing spinogenesis, loss of Icam5 induced precocious stubby spine maturation on pyramidal cell dendrites in neocortical layer 4 (L4), identifying a primary...

  19. CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic resonance image (MRI studies are helpful in diagnosis. The only choice of treatment is surgery with elective transmastoid trans¬labyrinthine approach. And if tumor is very large, the method of choice will be retrosigmoid approach.

  20. INFLUENCE ON VESTIBULAR FUNCTION BY AUDITORY NEUROPATHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jingmiao; JIANG Xinxia; SHAN Chunguang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The main purpose of the present study was to describe the vestibular function in patients with auditory neuropathy (AN), and to assess their ability to maintain balance. Methods Vestibular function tests were performed on 32 patients with AN and 36 normal subjects including electronystagmopraphy(ENG) and static postrography(SPG). The results from the two groups were compared. Results Equilibrium function in patients with AN, was abnormal, compared to normal subjects. Conclusion Vestibular function tests, espe-cially static postrography, should be performed on patients with AN.

  1. Left auditory cortex gamma synchronization and auditory hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenton Martha E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oscillatory electroencephalogram (EEG abnormalities may reflect neural circuit dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. Previously we have found positive correlations between the phase synchronization of beta and gamma oscillations and hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia patients. These findings suggest that the propensity for hallucinations is associated with an increased tendency for neural circuits in sensory cortex to enter states of oscillatory synchrony. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining whether the 40 Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR generated in the left primary auditory cortex is positively correlated with auditory hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia. We also examined whether the 40 Hz ASSR deficit in schizophrenia was associated with cross-frequency interactions. Sixteen healthy control subjects (HC and 18 chronic schizophrenia patients (SZ listened to 40 Hz binaural click trains. The EEG was recorded from 60 electrodes and average-referenced offline. A 5-dipole model was fit from the HC grand average ASSR, with 2 pairs of superior temporal dipoles and a deep midline dipole. Time-frequency decomposition was performed on the scalp EEG and source data. Results Phase locking factor (PLF and evoked power were reduced in SZ at fronto-central electrodes, replicating prior findings. PLF was reduced in SZ for non-homologous right and left hemisphere sources. Left hemisphere source PLF in SZ was positively correlated with auditory hallucination symptoms, and was modulated by delta phase. Furthermore, the correlations between source evoked power and PLF found in HC was reduced in SZ for the LH sources. Conclusion These findings suggest that differential neural circuit abnormalities may be present in the left and right auditory cortices in schizophrenia. In addition, they provide further support for the hypothesis that hallucinations are related to cortical hyperexcitability, which is manifested by

  2. From ear to hand: the role of the auditory-motor loop in pointing to an auditory source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Eric O.; Babayan, Bénédicte M.; Bevilacqua, Frédéric; Noisternig, Markus; Warusfel, Olivier; Roby-Brami, Agnes; Hanneton, Sylvain; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the nature of the neural mechanisms involved in goal-directed movements tend to concentrate on the role of vision. We present here an attempt to address the mechanisms whereby an auditory input is transformed into a motor command. The spatial and temporal organization of hand movements were studied in normal human subjects as they pointed toward unseen auditory targets located in a horizontal plane in front of them. Positions and movements of the hand were measured by a six infrared camera tracking system. In one condition, we assessed the role of auditory information about target position in correcting the trajectory of the hand. To accomplish this, the duration of the target presentation was varied. In another condition, subjects received continuous auditory feedback of their hand movement while pointing to the auditory targets. Online auditory control of the direction of pointing movements was assessed by evaluating how subjects reacted to shifts in heard hand position. Localization errors were exacerbated by short duration of target presentation but not modified by auditory feedback of hand position. Long duration of target presentation gave rise to a higher level of accuracy and was accompanied by early automatic head orienting movements consistently related to target direction. These results highlight the efficiency of auditory feedback processing in online motor control and suggest that the auditory system takes advantages of dynamic changes of the acoustic cues due to changes in head orientation in order to process online motor control. How to design an informative acoustic feedback needs to be carefully studied to demonstrate that auditory feedback of the hand could assist the monitoring of movements directed at objects in auditory space. PMID:23626532

  3. Auditory perceptual simulation: Simulating speech rates or accents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peiyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-07-01

    When readers engage in Auditory Perceptual Simulation (APS) during silent reading, they mentally simulate characteristics of voices attributed to a particular speaker or a character depicted in the text. Previous research found that auditory perceptual simulation of a faster native English speaker during silent reading led to shorter reading times that auditory perceptual simulation of a slower non-native English speaker. Yet, it was uncertain whether this difference was triggered by the different speech rates of the speakers, or by the difficulty of simulating an unfamiliar accent. The current study investigates this question by comparing faster Indian-English speech and slower American-English speech in the auditory perceptual simulation paradigm. Analyses of reading times of individual words and the full sentence reveal that the auditory perceptual simulation effect again modulated reading rate, and auditory perceptual simulation of the faster Indian-English speech led to faster reading rates compared to auditory perceptual simulation of the slower American-English speech. The comparison between this experiment and the data from Zhou and Christianson (2016) demonstrate further that the "speakers'" speech rates, rather than the difficulty of simulating a non-native accent, is the primary mechanism underlying auditory perceptual simulation effects. PMID:27177077

  4. Auditory and visual spatial impression: Recent studies of three auditoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andy; Cabrera, Densil

    2004-10-01

    Auditory spatial impression is widely studied for its contribution to auditorium acoustical quality. By contrast, visual spatial impression in auditoria has received relatively little attention in formal studies. This paper reports results from a series of experiments investigating the auditory and visual spatial impression of concert auditoria. For auditory stimuli, a fragment of an anechoic recording of orchestral music was convolved with calibrated binaural impulse responses, which had been made with the dummy head microphone at a wide range of positions in three auditoria and the sound source on the stage. For visual stimuli, greyscale photographs were used, taken at the same positions in the three auditoria, with a visual target on the stage. Subjective experiments were conducted with auditory stimuli alone, visual stimuli alone, and visual and auditory stimuli combined. In these experiments, subjects rated apparent source width, listener envelopment, intimacy and source distance (auditory stimuli), and spaciousness, envelopment, stage dominance, intimacy and target distance (visual stimuli). Results show target distance to be of primary importance in auditory and visual spatial impression-thereby providing a basis for covariance between some attributes of auditory and visual spatial impression. Nevertheless, some attributes of spatial impression diverge between the senses.

  5. Auditory Processing Theories of Language Disorders: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide information that will assist readers in understanding and interpreting research literature on the role of auditory processing in communication disorders. Method: A narrative review was used to summarize and synthesize the literature on auditory processing deficits in children with auditory…

  6. Quantification of the auditory startle reflex in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Mirte J.; Boer, Frits; van der Meer, Johan N.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; Boeree, Thijs; Bour, Lo; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find an adequate tool to assess the auditory startle reflex (ASR) in children. Methods: We investigated the effect of stimulus repetition, gender and age on several quantifications of the ASR. ASR's were elicited by eight consecutive auditory stimuli in 27 healthy children. Electromyog

  7. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Unsuccessful Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munivrana, Boska; Mildner, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    In some cochlear implant users, success is not achieved in spite of optimal clinical factors (including age at implantation, duration of rehabilitation and post-implant hearing level), which may be attributed to disorders at higher levels of the auditory pathway. We used cortical auditory evoked potentials to investigate the ability to perceive…

  8. Effect of Auditory Interference on Memory of Haptic Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anater, Paul F.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of auditory interference on the processing of haptic information by 61 visually impaired students (8 to 20 years old) was the focus of the research described in this article. It was assumed that as the auditory interference approximated the verbalized activity of the haptic task, accuracy of recall would decline. (Author)

  9. A Pilot Study of Auditory Integration Training in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Bernard; Edelson, Stephen M.

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of Auditory Integration Training (AIT) in 8 autistic individuals (ages 4-21) was evaluated using repeated multiple criteria assessment over a 3-month period. Compared to matched controls, subjects' scores improved on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist. AIT did not decrease sound sensitivity.…

  10. Statistical representation of sound textures in the impaired auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    homogenous sounds such as rain, birds, or fire. It has been suggested that sound texture perception is mediated by time-averaged statistics measured from early auditory representations (McDermott et al., 2013). Changes to early auditory processing, such as broader “peripheral” filters or reduced compression...

  11. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W. J.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a bas

  12. Impact of Educational Level on Performance on Auditory Processing Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Rabelo, Camila M; Silagi, Marcela L; Mansur, Letícia L; Schochat, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor "years of schooling" was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills.

  13. Impact of Educational Level on Performance on Auditory Processing Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Rabelo, Camila M; Silagi, Marcela L; Mansur, Letícia L; Schochat, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor "years of schooling" was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills. PMID:27013958

  14. Auditory Deprivation and Early Conductive Hearing Loss from Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarson, Adele D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews auditory deprivation effects on anatomy, physiology, and behavior in animals and discusses the sequelae of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. Focused on are central auditory processing disorders associated with early fluctuating hearing loss from OME. (DB)

  15. Tinnitus intensity dependent gamma oscillations of the contralateral auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa van der Loo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-pulsatile tinnitus is considered a subjective auditory phantom phenomenon present in 10 to 15% of the population. Tinnitus as a phantom phenomenon is related to hyperactivity and reorganization of the auditory cortex. Magnetoencephalography studies demonstrate a correlation between gamma band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex and the presence of tinnitus. The present study aims to investigate the relation between objective gamma-band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex and subjective tinnitus loudness scores. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In unilateral tinnitus patients (N = 15; 10 right, 5 left source analysis of resting state electroencephalographic gamma band oscillations shows a strong positive correlation with Visual Analogue Scale loudness scores in the contralateral auditory cortex (max r = 0.73, p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Auditory phantom percepts thus show similar sound level dependent activation of the contralateral auditory cortex as observed in normal audition. In view of recent consciousness models and tinnitus network models these results suggest tinnitus loudness is coded by gamma band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex but might not, by itself, be responsible for tinnitus perception.

  16. Auditory Processing Learning Disability, Suicidal Ideation, and Transformational Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Frank S.; Yocum, Russell G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this personal experience as a narrative investigation is to describe how an auditory processing learning disability exacerbated--and how spirituality and religiosity relieved--suicidal ideation, through the lived experiences of an individual born and raised in the United States. The study addresses: (a) how an auditory processing…

  17. Loudspeaker-based room auralization in auditory perception research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    , and aided-impaired auditory system in realistic environments and (ii) a framework to evaluate the effect of different room modeling and auralisation methods on auditory perception. The applicability of such environment is demonstrated using different objective room acoustic measures. Different experimental...... results are presented, including measures of distance perception and the effect of early reflections on speech intelligibility....

  18. Modeling auditory evoked brainstem responses to transient stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Filip Munch; Dau, Torsten; Harte, James;

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative model is presented that describes the formation of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to tone pulses, clicks and rising chirps as a function of stimulation level. The model computes the convolution of the instantaneous discharge rates using the “humanized” nonlinear auditory-nerve ...

  19. Subdividing the beat: auditory and motor contributions to synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loehr, J.D.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    THE CURRENT STUDY EXAMINED HOW AUDITORY AND kinematic information influenced pianists' ability to synchronize musical sequences with a metronome. Pianists performed melodies in which quarter-note beats were subdivided by intervening eighth notes that resulted from auditory information (heard tones),

  20. Deactivation of the Parahippocampal Gyrus Preceding Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, Kelly M. J.; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Daalman, Kirstin; Blom, Jan Dirk; Goekoop, Rutger; Kahn, Rene S.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Activation in a network of language-related regions has been reported during auditory verbal hallucinations. It remains unclear, however, how this activation is triggered. Identifying brain regions that show significant signal changes preceding auditory hallucinations might reveal the ori

  1. Auditory feedback perturbation in children with developmental speech disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terband, H.R.; van Brenk, F.J.; van Doornik-van der Zee, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background/purpose: Several studies indicate a close relation between auditory and speech motor functions in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to compensate and adapt for perturbed auditory feedback in children with SSD compared to age-m

  2. Comparison of auditory hallucinations across different disorders and syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, Iris E. C.; Koops, Sanne; Blom, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations can be experienced in the context of many different disorders and syndromes. The differential diagnosis basically rests on the presence or absence of accompanying symptoms. In terms of clinical relevance, the most important distinction to be made is between auditory hallucina

  3. Auditory-Visual Transfer in Four-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Morton J.; Ferland, Mark B.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-seven 4-month-old infants heard a repetitive auditory rhythm, then viewed silent film of puppet opening/closing its mouth, either in the familiar rhythm or a novel rhythm. Results showed infants exposed to the novel condition watched the film longer than infants shown the familiar condition, providing evidence for auditory-visual transfer…

  4. A Time-Frequency Auditory Model Using Wavelet Packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    1996-01-01

    A time-frequency auditory model is presented. The model uses the wavelet packet analysis as the preprocessor. The auditory filters are modelled by the rounded exponential filters, and the excitation is smoothed by a window function. By comparing time-frequency excitation patterns it is shown...

  5. Auditory perceptual simulation: Simulating speech rates or accents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peiyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-07-01

    When readers engage in Auditory Perceptual Simulation (APS) during silent reading, they mentally simulate characteristics of voices attributed to a particular speaker or a character depicted in the text. Previous research found that auditory perceptual simulation of a faster native English speaker during silent reading led to shorter reading times that auditory perceptual simulation of a slower non-native English speaker. Yet, it was uncertain whether this difference was triggered by the different speech rates of the speakers, or by the difficulty of simulating an unfamiliar accent. The current study investigates this question by comparing faster Indian-English speech and slower American-English speech in the auditory perceptual simulation paradigm. Analyses of reading times of individual words and the full sentence reveal that the auditory perceptual simulation effect again modulated reading rate, and auditory perceptual simulation of the faster Indian-English speech led to faster reading rates compared to auditory perceptual simulation of the slower American-English speech. The comparison between this experiment and the data from Zhou and Christianson (2016) demonstrate further that the "speakers'" speech rates, rather than the difficulty of simulating a non-native accent, is the primary mechanism underlying auditory perceptual simulation effects.

  6. Auditory Dysfunction and Its Communicative Impact in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Brad W.

    1982-01-01

    The origins and nature of auditory dysfunction in school age children and the role of the audiologist in the evaluation of the learning disabled child are reviewed. Specific structures and mechanisms responsible for the reception and perception of auditory signals are specified. (Author/SEW)

  7. Preparation and Culture of Chicken Auditory Brainstem Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Jason T.; Seidl, Armin H.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Barria, Andres

    2011-01-01

    The chicken auditory brainstem is a well-established model system that has been widely used to study the anatomy and physiology of auditory processing at discreet periods of development 1-4 as well as mechanisms for temporal coding in the central nervous system 5-7.

  8. Auditory signal design for automatic number plate recognition system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydra, C.G.; Jansen, R.J.; Van Egmond, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of an auditory signal for the Automatic Number Plate Recognition system of Dutch national police. The auditory signal is designed to alert police officers of suspicious cars in their proximity, communicating priority level and location of the suspicious car and takin

  9. Enhancement of Visual Motion Detection Thresholds in Early Deaf People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiell, Martha M.; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    In deaf people, the auditory cortex can reorganize to support visual motion processing. Although this cross-modal reorganization has long been thought to subserve enhanced visual abilities, previous research has been unsuccessful at identifying behavioural enhancements specific to motion processing. Recently, research with congenitally deaf cats has uncovered an enhancement for visual motion detection. Our goal was to test for a similar difference between deaf and hearing people. We tested 16 early and profoundly deaf participants and 20 hearing controls. Participants completed a visual motion detection task, in which they were asked to determine which of two sinusoidal gratings was moving. The speed of the moving grating varied according to an adaptive staircase procedure, allowing us to determine the lowest speed necessary for participants to detect motion. Consistent with previous research in deaf cats, the deaf group had lower motion detection thresholds than the hearing. This finding supports the proposal that cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation will occur for supramodal sensory features and preserve the output functions. PMID:24587381

  10. Enhancement of visual motion detection thresholds in early deaf people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiell, Martha M; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    In deaf people, the auditory cortex can reorganize to support visual motion processing. Although this cross-modal reorganization has long been thought to subserve enhanced visual abilities, previous research has been unsuccessful at identifying behavioural enhancements specific to motion processing. Recently, research with congenitally deaf cats has uncovered an enhancement for visual motion detection. Our goal was to test for a similar difference between deaf and hearing people. We tested 16 early and profoundly deaf participants and 20 hearing controls. Participants completed a visual motion detection task, in which they were asked to determine which of two sinusoidal gratings was moving. The speed of the moving grating varied according to an adaptive staircase procedure, allowing us to determine the lowest speed necessary for participants to detect motion. Consistent with previous research in deaf cats, the deaf group had lower motion detection thresholds than the hearing. This finding supports the proposal that cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation will occur for supramodal sensory features and preserve the output functions.

  11. Overview of Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Nagaraj, Naveen K; Kennett, Sarah E W; Levisee, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Although there are many reported age-related declines in the human body, the notion that a central auditory processing deficit exists in older adults has not always been clear. Hearing loss and both structural and functional central nervous system changes with advancing age are contributors to how we listen, hear, and process auditory information. Even older adults with normal or near normal hearing sensitivity may exhibit age-related central auditory processing deficits as measured behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assessment and rehabilitative approaches for central auditory processing deficits in older adults. It is hoped that the outcome of the information presented here will help clinicians with older adult patients who do not exhibit the typical auditory processing behaviors exhibited by others at the same age and with comparable hearing sensitivity all in the absence of other health-related conditions. PMID:27516715

  12. Auditory complaints in scuba divers: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, Rachel A; Bardsley, Barry; C Manchaiah, Vinaya K

    2012-03-01

    Pre-1970s, diving was seen as a predominantly male working occupation. Since then it has become a popular hobby, with increasing access to SCUBA diving while on holiday. For a leisure activity, diving puts the auditory system at the risk of a wide variety of complaints. However, there is still insufficient consensus on the frequency of these conditions, which ultimately would require more attention from hearing-healthcare professionals. A literature search of epidemiology studies of eight auditory complaints was conducted, using both individual and large-scale diving studies, with some reference to large-scale non-diving populations . A higher incidence was found for middle ear barotrauma, eustachian tube dysfunction, and alternobaric vertigo with a high correlation among females. Comparing these findings with a non-diving population found no statistically significant difference for hearing loss or tinnitus. Increased awareness of health professionals is required, training, and implementation of the Frenzel technique would help resolve the ambiguities of the Valsalva technique underwater. PMID:23448900

  13. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-08-01

    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction. PMID:26302716

  14. Organization of the auditory brainstem in a lizard, Gekko gecko. I. Auditory nerve, cochlear nuclei, and superior olivary nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Y. Z.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Carr, C. E.

    2012-01-01

    We used tract tracing to reveal the connections of the auditory brainstem in the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko). The auditory nerve has two divisions, a rostroventrally directed projection of mid- to high best-frequency fibers to the nucleus angularis (NA) and a more dorsal and caudal projection of low...

  15. Auditory Preferences of Young Children with and without Hearing Loss for Meaningful Auditory-Visual Compound Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Barbra; Sussman, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Experiment 1 examined modality preferences in children and adults with normal hearing to combined auditory-visual stimuli. Experiment 2 compared modality preferences in children using cochlear implants participating in an auditory emphasized therapy approach to the children with normal hearing from Experiment 1. A second objective in both…

  16. Auditory Masking Effects on Speech Fluency in Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia: Comparison to Altered Auditory Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacks, Adam; Haley, Katarina L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of masked auditory feedback (MAF) on speech fluency in adults with aphasia and/or apraxia of speech (APH/AOS). We hypothesized that adults with AOS would increase speech fluency when speaking with noise. Altered auditory feedback (AAF; i.e., delayed/frequency-shifted feedback) was included as a control condition not…

  17. Middle components of the auditory evoked response in bilateral temporal lobe lesions. Report on a patient with auditory agnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, A; Salomon, G; Elberling, Claus;

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the middle components of the auditory evoked response (10--50 msec post-stimulus) in a patient with auditory agnosia is reported. Bilateral temporal lobe infarctions were proved by means of brain scintigraphy, CAT scanning, and regional cerebral blood flow measurements. The mi...

  18. Functional studies of the human auditory cortex, auditory memory and musical hallucinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives. 1. To determine which areas of the cerebral cortex are activated stimulating the left ear with pure tones, and what type of stimulation occurs (eg. excitatory or inhibitory) in these different areas. 2. To use this information as an initial step to develop a normal functional data base for future studies. 3. To try to determine if there is a biological substrate to the process of recalling previous auditory perceptions and if possible, suggest a locus for auditory memory. Method. Brain perfusion single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) evaluation was conducted: 1-2) Using auditory stimulation with pure tones in 4 volunteers with normal hearing. 3) In a patient with bilateral profound hearing loss who had auditory perception of previous musical experiences; while injected with Tc99m HMPAO while she was having the sensation of hearing a well known melody. Results. Both in the patient with auditory hallucinations and the normal controls -stimulated with pure tones- there was a statistically significant increase in perfusion in Brodmann's area 39, more intense on the right side (right to left p < 0.05). With a lesser intensity there was activation in the adjacent area 40 and there was intense activation also in the executive frontal cortex areas 6, 8, 9, and 10 of Brodmann. There was also activation of area 7 of Brodmann; an audio-visual association area; more marked on the right side in the patient and the normal stimulated controls. In the subcortical structures there was also marked activation in the patient with hallucinations in both lentiform nuclei, thalamus and caudate nuclei also more intense in the right hemisphere, 5, 4.7 and 4.2 S.D. above the mean respectively and 5, 3.3, and 3 S.D. above the normal mean in the left hemisphere respectively. Similar findings were observed in normal controls. Conclusions. After auditory stimulation with pure tones in the left ear of normal female volunteers, there is bilateral activation of area 39

  19. Correlation between auditory brainstem recordings and morphology as seen through the scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultcrantz, M.

    1988-09-01

    Pregnant CBA/CBA mice were exposed to 0.5, 1 and 2 Grey (Gy), (1 Gy = 100 rad) in single doses with whole body gamma-irradiation on the 12th, 13th and 16th gestational days, respectively. The animals were tested at an age of one month for vestibular and cochlear function. Thereafter the inner ears were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. A morphological analysis with cytocochleograms was performed. Morphological changes in the vestibular part showed gross malformations in the cristae ampullares. Hair cells of type I seemed to be more severely changed than hair cells type II. The macula utriculi also showed malformations of the otoconia. All these changes were more pronounced when the irradiation was given early during pregnancy and with the highest doses used, except the otoconia which were more injured when irradiated day 16 of gestation. No disturbances of the equilibrium reflexes were noted. In the cochlea a dose-dependent, time-related damage pattern was demonstrated with pathological changes of outer (OHC) and inner (IHC) hair cells. When tested electrophysiologically for auditory function with auditory brainstem recordings (ABR), elevated thresholds were revealed different in shape depending on when during pregnancy irradiation took place. A good correlation existed between the morphological changes as seen in the cytocochleograms and the functional changes documented with the ABR.

  20. IMPAIRED PROCESSING IN THE PRIMARY AUDITORY CORTEX OF AN ANIMAL MODEL OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata eAnomal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder clinically characterized by deficits in communication, lack of social interaction and, repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. A number of studies have reported that sensory perception abnormalities are common in autistic individuals and might contribute to the complex behavioral symptoms of the disorder. In this context, hearing incongruence is particularly prevalent. Considering that some of this abnormal processing might stem from the unbalance of inhibitory and excitatory drives in brain circuitries, we used an animal model of autism induced by valproic acid (VPA during pregnancy in order to investigate the tonotopic organization of the primary auditory cortex (AI and its local inhibitory circuitry. Our results show that VPA rats have distorted primary auditory maps with over-representation of high frequencies, broadly tuned receptive fields and higher sound intensity thresholds as compared to controls. However, we did not detect differences in the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in AI of VPA and control rats. Altogether our findings show that neurophysiological impairments of hearing perception in this autism model occur independently of alterations in the number of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. These data support the notion that fine circuit alterations, rather than gross cellular modification, could lead to neurophysiological changes in the autistic brain.

  1. Correlation between auditory brainstem recordings and morphology as seen through the scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnant CBA/CBA mice were exposed to 0.5, 1 and 2 Grey (Gy), (1 Gy = 100 rad) in single doses with whole body gamma-irradiation on the 12th, 13th and 16th gestational days, respectively. The animals were tested at an age of one month for vestibular and cochlear function. Thereafter the inner ears were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. A morphological analysis with cytocochleograms was performed. Morphological changes in the vestibular part showed gross malformations in the cristae ampullares. Hair cells of type I seemed to be more severely changed than hair cells type II. The macula utriculi also showed malformations of the otoconia. All these changes were more pronounced when the irradiation was given early during pregnancy and with the highest doses used, except the otoconia which were more injured when irradiated day 16 of gestation. No disturbances of the equilibrium reflexes were noted. In the cochlea a dose-dependent, time-related damage pattern was demonstrated with pathological changes of outer (OHC) and inner (IHC) hair cells. When tested electrophysiologically for auditory function with auditory brainstem recordings (ABR), elevated thresholds were revealed different in shape depending on when during pregnancy irradiation took place. A good correlation existed between the morphological changes as seen in the cytocochleograms and the functional changes documented with the ABR

  2. Habituation of Auditory Steady State Responses Evoked by Amplitude-Modulated Acoustic Signals in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Gutierrez, Pavel; Castro-Fariñas, Anisleidy; Morgado-Rodriguez, Lisbet; Velarde-Reyes, Ernesto; Martínez, Agustín D.; Martínez-Montes, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Generation of the auditory steady state responses (ASSR) is commonly explained by the linear combination of random background noise activity and the stationary response. Based on this model, the decrease of amplitude that occurs over the sequential averaging of epochs of the raw data has been exclusively linked to the cancelation of noise. Nevertheless, this behavior might also reflect the non-stationary response of the ASSR generators. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing the ASSR time course in rats with different auditory maturational stages. ASSR were evoked by 8-kHz tones of different supra-threshold intensities, modulated in amplitude at 115 Hz. Results show that the ASSR amplitude habituated to the sustained stimulation and that dishabituation occurred when deviant stimuli were presented. ASSR habituation increased as animals became adults, suggesting that the ability to filter acoustic stimuli with no-relevant temporal information increased with age. Results are discussed in terms of the current model of the ASSR generation and analysis procedures. They might have implications for audiometric tests designed to assess hearing in subjects who cannot provide reliable results in the psychophysical trials. PMID:26557360

  3. Effects of glutamate on distortion-product otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qing; SUN Jian-he; SHAN Xi-zheng; LI Xing-qi

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes in evoked potentials and structure of the guinea pig cochleae during whole cochlear perfusion with glutamate. Methods CM, CAP, DPOAE, and ABR were recorded as indicators of cochlear functions during whole cochlear perfusion. The morphology of the cochlea was studied via transmission electron microscopy. Results There were no significant changes in DPOAE amplitude before and after glutamate perfusion. CM I/O function remained nonlinear during perfusion. ABR latencies were delayed following glutamate perfusion. The average CAP threshold was elevated 35 dB SPL following glutamate perfusion.. The OHCs appeared normal, but the IHCs and afferent dendrites showed cytoplasmic blebs after glutamate perfusion. Conclusions While being a primary amino acid neurotransmitter at the synapses between hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons, excessive glutamate is neurotoxic and can destroy IHCs and spiral ganglion neurons. The technique used in this study can also be used to build an animal model of auditory neuropathy.

  4. Modeling auditory processing and speech perception in hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve

    . It was shown that most observations in the measured consonant discrimination error patterns were predicted by the model, although error rates were systematically underestimated by the model in few particular acoustic-phonetic features. These results reflect a relation between basic auditory processing deficits....... It was shown that an accurate simulation of cochlear input-output functions, in addition to the audiogram, played a major role in accounting both for sensitivity and supra-threshold processing. Finally, the model was used as a front-end in a framework developed to predict consonant discrimination...... and reduced speech perception performance in the listeners with cochlear hearing loss. Overall, this work suggests a possible explanation of the variability in consequences of cochlear hearing loss. The proposed model might be an interesting tool for, e.g., evaluation of hearing-aid signal processing....

  5. Temporal resolution of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, David A; Colbert, Debborah E; Gaspard, Joseph C; Casper, Brandon M; Cook, Mandy L H; Reep, Roger L; Bauer, Gordon B

    2005-10-01

    Auditory evoked potential (AEP) measurements of two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were measured in response to amplitude modulated tones. The AEP measurements showed weak responses to test stimuli from 4 kHz to 40 kHz. The manatee modulation rate transfer function (MRTF) is maximally sensitive to 150 and 600 Hz amplitude modulation (AM) rates. The 600 Hz AM rate is midway between the AM sensitivities of terrestrial mammals (chinchillas, gerbils, and humans) (80-150 Hz) and dolphins (1,000-1,200 Hz). Audiograms estimated from the input-output functions of the EPs greatly underestimate behavioral hearing thresholds measured in two other manatees. This underestimation is probably due to the electrodes being located several centimeters from the brain. PMID:16001184

  6. Iran: the next nuclear threshold state?

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A nuclear threshold state is one that could quickly operationalize its peaceful nuclear program into one capable of producing a nuclear weapon. This thesis compares two known threshold states, Japan and Brazil, with Iran to determine if the Islamic Republic could also be labeled a threshold state. Furthermore, it highlights the implications such a status could have on U.S. nonproliferation policy. Although Iran's nuclear program is mir...

  7. VIBRATORY THRESHOLDS AND MOBILITY IN OLDER PERSONS

    OpenAIRE

    Buchman, Aron S; Wilson, Robert S.; Leurgans, Sue; David A Bennett

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that vibratory thresholds in the elderly are related to mobility. 629 older persons without dementia underwent testing including 11 lower extremity performance measures and modified UPDRS, summarized as composite mobility and global Parkinsonian signs. Vibratory thresholds were measured at the ankle and toes bilaterally using the graduated Rydel-Seiffer tuning fork. In linear regression models adjusted for age, sex and education, vibratory threshold was associated wit...

  8. Percolation Threshold in Polycarbonate Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Suresh

    2014-03-01

    Nanocomposites have unique mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical and thermal properties. Many methods could be applied to prepare polymer-inorganic nanocomposites, such as sol-gel processing, in-situ polymerization, particle in-situ formation, blending, and radiation synthesis. The analytical composite models that have been put forth include Voigt and Reuss bounds, Polymer nanocomposites offer the possibility of substantial improvements in material properties such as shear and bulk modulus, yield strength, toughness, film scratch resistance, optical properties, electrical conductivity, gas and solvent transport, with only very small amounts of nanoparticles Experimental results are compared against composite models of Hashin and Shtrikman bounds, Halpin-Tsai model, Cox model, and various Mori and Tanaka models. Examples of numerical modeling are molecular dynamics modeling and finite element modeling of reduced modulus and hardness that takes into account the modulus of the components and the effect of the interface between the hard filler and relatively soft polymer, polycarbonate. Higher nanoparticle concentration results in poor dispersion and adhesion to polymer matrix which results in lower modulus and hardness and departure from the existing composite models. As the level of silica increases beyond a threshold level, aggregates form which results in weakening of the structure. Polymer silica interface is found to be weak as silica is non-interacting promoting interfacial slip at silica-matrix junctions. Our experimental results compare favorably with those of nanocomposites of polyesters where the effect of nanoclay on composite hardness and modulus depended on dispersion of nanoclay in polyester.

  9. Efficient threshold for volumetric segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdescu, Dumitru D.; Brezovan, Marius; Stanescu, Liana; Stoica Spahiu, Cosmin; Ebanca, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Image segmentation plays a crucial role in effective understanding of digital images. However, the research on the existence of general purpose segmentation algorithm that suits for variety of applications is still very much active. Among the many approaches in performing image segmentation, graph based approach is gaining popularity primarily due to its ability in reflecting global image properties. Volumetric image segmentation can simply result an image partition composed by relevant regions, but the most fundamental challenge in segmentation algorithm is to precisely define the volumetric extent of some object, which may be represented by the union of multiple regions. The aim in this paper is to present a new method to detect visual objects from color volumetric images and efficient threshold. We present a unified framework for volumetric image segmentation and contour extraction that uses a virtual tree-hexagonal structure defined on the set of the image voxels. The advantage of using a virtual tree-hexagonal network superposed over the initial image voxels is that it reduces the execution time and the memory space used, without losing the initial resolution of the image.

  10. Auditory sensitivity and the outer hair cell system in the CBA mouse model of age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Robert D; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2010-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss is a highly prevalent sensory disorder, from both the clinical and animal model perspectives. Understanding of the neurophysiologic, structural, and molecular biologic bases of age-related hearing loss will facilitate development of biomedical therapeutic interventions to prevent, slow, or reverse its progression. Thus, increased understanding of relationships between aging of the cochlear (auditory portion of the inner ear) hair cell system and decline in overall hearing ability is necessary. The goal of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that there would be correlations between physiologic measures of outer hair cell function (otoacoustic emission levels) and hearing sensitivity (auditory brainstem response thresholds), starting in middle age. For the CBA mouse, a useful animal model of age-related hearing loss, it was found that correlations between these two hearing measures occurred only for high sound frequencies in middle age. However, in old age, a correlation was observed across the entire mouse range of hearing. These findings have implications for improved early detection of progression of age-related hearing loss in middle-aged mammals, including mice and humans, and distinguishing peripheral etiologies from central auditory system decline.

  11. Enhance Confidentiality of Threshold Signature for MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; XIONG Zhongwei

    2006-01-01

    The participating wireless mobile node that mobile ad hoc network (MANET) communications need to forward may be malicious. That means not only adversary might be able to acquire some sensitive information of the threshold signatures from the compromised node, but also the partial signatures may be fabricated by malicious node, the advantages of threshold signatures would disappear. Signing and encrypting the sensitive information of the threshold signatures, and only the specified receiver can recover it, which will improve the confidentiality of threshold signatures. The security analysis shows the method is suitable for the secure characteristic of MANET that has the malicious nodes, and the message transmission is secure can against the attack.

  12. Auditory brainstem responses to clicks and tone bursts in C57 BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimemi, P; Santarelli, R; Selmo, A; Mammano, F

    2014-08-01

    In auditory research, hearing function of mouse mutants is assessed in vivo by evoked potential recording. Evaluation of the response parameters should be performed with reference to the evoked responses recorded from wild-type mice. This study reports normative data calculated on auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) obtained from 20 wild-type C57 BL/6J mice at a postnatal age between 21 and 45 days. Acoustic stimuli consisted tone bursts at 8, 14, 20, 26, 32 kHz, and clicks. Each stimulus was delivered in free field at stimulation intensity starting from a maximum of 100 dB peak equivalent SPL (dB peSPL) at decreasing steps of 10 dB with a repetition rate of 13/sec. Evoked responses were recorded by needle electrodes inserted subcutaneously. At high intensity stimulation, five response waveforms, each consisting of a positive peak and a subsequent negative valley, were identified within 7 msec, and were labelled with sequential capital Roman numerals from I to V. Peak IV was the most robust and stable at low intensities for both tone burst and click stimuli, and was therefore utilized to estimate hearing thresholds. Both latencies and amplitudes of ABR peaks showed good reproducibility with acceptable standard deviations. Mean wave IV thresholds measured across all animals ranged from a maximum of 23 dB peSPL for clicks to a minimum of 7 dB peSPL for 20 kHz-tone burst stimuli. Statistical analysis of the distribution of latencies and amplitudes of peaks from I to V performed for each stimulus type yielded a normative data set which was utilised to obtain the most consistent fitting-curve model. This could serve as a reference for further studies on murine models of hearing loss.

  13. Gap prepulse inhibition and auditory brainstem evoked potentials as objective measures for tinnitus in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eDehmel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus or ringing of the ears is a subjective phantom sensation necessitating behavioral models that objectively demonstrate the existence and quality of the tinnitus sensation. The gap detection test uses the acoustic startle response elicited by loud noise pulses and its gating or suppression by preceding sub-startling prepulses. Gaps in noise bands serve as prepulses, assuming that ongoing tinnitus masks the gap and results in impaired gap detection. This test has shown its reliability in rats, mice, and gerbils. No data exists for the guinea pig so far, although gap detection is similar across mammals and the acoustic startle response is a well-established tool in guinea pig studies of psychiatric disorders and in pharmacological studies. Here we investigated the startle behavior and prepulse inhibition (PPI of the guinea pig and showed that guinea pigs have a reliable startle response that can be suppressed by 15 ms gaps embedded in narrow noise bands preceding the startle noise pulse. After recovery of auditory brainstem response (ABR thresholds from a unilateral noise over-exposure centered at 7 kHz, guinea pigs showed diminished gap-induced reduction of the startle response in frequency bands between 8 and 18 kHz. This suggests the development of tinnitus in frequency regions that showed a temporary threshold shift (TTS after noise over-exposure. Changes in discharge rate and synchrony, two neuronal correlates of tinnitus, should be reflected in altered ABR waveforms, which would be useful to objectively detect tinnitus and its localization to auditory brainstem structures. Therefore we analyzed latencies and amplitudes of the first five ABR waves at suprathreshold sound intensities and correlated ABR abnormalities with the results of the behavioral tinnitus testing. Early ABR wave amplitudes up to N3 were increased for animals with tinnitus possibly stemming from hyperactivity and hypersynchrony underlying the tinnitus percept.

  14. Hierarchical effects of task engagement on amplitude modulation encoding in auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Mamiko; O'Connor, Kevin N; Engall, Elizabeth; Johnson, Jeffrey S; Sutter, M L

    2015-01-01

    We recorded from middle lateral belt (ML) and primary (A1) auditory cortical neurons while animals discriminated amplitude-modulated (AM) sounds and also while they sat passively. Engagement in AM discrimination improved ML and A1 neurons' ability to discriminate AM with both firing rate and phase-locking; however, task engagement affected neural AM discrimination differently in the two fields. The results suggest that these two areas utilize different AM coding schemes: a "single mode" in A1 that relies on increased activity for AM relative to unmodulated sounds and a "dual-polar mode" in ML that uses both increases and decreases in neural activity to encode modulation. In the dual-polar ML code, nonsynchronized responses might play a special role. The results are consistent with findings in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices during discrimination of vibrotactile modulation frequency, implicating a common scheme in the hierarchical processing of temporal information among different modalities. The time course of activity differences between behaving and passive conditions was also distinct in A1 and ML and may have implications for auditory attention. At modulation depths ≥ 16% (approximately behavioral threshold), A1 neurons' improvement in distinguishing AM from unmodulated noise is relatively constant or improves slightly with increasing modulation depth. In ML, improvement during engagement is most pronounced near threshold and disappears at highly suprathreshold depths. This ML effect is evident later in the stimulus, and mainly in nonsynchronized responses. This suggests that attention-related increases in activity are stronger or longer-lasting for more difficult stimuli in ML.

  15. Auditory-perceptual learning improves speech motor adaptation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Douglas M; Rochon, Marie-Lyne

    2014-08-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in children's speech development by providing the child with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and fine-tune speech motor plans. The use of auditory feedback in speech motor learning has been extensively studied in adults by examining oral motor responses to manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production. Children are also capable of adapting speech motor patterns to perceived changes in auditory feedback; however, it is not known whether their capacity for motor learning is limited by immature auditory-perceptual abilities. Here, the link between speech perceptual ability and the capacity for motor learning was explored in two groups of 5- to 7-year-old children who underwent a period of auditory perceptual training followed by tests of speech motor adaptation to altered auditory feedback. One group received perceptual training on a speech acoustic property relevant to the motor task while a control group received perceptual training on an irrelevant speech contrast. Learned perceptual improvements led to an enhancement in speech motor adaptation (proportional to the perceptual change) only for the experimental group. The results indicate that children's ability to perceive relevant speech acoustic properties has a direct influence on their capacity for sensory-based speech motor adaptation.

  16. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Georgiadis, Janniko R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Groningen (Netherlands); Holstege, Gert [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Uroneurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Wit, Hero P. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); Albers, Frans W.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  17. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  18. A corollary discharge maintains auditory sensitivity during sound production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, James F A; Hedwig, Berthold

    2002-08-22

    Speaking and singing present the auditory system of the caller with two fundamental problems: discriminating between self-generated and external auditory signals and preventing desensitization. In humans and many other vertebrates, auditory neurons in the brain are inhibited during vocalization but little is known about the nature of the inhibition. Here we show, using intracellular recordings of auditory neurons in the singing cricket, that presynaptic inhibition of auditory afferents and postsynaptic inhibition of an identified auditory interneuron occur in phase with the song pattern. Presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition persist in a fictively singing, isolated cricket central nervous system and are therefore the result of a corollary discharge from the singing motor network. Mimicking inhibition in the interneuron by injecting hyperpolarizing current suppresses its spiking response to a 100-dB sound pressure level (SPL) acoustic stimulus and maintains its response to subsequent, quieter stimuli. Inhibition by the corollary discharge reduces the neural response to self-generated sound and protects the cricket's auditory pathway from self-induced desensitization.

  19. Biological impact of music and software-based auditory training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Auditory-based communication skills are developed at a young age and are maintained throughout our lives. However, some individuals – both young and old – encounter difficulties in achieving or maintaining communication proficiency. Biological signals arising from hearing sounds relate to real-life communication skills such as listening to speech in noisy environments and reading, pointing to an intersection between hearing and cognition. Musical experience, amplification, and software-based training can improve these biological signals. These findings of biological plasticity, in a variety of subject populations, relate to attention and auditory memory, and represent an integrated auditory system influenced by both sensation and cognition. Learning outcomes The reader will (1) understand that the auditory system is malleable to experience and training, (2) learn the ingredients necessary for auditory learning to successfully be applied to communication, (3) learn that the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) is a window into the integrated auditory system, and (4) see examples of how cABR can be used to track the outcome of experience and training. PMID:22789822

  20. Cochlear Responses and Auditory Brainstem Response Functions in Adults with Auditory Neuropathy/ Dys-Synchrony and Individuals with Normal Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Physiologic measures of cochlear and auditory nerve function may be of assis¬tance in distinguishing between hearing disorders due primarily to auditory nerve impairment from those due primarily to cochlear hair cells dysfunction. The goal of present study was to measure of co-chlear responses (otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonics and auditory brainstem response in some adults with auditory neuropathy/ dys-synchrony and subjects with normal hearing. Materials and Methods: Patients were 16 adults (32 ears in age range of 14-30 years with auditory neu¬ropathy/ dys-synchrony and 16 individuals in age range of 16-30 years from both sexes. The results of transient otoacoustic emissions, cochlear microphonics and auditory brainstem response measures were compared in both groups and the effects of age, sex, ear and degree of hearing loss were studied. Results: The pure-tone average was 48.1 dB HL in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony group and the fre¬quency of low tone loss and flat audiograms were higher among other audiogram's shapes. Transient oto¬acoustic emissions were shown in all auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony people except two cases and its average was near in both studied groups. The latency and amplitude of the biggest reversed co-chlear microphonics response were higher in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony patients than control peo¬ple significantly. The correlation between cochlear microphonics amplitude and degree of hearing loss was not significant, and age had significant effect in some cochlear microphonics measures. Audi-tory brainstem response had no response in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony patients even with low stim¬uli rates. Conclusion: In adults with speech understanding worsen than predicted from the degree of hearing loss that suspect to auditory neuropathy/ dys-synchrony, the frequency of low tone loss and flat audiograms are higher. Usually auditory brainstem response is absent in

  1. Air pollution is associated with brainstem auditory nuclei pathology and delayed brainstem auditory evoked potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Kulesza, Randy J.; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Osnaya, Norma; Romero, Lina; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane M.; Avila-Ramirez, Jose; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; González-González, Luis Oscar

    2011-01-01

    We assessed brainstem inflammation in children exposed to air pollutants by comparing brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and blood inflammatory markers in children age 96.3± 8.5 months from highly polluted (n=34) versus a low polluted city (n=17). The brainstems of nine children with accidental deaths were also examined. Children from the highly polluted environment had significant delays in wave III (t(50)=17.038; p

  2. Auditory-motor entrainment and phonological skills: precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH)

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Phonological skills are enhanced by music training, but the mechanisms enabling this cross-domain enhancement remain unknown. To explain this cross-domain transfer, we propose a precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH) whereby entrainment practice is the core mechanism underlying enhanced phonological abilities in musicians. Both rhythmic synchronization and language skills such as consonant discrimination, detection of word and phrase boundaries, and conversational turn-taking rely on the p...

  3. Psychophysical and Neural Correlates of Auditory Attraction and Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Kristopher Jakob

    This study explores the psychophysical and neural processes associated with the perception of sounds as either pleasant or aversive. The underlying psychophysical theory is based on auditory scene analysis, the process through which listeners parse auditory signals into individual acoustic sources. The first experiment tests and confirms that a self-rated pleasantness continuum reliably exists for 20 various stimuli (r = .48). In addition, the pleasantness continuum correlated with the physical acoustic characteristics of consonance/dissonance (r = .78), which can facilitate auditory parsing processes. The second experiment uses an fMRI block design to test blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes elicited by a subset of 5 exemplar stimuli chosen from Experiment 1 that are evenly distributed over the pleasantness continuum. Specifically, it tests and confirms that the pleasantness continuum produces systematic changes in brain activity for unpleasant acoustic stimuli beyond what occurs with pleasant auditory stimuli. Results revealed that the combination of two positively and two negatively valenced experimental sounds compared to one neutral baseline control elicited BOLD increases in the primary auditory cortex, specifically the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex; the latter being consistent with a frontal decision-making process common in identification tasks. The negatively-valenced stimuli yielded additional BOLD increases in the left insula, which typically indicates processing of visceral emotions. The positively-valenced stimuli did not yield any significant BOLD activation, consistent with consonant, harmonic stimuli being the prototypical acoustic pattern of auditory objects that is optimal for auditory scene analysis. Both the psychophysical findings of Experiment 1 and the neural processing findings of Experiment 2 support that consonance is an important dimension of sound that is processed in a manner that aids

  4. Continuity of visual and auditory rhythms influences sensorimotor coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Varlet

    Full Text Available People often coordinate their movement with visual and auditory environmental rhythms. Previous research showed better performances when coordinating with auditory compared to visual stimuli, and with bimodal compared to unimodal stimuli. However, these results have been demonstrated with discrete rhythms and it is possible that such effects depend on the continuity of the stimulus rhythms (i.e., whether they are discrete or continuous. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of the continuity of visual and auditory rhythms on sensorimotor coordination. We examined the dynamics of synchronized oscillations of a wrist pendulum with auditory and visual rhythms at different frequencies, which were either unimodal or bimodal and discrete or continuous. Specifically, the stimuli used were a light flash, a fading light, a short tone and a frequency-modulated tone. The results demonstrate that the continuity of the stimulus rhythms strongly influences visual and auditory motor coordination. Participants' movement led continuous stimuli and followed discrete stimuli. Asymmetries between the half-cycles of the movement in term of duration and nonlinearity of the trajectory occurred with slower discrete rhythms. Furthermore, the results show that the differences of performance between visual and auditory modalities depend on the continuity of the stimulus rhythms as indicated by movements closer to the instructed coordination for the auditory modality when coordinating with discrete stimuli. The results also indicate that visual and auditory rhythms are integrated together in order to better coordinate irrespective of their continuity, as indicated by less variable coordination closer to the instructed pattern. Generally, the findings have important implications for understanding how we coordinate our movements with visual and auditory environmental rhythms in everyday life.

  5. Cortical oscillations in auditory perception and speech: evidence for two temporal windows in human auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan eLuo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sounds, including vocal communication sounds, contain critical information at multiple time scales. Two essential temporal modulation rates in speech have been argued to be in the low gamma band (~20-80 ms duration information and the theta band (~150-300 ms, corresponding to segmental and syllabic modulation rates, respectively. On one hypothesis, auditory cortex implements temporal integration using time constants closely related to these values. The neural correlates of a proposed dual temporal window mechanism in human auditory cortex remain poorly understood. We recorded MEG responses from participants listening to non-speech auditory stimuli with different temporal structures, created by concatenating frequency-modulated segments of varied segment durations. We show that these non-speech stimuli with temporal structure matching speech-relevant scales (~25 ms and ~200 ms elicit reliable phase tracking in the corresponding associated oscillatory frequencies (low gamma and theta bands. In contrast, stimuli with non-matching temporal structure do not. Furthermore, the topography of theta band phase tracking shows rightward lateralization while gamma band phase tracking occurs bilaterally. The results support the hypothesis that there exists multi-time resolution processing in cortex on discontinuous scales and provide evidence for an asymmetric organization of temporal analysis (asymmetrical sampling in time, AST. The data argue for a macroscopic-level neural mechanism underlying multi-time resolution processing: the sliding and resetting of intrinsic temporal windows on privileged time scales.

  6. [Auditory guidance systems for the visually impaired people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Nie, Min; Luo, Lan; Tong, Shanbao; Niu, Jinhai; Zhu, Yisheng

    2010-04-01

    Visually impaired people face many inconveniences because of the loss of vision. Therefore, scientists are trying to design various guidance systems for improving the lives of the blind. Based on sensory substitution, auditory guidance has become an interesting topic in the field of biomedical engineering. In this paper, we made a state-of-technique review of the auditory guidance system. Although there have been many technical challenges, the auditory guidance system would be a useful alternative for the visually impaired people. PMID:20481341

  7. Tiapride for the treatment of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Karia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hallucinations are considered as core symptoms of psychosis by both International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for the Classification of Psychiatric Disorders - 4 th edition text revised (DSM-IV TR. The most common types of hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia are auditory in nature followed by visual hallucinations. Few patients with schizophrenia have persisting auditory hallucinations despite all other features of schizophrenia having being improved. Here, we report two cases where tiapride was useful as an add-on drug for treating persistent auditory hallucinations.

  8. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Pearce, Marcus T

    2014-01-01

    and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty). We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note......Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty—a property of listeners' prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine...... the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure. Using...

  9. An analysis of auditory alphabet confusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M E

    1989-04-01

    The present study, using the nonhierarchical overlapping clustering algorithm MAPCLUS to fit the Shepard-Arabie (1979) ADCLUS model, attempted to derive a set of features that would accurately describe the auditory alphabet confusions present in the data matrices of Conrad (1964) and Hull (1973). Separate nine-cluster solutions accounted for 80% and 89% of the variance in the matrices, respectively. The clusters revealed that the most frequently confused letter names contained common vowels and phonetically similar consonants. Further analyses using INDCLUS, an individual differences extension of the MAPCLUS algorithm and ADCLUS model, indicated that while the patterns of errors in the two matrices were remarkably similar, some differences were also apparent. These differences reflected the differing amounts of background noise present in the two studies. PMID:2710632

  10. Discrimination of auditory stimuli during isoflurane anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Manuel J; Navas, Jinna A; Greene, Stephen A; Rector, David M

    2008-10-01

    Deep isoflurane anesthesia initiates a burst suppression pattern in which high-amplitude bursts are preceded by periods of nearly silent electroencephalogram. The burst suppression ratio (BSR) is the percentage of suppression (silent electroencephalogram) during the burst suppression pattern and is one parameter used to assess anesthesia depth. We investigated cortical burst activity in rats in response to different auditory stimuli presented during the burst suppression state. We noted a rapid appearance of bursts and a significant decrease in the BSR during stimulation. The BSR changes were distinctive for the different stimuli applied, and the BSR decreased significantly more when stimulated with a voice familiar to the rat as compared with an unfamiliar voice. These results show that the cortex can show differential sensory responses during deep isoflurane anesthesia.

  11. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    . PATIENTS: Ten women and 10 men with previously untreated primary cancer. Median age at diagnosis was 67 years (range, 31-87 years). Survival data included 18 patients with at least 2 years of follow-up or recurrence. INTERVENTION: Local canal resection or partial temporal bone resection. MAIN OUTCOME......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000...... MEASURE: Recurrence rate. RESULTS: Half of the patients had squamous cell carcinoma. Thirteen of the patients had stage I tumor (65%), 2 had stage II (10%), 2 had stage III (10%), and 3 had stage IV tumor (15%). Twelve patients were cured. All patients with stage I or II cancers were cured except 1...

  12. On Optimality in Auditory Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Karlsson, M

    2000-01-01

    We study limits for the detection and estimation of weak sinusoidal signals in the primary part of the mammalian auditory system using a stochastic Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FHN) model and an action-reaction model for synaptic plasticity. Our overall model covers the chain from a hair cell to a point just after the synaptic connection with a cell in the cochlear nucleus. The information processing performance of the system is evaluated using so called phi-divergences from statistics which quantify a dissimilarity between probability measures and are intimately related to a number of fundamental limits in statistics and information theory (IT). We show that there exists a set of parameters that can optimize several important phi-divergences simultaneously and that this set corresponds to a constant quiescent firing rate (QFR) of the spiral ganglion neuron. The optimal value of the QFR is frequency dependent but is essentially independent of the amplitude of the signal (for small amplitudes). Consequently, optimal proce...

  13. Changes of brainstem auditory and somatosensory evoked

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jian

    2000-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the characteristics and clinical value of evoked potentials in late infantile form of metachromatic leukodystrophy. Methods: Brainstem auditory, and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded in 6 patients, and compared with the results of CT scan. Results: All of the 6 patients had abnormal results of BAEP and MNSEP. The main abnormal parameters in BAEP were latency prolongation in wave I, inter-peak latency prolongation in Ⅰ-Ⅲ and Ⅰ-Ⅴ. The abnormal features of MNSEP were low amplitude and absence of wave N9, inter-Peak latency prolongation in Ng-N13 and N13-N20, but no significant change of N20 amplitude. The results also revealed that abnormal changes in BAEP and MNSEP were earlier than that in CT. Conclusion: The detection of BAEP and MNSEP in late infantile form of metachromatic leukodystrophy might early reveal the abnormality of conductive function in nervous system and might be a useful method in diagnosis.

  14. Biomedical Simulation Models of Human Auditory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicak, Mehmet M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed acoustic engineering models that explore noise propagation mechanisms associated with noise attenuation and transmission paths created when using hearing protectors such as earplugs and headsets in high noise environments. Biomedical finite element (FE) models are developed based on volume Computed Tomography scan data which provides explicit external ear, ear canal, middle ear ossicular bones and cochlea geometry. Results from these studies have enabled a greater understanding of hearing protector to flesh dynamics as well as prioritizing noise propagation mechanisms. Prioritization of noise mechanisms can form an essential framework for exploration of new design principles and methods in both earplug and earcup applications. These models are currently being used in development of a novel hearing protection evaluation system that can provide experimentally correlated psychoacoustic noise attenuation. Moreover, these FE models can be used to simulate the effects of blast related impulse noise on human auditory mechanisms and brain tissue.

  15. Practiced musical style shapes auditory skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Seppänen, Miia; Näätänen, Risto; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2012-04-01

    Musicians' processing of sounds depends highly on instrument, performance practice, and level of expertise. Here, we measured the mismatch negativity (MMN), a preattentive brain response, to six types of musical feature change in musicians playing three distinct styles of music (classical, jazz, and rock/pop) and in nonmusicians using a novel, fast, and musical sounding multifeature MMN paradigm. We found MMN to all six deviants, showing that MMN paradigms can be adapted to resemble a musical context. Furthermore, we found that jazz musicians had larger MMN amplitude than all other experimental groups across all sound features, indicating greater overall sensitivity to auditory outliers. Furthermore, we observed a tendency toward shorter latency of the MMN to all feature changes in jazz musicians compared to band musicians. These findings indicate that the characteristics of the style of music played by musicians influence their perceptual skills and the brain processing of sound features embedded in music. PMID:22524351

  16. Resting Heart Rate and Auditory Evoked Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fiuza Regaçone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between rest heart rate (HR and the components of the auditory evoked-related potentials (ERPs at rest in women. We investigated 21 healthy female university students between 18 and 24 years old. We performed complete audiological evaluation and measurement of heart rate for 10 minutes at rest (heart rate monitor Polar RS800CX and performed ERPs analysis (discrepancy in frequency and duration. There was a moderate negative correlation of the N1 and P3a with rest HR and a strong positive correlation of the P2 and N2 components with rest HR. Larger components of the ERP are associated with higher rest HR.

  17. Vocal development and auditory perception in CBA/CaJ mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwon, Kelly E.

    Mice are useful laboratory subjects because of their small size, their modest cost, and the fact that researchers have created many different strains to study a variety of disorders. In particular, researchers have found nearly 100 naturally occurring mouse mutations with hearing impairments. For these reasons, mice have become an important model for studies of human deafness. Although much is known about the genetic makeup and physiology of the laboratory mouse, far less is known about mouse auditory behavior. To fully understand the effects of genetic mutations on hearing, it is necessary to determine the hearing abilities of these mice. Two experiments here examined various aspects of mouse auditory perception using CBA/CaJ mice, a commonly used mouse strain. The frequency difference limens experiment tested the mouse's ability to discriminate one tone from another based solely on the frequency of the tone. The mice had similar thresholds as wild mice and gerbils but needed a larger change in frequency than humans and cats. The second psychoacoustic experiment sought to determine which cue, frequency or duration, was more salient when the mice had to identify various tones. In this identification task, the mice overwhelmingly classified the tones based on frequency instead of duration, suggesting that mice are using frequency when differentiating one mouse vocalization from another. The other two experiments were more naturalistic and involved both auditory perception and mouse vocal production. Interest in mouse vocalizations is growing because of the potential for mice to become a model of human speech disorders. These experiments traced mouse vocal development from infant to adult, and they tested the mouse's preference for various vocalizations. This was the first known study to analyze the vocalizations of individual mice across development. Results showed large variation in calling rates among the three cages of adult mice but results were highly

  18. Detectability thresholds of general modular graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamoto, Tatsuro

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the detectability thresholds of various modular structures in the stochastic block model. Our analysis reveals how the detectability threshold is related to the details of the modular pattern, including the hierarchy of the clusters. We show that certain planted structures are impossible to infer regardless of their fuzziness.

  19. Thresholding magnetic resonance images of human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-mao HU; Wieslaw L NOWINSKI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, methods are proposed and validated to determine low and high thresholds to segment out gray matter and white matter for MR images of different pulse sequences of human brain. First, a two-dimensional reference image is determined to represent the intensity characteristics of the original three-dimensional data. Then a region of interest of the reference image is determined where brain tissues are present. The non-supervised fuzzy c-means clustering is employed to determine: the threshold for obtaining head mask, the low threshold for T2-weighted and PD-weighted images, and the high threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Supervised range-constrained thresholding is employed to determine the low threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Thresholding based on pairs of boundary pixels is proposed to determine the high threshold for T2- and PD-weighted images. Quantification against public data sets with various noise and inhomogeneity levels shows that the proposed methods can yield segmentation robust to noise and intensity inhomogeneity. Qualitatively the proposed methods work well with real clinical data.

  20. Threshold Effects in Coral Reef Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Crépin, Anne Sophie

    2003-01-01

    Coral reefs may naturally flip between coral-dominated and algae-dominated states, when species' stocks trespass some threshold levels. This essay uses a stylized model of a coral reef to show how fishing may induce flips towards more algae-dominated states. Threshold effects have consequences for fisheries management, which are analyzed for open access fisheries and sole ownership.

  1. Intelligence and Creativity: Over the Threshold Together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Marisete Maria; Jaarsveld, Saskia; van Leeuwen, Cees; Lachmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Threshold theory predicts a positive correlation between IQ and creativity scores up to an IQ level of 120 and no correlation above this threshold. Primary school children were tested at beginning (N = 98) and ending (N = 70) of the school year. Participants performed the standard progressive matrices (SPM) and the Test of Creative…

  2. Applying Threshold Concepts to Finance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Wood, Leigh N.; Tickle, Leonie; Kyng, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and identify threshold concepts that are the essential conceptual content of finance programmes. Design/Methodology/Approach: Conducted in three stages with finance academics and students, the study uses threshold concepts as both a theoretical framework and a research methodology. Findings: The…

  3. Threshold Concepts, Systems and Learning for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Orana Jade

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for understanding the role that systems theory might play in education for sustainability (EfS). It offers a sketch and critique of Land and Meyer's notion of a "threshold concept", to argue that seeing systems as a threshold concept for sustainability is useful for understanding the processes of…

  4. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Niels Chr; Pearce, Marcus T

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty-a property of listeners' prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure. Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex). Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty). We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty). Finally, we simulate listeners' perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature. The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music.

  5. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Chr. eHansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty - a property of listeners’ prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure.Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex. Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty. We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty. Finally, we simulate listeners’ perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature.The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music.

  6. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Niels Chr; Pearce, Marcus T

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty-a property of listeners' prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure. Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex). Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty). We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty). Finally, we simulate listeners' perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature. The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music. PMID:25295018

  7. Spatial selective auditory attention in the presence of reverberant energy: individual differences in normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Dorea; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2011-06-01

    Listeners can selectively attend to a desired target by directing attention to known target source features, such as location or pitch. Reverberation, however, reduces the reliability of the cues that allow a target source to be segregated and selected from a sound mixture. Given this, it is likely that reverberant energy interferes with selective auditory attention. Anecdotal reports suggest that the ability to focus spatial auditory attention degrades even with early aging, yet there is little evidence that middle-aged listeners have behavioral deficits on tasks requiring selective auditory attention. The current study was designed to look for individual differences in selective attention ability and to see if any such differences correlate with age. Normal-hearing adults, ranging in age from 18 to 55 years, were asked to report a stream of digits located directly ahead in a simulated rectangular room. Simultaneous, competing masker digit streams were simulated at locations 15° left and right of center. The level of reverberation was varied to alter task difficulty by interfering with localization cues (increasing localization blur). Overall, performance was best in the anechoic condition and worst in the high-reverberation condition. Listeners nearly always reported a digit from one of the three competing streams, showing that reverberation did not render the digits unintelligible. Importantly, inter-subject differences were extremely large. These differences, however, were not significantly correlated with age, memory span, or hearing status. These results show that listeners with audiometrically normal pure tone thresholds differ in their ability to selectively attend to a desired source, a task important in everyday communication. Further work is necessary to determine if these differences arise from differences in peripheral auditory function or in more central function.

  8. Age-related hearing loss: aquaporin 4 gene expression changes in the mouse cochlea and auditory midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Nathan; D'Souza, Mary; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Frisina, Robert D

    2009-02-01

    Presbycusis -- age-related hearing loss, is the number one communication disorder, and one of the top three chronic medical conditions of our aged population. Aquaporins, particularly aquaporin 4 (Aqp4), are membrane proteins with important roles in water and ion flux across cell membranes, including cells of the inner ear and pathways of the brain used for hearing. To more fully understand the biological bases of presbycusis, 39 CBA mice, a well-studied animal model of presbycusis, underwent non-invasive hearing testing as a function of sound frequency (auditory brainstem response -- ABR thresholds, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission -- DPOAE magnitudes), and were clustered into four groups based on age and hearing ability. Aqp4 gene expression, as determined by genechip microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR, was compared to the young adult control group in the three older groups: middle aged with good hearing, old age with mild presbycusis, and old age with severe presbycusis. Linear regression and ANOVA showed statistically significant changes in Aqp4 gene expression and ABR and DPOAE hearing status in the cochlea and auditory midbrain -- inferior colliculus. Down-regulation in the cochlea was seen, and an initial down-, then up-regulation was discovered for the inferior colliculus Aqp4 expression. It is theorized that these changes in Aqp4 gene expression represent an age-related disruption of ion flux in the fluids of the cochlea that are responsible for ionic gradients underlying sound transduction in cochlear hair cells necessary for hearing. In regard to central auditory processing at the level of the auditory midbrain, aquaporin gene expression changes may affect neurotransmitter cycling involving supporting cells, thus impairing complex sound neural processing with age.

  9. Provably secure robust threshold partial blind signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhenfu; ZHU Haojin; LU Rongxing

    2006-01-01

    Threshold digital signature and blind signature are playing important roles in cryptography as well as in practical applications such as e-cash and e-voting systems.Over the past few years, many cryptographic researchers have made considerable headway in this field. However, to our knowledge, most of existing threshold blind signature schemes are based on the discrete logarithm problem. In this paper, we propose a new robust threshold partial blind signature scheme based on improved RSA cryptosystem.This scheme is the first threshold partial blind signature scheme based on factoring, and the robustness of threshold partial blind signature is also introduced. Moreover, in practical application, the proposed scheme will be especially suitable for blind signature-based voting systems with multiple administrators and secure electronic cash systems to prevent their abuse.

  10. Summary of DOE threshold limits efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste in DOE sanitary landfills. Waste above a threshold level could be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. After extensive review of a draft threshold guidance document in 1985, a second draft threshold background document was produced in March 1986. The second draft included a preliminary cost-benefit analysis and quality assurance considerations. The review of the second draft has been completed. Final changes to be incorporated include an in-depth cost-benefit analysis of two example sites and recommendations of how to further pursue (i.e. employ) the concept of threshold quantities within the DOE. 3 references

  11. Secure Undeniable Threshold Proxy Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattar J. Aboud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available the threshold proxy signature scheme allows the original signer to delegate a signature authority to the proxy group to cooperatively sign message on behalf of an original signer. In this paper, we propose a new scheme which includes the features and benefits of the RSA scheme. Also, we will evaluate the security of undeniable threshold proxy signature scheme with known signers. We find that the existing threshold proxy scheme is insecure against the original signer forgery. In this paper, we show the cryptanalysis of an existed scheme. Additional, we propose the secure, undeniable and known signers threshold proxy signature scheme which answers the drawback of an existed scheme. We also demonstrate that a threshold proxy signature suffers from a conspiracy of an original signer and a secret share dealer, that the scheme is commonly forgeable, and cannot offer undeniable. We claim that the proposed scheme offers the undeniable characteristic.

  12. Report on the In-vehicle Auditory Interactions Workshop: Taxonomy, Challenges, and Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Myounghoon; Hermann, Thomas; Bazilinskyy, Pavlo; Landry, Steven; Hammerschmidt, Jan; Wolf, Katie Anna E.; Aghdae, Khashayar; Alvarez, Ignacio; Baldan, Stefano; Camier, Cédric; Chun, Min-Ji; Diatkine, Coralie; Ferguson, Sam; Gable, Thomas M.; Kuppanda Ganapathy, Thimmaiah

    2015-01-01

    As driving is mainly a visual task, auditory displays play a critical role for in-vehicle interactions.To improve in-vehicle auditory interactions to the advanced level, auditory display researchers and automotive user interface researchers came together to discuss this timely topic at an in-vehicle auditory interactions workshop at the International Conference on Auditory Display (ICAD).The present paper reports discussion outcomes from the workshop for more discussions at the AutoUI confere...

  13. Shared and Divergent Auditory and Tactile Processing in Children with Autism and Children with Sensory Processing Dysfunction Relative to Typically Developing Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Carly; Brandes-Aitken, Annie N; Desai, Shivani S; Hill, Susanna S; Antovich, Ashley D; Harris, Julia; Marco, Elysa J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare sensory processing in typically developing children (TDC), children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and those with sensory processing dysfunction (SPD) in the absence of an ASD. Performance-based measures of auditory and tactile processing were compared between male children ages 8-12 years assigned to an ASD (N=20), SPD (N=15), or TDC group (N=19). Both the SPD and ASD groups were impaired relative to the TDC group on a performance-based measure of tactile processing (right-handed graphesthesia). In contrast, only the ASD group showed significant impairment on an auditory processing index assessing dichotic listening, temporal patterning, and auditory discrimination. Furthermore, this impaired auditory processing was associated with parent-rated communication skills for both the ASD group and the combined study sample. No significant group differences were detected on measures of left-handed graphesthesia, tactile sensitivity, or form discrimination; however, more participants in the SPD group demonstrated a higher tactile detection threshold (60%) compared to the TDC (26.7%) and ASD groups (35%). This study provides support for use of performance-based measures in the assessment of children with ASD and SPD and highlights the need to better understand how sensory processing affects the higher order cognitive abilities associated with ASD, such as verbal and non-verbal communication, regardless of diagnostic classification.

  14. The association of obesity with hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçler, Rıfkı; Turan, Mahfuz; Garça, Fatih; Acar, İsmail; Atmaca, Murat; Çankaya, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    An elevation in hearing thresholds and decrease in hearing sensitivity in adults, particularly due to aging, are quite common. Recent studies have shown that, apart from aging, various other factors also play a role in auditory changes. Studies on the association of hearing loss (HL) with obesity are limited in advanced age cases and present contradictions. In this study, the association between obesity and hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years has been assessed. Forty women diagnosed with obesity (mean age, 31.8 years) and 40 healthy non-obese female controls (mean age, 30.5 years) were included in this prospective study. Each subject was tested with low (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high (4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz) frequency audiometry. In the case and control groups, the average hearing thresholds at low frequencies were 16.03 ± 4.72 and 16.15 ± 2.72 (p = 0.885) for the right ear, respectively, and 16.15 ± 5.92 and 14.71 ± 3.18 (p = 0.180) for the left ear, respectively. The average hearing threshold levels at high frequencies were 20.70 ± 10.23 and 15.33 ± 3.87 (p = 0.003), respectively, for the right ear, and 22.91 ± 15.54 and 15.87 ± 4.35 (p = 0.007), respectively, for the left ear with statistical significance. This is the first report on the association of obesity with hearing threshold in women aged 18-40 years. We have demonstrated that obesity may affect hearing function, particularly that related to high frequencies. Hearing loss can be prevented by avoidance or control of obesity and its risk factors. Moreover, an auditory screening of obese cases at an early stage may provide early diagnosis of HL and may also contribute to their awareness in the fight against obesity. PMID:26429780

  15. Auditory hallucinations in childhood : associations with adversity and delusional ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels-Velthuis, A. A.; van de Willige, G.; Jenner, J. A.; Wiersma, D.; van Os, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Previous work suggests that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with the combination of delusions and hallucinations. In the present study, associations between (severity of) auditory vocal hallucinations (AVH) and (i) social adversity [traumatic experiences (TE) and stressful

  16. Auditory Assessment of Visually Impaired Preschoolers: A Team Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Deborah

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of audiological terms and types of hearing impairments to help teachers of visually impaired preschoolers work more effectively with audiologists. Both functional auditory assessment and formal audiometric evaluations are discussed. (Author/CL)

  17. Auditory spatial localization: Developmental delay in children with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappagli, Giulia; Gori, Monica

    2016-01-01

    For individuals with visual impairments, auditory spatial localization is one of the most important features to navigate in the environment. Many works suggest that blind adults show similar or even enhanced performance for localization of auditory cues compared to sighted adults (Collignon, Voss, Lassonde, & Lepore, 2009). To date, the investigation of auditory spatial localization in children with visual impairments has provided contrasting results. Here we report, for the first time, that contrary to visually impaired adults, children with low vision or total blindness show a significant impairment in the localization of static sounds. These results suggest that simple auditory spatial tasks are compromised in children, and that this capacity recovers over time. PMID:27002960

  18. Prospects for replacement of auditory neurons by stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fuxin; Edge, Albert S B

    2013-03-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by degeneration of hair cells or auditory neurons. Spiral ganglion cells, the primary afferent neurons of the auditory system, are patterned during development and send out projections to hair cells and to the brainstem under the control of largely unknown guidance molecules. The neurons do not regenerate after loss and even damage to their projections tends to be permanent. The genesis of spiral ganglion neurons and their synapses forms a basis for regenerative approaches. In this review we critically present the current experimental findings on auditory neuron replacement. We discuss the latest advances with a focus on (a) exogenous stem cell transplantation into the cochlea for neural replacement, (b) expression of local guidance signals in the cochlea after loss of auditory neurons, (c) the possibility of neural replacement from an endogenous cell source, and (d) functional changes from cell engraftment. PMID:23370457

  19. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions ADPEAF autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features Enable Javascript to view the ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of ...

  20. Electrophysiologic Assessment of Auditory Training Benefits in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samira; Jenkins, Kimberly

    2015-11-01

    Older adults often exhibit speech perception deficits in difficult listening environments. At present, hearing aids or cochlear implants are the main options for therapeutic remediation; however, they only address audibility and do not compensate for central processing changes that may accompany aging and hearing loss or declines in cognitive function. It is unknown whether long-term hearing aid or cochlear implant use can restore changes in central encoding of temporal and spectral components of speech or improve cognitive function. Therefore, consideration should be given to auditory/cognitive training that targets auditory processing and cognitive declines, taking advantage of the plastic nature of the central auditory system. The demonstration of treatment efficacy is an important component of any training strategy. Electrophysiologic measures can be used to assess training-related benefits. This article will review the evidence for neuroplasticity in the auditory system and the use of evoked potentials to document treatment efficacy. PMID:27587912

  1. Binaural technology for e.g. rendering auditory virtual environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    Jens Blauert's research up through the late 60ties and later, pioneered the field of binaural technology and auditory virtual environments. He mastered the measurement of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) before the term was introduced, and his methods were standard for decades. While most......, helped mediate the understanding that if the transfer functions could be mastered, then important dimensions of the auditory percept could also be controlled. He early understood the potential of using the HRTFs and numerical sound transmission analysis programs for rendering auditory virtual...... environments. Jens Blauert participated in many European cooperation projects exploring  this field (and others), among other the SCATIS project addressing the auditory-tactile dimensions in the absence of visual information....

  2. Retinoic Acid Stimulates Regeneration of Mammalian Auditory Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Philippe P.; Malgrange, Brigitte; Staecker, Hinrich; Moonen, Gustave; van de Water, Thomas R.

    1993-04-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss resulting from the loss of auditory hair cells is thought to be irreversible in mammals. This study provides evidence that retinoic acid can stimulate the regeneration in vitro of mammalian auditory hair cells in ototoxic-poisoned organ of Corti explants in the rat. In contrast, treatment with retinoic acid does not stimulate the formation of extra hair cells in control cultures of Corti's organ. Retinoic acid-stimulated hair cell regeneration can be blocked by cytosine arabinoside, which suggests that a period of mitosis is required for the regeneration of auditory hair cells in this system. These results provide hope for a recovery of hearing function in mammals after auditory hair cell damage.

  3. Music and the auditory brain: where is the connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel eNelken

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound processing by the auditory system is understood in unprecedented details, even compared with sensory coding in the visual system. Nevertheless, we don't understand yet the way in which some of the simplest perceptual properties of sounds are coded in neuronal activity. This poses serious difficulties for linking neuronal responses in the auditory system and music processing, since music operates on abstract representations of sounds. Paradoxically, although perceptual representations of sounds most probably occur high in auditory system or even beyond it, neuronal responses are strongly affected by the temporal organization of sound streams even in subcortical stations. Thus, to the extent that music is organized sound, it is the organization, rather than the sound, which is represented first in the auditory brain.

  4. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  5. Reinterpreting several narrow `resonances' as threshold cusps

    CERN Document Server

    Bugg, D V

    2004-01-01

    The threshold pbar-p peak in BES data for J/\\Psi to gamma-pbar-p may be fitted as a cusp. It arises from the well known threshold peak in pbar-p elastic scattering due to annihilation. Several similar examples are discussed. The PS185 data for pbar-p to Lambdabar-Lambda require an almost identical cusp at the Lambdabar-Lambda threshold. There is also a cusp at the Sigma-N threshold in Kminus-d to piminus-Lambda-p. Similar cusps are likely to arise at thresholds for all 2-body de-excitation processes, providing the interaction is attractive; likely examples are Lambda-pbar, Sigma-pbar, and Kbar-Lambda. The narrow peak observed by Belle at 3872 MeV in piplus-piminus-J/Psi may be a 1++ cusp due to the Dbar-D* threshold. The narrow Xi*(1862) observed by NA49 may be due to a threshold cusp in Sigma(1385)-Kbar coupled to Xi-pi and Sigma-Kbar. The relation of cusps to known resonances such as fo(980) is discussed.

  6. Motor Training: Comparison of Visual and Auditory Coded Proprioceptive Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Jepson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-perception of body posture and movement is achieved through multi-sensory integration, particularly the utilisation of vision, and proprioceptive information derived from muscles and joints. Disruption to these processes can occur following a neurological accident, such as stroke, leading to sensory and physical impairment. Rehabilitation can be helped through use of augmented visual and auditory biofeedback to stimulate neuro-plasticity, but the effective design and application of feedback, particularly in the auditory domain, is non-trivial. Simple auditory feedback was tested by comparing the stepping accuracy of normal subjects when given a visual spatial target (step length and an auditory temporal target (step duration. A baseline measurement of step length and duration was taken using optical motion capture. Subjects (n=20 took 20 ‘training’ steps (baseline ±25% using either an auditory target (950 Hz tone, bell-shaped gain envelope or visual target (spot marked on the floor and were then asked to replicate the target step (length or duration corresponding to training with all feedback removed. Visual cues (mean percentage error=11.5%; SD ± 7.0%; auditory cues (mean percentage error = 12.9%; SD ± 11.8%. Visual cues elicit a high degree of accuracy both in training and follow-up un-cued tasks; despite the novelty of the auditory cues present for subjects, the mean accuracy of subjects approached that for visual cues, and initial results suggest a limited amount of practice using auditory cues can improve performance.

  7. Feel What You Say: An Auditory Effect on Somatosensory Perception

    OpenAIRE

    François Champoux; Shiller, Douglas M.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate an audiotactile effect in which amplitude modulation of auditory feedback during voiced speech induces a throbbing sensation over the lip and laryngeal regions. Control tasks coupled with the examination of speech acoustic parameters allow us to rule out the possibility that the effect may have been due to cognitive factors or motor compensatory effects. We interpret the effect as reflecting the tight interplay between auditory and tactile modalities durin...

  8. Visual change detection recruits auditory cortices in early deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Davide; Heimler, Benedetta; Caclin, Anne; Dalmolin, Anna; Giard, Marie-Hélène; Pavani, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    Although cross-modal recruitment of early sensory areas in deafness and blindness is well established, the constraints and limits of these plastic changes remain to be understood. In the case of human deafness, for instance, it is known that visual, tactile or visuo-tactile stimuli can elicit a response within the auditory cortices. Nonetheless, both the timing of these evoked responses and the functional contribution of cross-modally recruited areas remain to be ascertained. In the present study, we examined to what extent auditory cortices of deaf humans participate in high-order visual processes, such as visual change detection. By measuring visual ERPs, in particular the visual MisMatch Negativity (vMMN), and performing source localization, we show that individuals with early deafness (N=12) recruit the auditory cortices when a change in motion direction during shape deformation occurs in a continuous visual motion stream. Remarkably this "auditory" response for visual events emerged with the same timing as the visual MMN in hearing controls (N=12), between 150 and 300 ms after the visual change. Furthermore, the recruitment of auditory cortices for visual change detection in early deaf was paired with a reduction of response within the visual system, indicating a shift from visual to auditory cortices of part of the computational process. The present study suggests that the deafened auditory cortices participate at extracting and storing the visual information and at comparing on-line the upcoming visual events, thus indicating that cross-modally recruited auditory cortices can reach this level of computation.

  9. Presentation of dynamically overlapping auditory messages in user interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.L.

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation describes a methodology and example implementation for the dynamic regulation of temporally overlapping auditory messages in computer-user interfaces. The regulation mechanism exists to schedule numerous overlapping auditory messages in such a way that each individual message remains perceptually distinct from all others. The method is based on the research conducted in the area of auditory scene analysis. While numerous applications have been engineered to present the user with temporally overlapped auditory output, they have generally been designed without any structured method of controlling the perceptual aspects of the sound. The method of scheduling temporally overlapping sounds has been extended to function in an environment where numerous applications can present sound independently of each other. The Centralized Audio Presentation System is a global regulation mechanism that controls all audio output requests made from all currently running applications. The notion of multimodal objects is explored in this system as well. Each audio request that represents a particular message can include numerous auditory representations, such as musical motives and voice. The Presentation System scheduling algorithm selects the best representation according to the current global auditory system state, and presents it to the user within the request constraints of priority and maximum acceptable latency. The perceptual conflicts between temporally overlapping audio messages are examined in depth through the Computational Auditory Scene Synthesizer. At the heart of this system is a heuristic-based auditory scene synthesis scheduling method. Different schedules of overlapped sounds are evaluated and assigned penalty scores. High scores represent presentations that include perceptual conflicts between over-lapping sounds. Low scores indicate fewer and less serious conflicts. A user study was conducted to validate that the perceptual difficulties predicted by

  10. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear molds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days) performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localization, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear molds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualized spectral cues. The work with ear molds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving audio-motor feedback (5-10 days) significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide spatial cues but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis. PMID:25147497

  11. Primate Auditory Recognition Memory Performance Varies With Sound Type

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Wing, Ng; Bethany, Plakke; Amy, Poremba

    2009-01-01

    Neural correlates of auditory processing, including for species-specific vocalizations that convey biological and ethological significance (e.g. social status, kinship, environment),have been identified in a wide variety of areas including the temporal and frontal cortices. However, few studies elucidate how non-human primates interact with these vocalization signals when they are challenged by tasks requiring auditory discrimination, recognition, and/or memory. The present study employs a de...

  12. Dissecting the functional anatomy of auditory word repetition

    OpenAIRE

    ‘Ōiwi Parker Jones; Green, David W.; Cathy J Price

    2014-01-01

    Auditory word repetition involves many different brain regions, whose functions are still far from fully understood. Here, we use a single, multi-factorial, within-subjects fMRI design to identify those regions, and to functionally distinguish the multiple linguistic and non-linguistic processing areas that are all involved in repeating back heard words. The study compared: (1) auditory to visual inputs; (2) phonological to non-phonological inputs; (3) semantic to non-semantic inputs; and (4...

  13. Prospects for Replacement of Auditory Neurons by Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Fuxin; Edge, Albert S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by degeneration of hair cells or auditory neurons. Spiral ganglion cells, the primary afferent neurons of the auditory system, are patterned during development and send out projections to hair cells and to the brainstem under the control of largely unknown guidance molecules. The neurons do not regenerate after loss and even damage to their projections tends to be permanent. The genesis of spiral ganglion neurons and their synapses forms a basis for regene...

  14. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Golden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known ‘cocktail party effect’ as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name are used to segregate auditory ‘foreground’ and ‘background’. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13 and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17 underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology.

  15. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Goll, Johanna C; Downey, Laura E; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known 'cocktail party effect' as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name) are used to segregate auditory 'foreground' and 'background'. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13) and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17) underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable) analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues) produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds) produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing) produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology. PMID:26029629

  16. Hierarchical computation in the canonical auditory cortical circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Atencio, Craig A.; Sharpee, Tatyana O.; Christoph E Schreiner

    2009-01-01

    Sensory cortical anatomy has identified a canonical microcircuit underlying computations between and within layers. This feed-forward circuit processes information serially from granular to supragranular and to infragranular layers. How this substrate correlates with an auditory cortical processing hierarchy is unclear. We recorded simultaneously from all layers in cat primary auditory cortex (AI) and estimated spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRFs) and associated nonlinearities. Spike-trig...

  17. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear molds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days) performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localization, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear molds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualized spectral cues. The work with ear molds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving audio-motor feedback (5-10 days) significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide spatial cues but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis.

  18. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eCarlile

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear moulds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localisation, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear moulds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualised spectral cues. The work with ear moulds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving sensory-motor feedback (5 – 10 days significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide a spatial code but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis.

  19. Variable Threshold MOSFET Approach (Through Dynamic Threshold MOSFET) For Universal Logic Gates

    CERN Document Server

    Ragini, K; Jinaga, B C; 10.5121/vlsic.2010.1104

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we proposed a Variable threshold MOSFET(VTMOS)approach which is realized from Dynamic Threshold MOSFET(DTMOS), suitable for sub-threshold digital circuit operation. Basically the principle of sub- threshold logics is operating MOSFET in sub-threshold region and using the leakage current in that region for switching action, there by drastically decreasing power. To reduce the power consumption of sub-threshold circuits further, a novel body biasing technique termed VTMOS is introduced .VTMOS approach is realized from DTMOS approach. Dynamic threshold MOS (DTMOS) circuits provide low leakage and high current drive, compared to CMOS circuits, operated at lower voltages. The VTMOS is based on operating the MOS devices with an appropriate substrate bias which varies with gate voltage, by connecting a positive bias voltage between gate and substrate for NMOS and negative bias voltage between gate and substrate for PMOS. With VTMOS, there is a considerable reduction in operating current and power di...

  20. Temporal factors affecting somatosensory-auditory interactions in speech processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki eIto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009. In the present study we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the event-related potential was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the event-related potential difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory-auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160-220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory-auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production.

  1. Auditory temporal processing skills in musicians with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Liebler, Paula; Welch, Graham; Huss, Martina; Thomson, Jennifer M; Goswami, Usha

    2014-08-01

    The core cognitive difficulty in developmental dyslexia involves phonological processing, but adults and children with dyslexia also have sensory impairments. Impairments in basic auditory processing show particular links with phonological impairments, and recent studies with dyslexic children across languages reveal a relationship between auditory temporal processing and sensitivity to rhythmic timing and speech rhythm. As rhythm is explicit in music, musical training might have a beneficial effect on the auditory perception of acoustic cues to rhythm in dyslexia. Here we took advantage of the presence of musicians with and without dyslexia in musical conservatoires, comparing their auditory temporal processing abilities with those of dyslexic non-musicians matched for cognitive ability. Musicians with dyslexia showed equivalent auditory sensitivity to musicians without dyslexia and also showed equivalent rhythm perception. The data support the view that extensive rhythmic experience initiated during childhood (here in the form of music training) can affect basic auditory processing skills which are found to be deficient in individuals with dyslexia. PMID:25044949

  2. AUDITORY REACTION TIME IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS AND HEALTHY CONTROLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghuntla Tejas P.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Reaction is purposeful voluntary response to different stimuli as visual or auditory stimuli. Auditory reaction time is time required to response to auditory stimuli. Quickness of response is very important in games like basketball. This study was conducted to compare auditory reaction time of basketball players and healthy controls. The auditory reaction time was measured by the reaction time instrument in healthy controls and basketball players. Simple reaction time and choice reaction time measured. During the reaction time testing, auditory stimuli were given for three times and minimum reaction time was taken as the final reaction time for that sensory modality of that subject. The results were statistically analyzed and were recorded as mean + standard deviation and student’s unpaired t-test was applied to check the level of significance. The study shows that basketball players have shorter reaction time than healthy controls. As reaction time gives the information how fast a person gives a response to sensory stimuli, it is a good indicator of performance in reactive sports like basketball. Sportsman should be trained to improve their reaction time to improve their performance.

  3. Verrucous Carcinoma in External Auditory Canal – A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zillur Rahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Verrucous carcinoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is of low grade malignancy and rarely present with distant metastasis. Oral cavity is the commonest site of this tumour, other sites are larynx, oesophagus and genitalia. Verrucous carcinoma in external auditory canal is extremely rare. This is the presentation of a 45 years old woman who came to the ENT & Head Neck Surgery department of Delta medical college, Dhaka, Bangladesh with discharging left ear and impairment of hearing on the same side for 7 years. Otoscopic examination showed a mass occupying almost whole of the external auditory canal and the overlying skin was thickened, papillary and blackish. Cytology from external auditory canal scrap showed hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. External auditory canal bone was found eroded at some parts. Excision of the mass was done under microscope. Split thickness skin grafting was done in external auditory canal. The mass was diagnosed as verrucous carcinoma on histopathological examination. Afterwards she was given radiotherapy. Six months follow up showed no recurrence and healthy epithelialization of external auditory canal.

  4. Auditory function in individuals within Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Kearns, Lisa S; Tan, Johanna; Gravina, Anthony; Rosenfeld, Lisa; Henley, Lauren; Carew, Peter; Graydon, Kelley; O'Hare, Fleur; Mackey, David A

    2012-03-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate whether auditory dysfunction is part of the spectrum of neurological abnormalities associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and to determine the perceptual consequences of auditory neuropathy (AN) in affected listeners. Forty-eight subjects confirmed by genetic testing as having one of four mitochondrial mutations associated with LHON (mt11778, mtDNA14484, mtDNA14482 and mtDNA3460) participated. Thirty-two of these had lost vision, and 16 were asymptomatic at the point of data collection. While the majority of individuals showed normal sound detection, >25% (of both symptomatic and asymptomatic participants) showed electrophysiological evidence of AN with either absent or severely delayed auditory brainstem potentials. Abnormalities were observed for each of the mutations, but subjects with the mtDNA11778 type were the most affected. Auditory perception was also abnormal in both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects, with >20% of cases showing impaired detection of auditory temporal (timing) cues and >30% showing abnormal speech perception both in quiet and in the presence of background noise. The findings of this study indicate that a relatively high proportion of individuals with the LHON genetic profile may suffer functional hearing difficulties due to neural abnormality in the central auditory pathways.

  5. Auditory white noise reduces age-related fluctuations in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J M; Will, O J; McGann, Z; Balasubramaniam, R

    2016-09-01

    Fall prevention technologies have the potential to improve the lives of older adults. Because of the multisensory nature of human balance control, sensory therapies, including some involving tactile and auditory noise, are being explored that might reduce increased balance variability due to typical age-related sensory declines. Auditory white noise has previously been shown to reduce postural sway variability in healthy young adults. In the present experiment, we examined this treatment in young adults and typically aging older adults. We measured postural sway of healthy young adults and adults over the age of 65 years during silence and auditory white noise, with and without vision. Our results show reduced postural sway variability in young and older adults with auditory noise, even in the absence of vision. We show that vision and noise can reduce sway variability for both feedback-based and exploratory balance processes. In addition, we show changes with auditory noise in nonlinear patterns of sway in older adults that reflect what is more typical of young adults, and these changes did not interfere with the typical random walk behavior of sway. Our results suggest that auditory noise might be valuable for therapeutic and rehabilitative purposes in older adults with typical age-related balance variability. PMID:27495013

  6. Left hemispheric dominance during auditory processing in a noisy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Bernhard

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In daily life, we are exposed to different sound inputs simultaneously. During neural encoding in the auditory pathway, neural activities elicited by these different sounds interact with each other. In the present study, we investigated neural interactions elicited by masker and amplitude-modulated test stimulus in primary and non-primary human auditory cortex during ipsi-lateral and contra-lateral masking by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. Results We observed significant decrements of auditory evoked responses and a significant inter-hemispheric difference for the N1m response during both ipsi- and contra-lateral masking. Conclusion The decrements of auditory evoked neural activities during simultaneous masking can be explained by neural interactions evoked by masker and test stimulus in peripheral and central auditory systems. The inter-hemispheric differences of N1m decrements during ipsi- and contra-lateral masking reflect a basic hemispheric specialization contributing to the processing of complex auditory stimuli such as speech signals in noisy environments.

  7. A unique cellular scaling rule in the avian auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Jeremy R; Long, Brendan; Krilow, Justin M; Wylie, Douglas R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2016-06-01

    Although it is clear that neural structures scale with body size, the mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Several recent studies have shown that the relationship between neuron numbers and brain (or brain region) size are not only different across mammalian orders, but also across auditory and visual regions within the same brains. Among birds, similar cellular scaling rules have not been examined in any detail. Here, we examine the scaling of auditory structures in birds and show that the scaling rules that have been established in the mammalian auditory pathway do not necessarily apply to birds. In galliforms, neuronal densities decrease with increasing brain size, suggesting that auditory brainstem structures increase in size faster than neurons are added; smaller brains have relatively more neurons than larger brains. The cellular scaling rules that apply to auditory brainstem structures in galliforms are, therefore, different to that found in primate auditory pathway. It is likely that the factors driving this difference are associated with the anatomical specializations required for sound perception in birds, although there is a decoupling of neuron numbers in brain structures and hair cell numbers in the basilar papilla. This study provides significant insight into the allometric scaling of neural structures in birds and improves our understanding of the rules that govern neural scaling across vertebrates. PMID:26002617

  8. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMoerel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla. Importantly, we illustrate that - whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis - the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e. myelination as well as of functional properties (e.g. broadness of frequency tuning is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.

  9. Voting on Thresholds for Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauchdobler, Julian; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2010-01-01

    Introducing a threshold in the sense of a minimal project size transforms a public-good game with an inefficient equilibrium into a coordination game with a set of Pareto-superior equilibria. Thresholds may therefore improve efficiency in the voluntary provision of public goods. In our one-shot e...... is approved in a referendum, because voting may facilitate coordination due to signaling and commitment effects. We find that voting does have signaling and commitment effects, but they are not strong enough to significantly improve the efficiency of thresholds....

  10. Voting on Thresholds for Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauchdobler, Julian; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Introducing a threshold in the sense of a minimal project size transforms a public goods game with an inefficient equilibrium into a coordination game with a set of Pareto-superior equilibria. Thresholds may therefore improve efficiency in the voluntary provision of public goods. In our one-shot ...... in a referendum, because voting may facilitate coordination due to signaling and commitment effects. We find that voting does have signaling and commitment effects but they are not strong enough to significantly improve the efficiency of thresholds....

  11. Selective increase of auditory cortico-striatal coherence during auditory-cued Go/NoGo discrimination learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas L. Schulz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal directed behavior and associated learning processes are tightly linked to neuronal activity in the ventral striatum. Mechanisms that integrate task relevant sensory information into striatal processing during decision making and learning are implicitly assumed in current reinforcementmodels, yet they are still weakly understood. To identify the functional activation of cortico-striatal subpopulations of connections during auditory discrimination learning, we trained Mongolian gerbils in a two-way active avoidance task in a shuttlebox to discriminate between falling and rising frequency modulated tones with identical spectral properties. We assessed functional coupling by analyzing the field-field coherence between the auditory cortex and the ventral striatum of animals performing the task. During the course of training, we observed a selective increase of functionalcoupling during Go-stimulus presentations. These results suggest that the auditory cortex functionally interacts with the ventral striatum during auditory learning and that the strengthening of these functional connections is selectively goal-directed.

  12. Predictors of auditory performance in hearing-aid users: The role of cognitive function and auditory lifestyle (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David

    2006-01-01

    was correlated with self-report outcome. However, overall the predictive leverage of the various measures was moderate, with single predictors explaining only up to 19 percent of the variance in the auditory-performance measures. a)Now at CNBH, Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University...... no objective benefit can be measured. It has been suggested that lack of agreement between various hearing-aid outcome components can be explained by individual differences in cognitive function and auditory lifestyle. We measured speech identification, self-report outcome, spectral and temporal resolution...... between objective and subjective hearing-aid outcome. Different self-report outcome measures showed a different amount of correlation with objective auditory performance. Cognitive skills were found to play a role in explaining speech performance and spectral and temporal abilities, and auditory lifestyle...

  13. Effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on ouabain induced auditory neuropathy in gerbils (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chung-Ku; Bae, Sung Huyn; Chang, So-Young; Chung, Phil-Sang; Jung, Jae-Yun

    2016-02-01

    Aim: to investigate effectiveness of Low level laser therapy (LLLT) in rescueing ouabain induced spiral ganglion cell damage using Mongolian gerbils. Methods: Animals were divided into 3 groups; Control, Ouabain, Ouabain + LLLT group. Auditory neuropathy was induced by topical application of ouabain (1 mmol/L, 3uL) on the round window membrane in gerbils. Transmeatal LLLT was irradiated into the right ear for 1h (200mW, 720 J) daily for 7d in Ouabain + LLLT group. Before and 7 days after ouabain application, hearing was evaluated using both ABR and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). Seven days after ouabain application, animals were sacrificed to evaluate the morphological changes of cochlea using cochlear section image and whole mount Immunofluorescent staining. Results: DPOAE tests were normal in all animals after ouabain topical treatment indicating intact outer hair cells. Ouabain group showed ABR threshold increase compared with control group. Ouabain+LLLT group showed significant improvement of ABR threshold compared to ouabain only group. H and E stains of mid-modiolar section of cochlear showed spiral ganglion cells, neurofilaments, and post synaptic receptor counts were decreased while inner and outer hair cells were preserved in ouabain group. Ouabain +LLLT group showed higher numbers of spiral ganglion cells, density of neurofilaments and post synaptic receptor counts compared to ouabain group. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that LLLT was effective to rescue ouabain-induced spiral ganglion neuropathy.

  14. Keeping returns optimal: gain control exerted through sensitivity adjustments in the harbour porpoise auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnenschmidt, Meike; Beedholm, Kristian; Wahlberg, Magnus; Højer-Kristensen, Jakob; Nachtigall, Paul E

    2012-06-01

    Animals that use echolocation (biosonar) listen to acoustic signals with a large range of intensities, because echo levels vary with the fourth power of the animal's distance to the target. In man-made sonar, engineers apply automatic gain control to stabilize the echo energy levels, thereby rendering them independent of distance to the target. Both toothed whales and bats vary the level of their echolocation clicks to compensate for the distance-related energy loss. By monitoring the auditory brainstem response (ABR) during a psychophysical task, we found that a harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), in addition to adjusting the sound level of the outgoing signals up to 5.4 dB, also reduces its ABR threshold by 6 dB when the target distance doubles. This self-induced threshold shift increases the dynamic range of the biosonar system and compensates for half of the variation of energy that is caused by changes in the distance to the target. In combination with an increased source level as a function of target range, this helps the porpoise to maintain a stable echo-evoked ABR amplitude irrespective of target range, and is therefore probably an important tool enabling porpoises to efficiently analyse and classify received echoes. PMID:22279169

  15. GRM7 variants associated with age-related hearing loss based on auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Dina L; Fisher, Laurel M; Ohmen, Jeffrey; Parody, Robert; Fong, Chin-To; Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Eddins, David A; Robert Frisina, D; Frisina, Robert D; Friedman, Rick A

    2012-12-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), or presbycusis, is a common condition of the elderly that results in significant communication difficulties in daily life. Clinically, it has been defined as a progressive loss of sensitivity to sound, starting at the high frequencies, inability to understand speech, lengthening of the minimum discernable temporal gap in sounds, and a decrease in the ability to filter out background noise. The causes of presbycusis are likely a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Previous research into the genetics of presbycusis has focused solely on hearing as measured by pure-tone thresholds. A few loci have been identified, based on a best ear pure-tone average phenotype, as having a likely role in susceptibility to this type of hearing loss; and GRM7 is the only gene that has achieved genome-wide significance. We examined the association of GRM7 variants identified from the previous study, which used an European cohort with Z-scores based on pure-tone thresholds, in a European-American population from Rochester, NY (N = 687), and used novel phenotypes of presbycusis. In the present study mixed modeling analyses were used to explore the relationship of GRM7 haplotype and SNP genotypes with various measures of auditory perception. Here we show that GRM7 alleles are associated primarily with peripheral measures of hearing loss, and particularly with speech detection in older adults.

  16. Effect of auditory stress agents on heterozygous German waltzing guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Åsa Skj€onsberg; Maoli Duan; Ann-Christin Johnson; Mats Ulfendahl

    2014-01-01

    The German waltzing guinea pig is a strain of animals expressing deafness and severe balance disorders at birth. The mutation arose spontaneously in a breeding facility in Germany and as the affected animals show a characteristic waltzing behavior, the strain is named the German waltzing guinea pig. The strain is presently bred only at Karolinska Institutet. The hereditary inner ear impairment has a recessive mode of inheritance and the strain thus produces not only affected homozygotes but also symptom-free heterozygotes and fully normal offspring. The outcome depends solely on the genotype of the parents. The heterozygotes, which have obtained the“waltzing”gene from one parent only, have normal hearing and no balance dysfunction. The heterozygous animals appear normal but will, in turn, carry the genetic defect to the next generation. The present thesis is focused on these animals. Noise and ototoxic drugs are well known stress factors that interfere negatively with the hearing organ in both humans and animals, causing hearing impairment. However, the inter-individual variability in susceptibility to auditory stress factors is surprisingly large, most likely due to different genetic predisposition. In this study, heterozygous animals of the German waltzing guinea pig, animals carrying a genetic defect known to cause severe hearing impairment, were used to study how an unexplored gene for deafness interacts with auditory stress agents, i.e. noise exposure and the ototoxic drugs gentamicin and cisplatin. Animals were exposed to both narrowband as well as broadband noise at different ages and hearing thresholds were measured using ABRs. Heterozygotes of the German waltzing guinea pig showed less threshold shifts compared to control strains. Older animals were less affected by the noise trauma than younger animals. To test the hypothesis that the efferent system contributes to protection of the inner ear against noise trauma, measurements using a new method of

  17. Effects of virtual speaker density and room reverberation on spatiotemporal thresholds of audio-visual motion coherence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sankaran

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of spatial sound-source density and reverberation on the spatiotemporal window for audio-visual motion coherence. Three different acoustic stimuli were generated in Virtual Auditory Space: two acoustically "dry" stimuli via the measurement of anechoic head-related impulse responses recorded at either 1° or 5° spatial intervals (Experiment 1, and a reverberant stimulus rendered from binaural room impulse responses recorded at 5° intervals in situ in order to capture reverberant acoustics in addition to head-related cues (Experiment 2. A moving visual stimulus with invariant localization cues was generated by sequentially activating LED's along the same radial path as the virtual auditory motion. Stimuli were presented at 25°/s, 50°/s and 100°/s with a random spatial offset between audition and vision. In a 2AFC task, subjects made a judgment of the leading modality (auditory or visual. No significant differences were observed in the spatial threshold based on the point of subjective equivalence (PSE or the slope of psychometric functions (β across all three acoustic conditions. Additionally, both the PSE and β did not significantly differ across velocity, suggesting a fixed spatial window of audio-visual separation. Findings suggest that there was no loss in spatial information accompanying the reduction in spatial cues and reverberation levels tested, and establish a perceptual measure for assessing the veracity of motion generated from discrete locations and in echoic environments.

  18. Adaptive thresholding of digital subtraction angiography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Nong; Li, Heng; Peng, Weixue; Zhang, Tianxu

    2005-10-01

    In clinical practice, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a powerful technique for the visualization of blood vessels in the human body. Blood vessel segmentation is a main problem for 3D vascular reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a new adaptive thresholding method for the segmentation of DSA images. Each pixel of the DSA images is declared to be a vessel/background point with regard to a threshold and a few local characteristic limits depending on some information contained in the pixel neighborhood window. The size of the neighborhood window is set according to a priori knowledge of the diameter of vessels to make sure that each window contains the background definitely. Some experiments on cerebral DSA images are given, which show that our proposed method yields better results than global thresholding methods and some other local thresholding methods do.

  19. Atherogenic risk factors and hearing thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann;

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from...... children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models....... Adjusted results suggested associations between smoking, high BMI and triglyceride level and low high-density lipoprotein level and increased low-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 kHz). Furthermore, an increasing load of atherogenic risk factors seemed...

  20. Error Threshold of Fully Random Eigen Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo-Fang; Cao, Tian-Guang; Geng, Jin-Peng; Qiao, Li-Hua; Gu, Jian-Zhong; Zhan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Species evolution is essentially a random process of interaction between biological populations and their environments. As a result, some physical parameters in evolution models are subject to statistical fluctuations. In this work, two important parameters in the Eigen model, the fitness and mutation rate, are treated as Gaussian distributed random variables simultaneously to examine the property of the error threshold. Numerical simulation results show that the error threshold in the fully random model appears as a crossover region instead of a phase transition point, and as the fluctuation strength increases the crossover region becomes smoother and smoother. Furthermore, it is shown that the randomization of the mutation rate plays a dominant role in changing the error threshold in the fully random model, which is consistent with the existing experimental data. The implication of the threshold change due to the randomization for antiviral strategies is discussed.